WorldWideScience

Sample records for zone silicon sheet

  1. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  2. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  3. Laser-zone Growth in a Ribbon-to-ribbon (RTR) Process Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, A.; Gurtler, R. W.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Rice, M. J.; Ellis, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for growing limited-length ribbons continually was demonstrated. This Rigid Edge technique can be used to recrystallize about 95% of the polyribbon feedstock. A major advantage of this method is that only a single, constant length silicon ribbon is handled throughout the entire process sequence; this may be accomplished using cassettes similar to those presently in use for processing Czochralski waters. Thus a transition from Cz to ribbon technology can be smoothly affected. The maximum size being considered, 3 inches x 24 inches, is half a square foot, and will generate 6 watts for 12% efficiency at 1 sun. Silicon dioxide has been demonstrated as an effective, practical diffusion barrier for use during the polyribbon formation.

  4. Silicon Sheet Quality is Improved By Meniscus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. A.; Hatch, A. E.; Goldsmith, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Better quality silicon crystals for solar cells are possible with instrument that monitors position of meniscus as sheet of solid silicon is drawn from melt. Using information on meniscus height, instrument generates feedback signal to control melt temperature. Automatic control ensures more uniform silicon sheets.

  5. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  6. Orientation and Morphology Effects in Rapid Silicon Sheet Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1984-01-01

    Radial growth anisotropies and equilibrium forms of point nucleated, dislocation free silicon sheets spreading horizontally on the free surface of a silicon melt were measured for (100), (110), (111), and (112) sheet planes. The growth process was recorded. Qualitative Wulff surface free energy polar plots were deduced from the equilibrium shapes for each sheet plane. Predicted geometries for the tip shape of unidirectional, dislocation free, horizontally grown sheets growing in various directions within the planes were analyzed. Polycrystalline sheets and dendrite propagation were analyzed. For dendrites, growth rates on the order of 2.5 m/min and growth rate anisotropies of 25 are measured.

  7. The Efficacy of a Silicone Sheet in Postoperative Scar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sam; Hong, Joon Pio; Choi, Jong Woo; Seo, Dong Kyo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Ho Seong

    2016-09-01

    Silicone gel sheeting has been introduced to prevent scarring, but objective evidence for its usefulness in scar healing is limited. Therefore, the authors' objective was to examine the effectiveness of silicone gel sheeting by randomly applying it to only unilateral scars from a bilateral hallux valgus surgery with symmetrical closure. In a prospective randomized, blinded, intraindividual comparison study, the silicone gel sheeting was applied to 1 foot of a hallux valgus incision scar (an experiment group) for 12 weeks upon removal of the stitches, whereas the symmetrical scar from the other foot was left untreated (a control group). The scars were evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks after the silicon sheet application. The Vancouver Scar Scale was used to measure the vascularity, pigmentation, pliability, height, and length of the scars. Adverse effects were also evaluated, and they included pain, itchiness, rash, erythema, and skin softening. At weeks 4 and 12, the experiment group scored significantly better on the Vancouver Scar Scale in all items, except length (P sheet does not cause adverse effects (P sheet application did show a significant improvement in prevention of postoperative scarring.

  8. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Continuous Czochralski Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A commercial Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a small, in-situ premelter with attendant silicon storage and transport mechanisms. Using a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing a small fused quartz test tube linear from which the molten silicon flowed out the bottom, approximately 83 cm of nominal 5 cm diamter crystal was grown with continuous melt addition furnished by the test tube premelter. High perfection crystal was not obtained, however, due primarily to particulate contamination of the melt. A major contributor to the particulate problem was severe silicon oxide buildup on the premelter which would ultimately drop into the primary melt. Elimination of this oxide buildup will require extensive study and experimentation and the ultimate success of continuous Czochralski depends on a successful solution to this problem. Economically, the continuous Czochralski meets near-term cost goals for silicon sheet material.

  9. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  10. Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.

  11. Development of Radiation Hard Radiation Detectors, Differences between Czochralski Silicon and Float Zone Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuominen, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop radiation hard silicon detectors. Radiation detectors made ofsilicon are cost effective and have excellent position resolution. Therefore, they are widely used fortrack finding and particle analysis in large high-energy physics experiments. Silicon detectors willalso be used in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment that is being built at the LHC (LargeHadron Collider) accelerator at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research). This work wasdone in the CMS programme of Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP).Exposure of the silicon material to particle radiation causes irreversible defects that deteriorate theperformance of the silicon detectors. In HIP CMS Programme, our approach was to improve theradiation hardness of the silicon material with increased oxygen concentration in silicon material. Westudied two different methods: diffusion oxygenation of Float Zone silicon and use of high resistivityCzochralski silicon.We processed, characterised, tested in a parti...

  12. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  13. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Durable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules based on silicone-sheet encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Ohwada, Hiroto; Furihata, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline Si photovoltaic (PV) modules were fabricated with sheets of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (silicone) as an encapsulant. The long-term durability of the silicone-encapsulated PV modules was experimentally investigated. The silicone-based modules enhanced the long-term durability against potential-induced degradation (PID) and a damp-heat (DH) condition at 85 °C with 85% relative humidity (RH). In addition, we designed and fabricated substrate-type Si PV modules based on the silicone encapsulant and an Al-alloy plate as the substratum, which demonstrated high impact resistance and high incombustible performance. The high chemical stability, high volume resistivity, rubber-like elasticity, and incombustibility of the silicone encapsulant resulted in the high durability of the modules. Our results indicate that silicone is an attractive encapsulation material, as it improves the long-term durability of crystalline Si PV modules.

  15. LSSA large area silicon sheet task continuous Czochralski process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    A Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a premelter to provide molten silicon flow into the primary crucible. The basic furnace is operational and several trial crystals were grown in the batch mode. Numerous premelter configurations were tested both in laboratory-scale equipment as well as in the actual furnace. The best arrangement tested to date is a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing small fused silicon test tube liner in which the incoming silicon is melted and flows into the primary crucible. Economic modeling of the continuous Czochralski process indicates that for 10 cm diameter crystal, 100 kg furnace runs of four or five crystals each are near-optimal. Costs tend to asymptote at the 100 kg level so little additional cost improvement occurs at larger runs. For these conditions, crystal cost in equivalent wafer area of around $20/sq m exclusive of polysilicon and slicing was obtained.

  16. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. J.; Batignani, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-10-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ˜7.77×10 4/s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device.

  17. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.J.; Batignani, G.; Guerra, A.D.A. Del; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ∼7.77x10 4 /s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device

  18. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  19. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiahe; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Que Duanlin

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 deg. C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 deg. C. Also, the DZs above 15 μm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits

  20. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Que, Duanlin

    2006-12-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 °C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 °C. Also, the DZs above 15 µm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits.

  1. Phosphorus diffusion in float zone silicon crystal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Theis Leth

    2000-01-01

    This Ph.D thesis encompasses a global numerical simulation of the needle-eye oat zone process, used to grow silicon single crystals. The numerical models includes coupled electromagnetic and free surface models and a global heat transfer model, with moving boundaries. An axisymmetric uidow model......, including centrifugal, buoyancy, thermocapillary and electromagnetic forces, is used to determine flow field, after the phase boundaries have been determined, by the heat transfer model. A finite element model for calculating dopant transport, using the calculated unsteady flow field, has been developed...... within this project. This model has furthermore been expanded to two equations coupled by a non-zero right hand side, for simulating transport of point defects in the crystal during growth. Free surface shapes and induced electric surface current are calculated for t wo different 4'' congurations and a 0...

  2. A Meteorological Experiment in the Melting Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Vugts, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results are described from a glaciometeorological experiment carried out in the margin (melting zone) of the Greenland ice sheet in the summers of 1990 and 1991. This work was initiated within the framework of a Dutch research program on land ice and sea level change. Seven

  3. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-07-01

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  4. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  5. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-07-18

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  6. Development of advanced methods for continuous Czochralski growth. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, R. G.; Sibley, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    The three components required to modify the furnace for batch and continuous recharging with granular silicon were designed. The feasibility of extended growth cycles up to 40 hours long was demonstrated by a recharge simulation experiment; a 6 inch diameter crystal was pulled from a 20 kg charge, remelted, and pulled again for a total of four growth cycles, 59-1/8 inch of body length, and approximately 65 kg of calculated mass.

  7. Propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in arctic zones with elastic ice-sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama; Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.

    2017-04-01

    We present an analytical solution of the boundary value problem of propagating acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean by earthquakes or ice-quakes in arctic zones. At the surface, we assume elastic ice-sheets of a variable thickness, and show that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes have different mode shape than originally derived by Ref. [1] for a rigid ice-sheet settings. Computationally, we couple the ice-sheet problem with the free surface model by Ref. [2] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice-sheets cause inter modal transition at the edges and multidirectional reflections. We then derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially slowly varying thickness of ice-sheet and water depth. Surprisingly, and unlike the free-surface setting, here it is found that the higher acoustic-gravity modes exhibit a larger contribution. These modes travel at the speed of sound in water carrying information on their source, e.g. ice-sheet motion or submarine earthquake, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of quakes. In addition, we found that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes can result in orbital displacements of fluid parcels sufficiently high that may contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation, as postulated by Refs. [1, 3]. References [1] U. Kadri, 2016. Generation of Hydroacoustic Waves by an Oscillating Ice Block in Arctic Zones. Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, 2016, Article ID 8076108, 7 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8076108 [2] A. Abdolali, J. T. Kirby and G. Bellotti, 2015, Depth-integrated equation for hydro-acoustic waves with bottom damping, J. Fluid Mech., 766, R1 doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.37 [3] U. Kadri, 2014. Deep ocean water transportation by acoustic?gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/ 2014JC010234

  8. Characterizing Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel Sheet Using Automated High-Resolution Laue X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Barnett, Matthew; Stevenson, Andrew; Hutchinson, Bevis

    2017-11-01

    Controlling texture in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel sheet is critical for optimization of its magnetization performance. A new automated laboratory system, based on X-ray Laue diffraction, is introduced as a rapid method for large scale grain orientation mapping and texture measurement in these materials. Wide area grain orientation maps are demonstrated for both macroetched and coated GO steel sheets. The large secondary grains contain uniform lattice rotations, the origins of which are discussed.

  9. A bioactive metallurgical grade porous silicon-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for guided bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, E G; Clarkin, O M; Raghavendra, R; Tanner, D A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of porous silicon make it a promising material for a host of applications including drug delivery, molecular and cell-based biosensing, and tissue engineering. Porous silicon has previously shown its potential for the controlled release of pharmacological agents and in assisting bone healing. Hydroxyapatite, the principle constituent of bone, allows osteointegration in vivo, due to its chemical and physical similarities to bone. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is currently applied as a surface coating to medical devices and prosthetics, encouraging bone in-growth at their surface and improving osseointegration. This paper examines the potential for the use of an economically produced porous silicon particulate-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for use as a guided bone regeneration device in periodontal and orthopaedic applications. The particulate sheet is comprised of a series of microparticles in a polytetrafluoroethylene matrix and is shown to produce a stable hydroxyapatite on its surface under simulated physiological conditions. The microstructure of the material is examined both before and after simulated body fluid experiments for a period of 1, 7, 14 and 30 days using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition is examined using a combination of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thin film X-ray diffraction, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the uptake/release of constituents at the fluid-solid interface is explored using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Microstructural and compositional analysis reveals progressive growth of crystalline, 'bone-like' apatite on the surface of the material, indicating the likelihood of close bony apposition in vivo.

  10. Continuous Czochralski Growth. Silicon Sheet Growth Development of the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, F.

    1979-01-01

    During the reporting period, a successful 100 kilogram run was performed. Six ingots of 13 cm diameter were grown, ranging in size from 15.5 kg to 17.7 kg. Melt replenishment methods included both poly rod and lump feed material. Samples from each ingot were prepared for solar cell fabrication and analyses, impurity analysis, and structural studies. The furnace was converted to the 14-inch hot zone and preliminary heat runs were performed. Two sucessful runs were demonstrated, by growing 25 kg ingots from 30 kg melts. Also, a 100 kg run was attempted, utilizing the 14 inch crucible hot zone, but was prematurely terminated due to excessive monoxide which accumulated on the viewports and a seed failure.

  11. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  12. Tribology study of reduced graphene oxide sheets on silicon substrate synthesized via covalent assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junfei; Wang, Jinqing; Liu, Sheng; Mu, Bo; Ren, Junfang; Wang, Honggang; Yang, Shengrong

    2010-10-19

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets were covalently assembled onto silicon wafers via a multistep route based on the chemical adsorption and thermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The formation and microstructure of RGO were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. Characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to evaluate the morphology and microtribological behaviors of the samples. Macrotribological performance was tested on a ball-on-plate tribometer. Results show that the assembled RGO possesses good friction reduction and antiwear ability, properties ascribed to its intrinsic structure, that is, the covalent bonding to the substrate and self-lubricating property of RGO.

  13. Temperature effects on the magnetic properties of silicon-steel sheets using standardized toroidal frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ju; Lin, Shih-Yu; Chou, Shang-Chin; Tsai, Chia-Yun; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2014-01-01

    This study designed a detachable and standardized toroidal test frame to measure the electromagnetic characteristic of toroidal laminated silicon steel specimens. The purpose of the design was to provide the measurements with standardized and controlled environment. The device also can withstand high temperatures (25-300°C) for short time period to allow high temperature tests. The accompanying driving circuit facilitates testing for high frequency (50-5,000 Hz) and high magnetic flux (0.2-1.8 T) conditions and produces both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal test waveforms. The thickness of the stacked laminated silicon-steel sheets must be 30~31 mm, with an internal diameter of 72 mm and an outer diameter of 90 mm. With the standardized setup, it is possible to carry out tests for toroidal specimen in high temperature and high flux operation. The test results show that there is a tendency of increased iron loss under high temperature operation. The test results with various driving waveforms also provide references to the required consideration in engineering designs.

  14. Acoustic Gravity Waves Generated by an Oscillating Ice Sheet in Arctic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolali, A.; Kadri, U.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the formation of acoustic-gravity waves due to oscillations of large ice blocks, possibly triggered by atmospheric and ocean currents, ice block shrinkage or storms and ice-quakes.For the idealized case of a homogeneous weakly compressible water bounded at the surface by ice sheet and a rigid bed, the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by the water depth h and angular frequency of oscillating ice sheet ω ; The acoustic wave field is governed by the leading mode given by: Nmax=\\floor {(ω h)/(π c)} where c is the sound speed in water and the special brackets represent the floor function (Fig1). Unlike the free-surface setting, the higher acoustic modes might exhibit a larger contribution and therefore all progressive acoustic modes have to be considered.This study focuses on the characteristics of acoustic-gravity waves generated by an oscillating elastic ice sheet in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with a free surface model [Abdolali et al. 2015] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice sheets cause inter modal transition and multidirectional reflections. A theoretical solution and a 3D numerical model have been developed for the study purposes. The model is first validated against the theoretical solution [Kadri, 2016]. To overcome the computational difficulties of 3D models, we derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially varying ice sheet thickness and water depth. We show that the generated acoustic-gravity waves contribute significantly to deep ocean currents compared to other mechanisms. In addition, these waves travel at the sound speed in water carrying information on ice sheet motion, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of ice-quakes. Fig1:Snapshots of dynamic pressure given by an oscillating ice sheet; h=4500m, c=1500m/s, semi-length b=10km, ζ =1m, omega=π rad/s. Abdolali, A., Kirby, J. T. and Bellotti, G

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  16. Simultaneous electron-proton irradiation of crucible grown and float-zone silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    The realisation of an irradiation chamber which permits simultaneous irradiations by electrons, protons, photons and in-situ measurements of solar cells main parameters (diffusion length, I.V. characteristics) is described. Results obtained on 20 solar cells n/p 10Ωcm made in silicon pulled crystals and 20 solar cells n/p 10Ωcm made in silicon float-zone simultaneously irradiated with electrons and photons are given [fr

  17. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. M.

    1980-12-01

    The growth of 100 kg of silicon single crystal material, ten cm in diameter or greater, and 150 kg of silicon single crystal material 15 cm or greater utilizing one common silicon container material (one crucible) is investigated. A crystal grower that is recharged with a new supply of polysilicon material while still under vacuum and at temperatures above the melting point of silicon is developed. It accepts large polysilicon charges up to 30 kg, grows large crystal ingots (to 15 cm diameter and 25 kg in weight), and holds polysilicon material for recharging (rod or lump) while, at the same time, growing crystal ingots. Special equipment is designed to recharge polysilicon rods, recharge polysilicon lumps, and handle and store large, hot silicon crystal ingots. Many continuous crystal growth runs were performed lasting as long as 109 hours and producing as many as ten crystal ingots, 15 cm with weights progressing to 27 kg.

  18. Congenital cheek teratoma with temporo-mandibular joint ankylosis managed with ultra-thin silicone sheet interpositional arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ankur; Verma, Vinay Kumar; Purohit, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Primary cheek teratomas are rare with joint ankylosis (TMJA). The fundamental aim in the treatment of TMJA is the successful surgical resection of ankylotic bone, prevention of recurrence, and aesthetic improvement by ensuring functional occlusion. Early treatment is necessary to promote proper growth and function of mandible and to facilitate the positive psychological development of child. Inter-positional arthroplasty with ultra-thin silicone sheet was performed. Advantages include short operative time, less foreign material in the joint space leading to negligible foreign body reactions and least chances of implant extrusion. Instead of excising a large bony segment, a thin silicone sheet was interposed and then sutured ensuring preservation of mandibular height. Aggressive post-operative physiotherapy with custom made dynamic jaw exerciser was used to prevent recurrence.

  19. Layer disturbances and the radio-echo free zone in ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Drews

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Radio-echo sounding of the Antarctic and Greenlandic ice sheets often reveals a layer in the lowest hundreds of meters above bedrock more or less free of radio echoes, known as the echo-free zone (EFZ. The cause of this feature is unclear, so far lacking direct evidence for its origin. We compare echoes around the EPICA drill site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, with the dielectric properties, crystal orientation fabrics and optical stratigraphy of the EPICA-DML ice core. We find that echoes disappear in the depth range where the dielectric contrast is blurred, and where the coherency of the layers in the ice core is lost due to disturbances caused by the ice flow. At the drill site, the EFZ onset at ~2100 m marks a boundary, below which the ice core may have experienced flow induced disturbances on various scales. The onset may indicate changing rheology which needs to be accounted for in the modeling of ice sheet dynamics.

  20. Vacuum die casting of silicon sheet for photovoltaic applications. First quarterly report, March 16-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The obtective of this program is to develop a vacuum die-casting process for producing silicon sheet suitable for photovoltaic cells and to develop production techniques for optimization of polycrystallie silicon solar cell output. Efforts will examine process methods which are directed toward minimum cost processing of silicon into a quality suitable for producing solar cells with a terrestrial efficiency greater than 12% and having the potential to be scaled for large quantity production. In the vacuum die casting technique, silicon is melted under vacuum, and an evacuated die with a thin rectangular cavity is inserted into the melt. Liquid silicon is then injected into the die using a positive pressure of an inert gas. The major portion of the die casting work will be performed at Stanford Research Institute International under subcontract. The initial approach will follow parallel tracks: (1) obtain mechanical design parameters by using boron nitride, which has been shown to be non-wetting to silicon; (2) optimize silicon nitride material composition and coatings by sessile drop experiments; (3) test effectiveness of fluoride salt interfacial media with a graphite mold; and (4) test effect of surface finish using both boron nitride and graphite. Having established the material and mechanical boundary conditions, a finalized version of the prototype assembly will be constructed and the casting varibles determined. Polycrystalline silicon solar cells, with and without impurities, will be fabricated, characterized, and optimized at ARCCO Solar. The major activities will focus on the use of Wacker SILCO, HEM and in-house materials until vacuum die cast wafers are available. A baseline process with vacuum metallized contacts will be established and a reference mass production process with screen-printed metallization and high-throughput diffusions will also be obtained.

  1. Cohesive zone model for direct silicon wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubair, D. V.; Spearing, S. M.

    2007-05-01

    Direct silicon wafer bonding and decohesion are simulated using a spectral scheme in conjunction with a rate-dependent cohesive model. The cohesive model is derived assuming the presence of a thin continuum liquid layer at the interface. Cohesive tractions due to the presence of a liquid meniscus always tend to reduce the separation distance between the wafers, thereby opposing debonding, while assisting the bonding process. In the absence of the rate-dependence effects the energy needed to bond a pair of wafers is equal to that needed to separate them. When rate-dependence is considered in the cohesive law, the experimentally observed asymmetry in the energetics can be explained. The derived cohesive model has the potential to form a bridge between experiments and a multiscale-modelling approach to understand the mechanics of wafer bonding.

  2. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task. Continuous Liquid Feed Czochralski Growth. [for solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of equipment and processes to demonstrate continuous growth of crystals by the Czochralski method suitable for producing single silicon crystals for use in solar cells is presented. The growth of at least 150 kg of mono silicon crystal, 150 mm in diameter is continuous from one growth container. A furnace with continuous liquid replenishment of the growth crucible, accomplished by a meltdown system with a continuous solid silicon feed mechanism and a liquid transfer system, with associated automatic feedback controls is discussed. Due to the silicon monoxide build up in the furnace and its retarding effect on crystal growth the furnace conversion for operation in the low pressure range is described. Development of systems for continuous solid recharging of the meltdown chamber for various forms of poly silicon is described.

  3. The Effect of Topographic Shadowing by Ice on Irradiance in the Greenland Ice Sheet Ablation Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, S. Z.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Ryan, J.; Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately predicting runoff contributions to global sea level rise requires more refined surface mass balance (SMB) models of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Topographic shadowing has shown to be important in the SMB of snow-covered regions, yet SMB models for the GrIS generally ignore how surface topography affects spatial variability of incoming solar radiation on a surface. In the ablation zone of Southwest Greenland, deeply incised supraglacial drainage features, fracturing, and large-scale bed deformation result in extensive areas of rough surface topography. This topography blocks direct radiation such that shadowed areas receive less energy for melting while other topographic features such as peaks recieve more energy. In this study, we quantify how shadowing from local topography features changes incoming solar radiation. We apply the ArcGIS Pro Solar Radiation Toolset to calculate the direct and diffuse irradiance in sunlit and shadowed areas by determining the sun's movement for every half hour increment of 2016. Multiple digital elevation models (DEMs) with spatial resolutions ranging from 0.06 to 5m were derived from fixed wing and quadcopter UAV imagery collected in summer 2016 and the ArcticDEM dataset. Our findings show that shadowing significantly decreases irradiance compared to smoothed surfaces where local topography is removed. This decrease is exponentially proportional to the DEM pixel sized with 5m DEMs only able to capture a small percentage of the effect. Applying these calculations to the ArcticDEM to cover a larger study area indicates that decreases in irradiance are nonlinearly proportional to elevation with highly crevassed areas showing a larger effect from shadowing. Even so, shading at higher elevations reduces irradiance enough to result in several centimeters snow water equivalence (SWE) per year of over-prediction of runoff in SMB models. Furthermore, analysis of solar radiation products shows that shadowing predicts albedo

  4. Meltwater storage in low-density near-surface bare ice in the Greenland ice sheet ablation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew G.; Smith, Laurence C.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Miège, Clément; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Yang, Kang; Cooley, Sarah W.

    2018-03-01

    We document the density and hydrologic properties of bare, ablating ice in a mid-elevation (1215 m a.s.l.) supraglacial internally drained catchment in the Kangerlussuaq sector of the western Greenland ice sheet. We find low-density (0.43-0.91 g cm-3, μ = 0.69 g cm-3) ice to at least 1.1 m depth below the ice sheet surface. This near-surface, low-density ice consists of alternating layers of water-saturated, porous ice and clear solid ice lenses, overlain by a thin (sheet ablation zone surface. A conservative estimate for the ˜ 63 km2 supraglacial catchment yields 0.009-0.012 km3 of liquid meltwater storage in near-surface, porous ice. Further work is required to determine if these findings are representative of broader areas of the Greenland ice sheet ablation zone, and to assess the implications for sub-seasonal mass balance processes, surface lowering observations from airborne and satellite altimetry, and supraglacial runoff processes.

  5. Large area sheet task. Advanced dendritic web growth development. [silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a silicon dendritic web growth machine is discussed. Several refinements to the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth are described and several areas for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace are identified. A circuit designed to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level is also described. A variable speed motor for the silicon feeder is discussed which allows pellet feeding to be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth.

  6. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; Croell, A.; SorgenFrei, T.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells made from directionally solidified silicon cover 57% of the photovoltaic industry's market [1]. One major issue during directional solidification of silicon is the precipitation of foreign phase particles. These particles, mainly SiC and Si3N4, are precipitated from the dissolved crucible coating, which is made of silicon nitride, and the dissolution of carbon monoxide from the furnace atmosphere. Due to their hardness and size of several hundred micrometers, those particles can lead to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Additionally, SiC particles can act as a shunt, short circuiting the solar cell. Even if the particles are too small to disturb the wafering process, they can lead to a grit structure of silicon micro grains and serve as sources for dislocations. All of this lowers the yield of solar cells and reduces the performance of cells and modules. We studied the behaviour of SiC particle depots during float-zone growth under an oxide skin, and strong static magnetic fields. For high field strengths of 3T and above and an oxide layer on the sample surface, convection is sufficiently suppressed to create a diffusive like regime, with strongly dampened convection [2, 3]. To investigate the difference between atomically rough phase boundaries and facetted growth, samples with [100] and [111] orientation were processed.

  7. Reaction sintering of two-dimensional silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite by sheet stacking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsumi; Mukai, Hideki; Imai, Masamitsu; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Toda, Yoshitomo; Hyuga, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki; Kita, Hideki; Yano, Toyohiko

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensionally plain woven SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composite has been developed by reaction sintering using a sheet stacking method in order to further increase mechanical and thermal properties of the composite and to obtain flexibility of manufacturing process of 2D woven SiC/SiC composites which can be applied to the fabrication of larger parts. In addition, sinterability and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. In this study, relative density of the composites was about 90-93% and a dense composite could be obtained by reaction sintering using the sheet stacking method. The bulk density and maximum bending strength of SiC/SiC composite with a C/SiC weight ratio of 0.6 were higher than that of the composite with C/SiC ratios of 0.5 or 0.7. The values were 2.9 g/cm 3 and 200 MPa, respectively. However, the composites obtained in this study fractured in almost brittle manner due to the lower fiber volume fraction

  8. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method Multi-wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique. Phase 3 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Several 20 cm diameter silicon ingots, up to 6.3 kg. were cast with good crystallinity. The graphite heat zone can be purified by heating it to high temperatures in vacuum. This is important in reducing costs and purification of large parts. Electroplated wires with 45 um synthetic diamonds and 30 um natural diamonds showed good cutting efficiency and lifetime. During slicing of a 10 cm x 10 cm workpiece, jerky motion occurred in the feed and rocking mechanisms. This problem is corrected and modifications were made to reduce the weight of the bladeheat by 50%.

  9. Recent developments in low cost silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. [sheet production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of techniques may be used for photovoltaic energy systems. Concentrated or not concentrated sunlight may be employed, and a number of materials can be used, including silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium sulfide, and cadmium telluride. Most of the experience, however, has been obtained with silicon cells employed without sunlight concentration. An industrial base exists at present for producing solar cells at a price in the range from $15 to $30 per peak watt. A major federal program has the objective to reduce the price of power provided by silicon solar systems to approximately $1 per peak watt in the early 1980's and $0.50 per watt by 1986. The approaches considered for achieving this objective are discussed.

  10. Experimental investigation into the coupling effects of magnetic field, temperature and pressure on electrical resistivity of non-oriented silicon steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lijun; Yu, Guodong; Zou, Jibin; Xu, Yongxiang

    2018-05-01

    In order to analyze the performance of magnetic device which operate at high temperature and high pressure, such as submersible motor, oil well transformer, the electrical resistivity of non-oriented silicon steel sheets is necessary for precise analysis. But the reports of the examination of the measuring method suitable for high temperature up to 180 °C and high pressure up to 140 MPa are few. In this paper, a measurement system based on four-probe method and Archimedes spiral shape measurement specimens is proposed. The measurement system is suitable for measuring the electrical resistivity of unconventional specimens under high temperature and high pressure and can simultaneously consider the influence of the magnetic field on the electrical resistivity. It can be seen that the electrical resistivity of the non-oriented silicon steel sheets will fluctuate instantaneously when the magnetic field perpendicular to the conductive path of the specimens is loaded or removed. The amplitude and direction of the fluctuation are not constant. Without considering the effects of fluctuations, the electrical resistivity of the non-oriented silicon steel sheets is the same when the magnetic field is loaded or removed. And the influence of temperature on the electrical resistivity of the non-oriented silicon steel sheet is still the greatest even though the temperature and the pressure are coupled together. The measurement results also show that the electrical resistivity varies linearly with temperature, so the temperature coefficient of resistivity is given in the paper.

  11. Efficient 3D conducting networks built by graphene sheets and carbon nanoparticles for high-performance silicon anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Yin, Ya-Xia; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2012-05-01

    The utilization of silicon particles as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is hindered by their low intrinsic electric conductivity and large volume changes during cycling. Here we report a novel Si nanoparticle-carbon nanoparticle/graphene composite, in which the addition of carbon nanoparticles can effectively alleviate the aggregation of Si nanoparticles by separating them from each other, and help graphene sheets build efficient 3D conducting networks for Si nanoparticles. Such Si-C/G composite shows much improved electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity and cycling performance (ca. 1521 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 200 cycles), as well as a favorable high-rate capability.

  12. Towards graphite-free hot zone for directional solidification of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropka, Natasha; Buchovska, Iryna; Herrmann-Geppert, Iris; Klimm, Detlef; Kiessling, Frank M.; Degenhardt, Ulrich

    2018-06-01

    The reduction of SiC, Si3N4 and transition metals impurities in directionally solidified Si ingots poses one of the crucial challenges in the solar cells production. Particularly strong contamination comes from the graphite parts in the hot zone. Therefore, we selected three massive ceramic materials to replace graphite, developed the novel design of the crucible support and cover and compared the crystals grown in them with ingots from the standard graphite design. The experiments were performed for phosphorus n-doped silicon of G0 size. The ingots were compared with respect to O- and C-content, metal impurities, resistivity and lifetime. The superior performance of TiC relative to other ceramics was observed, particularly due to the lower concentration of substitutional carbon in Si ingot (up to 2.6 times) and the higher minority carrier lifetime of (up to 4.4 times) with narrow red zones.

  13. Utility of Vaccum Pressed Silicon Sheet as a Bite Raising Appliance in the Management of TMJ Dysfunction Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datarkar, Abhay; Daware, Surendra; Dande, Ravi

    2017-09-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) represent a group of painful conditions involving the muscles of mastication and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that frequently encountered in general clinical practice. This study is designed to assess the utility of vacuum pressed silicon sheet as a bite raising appliance in the management of TMJ dysfunction syndrome. The patients for this study were selected from those with the chief complaint of TMJ disorder. Out of 200 patients, 104 patients were diagnosed with subluxation and 96 patients were diagnosed with internal derangement of temporomandibular joint. All the reported cases were managed conservatively with physiotherapy and muscle relaxant therapy for one week period and followed with silicon bite raising appliance over both the arches in the subsequent period. All the patients had pain relief within six months duration as graded over verbal analog scale. ANOVA scale was used for comparision of VAS scores. The use of vacuum pressed bite raising appliance in the management of TMJ disorder was found to be satisfactorily effective in alleviation of pain symptom in our study group.

  14. Studies of the sensitivity dependence of float zone silicon diodes on gamma absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoalino, K.C.S.; Santos, T.C. dos; Barbosa, R.F.; Camargo, F. de; Goncalves, J.A.C.; Bueno, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Several advantages of silicon diodes which include small size, low cost, high sensitivity and wide availability, make them suitable for dosimetry and for radiation field mapping. However, the small radiation tolerance of ordinary silicon devices has imposed constraints on their application in intense radiation fields such as found in industrial radiation processes. This scenario has been changed with the development of radiation hard silicon devices to be used as track detectors in high-energy physics experiments. Particularly, in this work it is presented the dosimetric results obtained with a batch of nine junction silicon diodes developed, in the framework of CERN RD50 Collaboration, as good candidates for improved radiation hardness. These diodes were produced with 300 micrometer n-type silicon substrate grown by standard float zone technique and processed by the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology. The samples irradiation was performed using a Co-60 irradiator (Gammacell 220) which delivers a dose-rate of 2 kGy/h. During the irradiation, the unbiased diodes were connected through low-noise coaxial cables to the input of a KEITHLEY 617 electrometer, in order to monitor the devices photocurrent as a function of the exposure time. To study the response uniformity of the batch of nine diodes as well the sensitivity dependence on the absorbed dose, they were irradiated with different doses from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy. The sensitivity response of each device was investigated through the on-line measurements of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. For doses up to 5 kGy, all diodes exhibited a current decay of almost six percent in comparison with the value registered at the start-time of the irradiation. However, this decrease in the current sensitivity is much smaller than those observed with ordinary diodes for the same absorbed dose. The dose-response curves of the devices were also investigated through the plot

  15. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Continuous Liquid Feed Czochralski Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G.

    1979-01-01

    A process for the continuous growth of crystals by the Czochralski method, suitable for producing single silicon crystals for use in solar cells was studied. Continuous growth is the growth of 100 Kg of single silicon crystals, 10 cm in diameter, from one container. A furnace with continuous liquid replenishment of the growth crucible, accomplished by a melt-down system and a liquid transfer mechanism, with associated automatic feedback controls was developed. Elements of the transfer system were further developed and tested during actual transfer runs. Considerable simplification of the heating element of the transfer tube was achieved. Accuracy and reliability of the temperature sensor, which is part of the power input control system for the transfer tube, was improved. Electrical and thermal effectiveness were increased while assembly of the transfer tube system was further simplified.

  16. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  17. Prediction of power losses in silicon iron sheets under PWM voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amar, M.; Kaczmarek, R.; Protat, F.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of iron losses in silicon iron steels submitted to a PWM voltage is studied. The influence of modulation parameters (the depth of modulation and the number of eliminated harmonics) is clarified. In particular, the idea of an equivalent alternating pulse voltage that gives the same iron losses as the PWM voltage is established. An estimation formula for iron losses under the PWM voltage is developed based on the loss separation model and the voltage form factor. ((orig.))

  18. Sheet flow measurements on a surf-zone sandbar under shoaling and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieras, R.; Puleo, J. A.; Cox, D. T.; Anderson, D. L.; Kim, Y.; Hsu, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    A large-scale experiment to quantify sheet flow processes over a sandbar under varying levels of wave steepness was conducted in the wave flume at Oregon State University's O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. A fixed profile was constructed with concrete slabs anchored to the flume side walls, with the exception of the sandbar crest, where a steel pit was installed and filled with well-sorted sediment (d50 0.17 mm). This hybrid approach allowed for the isolation of small-scale bed response to large-scale wave forcing over the sandbar, where an array of sensors was positioned to measure hydrodynamic forcing and sediment response. Near-bed ( 0.08 m3/m3) were approximated using Conductivity Concentration Profilers. Test conditions consisted of a regular wave train with incident wave heights for individual runs ranging from 0.4 m to 0.6 m and incident wave periods from 5 s to 9 s, encompassing a variety of skewed and asymmetric wave shapes across the shoaling and breaking regimes. Ensemble-averaged sediment concentration profiles exhibit considerable variation across the different conditions. The largest variation in sheet layer thickness occurs beneath the wave crest, ranging from 30 grain diameters for 5 sec, 0.4 m waves, up to 80 grain diameters for 7 sec, 0.6 m waves. Furthermore, the initiation and duration of sheet flow relative to the wave period differs for each condition set. It is likely that more than one mechanism plays a role in determining the aforementioned sheet layer characteristics. In the present work, we focus on the relative magnitude and phase of the near-bed flow acceleration and shear stress in determining the characteristics of the sheet layer.

  19. Petrophysical characterization of the hydrothermal root zone in the sheeted dike complex from IODP Hole 1256D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violay, M.; Pezard, P. A.; Ildefonse, B.; Belghoul, A.; Mainprice, D.

    2009-04-01

    IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program.) Site 1256 is located on the Cocos Plate in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. It samples 15 Ma-old oceanic lithosphere that was formed at the EPR during a period of superfast spreading rate (> 200mm/yr). Drilling operations at Site 1256 were conducted during three ODP and IODP expeditions, and reached for the first time gabbros below the sheeted dike complex in Hole 1256D. This offers a unique opportunity to study in situ the fossil root zone of the sheeted dike complex in present-day oceanic crust. This zone is a boundary layer between the magmatic system of the melt lens (around 1100 °C), and the overlying high temperature hydrothermal system (≤ 450 °C). This boundary layer during crustal accretion is critical to our understanding of crustal processes along mid-ocean ridges. This work focuses on the petrophysical characterization of the root zone. Physical properties were determined from downhole geophysical profiles and images, and from laboratory petrophysical measurements from 21 minicores. Dikes, granoblastic dikes and gabbros testify to an important hydrothermal circulation in the vicinity of the magmatic lens. Porosity is primarily controlled by sample initial texture, hydrothermal alteration, and recrystallization processes. Green schist facies alteration of basalts is associated to relatively higher porosity values (≈ 2%) and a very variable organization of the pore space, as revealed by electrical properties. The electrical formation factor in diabase is high and variable (920 to 6087). Granoblastic dikes are characterized by locally recrystallized texture with Cpx and Opx (granulite facies) and little alteration at low temperature. The recrystallization induces abrupt decrease in porosity (fairly constant porosity, which likely consist mostly in microcracks. Crack density increases linearly with depth from 0.02 in diabase to 0.08 in gabbros. It is consistent with a fissural porosity (crack aspect ratio

  20. Three-dimensional modelling of thermal stress in floating zone silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Matiss; Krauze, Armands; Virbulis, Jānis

    2018-05-01

    During the growth of large diameter silicon single crystals with the industrial floating zone method, undesirable level of thermal stress in the crystal is easily reached due to the inhomogeneous expansion as the crystal cools down. Shapes of the phase boundaries, temperature field and elastic material properties determine the thermal stress distribution in the solid mono crystalline silicon during cylindrical growth. Excessive stress can lead to fracture, generation of dislocations and altered distribution of intrinsic point defects. Although appearance of ridges on the crystal surface is the decisive factor of a dislocation-free growth, the influence of these ridges on the stress field is not completely clear. Here we present the results of thermal stress analysis for 4” and 5” diameter crystals using a quasi-stationary three dimensional mathematical model including the material anisotropy and the presence of experimentally observed ridges which cannot be addressed with axis-symmetric models. The ridge has a local but relatively strong influence on thermal stress therefore its relation to the origin of fracture is hypothesized. In addition, thermal stresses at the crystal rim are found to increase for a particular position of the crystal radiation reflector.

  1. Tailoring the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Sheets and Ribbons by Fluorination

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming

    2016-07-12

    Fluorination has been instrumental for tuning the properties of several two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2. However, its potential application has not yet been explored in 2D silicon carbide (SiC), a promising material for nanoelectronic devices. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of fully and partially fluorinated 2D SiC sheets and nanoribbons by means of density functional theory combined with cluster expansion calculations. We find that fully fluorinated 2D SiC exhibits chair configurations and a nonmagnetic semiconducting behavior. Fluorination is shown to be an efficient approach for tuning the band gap. Four ground states of partially fluorinated SiC, SiCF2x with x = 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, are obtained by cluster expansion calculations. All of them exhibit nanoroad patterns, with the x = 0.5 structure identified as the most stable one. The x = 0.0625 structure is a nonmagnetic metal, while the other three are all ferromagnetic half-metals, whose properties are not affected by the edge states. We propose an effective approach for modulating the electronic and magnetic behavior of 2D SiC, paving the way to applications of SiC nanostructures in integrated multifunctional and spintronic nanodevices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  2. Tailoring the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Sheets and Ribbons by Fluorination

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming; Kutana, Alex; Yu, Guangtao; Chen, Wei; Yakobson, Boris I.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Huang, Xuri

    2016-01-01

    Fluorination has been instrumental for tuning the properties of several two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2. However, its potential application has not yet been explored in 2D silicon carbide (SiC), a promising material for nanoelectronic devices. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of fully and partially fluorinated 2D SiC sheets and nanoribbons by means of density functional theory combined with cluster expansion calculations. We find that fully fluorinated 2D SiC exhibits chair configurations and a nonmagnetic semiconducting behavior. Fluorination is shown to be an efficient approach for tuning the band gap. Four ground states of partially fluorinated SiC, SiCF2x with x = 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, are obtained by cluster expansion calculations. All of them exhibit nanoroad patterns, with the x = 0.5 structure identified as the most stable one. The x = 0.0625 structure is a nonmagnetic metal, while the other three are all ferromagnetic half-metals, whose properties are not affected by the edge states. We propose an effective approach for modulating the electronic and magnetic behavior of 2D SiC, paving the way to applications of SiC nanostructures in integrated multifunctional and spintronic nanodevices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  3. An explanation for the dark region in the western melt zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. M. Wientjes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The western part of the Greenland ice sheet contains a region that is darker than the surrounding ice. This feature has been analysed with the help of MODIS images. The dark region appears every year during the summer season and can always be found at the same location, which makes meltwater unlikely as the only source for the low albedos. Spectral information indicates that the ice in this region contains more debris than the ice closer to the margin. ASTER images reveal a wavy pattern in the darker ice. Based on these findings we conclude that ice, containing dust from older periods, is presently outcropping near the margin, leading to albedos lower than observed for the remaining ablation area. Therefore it can be concluded that the accumulation of meltwater is a result rather than a cause of the darkening.

  4. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 1. Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, William; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert; Steffen. Konrad; Phillips, Thomas; Zwally, H. Jay; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    We apply a novel one-dimensional glacier hydrology model that calculates hydraulic head to the tidewater-terminating Sermeq Avannarleq flowline of the Greenland ice sheet. Within a plausible parameter space, the model achieves a quasi-steady-state annual cycle in which hydraulic head oscillates close to flotation throughout the ablation zone. Flotation is briefly achieved during the summer melt season along a approx.17 km stretch of the approx.50 km of flowline within the ablation zone. Beneath the majority of the flowline, subglacial conduit storage closes (i.e. obtains minimum radius) during the winter and opens (i.e. obtains maximum radius) during the summer. Along certain stretches of the flowline, the model predicts that subglacial conduit storage remains open throughout the year. A calculated mean glacier water residence time of approx.2.2 years implies that significant amounts of water are stored in the glacier throughout the year. We interpret this residence time as being indicative of the timescale over which the glacier hydrologic system is capable of adjusting to external surface meltwater forcings. Based on in situ ice velocity observations, we suggest that the summer speed-up event generally corresponds to conditions of increasing hydraulic head during inefficient subglacial drainage. Conversely, the slowdown during fall generally corresponds to conditions of decreasing hydraulic head during efficient subglacial drainage.

  5. The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the surface energy balance (SEB) in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet, using seven years (September 2003–August 2010) of hourly observations from three automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along the 67◦ N

  6. A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fábio de; Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a 60 Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the FZ and DOFZ responses evidenced that the latter was slightly superior to the first. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications. (author)

  7. A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fábio de [Amazônia Azul Tecnologias de Defesa S.A. (AMAZUL), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: dcamargo@gmail.com, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a {sup 60}Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the FZ and DOFZ responses evidenced that the latter was slightly superior to the first. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications. (author)

  8. Microstructure and texture evolution of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-03-15

    A 0.1 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was successfully produced using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution during the processing was briefly analyzed. It was found that Goss texture was absent in the hot rolled sheet because of the lack of shear deformation. After normalizing, a large number of dispersed MnS precipitates with the size range of 15–90 nm were produced. During first cold rolling, dense shear bands were generated in the deformed ferrite grains, resulting in the intense Goss texture after first intermediate annealing. The microstructure was further refined and homogenized during the subsequent cold rolling and annealing processes. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure consisting of fine and equiaxed grains was produced while the associated texture was characterized by a strong γ-fiber texture. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of entirely large Goss grains was produced. The magnetic induction B{sub 8} and iron loss P{sub 10/400} was 1.79 T and 6.9 W/kg, respectively. - Highlights: • Ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting process. • Microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution was briefly investigated. • Goss texture was absent in primary recrystallization annealed sheet. • MnS precipitates with a size range of 15–90 nm formed after normalizing. • A complete secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced.

  9. Infrared defect dynamics—Nitrogen-vacancy complexes in float zone grown silicon introduced by electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naohisa; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2018-05-01

    The interaction of nitrogen and intrinsic point defects, vacancy (V) and self-interstitial (I), was examined by infrared absorption spectroscopy on the electron irradiated and post-annealed nitrogen doped float zone (FZ) silicon crystal. Various absorption lines were observed, at 551 cm-1 in as-grown samples, at 726 and 778 cm-1 in as-irradiated samples (Ir group), at 689 cm-1 after post-annealing at 400 °C and above (400 °C group), at 762 and 951 cm-1 after annealing at 600 °C (600 °C group), and at 714 cm-1 up to 800 °C (800 °C group). By irradiation, a part of N2 was changed into the Ir group. VN2 is the candidate for the origin of the Ir group. By the post annealing at 400 and 600 °C, a part of N2 and the Ir group were changed into the 400 °C group, to less extent at 600 °C. V2N2 is the candidate for the origin of the 400 °C group. By annealing at 600 °C, most of the Ir group turned into 400 °C and 600 °C groups. By annealing at 800 °C, N2 recovered almost completely, and most other complexes were not observed. Recently, lifetime degradation has been observed in the nitrogen doped FZ Si annealed at between 450 and 800 °C. The N-V interaction in the same temperature range revealed here will help to understand the lifetime degradation mechanism. The behavior of the 689 cm-1 line corresponded well to the lifetime degradation.

  10. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; SorgenFrei, T.; Croell, A.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the photovoltaics industry, the largest market share is represented by solar cells made from multicrystalline silicon, which is grown by directional solidification. During the growth process, the silicon melt is in contact with the silicon nitride coated crucible walls and the furnace atmosphere which contains carbon monoxide. The dissolution of the crucible coating, the carbon bearing gas, and the carbon already present in the feedstock, lead to the precipitation of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride, at later stages of the growth process. The precipitation of Si3N4 and SiC particles of up to several hundred micrometers in diameter leads to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Furthermore the growth of the silicon grains can be negatively influenced by the presence of particles, which act as nucleation sources and lead to a grit structure of small grains and are sources for dislocations. If doped with Nitrogen from the dissolved crucible coating, SiC is a semi conductive material, and can act as a shunt, short circuiting parts of the solar cell. For these reasons, the incorporation of such particles needs to be avoided. In this contribution we performed model experiments in which the transport of intentionally added SiC particles and their interaction with the solid-liquid interface during float zone growth of silicon in strong steady magnetic fields was investigated. SiC particles of 7µm and 60µm size are placed in single crystal silicon [100] and [111] rods of 8mm diameter. This is achieved by drilling a hole of 2mm diameter, filling in the particles and closing the hole by melting the surface of the rod until a film of silicon covers the hole. The samples are processed under a vacuum of 1x10(exp -5) mbar or better, to prevent gas inclusions. An oxide layer to suppress Marangoni convection is applied by wet oxidation. Experiments without and with static magnetic field are carried out to investigate the influence of melt

  11. The use of silicone occlusive sheeting (Sil-K) and silicone occlusive gel (epiderm) in the prevention of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, FB; Spauwen, PHM; Robinson, PH; Fidler, [No Value; Kon, M

    The development of hypertrophic scars and keloids is an unsolved problem in the process of found healing. For this reason, a successful treatment to prevent excessive scar formation still has not been found. Over the last decade, however, a promising new treatment has been introduced. Silicone

  12. Temporomandibular joint arthroplasty for osteoarthrosis: A series of 24 patients that received a uni- or bilateral inter-positional silicone sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutault, F; Cavallier, Z; Lauwers, F; Prevost, A

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate mid-term results from using a silicone sheet for inter-positional arthroplasty in moderate or severe cases of osteoarthrosis of the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ). To also determine any remaining indications from this method. This retrospective study included patients that underwent surgery between 2008 and 2016. Pre- and post-operative mouth opening (MO), according to inter-incisal distance (mm) and pain score (PS: 0=no pain to 4=very severe pain) were recorded for 24 patients. Patients were divided according to thickness of the silicone sheet (group A: 1.0 mm, group B: 1.5 mm). The cohort included 22 females (92%). Mean age at surgery was 55 years±13 (26-80). Mean length of follow-up was 26 months±24 (6-80). Mean improvement in MO was 8.2 mm (+33%) and of PS was 1.7 (-68%). MO was not improved for two patients and worsened for one. PS score improved for all patients. No statistical difference was found between groups A and B. There was also a tendency for degradation of outcomes over time. The poor reputation of prosthetic discoplasty was not as evident in our series, even though anatomical and functional status seemed to deteriorate over time. This is because total-joint prosthetic replacement is often proposed instead. However, for elderly or fragile patients that have severe pain, and regarding cost-benefit aspects, conventional arthroplasty can still be discussed, especially since French national health-care insurance does not yet support TMJ prosthetic replacement for osteoarthrosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Supraglacial Lakes in the Percolation Zone of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet: Formation and Development using Operation IceBridge Snow Radar and ATM (2009-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Howat, I. M.; de la Peña, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface meltwater lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet have appeared at higher elevations, extending well into the percolation zone, under recent warming, with the largest expansion occurring in the western Greenland Ice Sheet. The conditions that allow lakes to form atop firn are poorly constrained, but the formation of new lakes imply changes in the permeability of the firn at high elevations, promoting meltwater runoff. We explore the formation and evolution of new surface lakes in this region above 1500 meters, using a combination of satellite imagery and repeat Snow (2-6.5 GHz) radar echograms and LIDAR measurements from NASA's Operation IceBridge of 2009-2014. We identify conditions for surface lake formation at their farthest inland extent and suggest behaviors of persistence and lake drainage are due to differences in regional ice dynamics.

  14. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method (HEM). Multi-Wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (Fast). Phase 4 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.

    1981-01-01

    The crystallinity of large HEM silicon ingots as a function of heat flow conditions is investigated. A balanced heat flow at the bottom of the ingot restricts spurious nucleation to the edge of the melted-back seed in contact with the crucible. Homogeneous resistivity distribution over all the ingot has been achieved. The positioning of diamonds electroplated on wirepacks used to slice silicon crystals is considered. The electroplating of diamonds on only the cutting edge is described and the improved slicing performance of these wires evaluated. An economic analysis of value added costs of HEM ingot casting and band saw sectioning indicates the projected add on cost of HEM is well below the 1986 allocation.

  15. Role of Firing Temperature, Sheet Resistance, and Contact Area in Contact Formation on Screen-Printed Metal Contact of Silicon Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Samir Mahmmod; Leong, Cheow Siu; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2018-03-01

    Formation of an Ohmic contact requires a suitable firing temperature, appropriate doping profile, and contact dimensions within resolution limits of the screen-printing process. In this study, the role of the peak firing temperature in standard rapid thermal annealing (RTA) six-zone conveyor belt furnace (CBF) and two inexpensive alternate RTA systems [a custom-designed, three-zone, 5″-diameter quartz tube furnace (QTF) and a tabletop, 3″-diameter rapid thermal processing (RTP)] has been investigated. In addition, the role of sheet resistance and contact area in achieving low-resistance ohmic contacts has been examined. Electrical measurements of ohmic contacts between silver paste/ n +-emitter layer with varying sheet resistances and aluminum paste/ p-doped wafer were carried out in transmission line method configuration. Experimental measurements of the contact resistivity ( ρ c) exhibited the lowest values for CBF at 0.14 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 100 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 870°C. For the QTF configuration, lowest measured contact resistivities were 3.1 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 74.1 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 925°C. Finally, for the RTP configuration, lowest measured contact resistivities were 1.2 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 68.5 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 780°C. The measured contact resistivity exhibits strong linear dependence on sheet resistance. The contact resistivity for Ag decreases with contact area, while for Al the opposite behavior is observed.

  16. External self-gettering of nickel in float zone silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, N.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1997-05-01

    During indiffusion of Ni atoms in silicon crystals at 950 °C from a nickel layer source, Ni-Si alloys can be formed close to the surface. Metal solubility in these alloys is higher than in silicon, which induces a marked segregation gettering of the Ni atoms which have diffused in the bulk of the wafers. Consequently, the regions of the wafers covered with the Ni layer are less contaminated than adjacent regions in which Ni atoms have also penetrated, as shown by the absence of precipitates and the higher diffusion length of minority carriers. The results suggest the existence of external self-gettering of Ni atoms by the nickel source.

  17. How robust are in situ observations for validating satellite-derived albedo over the dark zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J.; Hubbard, A., II; Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Doyle, S. H.; Cook, J.; Stibal, M.; Smith, L. C.; Box, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Calibration and validation of satellite-derived ice sheet albedo data require high-quality, in situ measurements commonly acquired by up and down facing pyranometers mounted on automated weather stations (AWS). However, direct comparison between ground and satellite-derived albedo can only be justified when the measured surface is homogeneous at the length-scale of both satellite pixel and in situ footprint. We used digital imagery acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle to evaluate point-to-pixel albedo comparisons across the western, ablating margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Our results reveal that in situ measurements overestimate albedo by up to 0.10 at the end of the melt season because the ground footprints of AWS-mounted pyranometers are insufficient to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the ice surface as it progressively ablates and darkens. Statistical analysis of 21 AWS across the entire Greenland Ice Sheet reveals that almost half suffer from this bias, including some AWS located within the wet snow zone.

  18. Characterization of an amorphous silicon flat panel for controlling the positioning accuracy of sheet; Caracterizacion de un panel plano de silicio amorfo para control de la exactitud en el posicionamiento de laminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.; Gonzalez, V.; Gimeno, J.; Dolores, V. de los; Pastor, V.; Crispin, V.; Guardino, C.

    2011-07-01

    It has established a method for measuring the position of the blades in a multi leaf collimator (MLC) used to measure dose portal imaging device (EPID) of amorphous silicon, and verified its accuracy using radiochromic films and measures water with diode Cuba, techniques perfectly well validated in our institution. This dose profiles are studied for each sheet and determine their position at the point which has 50% of the dose in the open field.

  19. Ultrathin Silicon Sheet in the Management of Unilateral Post-traumatic Temporo-Mandibuar Joint Ankylosis in Children: A Good Alternative to Conventional Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Ankur, Bhatnagar; Jain, R K

    2015-09-01

    We have described a new technique of using ultra-thin silicon sheet (0.2 mm) between two transected bony ends for temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in children with advantages of short operative time, minimal foreign material insertion and faster recovery time post-operatively which makes our technique a good alternative to conventional techniques. Our study is a non-randomized prospective study conducted on 10 children aged between 4 and 15 years who presented to our tertiary care institute with severe trismus after traumatic injury and were willing to undergo this new technique. The main outcome measure taken into consideration was difference between pre-operative, intra-operative (on table) and post-operative mouth opening (minimum 2 years follow-up). The pre-operative mouth opening in our cases varied from 1 to 5 mm. The intra-operative mouth opening achieved ranged from 2.8 to 3.2 cm. The mouth opening was about more than 2.7 cm in all our cases at 2 years of follow-up. Our technique is a good alternative to conventional techniques used for TMJ ankylosis in children but few more randomized controlled trials are required to assess its effectiveness in comparison to conventional techniques and for universal adoption of this technique.

  20. Properties of iron-doped multicrystalline silicon grown by the float-zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T.F.; Wang, T.H.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Multicrystalline Fe-doped Si ingots were float-zoned from high-purity feed rods. Fe was introduced by pill-doping, which gives uniform impurity content for small segregation coefficients (k {approximately} 10{sup {minus}5} for Fe in Si). Fe concentrations were calculated from the initial weight of the Fe pill, the molten zone geomet and the growth parameters. Values in the range of 10{sup 12}-10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} were targeted. No additional electrically active dopants were introduced. Minority charge carrier lifetime (via YAG-laser-excited, 430-MHz ultra-high-frequency-coupled, photoconductive decay) was measured on the ingots, and wafers were cut to examine grain structure and electron-beam-induced current response of grain boundaries. Observed lifetimes decreased monotonically with increasing Fe content for similar grain sizes (from {approximately}10 {mu}s to 2 {mu}s for < 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2} grains, from {approximately}30 {mu}s to 2 {mu}s for {approximately}5 x 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2} grains, and from {approximately}300 {mu}s to 2 {mu}s for > 10{sup {minus}2} cm{sup 2} grains) as the Fe content increased to 1 {times} 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}.

  1. Continuous Estimates of Surface Density and Annual Snow Accumulation with Multi-Channel Snow/Firn Penetrating Radar in the Percolation Zone, Western Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, T.; Marshall, H. P.; Bradford, J.; Hawley, R. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; McCarthy, F.; Lewis, G.; Graeter, K.

    2017-12-01

    A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data can be supplied into firn compaction models and used to tune Regional Climate Models (RCM). RCMs do not accurately capture subtle changes in the snow accumulation gradient. Additionally, leading RCMs disagree among each other and with accumulation studies in regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) over large distances and temporal scales. RCMs tend to yield inconsistencies over GrIS because of sparse and outdated validation data in the reanalysis pool. Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) implemented multi-channel 500 MHz Radar in multi-offset configuration throughout two traverse campaigns totaling greater than 3500 km along the western percolation zone of GrIS. The multi-channel radar has the capability of continuously estimating snow depth, average density, and annual snow accumulation, expressed at 95% confidence (+-) 0.15 m, (+-) 17 kgm-3, (+-) 0.04 m w.e. respectively, by examination of the primary reflection return from the previous year's summer surface.

  2. Temperature-dependent nucleation and capture-zone scaling of C 60 on silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, M. A.; Conrad, B. R.; Cullen, W. G.; Pimpinelli, A.; Williams, E. D.; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Submonolayer films of C 60 have been deposited on ultrathin SiO 2 films for the purpose of characterizing the initial stages of nucleation and growth as a function of temperature. Capture zones extracted from the initial film morphology were analyzed using both the gamma and generalized Wigner distributions. The calculated critical nucleus size i of the C 60 islands was observed to change over the temperature range 298 K to 483 K. All fitted values of i were found to be between 0 and 1, representing stable monomers and stable dimers, respectively. With increasing temperature of film preparation, we observed i first increasing through this range and then decreasing. We discuss possible explanations of this reentrant-like behavior.

  3. Processes controlling silicon isotopic fractionation in a forested tropical watershed: Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory (Southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riotte, Jean; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Zambardi, Thomas; Audry, Stéphane; Barboni, Doris; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Poitrasson, Franck; Sekhar, Muddu; Braun, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of the silica cycle in the critical zone remains challenging, particularly within the soil, where multiple processes are involved. To improve our understanding of this cycle in the Tropics, and more specifically the role played by vegetation, we combined elemental Si mass balance with the δ30Si signatures of the compartments involved in the water-plant-rock interactions of a tropical forested watershed, Mule Hole (Southern India). To accomplish this, we analysed (1) the δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths from tree leaves and grass, as well as soil amorphous silica (ASi); (2) the Si isotope fractionation induced by phytolith dissolution; (3) the silicon mass balance inferred from isotopes at the soil-plant scale; and (4) the consistency between water sources and the δ30Si signatures in the ephemeral stream. The δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths and soil ASi vary within a narrow range of 1.10-1.40‰ for all samples, but two deep vertisol samples which likely trapped phytoliths from different vegetation growing under more humid conditions, as indicated by pollen analysis. A homogeneous signature of litter is a minimum condition for using δ30Si as a proxy for the litter/phytolith source of Si. However, litter-ash dissolution experiments demonstrate that the incipient dissolution of phytoliths fractionates Si isotopes, with the preferential dissolution of 28Si over 30Si yielding δ30Si values as low as -1.41‰. Values close to the whole-sample signatures, i.e., above 1‰, were recovered in the solution after a few hours of water-ash interaction. At the soil-plant scale, the average δ30Si value of soil-infiltrating solutions is slightly lighter than the average phytolith signature, which suggests phytoliths as the source of soil dissolved Si. The isotopic budget of dissolved Si within the soil layer, which was obtained based on previous elemental fluxes, is imbalanced. Equilibrating the isotopic budget would imply

  4. Numerically simulated and experimentally obtained X-ray section topographs of a spherical strain field in a floating zone silicon crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okitsu, Kouhei; Iida, Satoshi; Sugita, Yoshimitsu; Takeno, Hiroshi; Yagou, Yasuyoshi; Kawata, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    An undoped floating zone (FZ) silicon crystal has been investigated by synchrotron X-radiation section topography with high-order reflections up to 14 14 0. Numerically simulated topographs based on the Takagi-Taupin equations were in good agreement with experimental distorted patterns when a spherical strain field was assumed in the crystal. The volume change of the lattice caused by the strain center was estimated to correspond to a sphere with a radius of 10 μm. (author)

  5. Spatial Variability of accumulation across the Western Greenland Ice Sheet Percolation Zone from ground-penetrating-radar and shallow firn cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G.; Osterberg, E. C.; Hawley, R. L.; Marshall, H. P.; Birkel, S. D.; Meehan, T. G.; Graeter, K.; Overly, T. B.; McCarthy, F.

    2017-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in a warming climate is of critical interest to scientists and the general public in the context of future sea-level rise. Increased melting in the GrIS percolation zone over the past several decades has led to increased mass loss at lower elevations due to recent warming. Uncertainties in mass balance are especially large in regions with sparse and/or outdated in situ measurements. This study is the first to calculate in situ accumulation over a large region of western Greenland since the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment campaign during the 1990s. Here we analyze 5000 km of 400 MHz ground penetrating radar data and sixteen 25-33 m-long firn cores in the western GrIS percolation zone to determine snow accumulation over the past 50 years. The cores and radar data were collected as part of the 2016-2017 Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS). With the cores and radar profiles we capture spatial accumulation gradients between 1850-2500 m a.s.l and up to Summit Station. We calculate accumulation rates and use them to validate five widely used regional climate models and to compare with IceBridge snow and accumulation radars. Our results indicate that while the models capture most regional spatial climate patterns, they lack the small-scale spatial variability captured by in situ measurements. Additionally, we evaluate temporal trends in accumulation at ice core locations and throughout the traverse. Finally, we use empirical orthogonal function and correlation analyses to investigate the principal drivers of radar-derived accumulation rates across the western GrIS percolation zone, including major North Atlantic climate modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and Greenland Blocking Index.

  6. Positron annihilation lifetime in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by fast electrons: a thermally stable vacancy defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay; Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kozlovskii, Vitalii

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependency of the average positron lifetime has been investigated for n-type float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P), subjected to irradiation with 0.9 MeV electrons at RT. In the course of the isochronal annealing a new defect-related temperature-dependent pattern of the positron lifetime spectra has been revealed. Beyond the well known intervals of isochronal annealing of acceptor-like defects such as E-centers, divacancies and A-centers, the positron annihilation at the vacancy defects has been observed in the course of the isochronal annealing from ∝ 320 C up to the limit of reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime at ≥ 500 C. These data correlate with the ones of recovery of the concentration of the charge carriers and their mobility which is found to continue in the course of annealing to ∝ 570 C; the annealing is accomplished at ∝650 C. A thermally stable complex consisting of the open vacancy volume and the phosphorus impurity atom, V_o_p-P, is suggested as a possible candidate for interpreting the data obtained by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. An extended couple of semi-vacancies, 2V_s_-_e_x_t, as well as a relaxed inwards a couple of vacancies, 2V_i_n_w, are suggested as the open vacancy volume V_o_p to be probed with the positron. It is argued that a high thermal stability of the V_s_-_e_x_t PV_s_-_e_x_t (or V_i_n_wPV_i_n_w_.) configuration is contributed by the efficiency of PSi_5 bonding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Effect of silicon contents on the microstructures and mechanical properties of heat affected zones for 9Cr2WVTa steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Rong, Lijian [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China); Li, Dianzhong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 110016, Shenyang (China)

    2016-03-15

    The weldability of 9Cr2WVTa steels with silicon content varying from 0.30 wt.% to 1.36 wt.% was studied to meet the requirement of Generation-Ⅳ nuclear reactor. Samples of enlarged HAZs were fabricated by a thermal-mechanical simulator based on the simulation and measurement of non-equilibrium phase transformation. The content of δ-ferrite in the HAZs increased with the silicon content and the peak temperature of welding thermal cycle. The impact toughness in the HAZs decreased in different degrees when the δ-ferrite exhibits stripe (lower than 4.82%) or blocky types (higher than 4.82%). Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) has a significant role on improving the toughness. Adding silicon content increased the volume of δ-ferrite and therefore, decreased the tensile strength of the HAZs for 9Cr2WVTa steels. Silicon also as solid solution strengthening element increased the tensile strength. The 9Cr2WVTa steel has good weldability when the silicon content is lower than 0.60 wt.%. - Highlights: • The weldability of 9Cr2WVTa steel with different silicon contents was studied. • The impact toughness decreased in different degrees owing to the δ-ferrite. • PWHT has a significant role on improving the impact toughness. • The 9Cr2WVTa steel with silicon content not exceeding 0.60 wt.% has good weldability.

  8. Seasonal monitoring of melt and accumulation within the deep percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet and comparison with simulations of regional climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; MacFerrin, Michael; Tedesco, Marco; Fettweis, Xavier

    2018-06-01

    Increasing melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) recorded over the past several years has resulted in significant changes of the percolation regime of the ice sheet. It remains unclear whether Greenland's percolation zone will act as a meltwater buffer in the near future through gradually filling all pore space or if near-surface refreezing causes the formation of impermeable layers, which provoke lateral runoff. Homogeneous ice layers within perennial firn, as well as near-surface ice layers of several meter thickness have been observed in firn cores. Because firn coring is a destructive method, deriving stratigraphic changes in firn and allocation of summer melt events is challenging. To overcome this deficit and provide continuous data for model evaluations on snow and firn density, temporal changes in liquid water content and depths of water infiltration, we installed an upward-looking radar system (upGPR) 3.4 m below the snow surface in May 2016 close to Camp Raven (66.4779° N, 46.2856° W) at 2120 m a.s.l. The radar is capable of quasi-continuously monitoring changes in snow and firn stratigraphy, which occur above the antennas. For summer 2016, we observed four major melt events, which routed liquid water into various depths beneath the surface. The last event in mid-August resulted in the deepest percolation down to about 2.3 m beneath the surface. Comparisons with simulations from the regional climate model MAR are in very good agreement in terms of seasonal changes in accumulation and timing of onset of melt. However, neither bulk density of near-surface layers nor the amounts of liquid water and percolation depths predicted by MAR correspond with upGPR data. Radar data and records of a nearby thermistor string, in contrast, matched very well for both timing and depth of temperature changes and observed water percolations. All four melt events transferred a cumulative mass of 56 kg m-2 into firn beneath the summer surface of 2015. We find that

  9. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  10. Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project. Heat Exchanger Method - Ingot Casting Fixed Abrasive Method - Multi-Wire Slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    Solar cells fabricated from HEM cast silicon yielded up to 15% conversion efficiencies. This was achieved in spite of using unpurified graphite parts in the HEM furnace and without optimization of material or cell processing parameters. Molybdenum retainers prevented SiC formation and reduced carbon content by 50%. The oxygen content of vacuum cast HEM silicon is lower than typical Czochralski grown silicon. Impregnation of 45 micrometers diamonds into 7.5 micrometers copper sheath showed distortion of the copper layer. However, 12.5 micrometers and 15 micrometers copper sheath can be impregnated with 45 micrometers diamonds to a high concentration. Electroless nickel plating of wires impregnated only in the cutting edge showed nickel concentration around the diamonds. This has the possibility of reducing kerf. The high speed slicer fabricated can achieve higher speed and longer stroke with vibration isolation.

  11. The glacial geology and landscape of Strathmore and adjoining offshore zone, with especial reference to 1:10 000 scale Sheet NO76NW

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, N.R.; Stoker, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Bedrock and Superficial Geology of 1:10 000 Sheet NO76NW (Craig of Garvock) within the Strathmore area of eastern Scotland. It forms part of the revision of Montrose 1:50 000 Geological Sheet (57E). Strathmore forms a low vale bounded to the north by the Highland Boundary Fault (HBF), and to the south by the Sidlaw Hills. NO76NW is underlain by a Devonian sedimentary sequence with interdigitating contemporaneous igneous sheets. The northern edge of the field-ma...

  12. Production and aging of paramagnetic point defects in P-doped floating zone silicon irradiated with high fluence 27 MeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joita, A. C.; Nistor, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the long term stable performance of silicon detectors used for monitoring the position and flux of the particle beams in high energy physics experiments requires a better knowledge of the nature, stability, and transformation properties of the radiation defects created over the operation time. We report the results of an electron spin resonance investigation in the nature, transformation, and long term stability of the irradiation paramagnetic point defects (IPPDs) produced by high fluence (2 × 1016 cm-2), high energy (27 MeV) electrons in n-type, P-doped standard floating zone silicon. We found out that both freshly irradiated and aged (i.e., stored after irradiation for 3.5 years at 250 K) samples mainly contain negatively charged tetravacancy and pentavacancy defects in the first case and tetravacancy defects in the second one. The fact that such small cluster vacancy defects have not been observed by irradiation with low energy (below 5 MeV) electrons, but were abundantly produced by irradiation with neutrons, strongly suggests the presence of the same mechanism of direct formation of small vacancy clusters by irradiation with neutrons and high energy, high fluence electrons, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Differences in the nature and annealing properties of the IPPDs observed between the 27 MeV electrons freshly irradiated, and irradiated and aged samples were attributed to the presence of a high concentration of divacancies in the freshly irradiated samples, defects which transform during storage at 250 K through diffusion and recombination processes.

  13. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  14. Comparison between rad-hard standard float zone (FZ) and magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon diodes in radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.C. dos; Goncalves, J.A.C.; Vasques, M.M.; Tobias, C.C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Neves-Junior, W.F.P.; Haddad, C.M.K. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras; Harkonen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology (Denmark). Helsinki Inst. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The use of semiconductor detectors has increased in radiotherapy practice since 1980s due to mainly their fast processing time, small sensitive volume and high relative sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Other major advantages of Si devices are excellent repeatability, good mechanical stability, high spatial resolution and the energy independence of mass collision stopping powers ratios (between silicon and water for electron beams with energy from 4 up to 20 MeV). However, ordinary silicon devices are very prone to radiation damage effects. In the last years, the development of radiation tolerant silicon detectors for High Energy Physics experiments has overcome this drawback. In this work we present the preliminary results obtained with a rad-hard epitaxial silicon diode as on-line clinical electron beam dosimeter. The diodes with 25 mm{sup 2} active area, were housed in a PMMA probe and connected, in a photovoltaic mode, to a Keithley 6517B electrometer. During all measurements, the diodes were held between PMMA plates, placed at Zref and centered in a radiation field of 10 cm x 10 cm, with the SSD kept at 100 cm. The devices dosimetric response was evaluated for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 e 21 MeV electron beams from a Siemens KD 2 Radiotherapy Linear Accelerator, located at Sirio-Libanes Hospital. The radiation induced current in the diodes was registered as a function of the exposure time during 60 s for a fixed 300 MU. To study the short term repeatability, current signals were registered for the same radiation dose, for all energies. The dose-response of the diodes was achieved through the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results obtained in the energy range of 6 up to 21 MeV evidenced that, for the same average dose rate of 5.0 cGy/s, the current signals are very stable and repeatable in both cases. For all energies, data shows good instantaneous repeatability with a percentage variation coefficient better than 2

  15. Silicone infusion tubing instead of Hunter rods for two-stage zone 2 flexor tendon reconstruction in a resource-limited surgical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibadi, K; Moutet, F

    2017-10-01

    The authors describe their experience using silicone infusion tubing in place of Hunter rods for two-stage zone 2 flexor tendon reconstruction in a resource-limited surgical environment. This case report features a 47-year-old, right-handed man who had no active PIP and DIP joint flexion in four fingers of the right hand 5 months after an injury. During the first repair stage, the A2 and A4 pulleys were reconstructed using an extensor retinaculum graft. An infusion tube was inserted instead of Hunter rods. During the second stage, formation of a digital neo-canal around the infusion tubing was observed. The infusion tubing was removed and replaced with a palmaris longus tendon graft according to the conventional technique. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation followed surgery. At 6 months, very significant progress had been made with complete recovery of PIP and DIP flexion in the four fingers. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina; Haerkoenen, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alter...

  17. Formation of shallow boron emitters in crystalline silicon using flash lamp annealing: Role of excess silicon interstitials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riise, Heine Nygard, E-mail: h.n.riise@fys.uio.no; Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G.; Monakhov, Edouard [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Schumann, Thomas; Hübner, Renè; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P. O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-13

    Shallow, Boron (B)-doped p{sup +} emitters have been realized using spin-on deposition and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) to diffuse B into monocrystalline float zone Silicon (Si). The emitters extend between 50 and 140 nm in depth below the surface, have peak concentrations between 9 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup –3} and 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup –3}, and exhibit sheet resistances between 70 and 3000 Ω/□. An exceptionally large increase in B diffusion occurs for FLA energy densities exceeding ∼93 J/cm{sup 2} irrespective of 10 or 20 ms pulse duration. The effect is attributed to enhanced diffusion of B caused by Si interstitial injection following a thermally activated reaction between the spin-on diffusant film and the silicon wafer.

  18. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  19. Effect of welding parameters (plunge depths of shoulder, pin geometry, and tool rotational speed) on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of friction stir spot welded aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Lali; Taheri, Morteza; Khodabandeh, Alireza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 joined by friction stir spot welding. The welding parameters in this work are tool rotational speed, plunge depths of shoulder, and pin geometry. In accordance with the methods of previous investigations, the rotational speeds were set to 630 rpm to 2000 rpm. Two pin geometries with concave shoulder were used: triangular and cylindrical. The plunge depths of the shoulder were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm. The shoulder diameter and pin height for both geometries were 14 and 2.4 mm, respectively. The diameter of the cylindrical and triangular pins was 5 mm. Results show that the parameters mentioned earlier influence fracture mode under tension shear loading. Two different fracture modes were observed during the examinations. Low-penetration depths and low-rotational speeds lead to shear fracture, whereas high values of these factors cause the tension-shear fracture mode. Fracture of the lower sheet sometimes occurs at high rotational speeds.

  20. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  1. Radiation Response of Forward Biased Float Zone and Magnetic Czochralski Silicon Detectors of Different Geometry for 1-MeV Neutron Equivalent Fluence Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mekki, J; Dusseau, Laurent; Roche, Nicolas Jean-Henri; Saigne, Frederic; Mekki, Julien; Glaser, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at evaluating new options for radiation monitoring sensors in LHC/SLHC experiments, the radiation responses of FZ and MCz custom made silicon detectors of different geometry have been studied up to about 4 x 10(14) n(eq)/cm(2). The radiation response of the devices under investigation is discussed in terms of material type, thickness and active area influence.

  2. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  3. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  4. Characterization of Czochralski silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmented detectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It is shown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher than that of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or Diffusion Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 × 1017 cm−3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting ...

  5. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  6. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed

  7. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  8. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  9. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  10. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  11. Crystal growth for high-efficiency silicon solar cells workshop: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art in the growth of silicon crystals for high-efficiency solar cells are reviewed, sheet requirements are defined, and furture areas of research are identified. Silicon sheet material characteristics that limit cell efficiencies and yields were described as well as the criteria for the ideal sheet-growth method. The device engineers wish list to the material engineer included: silicon sheet with long minority carrier lifetime that is uniform throughout the sheet, and which doesn't change during processing; and sheet material that stays flat throughout device processing, has uniform good mechanical strength, and is low cost. Impurities in silicon solar cells depreciate cell performance by reducing diffusion length and degrading junctions. The impurity behavior, degradation mechanisms, and variations in degradation threshold with diffusion length for silicon solar cells were described.

  12. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  13. Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels.

  14. The special trench design near the through silicon vias (TSVs) to reduce the keep-out zone for application in three-dimensional integral circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M-H

    2013-01-01

    Trench structure is designed and used to release process induced stress, resulting from the different material thermal expansion coefficients, in three-dimensional integral circuits (3DICs). The stress in the designed trench structure is measured by atomic force microscope Raman technique experimentally, and simulated by the full process simulation model. With the help of this simulation model, the optimized trench structure near the copper-filled TSV is designed and reported. The experimental data demonstrate that the tensile stress near the TSV can be reduced from 600 MPa to 150 MPa and the corresponding keep-out zone (KOZ) can also be decreased ∼4 times with the designed trench structure having a depth of 10 µm and spacing distance of 8 µm to the TSV. This work provides one potential solution to release process induced stress for real application of 3DICs. (paper)

  15. New techniques used to realize silicon photocells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siffert, P.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques used to realize the terrestrial silicon solar cells being considered the possible improvements of these methods are discussed. The various approaches under development to prepare silicon sheets in a continuous way are considered for both self-supporting or substrate deposited layers. Finally, the various methods used or under investigation to obtain the surface potential barrier are considered; MIS, heterojunction and ion implantation [fr

  16. Efficient tunable luminescence of SiGe alloy sheet polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogg, G.; Meyer, A. J.-P.; Miesner, C.; Brandt, M. S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2001-01-01

    Crystalline SiGe alloy sheet polymers were topotactically prepared from epitaxially grown calcium germanosilicide Ca(Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 precursor films in the whole composition range. These polygermanosilynes are found to be a well-defined mixture of the known siloxene and polygermyne sheet polymers with the OH groups exclusively bonded to silicon. The optical properties determined by photoluminescence and optical reflection measurements identify the mixed SiGe sheet polymers as direct semiconductors with efficient luminescence tunable in the energy range between 2.4 and 1.3 eV. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  18. Copper contamination in thin stainless steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K. Jr.; Dobbins, A.G.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The standard welding technique used at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for joining thin stainless sheet is the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. One of the reoccurring problems with the sheet welds is surface cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Metallography shows that the cracks are only about 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) deep which is significant in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) thick sheet. Thus, welding requirements do not permit any surfacing cracking as detected by a fluorescent dye penetrant test conducted on every part after welding. Surface cracks have been found in both of the two most common weld designs in the thin sheet fabricated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These butt joints are welded between two 0.25 mm thick stainless steel sheets and a tube with eyelet welded to a 25 mm (0.98 in.) thick sheet. The weld between the two sheets is made on a semiautomatic seam welding unit, whereas the tube-to-eyelet-to-sheet welds are done manually. The quality of both welds is very dependent on the welding procedure and the way the parts are placed in the weld fixturing. Metallographic examination has indicated that some welded parts with surface cracking in the weld region had copper particles on the surface, and the question of copper contamination has been raised. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe, the existence of copper in an around the surface cracks has been verified. The copper is on the surface of the parts prior to welding in the form of small dust particles

  19. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  20. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  1. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  2. Positron probing of open vacancy volume of phosphorus-vacancy complexes in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by 0.9-MeV electrons and by 15-MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies (Institute of Electronics), Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Elsayed, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle (Germany); Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Minia University (Egypt); Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle (Germany); Abrosimov, Nikolay [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, Berlin (Germany); Kozlovski, Vitalii [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    For the first time the samples, cut from the same wafer of crystals of float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P) and n-FZ-Si(Bi), were subjected to irradiation with 0.9-MeV electrons and 15-MeV protons at RT for studying them by low-temperature positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Measurements of Hall effect have been used for the materials characterization. The discussion is focused on the open vacancy volume (V{sub op}) of the thermally stable group-V-impurity-vacancy complexes comprising the phosphorus atoms; the bismuth-related vacancy complexes are briefly considered. The data of positron probing of PV pairs (E-centers), divacancies, and the thermally stable defects in the irradiated n-FZ-Si(P) materials are compared. Beyond a reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime in the course of isochronal annealing at ∝ 500 C, the recovery of concentration of phosphorus-related shallow donor states continues up to ∝650-700 C. The open vacancy volumes V{sub op} to be characterized by long positron lifetimes Δτ{sub 2} ∝271-289 ps in (gr.-V-atom)-V{sub op} complexes are compared with theoretical data available for the vacancies, τ(V{sub 1}), and divacancies, τ(V{sub 2}). The extended semi-vacancies, 2V{sub s-ext}, and relaxed vacancies, 2V{sub inw}, are proposed as the open volume V{sub op} in (gr.-V-atom)-V{sub op} complexes. It is argued that at high annealing temperature the defect P{sub s}-V{sub op}-P{sub s} is decomposed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  4. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  5. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  6. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  7. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  8. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  9. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

  10. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  11. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  12. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  13. NTD Silicon; Product Characteristics, Main Uses and Growth Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M. G.; Bjorling, C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Topsil is a specialised manufacturer of ultrapure float zone silicon since 1959, headquartered in Denmark. Topsil co-pioneered the invention of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) monocrystalline silicon with research institute Risoe in the 1970s and has since then been world leading manufacturer of NTD silicon for the power market. This presentation will focus on NTD silicon; its characteristics, invention and main uses. It will address the trends of the power market and market projections for NTD, and discuss the growth potential in the years ahead, including larger silicon wafers and management of the NTD supply chain

  14. NTD Silicon; Product Characteristics, Main Uses and Growth Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M. G.; Bjorling, C. F. [Topsil Semiconductor Materials A/S, Odense (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    Topsil is a specialised manufacturer of ultrapure float zone silicon since 1959, headquartered in Denmark. Topsil co-pioneered the invention of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) monocrystalline silicon with research institute Risoe in the 1970s and has since then been world leading manufacturer of NTD silicon for the power market. This presentation will focus on NTD silicon; its characteristics, invention and main uses. It will address the trends of the power market and market projections for NTD, and discuss the growth potential in the years ahead, including larger silicon wafers and management of the NTD supply chain.

  15. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  16. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  17. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  18. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  19. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  20. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  1. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  2. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  3. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  4. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  5. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  6. Next generation structural silicone glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Clift

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced engineering evaluation, using nonlinear analysis of hyper elastic material that provides significant improvement to structural silicone glazing (SSG design in high performance curtain wall systems. Very high cladding wind pressures required in hurricane zones often result in bulky SSG profile dimensions. Architectural desire for aesthetically slender curtain wall framing sight-lines in combination with a desire to reduce aluminium usage led to optimization of silicone material geometry for better stress distribution.To accomplish accurate simulation of predicted behaviour under structural load, robust stress-strain curves of the silicone material are essential. The silicone manufacturer provided physical property testing via a specialized laboratory protocol. A series of rigorous curve fit techniques were then made to closely model test data in the finite element computer analysis that accounts for nonlinear strain of hyper elastic silicone.Comparison of this advanced design technique to traditional SSG design highlights differences in stress distribution contours in the silicone material. Simplified structural engineering per the traditional SSG design method does not provide accurate forecasting of material and stress optimization as shown in the advanced design.Full-scale specimens subject to structural load testing were performed to verify the design capacity, not only for high wind pressure values, but also for debris impact per ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996. Also, construction of the test specimens allowed development of SSG installation techniques necessitated by the unique geometry of the silicone profile. Finally, correlation of physical test results with theoretical simulations is made, so evaluation of design confidence is possible. This design technique will introduce significant engineering advancement to the curtain wall industry.

  7. Reprogramming hMSCs morphology with silicon/porous silicon geometric micro-patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M D; Dang, Z Y; Manso-Silvan, M; Song, J; Azimi, S; Wu, J F; Liang, H D; Torres-Costa, V; Punzon-Quijorna, E; Breese, M B H; Garcia-Ruiz, J P

    2014-04-01

    Geometric micro-patterned surfaces of silicon combined with porous silicon (Si/PSi) have been manufactured to study the behaviour of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). These micro-patterns consist of regular silicon hexagons surrounded by spaced columns of silicon equilateral triangles separated by PSi. The results show that, at an early culture stage, the hMSCs resemble quiescent cells on the central hexagons with centered nuclei and actin/β-catenin and a microtubules network denoting cell adhesion. After 2 days, hMSCs adapted their morphology and cytoskeleton proteins from cell-cell dominant interactions at the center of the hexagonal surface. This was followed by an intermediate zone with some external actin fibres/β-catenin interactions and an outer zone where the dominant interactions are cell-silicon. Cells move into silicon columns to divide, migrate and communicate. Furthermore, results show that Runx2 and vitamin D receptors, both specific transcription factors for skeleton-derived cells, are expressed in cells grown on micropatterned silicon under all observed circumstances. On the other hand, non-phenotypic alterations are under cell growth and migration on Si/PSi substrates. The former consideration strongly supports the use of micro-patterned silicon surfaces to address pending questions about the mechanisms of human bone biogenesis/pathogenesis and the study of bone scaffolds.

  8. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  9. Dacitic ash-flow sheet near Superior and Globe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.

    1961-01-01

    Remnants of a dacitic ash-flow sheet near Globe, Miama, and Superia, Arizona cover about 100 square miles; before erosion the area covered by the sheet was at least 400 square miles and perhaps as much as 1,500 square miles. Its maximum thickness is about 2,000 feet, its average thickness is about 500 feet, and its original volume was at least 40 cubic miles. It was erupted on an eroded surface with considerable relief. The main part of the deposit was thought by early workers to be a lava flow. Even after the distinctive character of welded tuffs and related rocks was discovered, the nature and origin of this deposit remained dubious because textures did not correspond to those in other welded tuff bodies. Yet a lava flow as silicic as this dacite would be viscous instead of spreading out as an extensive sheet. The purpose of this investigation has been to study the deposit, resolve the inconsistencies, and deduce its origin and history. Five stratigraphic zones are distinguished according to differences in the groundmass. From bottom to top the zones are basal tuff, vitrophyre, brown zone, gray zone, and white zone. The three upper zones are distinguished by colors on fresh surfaces, for each weathers to a similar shade of light reddish brown. Nonwelded basal tuff grades upward into the vitrophyre, which is a highly welded tuff. The brown and gray zones consist of highly welded tuff with a lithoidal groundmass. Degree of welding decreases progressively upward through the gray and the white zones, and the upper white zone is nonwelded. Textures are clearly outlined in the lower part of the brown zone, but upward they become more diffuse because of increasing devitrification. In the white zone, original textures are essentially obliterated, and the groundmass consists of spherulites and microcrystalline intergrowths. The chief groundmass minerals are cristobalite and sanidine, with lesser quartz and plagioclase. Phenocrysts comprise about 40 percent of the rock

  10. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  11. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  12. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  14. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  15. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  16. Rapid Prototyping by Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . The process is incremental forming since plastic deformation takes place in a small local zone underneath the forming tool, i.e. the sheet is formed as a summation of the movement of the local plastic zone. The process is slow and therefore only suited for prototypes or small batch production. On the other...... in the plastic zone. Using these it is demonstrated that the growth rate of accumulated damage in SPIF is small compared to conventional sheet forming processes. This combined with an explanation why necking is suppressed is a new theory stating that SPIF is limited by fracture and not necking. The theory...... SPIF. A multi stage strategy is presented which allows forming of a cup with vertical sides in about half of the depth. It is demonstrated that this results in strain paths which are far from straight, but strains are still limited by a straight fracture line in the principal strain space. The multi...

  17. Heat Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Joints Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iancu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the studies made by the authors above the tube to tube sheet fittings of heat exchanger with fixed covers from hydrofining oil reforming unit. Tube fittings are critical zones for heat exchangers failures. On a device made from material tube and tube sheet at real joints dimensions were establish axial compression force and traction force at which tube is extracted from expanded joint. Were used two shapes joints with two types of fittings surfaces, one with smooth hole of tube sheet and other in which on boring surface we made a groove. From extracted expanded tube zones were made samples for corrosion tests in order to establish the corrosion rate, corrosion potential and corrosion current in working mediums such as hydrofining oil and industrial water at different temperatures. The corrosion rate values and the temperature influence are important to evaluate joints durability and also the results obtained shows that the boring tube sheet shape with a groove on hole tube shape presents a better corrosion behavior then the shape with smooth hole tube sheet.

  18. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  19. Silicon solar cells made by ion implantation and glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponpon, J.P.; Siffert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Three different methods of silicon solar cell preparation are considered and investigated: low energy implantation, glow discharge and prebombarded Schottky barriers. The properties of the contact layers realized by these processes are compared in terms of junction depth and sheet resistance. Preliminary results show the usefulness of these techniques for terrestrial solar cell realization [fr

  20. Magneto-hydrodynamics of coupled fluid–sheet interface with mass suction and blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-01-01

    There are large number of studies which prescribe the kinematics of the sheet and ignore the sheet's mechanics. However, the current boundary layer analysis investigates the mechanics of both the electrically conducting fluid and a permeable sheet, which makes it distinct from the other studies in the literature. One of the objectives of the current study is to (i) examine the behaviour of magnetic field effect for both the surface and the electrically conducting fluid (ii) investigate the heat and mass transfer between a permeable sheet and the surrounding electrically conducting fluid across the hydro, thermal and mass boundary layers. Self-similar solutions are obtained by considering the RK45 technique. Analytical solution is also found for the stretching sheet case. The skin friction dual solutions are presented for various types of sheet. The influence of pertinent parameters on the dimensionless velocity, shear stress, temperature, mass concentration, heat and mass transfer rates on the fluid–sheet interface is presented graphically as well as numerically. The obtained results are of potential benefit for studying the electrically conducting flow over various soft surfaces such as synthetic plastics, soft silicone sheet and soft synthetic rubber sheet. These surfaces are easily deformed by thermal fluctuations or thermal stresses. - Highlights: • The momentum equation is modelled for both the surrounding MHD fluid and the sheet with the effects of mass suction and blowing. • The current study further investigates the heat and mass transfer characteristics between a permeable sheet and the surrounding electrically conducting fluid across the thermal and mass boundary layers. • Both the approximated and analytical techniques have been included for the purpose of comparison, and the perfect numerical agreements have been established with the previous studies. • Dual solutions for the skin friction coefficients are found for various categories of

  1. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  2. A flexible tactile sensitive sheet using a hetero-core fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Hosoki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we have designed a tactile sensitive sheet based on a hetero-core fiber-optic sensor, which realize an areal sensing by using single sensor potion in one optical fiber line. Recently, flexible and wide-area tactile sensing technology is expected to applied to acquired biological information in living space and robot achieve long-term care services such as welfare and nursing-care and humanoid technology. A hetero-core fiber-optic sensor has several advantages such as thin and flexible transmission line, immunity to EMI. Additionally this sensor is sensitive to moderate bending actions with optical loss changes and is independent of temperature fluctuation. Thus, the hetero-core fiber-optic sensor can be suitable for areal tactile sensing. We measure pressure characteristic of the proposed sensitive sheet by changing the pressure position and pinching characteristic on the surface. The proposed tactile sensitive sheet shows monotonic responses on the whole sensitive sheet surface although different sensitivity by the position is observed at the sensitive sheet surface. Moreover, the tactile sensitive sheet could sufficiently detect the pinching motion. In addition, in order to realize the discrimination between pressure and pinch, we fabricated a doubled-over sensor using a set of tactile sensitive sheets, which has different kinds of silicon robbers as a sensitive sheet surface. In conclusion, the flexible material could be given to the tactile sensation which is attached under proposed sensitive sheet.

  3. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  4. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  5. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  6. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  7. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  8. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  9. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  10. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  11. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  12. Performance of irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon microstrip devices to be installed in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tracking detectors will have to operate in a high radiation environment. We report on performance studies of silicon microstrip detectors irradiated with neutrons or protons, up to fluences comparable to the first ten years of running at LHC. Obtained results show that irradiated detectors can still be operated with satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio,and in the case of inhomogeneously type inverted detector a very good position resolution is achieved regardless of the zone crossed by the particle

  13. Amorphization of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jimmy; Li Ming; Thompson, Carl V.

    2004-01-01

    We have used femtosecond laser pulses to drill submicron holes in single crystal silicon films in silicon-on-insulator structures. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of material adjacent to the ablated holes indicates the formation of a layer of amorphous Si. This demonstrates that even when material is ablated using femtosecond pulses near the single pulse ablation threshold, sufficient heating of the surrounding material occurs to create a molten zone which solidifies so rapidly that crystallization is bypassed

  14. Evaluation of prototype silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.; Hall, G.; Roe, S.; Lucas, A.

    1988-01-01

    Operating characteristics of several prototypes of silicon drift detectors are investigated. Detectors are made of unpolished silicon produced by the zone melting method and characterized by n-type conductivity and specific resistance of 3.6-4.6 kOhmxcm. The detectors comprise 40 parallel bands of 200 μm width and 1 cm length separated by 50 μm intervals. Data characterizing the potential distribution near anodes under the operating bias voltage, dependences of capacities and leakage as well as the detector space resolution

  15. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  16. Finite element simulation of laser cutting process of steel sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are widely used in industry as cutting tools due to ultra flexibility of the cutting conditions, obtaining high quality end product, quick set up, non-mechanical contact between the workpiece and the tool, and small size of the heat affected zone. In the present study, laser gas assisted cutting process is examined. The laser cutting sheet solution is practically always very convenient compared to conventional technologies and brings the greatest cost savings in the manufacturing process.

  17. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  18. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix.

  19. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B.

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix

  20. Thin film silicon photovoltaics: Architectural perspectives and technological issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercaldo, Lucia Vittoria; Addonizio, Maria Luisa; Noce, Marco Della; Veneri, Paola Delli; Scognamiglio, Alessandra; Privato, Carlo [ENEA, Portici Research Center, Piazzale E. Fermi, 80055 Portici (Napoli) (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Thin film photovoltaics is a particularly attractive technology for building integration. In this paper, we present our analysis on architectural issues and technological developments of thin film silicon photovoltaics. In particular, we focus on our activities related to transparent and conductive oxide (TCO) and thin film amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The research on TCO films is mainly dedicated to large-area deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) by low pressure-metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. ZnO material, with a low sheet resistance (<8 {omega}/sq) and with an excellent transmittance (>82%) in the whole wavelength range of photovoltaic interest, has been obtained. ''Micromorph'' tandem devices, consisting of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell, are fabricated by using the very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. An initial efficiency of 11.1% (>10% stabilized) has been obtained. (author)

  1. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  2. Experimental and scale up study of the flame spread over the PMMA sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamourian Mojtaba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the flame spread mechanisms over the solid fuel sheets, downward flame spread over vertical polymethylmethacrylate sheets with thicknesses from 1.75 to 5.75 mm have been examined in the quiescent environment. The dependence of the flame spread rate on the thickness of sheets is obtained by one-dimensional heat transfer model. An equation for the flame spread rate based on the thermal properties and the thickness of the sheet by scale up method is derived from this model. During combustion, temperature within the gas and solid phases is measured by a fine thermocouple. The pyrolysis temperature, the length of the pyrolysis zone, the length of the preheating zone, and the flame temperature are determined from the experimental data. Mathematical analysis has yielded realistic results. This model provides a useful formula to predict the rate of flame spread over any thin solid fuel.

  3. Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuca, Octav P., E-mail: octav.ciuca@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Carter, Richard M. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Prangnell, Philip B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hand, Duncan P. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Precision welded joints, produced between fused silica glass and aluminium by a newly-developed picosecond-pulse laser technique, have been analysed for the first time using a full range of electron microscopy methods. The welds were produced as lap joints by focusing a 1.2 μm diameter laser beam through the transparent glass top sheet, slightly below the surface of the metal bottom sheet. Despite the extremely short interaction time, extensive reaction was observed in the weld zone, which involved the formation of nanocrystalline silicon and at least two transitional alumina phases, γ- and δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The weld formation process was found to be complex and involved: the formation of a constrained plasma cavity at the joint interface, non-linear absorption in the glass, and the creation of multiple secondary keyholes in the metal substrate by beam scattering. The joint area was found to expand outside of the main interaction volume, as the energy absorbed into the low conductivity and higher melting point silica glass sheet melted the aluminium surface across a wider contact area. The reasons for the appearance of nanocrystalline Si and transitional alumina reaction products within the welds are discussed. - Highlights: •Pulsed laser welding of dissimilar materials causes extensive chemical reactivity. •Metastable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases form due to laser-induced highly-transient thermal regime. •Fused silica is reduced by Al to form nanocrystalline Si. •Mechanism of joint formation is discussed.

  4. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  5. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  6. Carbon nanotube-coated silicone as a flexible and electrically conductive biomedical material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Makoto; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Totsuka, Yasunori; Watari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Artificial cell scaffolds that support cell adhesion, growth, and organization need to be fabricated for various purposes. Recently, there have been increasing reports of cell patterning using electrical fields. We fabricated scaffolds consisting of silicone sheets coated with single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and evaluated their electrical properties and biocompatibility. We also performed cell alignment with dielectrophoresis using CNT-coated sheets as electrodes. Silicone coated with 10 μg/cm 2 SWCNTs exhibited the least sheet resistance (0.8 kΩ/sq); its conductivity was maintained even after 100 stretching cycles. CNT coating also improved cell adhesion and proliferation. When an electric field was applied to the cell suspension introduced on the CNT-coated scaffold, the cells became aligned in a pearl-chain pattern. These results indicate that CNT coating not only provides electro-conductivity but also promotes cell adhesion to the silicone scaffold; cells seeded on the scaffold can be organized using electricity. These findings demonstrate that CNT-coated silicone can be useful as a biocompatible scaffold. - Highlights: ► We fabricated a CNT-coated silicone which has conductivity and biocompatibility. ► The conductivity was maintained after 100 cycles of stretching. ► CNT coatings enabled C2C12 cells adhere to the silicone surface. ► Cells were aligned with dielectrophoresis between CNT-coated silicone surfaces.

  7. Introduction of high oxygen concentrations into silicon wafers by high-temperature diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Ruzin, A.; Wegrzecki, M.

    1999-01-01

    The tolerance of silicon detectors to hadron irradiation can be improved by the introduction of a high concentration of oxygen into the starting material. High-resistivity Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon is required for detectors used in particle physics applications. A significantly high oxygen concentration (>10 17 atoms cm -3 ) cannot readily be achieved during the FZ silicon refinement. The diffusion of oxygen at elevated temperatures from a SiO 2 layer grown on both sides of a silicon wafer is a simple and effective technique to achieve high and uniform concentrations of oxygen throughout the bulk of a 300 μm thick silicon wafer

  8. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  9. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  10. The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiation Czochralski-silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yang Xian; Niu Ping Juan; Liu Cai Chi; Xu Yue Sheng; Yang Deren; Que Duan Lin

    2002-01-01

    The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon is studied. The result shows that a denuded zone at the surface of the neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon wafer may be formed through one-step short-time annealing. The width of the denuded zone is dependent on the annealing temperature and the dose of neutron irradiation, while it is irrelated to the annealing time in case the denuded zone is formed. The authors conclude that the interaction between the defects induced by neutron irradiation and the oxygen in the silicon accelerates the oxygen precipitation in the bulk, and becomes the dominating factor of the quick formation of intrinsic gettering. It makes the effect of thermal history as the secondary factor

  11. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  12. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  13. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  14. Silicon heterojunction transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Oh-uchi, N.; Hayashi, H.; Yamoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    SIPOS (Semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon) which is used as a surface passivation layer for highly reliable silicon devices constitutes a good heterojunction for silicon. P- or B-doped SIPOS has been used as the emitter material of a heterojunction transistor with the base and collector of silicon. An npn SIPOS-Si heterojunction transistor showing 50 times the current gain of an npn silicon homojunction transistor has been realized by high-temperature treatments in nitrogen and low-temperature annealing in hydrogen or forming gas

  15. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  16. Silicon Microspheres Photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpenguzel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared

  17. A simple holistic hypothesis for the self-destruction of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.

    2011-07-01

    Ice sheets are the only components of Earth's climate system that can self-destruct. This paper presents the quantitative force balance for bottom-up modeling of ice sheets, as first presented qualitatively in this journal as a way to quantify ice-bed uncoupling leading to self-destruction of ice sheets ( Hughes, 2009a). Rapid changes in sea level and climate can result if a large ice-sheet self-destructs quickly, as did the former Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America between 8100 and 7900 BP, thereby terminating the last cycle of Quaternary glaciation. Ice streams discharge up to 90 percent of ice from past and present ice sheets. A hypothesis is presented in which self-destruction of an ice sheet begins when ubiquitous ice-bed decoupling, quantified as a floating fraction of ice, proceeds along ice streams. This causes ice streams to surge and reduce thickness by some 90 percent, and height above sea level by up to 99 percent for floating ice, so the ice sheet undergoes gravitational collapse. Ice collapsing over marine embayments becomes floating ice shelves that may then disintegrate rapidly. This floods the world ocean with icebergs that reduce the ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchange, thereby triggering climate change. Calving bays migrate up low stagnating ice streams and carve out the accumulation zone of the collapsed ice sheet, which prevents its recovery, decreases Earth's albedo, and terminates the glaciation cycle. This sequence of events may coincide with a proposed life cycle of ice streams that drain the ice sheet. A first-order treatment of these life cycles is presented that depends on the longitudinal force balance along the flowbands of ice streams and gives a first approximation to ice-bed uncoupling at snapshots during gravitational collapse into ice shelves that disintegrate, thereby removing the ice sheet. The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is assessed using this bottom-up approach.

  18. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors for collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.; Cheremukhin, A.; Fefelova, E.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon planar detectors before and after fast neutron irradiation ( n o> = 1.35 MeV) at room temperature have been investigated. Maximal neutron fluence has been 8 · 10 13 cm -2 . The detectors have been manufactured of the high resistivity (1 : 10 k Ohm · cm) n-type float-zone silicon (FZ-Si) with the orientation supplied by two different producers: WACKER CHEMITRONIC and Zaporojie Titanium-Magnesium Factory (ZTMF). The influence of fast neutron irradiation of the main parameters of the starting silicon before the technological high temperature treatment has been investigated as well. 30 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced processing techniques for non-CZ silicon sheet material that might improve the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic module production were investigated. Specifically, the simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus organometallic precursors into n-type dendritic silicon web was examined. The simultaneous junction formation method for solar cells was compared with the sequential junction formation method. The electrical resistivity of the n-n and p-n junctions was discussed. Further research activities for this program along with a program documentation schedule are given.

  20. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  1. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  2. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  3. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  4. Seismic interpretation of the triangle zone at Jumping Pound, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotboom, R. T. [Amerada Hess Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone at Jumping Point, Alberta was characterized using seismic survey data as a NW-SE-trending antiformal stack of thrust sheets involving Cretaceous rocks that have been wedged into the foreland between two detachments. Three major thrust sheets of Lower and Upper Cretaceous strata have been stacked to form the main extremity of the wedge. The structure is tightly folded at Jumping Point, and broadens northwest along the strike. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloatti, L.; Lauermann, M.; Koos, C.; Freude, W.; Sürgers, C.; Leuthold, J.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the optical losses in gate-induced charge accumulation/inversion layers at a Si/SiO 2 interface. Comparison between gate-induced charge layers and ion-implanted thin silicon films having an identical sheet resistance shows that optical losses can be significantly lower for gate-induced layers. For a given sheet resistance, holes produce higher optical loss than electrons. Measurements have been performed at λ = 1550 nm

  6. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  7. Purification by using the zone melting technique; Purification par la technique de la zone fondue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, Michel

    1962-06-22

    The zone melting technique has first been used in metallurgy, and has been developed for the preparation of silicon and germanium for semiconductors, and then for the preparation of organic bodies of high purity. In this research thesis, the author first presents the principle of this technique, and then discusses the influence of agitation in liquid phase, and the influence of the number of passages over the zone. He discusses issues related to matter transport, and some technical details which intervene in the design of an apparatus for purification by zone melting. He finally presents examples.

  8. Recovery of indium-tin-oxide/silicon heterojunction solar cells by thermal annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Vilches, Ana Belén; Voz Sánchez, Cristóbal; Colina Brito, Mónica Alejandra; López Rodríguez, Gema; Martín García, Isidro; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Orpella García, Alberto; Alcubilla González, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The emitter of silicon heterojunction solar cells consists of very thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers deposited at low temperature. The high sheet resistance of this type of emitter requires a transparent conductive oxide layer, which also acts as an effective antireflection coating. The deposition of this front electrode, typically by Sputtering, involves a relatively high energy ion bombardment at the surface that could degrade the emitter quality. The work function of the tra...

  9. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  10. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  11. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  12. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  13. Modeling the Fracture of Ice Sheets on Parallel Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waisman, Haim [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Tuminaro, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The objective of this project was to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. This objective was achieved by developing novel physics based models for ice, novel numerical tools to enable the modeling of the physics and by collaboration with the ice community experts. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. To this end, our research findings through this project offers significant advancement to the field and closes a large gap of knowledge in understanding and modeling the fracture of ice sheets in the polar regions. Thus, we believe that our objective has been achieved and our research accomplishments are significant. This is corroborated through a set of published papers, posters and presentations at technical conferences in the field. In particular significant progress has been made in the mechanics of ice, fracture of ice sheets and ice shelves in polar regions and sophisticated numerical methods that enable the solution of the physics in an efficient way.

  14. Laser process for extended silicon thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessmann, M.T.; Kunz, T.; Burkert, I.; Gawehns, N.; Schaefer, L.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.; Meidel, B.; Auer, R.; Brabec, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a large area thin film base substrate for the epitaxy of crystalline silicon. The concept of epitaxial growth of silicon on large area thin film substrates overcomes the area restrictions of an ingot based monocrystalline silicon process. Further it opens the possibility for a roll to roll process for crystalline silicon production. This concept suggests a technical pathway to overcome the limitations of silicon ingot production in terms of costs, throughput and completely prevents any sawing losses. The core idea behind these thin film substrates is a laser welding process of individual, thin silicon wafers. In this manuscript we investigate the properties of laser welded monocrystalline silicon foils (100) by micro-Raman mapping and spectroscopy. It is shown that the laser beam changes the crystalline structure of float zone grown silicon along the welding seam. This is illustrated by Raman mapping which visualizes compressive stress as well as tensile stress in a range of - 147.5 to 32.5 MPa along the welding area.

  15. Formation of hypereutectic silicon particles in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys under the influence of high-intensity ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Jian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The modification of eutectic silicon is of general interest since fine eutectic silicon along with fine primary aluminum grains improves mechanical properties and ductilities. In this study, high intensity ultrasonic vibration was used to modify the complex microstructure of aluminum hypoeutectic alloys. The ultrasonic vibrator was placed at the bottom of a copper mold with molten aluminum. Hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy specimens with a unique in-depth profile of microstructure distribution were obtained. Polyhedral silicon particles, which should form in a hypereutectic alloy, were obtained in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy near the ultrasonic radiator where the silicon concentration was higher than the eutectic composition. The formation of hypereutectic silicon near the radiator surface indicates that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration can be used to influence the phase transformation process of metals and alloys. The size and morphology of both the silicon phase and the aluminum phase varies with increasing distance from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. Silicon morphology develops into three zones. Polyhedral primary silicon particles present in zone I, within 15 mm from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. Transition from hypereutectic silicon to eutectic silicon occurs in zone II about 15 to 20 祄 from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. The bulk of the ingot is in zone III and is hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy containing fine lamellar and fibrous eutectic silicon. The grain size is about 15 to 25 祄 in zone I, 25 to 35 祄 in zone II, and 25 to 55 祄 in zone III. The morphology of the primary ?Al phase is also changed from dendritic (in untreated samples to globular. Phase evolution during the solidification process of the alloy subjected to ultrasonic vibration is described.

  16. Chiral silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.; Fahlteich, J.; Hoeche, Th.; Wagner, G.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2006-01-01

    Glancing angle ion beam assisted deposition is used for the growth of amorphous silicon nanospirals onto [0 0 1] silicon substrates in a temperature range from room temperature to 475 deg. C. The nanostructures are post-growth annealed in an argon atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. Recrystallization of silicon within the persisting nanospiral configuration is demonstrated for annealing temperatures above 800 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the silicon samples prior and after temperature treatment

  17. Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  18. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  19. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  20. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  1. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  2. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  3. Deformation mechanisms of silicon during nanoscratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassilloud, R.; Gasser, P.; Buerki, G.; Michler, J. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [University of Neuchatel, A.-L. Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The deformation mechanisms of silicon {l_brace}001{r_brace} surfaces during nanoscratching were found to depend strongly on the loading conditions. Nanoscratches with increasing load were performed at 2 {mu}m/s (low velocity) and 100 {mu}m/s (high velocity). The load-penetration-distance curves acquired during the scratching process at low velocity suggests that two deformation regimes can be defined, an elasto-plastic regime at low loads and a fully plastic regime at high loads. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of the damaged location shows that the residual scratch morphologies are strongly influenced by the scratch velocity and the applied load. Micro-Raman spectroscopy shows that after pressure release, the deformed volume inside the nanoscratch is mainly composed of amorphous silicon and Si-XII at low scratch speeds and of amorphous silicon at high speeds. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Si nanocrystals are embedded in an amorphous matrix at low speeds, whereas at high speeds the transformed zone is completely amorphous. Furthermore, the extend of the transformed zone is almost independent of the scratching speed and is delimited by a dislocation rich area that extends about as deep as the contact radius into the surface. To explain the observed phase and defect distribution a contact mechanics based decompression model that takes into account the load, the velocity, the materials properties and the contact radius in scratching is proposed. It shows that the decompression rate is higher at low penetration depth, which is consistent with the observation of amorphous silicon in this case. The stress field under the tip is computed using an elastic contact mechanics model based on Hertz's theory. The model explains the observed shape of the transformed zone and suggests that during load increase, phase transformation takes place prior to dislocation nucleation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK – Part 2: Dynamic equilibrium simulation of the Antarctic ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a dynamic equilibrium simulation of the ice sheet-shelf system on Antarctica with the Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK. The simulation is initialized with present-day conditions for bed topography and ice thickness and then run to steady state with constant present-day surface mass balance. Surface temperature and sub-shelf basal melt distribution are parameterized. Grounding lines and calving fronts are free to evolve, and their modeled equilibrium state is compared to observational data. A physically-motivated calving law based on horizontal spreading rates allows for realistic calving fronts for various types of shelves. Steady-state dynamics including surface velocity and ice flux are analyzed for whole Antarctica and the Ronne-Filchner and Ross ice shelf areas in particular. The results show that the different flow regimes in sheet and shelves, and the transition zone between them, are captured reasonably well, supporting the approach of superposition of SIA and SSA for the representation of fast motion of grounded ice. This approach also leads to a natural emergence of sliding-dominated flow in stream-like features in this new 3-D marine ice sheet model.

  5. The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK) - Part 2: Dynamic equilibrium simulation of the Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. A.; Winkelmann, R.; Haseloff, M.; Albrecht, T.; Bueler, E.; Khroulev, C.; Levermann, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present a dynamic equilibrium simulation of the ice sheet-shelf system on Antarctica with the Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK). The simulation is initialized with present-day conditions for bed topography and ice thickness and then run to steady state with constant present-day surface mass balance. Surface temperature and sub-shelf basal melt distribution are parameterized. Grounding lines and calving fronts are free to evolve, and their modeled equilibrium state is compared to observational data. A physically-motivated calving law based on horizontal spreading rates allows for realistic calving fronts for various types of shelves. Steady-state dynamics including surface velocity and ice flux are analyzed for whole Antarctica and the Ronne-Filchner and Ross ice shelf areas in particular. The results show that the different flow regimes in sheet and shelves, and the transition zone between them, are captured reasonably well, supporting the approach of superposition of SIA and SSA for the representation of fast motion of grounded ice. This approach also leads to a natural emergence of sliding-dominated flow in stream-like features in this new 3-D marine ice sheet model.

  6. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions. Scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, O.; Namar, R. (In2Earth Modelling Ltd (Switzerland)); Jansson, P. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    The potential impact of long-term climate changes has to be evaluated with respect to repository performance and safety. In particular, glacial periods of advancing and retreating ice sheet and prolonged permafrost conditions are likely to occur over the repository site. The growth and decay of ice sheets and the associated distribution of permafrost will affect the groundwater flow field and its composition. As large changes may take place, the understanding of groundwater flow patterns in connection to glaciations is an important issue for the geological disposal at long term. During a glacial period, the performance of the repository could be weakened by some of the following conditions and associated processes: - Maximum pressure at repository depth (canister failure). - Maximum permafrost depth (canister failure, buffer function). - Concentration of groundwater oxygen (canister corrosion). - Groundwater salinity (buffer stability). - Glacially induced earthquakes (canister failure). Therefore, the GAP project aims at understanding key hydrogeological issues as well as answering specific questions: - Regional groundwater flow system under ice sheet conditions. - Flow and infiltration conditions at the ice sheet bed. - Penetration depth of glacial meltwater into the bedrock. - Water chemical composition at repository depth in presence of glacial effects. - Role of the taliks, located in front of the ice sheet, likely to act as potential discharge zones of deep groundwater flow. - Influence of permafrost distribution on the groundwater flow system in relation to build-up and thawing periods. - Consequences of glacially induced earthquakes on the groundwater flow system. Some answers will be provided by the field data and investigations; the integration of the information and the dynamic characterisation of the key processes will be obtained using numerical modelling. Since most of the data are not yet available, some scoping calculations are performed using the

  7. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions. Scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquet, O.; Namar, R.; Jansson, P.

    2010-10-01

    The potential impact of long-term climate changes has to be evaluated with respect to repository performance and safety. In particular, glacial periods of advancing and retreating ice sheet and prolonged permafrost conditions are likely to occur over the repository site. The growth and decay of ice sheets and the associated distribution of permafrost will affect the groundwater flow field and its composition. As large changes may take place, the understanding of groundwater flow patterns in connection to glaciations is an important issue for the geological disposal at long term. During a glacial period, the performance of the repository could be weakened by some of the following conditions and associated processes: - Maximum pressure at repository depth (canister failure). - Maximum permafrost depth (canister failure, buffer function). - Concentration of groundwater oxygen (canister corrosion). - Groundwater salinity (buffer stability). - Glacially induced earthquakes (canister failure). Therefore, the GAP project aims at understanding key hydrogeological issues as well as answering specific questions: - Regional groundwater flow system under ice sheet conditions. - Flow and infiltration conditions at the ice sheet bed. - Penetration depth of glacial meltwater into the bedrock. - Water chemical composition at repository depth in presence of glacial effects. - Role of the taliks, located in front of the ice sheet, likely to act as potential discharge zones of deep groundwater flow. - Influence of permafrost distribution on the groundwater flow system in relation to build-up and thawing periods. - Consequences of glacially induced earthquakes on the groundwater flow system. Some answers will be provided by the field data and investigations; the integration of the information and the dynamic characterisation of the key processes will be obtained using numerical modelling. Since most of the data are not yet available, some scoping calculations are performed using the

  8. Magnetic Properties and Structure of Non-Oriented Electrical Steel Sheets after Different Shape Processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulín, Tomáš; Švábenská, Eva; Hapla, Miroslav; Ondrůšek, Č.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2017), s. 819-821 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG 2016 - Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /16./. Košice, 13.06.2016-17.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000232 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnetic properties * Silicon steel * Steel sheet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2016

  9. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  10. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  11. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  13. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  14. Millennial-scale instability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the last glaciation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanfoush, S.L.; Hodell, D.A.; Charles, C.D.; Guilderson, T.P.; Mortyn, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Records of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) concentration in deep-sea cores from the southeast Atlantic Ocean reveal millennial-scale pulses of IRD delivery between 20,000 and 74,000 years ago. Prominent IRD layers correlate across the Polar Frontal Zone, suggesting episodes of Antarctic Ice Sheet

  15. The observed katabatic flow at the edge of the Greenland ice sheet during GIMEX-91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, M.R. van den; Duynkerke, P.G.; Oerlemans, J.

    1994-01-01

    Observations performed in the melting zone of the Greenland ice sheet and over the adjacent tundra in the summer of 1991 are described. The experimental area is the region near St ndre Stromfjord (67°N, 54°W), which is relatively dry and sunny, resulting in the highest mean temperature in

  16. Uruguay project - Metalic silicon manufacturing. Palmar location study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This work is about the Soriano town possibilities offered to Rima Industrial S.A in relation with the metallic silicon project in Uruguay. In this zone there is the Palmar hydroelectric plant with a capacity of 33 MW and its development is part of the Rio Negro river

  17. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  18. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  19. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  20. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  1. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  2. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  3. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  4. Multifunctional Graphene-Silicone Elastomer Nanocomposite, Method of Making the Same, and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuyang (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A nanocomposite composition having a silicone elastomer matrix having therein a filler loading of greater than 0.05 wt %, based on total nanocomposite weight, wherein the filler is functional graphene sheets (FGS) having a surface area of from 300 sq m/g to 2630 sq m2/g; and a method for producing the nanocomposite and uses thereof.

  5. Preparation and characterization of tempered tungsten layers on single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzsche, K.; Knedlik, C.; Tippmann, H.; Spiess, L.; Harman, R.; Vanek, O.; Tvarozek, V.

    1984-01-01

    Tungsten layers have been deposited on single crystalline silicon by sputtering and characterized by measurements of the sheet resistance by a linear four point method and the van der Pauw method. The influence of tempering under argon on the resistance has been studied. By means of the RBS spectroscopy it was found that the increase in the specific resistance is caused by interdiffusion

  6. Silylated functionalized silicon-based composite as anode with excellent cyclic performance for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Tian, Xiaodong; Yang, Tao; Wang, Wei; Song, Yan; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Zhanjun

    2018-05-01

    Inferior cycling stability and rate performance respectively caused by rigorous volume change and poor electrical conductivity were the main challenge of state-of-the-art Silicon-based electrode. In this work, silylated functionalized exfoliated graphite oxide (EGO)/silicon@amorphous carbon (3-APTS-EGO/Si@C) was synthesized by adopting silane as intermediate to connect Si particles with EGO sheets followed by introduction of amorphous carbon. The result suggested that 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilan connected the EGO sheets and Si nanoparticles via covalent bonds. Owing to the strong covalent interaction and the synergistic effect between the silicon, EGO sheets and amorphous carbon, 3-APTS-EGO/Si@C composite possessed a high capacity of 774 mAh g-1 even after 450 cycles at 0.4 A g-1 with the retention capacity of 97%. This work also provided an effective strategy to improve the long cycling life performance of Si-based electrode.

  7. Process for making silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  8. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  9. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  11. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  12. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  13. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  14. Temperature detectors on irradiated silicon base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.; Dzhalelov, M.A.; Kurbanov, A.O.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known, that the most suitable for thermal resistors production is compensated silicon with impurities forming deep lying in forbidden zone, having big negative resistance temperature coefficients (RTC). In the capacity of initial materials for thermal resistors with negative RTC the n-type monocrystalline silicon with specific resistance ∼30 Ω·cm at 300 K is applied. Before the irradiation the phosphorus diffusion is realizing at temperature ∼1000 deg. C for 10 min. Irradiation is putting into practise by WWR-SM reactor fast neutrons within the range (7-10)·10 13 cm -2 . The produced resistors have nominal resistance range (8-20)·10 3 Ω·cm, coefficient of the thermal sensitivity B=4000-6000 deg. C., RTC α 300K =4-6.6 %/grad. It is shown, that offered method allows to obtain same type resistors characteristics on the base of neutron-irradiated material

  15. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  16. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  17. Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.

  18. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  19. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  20. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  1. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  2. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  3. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Buckling instabilities of subducted lithosphere beneath the transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Stutzmann, E.; Ren, Y.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2007-01-01

    A sheet of viscous fluid poured onto a surface buckles periodically to generate a pile of regular folds. Recent tomographic images beneath subduction zones, together with quantitative fluid mechanical scaling laws, suggest that a similar instability can occur when slabs of subducted oceanic

  5. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  6. Joining elements of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining together at least two silicon carbide elements (e.g.in forming a heat exchanger) is described, comprising subjecting to sufficiently non-oxidizing atmosphere and sufficiently high temperature, material placed in space between the elements. The material consists of silicon carbide particles, carbon and/or a precursor of carbon, and silicon, such that it forms a joint joining together at least two silicon carbide elements. At least one of the elements may contain silicon. (author)

  7. Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Silicon and Composite Films of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, LePing; Tune, Daniel; Shearer, Cameron; Shapter, Joseph

    2015-09-07

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been used as the surfactant to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water to prepare GO/CNT electrodes that are applied to silicon to form a heterojunction that can be used in solar cells. GO/CNT films with different ratios of the two components and with various thicknesses have been used as semitransparent electrodes, and the influence of both factors on the performance of the solar cell has been studied. The degradation rate of the GO/CNT-silicon devices under ambient conditions has also been explored. The influence of the film thickness on the device performance is related to the interplay of two competing factors, namely, sheet resistance and transmittance. CNTs help to improve the conductivity of the GO/CNT film, and GO is able to protect the silicon from oxidation in the atmosphere. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  9. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  10. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  11. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-05-15

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO{sub 2} layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their life time. Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) of incident particles causes silicon crystal damage. Ionizing Energy Loss (IEL) of incident particles increases the densities of oxide charge and interface traps in the SiO{sub 2} and at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. In this thesis the surface radiation damage of the Si-SiO{sub 2} system on high-ohmic Si has been investigated using circular MOSFETs biased in accumulation and inversion at an electric field in the SiO{sub 2} of about 500 kV/cm. The MOSFETs have been irradiated by X-rays from an X-ray tube to a dose of about 17 kGy(SiO{sub 2}) in different irradiation steps. Before and after each irradiation step, the gate voltage has been cycled from inversion to accumulation conditions and back. From the dependence of the drain-source current on gate voltage the threshold voltage of the MOSFET and the hole and electron mobility at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface were determined. In addition, from the measured drain-source current the change of the oxide charge density during irradiation has been determined. The interface trap density and the oxide charge has been determined separately using the subthreshold current technique based on the Brews charge sheet model which has been applied for first time on MOSFETs built on high-ohmic Si. The results show a significant field-direction dependence of the surface radiation parameters. The extracted parameters and the acquired knowledge can be used to improve simulations of the surface

  12. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-05-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO 2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their life time. Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) of incident particles causes silicon crystal damage. Ionizing Energy Loss (IEL) of incident particles increases the densities of oxide charge and interface traps in the SiO 2 and at the Si-SiO 2 interface. In this thesis the surface radiation damage of the Si-SiO 2 system on high-ohmic Si has been investigated using circular MOSFETs biased in accumulation and inversion at an electric field in the SiO 2 of about 500 kV/cm. The MOSFETs have been irradiated by X-rays from an X-ray tube to a dose of about 17 kGy(SiO 2 ) in different irradiation steps. Before and after each irradiation step, the gate voltage has been cycled from inversion to accumulation conditions and back. From the dependence of the drain-source current on gate voltage the threshold voltage of the MOSFET and the hole and electron mobility at the Si-SiO 2 interface were determined. In addition, from the measured drain-source current the change of the oxide charge density during irradiation has been determined. The interface trap density and the oxide charge has been determined separately using the subthreshold current technique based on the Brews charge sheet model which has been applied for first time on MOSFETs built on high-ohmic Si. The results show a significant field-direction dependence of the surface radiation parameters. The extracted parameters and the acquired knowledge can be used to improve simulations of the surface radiation damage of silicon sensors.

  13. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  14. Advances in silicon nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pu, Minhao

    Silicon has long been established as an ideal material for passive integrated optical circuitry due to its high refractive index, with corresponding strong optical confinement ability, and its low-cost CMOS-compatible manufacturability. However, the inversion symmetry of the silicon crystal lattice.......g. in high-bit-rate optical communication circuits and networks, it is vital that the nonlinear optical effects of silicon are being strongly enhanced. This can among others be achieved in photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides and in nano-engineered photonic-wires (Fig. 1). In this talk I shall present some...... recent advances in this direction. The efficient coupling of light between optical fibers and the planar silicon devices and circuits is of crucial importance. Both end-coupling (Fig. 1) and grating-coupling solutions will be discussed along with polarization issues. A new scheme for a hybrid III...

  15. Integrated silicon optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Horst

    2000-01-01

    'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'assembles optoelectronics and microelectronics The book concentrates on silicon as the major basis of modern semiconductor devices and circuits Starting from the basics of optical emission and absorption and from the device physics of photodetectors, the aspects of the integration of photodetectors in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies are discussed Detailed descriptions of fabrication technologies and applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits are included The book, furthermore, contains a review of the state of research on eagerly expected silicon light emitters In order to cover the topic of the book comprehensively, integrated waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic power devices are included in addition Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension 'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists in industry and at universities The book is also recommendable for graduate students speciali...

  16. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  17. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  18. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  19. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  20. Subwavelength silicon photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)

  1. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  2. Innovative technologies for emitter formation of crystalline silicon solar cells using in-line diffusion; Innovative Technologien zur Emittererzeugung fuer kristalline Silizium-Solarzellen mittels Durchlaufdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyer, Catherine

    2009-04-20

    An in-line emitter formation process for crystalline silicon solar cells was developed. The wafers were coated at room temperature with dilute phosphoric acid (2.5 w/w% in water) using ultrasonic spraying and then heated up to temperatures around 900 C in a metal-contamination-free in-line furnace. In the first zones of the furnace, a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is formed on the silicon surface and serves as the doping source. The PSG thickness was adjusted by varying the flow rate of dilute phosphoric acid to the spray nozzle and took on values appropriate for emitter formation, in the range of {proportional_to}40-120 nm. A surfactant mixture was added to the dilute phosphoric acid in order to obtain complete wetting of the silicon surface. The mixture, which was composed of a hydrocarbon surfactant and of a fluorosurfactant, achieved better wetting properties than would be possible when using only one of the two surfactants. The spray solution containing only the hydrocarbon surfactant achieved a faster drop flattening, while the spray solution containing only the fluorosurfactant achieved a lower static surface tension. The mixture allowed for a combination of these desired properties: The drops coalesced together sufficiently rapidly (before drying) on the silicon surface to form a complete dopant source liquid layer and this layer remains sufficiently homogeneous during the layer drying. The sprayed-on layer is thicker ({proportional_to}15 microns) than the height of the surface texture ({proportional_to}5-10 microns). The liquid strives for a state of equilibrium, a convex meniscus. The topography of the liquid surface at the time at which the increase in viscosity puts an end to the liquid flow is reflected in the topography of the PSG thickness. The corresponding variations in sheet resistance across a wafer are sufficiently small for solar cells. Furthermore, the liquid layer conforms itself, during the drying, to the surface texture on a microscopic scale

  3. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  4. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  5. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  6. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2015-06-18

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  7. The late Cainozoic East Antarctic ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    A review, mainly of East Antarctic late Cainozoic (post 40 Ma) geological and geomorphological evidence, supports the hypothesis of the continuous presence of an ice sheet, of about the present size, since the late Miocene. Evidence is presented and the view advanced that, during the late Wisconsin maximum of isotope stage 2, ice was not nearly as thick or extensive over the continental shelf as required by the model of 'maximum' Antarctic glaciation. Some of the factors influencing the contribution of Antarctica to post-glacial sea-level rise are discussed. It is considered that Antarctica's contribution was probably considerably less than previously estimated. The dating of marine and freshwater sequences in the Vestfold and Bunger Hills is consistent with deglaciation around the Pleistocene Holocene boundary, after the Late Wisconsin maximum. A date of ∼25 ka BP from permafrost in the Larsemann Hills means that either the Larsemann Hills were not glaciated during the Late Wisconsin or the ice failed to erode much of the permafrost surface. The degree of weathering of rock and glacial drifts in the Vestfold, Larsemann and Bunger Hills suggests a long time for formation, perhaps considerably longer than indicated by the dated marine and freshwater sediment sequences. Cosmogenic isotope dating in the Vestfold Hills has provided equivocal ages for deglaciation. While the results could indicate deglaciation before 80 ka BP, they do not confirm such early deglaciation. If the ice cover was thin and failed to remove the previous rock exposure profile, then the assays could predate the last ice advance. Weathered iron crust fragments in the till suggest little erosion. The raised beaches of the oases are Holocene. Assuming they have been produced by post Late Wisconsin isostatic uplift and by the Holocene transgression, calculations show that the Antarctic continental ice sheet could not have been more than ∼500 m thicker in the inner shelf-coastal zone. The

  8. Controlling microstructure and texture in magnesium alloy sheet by shear-based deformation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagapuram, Dinakar

    Application of lightweight Mg sheet is limited by its low workability, both in production of sheet (typically by multistep hot and cold-rolling) and forming of sheet into components. Large strain extrusion machining (LSEM), a constrained chip formation process, is used to create Mg alloy AZ31B sheet in a single deformation step. The deformation in LSEM is shown to be intense simple shear that is confined to a narrow zone, which results in significant deformation-induced heating up to ~ 200°C and reduces the need for pre-heating to realize continuous sheet forms. This study focuses on the texture and microstructure development in the sheet processed by LSEM. Interestingly, deep, highly twinned steady-state layer develops in the workpiece subsurface due to the compressive field ahead of the shear zone. The shear deformation, in conjunction with this pre-deformed twinned layer, results in tilted-basal textures in the sheet with basal planes tilted well away from the surface. These textures are significantly different from those in rolled sheet, where basal planes are nearly parallel to the surface. By controlling the strain path, the basal plane inclination from the surface could be varied in the range of 32-53°. B-fiber (basal plane parallel to LSEM shear plane), associated with basal slip, is the major texture component in the sheet. An additional minor C2-fiber component appears above 250°C due to the thermal activation of pyramidal slip. Together with these textures, microstructure ranges from severely cold-worked to (dynamically) recrystallized type, with the corresponding grain sizes varying from ultrafine- (~ 200 nm) to fine- (2 mum) grained. Small-scale limiting dome height (LDH) confirmed enhanced formability (~ 50% increase in LDH) of LSEM sheet over the conventional rolled sheet. Premature, twinning-driven shear fractures are observed in the rolled sheet with the basal texture. In contrast, LSEM sheet with a tilted-basal texture favorably oriented for

  9. Associations of geomagnetic activity with plasma sheet thinning and expansion: A statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Pytte, T.; West, H.I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Associations of geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone with thinnings and expansions of the magnetotail plasma sheet are examined statistically in this paper. We first identified many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions in plasma and particle data from VELA satellites and from OGO 5 without reference to the ground magnetic data. These events were grouped according to the location of the detecting satellite in the magnetotail. For each such group the times of thinning or expansion were then used as fiducial times in a superposed-epoch analysis of the geomagnetic AL index values that were recorded in 8-hour intervals centered on the event times. The results show that many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions are related to discrete negative bay structures that are the classical signature of substorms. Furthermore, they support earlier findings that plasma sheet thinning and expansion at the VELA orbit (rroughly-equal18 R/sub E/) tend to be associated with the onset of the auroral zone negative bay and the beginning of its subsidence, respectively. Earthward of rroughly-equal13-15 R/sub E/, plasma sheet expansion occurs near the time of the onset of the negative bay, again in agreement with earlier findings. A large fraction of plasma sheet expansions to half thicknesses of > or approx. =6 R/sub E/ at the VELA orbit are associated not with a baylike geomagnetic disturbance but with subsidence of a prolonged interval of disturbance. The study also shows that many plasma sheet expansions are related simply to generally enhanced geomagnetic activity showing no baylike or other distinctive features

  10. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  11. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  12. The modelled liquid water balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Christian R.; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that the surface mass balance will dominate the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) contribution to 21st century sea level rise. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the liquid water balance (LWB) of the ice sheet and its response to increasing surface melt. We therefore analyse a firn simulation conducted with the SNOWPACK model for the GrIS and over the period 1960-2014 with a special focus on the LWB and refreezing. Evaluations of the simulated refreezing climate with GRACE and firn temperature observations indicate a good model-observation agreement. Results of the LWB analysis reveal a spatially uniform increase in surface melt (0.16 m w.e. a-1) during 1990-2014. As a response, refreezing and run-off also indicate positive changes during this period (0.05 and 0.11 m w.e. a-1, respectively), where refreezing increases at only half the rate of run-off, implying that the majority of the additional liquid input runs off the ice sheet. This pattern of refreeze and run-off is spatially variable. For instance, in the south-eastern part of the GrIS, most of the additional liquid input is buffered in the firn layer due to relatively high snowfall rates. Modelled increase in refreezing leads to a decrease in firn air content and to a substantial increase in near-surface firn temperature. On the western side of the ice sheet, modelled firn temperature increases are highest in the lower accumulation zone and are primarily caused by the exceptional melt season of 2012. On the eastern side, simulated firn temperature increases are more gradual and are associated with the migration of firn aquifers to higher elevations.

  13. A comprehensive study of the electrically conducting water based CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles over coupled nanofluid-sheet interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R

    2016-01-01

    Many studies on nanofluid flow over a permeable/impermeable sheet prescribe the kinematics of the sheet and disregard the sheet’s mechanics. However, the current study is one of the infrequent contributions that anticipate the mechanics of both the electrically conducting nanofluid (a homogeneous mixture of nanoparticles and base fluid) and the sheet. Two types of nanoparticles, alumina and copper, with water as a base fluid over the sheet are considered. With the help of the similarity transformations, the corresponding partial differential equations for the coupled nanofluid-sheet interface are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The simulations are done by using the experimentally verified results from the previous studies for viscosity and thermal conductivity. Self-similar solutions are attained by considering both analytical and numerical techniques. Dual skin friction coefficients are attained with different copper and alumina nanoparticles over both the stretching and viscous sheets. The influence of the Eckert number, magnetic and mass suction/blowing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rates over the nanofluid-sheet interface are presented graphically as well as numerically. The obtained results are of potential benefit for studying nanofluid flow over various soft surfaces such as synthetic plastics, soft silicone sheet and soft synthetic rubber sheet. These surfaces are easily deformed by thermal fluctuations. (paper)

  14. Lithium - An impurity of interest in radiation effects of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. A.; Horiye, H.; Passenheim, B. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the introduction and annealing of defects produced in lithium-diffused float-zone n-type silicon by 30-MeV electrons and fission neutrons. The introduction rate of recombination centers produced by electron irradiation is dependent on lithium concentration and for neutron irradiation is independent of lithium concentration. The introduction rate of Si-B1 centers also depends on the lithium concentration. The annealing of electron- and neutron-produced recombination centers, Si-B1 centers, and Si-G7 centers in lithium-diffused silicon occurs at much lower temperatures than in nondiffused material.

  15. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  16. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  17. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  18. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  19. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  20. RE Data Explorer: Supporting Renewable Energy Zones to Enable Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet overviews the benefits of using the RE Data Explorer tool to analyze and develop renewable energy zones. Renewable energy zones are developed through a transmission planning and approval process customized for renewable energy. RE Data Explorer analysis can feed into broader stakeholder discussions and allow stakeholders to easily visualize potential zones. Stakeholders can access pertinent data to inform transmission planning and enable investment.

  1. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  2. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  3. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  4. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kim

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up.

  5. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Steven; Feinberg, Benjamin; Kant, Rishi; Chui, Benjamin; Goldman, Ken; Park, Jaehyun; Moses, Willieford; Blaha, Charles; Iqbal, Zohora; Chow, Clarence; Wright, Nathan; Fissell, William H.; Zydney, Andrew; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up. PMID:27438878

  6. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  7. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  8. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  9. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Tobin@epfl.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  10. Removal of inclusions from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes

    2009-11-01

    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  11. Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Richard Doerr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics is the guiding of light in a planar arrangement of silicon-based materials to perform various functions. We focus here on the use of silicon photonics to create transmitters and receivers for fiber-optic telecommunications. As the need to squeeze more transmission into a given bandwidth, a given footprint, and a given cost increases, silicon photonics makes more and more economic sense.

  12. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking

  13. Silicon microphones - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwstra, Siebe; Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Scheeper, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Two application areas of microphones are discussed, those for precision measurement and those for hearing instruments. Silicon microphones are under investigation for both areas, and Danish industry plays a key role in both. The opportunities of silicon, as well as the challenges and expectations......, are discussed. For precision measurement the challenge for silicon is large, while for hearing instruments silicon seems to be very promising....

  14. CMS silicon tracker developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civinini, C.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.D.R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m 2 of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors

  15. Silicon hybrid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianyao; Yuan Taonu; Shao Shiqian; Shi Zujun; Wang Yi; Yu Yude; Yu Jinzhong

    2011-01-01

    Recently,much attention has concentrated on silicon based photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which provide a cost-effective solution for high speed, wide bandwidth optical interconnection and optical communication.To integrate III-V compounds and germanium semiconductors on silicon substrates,at present there are two kinds of manufacturing methods, i.e., heteroepitaxy and bonding. Low-temperature wafer bonding which can overcome the high growth temperature, lattice mismatch,and incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients during heteroepitaxy, has offered the possibility for large-scale heterogeneous integration. In this paper, several commonly used bonding methods are reviewed, and the future trends of low temperature wafer bonding envisaged. (authors)

  16. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  17. Elite silicon and solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasamanov, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The article is of popular character, the following issues being considered: conversion of solar energy into electric one, solar batteries in space and on the Earth, growing of silicon large-size crystals, source material problems relating to silicon monocrystals production, outlooks of solar silicon batteries production [ru

  18. Signatures of chaos in the Brillouin zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Aaron; Barr, Ariel; Porter, Max D; Reichl, Linda E

    2017-10-01

    When the classical dynamics of a particle in a finite two-dimensional billiard undergoes a transition to chaos, the quantum dynamics of the particle also shows manifestations of chaos in the form of scarring of wave functions and changes in energy level spacing distributions. If we "tile" an infinite plane with such billiards, we find that the Bloch states on the lattice undergo avoided crossings, energy level spacing statistics change from Poisson-like to Wigner-like, and energy sheets of the Brillouin zone begin to "mix" as the classical dynamics of the billiard changes from regular to chaotic behavior.

  19. Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadekatte, Vishwanath; Shi, Yihai; Nardini, Dubravko

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in sheet metal forming processes. It may become a serious obstacle to implementing the forming process and assembling the parts, and may also play a significant role in the wear of the tool. Wrinkling is essentially a local buckling phenomenon that results from compressive stresses (compressive instability) e.g., in the hoop direction for axi-symmetric systems such as beverage cans. Modern beverage can is a highly engineered product with a complex geometry. Therefore in order to understand wrinkling in such a complex system, we have started by studying wrinkling with the Yoshida buckling test. Further, we have studied the buckling of ideal and dented beverage cans under axial loading by laboratory testing. We have modelled the laboratory tests and also the imperfection sensitivity of the two systems using finite element method and the predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  20. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  1. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  2. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  3. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  4. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  5. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  6. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  7. Molding cork sheets to complex shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    Partially cured cork sheet is easily formed to complex shapes and then final-cured. Temperature and pressure levels required for process depend upon resin system used and final density and strength desired. Sheet can be bonded to surface during final cure, or can be first-formed in mold and bonded to surface in separate step.

  8. Towards neuromorphic electronics: Memristors on foldable silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-11-01

    The advantages associated with neuromorphic computation are rich areas of complex research. We address the fabrication challenge of building neuromorphic devices on structurally foldable platform with high integration density. We present a CMOS compatible fabrication process to demonstrate for the first time memristive devices fabricated on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) which is next transformed into a flexible thin sheet of silicon fabric with all the pre-fabricated devices. This process preserves the ultra-high integration density advantage unachievable on other flexible substrates. In addition, the memristive devices are of the size of a motor neuron and the flexible/folded architectural form factor is critical to match brain cortex\\'s folded pattern for ultra-compact design.

  9. Light-Weight Free-Standing Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Films for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Hu, Liangbing; Choi, Jang Wook; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    and Si as a high capacity anode material for Li-ion battery. Such free-standing film has a low sheet resistance of ∼30 Ohm/sq. It shows a high specific charge storage capacity (∼2000 mAh/g) and a good cycling life, superior to pure sputtered-on silicon

  10. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  11. Analysis of the RPE sheet in the rd10 retinal degeneration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yi [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-04

    The normal RPE sheet in the C57Bl/6J mouse is subclassified into two major tiling patterns: A regular generally hexagonal array covering most of the surface and a 'soft network' near the ciliary body made of irregularly shaped cells. Physics models predict these two patterns based on contractility and elasticity of the RPE cell, and strength of cellular adhesion between cells. We hypothesized and identified major changes in RPE regular hexagonal tiling pattern in rdl0 compared to C57BL/6J mice. RPE sheet damage was extensive but occurred in rd10 later than expected, after most retinal degeneration. RPE sheet changes occur in zones with a bullseye pattern. In the posterior zone around the optic nerve RPE cells take on larger irregular and varied shapes to form an intact monolayer. In mid periphery, there is a higher than normal density of cells that progress into involuted layers of RPE under the retina. The periphery remains mostly normal until late stages of degeneration. The number of neighboring cells varies widely depending on zone and progression. RPE morphology continues to deteriorate long after the photoreceptors have degenerated. The RPE cells are bystanders to the rd10 degeneration within photo receptors, and the collateral damage to the RPE sheet resembles stimulation of migration or chemotaxis. Quantitative measures of the tiling patterns and histopathology detected here, scripted in a pipeline written in Perl and Cell Profiler (an open source Matlab plugin), are directly applicable to RPE sheet images from noninvasive fundus autofluorescence (FAF), adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-cSLO), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of patients with early stage AMD or RP.

  12. Flexural Strength Of Prestressed Concrete Beams With Openings And Strengthened With CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustafa B. Dawood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation of flexural strength of pretensioned prestressed concrete beams with openings and strengthened with CFRP sheets tested as simply supported span subjected under two-point loading. The experimental work includes testing of nine prestressed concrete beams specimens with dimensions effective length 1800mm depth 300mm width 130mm two of which were without openings as a control beams one without and the other with strengthening by CFRP three were with openings and the remaining four with openings and strengthened with CFRP sheets. The opening was made at square shape 100100 mm in flexure zone at mid span of beam. Several design parameters were varied such as opening width opening depth and strengthening of openings of beams by CFRP sheets at compression and tension zone. Experimental results showed that the presence of square opening with ratio hH 0.333 and rectangular opening with ratio hH from 0.333-0.5 at mid span of beams decreased the ultimate load about 5.5 and 5.5-33.1 respectively when compared with beam without openings control beam. The externally strengthened prestressed concrete beams with bonded CFRP sheets showed a significant increase at the ultimate load this increase was about 10.9-28.8 for flexure beams when compared with the unstrengthened beams. Moreover the load-deflection curves for flexure beams strengthened with CFRP sheets were stiffer than the unstrengthened beams. Therefore this results gave a good indication about using CFRP sheets in improvement of deflection.

  13. Selective formation of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  14. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100

  15. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  16. OPAL Silicon Tungsten Luminometer

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The Silicon Tungsten Luminometer was part of OPAL's calorimeter which was used to measure the energy of particles. Most particles end their journey in calorimeters. These detectors measure the energy deposited when particles are slowed down and stopped.

  17. Silicon graphene Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-03-10

    We propose the use of interleaved graphene sections on top of a silicon waveguide to implement tunable Bragg gratings. The filter central wavelength and bandwidth can be controlled changing the chemical potential of the graphene sections. Apodization techniques are also presented.

  18. On nanostructured silicon success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    Recent Letters by Piggott et al. 1 and Shen et al. 2 claim the smallest ever dielectric wave length and polarization splitters. The associated News & Views article by Aydin3 states that these works “are the first experimental demonstration of on-chip, silicon photonic components based on complex...

  19. Silicon oxynitride based photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worhoff, Kerstin; Klein, E.J.; Hussein, M.G.; Driessen, A.; Marciniak, M.; Jaworski, M.; Zdanowicz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride is a very attractive material for integrated optics. Besides possessing excellent optical properties it can be deposited with refractive indices varying over a wide range by tuning the material composition. In this contribution we will summarize the key properties of this material

  20. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  1. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  2. DELPHI Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    DELPHI was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The silicon tracking detector was nearest to the collision point in the centre of the detector. It was used to pinpoint the collision and catch short-lived particles.

  3. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy); Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo, 9, Padua, 35131 (Italy); Iucci, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.iucci@uniroma3.it [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  4. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele; Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica; Iucci, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  5. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 03: structure fires in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) data indicate that wildfires destroyed approximately 9,000 homes between 1985 and 1994 in the United States. The loss of homes to wildfire has had a significant impact on Federal fire policy. This fact sheet discusses the causes of home ignitions in the wildland-urban interface, home ignition zones, how to reduce home...

  6. Buckling of thin viscous sheets with inhomogenous viscosity under extensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the dynamics, shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet subjected to an extensional flow under an imposed non-uniform temperature field. Using finite element simulations, we first solve for the stretching flow to determine the pre-buckling sheet thickness and in-plane flow velocities. Next, we use this solution as the base state and solve the linearized partial differential equation governing the out-of-plane deformation of the mid-surface as a function of two dimensionless operating parameters: the normalized stretching ratio α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β. We show the sheet can become unstable via a buckling instability driven by the development of localized compressive stresses, and determine the global shape and growth rates of the most unstable mode. The growth rate is shown to exhibit a transition from stationary to oscillatory modes in region upstream of the heating zone. Finally, we investigate the effect of surface tension and present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that minimizes or entirely suppresses the instability while achieving desired outlet sheet thickness. Therefore, our work is directly relevant to various industrial processes including the glass redraw & float-glass method.

  7. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, M.C.; Hillard, R.J.; Borland, J.O.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (R S ) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations

  8. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  9. Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Ahmad Suntoro; Ikhsan Shobari; Usep Setia Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this X-ray fluorescence technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed including the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition sub-system design, and operator computer console design. This program will use silicon drift or CdTe X-ray detector to detect X-ray fluorescence emitted by elements in sheet paper due to X-ray interaction of a X-ray source, 55 Fe (Ferro-55).This basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  10. Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.

  11. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Espera River - Sheet SF.23-X-B-IV - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Rio Espera sheet (SF.23.X-B-IV) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The sheet, which covers Zona da Mata region, includes the Southeastern bord of Minas Gerais Metallurgic Zone, SE of Quadrilatero Ferrifero, in the Sao Francisco craton bord, and Mantiqueira province. Since only one doubtful 2,5 thousand million year - Rb/Sr isochron was obtained in the sheet, Archacan and Proterozoic ages have been attributed to the metamorphic rocks by comparison to other ones elsewhere. An analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on gravimetric survey data, aeromagnetometry and available geochronological data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II of the text. Major elements oxides and rare-earths were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. The geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the sheet. (author)

  12. Large-Signal Injection-Level Spectroscopy of Impurities in Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Johnston, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Deep level defects in silicon are identified by measuring the recombination lifetime as a function of the injection level. The basic models for recombination at deep and shallow centers is developed. The defect used for the theoretical model is the well-known interstitial Fe ion in silicon. Data are presented on silicon samples ranging in defect content from intentionally Fe-doped samples to an ultra-pure float-zone grown sample. These data are analyzed in terms of the injection-level spectroscopy model

  13. The annealing of phosphorus-implanted silicon investigated at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, C.; Burkhardt, F.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus ions are implanted at 50 keV into misaligned silicon crystals at 20 and 300 0 C, respectively. The ion doses used are 8 x 10 13 and 8 x 10 14 cm -2 , respectively. After annealing treatments the electrical properties of the samples are investigated by measuring Hall effect and sheet resistivity in the range from 300 to 4.2 K. The experimental results indicate some problems which must be taken into account for interpreting Hall effect measurements made at room temperature only. Furthermore the results give some new information on the annealing process in phosphorus implanted silicon and the influence of the implantation parameters. (author)

  14. Mechanics of silicon nitride thin-film stressors on a transistor-like geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reboh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand the behavior of silicon nitride capping etch stopping layer stressors in nanoscale microelectronics devices, a simplified structure mimicking typical transistor geometries was studied. Elastic strains in the silicon substrate were mapped using dark-field electron holography. The results were interpreted with the aid of finite element method modeling. We show, in a counterintuitive sense, that the stresses developed by the film in the vertical sections around the transistor gate can reach much higher values than the full sheet reference. This is an important insight for advanced technology nodes where the vertical contribution of such liners is predominant over the horizontal part.

  15. Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and diffusion to silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Akasaka, Y.; Horie, K.

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and drive-in diffusion to silicon substrate have been investigated by MeV He + backscattering analysis and also by electrical measurements. The range distributions of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon are well fitted to Gaussian distributions over the energy range 60--350 keV. The measured values of R/sub P/ and ΔR/sub P/ are about 10 and 20% larger than the theoretical predictions, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon is expressed as D=0.63 exp[(-3.22 eV/kT)] and is independent of the arsenic concentration. The drive-in diffusion of arsenic from the implanted polycrystalline silicon layer into the silicon substrate is significantly affected by the diffusion atmosphere. In the N 2 atmosphere, a considerable amount of arsenic atoms diffuses outward to the ambient. The outdiffusion can be suppressed by encapsulation with Si 3 N 4 . In the oxidizing atmosphere, arsenic atoms are driven inward by growing SiO 2 due to the segregation between SiO 2 and polycrystalline silicon, and consequently the drive-in diffusion of arsenic is enhanced. At the interface between the polycrystalline silicon layer and the silicon substrate, arsenic atoms are likely to segregate at the polycrystalline silicon side

  16. Silicon epitaxy on textured double layer porous silicon by LPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hong; Shen Honglie; Zhang Lei; Huang Haibin; Lu Linfeng; Tang Zhengxia; Shen Jiancang

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial silicon thin film on textured double layer porous silicon (DLPS) was demonstrated. The textured DLPS was formed by electrochemical etching using two different current densities on the silicon wafer that are randomly textured with upright pyramids. Silicon thin films were then grown on the annealed DLPS, using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The reflectance of the DLPS and the grown silicon thin films were studied by a spectrophotometer. The crystallinity and topography of the grown silicon thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The reflectance results show that the reflectance of the silicon wafer decreases from 24.7% to 11.7% after texturing, and after the deposition of silicon thin film the surface reflectance is about 13.8%. SEM images show that the epitaxial silicon film on textured DLPS exhibits random pyramids. The Raman spectrum peaks near 521 cm -1 have a width of 7.8 cm -1 , which reveals the high crystalline quality of the silicon epitaxy.

  17. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  18. A nonsteady-state firn-densification model for the percolation zone of a glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2008-01-01

    A simple steady state firn-densification model is modified to account for short-term time variations of accumulation rate and surface temperature. The temporal surface-elevation- and mass changes at two sites in the percolation zone of an ice sheet in response to various climate histories...... are determined. It is shown that a straight-forward translation of observed short-term ice-sheet surface-elevation variations into mass changes may be completely misleading, particularly for the percolation zone of the ice sheet, where temperature driven variations of melting/re-freezing rates have a strong...... impact on near surface density. In the lower percolation zone, the mass change associated with a temperature anomaly in respect to the mean climate may for example amount to as little as 10 percent of the observed, simultaneous surface elevation change. Moreover, significant surface elevation change may...

  19. Superplastic Forming/Adhesive Bonding of Aluminum (SPF/AB) Multi-Sheet Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor); Will, Jeff D.; Cotton, James D.

    2003-01-01

    A significant fraction of airframe structure consists of stiffened panels that are costly and difficult to fabricate. This program explored a potentially lower-cost processing route for producing such panels. The alternative process sought to apply concurrent superplastic forming and adhesive bonding of aluminum alloy sheets. Processing conditions were chosen to balance adequate superplasticity of the alloy with thermal stability of the adhesive. As a first objective, an air-quenchable, superplastic aluminum-lithium alloy and a low-volatile content, low-viscosity adhesive with compatible forming/curing cycles were identified. A four-sheet forming pack was assembled which consisted of a welded two-sheet core separated from the face sheets by a layer of adhesive. Despite some preliminary success, of over 30 forming trials none was completely successful. The main problem was inadequate superplasticity in the heat-affected zones of the rib welds, which generally fractured prior to completion of the forming cycle. The welds are a necessary component in producing internal ribs by the 'four-sheet' process. Other challenges, such as surface preparation and adhesive bonding, were adequately solved. But without the larger issue of tearing at the weld locations, complex panel fabrication by SPF/AB does not appear viable.

  20. Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting RC Continuous Beams Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This search presented an experimental study of the flexural behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams externally strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP Sheets. The practical study contained eight self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams (with two span, each span had (1500 mm length and (150x250 mm cross sectional dimensions. Seven of these beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with and without external anchorage. The experimental variables included location of CFRP sheets and anchor type and location. The results, shows that the beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets provided improvement in ultimate loads reached (60.71%. The usage of CFRP in the anchorage zone indicated an effective method in comparison to increasing the CFRP sheets lengths or extending them up to the support or under the loading points. Test results also showed that side strengthening provided an effective tool for increasing the load at the cracking stage and also the load capacity and reducing flexural crack widths.

  1. Simulating a Dynamic Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Early to Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, E.; DeConto, R.; Pollard, D.; Levy, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of sources of geological data that suggest major variations in the volume and extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the early to middle Miocene. Simulating such variability using coupled climate-ice sheet models is problematic due to a strong hysteresis effect caused by height-mass balance feedback and albedo feedback. This results in limited retreat of the ice sheet once it has reached the continental size, as likely occurred prior to the Miocene. Proxy records suggest a relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 during the early to middle Miocene, which exacerbates this problem. We use a new climate forcing which accounts for ice sheet-climate feedbacks through an asynchronous GCM-RCM coupling, which is able to better resolve the narrow Antarctic ablation zone in warm climate simulations. When combined with recently suggested mechanisms for retreat into subglacial basins due to ice shelf hydrofracture and ice cliff failure, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the Antarctic ice sheet in the Miocene. This variability is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of ~0.5 ‰, or a sea level equivalent change of ~35 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 - 500 ppm.

  2. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  3. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  4. Plasma sheet behavior during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Auroral or magnetic substorms are periods of enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activity lasting one to a few hours that signify increased dissipation of energy from the magnetosphere to the earth. Data acquired during the past decade from satellites in the near-earth sector of the magnetotail have suggested that during a substorm part of the plasma sheet is severed from earth by magnetic reconnection, forming a plasmoid, i.e., a body of plasma and closed magnetic loops, that flows out of the tail into the solar wind, thus returning plasma and energy that have earlier been accumulated from the solar wind. Very recently this picture has been dramatically confirmed by observations, with the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the magnetotail 220 R/sub E/ from earth, of plasmoids passing that location in clear delayed response to substorms. It now appears that plasmoid release is a fundamental process whereby the magnetosphere gives up excess stored energy and plasma, much like comets are seen to do, and that the phenomena of the substorm seen at earth are a by-product of that fundamental process

  5. Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroschek, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)

  6. Image Classification of Ribbed Smoked Sheet using Learning Vector Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Pulungan, A. F.; Faza, S.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important export commodity in Indonesia, which can be a major contributor to national economic development. One type of rubber used as rubber material exports is Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS). The quantity of RSS exports depends on the quality of RSS. RSS rubber quality has been assigned in SNI 06-001-1987 and the International Standards of Quality and Packing for Natural Rubber Grades (The Green Book). The determination of RSS quality is also known as the sorting process. In the rubber factones, the sorting process is still done manually by looking and detecting at the levels of air bubbles on the surface of the rubber sheet by naked eyes so that the result is subjective and not so good. Therefore, a method is required to classify RSS rubber automatically and precisely. We propose some image processing techniques for the pre-processing, zoning method for feature extraction and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) method for classifying RSS rubber into two grades, namely RSS1 and RSS3. We used 120 RSS images as training dataset and 60 RSS images as testing dataset. The result shows that our proposed method can give 89% of accuracy and the best perform epoch is in the fifteenth epoch.

  7. World-sheet gauge fields in superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrati, M.; Tomboulis, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the introduction of world-sheet 2-dimensional gauge fields in a manner consistent with world-sheet supersymmetry. We obtain the effective string action resulting from the exact integration over the world-sheet gauge fields to show that it generally describes string models with spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries with continuous breaking parameters. We examine the question of spacetime supersymmetry spontaneous breaking, and show that breaking with continuous, in particular arbitrarily small breaking parameters does not occur; only breaking for discrete values of parameters is possible. (orig.)

  8. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  9. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  10. Electrophysical properties of silicon doped by palladium-103 isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Sh.; Tursunov, N.A.; Sattiev, A.R.; Normurodov, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to study of radiation physical processes taking place in Si under nuclear transmutation, Identification and determination of defects microstructure and homogeneities and their distribution, study of interactions of nuclear-transformed phosphorus isotopes with palladium atoms, and its effect on crystal properties. For examination monocrystalline silicon of n- and p-type conductivity with specific resistance from 1 to 40 Ω·cm, dislocation density ∼10 4 cm -2 and oxygen content ∼10 17 cm -3 has been applied. Doping of silicon plates by examined admixture has been carried out by thermal diffusion method within temperature range 1000-1250 deg. C for 0.5- 5 h. Irradiation of doped silicon was conducted by reactor neutron fluences 5·10 18 - 5·10 19 cm -2 with subsequent annealing at 1000 deg. C for 30 min. Efficiency of mixture centers formation in silicon, effect of concentration of formed mixture-defect centers on electro-physical, photoelectric and recombination parameters of doped silicon and revealing of type and state of generated defects have been controlled by electric, volume and X-ray fluorescent methods. On the base of spectroscopic researches it is shown, that in silicon forbidden zone after Pd diffusion in DLTS spectra peaks related with acceptor (E c -0.18 and E v +0.34 eV) levels, and peak responsible for level E v +0.32 eV of donor character caused by palladium impurity. It is shown, that irradiation of doped silicon samples by neutrons lead to nuclear transmutation of 102 Pd, 104 Pd in 103 Pd isotopes in the crystal volume with following electron capture in stable isotope 103m Rh

  11. Fluorescence and thermoluminescence in silicon oxide films rich in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman M, D.; Piters, T. M.; Aceves M, M.; Berriel V, L. R.; Luna L, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we determined the fluorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) creation spectra of silicon rich oxide films (SRO) with three different silicon excesses. To study the TL of SRO, 550 nm of SRO film were deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique on N-type silicon substrates with resistivity in the order of 3 to 5 Ω-cm with silicon excess controlled by the ratio of the gases used in the process, SRO films with Ro= 10, 20 and 30 (12-6% silicon excess) were obtained. Then, they were thermally treated in N 2 at high temperatures to diffuse and homogenize the silicon excess. In the fluorescence spectra two main emission regions are observed, one around 400 nm and one around 800 nm. TL creation spectra were determined by plotting the integrated TL intensity as function of the excitation wavelength. (Author)

  12. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Leubelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B.Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Silicon microstrip Tracker of the CMS experiment at LHC. It consists of a barrel part with 5 layers and two endcaps with 10 disks each. About 10 000 single-sided equivalent modules have to be built, each one carrying two daisy-chained silicon detectors and their front-end electronics. Back-to-back modules are used to read-out the radial coordinate. The tracker will be operated in an environment kept at a temperature of T=-10 deg. C to minimize the Si sensors radiation damage. Heavily irradiated detectors will be safely operated due to the high-voltage capability of the sensors. Full-size mechanical prototypes have been built to check the system aspects before starting the construction

  13. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  14. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  15. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  16. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Electrometallurgy of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    wind, plants, and water impounded in elevated reservoirs. Photovoltaic or solar cells, which convert sunlight directly to electricity, belongs tc, the...on record is that of St. Claire DeVille, who claimed that silicon was produced by electrolysing an impure melt of NaAlC14, but his material did not...this composition and purified melts were electrolysed at about 14500C in graphite crucible and using graphite electrodes. Applied potentials were

  18. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Number 15/696,426 Filing Date 6 September 2017 Inventor Charles J. Patrissi et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the...silicon-based anodes during cycling, lithium insertion and deinsertion. Mitigation of this problem has long been sought and will result in improved...design shown. [0032] It will be understood that many additional changes in the details, materials, steps and arrangement of parts, which have been

  19. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bruzzi, M.; Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Angarano, M.; Creanza, D.; Palma, M. de; Fiore, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Raso, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Tempesta, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Castro, A.; Da Rold, M.; Giraldo, A.; Martignon, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Stavitsky, I.; Babucci, E.; Bartalini, P.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Wang, Y.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Bosi, F.; Borello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Castaldi, R.; Dell'Orso, R.; Giassi, A.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Sguazzoni, G.; Starodumov, A.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Xie, Z.; Breuker, H.; Caner, A.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Glessing, B.; Hammerstrom, R.; Huhtinen, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Schmitt, B.; Stefanini, G.; Connotte, J.; Gu, W.H.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Pandoulas, D.; Siedling, R.; Wittmer, B.; Della Marina, R.; Freudenreich, K.; Lustermann, W.; Viertel, G.; Eklund, C.; Karimaeki, V.; Skog, K.; French, M.; Hall, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Raymond, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Piperov, S.; Tuuva, T.; Watts, S.; Silvestris, L.

    1998-01-01

    The new silicon tracker layout (V4) is presented. The system aspects of the construction are discussed together with the expected tracking performance. Because of the high radiation environment in which the detectors will operate, particular care has been devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. This includes studies on performance (charge collection, cluster size, resolution, efficiency) as a function of the bias voltage, integrated fluence, incidence angle and temperature. (author)

  20. Selfsupported epitaxial silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarovici, D.; Popescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    The methods of removing the p or p + support of an n-type epitaxial silicon layer using electrochemical etching are described. So far, only n + -n junctions have been processed. The condition of anodic dissolution for some values of the support and layer resistivity are given. By this method very thin single crystal selfsupported targets of convenient areas can be obtained for channeling - blocking experiments

  1. Silicon and Civilization,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-04

    of a diamond. 7. The particular physical and chemical properties of silicon resulted in the fact that in the periodic system it was found in the III...small quantities. Silica is found in blades of grass and grain, in reed and bamboo shoots, where it serves to stiffen the stalk. 2. Diatomite ... properties desired in technology. Quartz glass is very resistant to temperature change since it has a very small coefficient of thermal expansion, is

  2. Porous silicon: silicon quantum dots for photonic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavesi, L.; Guardini, R.

    1996-01-01

    Porous silicon formation and structure characterization are briefly illustrated. Its luminescence properties rae presented and interpreted on the basis of exciton recombination in quantum dot structures: the trap-controlled hopping mechanism is used to describe the recombination dynamics. Porous silicon application to photonic devices is considered: porous silicon multilayer in general, and micro cavities in particular are described. The present situation in the realization of porous silicon LEDs is considered, and future developments in this field of research are suggested. (author). 30 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  4. Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for ∼4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of ∼30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper

  5. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  6. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  7. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  8. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  9. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  10. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  11. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  12. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  13. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  14. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  15. Electrical and electron microscopy observations on defects in ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, H.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon single crystals were implanted with 100 keV phosphorus ions to a dose of 2 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 at both room-temperature and 600 0 C. They were isochronally annealed at temperatures ranging from 400 0 C to 900 0 C. Sheet resistivity measurements of the specimens were taken after each anneal, together with corresponding transmission electron micrographs

  16. Silicon ribbon technology assessment 1978-1986 - A computer-assisted analysis using PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kran, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a 1978-1986 economic outlook for silicon ribbon technology based on the capillary action shaping technique. The outlook is presented within the framework of two sets of scenarios, which develop strategy for approaching the 1986 national energy capacity cost objective of $0.50/WE peak. The PECAN (Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Analysis) simulation technique is used to develop a 1986 sheet material price ($50/sq m) which apparently can be attained without further scientific breakthrough.

  17. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  18. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  19. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  20. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  1. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  2. Laboratory course on silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Crescio, E; Roe, S; Rudge, A

    2003-01-01

    The laboratory course consisted of four different mini sessions, in order to give the student some hands-on experience on various aspects of silicon sensors and related integrated electronics. The four experiments were. 1. Characterisation of silicon diodes for particle detection 2. Study of noise performance of the Viking readout circuit 3. Study of the position resolution of a silicon microstrip sensor 4. Study of charge transport in silicon with a fast amplifier The data in the following were obtained during the ICFA school by the students.

  3. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  4. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  5. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  6. X- and gamma-ray N+PP+ silicon detectors with high radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petris, M.; Ruscu, R.; Moraru, R.; Cimpoca, V.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the use of p-type silicon detectors as starting material for X-and gamma-ray detectors because of several potential benefits it would bring: 1. high purity p-type silicon grown by the float-zone process exhibits better radial dopant uniformity than n-type float-zone silicon; 2. it is free of radiation damage due to the neutron transmutation doping process and behaves better in a radiation field because mainly acceptor like centers are created through the exposure and the bulk material type inversion does not occur as in the n-type silicon. But the p-type silicon, in combination with a passivating layer of silicon dioxide, leads to a more complex detector layout since the positive charge in the oxide causes an inversion in the surface layer under the silicon dioxide. Consequently, it would be expected that N + P diodes have a higher leakage current than P + N ones. All these facts have been demonstrated experimentally. These features set stringent requirements for the technology of p-type silicon detectors. Our work presents two new geometries and an improved technology for p-type high resistivity material to obtain low noise radiation detectors. Test structures were characterized before and after the gamma exposure with a cumulative dose in the range 10 4 - 5 x 10 6 rad ( 60 Co). Results indicate that proposed structures and their technology enable the development of reliable N + PP + silicon detectors. For some samples (0.8 - 12 mm 2 ), extremely low reverse currents were obtained and, in combination with a low noise charge preamplifier, the splitting of 241 Am X-ray lines was possible and also the Mn Kα line (5.9 keV) was extracted from the noise with a 1.9 keV FWHM at the room temperature. An experimental model of a nuclear probe based on these diodes was designed for X-ray detection applications. (authors)

  7. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for... of this part. Balance sheets filed under this rule shall comply with the following provisions: Assets...

  8. Electrochemical depth profiling of multilayer metallic structures: An aluminum brazing sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, F. Norouzi; Ambat, R.; Kwakernaak, C.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry were used. ► An electrochemical depth profile of an aluminum brazing sheet was obtained. ► The electrochemical responses were correlated to the microstructural features. - Abstract: Combinatory localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) measurements were performed to obtain a thorough in depth electrochemical characterization of an aluminum brazing sheet. By defining electrochemical criteria i.e. breakdown potential, corrosion potential, cathodic and anodic reactivities, and tracking their changes as a function of depth, the evolution of electrochemical responses through out the material thickness were analyzed and correlated to the corresponding microstructural features. Polarization curves in 1 wt% NaCl solution at pH 2.8 were obtained at different depths from the surface using controlled sputtering in a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer as a sample preparation technique. The anodic and cathodic reactivity of the top surface areas were significantly higher than that of the bulk, thus indicating these areas to be more susceptible to localized attack. Consistent with this, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis revealed a relatively high density of fine intermetallic and silicon particles at these areas. The corrosion mechanism of the top layers was identified to be intergranular and pitting corrosion, while lower sensitivity to these localized attacks were detected toward the brazing sheet core. The results highlight the successful application of the electrochemical depth profiling approach in prediction of the corrosion behavior of the aluminum brazing sheet and the importance of the electrochemical activity of the outer 10 μm in controlling the corrosion performance of the aluminum brazing sheet.

  9. Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoen, E; Vanhellemont, J; Alaerts, A [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium); and others

    1997-03-01

    Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices are studied for components fabricated in various substrates in order to reveal possible hardening effects. The degradation of p-n junction diodes increases in first order proportionally with the fluence, when submitted to 10 MeV proton irradiations in the range 5x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The damage coefficients for both p- and n-type Czochralski, Float-Zone and epitaxial wafers are reported. Charge-Coupled Devices fabricated in a 1.2 {mu}m CCD-CMOS technology are shown to be quite resistant to 59 MeV H{sup +} irradiations, irrespective of the substrate type. (author)

  10. Study of Pellets and Lumps as Raw Materials in Silicon Production from Quartz and Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Martello, E.; Tranell, G.; Gaal, S.; Raaness, O. S.; Tang, K.; Arnberg, L.

    2011-10-01

    The use of high-purity carbon and quartz raw materials reduces the need for comprehensive refining steps after the silicon has been produced carbothermically in the electric reduction furnace. The current work aims at comparing the reaction mechanisms and kinetics occurring in the inner part of the reduction furnace when pellets or lumpy charge is used, as well as the effect of the raw material mix. Laboratory-scale carbothermic reduction experiments have been carried out in an induction furnace. High-purity silicon carbide and two different high-purity hydrothermal quartzes were charged as raw materials at different molar ratios. The charge was in the form of lumps (size, 2-5 mm) or as powder (size, 10-20 μm), mixed and agglomerated as pellets (size, 1-3 mm) and reacted at 2273 K (2000 °C). The thermal properties of the quartzes were measured also by heating a small piece of quartz in CO atmosphere. The investigated quartzes have different reactivity in reducing atmosphere. The carbothermal reduction experiments show differences in the reacted charge between pellets and lumps as charge material. Solid-gas reactions take place from the inside of the pellets porosity, whereas reactions in lumps occur topochemically. Silicon in pellets is produced mainly in the rim zone. Larger volumes of silicon have been found when using lumpy charge. More SiO is produced when using pellets than for lumpy SiO2 for the same molar ratio and heating conditions. The two SiC polytypes used in the carbothermal reduction experiments as carbon reductants presented different reactivity.

  11. Electrical leakage phenomenon in heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Zielinski, Marcin; Bosi, Matteo; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Iacopi, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    Heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films on silicon substrates are of technological interest as enablers to integrate the excellent electrical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and epitaxial properties of bulk silicon carbide into well-established silicon technologies. One critical bottleneck of this integration is the establishment of a stable and reliable electronic junction at the heteroepitaxial interface of the n-type SiC with the silicon substrate. We have thus investigated in detail the electrical and transport properties of heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide films grown via different methods on low-doped and high-resistivity silicon substrates by using van der Pauw Hall and transfer length measurements as test vehicles. We have found that Si and C intermixing upon or after growth, particularly by the diffusion of carbon into the silicon matrix, creates extensive interstitial carbon traps and hampers the formation of a stable rectifying or insulating junction at the SiC/Si interface. Although a reliable p-n junction may not be realistic in the SiC/Si system, we can achieve, from a point of view of the electrical isolation of in-plane SiC structures, leakage suppression through the substrate by using a high-resistivity silicon substrate coupled with deep recess etching in between the SiC structures.

  12. Light emitting structures porous silicon-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastyrskii, L.S.; Olenych, I.B.; Panasjuk, M.R.; Savchyn, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research of spectroscopic properties of porous silicon has been done. Complex of photoluminescence, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, thermostimulated depolarisation current analyte methods have been applied to study of geterostructures and free layers of porous silicon. Light emitting processes had tendency to decrease. The character of decay for all kinds of luminescence were different

  13. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repeated indentation fatigue (RIF) experiments conducted on the same spot of different structural ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 m and 25 m, and a sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) are reported. The RIF experiments were conducted using a Vicker's ...

  14. Transport in silicon-germanium heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrastina, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The work presented here describes the electrical characterization of n- and p-type strained silicon-germanium systems. Theories of quantum transport m low magnetic fields at low temperature are discussed m terms of weak-localization: the traditional theory is shown not to account for the dephasing in a 2-dimensional hole gas behaving in a metallic manner and emergent alternative theories, while promising, require refinement. The mobility as a function of sheet density is measured in a p-type pseudomorphic Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 across the temperature range 350mK-282K; it is shown that calculations of the mobility based on semi-classical scattering mechanisms fail below 10K where quantum transport effects become relevant. A room temperature Hall scattering factor has been extracted. A new functional form has been presented to fit the resistivity as a function of temperature, below 20K: traditional theories of screening and weak localization appear not to be applicable. It is also demonstrated that simple protection circuitry is essential if commercial-scale devices are to be meaningfully investigated. Mobility spectrum analysis is performed on an n-type strained-silicon device. Established analysis methods are discussed and a new method is presented based on the Bryan's Algorithm approach to maximum entropy. The breakdown of the QHE is also investigated: the critical current density compares well to that predicted by an existing theory. Finally, devices in which both electron and hole gases can be induced are investigated. However, it is shown that the two cannier species never co-exist. Design rules are presented which may allow more successful structures to be created. Results are presented which demonstrate the success and the utility of implanted contacts which selectively reach different regions of the structure. (author)

  15. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales, Antigua Normal Rural, Salaices, Lopez, Chihuahua (Mexico); John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B., E-mail: isaelav@hotmail.com [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14-4AS (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  16. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, I.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  17. Unequal ice-sheet erosional impacts across low-relief shield terrain in northern Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Karin; Hall, Adrian M.; Kleman, Johan; Andersson, Jannike

    2015-03-01

    Much previous work on Late Cenozoic glacial erosion patterns in bedrock has focussed on mountain areas. Here we identify varying impacts of ice sheet erosion on the low-relief bedrock surface of the Fennoscandian shield, and examine the geological, topographical and glaciological controls on these patterns. We combine GIS-mapping of topographical, hydrological and weathering data with field observations. We identify and investigate areas with similar geology and general low relief that show different degrees of ice sheet erosional impact, despite similar ice cover histories. On two transects with a total area of ~ 84 000 km2 across the northern Fennoscandian shield, we first establish patterns of glacial erosion and then examine why glacially streamlined areas exist adjacent to areas of negligible glacial erosion. The northern transect includes two areas of exceptional glacial preservation, the Parkajoki area in Sweden and the so-called ice divide zone in Finland, each of which preserve tors and deep saprolite covers. The southern transect, overlapping in the northern part with the first transect, includes areas of well developed glacial streamlining, with bedrock areas stripped of loose material and barely any weathering remnants. For both areas, we firstly present contrasting indicators for ice sheet erosional impact: streamlined and non-streamlined inselbergs; parallel and dendritic/rectangular drainage patterns; and the absence and presence of Neogene weathering remnants. This is followed by an investigation of factors that possibly influence ice sheet erosional impact: ice cover history, ice cover duration and thickness, bedrock type and structure, and topography. We find that the erosional impact of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has varied across the study area. Distinct zones of ice sheet erosion are identified in which indicators of either low or high erosion coexist in the same parts of the transects. No direct impact of rock type on glacial erosion patterns

  18. Development of Novel Front Contract Pastes for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Jellison, D. G.E. P.; Joshi, P.

    2012-04-05

    In order to improve the efficiencies of silicon solar cells, paste to silicon contact formation mechanisms must be more thoroughly understood as a function of paste chemistry, wafer properties and firing conditions. Ferro Corporation has been involved in paste development for over 30 years and has extensive expertise in glass and paste formulations. This project has focused on the characterization of the interface between the top contact material (silver paste) and the underlying silicon wafer. It is believed that the interface between the front contact silver and the silicon wafer plays a dominant role in the electrical performance of the solar cell. Development of an improved front contact microstructure depends on the paste chemistry, paste interaction with the SiNx, and silicon (“Si”) substrate, silicon sheet resistivity, and the firing profile. Typical front contact ink contains silver metal powders and flakes, glass powder and other inorganic additives suspended in an organic medium of resin and solvent. During fast firing cycles glass melts, wets, corrodes the SiNx layer, and then interacts with underlying Si. Glass chemistry is also a critical factor in the development of an optimum front contact microstructure. Over the course of this project, several fundamental characteristics of the Ag/Si interface were documented, including a higher-than-expected distribution of voids along the interface, which could significantly impact electrical conductivity. Several techniques were also investigated for the interfacial analysis, including STEM, EDS, FIB, EBSD, and ellipsometry.

  19. Optimization of oxidation processes to improve crystalline silicon solar cell emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of the oxidation process is one key issue in producing high-quality emitters for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, the oxidation parameters of pre-oxidation time, oxygen concentration during pre-oxidation and pre-deposition and drive-in time were optimized by using orthogonal experiments. By analyzing experimental measurements of short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, series resistance and solar cell efficiency in solar cells with different sheet resistances which were produced by using different diffusion processes, we inferred that an emitter with a sheet resistance of approximately 70 Ω/□ performed best under the existing standard solar cell process. Further investigations were conducted on emitters with sheet resistances of approximately 70 Ω/□ that were obtained from different preparation processes. The results indicate that emitters with surface phosphorus concentrations between 4.96 × 1020 cm−3 and 7.78 × 1020 cm−3 and with junction depths between 0.46 μm and 0.55 μm possessed the best quality. With no extra processing, the final preparation of the crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency can reach 18.41%, which is an increase of 0.4%abs compared to conventional emitters with 50 Ω/□ sheet resistance.

  20. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Elsasser, Ch; Gallas Torreira, A; Pérez Trigo, A; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Dupertuis, F; Haefeli, G; Komarov, I; Märki, R; Muster, B; Nakada, T; Schneider, O; Tobin, M; Tran, M T; Anderson, J; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; Saornil, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A; Britsch, M; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is to study rare heavy quark decays and CP vio- lation with the high rate of beauty and charmed hadrons produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC. The detector is designed as a single-arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification performance. The Silicon Tracker is a key part of the tracking system to measure the particle trajectories to high precision. This paper reports the performance as well as the results of the radiation damage monitoring based on leakage currents and on charge collection efficiency scans during the data taking in the LHC Run I.

  1. Photovoltaics: sunshine and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirzaker, Mike

    2006-05-15

    Spain's photovoltaic sector grew rapidly in 2004 only to slow down in 2005. While a State-guaranteed feed-in tariff is in place to drive a take-off, some of the smaller administrative cogs are buckling under the pressure. Projects are being further slowed by soaring world silicon prices and module shortages. Nevertheless, market volume is higher than ever before, and bio capital from both home and abroad is betting that the Spanish take-off is around the corner. (Author)

  2. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  3. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  4. Spatiotemporal Variability of Meltwater Refreezing in Southwest Greenland Ice Sheet Firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Hock, R.; Tedesco, M.; Corti, G.; Covi, F.; Miège, C.; Kingslake, J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Munsell, S.

    2017-12-01

    A substantial fraction of the summer meltwater formed on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet is retained in firn, while the remaining portion runs to the ocean through surface and subsurface channels. Refreezing of meltwater in firn can create impenetrable ice lenses, hence being a crucial process in the redistribution of surface runoff. To quantify the impact of refreezing on runoff and current and future Greenland surface mass balance, a three year National Science Foundation funded project titled "Refreezing in the firn of the Greenland ice sheet: Spatiotemporal variability and implications for ice sheet mass balance" started this past year. Here we present an overview of the project and some initial results from the first field season in May 2017 conducted in proximity of the DYE-2 site in the percolation zone of the Southwest Greenland ice sheet at elevations between 1963 and 2355 m a.s.l.. During this fieldwork two automatic weather stations were deployed, outfitted with surface energy balance sensors and 16 m long thermistor strings, over 300 km of ground penetrating radar data were collected, and five 20-26 m deep firn cores were extracted and analyzed for density and stratigraphy. Winter snow accumulation was measured along the radar tracks. Preliminary work on the firn-core data reveals increasing frequency and thickness of ice lenses at lower ice-sheet elevations, in agreement with other recent work in the area. Data collected within this project will facilitate advances in our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of firn refreezing and its role in the hydrology and surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  5. Observation of enhanced infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with gold by pulsed laser melting of nanometer-thick gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philippe K.; Yang, Wenjie; Hudspeth, Quentin; Lim, Shao Qi; Williams, Jim S.; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that pulsed laser melting (PLM) of thin 1, 5, and 10 nm-thick vapor-deposited gold layers on silicon enhances its room-temperature sub-band gap infrared absorption, as in the case of ion-implanted and PLM-treated silicon. The former approach offers reduced fabrication complexity and avoids implantation-induced lattice damage compared to ion implantation and pulsed laser melting, while exhibiting comparable optical absorptance. We additionally observed strong broadband absorptance enhancement in PLM samples made using 5- and 10-nm-thick gold layers. Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering analysis indicate that such an enhancement could be explained by absorption by a metastable, disordered and gold-rich surface layer. The sheet resistance and the diode electrical characteristics further elucidate the role of gold-supersaturation in silicon, revealing the promise for future silicon-based infrared device applications.

  6. Magnetically retained silicone facial prosthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-09

    Jun 9, 2013 ... Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention.

  7. Impurity doping processes in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1981-01-01

    This book introduces to non-experts several important processes of impurity doping in silicon and goes on to discuss the methods of determination of the concentration of dopants in silicon. The conventional method used is the discussion process, but, since it has been sufficiently covered in many texts, this work describes the double-diffusion method.

  8. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  9. Recent developments in silicon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.

    1990-11-01

    We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC

  10. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  11. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  12. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  13. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  14. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  15. Bessel light sheet structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshirvani Allahabadi, Golchehr

    Biomedical study researchers using animals to model disease and treatment need fast, deep, noninvasive, and inexpensive multi-channel imaging methods. Traditional fluorescence microscopy meets those criteria to an extent. Specifically, two-photon and confocal microscopy, the two most commonly used methods, are limited in penetration depth, cost, resolution, and field of view. In addition, two-photon microscopy has limited ability in multi-channel imaging. Light sheet microscopy, a fast developing 3D fluorescence imaging method, offers attractive advantages over traditional two-photon and confocal microscopy. Light sheet microscopy is much more applicable for in vivo 3D time-lapsed imaging, owing to its selective illumination of tissue layer, superior speed, low light exposure, high penetration depth, and low levels of photobleaching. However, standard light sheet microscopy using Gaussian beam excitation has two main disadvantages: 1) the field of view (FOV) of light sheet microscopy is limited by the depth of focus of the Gaussian beam. 2) Light-sheet images can be degraded by scattering, which limits the penetration of the excitation beam and blurs emission images in deep tissue layers. While two-sided sheet illumination, which doubles the field of view by illuminating the sample from opposite sides, offers a potential solution, the technique adds complexity and cost to the imaging system. We investigate a new technique to address these limitations: Bessel light sheet microscopy in combination with incoherent nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results demonstrate that, at visible wavelengths, Bessel excitation penetrates up to 250 microns deep in the scattering media with single-side illumination. Bessel light sheet microscope achieves confocal level resolution at a lateral resolution of 0.3 micron and an axial resolution of 1 micron. Incoherent nonlinear SIM further reduces the diffused background in Bessel light sheet images, resulting in

  16. Combined analyses of ion beam synthesized layers in porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.R.; Silva, M.F. da; Silva, M.R. da; Soares, J.C.; Paszti, F.; Horvath, Z.E.; Vazsonyi, E.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    High dose ion implantation was used to form polycrystalline silicide films on porous silicon with different native concentrations of light impurities (C and O). Porous silicon layers several μm thick were implanted with 170 KeV Cr + ions to fluences of 3x10'1 7 ions/cm 2 both at room temperature and 450 o C. Similar samples were implanted with 100 keV Co + ions to fluences of 2x10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature and 350 o C and 450 o C. The formed silicide compounds were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, and four point-probe sheet resistance measurements. Selected Co implanted samples were analysed by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the light impurities were partially expelled from the forming silicide layer. Combining cross-section transmission electron microscopy with ion beam methods it was possible to show that, in the implanted region, the porous structure collapses and densities during implantation, but the underlying porous silicon remains intact. The layer structure as well as the quality and type of the formed silicide, were found to depend on the original impurity level, implantation temperature, and annealing. (author)

  17. The transposition of the balance sheet to financial and functional balance sheet. Research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana GĂDĂU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, through this paper we want to highlight the necessity of treating again the content and the form of the balance sheet in order to adapt it to a more efficient analysis, this way surpassing the informational valences of the classic balance sheet. The functional and the financial balance sheet will be taken into account. These models of balance sheet permit the complex analyses regarding the solvability or the bankruptcy risk of an enterprise to take place, and also other analyses, like the analysis of the structure and the financial/ functional equilibrium, the analysis of the company on operating cycles and their role in the functioning of the company. Through the particularities offered by each of these two models of balance sheet, we want to present the advantages of a superior informing. This content of this material is based on a vast investigation of the specialized literature.

  18. Greenland ice-sheet contribution to sea-level rise buffered by meltwater storage in firn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J; Humphrey, N; Pfeffer, W T; Brown, J; Fettweis, X

    2012-11-08

    Surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet has shown increasing trends in areal extent and duration since the beginning of the satellite era. Records for melt were broken in 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2012. Much of the increased surface melt is occurring in the percolation zone, a region of the accumulation area that is perennially covered by snow and firn (partly compacted snow). The fate of melt water in the percolation zone is poorly constrained: some may travel away from its point of origin and eventually influence the ice sheet's flow dynamics and mass balance and the global sea level, whereas some may simply infiltrate into cold snow or firn and refreeze with none of these effects. Here we quantify the existing water storage capacity of the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet and show the potential for hundreds of gigatonnes of meltwater storage. We collected in situ observations of firn structure and meltwater retention along a roughly 85-kilometre-long transect of the melting accumulation area. Our data show that repeated infiltration events in which melt water penetrates deeply (more than 10 metres) eventually fill all pore space with water. As future surface melt intensifies under Arctic warming, a fraction of melt water that would otherwise contribute to sea-level rise will fill existing pore space of the percolation zone. We estimate the lower and upper bounds of this storage sink to be 322 ± 44 gigatonnes and  1,289(+388)(-252) gigatonnes, respectively. Furthermore, we find that decades are required to fill this pore space under a range of plausible future climate conditions. Hence, routing of surface melt water into filling the pore space of the firn column will delay expansion of the area contributing to sea-level rise, although once the pore space is filled it cannot quickly be regenerated.

  19. Effects of Cl+ and F+ implantation of oxidation-induced stacking faults in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.Y.; Bronsveld, P.M.; Boom, G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1984-01-01

    Three implantation effects were investigated in floating-zone-grown silicon: (a) the effect of Cl+ implantation resulting in the shrinkage of oxidation-induced stacking faults; (b) the effect of F+ implantation giving rise to defaulting of the 1/3 [111] Frank dislocations into 1/2[110] perfect

  20. Preparation of copper and silicon/copper powders by a gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure and silicon-coated metal copper nano to submicron-sized powders were prepared by gas evaporation and condensation. This powder was synthesized by using an industrial electron accelerator, ELV-6, with Ar as the carrier gas. Vapour from the liquefied metal surface was transferred to the cold zone by the carrier ...

  1. Capacity spectroscopy of minority-carrier radiation traps in n-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskij, P.V.; Lomako, V.M.; Shakhlevich, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Minority charge-carrier radiation traps in n-silicon, produced by neutron transmutation doping (NTD) and zone melting method, were studied using unsteady capacity spectroscopy method. Studying the parameters of defects, formed in the lower half of the restricted zone, was performed using minority carrier injection by forward current pulses. Samples were p + -n-structures, produced on the basis of silicon with different oxygen content. It is shown, that a trap with activation energy ≅E v +0.34 eV appears to be the main defect in oxygen p-silicon. Investigation into thermal stability has shown, that centers with E v +0.34 eV and E v +0.27 eV activation energies are annealed within the same temperature interval (300-400 deg C)

  2. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  3. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  4. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  5. Chalcogen donnors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolfaro, L.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic stucture of chalcogen impurities in silicon which give rise to deep levels in the forbidden band gap of that semiconductor is studied. The molecular cluster model within the formalism of the multiple scattering method in the Xα local density approximation was used . The surface orbitals were treated by using the Watson sphere model. Studies were carried out for the isolated substitutional sulfur and selenium impurities (Si:S and Si:Se). A pioneer investigation was performed for the nearest-neighbor impurity pairs of sulfur and selenium (Si:S 2 and Si:Se 2 ). All the systems were also analysed in the positive charge states (Si:S + , Si:Se + and Si:Se 2 + ) and for the isolated impurities the calculations were carried out to the spin polarized limit. The obtained results were used to interpret recent photoconductivity, photocapitance, EPR and DLTS data on these centers. It was observed that the adopted model is able to provide a satisfactory description of the electronic structure of the chalcogen impurity centers in silicon. (autor) [pt

  6. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  7. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  8. On use of weld zone temperatures for online monitoring of weld quality in friction stir welding of naturally aged aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, Murshid; Biswas, Kajal; Racherla, Vikranth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • FSWs for 6063-T4 AA are done at different process parameters and sheet thicknesses. • Weld nugget zone and heat affected zone temperatures are monitored for each case. • Microstructural and mechanical characterisation of welds is done in all cases. • Weld ductility is found to be particularly sensitive to weld zone temperatures. • Strong correlation is found between WNZ and HAZ temperatures and weld properties. - Abstract: 6063-T4 aluminium alloy sheets of 3 and 6 mm thicknesses were friction stir butt welded using a square tool pin at a wide range of tool rotational speeds. Properties of obtained welds were characterised using tensile tests, optical micrographs, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Shape, size, and distribution of precipitates in weld zones, and strength and ductility of welds were seen to directly correlate with peak temperatures in weld nugget and heat affected zones, independent of sheet thickness. In addition, fluctuations in measured temperature profiles, for 3 mm sheets, were seen to correlate with an increase in scatter of weld nugget zone properties for 3 mm sheets. Optimal weld strength and ductility were obtained for peak weld nugget zone temperatures of around 450 °C and corresponding peak heat affected zone temperatures of around 360–380 °C. Results obtained suggest that, at least for naturally aged aluminium alloys, nature of temperature evolution and magnitudes of peak temperatures in weld nugget and heat affected zones provide information on uniformity of properties in weld zones, overaging of heat affected zones, and formation of tunnel defects from improper material mixing at low weld zone temperatures

  9. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  10. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows that cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found: a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive, or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior, which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence

  11. Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table

  12. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  13. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths, L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows which cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found - a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence. 31 refs., 6 figs

  14. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  15. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Friction Stir Spot-Welded Aluminum-5754 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, N.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Sarangi, M.; Panda, Sushanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a recent trend of joining light-weight sheet metals while fabricating automotive and aerospace body components. For the successful application of this solid-state welding process, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the weld microstructure, mechanical performance, and failure mechanism. In the present study, FSSW of aluminum-5754 sheet metal was tried using tools with circular and tapered pin considering different tool rotational speeds, plunge depths, and dwell times. The effects of tool design and process parameters on temperature distribution near the sheet-tool interface, weld microstructure, weld strength, and failure modes were studied. It was found that the peak temperature was higher while welding with a tool having circular pin compared to tapered pin, leading to a bigger dynamic recrystallized stir zone (SZ) with a hook tip bending towards the upper sheet and away from the keyhole. Hence, higher lap shear separation load was observed in the welds made from circular pin compared to those made from tapered pin. Due to influence of size and hardness of SZ on crack propagation, three different failure modes of weld nugget were observed through optical cross-sectional micrograph and SEM fractographs.

  17. Microstructural investigations of the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Green, D. E.; Sohmshetty, R.; Alpas, A. T.

    2017-10-01

    In order to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining crashworthiness, advanced high strength steels (AHSSs), such as DP980, are extensively used for manufacturing automotive body components. During trimming operations, the high tensile strength of DP980 sheets tends to cause damage of the trim edge of D2 die inserts, which result in deterioration of the edge quality. The objective of this work is to study the damage microstructures at the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets as a function of the number of trimming cycles. A mechanical press equipped with AISI D2 tool steel inserts was used to continuously trim 1.4 mm thick sheets of DP980 at a rate of 30 strokes/min. Cross-sectional SEM images of the trimmed edges revealed that the sheared edge quality of the DP980 sheets decreased, indicated by an increase in the burr width, with an increase in the number of trims from 40,000 to 70,000. Plastic strains were estimated using the displacements of the martensite plates within plastic flow fields of ferrite. Site-specific cross-sectional TEM samples, excised from the trimmed edge using the in-situ `lift-out' technique by focused ion-beam (FIB)-milling, revealed cracking at the ferrite/martensite interfaces after 70,000 cycles indicating an increase in the depth of deformation zone possibly due to trimming with a chipped and blunted die edge.

  18. Recombination via point defects and their complexes in solar silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaker, A.R.; Markevich, V.P.; Hamilton, B. [Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Parada, G.; Dudas, A.; Pap, A. [Semilab, 2 Prielle Kornelia Str, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Don, E. [Semimetrics, PO Box 36, Kings Langley, Herts WD4 9WB (United Kingdom); Lim, B.; Schmidt, J. [Institute for Solar Energy Research (ISFH) Hamlen, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Yu, L.; Yoon, Y.; Rozgonyi, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Electronic grade Czochralski and float zone silicon in the as grown state have a very low concentration of recombination generation centers (typically <10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}). Consequently, in integrated circuit technologies using such material, electrically active inadvertent impurities and structural defects are rarely detectable. The quest for cheap photovoltaic cells has led to the use of less pure silicon, multi-crystalline material, and low cost processing for solar applications. Cells made in this way have significant extrinsic recombination mechanisms. In this paper we review recombination involving defects and impurities in single crystal and in multi-crystalline solar silicon. Our main techniques for this work are recombination lifetime mapping measurements using microwave detected photoconductivity decay and variants of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). In particular, we use Laplace DLTS to distinguish between isolated point defects, small precipitate complexes and decorated extended defects. We compare the behavior of some common metallic contaminants in solar silicon in relation to their effect on carrier lifetime and cell efficiency. Finally, we consider the role of hydrogen passivation in relation to transition metal contaminants, grain boundaries and dislocations. We conclude that recombination via point defects can be significant but in most multi-crystalline material the dominant recombination path is via decorated dislocation clusters within grains with little contribution to the overall recombination from grain boundaries. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  20. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  1. Physics of the magnetotail current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetotail plays an important role in the solar-wind--magnetosphere coupling. At the midplane of the magnetotail is a current sheet where the dominant magnetic field component reverses sign. The charged particle motion in and near the current sheet is collisionless and nonintegrable, exhibiting chaotic scattering. The current understanding of the dynamical properties of the charged particle motion is discussed. In particular, the relationships between particle dynamics and global attributes of the system are elucidated. Geometrical properties of the phase space determine important physical observables on both micro- and macroscales

  2. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons (1). Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  3. Balance sheet capacity and endogenous risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Danielsson; Hyun Song Shin; Jean-Pierre Zigrand

    2011-01-01

    Banks operating under Value-at-Risk constraints give rise to a well-defined aggregate balance sheet capacity for the banking sector as a whole that depends on total bank capital. Equilibrium risk and market risk premiums can be solved in closed form as functions of aggregate bank capital. We explore the empirical properties of the model in light of recent experience in the financial crisis and highlight the importance of balance sheet capacity as the driver of the financial cycle and market r...

  4. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects

  5. Piezoresistive pressure sensor using low-temperature aluminium induced crystallization of sputter-deposited amorphous silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Chandra, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the piezoresistive properties of silicon films prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique, followed by the aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) process. Orientation and grain size of the polysilicon films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and found to be in the range 30–50 nm. Annealing of the Al–Si stack on an oxidized silicon substrate was performed in air ambient at 300–550 °C, resulting in layer exchange and transformation from amorphous to polysilicon phase. Van der Pauw and Hall measurement techniques were used to investigate the sheet resistance and carrier mobility of the resulting polycrystalline silicon film. The effect of Al thickness on the sheet resistance and mobility was also studied in the present work. A piezoresistive pressure sensor was fabricated on an oxidized silicon substrate in a Wheatstone bridge configuration, comprising of four piezoresistors made of polysilicon film obtained by the AIC process. The diaphragm was formed by the bulk-micromachining of silicon substrate. The response of the pressure sensor with applied negative pressure in 10–95 kPa range was studied. The gauge factor was estimated to be 5 and 18 for differently located piezoresistors on the diaphragm. The sensitivity of the pressure sensor was measured to be ∼ 30 mV MPa −1 , when the Wheatstone bridge was biased at 1 V input voltage. (paper)

  6. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  7. Luminescence of porous silicon doped by erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.P.; Vorozov, N.N.; Dolgij, L.N.; Dorofeev, A.M.; Kazyuchits, N.M.; Leshok, A.A.; Troyanova, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the 1.54 μm intensive luminescence in the silicon dense porous layers, doped by erbium, with various structures is shown. Low-porous materials of both porous type on the p-type silicon and porous silicon with wood-like structure on the n + type silicon may be used for formation of light-emitting structures

  8. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  9. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  10. New method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-01-01

    The avalanche breakdown and Geiger mode of the silicon p-n junction is considered. A precise physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDE rel ) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDE rel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts. [ru

  11. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  12. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  13. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  14. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  15. Zirconates heteroepitaxy on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fompeyrine, Jean; Seo, Jin Won; Seigwart, Heinz; Rossel, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-03-01

    In the coming years, agressive scaling in CMOS technology will probably trigger the transition to more advanced materials, for example alternate gate dielectrics. Epitaxial thin films are attractive candidates, as long as the difficult chemical and structural issues can be solved, and superior properties can be obtained. Since very few binary oxides can match the electrical, physical and structural requirements which are needed, a combination of those binaries are used here to investigate other lattice matched oxides. We will report on the growth of crystalline zirconium oxide thin films stabilized with different cationic substitutions. All films have been grown in an oxide-MBE system by direct evaporation of the elements on silicon substrates and exposure to molecular or atomic oxygen. The conditions required to obtain epitaxial thin films will be discussed, and successful examples will be presented.

  16. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  17. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  18. Muonium states in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Baumeler, H.; Keller, H.; Kiefl, R.F.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Schneider, J.W.; Estle, T.L.; Spencer, D.P.; Savic, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Implanted muons in samples of silicon carbide have been observed to form paramagnetic muonium centers (μ + e - ). Muonium precession signals in low applied magnetic fields have been observed at 22 K in a granular sample of cubic β-SiC, however it was not possible to determine the hyperfine frequency. In a signal crystal sample of hexagonal 6H-SiC, three apparently isotropic muonium states were observed at 20 K and two at 300 K, all with hyperfine frequencies intermediate between those of the isotropic muonium centers in diamond and silicon. No evidence was seen of an anisotropic muonium state analogous to the Mu * state in diamond and silicon. (orig.)

  19. Polycrystalline Silicon Gettered by Porous Silicon and Heavy Phosphorous Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuming(刘祖明); Souleymane K Traore; ZHANG Zhongwen(张忠文); LUO Yi(罗毅)

    2004-01-01

    The biggest barrier for photovoltaic (PV) utilization is its high cost, so the key for scale PV utilization is to further decrease the cost of solar cells. One way to improve the efficiency, and therefore lower the cost, is to increase the minority carrier lifetime by controlling the material defects. The main defects in grain boundaries of polycrystalline silicon gettered by porous silicon and heavy phosphorous diffusion have been studied. The porous silicon was formed on the two surfaces of wafers by chemical etching. Phosphorous was then diffused into the wafers at high temperature (900℃). After the porous silicon and diffusion layers were removed, the minority carrier lifetime was measured by photo-conductor decay. The results show that the lifetime's minority carriers are increased greatly after such treatment.

  20. Large area silicon sheet by EFG. Fourth quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, F.V.

    1979-03-01

    Crystal growth station no. 1 further explored displaced die concepts, along with some initial work on buckle characterization. Also, convective impurity redistribution was further studied. In particular, a side channel die was used to grow material doped with aluminum and compare the results at least semiquantitatively with computer calculations. The ribbons grown have not been characterized yet. In station no. 3A growth from single cartridges was continued to create a quality baseline to allow comparison of the results with those in the upcoming multiple run and to choose the most appropriate die design. Also fabrication and assembly work on the actual five ribbon furnace continued. On furnace 17 progress was made toward the development of the video optical system for edge position and meniscus height control. Also, in preparation for a detailed program, designed to explore the buckling problem, ribbon width ribon was then grown under stable conditions without a cold shoe, an achievement essential to finally arrive at quantitative correlations between growth conditions and buckle formation. The most significant result from the characterization program was a demonstration that the original runs with displaced dies were indeed reproducible, inasmuch as large area cells (7.5 x 7.5 cm/sup 2/) of approx. 9% efficiency could be fabricated again from run 18-103, a repeat of run no. 18-102 which had previously produced the best cells.

  1. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  2. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  3. The difference of phase distributions in silicon after indentation with Berkovich and spherical indenters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarudi, I.; Zhang, L.C.; Cheong, W.C.D.; Yu, T.X.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the microstructure of monocrystalline silicon after indentation with a Berkovich and spherical indenter. Transmission electron microscopy on cross section view samples was used to explore the detailed distributions of various phases in the subsurfaces of indented silicon. It was found that an increase of the P max would promote the growth of the crystalline R8/BC8 phase at the bottom of the deformation zone. Microcracks were always generated in the range of the P max studied. It was also found that the deformation zones formed by the Berkovich and spherical indenters have very different phase distribution characteristics. A molecular dynamics simulation and finite element analysis supported the experimental observations and suggested that the distribution of the crystalline phases in the transformation zone after indentation was highly stress-dependent

  4. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  5. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  6. Frozen cultured sheets of epidermal keratinocytes in reepithelialization and repair of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; Ozorno-Zarate, Jorge; Naranjo-Tackman, Ramon; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether frozen cultured sheets of human allogeneic epidermal keratinocytes (CEAK) improved wound repair after experimental corneal ablation by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Hospital "Luis Sanchez Bulnes" de la Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico, I.A.P, and Department of Cell Biology, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico. Transepithelial PRK was performed in the right eye of male albino rabbits to obtain a 112 microm deep and 6.0 mm diameter ablation zone. In 17 eyes, the ablations were covered with frozen CEAK; in 11 eyes, the ablations were covered with a disposable contact lens without the cultured sheets; and in the control group (13 eyes), the ablations were not covered. Subepithelial fibrosis and reepithelialization of the ablated zone were evaluated in serial paraffin-embedded tissue sections from all wounds. Treatment with CEAK reduced fibroblast proliferation and the inflammatory response beneath the ablated zone and produced better organization of the newly formed epithelium by eliminating significant hyperplasia or discontinuities in the periodic acid Shiff-stained basement membrane. It also led to accelerated reepithelialization. The use of frozen CEAK as a biologically active wound dressing improved tissue repair at 1 month in corneas ablated by transepithelial PRK in the male albino rabbit model. Treatment with CEAK could improve the outcome of PRK in humans.

  7. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  8. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  9. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  10. Multiscale friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Felder, Eric; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The most often used friction model for sheet metal forming simulations is the relative simple Coulomb friction model. This paper presents a more advanced friction model for large scale forming simulations based on the surface change on the micro-scale. The surface texture of a material changes when

  11. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  12. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  13. Renewable Energy Project Development Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Tribes selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  14. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  15. The storm time central plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schödel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma sheet plays a key role during magnetic storms because it is the bottleneck through which large amounts of magnetic flux that have been eroded from the dayside magnetopause have to be returned to the dayside magnetosphere. Using about five years of Geotail data we studied the average properties of the near- and midtail central plasma sheet (CPS in the 10–30 RE range during magnetic storms. The earthward flux transport rate is greatly enhanced during the storm main phase, but shows a significant earthward decrease. Hence, since the magnetic flux cannot be circulated at a sufficient rate, this leads to an average dipolarization of the central plasma sheet. An increase of the specific entropy of the CPS ion population by a factor of about two during the storm main phase provides evidence for nonadiabatic heating processes. The direction of flux transport during the main phase is consistent with the possible formation of a near-Earth neutral line beyond ~20 RE.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  16. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  17. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  18. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  19. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  20. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.