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Sample records for zno nanostructures synthesized

  1. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated polyethersulfone substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yoo, Chanho; No, Youngsoo; Kim, Suyoun; Kim, Taewhan; Cho, Woonjo; Kim, Jinyoung

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were formed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates at low temperature by using an electrochemical deposition method. The resistivity of the AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer films decreased with increasing thickness of the Ag film. X-ray diffraction patterns for the ZnO nanostructures showed that the crystal structure of the ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite and that the orientation was along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown at current densities of - 1.0 and - 1.5 mA/cm 2 were ZnO nanorods with diameters of 150 nm and ZnO nanoflowers with a planar dimension, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the band-edge emission peak of the ZnO nanostructures dominantly appeared in the ultraviolet region. These results showed that ZnO nanorods and nanoflowers with high quality were synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated PES substrates.

  3. Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosipho Moloto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2 nanotubes were also formed with minimum bundles. The mechanism for the formation of the tubes was validated by HRTEM results. The optical properties of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures showed characteristics of strong quantum confinement regime. The photoluminescence spectrum of TiO2 nanotubes shows good improvement from previously reported data.

  4. Optical and morphological properties of ZnO- and TiO2-derived nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporation International Journal of Photoenergy Volume 2012, Article ID 189069, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2012/189069 Research Article Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave... International Journal of Photoenergy the sol-gel, hydrothermal process, and pulse laser deposition [22?24]. Although the sol-gel method is widely accepted for the preparation of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures, the calcinations process is essential and can...

  5. Anodized ZnO nanostructures for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wang, TsingHai [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, Bin-Jui [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclin4046@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by electrochemical anodic process. • The parameter of ZnO nanostructure was anodic potential. • The model of growth of ZnO nanostructure was investigated. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on the polished zinc foil by anodic deposition in an alkaline solution containing 1.0 M NaOH and 0.25 M Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Potentiostatic anodization was conducted at two potentials (−0.7 V in the passive region and −1.0 V in the active region vs. SCE) which are higher than the open circuit potential (−1.03 V vs. SCE) and as-obtained ZnO nanostrcutures were investigated focusing on their structural, optical, electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) characteristics. All samples were confirmed ZnO by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Observations in the SEM images clearly showed that ZnO nanostructures prepared at −0.7 V vs. SCE were composed of nanowires at while those obtained at −1.0 V vs. SCE possessed nanosheets morphology. Result from transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction patterns suggested that the ZnO nanowires belonged to single crystalline with a preferred orientation of (0 0 2) whereas the ZnO nanosheets were polycrystalline. Following PEC experiments indicated that ZnO nanowires had higher photocurrent density of 0.32 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.5 V vs. SCE under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination. This value was about 1.9 times higher than that of ZnO nanosheets. Observed higher photocurrent was likely due to the single crystalline, preferred (0 0 2) orientation, higher carrier concentration and lower charge transfer resistance.

  6. Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available . These materials were synthesized in a shape-selective manner using simple microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated the as-synthesized ZnO nanostructures to be stable and of high purity. Structural analyses showed...

  7. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  8. Morphological transition of ZnO nanostructures influenced by magnesium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, T.; Zhou, Y.S.; Gao, Y.; Baskar, K.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) nanochains have been synthesized through high-pressure pulsed laser deposition. The chain-like ZnO nanostructures were obtained from magnesium (Mg) doped ZnO targets, whereas vertically aligned nanorods were obtained from primitive ZnO targets. The Mg doping has influenced the morphological transition of ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanochains. The field emission scanning electron microscope images revealed the growth of beaded ZnO nanochains. The ZnO nanochains of different diameters 40 and 120 nm were obtained. The corresponding micro-Raman spectra showed strong E 2H mode of ZnO, which confirmed the good crystallinity of the nanochains. In addition to near band edge emission at 3.28 eV, ZnO nanochains show broad deep level emission at 2.42 eV than that of ZnO nanorods.

  9. Hydrothermal growth and characterizations of dandelion-like ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Institute of Science, Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 032, (M.S.) (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •The simple, low cost, environmental benign hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize ZnO nanostructure. •The SEM images reveal the interesting 3D dandelion-like morphology of synthesized ZnO nanostructure. The SAED pattern and HRTEM study confirms that the ZnO nanorods are single crystalline. •Change in experimental conditions dramatically changes the morphologies of the synthesized ZnO. •The room temperature PL study reveals strong band edge emission along with much weaker defect related blue emission. •The reaction and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructure is also discussed. -- Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by using a facile low-cost hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Aqueous alkaline ammonia solution of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} is used to grow 3D ZnO nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the well crystallized hexagonal structure of ZnO. SEM observations depict that the ZnO product grows in the form of nanorods united together to form 3D dandelion-like nanostructures. The elemental analysis using EDAX technique confirms the stoichiometry of the ZnO nanorods. The product exhibits special optical properties with red-shifts in optical absorption peak (376 nm) as compared with those of conventional ZnO nanorods. PL spectra show emission peak (396 nm) at the near band-edge and peak (464 nm) originated from defects states that are produced during the hydrothermal growth. TEM and SAED results reveal single crystalline structure of the synthesized product. The reaction and growth mechanisms on the morphological evolution of the ZnO nanostructures are discussed. The morphology of ZnO product is investigated by varying the reaction time, temperature, and type of complexing reagent.

  10. Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by sonochemical method: Structural, photoluminescence, and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A.A., E-mail: aaelho@yahoo.com [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Osman, M.A. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Ibrahim, E.M.M. [Sohag University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Ali, Manar A.; Abd-Elrahim, A.G. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the sonochemical method. • Structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic properties were investigated. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures reveal a blue shift of the optical band gap. • Photoluminescence spectra of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures show quenching in the emission intensity. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures using ice-bath assisted sonochemical technique. The impact of Mn-doping on structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The morphological study shows that the lower doped samples possess mixtures of nanosheets and nanorods while the increase in Mn content leads to improvement of an anisotropic growth in a preferable orientation to form well-defined edge rods at Mn content of 0.04. UV–vis absorption spectra show that the exciton peak in the UV region is blue shifted due to Mn incorporation into the ZnO lattice. Doping ZnO with Mn ions leads to a reduction in the PL intensity due to a creation of more non-radiative recombination centers. The magnetic measurements show that the Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, as well as variation of the Mn content can significantly affect the ferromagnetic behavior of the samples.

  11. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured ZnO coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The solution precursor route employed is an inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale coatings at fast rates on mass scale production. → It is highly capable of developing tailorable nanostructures. → This technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. → The ZnO coatings developed via solution precursor plasma spray process have good electrical conductivity and reflectivity properties in spite of possessing large amount of particulate boundaries, porosity and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material that has various applications including optical, electronic, biomedical and corrosion protection. It is usually synthesized via processing routes, such as vapor deposition techniques, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis and thermal spray of pre-synthesized ZnO powders. Cheaper and faster synthesis techniques are of technological importance due to increased demand in alternative energy applications. Here, we report synthesis of nanostructured ZnO coatings directly from a solution precursor in a single step using plasma spray technique. Nanostructured ZnO coatings were deposited from the solution precursor prepared using zinc acetate and water/isopropanol. An axial liquid atomizer was employed in a DC plasma spray torch to create fine droplets of precursor for faster thermal treatment in the plasma plume to form ZnO. Microstructures of coatings revealed ultrafine particulate agglomerates. X-ray diffraction confirmed polycrystalline nature and hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure of the coatings. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed fine grains in the range of 10-40 nm. Observed optical transmittance (∼65-80%) and reflectivity (∼65-70%) in the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity (48.5-50.1 mΩ cm) of ZnO coatings are attributed to ultrafine particulate morphology of the coatings.

  12. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured ZnO coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummala, Raghavender [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Guduru, Ramesh K., E-mail: rkguduru@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Mohanty, Pravansu S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The solution precursor route employed is an inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale coatings at fast rates on mass scale production. {yields} It is highly capable of developing tailorable nanostructures. {yields} This technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. {yields} The ZnO coatings developed via solution precursor plasma spray process have good electrical conductivity and reflectivity properties in spite of possessing large amount of particulate boundaries, porosity and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material that has various applications including optical, electronic, biomedical and corrosion protection. It is usually synthesized via processing routes, such as vapor deposition techniques, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis and thermal spray of pre-synthesized ZnO powders. Cheaper and faster synthesis techniques are of technological importance due to increased demand in alternative energy applications. Here, we report synthesis of nanostructured ZnO coatings directly from a solution precursor in a single step using plasma spray technique. Nanostructured ZnO coatings were deposited from the solution precursor prepared using zinc acetate and water/isopropanol. An axial liquid atomizer was employed in a DC plasma spray torch to create fine droplets of precursor for faster thermal treatment in the plasma plume to form ZnO. Microstructures of coatings revealed ultrafine particulate agglomerates. X-ray diffraction confirmed polycrystalline nature and hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure of the coatings. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed fine grains in the range of 10-40 nm. Observed optical transmittance ({approx}65-80%) and reflectivity ({approx}65-70%) in the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity (48.5-50.1 m{Omega} cm) of ZnO coatings are attributed to ultrafine particulate morphology of the coatings.

  13. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Sunil K.; Saha, Shibu; Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E.; Gupta, Vinay; Bhansali, Shekhar; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: ► This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. ► Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. ► Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. ► Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO nanostructures suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review

  14. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Sunil K., E-mail: sunilarya333@gmail.com [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, A-Star 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Saha, Shibu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E. [Engineering Science and Materials Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (United States); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Bhansali, Shekhar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Singh, Surinder P., E-mail: singh.uprm@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2012-08-06

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO

  15. Template-free sonochemical synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Huawa [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); School of Science, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China); Fan, Huiqing, E-mail: hqfan3@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Xin [Shaanxi Province Thin Film Technology and Optical Test Open Key Laboratory, School of Photoelectrical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Cheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojun [School of Science, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Flower-like ZnO nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a facile and template-free sonochemical method, using zinc acetate and potassium hydroxide as reactants only. The as-synthesized flower-like ZnO nanostructures were composed of nanorods with the width of ∼300–400 nm and the length of ∼2–3 μm. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Raman-scattering spectroscopy. A plausible formation mechanism of flower-like ZnO nanostructures was studied by SEM which monitors an intermediate morphology transformation of the product at the different ultrasonic time (t=80,90,95,105, and 120 min). - Highlights: • A facile and template-free sonochemical method to fabricate flower-like ZnO nanostructures was proposed. • The flower-like ZnO nanostructures follow the ingrowth of ZnO from the matrix of Zn(OH){sub 2} crystals. • The flower-like ZnO nanostructures are also expected to explore their application in the field of nano-electronic devices.

  16. Template-free sonochemical synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huawa; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a facile and template-free sonochemical method, using zinc acetate and potassium hydroxide as reactants only. The as-synthesized flower-like ZnO nanostructures were composed of nanorods with the width of ∼300–400 nm and the length of ∼2–3 μm. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Raman-scattering spectroscopy. A plausible formation mechanism of flower-like ZnO nanostructures was studied by SEM which monitors an intermediate morphology transformation of the product at the different ultrasonic time (t=80,90,95,105, and 120 min). - Highlights: • A facile and template-free sonochemical method to fabricate flower-like ZnO nanostructures was proposed. • The flower-like ZnO nanostructures follow the ingrowth of ZnO from the matrix of Zn(OH) 2 crystals. • The flower-like ZnO nanostructures are also expected to explore their application in the field of nano-electronic devices

  17. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  18. ZnO nanostructure fabrication in different solvents transforms physio-chemical, biological and photodegradable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Attarad; Ambreen, Sidra; Javed, Rabia; Tabassum, Saira [Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ul Haq, Ihsan [Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Zia, Muhammad, E-mail: ziachaudhary@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized in various organic solvents (acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) and water via coprecipitation process using zinc acetate as precursor. The resultant ZnO nanoparticles, nano rods and nano sheets are characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The variable size and geometry of nanoparticles depend upon medium used for synthesis. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures exhibit minor to moderate antioxidative (DPPH based free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidative potential and total reducing power) response. Mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities, excellent antileishmanial potential (IC50 up to 3.76), and good cytotoxic perspective (LD50 up to 49.4) is also observed by the synthesized ZnO NPs. The nanoparticles also exhibit moderate α-amylase inhibition response. Furthermore the nanostructures are evaluated for methylene blue photodegradation response within 60 min time period. It is found that organic solvent alters shape, size and other physio-chemical properties of ZnO that ultimately modulate the biological, chemical, and environmental properties. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide nanoparticles are fabricated in different solvents using co-precipitation method • SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis confirms variation in physical and chemical characteristics of synthesized ZnO NPs • The synthesized ZnO demonstrates variation in biological, phytochemical and photodegradable properties.

  19. ZnO nanostructure fabrication in different solvents transforms physio-chemical, biological and photodegradable properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Attarad; Ambreen, Sidra; Javed, Rabia; Tabassum, Saira; Ul Haq, Ihsan; Zia, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized in various organic solvents (acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) and water via coprecipitation process using zinc acetate as precursor. The resultant ZnO nanoparticles, nano rods and nano sheets are characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The variable size and geometry of nanoparticles depend upon medium used for synthesis. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures exhibit minor to moderate antioxidative (DPPH based free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidative potential and total reducing power) response. Mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities, excellent antileishmanial potential (IC50 up to 3.76), and good cytotoxic perspective (LD50 up to 49.4) is also observed by the synthesized ZnO NPs. The nanoparticles also exhibit moderate α-amylase inhibition response. Furthermore the nanostructures are evaluated for methylene blue photodegradation response within 60 min time period. It is found that organic solvent alters shape, size and other physio-chemical properties of ZnO that ultimately modulate the biological, chemical, and environmental properties. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide nanoparticles are fabricated in different solvents using co-precipitation method • SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis confirms variation in physical and chemical characteristics of synthesized ZnO NPs • The synthesized ZnO demonstrates variation in biological, phytochemical and photodegradable properties.

  20. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures on noble-metal coated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikovska, A.Og. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, G.B. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Avdeev, G.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on Au–Ag alloy coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. • Morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy content in the catalyst layer. • Increasing the Ag content in Au–Ag catalyst layer changes the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanobelts. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on noble-metal (Au, Ag and Au–Ag alloys) coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared at a substrate temperature of 550 °C, an oxygen pressure of 5 Pa, and a laser fluence of 2 J cm{sup −2} – process parameters usually used for deposition of smooth and dense thin films. The metal layer's role is substantial for the preparation of nanostructures. Heating of the substrate changed the morphology of the metal layer and, subsequently, nanoparticles were formed. The use of different metal particles resulted in different morphologies and properties of the ZnO nanostructures synthesized. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy's content of the catalyst layer. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to nanobelts as the ratio of Au/Ag in the alloy catalyst was varied. The use of a small quantity of Ag in the Au–Ag catalyst (Au{sub 3}Ag) layer resulted predominantly in the deposition of ZnO nanorods. A higher Ag content in the catalyst alloy (AuAg{sub 2}) layer resulted in the growth of a dense structure of ZnO nanobelts.

  2. Effect of morphology on the non-ohmic conduction in ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, E.; Jayakumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructures of ZnO is synthesized with nanoflower like morphology by simple wet chemical method. The structural, morphological and electrical characterization have been carried out. The temperature dependent electrical characterization of ZnO pellets of thickness 1150 µm is made by the application of 925MPa pressure. The morphological dependence of non-ohmic conduction beyond some arbitrary tunneling potential and grain boundary barrier thickness is compared with the commercially available bulk ZnO. Our results show the suitability of nano-flower like ZnO for the devices like sensors, rectifiers etc.

  3. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of these nanostructures have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM and TEM studies revealed flower-like structures consisting of nanosheets, formed due to oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. Flower-like ZnO structures showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards sun-light driven photodegradation of methylene blue dye (MB as compared to ZnO nanoparticles. XRD, UV–vis absorption, PL, FTIR and TEM studies revealed the formation of Zn(OH2 surface layer on ZnO nanostructures upon ageing. We demonstrate that the formation of a passivating Zn(OH2 surface layer on the ZnO nanostructures upon ageing deteriorates their efficiency to photocatalytically degrade of MB.

  4. Use of Nanostructured ZnO for Production of Antimicrobial Textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chit Ko Ko Htwe

    2011-12-01

    An awareness of general sanitation, contact disease transmission, and personal protection has led to the development of antimicrobial textiles. The development of antimicrobial fabrics using nanostructure ZnO has been investigated in this present work. The nanostructure ZnO were produced using a microwave irradiation without any other calcinations and were directly applied on to the fabric using pad-dry-cure method.Synthesized nanostructure ZnO were characterized by XRD and SEM for ZnO purification and particle size examination. The antibacterial activity of the finished fabrics was assessed qualitatively by agar diffusion method. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in qualitative test.

  5. Ultra violet sensors based on nanostructured ZnO spheres in network of nanowires: a novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hullavarad, SS; Hullavarad, NV; Karulkar, PC; Luykx, A; Valdivia, P

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThe ZnO nanostructures consisting of micro spheres in a network of nano wires were synthesized by direct vapor phase method. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements were carried out to understand the chemical nature of the sample. ZnO nanostructures exhibited band edge luminescence at 383 nm. The nanostructure based ZnO thin films were used to fabricate UV sensors. The photoresponse measurements were carried out and the responsivity was measured to be 50 mA W−1. The rise a...

  6. Ultra violet sensors based on nanostructured ZnO spheres in network of nanowires: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luykx A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe ZnO nanostructures consisting of micro spheres in a network of nano wires were synthesized by direct vapor phase method. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements were carried out to understand the chemical nature of the sample. ZnO nanostructures exhibited band edge luminescence at 383 nm. The nanostructure based ZnO thin films were used to fabricate UV sensors. The photoresponse measurements were carried out and the responsivity was measured to be 50 mA W−1. The rise and decay time measurements were also measured.

  7. The SL-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Tingting; Guo Yuanru; Pan Qingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanoparticle-bar, nanomesh-lamina, and quasi-nanosphere structures have been successfully synthesized by the precipitation method with assistance of sodium lignosulphonate (SL). It is shown that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials are well crystallized and possess hexagonal wurtzite structure after calcination. Morphologies of ZnO with particle sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be fabricated by tuning the SL amount in our synthetic route. Plenty of pores have been observed both in nanoparticle-bar and nanomesh-lamina ZnO. This may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance their photocatalytic activity. It is evident that the synthesized ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity of degrading methylene blue, even under a very low-power UV illumination, which allows for the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way. Among our synthesized nanomaterials, the nanomesh-lamina ZnO has the highest photodegradation efficiency, achieving nearly 100 % degradation only within 1.5 h (UV irradiation power of 12 W). As these ZnO nanomaterials are simply synthesized using SL which is a pulp industry by-product and their intrinsic hierarchical nanostructures show outstanding photocatalytic behavior, we expect the present controllable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective approach to be applied in the synthesis of small-sized ZnO materials.

  8. The SL-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting-Ting; Guo, Yuan-Ru; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanoparticle-bar, nanomesh-lamina, and quasi-nanosphere structures have been successfully synthesized by the precipitation method with assistance of sodium lignosulphonate (SL). It is shown that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials are well crystallized and possess hexagonal wurtzite structure after calcination. Morphologies of ZnO with particle sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be fabricated by tuning the SL amount in our synthetic route. Plenty of pores have been observed both in nanoparticle-bar and nanomesh-lamina ZnO. This may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance their photocatalytic activity. It is evident that the synthesized ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity of degrading methylene blue, even under a very low-power UV illumination, which allows for the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way. Among our synthesized nanomaterials, the nanomesh-lamina ZnO has the highest photodegradation efficiency, achieving nearly 100 % degradation only within 1.5 h (UV irradiation power of 12 W). As these ZnO nanomaterials are simply synthesized using SL which is a pulp industry by-product and their intrinsic hierarchical nanostructures show outstanding photocatalytic behavior, we expect the present controllable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective approach to be applied in the synthesis of small-sized ZnO materials.

  9. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  10. A Novel Sensor for VOCs Using Nanostructured ZnO and MEMS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Pandya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensor for detection of vapors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs incorporating nanostructured zinc oxide film and silicon micromachining is reported. One of the key features of the sensor is the use of nanostructured ZnO material which has been synthesized using a novel low cost process. Considerable reduction in the operating temperature of the sensor has been achieved due to the use of nanostructured ZnO material as compared to a sensor having ZnO thin film as the sensing layer. The sensor is formed on a micromachined silicon platform thereby reducing the heat loss. This resulted in reduction in power consumption. The sensor has been tested for a variety of VOCs such as: ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol and acetone. The maximum sensitivity of sensor was observed for ethanol vapors.

  11. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-12-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  12. A novel low-temperature chemical solution route for straight and dendrite-like ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Du Ning; Wu Jianbo; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang Deren; Zhang Xiaobin; Yang Zhiqing

    2007-01-01

    The straight and dendrite-like growths of ZnO have been completely and simply controlled by the status of ZnO seed instead of surfactant, template, oriented attachment, and ZnO buffer layer on the substrate in the chemical reaction synthesis of ZnO nanostructures. The monodisperse ZnO seeds, which are prepared by in situ quickly injecting the cool mixed zinc acetate and potassium hydrate ethanol solution into the hot matrix aqueous solution of zinc nitrate hydrate and diethylenetriamine at 95 deg. C, improve the straight growth and lots of uniform, straight, and single-crystalline ZnO nanorods with about 20-30 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length are achieved. While, the aggregated ZnO seeds, which are prepared by dropwise adding potassium hydrate ethanol solution into zinc acetate ethanol solution at 60 deg. C for 3 h, result in the dendrite-like growth and the bur-like ZnO nanostructures consisting of hundreds of nanorods with about 30-50 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length are formed. Furthermore, the approach presented here provides a simple, low-cost, environmental-friendly and high efficiency route to synthesize the high quality ZnO nanorods and bur-like ZnO nanostructures

  13. A flexible UV nanosensor based on reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Yajun; Muhammad, Safdar; Huang, Ying; He, Jun

    2012-03-01

    A low-cost, compatible with flexible electronics, high performance UV sensor has been achieved from a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated hydrangea-like ZnO film on a PDMS substrate. The hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor has the best UV sensing performance among devices made of three kinds of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and demonstrated a dramatic enhancement in on/off ratio and photoresponse current by introducing an appropriate weight ratio of RGO. The on/off ratio of the 0.05% RGO/ZnO sensor increases almost one order of magnitude compared to that of a pristine hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor. While for the 5% RGO decorated ZnO sensor, the photoresponse current reaches as high as ~1 μA and exceeds 700 times that of a ZnO UV sensor. These results indicate that RGO is an appropriate material to enhance the performance of ZnO nanostructure UV sensors based on its unique features, especially the high optical transparency and excellent electronic conductivity. Our findings will make RGO/ZnO nanohybrids extraordinarily promising in optoelectronics, flexible electronics and sensor applications.

  14. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yamin, E-mail: yaminfengccnuphy@outlook.com; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm{sup −2} illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes.

  16. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yamin; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm −2 illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes

  17. ZnO Nanostructures for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the most recent applications of zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures for tissue engineering. ZnO is one of the most investigated metal oxides, thanks to its multifunctional properties coupled with the ease of preparing various morphologies, such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanoparticles. Most ZnO applications are based on its semiconducting, catalytic and piezoelectric properties. However, several works have highlighted that ZnO nanostructures may successfully promote the growth, proliferation and differentiation of several cell lines, in combination with the rise of promising antibacterial activities. In particular, osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been effectively demonstrated in numerous cases. Such peculiarities have been observed both for pure nanostructured ZnO scaffolds as well as for three-dimensional ZnO-based hybrid composite scaffolds, fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, all these findings suggest that ZnO nanostructures represent a powerful tool in promoting the acceleration of diverse biological processes, finally leading to the formation of new living tissue useful for organ repair.

  18. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dilonardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol–gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties.

  19. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenbo; Feng, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ► Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ► The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  20. Effects of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes of CBD deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Akinkuade, Shadrach; Maabong, Kelebogile; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    We report on effect of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures were deposited on the seeded conducting indium doped tin oxide substrate positioned in three different directions in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures and revealed that the positioning of the substrate in the growth solution affects the surface morphology of the nanostructures. The optical absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures are discussed. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratios, reverse saturation current and series resistance were found to depend on the nanostructures morphology. In addition, current transport mechanism in the higher forward bias of the Schottky diode was studied and space charge limited current was found to be the dominant transport mechanism in all samples.

  1. High electro-catalytic activities of glucose oxidase embedded one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Nirmal K; Bhattacharyya, Swapan K

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional ZnO nanorods and nanowires are separately synthesized on Zn substrate by simple hydrothermal processes at low temperatures. Electro-catalytic responses of glucose oxidase/ZnO/Zn electrodes using these two synthesized nanostructures of ZnO are reported and compared with others available in literature. It is apparent the Michaelis–Menten constant, K M app , for the present ZnO nanowire, having a greater aspect ratio, is found to be the lowest when compared with others. This sensor shows lower oxidation peak potential with a long detection range of 6.6 μM–380 mM and the highest sensitivity of ∼35.1 μA cm −2 mM −1 , among the reported values in the literature. Enzyme catalytic efficiency and turnover numbers are also found to be remarkably high. (paper)

  2. Sonochemical synthesis of Dy-doped ZnO nanostructures and their photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yayapao, Oranuch [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Phuruangrat, Anukorn, E-mail: phuruangrat@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Undoped and Dy-doped ZnO used as photocatalysts. •They were synthesized by sonochemistry. •The promising materials for treatment of organic pollutants. -- Abstract: Dy-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a sonochemical method. The concentration effect of Dy on their phase, morphology, optical properties and photocatalytic activities was investigated. XRD patterns indicated that the as-synthesized 0–3% Dy-doped ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM and TEM show that the products were nanorods with their growth direction along the c axis. The photoluminescence spectrum of 3% Dy-doped ZnO, applied by Gaussian analysis, consists of three emission peaks at 376 nm, 448 nm and 487 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized products were determined from the degradation of methylene blue (C{sub 16}H{sub 18}N{sub 3}SCl) by UV radiation. In this research, the 3% Dy-doped ZnO showed the highest photocatalytic activity.

  3. Sonochemical synthesis of Dy-doped ZnO nanostructures and their photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yayapao, Oranuch; Thongtem, Titipun; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Undoped and Dy-doped ZnO used as photocatalysts. •They were synthesized by sonochemistry. •The promising materials for treatment of organic pollutants. -- Abstract: Dy-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a sonochemical method. The concentration effect of Dy on their phase, morphology, optical properties and photocatalytic activities was investigated. XRD patterns indicated that the as-synthesized 0–3% Dy-doped ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM and TEM show that the products were nanorods with their growth direction along the c axis. The photoluminescence spectrum of 3% Dy-doped ZnO, applied by Gaussian analysis, consists of three emission peaks at 376 nm, 448 nm and 487 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized products were determined from the degradation of methylene blue (C 16 H 18 N 3 SCl) by UV radiation. In this research, the 3% Dy-doped ZnO showed the highest photocatalytic activity

  4. Piezoelectric ZnO nanostructure for energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Leprince-Wang, Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, ZnO as an important II-VI semiconductor has attracted much attention within the scientific community over the world owing to its numerous unique and prosperous properties. This material, considered as a "future material", especially in nanostructural format, has aroused many interesting research works due to its large range of applications in electronics, photonics, acoustics, energy and sensing. The bio-compatibility, piezoelectricity & low cost fabrication make ZnO nanostructure a very promising material for energy harvesting.

  5. Optical function of bionic nanostructure of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhu, G P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, Y J [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X W [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, J P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cui, Y P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2007-10-15

    A novel bionic network nanostructure of zinc oxide (ZnO), which is similar to the microstructure of a butterfly wing, was first fabricated by a vapor-phase transport method using zinc powder as a source. These bionic nanostructures are composed of three ordered multi-aperture gratings. Similar to the optical effect of butterfly wings, the diffraction patterns of the bionic network of ZnO were observed. The mechanism of the optical function was discussed based on the physical model of multi-aperture diffraction.

  6. Optical function of bionic nanostructure of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C X; Zhu, G P; Liu, Y J; Sun, X W; Li, X; Liu, J P; Cui, Y P

    2007-01-01

    A novel bionic network nanostructure of zinc oxide (ZnO), which is similar to the microstructure of a butterfly wing, was first fabricated by a vapor-phase transport method using zinc powder as a source. These bionic nanostructures are composed of three ordered multi-aperture gratings. Similar to the optical effect of butterfly wings, the diffraction patterns of the bionic network of ZnO were observed. The mechanism of the optical function was discussed based on the physical model of multi-aperture diffraction

  7. Oriented ZnO nanostructures and their application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Minh Tan [Department of Physics, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji-Hee [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Mun Seok [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Do, Anh-Thu Thi [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Lee, Hong Seok, E-mail: hslee1@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We report a chemical bath deposition approach for the preparation of large arrays of oriented ZnO nanostructures by activated substrate processes, and precipitated ZnO nanorods by passive occupation of the crystal surface. Photoluminescence dynamics showed that various visible emission characteristics associated with defects such as oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitial or their complexes. In addition, the precipitated ZnO nanorods exhibited excellent performance in the adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of organic dyes, achieving 95% photodegradation of Rhodamine 6B. Moreover, oxygen defects function as trap sites with strong adsorption abilities towards organic dyes and showed high performance in the photocatalytic degradation of the dye molecules.

  8. Nanostructured porous ZnO film with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lina; Zheng Yingying; Li Xiaoyun; Dong Wenjun; Tang Weihua; Chen Benyong; Li Chaorong; Li Xiao; Zhang Tierui

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined ZnO nanostructured films have been fabricated directly on Zn foil via hydrothermal synthesis. During the fabrication of the ZnO nanostructured films, the Zn foil serves as the Zn source and also the substrate. Porous nanosheet-based, nanotube-based and nanoflower-based ZnO films can all be easily prepared by adjusting the alkali type, reaction time and reaction temperature. The composition, morphology and structure of ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The porous ZnO nanosheet-based film exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B under UV light irradiation. This can be attributed to the high surface area of the ZnO nanosheet and the large percentage of the exposed [001] facet. Moreover, the self-supporting, recyclable and stable ZnO photocatalytic film can be readily recovered and potentially applied for pollution disposal.

  9. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  10. Facile Hydrothermal Preparation of ZNO/CO3O4 Heterogeneous Nanostructures and its Photovoltaic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fanan; Jiang, Minlin; Liu, Lianqing

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic technology offers great potential in the replacement of fossil fuel resources, but still suffers from high device fabrication cost. Herein, we attempted to provide a solution to these issues with heterogeneous nanostructures. Firstly, Zinc oxide (ZnO)/cobalt oxide (Co3O4) heterojunction nanowires are prepared through facile fabrication methods. By assembling Co(OH)2 nanoplates on ZnO nanowire arrays, the ZnO/Co3O4 heterogeneous nanostructures are uniformly synthesized on ITO coated glass and wafer. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurement through conductive atomic force microscope shows excellent photovoltaic effect. And, the heterojunction nanostructures shows unprecedented high open circuit voltage. Therefore, the potential application of the heterogeneous nanostructures in solar cells is demonstrated.

  11. Mechanism and Growth of Flexible ZnO Nanostructure Arrays in a Facile Controlled Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructure arrays-based flexible devices have revolutionary impacts on the application of traditional semiconductor devices. Here, a one-step method to synthesize flexible ZnO nanostructure arrays on Zn-plated flexible substrate in Zn(NO32/NH3⋅H2O solution system at 70–90∘C was developed. We found out that the decomposition of Zn(OH2 precipitations, formed in lower NH3⋅H2O concentration, in the bulk solution facilitates the formation of flower-like structure. In higher temperature, 90∘C, ZnO nanoplate arrays were synthesized by the hydrolysis of zinc hydroxide. Highly dense ZnO nanoparticale layer formed by the reaction of NH3⋅H2O with Zn plating layer in the initial self-seed process could improve the vertical alignment of the nanowires arrays. The diameter of ZnO nanowire arrays, from 200 nm to 60 nm, could be effectively controlled by changing the stability of Zn(NH342+ complex ions by varying the ratio of Zn(NO32 to NH3⋅H2O which further influence the release rate of Zn2+ ions. This is also conformed by different amounts of the Zn vacancy as determined by different UV emissions of the PL spectra in the range of 380–403 nm.

  12. Nanostructured ZnO films for potential use in LPG gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, V. M.; Berestok, T. O.; Opanasyuk, A. S.; Kornyushchenko, A. S.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the work was to obtain ZnO nanostructures with heightened surface area and to study relationship between formation method and gas sensor properties towards propane-butane mixture (LPG). In order to synthesize ZnO nanostructures chemical and physical formation methods have been utilized. The first one was chemical bath deposition technology and the second one magnetron sputtering of Zn followed by oxidation. Optimal method and technological parameters corresponding to formation of material with the highest sensor response have been determined experimentally. Dynamical gas sensor response at different temperature values and dependencies of the sensor sensitivity on the temperature at different LPG concentrations in air have been investigated. It has been found, that sensor response depends on the sample morphology and has the highest value for the structure consisting of thin nanowires. The factors that lead to the decrease in the gas sensor operating temperature have been determined.

  13. Decoration of ZnO Nanorods with Coral Reefs like NiO Nanostructures by the Hydrothermal Growth Method and Their Luminescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.

  14. Enhanced local piezoelectric response in the erbium-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zamiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure and erbium (Er doped ZnO nanostructures were prepared by simple and cost effective wet chemical precipitation method. The successful doping with phase purity of prepared ZnO nanostructure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and their Rietveld analysis. The change in structural morphology of nanoscale features of prepared ZnO nanopowders on Er doping was observed from their scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The presence of Er in prepared ZnO nanopowder was further confirmed from corresponding energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX spectra of scanned SEM images. Piezoelectric properties of before (green samples and after sintering of consolidated compact of synthesized nanopowders were successfully measured. The out-of-plane (effective longitudinal and in-plane (effective shear coefficients of the samples were estimated from the local piezoresponse.

  15. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N., E-mail: zelalem.urgessa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH{sup -} to Zn{sup 2+} ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} in the solution.

  16. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH − to Zn 2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H + and OH − in the solution.

  17. Controllable synthesis of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures by a simple low-temperature aqueous solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongxia; Zhao Yunlong; Yu Xiujun; Chen Deliang; Zhang Liwei; Xu Hongliang; Yang Daoyuan; Wang Hailong; Zhang Rui

    2011-01-01

    Spindle-like ZnO nanostructures were successfully synthesized through direct precipitation of zinc acetate aqueous solution at 60 deg. C. Phase structure, morphology and microstructure of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA, FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Result showed that hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanostructures with about 100 nm in diameter and 100-200 nm in length were obtained. HMTA acted as a soft template in the process and played an important role in the formation of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures. Meanwhile, different morphologies were also obtained by altering synthetic temperature, additional agents and the ratios of Zn 2+ /OH - . Possible mechanism for the variations of morphology with synthesis parameters was also discussed in this paper.

  18. Superhydrophobic multi-scale ZnO nanostructures fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Feng, Chengheng; Wu, Chunxia; Ma, Weiwei; Cai, Lan

    2009-07-01

    The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on Si(100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Different Morphologies of ZnO nanostructures, such as nanoparticle film, micro-pillar and micro-nano multi-structure, were obtained with different conditions. The results of XRD and TEM showed the good quality of ZnO crystal growth. Selected area electron diffraction analysis indicates the individual nano-wire is single crystal. The wettability of ZnO was studied by contact angle admeasuring apparatus. We found that the wettability can be changed from hydrophobic to super-hydrophobic when the structure changed from smooth particle film to single micro-pillar, nano-wire and micro-nano multi-scale structure. Compared with the particle film with contact angle (CA) of 90.7 degrees, the CA of single scale microstructure and sparse micro-nano multi-scale structure is 130-140 degrees, 140-150 degrees respectively. But when the surface is dense micro-nano multi-scale structure such as nano-lawn, the CA can reach to 168.2 degrees . The results indicate that microstructure of surface is very important to the surface wettability. The wettability on the micro-nano multi-structure is better than single-scale structure, and that of dense micro-nano multi-structure is better than sparse multi-structure.

  19. Synthesis of Cu Doped ZnO Nanostructures for Ultra Violet Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Abbas SHAH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focused on the synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures, their characterization and their ultra violet light sensing response at room temperature. Nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets were synthesized by varying doping material copper by using vapor transport technique governed by the vapor-liquid-solid or vapor-solid mechanisms. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray and ultra violet visible spectroscopy techniques. Finally the ultra violet light sensing response of these nanostructures was observed by using Keithley meter. The high ultra violet photosensitivity and fast response time justifies the effective utilization of these ZnO nanostructures as ultra violet sensors in different areas.

  20. Random laser action in 3-D ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, L.; Tanemura, S. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd. Tianhe district, Guangzhou (China); Materials R and D Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Centre, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Yang, H.Y.; Lau, S.P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Xu, G. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd. Tianhe district, Guangzhou (China)

    2009-05-15

    Room-temperature ultraviolet random lasing with low threshold pumping power was successfully achieved by ZnO 3-D random-wall nanostructure fabricated on ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate through a thermal chemical reaction and vapor transportation deposition method in a simple horizontal tube furnace from the mixed ZnO and graphite powders. The nanorods grown along c-axis on the substrate are coalesced to form the 3-D nano-wall with 80{proportional_to}100 nm in wall thickness and irregular height ranging of 95-250 nm. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals that evaluated refractive indices n(E) of ZnO nanowalls are well interpreted by taking account of the ratio between ZnO and void achieved by effective medium theory analysis and isotropic depolarization feature of the designated nanowalls. Random lasing action observed in the wide wavelength range between 375 and 395 nm is realized by coherent amplification of the closed-loop scattered light inside 3-D random-wall nanostructure. It is demonstrated that both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes show the same threshold and pumping power dependent trend, while the intensity of TM lasing is weaker than that of TE due to the different scattering strength originated from the features of the inside of nanowall. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self-organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures for Low Temperature CO and UV Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Abbas Shah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, synthesis and results of the low temperature sensing of carbon monoxide (CO gas and room temperature UV sensors using one dimensional (1-D ZnO nanostructures are presented. Comb-like structures, belts and rods, and needle-shaped nanobelts were synthesized by varying synthesis temperature using a vapor transport method. Needle-like ZnO nanobelts are unique as, according to our knowledge, there is no evidence of such morphology in previous literature. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that the sensing response of comb-like structures for UV light was greater as compared to the other grown structures. Comb-like structure based gas sensors successfully detect CO at 75 °C while other structures did not show any response.

  3. Nanostructure sword-like ZnO wires: Rapid synthesis and characterization through a microwave-assisted route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajbafvala, Amir; Shayegh, Mohammad Reza; Mazloumi, Mahyar; Zanganeh, Saeid; Lak, Aidin; Mohajerani, Matin Sadat; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructure sword-like ZnO wires with diameters of about 80-250 nm and the length of ∼1-4 μm have been synthesized by a fast, simple and template-free microwave-assisted method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements was used for characterization of the as-prepared products. The nanostructure sword-like ZnO wires have high crystallinity with the average crystallite size of about 53 nm and show a UV emission and a visible green band in their PL spectrum. The possible growth mechanism of the nanostructures along the crystallographic direction and subsequent formation of wires were also investigated

  4. Effects of seed layers on controlling of the morphology of ZnO nanostructures and superhydrophobicity of ZnO nanostructure/stearic acid composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhihua, E-mail: sdwfliu@163.com; Liu, Junqi; E, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng, E-mail: tjulzf@163.com

    2016-11-01

    Hydrophobic ZnO self-cleaning thin films with the nanobundles and nanocarpets structures fabricated on indium tin oxides (ITO) glass substrate are reported. The water contact angle of ZnO nanobundles and nanocarpets structures (79° and 67° respectively) is higher than that of unmodified ZnO nanorods. A subsequent chemical treatment with stearic acid (SA) contributed to a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 159°. Its superhydrophobic property is originated from the nanobundles or nanocarpets structures and surface energy of SA/ZnO nanobundles and SA/ZnO nanocarpets composite nanostructures. Moreover, this promising ZnO nanostructured materials show an important application in self-cleaning smart coatings. - Highlights: • PEG and CTAB are firstly introduced to modify the morphology of ZnO seed layers. • ZnO nanobundles and nanocarpets obtained from different seed layers. • Superhydrophobic surfaces obtained by chemcial treatment using SA.

  5. Study of quantum confinement effects in ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movlarooy, Tayebeh

    2018-03-01

    Motivation to fact that zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes with successful synthesis and the mechanism of formation, stability and electronic properties have been investigated; in this study the structural, electronic properties and quantum confinement effects of zinc oxide nanotubes and nanowires with different diameters are discussed. The calculations within density functional theory and the pseudo potential approximation are done. The electronic structure and energy gap for Armchair and zigzag ZnO nanotubes with a diameter of about 4 to 55 Angstrom and ZnO nanowires with a diameter range of 4 to 23 Å is calculated. The results revealed that due to the quantum confinement effects, by reducing the diameter of nanowires and nanotubes, the energy gap increases. Zinc oxide semiconductor nanostructures since having direct band gap with size-dependent and quantum confinement effect are recommended as an appropriate candidate for making nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  6. Bactericidal, structural and morphological properties of ZnO2 nanoparticles synthesized under UV or ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonia, R; Solís, J L; Gómez, M

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of ZnO 2 were synthesized by a sol–gel method using Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 and H 2 O 2 in an aqueous solution exposed to either ultraviolet (UV) or ultrasound irradiation. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that the nanostructures consisted of spherical blackberry-like clusters. Nanoparticles fabricated by using UV irradiation had smaller sizes and narrower size distributions than nanoparticles prepared by using ultrasound. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were used as test microorganisms, and the antibacterial activity of the ZnO 2 nanoparticles was studied by use of the well diffusion agar bacteriological test. ZnO 2 nanoparticles synthetized using UV had the best antibacterial properties. The inhibition zone was largest for B. subtilis but was present also for S. aureus and E. coli. (paper)

  7. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Rare Earth Metal (Nd and Gd doped ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Logamani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Presence of harmful organic pollutants in wastewater effluents causes serious environmental problems and therefore purification of this contaminated water by a cost effective treatment method is one of the most important issue which is in urgent need of scientific research. One such promising treatment technique uses semiconductor photocatalyst for the reduction of recalcitrant pollutants in water. In the present work, rare earth metals (Nd and Gd doped ZnO nanostructured photocatalyst have been synthesized by wet chemical method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The XRD results showed that the prepared samples were well crystalline with hexagonal Wurtzite structure. The results of EDS revealed that rare earth elements were doped into ZnO structure. The effect of rare earth dopant on morphology and photocatalytic degradation properties of the prepared samples were studied and discussed. The results revealed that the rare earth metal doped ZnO samples showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye than pure nano ZnO photocatalyst.

  8. Annealed Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, Lehlohonolo F., E-mail: koaolf@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwa Qwa campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Tsega, Moges [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwa Qwa campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, Hendrik C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized ZnO:xmol% Ce{sup 3+} (0≤x≤10 mol%) doped nanopowders via the chemical bath deposition method (CBD) technique at low temperature (80 °C) and annealed in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all the undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders have a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with an average crystallite size of about 46 nm. Weak diffraction peaks related mainly to cerium oxide were also detected at higher concentrations of Ce{sup 3+} (x=5–10 mol%). The scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-shaped undoped ZnO and pyramid-shaped Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO nanostructures. The UV–vis spectra showed that the absorption edges shifted slightly to the longer wavelengths with the increase in the Ce{sup 3+} ions concentration. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) results showed a relative weak visible emission for the Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO nanoparticles compared to the undoped ZnO. The effects of Ce{sup 3+}-doping on the structure and PL of ZnO nanopowders are discussed in detail.

  9. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  10. Growth of novel ZnO nanostructures by soft chemical routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Kumar, R.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Matheswaran, P.; Sudhagar, P.; Kang, Yong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: Fabrication of diverse ZnO nanostructures through soft chemical routes is both fundamentally interesting and technologically important. Accordingly, in the present work novel ZnO nanostructures namely nanorods/nanospines were grown on glass substrate by integrating SILAR and CBD techniques. This simple approach not only would lead to the development of an effective and commercial growth process for diverse ZnO nanostructures, but also lead to the large-scale preparation of other nanomaterials for many important applications in nanotechnology. - Abstract: We explore a facile route to prepare one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures including nanorods/nanospines on glass substrates by integrating inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. The effect of seed layer on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was investigated. Accordingly, the surface modification of the seed layer prepared by SILAR was carried out by employing two different drying processes namely (a) allowing the hot substrate to cool for certain period of time before immersing in the ion-exchange bath, and (b) immediate immersion of the hot substrate into the ion-exchange bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the ZnO films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles. ZnO nanostructures grown by CBD over the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles resulted in the hierarchical and aligned ZnO nanospines/nanorods respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study exhibited highly intense UV emission with weak visible emissions in the visible region. The growth mechanism and the role of seed layer morphology on the formation of ZnO nanostructures were discussed.

  11. Growth of novel ZnO nanostructures by soft chemical routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravana Kumar, R. [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Sathyamoorthy, R., E-mail: rsathya59@gmail.co [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Matheswaran, P. [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Sudhagar, P.; Kang, Yong Soo [Energy Materials Laboratory, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: Fabrication of diverse ZnO nanostructures through soft chemical routes is both fundamentally interesting and technologically important. Accordingly, in the present work novel ZnO nanostructures namely nanorods/nanospines were grown on glass substrate by integrating SILAR and CBD techniques. This simple approach not only would lead to the development of an effective and commercial growth process for diverse ZnO nanostructures, but also lead to the large-scale preparation of other nanomaterials for many important applications in nanotechnology. - Abstract: We explore a facile route to prepare one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures including nanorods/nanospines on glass substrates by integrating inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. The effect of seed layer on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was investigated. Accordingly, the surface modification of the seed layer prepared by SILAR was carried out by employing two different drying processes namely (a) allowing the hot substrate to cool for certain period of time before immersing in the ion-exchange bath, and (b) immediate immersion of the hot substrate into the ion-exchange bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the ZnO films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles. ZnO nanostructures grown by CBD over the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles resulted in the hierarchical and aligned ZnO nanospines/nanorods respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study exhibited highly intense UV emission with weak visible emissions in the visible region. The growth mechanism and the role of seed layer morphology on the formation of ZnO nanostructures were discussed.

  12. Synthesis of 1D, 2D, and 3D ZnO Polycrystalline Nanostructures Using the Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed various polyol solvents to synthesize zinc oxide polycrystalline nanostructures in the form of fibers (1D, rhombic flakes (2D, and spheres (3D. The synthetic process primarily involved the use of zinc acetate dihydrate in polyol solutions, which were used to derive precursors of zinc alkoxides. Following hydrolysis at 160°C, the zinc alkoxide particles self-assembled into polycrystalline nanostructures with different morphologies. Following calcination at 500°C for 1 h, polycrystalline ZnO with good crystallinity was obtained. FE-SEM explored variations in surface morphology; XRD was used to analyze the crystalline structures and crystallinity of the products, which were confirmed as ZnO wurtzite structures. FE-TEM verified that the ZnO nanostructures were polycrystalline. Furthermore, we employed TGA/DSC to observe the phase transition. According to the results of property analyses, we proposed models of the relevant formation mechanisms. Finally, various ZnO structures were applied in the degradation of methylene blue to compare their photocatalytic efficiency.

  13. Selective growth of ZnO thin film nanostructures: Structure, morphology and tunable optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakanth, Katturi Naga; Sunandana, C. S. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Rajesh, Desapogu, E-mail: rajesh.esapogu@gmail.com, E-mail: mperd@nus.edu.sg [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanostructures (spherical, rod shape) have been successfully fabricated via a thermal evaporation followed by dip coating method. The pure, doped ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the spherical, rod shape ZnO nanostructures are discussed. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of pure ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (002) direction. Doping by PVA, PVA+Cu has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality and increases in the band gap.

  14. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta; Yoshio, Masaki; Kar, Tanusree; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Pradhan, Swapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials

  15. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research and Education Centre, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Kar, Tanusree [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Gunawardhana, Nanda, E-mail: nandagunawardhana@pdn.ac.lk [International Research Centre, Senate Building, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Pradhan, Swapan Kumar, E-mail: skpradhan@phys.buruniv.ac.in [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials.

  16. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  17. Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Wasi Khan, M.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alsalhi, M. S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pure and Co-doped ZnO nanostructured samples have been synthesized by a chemical route. We have studied the structural and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns show that all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Changes in crystallite size due to mechanical activation were also determined from X-ray measurements. These results were correlated with changes in particle size followed by SEM and TEM. The average crystallite sizes obtained from XRD were between 20 to 25 nm. The TEM images showed the average particle size of undoped ZnO nanostructure was about 20 nm whereas the smallest average grain size at 3% Co was about 15 nm. Optical parameters such as absorption coefficient ( α), energy band gap ( E g ), the refractive index ( n), and dielectric constants ( σ) have been determined using different methods.

  18. Probing defects in chemically synthesized ZnO nanostrucures by positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, S. K.; Das, D.; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present article describes the size induced changes in the structural arrangement of intrinsic defects present in chemically synthesized ZnO nanoparticles of various sizes. Routine x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have been performed to determine the shapes and sizes of the nanocrystalline ZnO samples. Detailed studies using positron annihilation spectroscopy reveals the presence of zinc vacancy. Whereas analysis of photoluminescence results predict the signature of charged oxygen vacancies. The size induced changes in positron parameters as well as the photoluminescence properties, has shown contrasting or nonmonotonous trends as size varies from 4 to 85 nm. Small spherical particles below a critical size (∼23 nm) receive more positive surface charge due to the higher occupancy of the doubly charge oxygen vacancy as compared to the bigger nanostructures where singly charged oxygen vacancy predominates. This electronic alteration has been seen to trigger yet another interesting phenomenon, described as positron confinement inside nanoparticles. Finally, based on all the results, a model of the structural arrangement of the intrinsic defects in the present samples has been reconciled.

  19. Probing defects in chemically synthesized ZnO nanostrucures by positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S. K.; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Das, D.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2010-09-01

    The present article describes the size induced changes in the structural arrangement of intrinsic defects present in chemically synthesized ZnO nanoparticles of various sizes. Routine x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have been performed to determine the shapes and sizes of the nanocrystalline ZnO samples. Detailed studies using positron annihilation spectroscopy reveals the presence of zinc vacancy. Whereas analysis of photoluminescence results predict the signature of charged oxygen vacancies. The size induced changes in positron parameters as well as the photoluminescence properties, has shown contrasting or nonmonotonous trends as size varies from 4 to 85 nm. Small spherical particles below a critical size (˜23 nm) receive more positive surface charge due to the higher occupancy of the doubly charge oxygen vacancy as compared to the bigger nanostructures where singly charged oxygen vacancy predominates. This electronic alteration has been seen to trigger yet another interesting phenomenon, described as positron confinement inside nanoparticles. Finally, based on all the results, a model of the structural arrangement of the intrinsic defects in the present samples has been reconciled.

  20. Photo-driven autonomous hydrogen generation system based on hierarchically shelled ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heejin; Yong, Kijung

    2013-01-01

    A quantum dot semiconductor sensitized hierarchically shelled one-dimensional ZnO nanostructure has been applied as a quasi-artificial leaf for hydrogen generation. The optimized ZnO nanostructure consists of one dimensional nanowire as a core and two-dimensional nanosheet on the nanowire surface. Furthermore, the quantum dot semiconductors deposited on the ZnO nanostructures provide visible light harvesting properties. To realize the artificial leaf, we applied the ZnO based nanostructure as a photoelectrode with non-wired Z-scheme system. The demonstrated un-assisted photoelectrochemical system showed the hydrogen generation properties under 1 sun condition irradiation. In addition, the quantum dot modified photoelectrode showed 2 mA/cm 2 current density at the un-assisted condition

  1. ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower based ZnO template synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, N. D. Md., E-mail: diyana0366@johor.uitm.edu.my; Amalina, M. N., E-mail: amalina0942@johor.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir Gudang, 81750 Masai, Johor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad Syakirin, E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Ahmad, Samsiah, E-mail: samsiah.ahmad@johor.uitm.edu.my; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower like structures was grown on a glass substrate deposited with seed layer using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with combining two source materials. The ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower like structures had diameter in the range 70 to 100 nm. The atomic percentage of ZnO nanoparticle , SnO{sub 2} nanorods and ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower was taken using EDS. Based on the FESEM observations, the growth mechanism is applied to describe the growth for the synthesized nanostructures.

  2. Fabrication of Semiconductor ZnO Nanostructures for Versatile SERS Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS in the 1970s, it has exhibited a huge potential application in many fields due to its outstanding advantages. Since the ultra-sensitive noble metallic nanostructures have increasingly exposed themselves as having some problems during application, semiconductors have been gradually exploited as one of the critical SERS substrate materials due to their distinctive advantages when compared with noble metals. ZnO is one of the most representative metallic oxide semiconductors with an abundant reserve, various and cost-effective fabrication techniques, as well as special physical and chemical properties. Thanks to the varied morphologies, size-dependent exciton, good chemical stability, a tunable band gap, carrier concentration, and stoichiometry, ZnO nanostructures have the potential to be exploited as SERS substrates. Moreover, other distinctive properties possessed by ZnO such as biocompatibility, photocatcalysis and self-cleaning, and gas- and chemo-sensitivity can be synergistically integrated and exerted with SERS activity to realize the multifunctional potential of ZnO substrates. In this review, we discuss the inevitable development trend of exploiting the potential semiconductor ZnO as a SERS substrate. After clarifying the root cause of the great disparity between the enhancement factor (EF of noble metals and that of ZnO nanostructures, two specific methods are put forward to improve the SERS activity of ZnO, namely: elemental doping and combination of ZnO with noble metals. Then, we introduce a distinctive advantage of ZnO as SERS substrate and illustrate the necessity of reporting a meaningful average EF. We also summarize some fabrication methods for ZnO nanostructures with varied dimensions (0–3 dimensions. Finally, we present an overview of ZnO nanostructures for the versatile SERS application.

  3. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, N. D. Md. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir Gudang, 81750 Masai, Johor (Malaysia); Saurdi, I. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan Jalan Meranek, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shuhaimi, A. [Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University ofMalaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A. [Research Chair of Targeting and Treatment Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Department Of Biochemistry, College Of Science, King Saud University, P.O: 2454 Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  4. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad; Naseri, Amene; Khorashadizade, Elham; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  5. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Amene [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorashadizade, Elham [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, Alireza Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-30

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  6. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphology evolution of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures modulated by supersaturation and growth temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Youguo; Zhou, Lixia; Yu, Lianqing; Zhang, Ye

    2008-07-01

    Three kinds of ZnO hierarchical structures, nanocombs with tube- and needle-shaped teeth and hierarchical nanorod arrays, were successfully synthesized through the chemical vapor deposition method. Combining the experimental parameters, the microcosmic growing conditions (growth temperature and supersaturation) along the flux was discussed at length, and, based on the conclusions, three reasonable growth processes were proposed. The results and discussions were beneficial to further realize the relation between the growing behavior of the nanomaterial and microcosmic conditions, and the hierarchical nanostructures obtained were also expected to have potential applications as functional blocks in future nanodevices. Furthermore, the study of photoluminescence further indicated that the physical properties were strongly dependent on the crystal structure.

  8. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Alvarado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm, which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process.

  9. The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG, FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

  10. Controllable synthesis of periodic flower-like ZnO nanostructures on Si subwavelength grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    We report on the periodic well-defined flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs) self-assembled through a simple hydrothermal method using silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures. The Si SWGs serve as building blocks for constructing a two-dimensional (2D) periodic architecture to integrate the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NSs. Various controlled morphologies of ZnO NSs with high crystallinity are obtained by changing the growth conditions. For 1D ZnO NSs integrated on periodic hexagonal Si SWG structures, the reflection characteristics are investigated in comparison with the conventional ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays. For a three-dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO NS on Si SWGs, a relatively low total reflectance of < 8% at wavelengths of 300-1050 nm is achieved compared to the ZnO NRs on Si substrate.

  11. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional ZnO hierarchical nanostructures: Solution phase synthesis and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective...

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of rose-like ZnO nanostructures using surfactin and their photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Satyanarayana; Kuo, Yi-Hao; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shih, Ruey-Chyuan; Chang, Young-Fo; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Chen, How-Ji

    2011-06-01

    Rose-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the precipitation method using a biosurfactant (surfactin) as a templating-agent stabilizer. The concentration of surfactin in the precursor solution significantly influenced the thickness and density of the petals in the rose-like structures, and all samples were of a wurtzite phase. The thickness of the petal was found to decrease with increasing surfactin concentration. The average thickness of the petals was found to be between 10 and 13 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using rose-like ZnO nanostuctures was investigated, and the morphology, density and thickness of the ZnO petals were found to influence the photodegradation activity. The samples with loosely-spread petals, or plate-like ZnO structures, brought about the strongest photodegradation in comparison with the dense rose-like structures. The greater activity of the loose-petal structures was correlated with their higher absorption in the UV region in comparison with the other samples. The ZnO samples prepared using low surfactin concentrations had higher rate constant values, i.e., 9.1 x 10(-3) min(-1), which revealed that the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation progressed by a pseudo first-order kinetic reaction.

  14. Eosin Yellowish Dye-Sensitized ZnO Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells Employing Solid PEO Redox Couple Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kanmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by low-temperature methods, and they possess polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential c-axial growth. Morphological study by SEM shows the presence of ~30 nm sized spherical-shaped ZnO nanoparticle, the branched flower-like ZnO composed of many nanorods (length: 1.2 to 4.2 μm and diameter: 0.3 to 0.4 μm, and ~50 nm diameter of individual ZnO nanorods. Reduction in photoemission intensity of nanorods infers the decrease in electron-hole recombination rate, which offers better photovoltaic performance. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based on ZnO nanorods sensitized with Eosin yellowish dye exhibits a maximum optimal energy conversion efficiency of 0.163% compared to that of nanoparticles and nanoflowers, due to better dye loading and direct conduction pathway for electron transport.

  15. From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present measurements on UV lasing in ZnO ordered and disordered nanostructures. Bloch lasing is achieved in the ordered structures by exploiting very low group-velocity Bloch modes in ZnO photonic crystals. In the second case, random lasing is observed in ZnO photonic glasses. We...... study the lasing threshold in both cases and its dependence on the structural parameters. Finally, we present the transition from Bloch to random lasing by deliberately doping a ZnO inverse photonic crystal with a controlled amount of lattice vacancies effectively converting it into a translationally...

  16. Effect of polar and non-polar surfaces of ZnO nanostructures on photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghai; Wang Jian; Li Xiuyan; Lang Jihui; Liu Fuzhu; Yang Lili; Zhai Hongju; Gao Ming; Zhao Xiaoting

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals including ZnO hexagonal platforms and hamburger-like samples have been successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. ► ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared with that of the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures. ► The theories of expose surfaces and oxygen vacancies were utilized to explain the photocatalytic mechanism. - Abstract: Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals with two different expose surfaces, including ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms with the major expose plane of (0 0 0 1) and hamburger-like samples with the nonpolar planes of {101 ¯ 0} mainly exposed, were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Mechanisms for compare the photocatalytic activity of two typical ZnO nanostructures were systematic explained as the key point in the paper. Compared with the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures, the ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited improved ability on the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV radiation. The relative higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms was attributed to the exposed polar surfaces and the content of oxygen vacancy on the nanostructures surface. The Zn-terminated (0 0 0 1) polar face and the surface defects are facile to adsorb O 2− and OH − ions, resulting in a greater production rate of O 2 · − and OH· − , hence promoting the photocatalysis reaction.

  17. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line

  18. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  19. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  20. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  1. A study on photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO@ZnS nanostructures synthesized via facile ion-exchange approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akash; Sahoo, Pooja; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were fabricated, on cleaned ITO substrates by using sol-gel spin coating followed by hydrothermal technique. In order to coat zinc sulphide (ZnS) layers on the earlier prepared NRs a facile ion-exchange approach was adopted. The ZnO@ZnS nanostructures so prepared were characterised by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical study. XRD spectra confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of all the samples along with preferential c-axis orientation. Further it was also observed from the FESEM images that sulfidation process doesn't affect the structure of ZnO NRs arrays. From the absorption spectra it can be clearly observed that the light absorbing property has increased in within the visible range due to the formation of ZnS layer on the ZnO nanostructures, which is not possible for either of the material individually. The cyclic voltammetry results indicates the enhancement in photocurrent density after illumination for the synthesized nanostructures. The electrocatalytic behaviour of ZnO@ZnS electrodes have been studied using a 3-electrode system in presence of 0.1M NaOH electrolyte solution with respect to an Ag/AgCl reference electrode.

  2. Resistive Switching Characteristics in Electrochemically Synthesized ZnO Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhan Jing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry has long been seeking a new kind of non-volatile memory technology with high-density, high-speed, and low-power consumption. This study demonstrated the electrochemical synthesis of ZnO films without adding any soft or hard templates. The effect of deposition temperatures on crystal structure, surface morphology and resistive switching characteristics were investigated. Our findings reveal that the crystallinity, surface morphology and resistive switching characteristics of ZnO thin films can be well tuned by controlling deposition temperature. A conducting filament based model is proposed to explain the switching mechanism in ZnO thin films.

  3. Biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using L. aculeata leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles were determined using the well diffusion method. All the ... 1. Introduction. Nanoparticles have gained increasing importance because ... The synthesis of nanoparticles by conventional physical.

  4. Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D complex hierarchical structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective on the current challenges and future research.

  5. Surface morphology effects on the light-controlled wettability of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khranovskyy, V., E-mail: volkh@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoping University (Sweden); Ekblad, T.; Yakimova, R.; Hultman, L. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoping University (Sweden)

    2012-08-01

    ZnO nanostructures of diverse morphology with shapes of corrals and cabbages as well as open and filled hexagons and sheaves prepared by APMOCVD technique, are investigated with water contact angle (CA) analysis. The as-grown ZnO nanostructures exhibit pure hydrophobic behavior, which is enhanced with the increase of the nanostructure's surface area. The most hydrophobic structures (CA = 124 Degree-Sign ) were found to be the complex nanosheaf, containing both the macro-and nanoscale features. It is concluded that the nanoscale roughness contributes significantly to the hydrophobicity increase. The character of wettability was possible to switch from hydrophobic-to-superhydrophilic state upon ultra violet irradiation. Both the rate and amplitude of the contact angle depend on the characteristic size of nanostructure. The observed effect is explained due to the semiconductor properties of zinc oxide enhanced by increased surface chemistry effect in nanostructures.

  6. Strong blue emission from ZnO nanocrystals synthesized in acetone-based solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efafi, B.; Majles Ara, M.H.; Mousavi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by an improved sol–gel method. UV–vis, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO solution synthesized by this route indicated different properties compared to the other preparation methods. It was observed from FTIR that the sol (prepared using acetone) with the low concentration contains a noticeable amount of the Zn–O bond. The PL spectrum with a strong blue emission confirmed that these nanocrystals are good candidate for use in applications where a monochromatic emission is required. To the best of our knowledge, monochromatic emission ZnO devices have been fabricated through high technology instruments but this paper introduces a simple method for preparation of ZnO with the high intensity blue peak. The size and morphology of ZnO nanocrystals have been studied using FESEM. The nanocrystal size was estimated about 70 nm which was in good agreement with XRD data. - Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals through a novel method by the use of acetone as the solvent. • Observation of the strong blue emission peak from the ZnO prepared solution. • Reduction of green emission in the synthesized sample compared to the other methods of preparation.

  7. Strong blue emission from ZnO nanocrystals synthesized in acetone-based solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efafi, B. [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Departments of Physics, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majles Ara, M.H., E-mail: majlesara@gmail.com [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.S. [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by an improved sol–gel method. UV–vis, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO solution synthesized by this route indicated different properties compared to the other preparation methods. It was observed from FTIR that the sol (prepared using acetone) with the low concentration contains a noticeable amount of the Zn–O bond. The PL spectrum with a strong blue emission confirmed that these nanocrystals are good candidate for use in applications where a monochromatic emission is required. To the best of our knowledge, monochromatic emission ZnO devices have been fabricated through high technology instruments but this paper introduces a simple method for preparation of ZnO with the high intensity blue peak. The size and morphology of ZnO nanocrystals have been studied using FESEM. The nanocrystal size was estimated about 70 nm which was in good agreement with XRD data. - Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals through a novel method by the use of acetone as the solvent. • Observation of the strong blue emission peak from the ZnO prepared solution. • Reduction of green emission in the synthesized sample compared to the other methods of preparation.

  8. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N.; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements.

  9. Probing defects in ZnO nanostructures by Photoluminescence and Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Chaudhuri, S. K.; Das, Dipankar

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated defect related emission in the blue green region (2.2 eV -- 2.5 eV) of ZnO nanostructures having spherical (5 nm-15 nm) as well as those with hexagonal platelet and rod like morphologies (20nm-100 nm), synthesized by solvo-thermal route. This emission show anomalous size dependence. Emission energy near 2.2 eV, shifts to higher energy (2.5 eV) for increase in size beyond 20nm when shape of the nanostructures changes. This change in photoluminescence has a close correlation with the size (and shape) induced change in the positron trapping rate which is directly proportional to the defect concentration. The trapping rates show non-monotonous dependence on size. It increases initially as the size increases (5nm-15nm) and then decreases as the size increases beyond 20nm. While increase of the trapping rate on size reduction is expected due to accumulation of more defects at the surface, the initial dependence of the trapping rate on the size (below 20nm) is anomalous. The data are explained by the presence of defects like Zn vacancy and confinement due to size reduction.

  10. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure sensitized with Sb2S3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin GUO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By using electrochemical deposition method, and assisted with additions of PEG-400 and EDA, well-aligned ZnO nanorods and hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure are fabricated directly on indium doped tin oxide coated conducting glass (ITO substrate. The shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorod structure and the shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure are prepared by chemical bath deposition method. SEM, XRD, UV-Vis and photocurrent test are used to characterize the morphology, nanostructures and their photoelectrochemical properties. The studies show that the photocurrent on the array membranes with shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure is apparently higher than that with shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorods array.

  11. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjarodi, A., E-mail: tajarodi@iust.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, M. [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. {yields} Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. {yields} The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. {yields} SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. {yields} The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 {sup o}C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  12. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjarodi, A.; Imani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. → Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. → The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. → SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. → The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 o C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  13. ZnO Nanowires Synthesized by Vapor Phase Transport Deposition on Transparent Oxide Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zinc oxide nanowires have been synthesized without using metal catalyst seed layers on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO substrates by a modified vapor phase transport deposition process using a double-tube reactor. The unique reactor configuration creates a Zn-rich vapor environment that facilitates formation and growth of zinc oxide nanoparticles and wires (20–80 nm in diameter, up to 6 μm in length, density <40 nm apart at substrate temperatures down to 300°C. Electron microscopy and other characterization techniques show nanowires with distinct morphologies when grown under different conditions. The effect of reaction parameters including reaction time, temperature, and carrier gas flow rate on the size, morphology, crystalline structure, and density of ZnO nanowires has been investigated. The nanowires grown by this method have a diameter, length, and density appropriate for use in fabricating hybrid polymer/metal oxide nanostructure solar cells. For example, it is preferable to have nanowires no more than 40 nm apart to minimize exciton recombination in polymer solar cells.

  14. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of hierarchically branched ZnO nanostructures on ensembles of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongaro, Michael; Gambirasi, Arianna; Favaro, Monica; Ugo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO branched nanofibres for photoelectrochemical applications. ► Branched nanostructures are obtained by electrochemical deposition of ZnO on gold template nanowires. ► Branched nanowires crystallographic phase determined by electron back scatter diffraction. ► Branched structures display improved performances for the photoelectrochemical oxidation of water. - Abstract: This study presents an electrosynthetic methodology to obtain hierarchically structured ZnO electrodes with improved surface area, by exploiting gold nanowires ensembles (3D-NEEs) as the growing substrate. By this way, semiconductor electrodes organized in the shape of fir-like branches are obtained. Branched nanofibres are characterized by electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the latter technique allowing the determination of the crystalline habit of individual nanostructures. The hierarchical branched nanowires show enhanced performances with respect to water photooxidation in comparison with already known nanostructured materials such as 1D-ZnO nanowires.

  15. A Review on the Fabrication of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures for Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor photocatalysis provides potential solutions for many energy and environmental-related issues. Recently, various semiconductors with hierarchical nanostructures have been fabricated to achieve efficient photocatalysts owing to their multiple advantages, such as high surface area, porous structures, as well as enhanced light harvesting. ZnO has been widely investigated and considered as the most promising alternative photocatalyst to TiO2. Herein, we present a review on the fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and photocatalytic applications of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. Various synthetic strategies and growth mechanisms, including multistep sequential growth routes, template-based synthesis, template-free self-organization and precursor or self-templating strategies, are highlighted. In addition, the fabrication of multicomponent ZnO-based nanocomposites with hierarchical structures is also included. Finally, the application of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and nanocomposites in typical photocatalytic reactions, such as pollutant degradation and H2 evolution, is reviewed.

  16. Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Wei [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Wei Bo [Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xu Lingling, E-mail: xulingling_hit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China) and Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhao Yan, E-mail: zhaoyan516@126.com [Department of Physics, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gao Hong; Liu Jia [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity mainly due to the improved crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of sucrose content was studied and optimized. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

  17. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ∼10 19  cm −3 carrier density, and ∼0.1 cm 2 V −1 s −1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices

  18. Precursor-controlled synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, using oligoaniline-coated Au nanoparticle seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Deepti; Pradeep, T.

    2009-07-01

    Shape-selected synthesis of a large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microstructures was achieved by the seed-mediated growth of oligoaniline-coated gold nanoparticle precursors. Distinctive ZnO structures such as nanoplates, nanospheres, microstars, microflowers, microthorns and micromultipods were synthesized by this method. Slightly different shapes were obtained in the absence of the seed solution. This is a fast, low temperature (60 °C) and biomimetic route to make a wide variety of structures. The structure and morphology of the nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized for the characterization of the nanostructures. A growth mechanism for these nanostructures was proposed based on these results. The concentrations of the reacting species were the main parameter causing the changes in the morphologies. The variation in morphologies of these structures is believed to be due to the ability of the seed solution as well as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to selectively suppress/depress the growth of certain planes, allowing growth to occur only in certain specific directions. Changes in the amount of growth nuclei with varying sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration is also seen to affect the morphology of these structures.

  19. Synthesis of cadmium oxide doped ZnO nanostructures using electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Trilok; Pandya, D.K.; Singh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. → X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. → The cut-off wavelength shifted from blue to red on account of the Cd incorporation in the ZnO and the average transmittance decreased by ∼31%. → The bandgap tuning for 4-16 at% Cd in the initial solution was achieved in the range of 3.08-3.32 eV (up to 0.24 eV). - Abstract: Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. Crystalline nanostructures/nanorods with cadmium concentration ranging from 4 to 16 at% in the initial solution were electrodeposited on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) conducting glass substrates at a constant cathodic potential -0.9 V and subsequently annealed in air at 300 deg. C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. The elemental composition of nanostructures was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ZnO nanostructures were found to be highly transparent and had an average transmittance of 85% in the visible range of the spectrum. After the incorporation of Cd content into ZnO the average transmittance decreased and the bandgap tuning was also achieved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of flowerlike ZnO nanostructures via an ethylenediamine-meditated solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Yu Weidong

    2005-01-01

    Flowerlike ZnO nanostructures were deposited on Si substrate by choosing hexamethylenetetramine as the nucleation control reagent and ethylenediamine as the chelating and capping reagent. Structural and optical measurements reveal that obtained ZnO exhibits well-defined flowerlike morphology, hexagonal wurtzite structure, uniform distribution on substrate, and strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet band. The well-arrayed pedals of each ZnO flower possess the typical tapering feature, and are built up by many well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Moreover, each single nanorod building up the pedal exhibits the single crystal nature and the growth direction along c-axis. Effects of the precursor composition on the morphology of ZnO were discussed

  1. Effect of Eu{sup 3+} on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba ZA9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B., E-mail: dejenebf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba ZA9866 (South Africa); Kroon, R.E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-03-15

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used to synthesize ZnO undoped and Eu{sup 3+}-doped nanostructures. The Eu{sup 3+} concentration was varied from 0.2 to 5 mol%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the undoped and low concentration Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase. The estimated crystalline grain size was calculated using the XRD spectra and was found to be in the order of 47±5 nm and independent on the Eu{sup 3+} ion concentration up to 4 mol%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, however, indicate that the addition of Eu{sup 3+} influences the morphology of the samples. In the UV–vis study the highest band gap energy was obtained for the undoped ZnO. The effective band gap energy of the ZnO decayed exponentially with the addition of Eu{sup 3+} up to 4 mol% where impurity phases started to appear. Although weak luminescence was observed for excitation above the bandgap at 300 nm the best results were obtained by exciting the Eu{sup 3+} directly through the {sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}L{sub 6} absorption band at 395 nm. Excitation at a wavelength of 395 nm produced the highest Eu{sup 3+} luminescence intensity without any noticeable ZnO defect emissions. The maximum luminescence intensity for this excitation was obtained for ZnO:3 mol% Eu{sup 3+} ions and luminescent quenching was observed for higher Eu concentrations. -- Highlights: • CBD was used to synthesize ZnO undoped and Eu{sup 3+}-doped nanostructures. • The powders having particles with flower-like morphology with good optical properties. • Weak luminescence for excitation above the bandgap at 300 nm. • Excitation at 395 nm produced the highest pure Eu{sup 3+} luminescence.

  2. On quantum efficiency of photoluminescence in ZnO layers and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshchikov, M.A., E-mail: mreshchi@vcu.ed [Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 701 W. Grace St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); El-Shaer, A.; Behrends, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig D-38106 (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In this work we studied PL in ZnO layers and nanostructures, including ZnO homoepitaxial layers on ZnO substrate and ZnO-Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O single quantum well (SQW) structures grown on sapphire substrates by MBE, and ZnO nanowires grown on sapphire by MOCVD. The external quantum efficiency (QE) of PL in O-face ZnO layers exceeded that in Zn-face ZnO layers by two orders of magnitude at low temperatures. In a sample with SQW the combined external QE from the 4.6-nm-wide SQW and 50-nm-thick Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O barriers achieved 28% at 15 K. The highest external QE was observed in one of the samples with ZnO nanowires-52% at 15 K and 2% at 300 K. Contribution of defect-related PL bands in ZnO nanowires samples was extremely low.

  3. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW–NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range. (paper)

  4. Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad, E-mail: saleem.malikape@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fang, L. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shaukat, Saleem F.; Ahmad, M. Ashfaq [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Aslam, Samia [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Abbas, Ghazanfar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchically ZnO nanostructures electrodes were grown using hot plate magnetic stirring at different growth reaction temperature. • We have investigated the effect of working temperature of 160°, 170°, 180°, and 190° on the growth mechanism of nanospheres and on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. • ZnO nanospheres with perfect aggregation show superior power conversion efficiency of 1.24% which is about 83% higher than nanoparticles DSSC. • An obvious vogue is that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases as the degree of the spherical aggregation is gradually destroyed. - Abstract: Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures solar cell have been studied in relation to growth reaction temperature. It is found that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures network to act not only as large surface area substrates but also as a transport medium for electrons injected from the dye molecules. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency is decreased by increasing the growth reaction temperature of ZnO electrodes. The best conversion efficiency of a 0.25 cm{sup 2} cell is measured to be 1.24% under 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation.

  5. Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Fang, L.; Shaukat, Saleem F.; Ahmad, M. Ashfaq; Raza, Rizwan; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Aslam, Samia; Abbas, Ghazanfar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchically ZnO nanostructures electrodes were grown using hot plate magnetic stirring at different growth reaction temperature. • We have investigated the effect of working temperature of 160°, 170°, 180°, and 190° on the growth mechanism of nanospheres and on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. • ZnO nanospheres with perfect aggregation show superior power conversion efficiency of 1.24% which is about 83% higher than nanoparticles DSSC. • An obvious vogue is that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases as the degree of the spherical aggregation is gradually destroyed. - Abstract: Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures solar cell have been studied in relation to growth reaction temperature. It is found that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures network to act not only as large surface area substrates but also as a transport medium for electrons injected from the dye molecules. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency is decreased by increasing the growth reaction temperature of ZnO electrodes. The best conversion efficiency of a 0.25 cm 2 cell is measured to be 1.24% under 100 mW cm −2 irradiation

  6. Inhibition of growth of S. epidermidis by hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya, C.; Mayandi, J.; Osborne, J.; Frost, M.; Ekstrum, C.; Pearce, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    The antibacterial effect of zinc oxide (ZnO#1) as prepared and annealed (ZnO#2) at 400 °C, Cu doped ZnO (CuZnO), and Ag doped ZnO (AgZnO) nanoplates on Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated for the inhibition and inactivation of cell growth. The results shows that pure ZnO and doped ZnO samples exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) as compared to tryptic soy broth (TSB). Also it is observed that S. epidermidis was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoplates and it is clear that the effect is not purely depend on Cu/Ag. Phase identification of a crystalline material and unit cell dimensions were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides information on sample’s surface topography and the EDX confirms the presence of Zn, O, Cu and Ag. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the elemental composition and electronic state of the elements that exist within the samples. These studies confirms the formation of nanoplates and the presence of Zn, O, Ag, Cu with the oxidation states  +2, -2, 0 and  +2 respectively. These results indicates promising antibacterial applications of these ZnO-based nanoparticles synthesized with low-cost hydrothermal methods.

  7. Synthesis of ZnO comb-like nanostructures for high sensitivity H2S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... H2S gas sensor; ZnO comb-like nanostructures; chemical vapour deposition; vapour–solid growth; ... tube at a flow rate of 15 sccm, when the central temperature .... behaviour, in this case, under low input power implies ohmic.

  8. Life cycle assessment of facile microwave-assisted zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Papadaki, D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle assessment of several zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, fabricated by a facile microwave technique, is presented. Key synthesis parameters such as annealing temperature, varied from 90 °C to 220 °C, and microwave power, varied from 110...

  9. Use of chemically synthesized ZnO thin film as a liquefied petroleum gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, V.R.; Gujar, T.P.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mane, R.S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing properties of ZnO thin films consisting of sub-micron rods synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method are presented in depth. The scanning electron microscopy observation reveals that ZnO sub-micron rods are of hexagonal in phase grown perpendicular to the substrate surface. Due to large surface area, the ZnO thin films of sub-micron rods were sensitive to the explosive LPG, which was studied for different time depositions and for different operating temperatures. The maximum response of 28% at 673 K was recorded under the exposure of 10% of lower explosive level (LEL) of LPG. The ZnO thin films of sub-micron rods exhibited good sensitivity and rapid response-recovery characteristics towards LPG

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanostructures by electrochemical hybridization with graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, A.; Wu, Z.; Zapien, J. A.; Li, Y. Y.; Ruotolo, A.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures is reported by electrochemical deposition from an aqueous electrolyte in presence of graphene oxide (GO) with varying oxidation degree. The properties of hybrids were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques and photocatalytic measurements. The results indicated the electrodeposition of ZnO in presence of GO with increased oxygen content led to marked differences in the morphology while Raman measurements indicated an increased defect level both in the ZnO and the electrochemically reduced GO (ErGO) within the hybrids. The decrease in C/O atomic ratio of GO (from 0.79 to 0.71) employed for the electrodeposition of ZnO resulted in an increase in photocatalytic efficiency for methylene blue degradation under UV irradiation from 4-folds to 10-folds with respect to non-hybridized ZnO. The observed synergetic effect of cathodic deposition potential and oxygen content in GO towards improving the photocatalytic activity of immobilized ZnO is expected to contribute to further development of more effective deposition approaches for the preparation of high performance hybrid nanostructures.

  11. Effect of indium dopant on surface and mechanical characteristics of ZnO : In nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, T.-H.; Kang, S.-H. [Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, No 64, Wenhua Rd., Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net

    2008-12-21

    Epitaxial ZnO : In nanorod films were grown on SiO{sub 2} substrates using a chemical solution method with a pre-coated ZnO sputtered seed layer. Structural and surface characterizations of the ZnO : In nanostructured films were achieved by means of x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, an atomic force microscope and contact angle measurements. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanostructured films were investigated by nanoindentation measurements. The results showed that when the indium dopant was increased, the hardness and Young's modulus of the films also rose. The films exhibited hydrophobic behaviour with contact angles of about 128-138 deg., and a decrease in the hardness and Young's modulus with decreasing loads or indentation depths. Buckling behaviour took place during the indentation process, and the fracture strength of the films was also discussed.

  12. The effect of Ce3+ on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koao, L.F.; Dejene, F.B.; Swart, H.C.; Botha, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ce 3+ doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The influence of Ce 3+ as a dopant on the crystallization, surface morphology, optical and luminescent properties of ZnO flowers-like structures were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the ZnO:Ce 3+ nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase for the lower Ce concentration samples. The estimated grain sizes calculated using the XRD spectra were found to be in order of 42±2 nm. The grain size was found to be not dependent on the concentration of the Ce 3+ ions used up to 3 mol% of Ce. Scanning Auger electron microscopy and scanning electron micrographs indicate that the addition of Ce 3+ influence the morphology of the samples. The flower-like structures obtained for the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO changed into a mixed structure with the emergence of pyramid shapes for higher concentration Ce doped samples. The solid undoped and low concentration Ce doped powder showed good optical properties with a high reflectance in the visible regions. The properties, however, diminished at higher Ce concentration. The band gap energies decreased linearly with concentration from 3.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 eV for ZnO:0 mol% Ce 3+ up to ZnO:10 mol% Ce 3+ . Under 248 nm excitation, the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO flower-like rods exhibited a green emission, peaking at about 559 nm. The higher Ce concentration (0.3 mol% and above) was emitted at 436 and 503 nm due to the Ce transitions. The intensity of these emission spectra of the ZnO:Ce 3+ decreased with the addition of more Ce 3+ ions. -- Highlights: • Ce 3+ doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by CBD. • Flower-like hexagonal ZnO:Ce 3+ nanostructures were obtained for undoped and low mol% Ce. • ZnO changed into a mixed structure with emergence of pyramid shapes for higher mol% Ce. • Good optical properties with a high reflectance

  13. The effect of Ce{sup 3+} on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B., E-mail: dejenebf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    Ce{sup 3+} doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The influence of Ce{sup 3+} as a dopant on the crystallization, surface morphology, optical and luminescent properties of ZnO flowers-like structures were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the ZnO:Ce{sup 3+}nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase for the lower Ce concentration samples. The estimated grain sizes calculated using the XRD spectra were found to be in order of 42±2 nm. The grain size was found to be not dependent on the concentration of the Ce{sup 3+} ions used up to 3 mol% of Ce. Scanning Auger electron microscopy and scanning electron micrographs indicate that the addition of Ce{sup 3+} influence the morphology of the samples. The flower-like structures obtained for the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO changed into a mixed structure with the emergence of pyramid shapes for higher concentration Ce doped samples. The solid undoped and low concentration Ce doped powder showed good optical properties with a high reflectance in the visible regions. The properties, however, diminished at higher Ce concentration. The band gap energies decreased linearly with concentration from 3.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 eV for ZnO:0 mol% Ce{sup 3+} up to ZnO:10 mol% Ce{sup 3+}. Under 248 nm excitation, the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO flower-like rods exhibited a green emission, peaking at about 559 nm. The higher Ce concentration (0.3 mol% and above) was emitted at 436 and 503 nm due to the Ce transitions. The intensity of these emission spectra of the ZnO:Ce{sup 3+} decreased with the addition of more Ce{sup 3+} ions. -- Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by CBD. • Flower-like hexagonal ZnO:Ce{sup 3+}nanostructures were obtained for undoped and low mol% Ce. • ZnO changed into a mixed structure with emergence of pyramid shapes for higher mol% Ce

  14. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.

  15. Investigation of some physical properties of ZnO nanofilms synthesized by micro-droplet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamzaoui

    Full Text Available In this paper, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using a simple micro-droplets technique from a solution prepared by dissolving zinc acetate di-hydrate [Zn(CH3COO2, 2H2O] in methanol. Microdroplets were deposited on glass substrates heated at 100 °C, the obtained samples of ZnO films were investigated by XRD, AES, AFM, ellipsometry and PL. XRD patterns reveal the wurtzite structure of ZnO where the lattice parameters a and c, calculated from XRD signals, show a nanometric character of ZnO nanoparticles. The chemical composition of ZnO film surfaces was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES. From Auger signals, oxygen (O-KLL and zinc (Zn-LMM Auger transitions indicate well the presence of Zn-O bonding. The surface topography of the samples was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM where ZnO nanoparticles of average size ranging between 20 and 80 nm were determined. Some optical properties as dielectric constants, refractive index, extinction coefficient as well as the optical band gap were determined from ellipsometry analysis. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of both Cauchy parameters and Wemple & Di-Dominico single oscillator model. The photoluminescence (PL measurements exhibited two emission peaks. The first at 338 nm, corresponding to the band gap of ZnO, is due to excitonic emission while the second around 400 nm, is attributed to the single ionized oxygen vacancies. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, Micro droplets technique, AFM, Auger spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence (PL

  16. Improved photocatalytic activity of ZnO coupled CuO nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Nataraj, D.; Pal, Tarasankar; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Photodegradation of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes was investigated. • Morphological studies show 3D flower-like CuO microspheres adorned with ZnO nanorods. • Optical analysis showed characteristic absorption bands of CuO and ZnO. • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than CuO. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for different Zn 2+ concentrations by reflux condensation method without using any surfactant, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using methyl orange and methylene blue dyes under UV light irradiation. XRD revealed the formation of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites, composing of monoclinic CuO and hexagonal ZnO. XPS analysis revealed that CuO–ZnO nanocomposites are made up of Cu(II), Zn(II) and O. FESEM and TEM images showed that pure CuO exhibit 3D flower-like microstructure, while the CuO–ZnO nanocomposites prepared for different Zn 2+ concentrations have 3D flower-like CuO, microstructure adorned with rod-like ZnO particles. UV–Vis DRS showed absorption bands corresponding to CuO and ZnO around 960 nm and 395 nm, respectively. PL spectra of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photodegradation assay revealed that catalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites increased with Zn 2+ concentration, and also effectively degrade methyl orange and methylene blue dyes when compared to pure CuO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were mainly ascribed to the reduced recombination and efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites was proposed

  17. ZnO 1-D nanostructures: Low temperature synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM;. JEOL 2010). ... low magnification image of the ZnO nanorod arrays show- ing uniformity of the .... in inverted nail like shape. .... where E (local) is the local electric field at the emitting.

  18. Recent improvements on TiO2 and ZnO nanostructure photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamalullail Nurnaeimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a promising candidate for a low cost solar harvesting technology as it promised a low manufacturing cost, ease of fabrication and reasonable conversion efficiency. Basic structure of DSSC consists of photoanode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. Photoanode plays an important role for a DSSC as it supports the dye molecules and helps in the electron transfer that will determine the energy conversion efficiency. This paper emphasizes the various improvements that had been done on the TiO2 and ZnO photoanode nanostructures synthesized through thermal method. For overall comparisons, ZnO nanoflowers photoanode had achieved the highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.7% due to its ability of internal light scattering that had increased the electron transportation rate. This has made ZnO as a potential candidate to replace TiO2 as a photoanode material in DSSC.

  19. Gel-combustion-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles for visible light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized by the gel combustion technique using a bio-fuel, cassava starch (root tubers of Manihot esculenta), have been characterized by various techniques. The X-ray diffractionpattern reveals hexagonal wurtzite structure. The particle size averaged around 45nm with an excellent ...

  20. Enhancing the numerical aperture of lenses using ZnO nanostructure-based turbid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhra, Richa; Barman, Partha Bir; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Manoj; Rawat, Nitin; Jang, Hwanchol; Lee, Heung-No

    2013-01-01

    Nanosheets, nanoparticles, and microstructures of ZnO were synthesized via a wet chemical method. ZnO films with a thickness of 44–46 μm were fabricated by spray coating, and these have been investigated for their potential use in turbid lens applications. A morphology-dependent comparative study of the transmittance of ZnO turbid films was conducted. Furthermore, these ZnO turbid films were used to enhance the numerical aperture (NA) of a Nikon objective lens. The variation in NA with different morphologies was explained using size-dependent scattering by the fabricated films. A maximum NA of around 1.971 of the objective lens with a turbid film of ZnO nanosheets was achieved. (paper)

  1. Investigations on photoelectrochemical performance of boron doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by facile hydrothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akash; Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and 10% Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates were synthesized using facile sol-gel, spin coating and hydrothermal method. The impact of adding Boron on the structural, optical properties, surface morphology and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the ZnO NRs have been investigated. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of pure hexagonal phase with space group P63mc (186). The same can also be clearly observed form the FESEM images. The UV-Vis study shows the narrowing in band gap from 3.22 eV to 3.19 eV with incorporation of Boron in ZnO matrix. The B-doped ZnO NRs sample shows an enhanced photocurrent density of 1.31 mA/cm2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is more than 171% enhancement compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.483 mA/cm2) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The results clearly indicates that the boron doped ZnO NRs can be used as an efficient photoelectrode material for photoelectrochemical cell.

  2. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  3. Sol-gel synthesized ZnO for optoelectronics applications: a characterization review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Kausar; Hussain, Fayaz; Purwanto, Agus; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Zawadzka, Anna; Azmin Mohamad, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    The rapid growth in green technology has resulted in a marked increase in the incorporation of ZnO in energy and optoelectronic devices. Research involving ZnO is being given renewed attention in the quest to fully exploit its promising properties. The purity and state of defects in the ZnO system are optimized through several modifications to the synthesis conditions and the starting materials. These works have been verified through a series of characterizations. This review covers the essential characterization outcomes of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Emphasis is placed on recent techniques, examples and some issues concerning sol-gel synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. Thermal, phase, structural and morphological observations are combined to ascertain the level of purity of ZnO. The subsequent elemental and optical characterizations are also discussed. This review would be the collective information and suggestions at one place for investigators to focus on the best development of ZnO-based optical and energy devices.

  4. Fabrication of ZnO Nanostructures with Self-cleaning Functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, K.Y.; Ng, I.K.; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Bustaman, F.K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The science of biomimicry has served as a fusion point between nature and technology where one could adopt natures best solution for humans use. Lotus leaf surface, for example, possesses self cleaning capability due to its unique physical and chemical properties. In this work, we aimed to mimic these features on glass surface using ZnO nanostructures to achieve the self-cleaning functionality. A series of ZnO films were electrochemically deposited on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) conducting glasses from different aqueous electrolytes at systematically varied deposition potentials and electrolyte conditions. The surface morphology, density, orientation and aspect ratio of the ZnO micro/nanostructures obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results from these studies show that lower electrolyte concentrations tend to favor one-dimensional growth of ZnO nanostructures that self-assembled into nano flowers at higher deposition temperatures. This hierarchical micro/nano-structured ZnO-modified surface exhibits super hydrophobicity with water contact angle as high as 170 degree. (author)

  5. Doping effect on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, M. [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois,104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Juillaguet, S. [Groupe d' Etude des Semi-conducteurs, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kyaw, T.M.; Wen, J.G. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    High quality undoped and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} or In{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped ZnO nanostructures are grown by chemical vapor transport and condensation. The doping effect on the optical properties is investigated by photoluminescence. At room temperature, photoluminescence on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped ZnO nanostructures reveals an enhancement of the ultraviolet near band edge emission at 390 nm, while the intensity of the deep level emission at 530 nm weakens. At 5 K, an intense neutral-donor-bound exciton (D{sup 0}X) line dominates the undoped and doped ZnO photoluminescence spectra. The presence of well resolved two-electron satellite lines allow to determine the type of donors. At 5 K, the results indicate that ZnO nanostructures grown with 10% of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} display an excellent optical quality, proved by an intense D{sup 0}X line, a high intensity ratio between the D{sup 0}X line and the deep level emission as well as the presence of numerous phonon replicas of the main lines. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Nanostructured ZnO films in forms of rod, plate and flower: Electrodeposition mechanisms and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kıcır, Nur; Tüken, Tunç; Erken, Ozge; Gumus, Cebrail; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanostructures in the form of plate, rod and flower. • The role of type and concentration of supporting electrolytes on growth mechanism. • Detailed analysis of morphologies, in comparison with the Literature. • Nanoplate form of ZnO exhibits higher Fermi level and lower band gap. - Abstract: Uniformity and reproducibility of well-defined ZnO nanostructures are particularly important issues for fabrication and applications of these nanomaterials. In present study, we report selective morphology control during electrodeposition, by adjusting the hydroxyl generation rate and Zn(OH)_2 deposition. In presence of remarkably high chloride concentration (0.3 M) and −1.0 V deposition potential, slow precipitation conditions were provided in 5 mM Zn(NO_3)_2 solution. By doing so, we have obtained highly ordered, vertically aligned and uniformly spaced hexagon shaped nanoplates, on ITO surface. We have also investigated the mechanism for shifting the morphology from rod/plate to flower like structure of ZnO, for better understanding the reproducibility. For this reason, the influence of various supporting electrolytes (sodium/ammonium salts of acetate) has been investigated for interpretation of the influence of OH"− concentration nearby the surface. From rod to plate and flower nanostructures, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were realized for characterization, also the optical properties were studied.

  7. Nanostructured ZnO films in forms of rod, plate and flower: Electrodeposition mechanisms and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kıcır, Nur, E-mail: nurkicir@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Tüken, Tunç [Chemistry Department, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Erken, Ozge [Physics Department, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adıyaman (Turkey); Gumus, Cebrail; Ufuktepe, Yuksel [Physics Department, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanostructures in the form of plate, rod and flower. • The role of type and concentration of supporting electrolytes on growth mechanism. • Detailed analysis of morphologies, in comparison with the Literature. • Nanoplate form of ZnO exhibits higher Fermi level and lower band gap. - Abstract: Uniformity and reproducibility of well-defined ZnO nanostructures are particularly important issues for fabrication and applications of these nanomaterials. In present study, we report selective morphology control during electrodeposition, by adjusting the hydroxyl generation rate and Zn(OH){sub 2} deposition. In presence of remarkably high chloride concentration (0.3 M) and −1.0 V deposition potential, slow precipitation conditions were provided in 5 mM Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. By doing so, we have obtained highly ordered, vertically aligned and uniformly spaced hexagon shaped nanoplates, on ITO surface. We have also investigated the mechanism for shifting the morphology from rod/plate to flower like structure of ZnO, for better understanding the reproducibility. For this reason, the influence of various supporting electrolytes (sodium/ammonium salts of acetate) has been investigated for interpretation of the influence of OH{sup −} concentration nearby the surface. From rod to plate and flower nanostructures, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were realized for characterization, also the optical properties were studied.

  8. Glancing angle deposited Al-doped ZnO nanostructures with different structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A., E-mail: yildizab@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Cansizoglu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Turkoz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Electrical-Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Karabuk, Karabuk (Turkey); Abdulrahman, R.; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Cansizoglu, M.F.; Demirkan, T.M.; Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructure arrays with different shapes (tilted rods, vertical rods, spirals, and zigzags) were fabricated by utilizing glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique in a DC sputter growth unit at room temperature. During GLAD, all the samples were tilted at an oblique angle of about 90° with respect to incoming flux direction. In order to vary the shapes of nanostructures, each sample was rotated at different speeds around the substrate normal axis. Rotation speed did not only affect the shape but also changed the microstructural and optical properties of GLAD AZO nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that GLAD AZO nanostructures of different shapes each have unique morphological, crystal structure, mechanical, and optical properties determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and reflectance measurements. Vertical nanorods display the largest grain size, minimum strain, lowest defect density, and highest optical transmittance compared to the other shapes. Growth dynamics of GLAD has been discussed to explain the dependence of structural and optical properties of nanostructures on the substrate rotation speed. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different shapes were fabricated. • They have unique morphological, crystal structure, and optical properties. • Vertical AZO nanorods show an enhanced optical transmittance.

  9. Porous nanostructured ZnO films deposited by picosecond laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Besleaga, Cristina; Mitran, Tudor; Ion, Lucian; Antohe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposite porous nanostructured ZnO films by picoseconds laser ablation (PLA). ► We examine changes of the films structure on the experimental parameter deposition. ► We demonstrate PLA capability to produce ZnO nanostructured films free of particulates. - Abstract: Porous nanostructured polycrystalline ZnO films, free of large particulates, were deposited by picosecond laser ablation. Using a Zn target, zinc oxide films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a picosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (8 ps, 50 kHz, 532 nm, 0.17 J/cm 2 ) in an oxygen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The morpho-structural characteristics of ZnO films deposited at different oxygen pressures (150–900 mTorr) and gas flow rates (0.25 and 10 sccm) were studied. The post-deposition influence of annealing (250–550 °C) in oxygen on the film characteristics was also investigated. At RT, a mixture of Zn and ZnO formed. At substrate temperatures above 350 °C, the films were completely oxidized, containing a ZnO wurtzite phase with crystallite sizes of 12.2–40.1 nm. At pressures of up to 450 mTorr, the porous films consisted of well-distinguished primary nanoparticles with average sizes of 45–58 nm, while at higher pressures, larger clusters (3.1–14.7 μm) were dominant, leading to thicker films; higher flow rates favored clustering.

  10. Preparation and characterizations of CuO doped ZnO nano-structure for the photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Shokri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, a ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by means of precipitation and sonochemical methods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern indicated that the wurtzite structure of ZnO had a hexagonal symmetry and there was no impurity. The average ZnO particles crystallite size was calculated at about 41 nm. The SEM and TEM images revealed nanostructure ZnO particles with a cauliflower-like and rod morphology with dimensions of 85, 79 and 117 nm. In order to investigate the increment of ZnO photoactivity under visible light, the CuO doped ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by a wet impregnation method using copper oxide as the copper source and ZnO as the precursor. The XRD analysis confirmed that the CuO phase was present in the as-prepared sample and the average size of nano crystalline decreased to about 36 nm. The DRS spectra indicated the extended absorption of CuO-ZnO to the visible range as a result of band gap reduction to 2.9 eV (in comparison of 3.2 eV in ZnO. In order to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized photocatalyst, the degradation of 4-Chlorophenol under visible light was performed. Sixteen experiments using full factorial were executed by adjusting four parameters (amount of catalyst, initial concentration of 4-Chlorophenol, pH, and time of irradiation. An empirical expression was proposed and successfully used to model the photocatalytic process with a high correlation, and an optimal experimental region was also obtained. According to the developed model for degradation and the subsequent ANOVA test using Design Expert software, the time of irradiation with a 46.57% effect played the most important role in the photocatalytic activity, while the influences of parameters on each other were negligible. Optimal experimental conditions for 4-Chlorophenol concentration (0.01 g/L were found at an initial pH =8 and a catalyst loading of 0.07 g/L. The results indicated that CuO-ZnO can remove 95

  11. Morphological, Structural, and Electrical Characterization of Sol-Gel-Synthesized ZnO Nano rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, M.; Hashim, U.; Foo, K.L.; Ali, M.E.; Ali, M.E.; Ali, S.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nano rods were grown on thermally oxidized p-type silicon substrate using sol-gel method. The SEM image revealed high-density, well-aligned, and perpendicular ZnO nano rods on the oxidized silicon substrate. The XRD profile confirmed the c-axis orientation of the nano rods. PL measurements showed the synthesized ZnO nano rods have strong ultraviolet (UV) emission. The electrical characterization was performed using interdigitated silver electrodes to investigate the stability in the current flow of the fabricated device under different ultraviolet (UV) exposure times. It was notified that a stable current flow was observed after 60 min of UV exposure. The determination of stable current flow after UV exposure is necessary for UV-based gas sensing and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  13. Reduction reactions applied for synthesizing different nano-structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo de; Correia de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Marcelo Senna [Basck Ltd. (United Kingdom); Moura, Francisco José, E-mail: moura@puc-rio.br [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Solórzano-Naranjo, Ivan Guillermo [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Different materials have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates thermal decomposition to prepare oxide or co-formed oxides and reduction by hydrogen or graphite to obtain mixed oxides, composites or alloys. These chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support its feasibility. In addition, selective reduction reactions have been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic composites, and alloys. Structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction and, more extensively, Transmission Electron Microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM), indicated the possibility of obtaining oxide and alloy crystals of sizes ranging between 20 and 40 nm. - Highlights: • The viability in obtaining Ni–Co, Cu–Al, Mn–Al co-formed nano oxides was evaluated. • Partial and complete H{sub 2} reduction were used to produce alloy, composite and Spinel. • XRD, TEM and HREM techniques were used to characterize the obtained nanostructures.

  14. ZnO nanostructures induced by microwave plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Elsayed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave induced hydrogen plasma is used to fabricate ZnO thin films at low ambient gas pressure and controlled oxygen content in the gas mixture. The emission spectra have been observed. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical reaction mechanism. Structural quality of the so-obtained nanoparticles was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM results showed that nanorods were formed in the process, and XRD results along with nanorod dimensions obtained from SEM are consistent with the formation of single and poly-crystalline ZnO nanorods. The alignment of these nanorods with respect to the substrates depends on the lattice mismatch between ZnO and the glass substrate. The minimum crystallite grain size as obtained from the SEM measurements was ∼24 nm and the average diameter is 70 nm with a length of 1–2 μm. The deposited ZnO thin films have a wide energy band gap that equals ∼3 eV.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures with varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-13

    May 13, 2017 ... Composition of the reactant solution, pH and temperature ... due to the broad spectrum of UV radiation absorption, supe- ... In addition, ZnO is very useful to cure various other skin ... be used as promising candidate for coating of orthopedic ... tape and then coated with gold for 40 s in an auto-fine coater.

  16. Single fiber UV detector based on hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods for wearable computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Hoon; Han, Jeong In

    2018-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in zinc oxide (ZnO) based ultraviolet (UV) sensing devices over the last several decades owing to their diverse range of applications. ZnO has extraordinary properties, such as a wide band gap and high exciton binding energy, which make it a beneficial material for UV sensing device. Herein, we show a ZnO UV sensing device fabricated on a cylindrical Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) monofilament. The ZnO active layer was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis and the Cu electrodes were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Cu thin film was deposited uniformly on a single PET fiber by rotating it inside the sputtering chamber. Various characteristics were investigated by changing the concentration of the seed solution and the growth solution. The growth of ZnO nanorods was confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to see the surface state and structure, followed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Also, current-voltage (I-V) curves were obtained to measure photocurrent and conductance. Furthermore, falling response time, rising response time, and responsivity were calculated by analyzing current-time (I-t) curves.

  17. Structural and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO 2 . The obtained ZnO, TiO 2 and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO 2 and ZnO phases in TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO 2 nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E a = 101 meV

  18. Detectors based on Pd-doped and PdO-functionalized ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postica, V.; Lupan, O.; Ababii, N.; Hoppe, M.; Adelung, R.; Chow, L.; Sontea, V.; Aschehoug, P.; Viana, V.; Pauporté, Th.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured films were grown using a simple synthesis from chemical solutions (SCS) approach from aqueous baths at relatively low temperatures (room temperature (gas response of 2). Up to 200 °C operating temperature the samples are highly selective to H2 gas, with highest response of 12 at 150 °C. This study demonstrates that surface functionalization of n-ZnO nanostructured films with p-type oxides is very important for improvement of gas sensing properties.

  19. Vibrational Order, Structural Properties, and Optical Gap of ZnO Nanostructures Sintered through Thermal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Londono-Calderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of different ZnO nanostructures by the thermal decomposition of zinc acetate is reported. Morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles are exhibited with the increase of the decomposition temperature from 300 to 500°C. The material showed a loss in the crystalline order with the increase in the temperature, which is correlated to the loss of oxygen due to the low heating rate used. Nanoparticles have a greater vibrational freedom than nanorods which is demonstrated in the rise of the main Raman mode E 2(high during the transformation. The energy band gap of the nanostructured material is lower than the ZnO bulk material and decreases with the rise in the temperature.

  20. Nanostructured ‘Anastacia’ flowers for Zn coating by electrodepositing ZnO at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marta M., E-mail: martamalves@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [ICEMS Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Catarina F.; Carmezim, Maria J. [ICEMS Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); EST Setúbal, DEM, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Campus IPS, 2910 Setúbal (Portugal); Montemor, Maria F. [ICEMS Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional coating of Zn with ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. • Flowers are composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO. • The growth mechanism of these flowers is discussed. • Room temperature yield cost-effective electrodeposited ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. - Abstract: Functional coatings composed of ZnO, a new flowered structured denominated as ‘Anastacia’ flowers, were successfully obtained through a facile and green one-step electrodeposition approach on Zn substrate. Electrodeposition was performed at constant cathodic potential, in Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solution, at pH 6 and at room temperature. The resulting ZnO thin uniform layer, with an average thickness of 300 nm, bearing top 3D hierarchical nanostructures that compose ‘Anastacia’ flowers, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman. The results reveal a nano-architecture structure composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO structure with a [0 0 0 1] growth direction along the longitudinal particles axis. Other morphological features, sphere-like, rod-like and random distributed hexagons were also obtained by varying the electrodeposition time as observed by SEM. The Raman spectroscopy revealed the typical peak of ZnO wurtzite for all the obtained morphologies. Coatings wettability was studied and the different morphologies display distinct water contact angles with the ‘Anastacia’ flowers coating showing a wettability of 110°. These results pave the way for simple and low-cost routes for the production of novel functionalized coatings of ZnO over Zn, with potential for biomedical devices.

  1. Nanostructured ‘Anastacia’ flowers for Zn coating by electrodepositing ZnO at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Marta M.; Santos, Catarina F.; Carmezim, Maria J.; Montemor, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional coating of Zn with ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. • Flowers are composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO. • The growth mechanism of these flowers is discussed. • Room temperature yield cost-effective electrodeposited ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. - Abstract: Functional coatings composed of ZnO, a new flowered structured denominated as ‘Anastacia’ flowers, were successfully obtained through a facile and green one-step electrodeposition approach on Zn substrate. Electrodeposition was performed at constant cathodic potential, in Zn(NO 3 ) 2 aqueous solution, at pH 6 and at room temperature. The resulting ZnO thin uniform layer, with an average thickness of 300 nm, bearing top 3D hierarchical nanostructures that compose ‘Anastacia’ flowers, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman. The results reveal a nano-architecture structure composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO structure with a [0 0 0 1] growth direction along the longitudinal particles axis. Other morphological features, sphere-like, rod-like and random distributed hexagons were also obtained by varying the electrodeposition time as observed by SEM. The Raman spectroscopy revealed the typical peak of ZnO wurtzite for all the obtained morphologies. Coatings wettability was studied and the different morphologies display distinct water contact angles with the ‘Anastacia’ flowers coating showing a wettability of 110°. These results pave the way for simple and low-cost routes for the production of novel functionalized coatings of ZnO over Zn, with potential for biomedical devices

  2. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  3. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar, E-mail: ddebarun@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Nagaland, Chumukedima, Dimapur 797103 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Madhurima, V. [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610004 (India)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on various substrates. • Upon annealing Zn there is transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires. • ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic and exhibit wetting transition on UV exposure. • ZnO will be useful in self-cleaning, mechanical and oxidation resistance surfaces. - Abstract: Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15–0.8 GPa and 18–300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic–hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications.

  4. Strain modulated defect luminescence in ZnO nanostructures grown on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hung-Ing; Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Ya-Fen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, New Taipei 243, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Bing-Yuh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tun Gnan University, Shenkeng, New Taipei 222, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-12-15

    The strain modulated defect green luminescence from ZnO nanostructures grown on silicon substrates has been investigated in-depth. According to the Warren–Averbach Fourier analysis of the X-ray diffraction profiles, both the internal strain and the average crystallite size of the well-ordered nano-size ZnO nanostructures could be subtly modulated by careful adjustment of the aqueous solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 3}OH) used in the hydrothermal treatment. Visible defect-related and ultraviolet band-to-band emissions were characterized using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements over a broad temperature range from 20 to 300 K. It was found that the thermal-related tensile strain led to the blueshift of the green emission with increasing temperature, while the violet and ultraviolet emissions were thermally insensitive. These spectral observations were substantially corroborated by the deformation potential theory. - Highlights: • The strain modulated defect green luminescence from ZnO nanostructures. • Visible and ultraviolet emissions were characterized using photoluminescence. • The tensile strain led to the blueshift of the green emission. • The spectral observations were corroborated by the deformation potential theory.

  5. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  6. Study of Growth Kinetics in One Dimensional and Two Dimensional ZnO Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin

    Because of the merits arising from the unique geometry, nanostructure materials have been an essential class of materials, which have shown great potentials in the fields of electronics, photonics, and biology. With various nanostructures being intensively investigated and successfully complemented into device applications, there has been one increasing demand to the investigation of the growth mechanism devoted to the controlled nanostructure synthesis. Motivated by this situation, this thesis is focused on the fundamental understanding of the nanostructure growth. Specifically, by taking zinc oxide as an example material, through controlling the basic driving force, that is, the supersaturation, I have rationally designed and synthesized various of nanostructures, and further applied the classical layer-by-layer growth mechanism to the understanding on the formation of these nanostructures, they are, the convex-plate-capped nanowires, the concave-plate-capped nanowires, the facet evolution at the tip of the nanowires, and the ultrathin 2D nanosheets.

  7. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Seniye, E-mail: seniyek@ogu.edu.tr; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructure undoped and boron doped ZnO films were deposited by USP technique. • Influences of doping on the surface and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated. • XRD spectra of the films exhibited a variation in crystalline quality depending on the B content. - Abstract: ZnO is an II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200–1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and

  8. Facile synthesis of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures for DSSC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Development of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based third generation dye sensitized solar cell is interesting compared to conventional silicon solar cells. ZnO nanostructured thin films were electrochemically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The effect of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on structural, morphological and optical properties is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns reveal that the prepared nanostructures are hexagonal wutrzite structures with (101) plane orientation, the nanostructure prepared using EDTA exhibits better crystallinity. FE-SEM images illustrate that the morphological changes are observed from nanorod structure to cauliflower like structure as EDTA is added. Micro Raman spectra predict that cauliflower like structure possesses a higher crystalline nature with less atomic defects compared to nanorod structures. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed for the optimized cauliflower structure, and open circuit voltage, short circuit density, fill factor and efficiency are estimated from the J-V curve.

  9. Facile synthesis of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures for DSSC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N., E-mail: anandhan-kn@rediffmail.com [Advanced Materials and Thin Film Physics Lab, School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    Development of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based third generation dye sensitized solar cell is interesting compared to conventional silicon solar cells. ZnO nanostructured thin films were electrochemically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The effect of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on structural, morphological and optical properties is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns reveal that the prepared nanostructures are hexagonal wutrzite structures with (101) plane orientation, the nanostructure prepared using EDTA exhibits better crystallinity. FE-SEM images illustrate that the morphological changes are observed from nanorod structure to cauliflower like structure as EDTA is added. Micro Raman spectra predict that cauliflower like structure possesses a higher crystalline nature with less atomic defects compared to nanorod structures. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed for the optimized cauliflower structure, and open circuit voltage, short circuit density, fill factor and efficiency are estimated from the J-V curve.

  10. Parametric analysis of the growth of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcoholic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Figueira, P. A.; Pereira, A. S.; Santos, R. J.; Trindade, T.; Nunes, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The growth kinetics of nanosized ZnO was studied considering the influence of different parameters (mixing degree, temperature, alcohol chain length, reactant concentration and Zn/OH ratios) on the synthesis reaction and modelling the outputs using typical kinetic growth models, which were then evaluated by means of a sensitivity analysis. The Zn/OH ratio, the temperature and the alcohol chain length were found to be essential parameters to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas zinc acetate concentration (for Zn/OH = 0.625) and the stirring during the ageing stage were shown to not have significant influence on the particle size growth. This last operational parameter was for the first time investigated for nanoparticles synthesized in 1-pentanol, and it is of outmost importance for the implementation of continuous industrial processes for mass production of nanosized ZnO and energy savings in the process. Concerning the nanoparticle growth modelling, the results show a different pattern from the more commonly accepted diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process, i.e. the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) model. Indeed, this study shows that oriented attachment occurs during the early stages whereas for the later stages the particle growth is well represented by the LSW model. This conclusion contributes to clarify some controversy found in the literature regarding the kinetic model which better represents the ZnO NPs’ growth in alcoholic medium.

  11. Parametric analysis of the growth of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcoholic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, A. S. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Figueira, P. A.; Pereira, A. S. [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Química—CICECO (Portugal); Santos, R. J. [Universidade do Porto, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Trindade, T. [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Química—CICECO (Portugal); Nunes, M. I., E-mail: isanunes@ua.pt [Universidade de Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dep. de Ambiente e Ordenamento (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The growth kinetics of nanosized ZnO was studied considering the influence of different parameters (mixing degree, temperature, alcohol chain length, reactant concentration and Zn/OH ratios) on the synthesis reaction and modelling the outputs using typical kinetic growth models, which were then evaluated by means of a sensitivity analysis. The Zn/OH ratio, the temperature and the alcohol chain length were found to be essential parameters to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas zinc acetate concentration (for Zn/OH = 0.625) and the stirring during the ageing stage were shown to not have significant influence on the particle size growth. This last operational parameter was for the first time investigated for nanoparticles synthesized in 1-pentanol, and it is of outmost importance for the implementation of continuous industrial processes for mass production of nanosized ZnO and energy savings in the process. Concerning the nanoparticle growth modelling, the results show a different pattern from the more commonly accepted diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process, i.e. the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) model. Indeed, this study shows that oriented attachment occurs during the early stages whereas for the later stages the particle growth is well represented by the LSW model. This conclusion contributes to clarify some controversy found in the literature regarding the kinetic model which better represents the ZnO NPs’ growth in alcoholic medium.

  12. Diameter optimization of VLS-synthesized ZnO nanowires, using statistical design of experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Sepideh; Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Ganjipour, Bahram; Zahedifar, Mostafa; Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of diameter optimization of ZnO nanowires by using statistical design of experiment (DoE) is investigated. In this study, nanowires were synthesized using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth method in a horizontal reactor. The effects of six synthesis parameters (synthesis time, synthesis temperature, thickness of gold layer, distance between ZnO holder and substrate, mass of ZnO and Ar flow rate) on the average diameter of a ZnO nanowire were examined using the fractional factorial design (FFD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). Using a 2 III 6-3 FFD, the main effects of the thickness of the gold layer, synthesis temperature and synthesis time were concluded to be the key factors influencing the diameter. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was exploited to create a response surface from the main factors. The total number of required runs for the DoE process is 25, 8 runs for FFD parameter screening and 17 runs for the response surface obtained by BBD. Three extra runs are done to confirm the predicted results

  13. A study on morphology control and optical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.K.; Huang, C.C.; Lee, Y.C.; Yang, C.S.; Yu, H.C.; Lee, J.W.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present morphology control investigations on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods synthesized by microwave heating of a mixture of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors in deionized water (DI water). To study the morphology and structural variations of the obtained ZnO nanorods in different molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were measured. XRD and SEM images are utilized to examine the crystalline quality as well as the morphological properties of the ZnO nanorods. It is found that morphology control can be achieved by simply adjusting the reactant concentrations and the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA. Raman scattering and PL spectroscopy measurements were demonstrated to study the size- and shape-dependent optical response of the ZnO nanorods. The Raman scattering result shows that the intensity of LO mode at around 576 cm -1 decreases with the increase in the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA, indicating the reduction of defect concentrations in the synthesized ZnO nanorods. Room temperature PL spectrum of the synthesized ZnO nanorods reveals an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a broad visible emission. An enhancement of UV emission appears in the PL spectra as the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA increases, indicating that the defect concentration of the synthesized ZnO nanorods can be reduced by increasing the molar ratio. - Highlights: → Morphology of ZnO nanorods can be controlled via microwave-heating synthesis. → Molar ratio of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O to C 6 H 12 N 4 affects the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorod. → ZnO nanorod showing higher aspect ratio can exhibit better optical properties.

  14. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Kwon, Yiseul; Choe, Youngson

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration.

  15. Synthesizing Zno Nanoparticles by High-Energy Milling and Investigating Their Antimicrobial Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Results: The study results demonstrated that size of the synthesized nanoparticles was within the range of 20 -90 nm and their morphology was reported as nanorod and nanoparticles with multifaceted cross-section. An increase in the density of nanoparticles resulted in a rise in the antimicrobial effect. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria inhibition zone was 3±0.5 and 7±0.5 mm respectively at the density of 6 and 10 mM. The MIC and MBC of ZnO nanoparticles provided for Staphylococcus aureus were observed 3±3 and 2.5±0 mg/ml, whereas they were reported 7.5±0 and 8±0 mg/ml for Escherichia coli bacteria. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that ZnO nanomaterials could be synthesized by applying high-energy milling on micron-scaled ZnO particles. In addition, they can be utilized in food packaging and preservation process.

  16. Electrical and photocatalytic properties of boron-doped ZnO nanostructure grown on PET-ITO flexible substrates by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide sheet-spheres were synthesized on PET-ITO flexible substrates using a hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 5 h. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the B atoms were successfully doped into the ZnO lattice, the incorporation of B led to an increase in the lattice constant of ZnO and a change in its internal stress. The growth mechanism of pure ZnO nanorods and B-doped ZnO sheet-spheres was specifically investigated. The as-prepared BZO/PET-ITO heterojunction possessed obvious rectification properties and its positive turn-on voltage was 0.4 V. The carrier transport mechanisms involved three models such as hot carrier tunneling theory, tunneling recombination, and series-resistance effect were explored. The BZO/PET-ITO nanostructures were more effective than pure ZnO to degrade the RY 15, and the degradation rate reached 41.45%. The decomposition process with BZO nanostructure followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the B-doping could promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which was beneficial to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of B-doped and pure ZnO/PET-ITO were 0.055 mA/cm2 and 0.016 mA/cm2, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of the sample was analyzed by the energy band theory.

  17. Role of Fe doping on structural and vibrational properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tiruchirappalli (India)

    2012-05-15

    In this report, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements were carried out to study the phonon modes of pure and Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the nanoparticles are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping makes the shrinkage of the lattice parameters, whereas there is no alteration in the unit cell. Raman measurements show both E{sub 2}{sup low} and E{sub 2}{sup High} optical phonon mode is shifted towards lower wave number with Fe incorporation and explained on the basis of force constant variation, stress measurements, respectively. In addition, Fe related local vibrational modes (LVM) were observed for higher concentration of Fe doping. FTIR spectra reveal a band at 444 cm{sup -1} which is specific to E{sub 1} (TO) mode; a red-shift of this mode in Fe doped samples and some surface phonon modes were observed. Furthermore, the observation of additional IR modes, which is considered to have an origin related to Fe dopant in the ZnO nanostructures, is also reported. These additional mode features can be regarded as an indicator for the incorporation of Fe ions into the lattice position of the ZnO nanostructures. (orig.)

  18. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  19. Nanostructured tungsten trioxide thin films synthesized for photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chong, Meng Nan; Chan, Eng Seng

    2014-11-01

    The recent developments of nanostructured WO3 thin films synthesized through the electrochemical route of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition for the application in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are reviewed. The key fundamental reaction mechanisms of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition methods for synthesizing nanostructured WO3 thin films are explained. In addition, the effects of metal oxide precursors, electrode substrates, applied potentials and current densities, and annealing temperatures on size, composition, and thickness of the electrochemically synthesized nanostructured WO3 thin films are elucidated in detail. Finally, a summary is given for the general evaluation practices used to calculate the energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured WO3 thin films and a recommendation is provided to standardize the presentation of research results in the field to allow for easy comparison of reported PEC efficiencies in the near future. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Correlation of Defect-Related Optoelectronic Properties in Zn5(OH6(CO32/ZnO Nanostructures with Their Quasi-Fractal Dimensionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Paramo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrozincite (Zn5(OH6(CO32 is, among others, a popular precursor used to synthesize nanoscale ZnO with complex morphologies. For many existing and potential applications utilizing nanostructures, performance is determined by the surface and subsurface properties. Current understanding of the relationship between the morphology and the defect properties of nanocrystalline ZnO and hydrozincite systems is still incomplete. Specifically, for the latter nanomaterial the structure-property correlations are largely unreported in the literature despite the extensive use of hydrozincite in the synthesis applications. In our work, we addressed this issue by studying precipitated nanostructures of Zn5(OH6(CO32 with varying quasi-fractal dimensionalities containing relatively small amounts of a ZnO phase. Crystal morphology of the samples was accurately controlled by the growth time. We observed a strong correlation between the morphology of the samples and their optoelectronic properties. Our results indicate that a substantial increase of the free surface in the nanocrystal samples generates higher relative concentration of defects, consistent with the model of defect-rich surface and subsurface layers.

  1. Nanostructured ZnO films: A study of molecular influence on transport properties by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappia, Luciano D.; Trujillo, Matias R. [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET, Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases (LAMEIN), Departamento de Bioingeniería, Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Lorite, Israel [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Madrid, Rossana E., E-mail: rmadrid@herrera.unt.edu.ar [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET, Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases (LAMEIN), Departamento de Bioingeniería, Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Tirado, Monica [NanoProject and Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Avenida Independencia 1800, Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We study electrical transport in nanostructured ZnO films by impedance spectroscopy. • Bioaggregates on the surface produce strong changes in film transport properties. • This behavior is explained by modeling data with RC parallel circuits. • Electrical responses of ZnO films to aggregates are promising for biosensing. - Abstract: Nanomaterials based on ZnO have been used to build glucose sensors due to its high isoelectric point, which is important when a protein like Glucose Oxidase (GOx) is attached to a surface. It also creates a biologically friendly environment to preserve the activity of the enzyme. In this work we study the electrical transport properties of ZnO thin films (TFs) and single crystals (SC) in contact with different solutions by using impedance spectroscopy. We have found that the composition of the liquid, by means of the charge of the ions, produces strong changes in the transport properties of the TF. The enzyme GOx and phosphate buffer solutions have the major effect in the conduction through the films, which can be explained by the entrapment of carriers at the grain boundaries of the TFs. These results can help to design a new concept in glucose biosensing.

  2. Growth of ZnO nanostructures on Au-coated Si: Influence of growth temperature on growth mechanism and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; McGlynn, E.; Biswas, M.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Au-catalyzed Si silicon substrates using vapor phase transport at growth temperatures from 800 to 1150 degrees C. The sample location ensured a low Zn vapor supersaturation during growth. Nanostructures grown at 800 and 850 degrees C showed a faceted rodlike...... growth tended to dominate resulting in the formation of a porous, nanostructured morphology. In all cases growth was seen only on the Au-coated region. Our results show that the majority of the nanostructures grow via a vapor-solid mechanism at low growth temperatures with no evidence of Au nanoparticles...

  3. Optical properties of Mn doped ZnO films and wires synthesized by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, M., E-mail: msima@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Mihut, L. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Vasile, E. [University “Politehnica”of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, No. 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Sima, Ma.; Logofatu, C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2015-09-01

    Mn doped ZnO films and wires, having different manganese concentrations were synthesized by thermal oxidation of the corresponding ZnMn alloy films and wires electrodeposited on a gold substrate. Structural and optical properties were addressed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). To estimate the manganese concentration in Mn doped ZnO films, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used. XRD patterns indicate that the incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into the Zn{sup 2+} site of ZnO lattice takes place. Quenching of the ZnO PL appears due to Mn{sup 2+} ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, a significant decrease in the green emission of ZnO is reported in the case of the Mn doped ZnO wire array with a Mn concentration of 1.45%. The wurtzite ZnO has a total of 12 phonon modes, namely, one longitudinal acoustic (LA), two transverse acoustic (TA), three longitudinal optical (LO), and six transverse optical branches. Compared to the undoped ZnO, a gradual up-shift of the Raman lines assigned to the 2LA and A{sub 1} (LO) vibrational modes, from 482 and 567 cm{sup −1} to 532 and 580 cm{sup −1}, respectively, takes place for the Mn doped ZnO films having a Mn concentration between 2 and 15%. Additionally, in the case of the Mn doped ZnO films with 7 and 15% Mn concentration, Raman spectra show the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of the ZnO Raman line assigned to the TA + LO vibrational mode in the 600–750 cm{sup −1} spectral range. For the Mn-doped ZnO wires, the presence of the Raman line peaking at 527 cm{sup −1} confirms the insertion of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO lattice. - Highlights: • Mn doped ZnO films and wires grown by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy • Incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into Zn{sup 2+} site of ZnO lattice • Appearance of a strong Raman line in the spectral range 600–800 cm{sup −1} at high Mn concentration • Compensation of the oxygen vacancy at higher

  4. Optical properties of Mn doped ZnO films and wires synthesized by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, M.; Mihut, L.; Vasile, E.; Sima, Ma.; Logofatu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mn doped ZnO films and wires, having different manganese concentrations were synthesized by thermal oxidation of the corresponding ZnMn alloy films and wires electrodeposited on a gold substrate. Structural and optical properties were addressed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). To estimate the manganese concentration in Mn doped ZnO films, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used. XRD patterns indicate that the incorporation of Mn 2+ ions into the Zn 2+ site of ZnO lattice takes place. Quenching of the ZnO PL appears due to Mn 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, a significant decrease in the green emission of ZnO is reported in the case of the Mn doped ZnO wire array with a Mn concentration of 1.45%. The wurtzite ZnO has a total of 12 phonon modes, namely, one longitudinal acoustic (LA), two transverse acoustic (TA), three longitudinal optical (LO), and six transverse optical branches. Compared to the undoped ZnO, a gradual up-shift of the Raman lines assigned to the 2LA and A 1 (LO) vibrational modes, from 482 and 567 cm −1 to 532 and 580 cm −1 , respectively, takes place for the Mn doped ZnO films having a Mn concentration between 2 and 15%. Additionally, in the case of the Mn doped ZnO films with 7 and 15% Mn concentration, Raman spectra show the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of the ZnO Raman line assigned to the TA + LO vibrational mode in the 600–750 cm −1 spectral range. For the Mn-doped ZnO wires, the presence of the Raman line peaking at 527 cm −1 confirms the insertion of Mn 2+ ions in ZnO lattice. - Highlights: • Mn doped ZnO films and wires grown by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy • Incorporation of Mn 2+ ions into Zn 2+ site of ZnO lattice • Appearance of a strong Raman line in the spectral range 600–800 cm −1 at high Mn concentration • Compensation of the oxygen vacancy at higher Mn concentration in ZnO lattice

  5. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanostructured ZnO thin films by chemical bath deposition in basic aqueous ammonia solutions for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.B.; Huang, S.M.; Zhang, D.W.; Bian, Z.Q.; Li, X.D.; Sun, Z. [East China Normal University, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Yin, X.J. [Singapore Polytechnic, Advanced Materials Technology Center, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents further insights and observations of the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnS thin films using an aqueous medium involving Zn-salt, ammonium sulfate, aqueous ammonia, and thiourea. Results on physical and chemical properties of the grown layers as a function of ammonia concentration are reported. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Rapid growth of nanostructured ZnO films on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) glass substrates was developed. ZnO films crystallized in a wurtzite hexagonal structure and with a very small quantity of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnS phases were obtained for the ammonia concentration ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 M. Flower-like and columnar nanostructured ZnO films were deposited in two ammonia concentration ranges, respectively: one between 0.75 and 1.0 M and the other between 1.4 and 2.0 M. ZnS films were formed with a high ammonia concentration of 3.0 M. The formation mechanisms of ZnO, Zn(OH){sub 2}, and ZnS phases were discussed in the CBD process. The developed technique can be used to directly and rapidly grow nanostructured ZnO film photoanodes. Annealed ZnO nanoflower and columnar nanoparticle films on FTO substrates were used as electrodes to fabricate the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on ZnO-nanoflower film showed an energy conversion efficiency of 0.84%, which is higher compared to that (0.45%) of the cell being constructed using a photoanode of columnar nanoparticle ZnO film. The results have demonstrated the potential applications of CBD nanostructured ZnO films for photovoltaic cells. (orig.)

  7. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcohols and biological application of ZnO passivated by MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Elbaum, Danek; Koper, Kamil; Stępień, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of spectroscopic measurements of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in various alcohols. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO was monitored under different reaction conditions to elucidate the mechanism of the visible emission. We performed the process in different alcohols, temperatures and reaction times for two different reactants: water and NaOH. Based on the presented and previously published results it is apparent that the luminescence of the nanoparticles is influenced by several competing phenomena: the formation of new nucleation centers, the growth of the nanoparticles and surface passivation. Superimposed on the above effects is a size dependent luminescence alteration resulting from the quantum confinement. The study contributes to our understanding of the origin of ZnO nanoparticles’ green emission which is important in a rational design of fluorescent probes for nontoxic biological applications. The ZnO nanoparticles were coated with a magnesium oxide layer and introduced into a HeLa cancer cell. (paper)

  8. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcohols and biological application of ZnO passivated by MgO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Koper, Kamil; Stępień, Piotr; Elbaum, Danek

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the results of spectroscopic measurements of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in various alcohols. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO was monitored under different reaction conditions to elucidate the mechanism of the visible emission. We performed the process in different alcohols, temperatures and reaction times for two different reactants: water and NaOH. Based on the presented and previously published results it is apparent that the luminescence of the nanoparticles is influenced by several competing phenomena: the formation of new nucleation centers, the growth of the nanoparticles and surface passivation. Superimposed on the above effects is a size dependent luminescence alteration resulting from the quantum confinement. The study contributes to our understanding of the origin of ZnO nanoparticles' green emission which is important in a rational design of fluorescent probes for nontoxic biological applications. The ZnO nanoparticles were coated with a magnesium oxide layer and introduced into a HeLa cancer cell.

  9. Room temperature ferromagnetism and gas sensing in ZnO nanostructures: Influence of intrinsic defects and Mn, Co, Cu doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhlongo, Gugu H., E-mail: gmhlongo@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Shingange, Katekani; Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P.; Dhonge, Baban P. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mahmoud, Fawzy A. [Solid State Physics Dept., National Research Centre, P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Mwakikunga, Bonex W.; Motaung, David E. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn, Co, Cu doped ZnO via microwave-assisted method. • Doping alters the morphology of ZnO nanostructures. • Concentration of zinc and oxygen related defects vary with doping. • Correlation between PL and EPR was established. • Both undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures showed selectivity towards NH{sub 3}. - Abstract: Undoped and transition metal (Cu, Co and Mn) doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C. Numerous characterization facilities such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to acquire the structural and morphological information of the prepared ZnO based products. Combination of defect structure analysis based on photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) indicated that co-existing oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) and zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) defects are responsible for the observed ferromagnetism in undoped and transition metal (TM) doped ZnO systems. PL analysis demonstrated that undoped ZnO has more donor defects (V{sub O} and Zn{sub i}) which are beneficial for gas response enhancement. Undoped ZnO based sensor exhibited a higher sensor response to NH{sub 3} gas compared to its counterparts owing to high content of donor defects while transition metal doped sensors showed short response and recovery times compared to undoped ZnO.

  10. A novel technique for synthesizing dense alumina nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancholi, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Stoleru, V G [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kell, C D [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-05-30

    The formation of highly ordered nanoporous alumina membranes by anodizing high-purity aluminium under optimum conditions (i.e., anodization time, electrolyte temperature, and cell voltage) in various electrolyte solutions is a well established process. In this paper we report on the formation of a wide range of alumina nanostructures, including nanotubes/nanochannels, nanoplates, and nanofibres, by using a technique that involves anodization and etching processing steps similar to the ones that yield nanopores, under slightly modified experimental conditions. The effects of the anodization voltage, time, and temperature, as well as the effects of the etching time, on the formation and the properties of the alumina nanostructures are analysed. We propose a simple analytical model to describe the formation of different types of alumina nanostructures, as a result of irreversible breakage of the pore walls for long etching times. The geometry of the nanostructures and their dimensions, ranging between 10 and 100 nm, were found to be dependent on the pore dimensions and on the location of the cleavage/breakage of the pore walls.

  11. Large-scale syntheses of uniform ZnO nanorods and ethanol gas sensors application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jin; Li Jin; Li Jiahui; Xiao Guoqing; Yang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The uniform ZnO nanorods could be synthesized by a low temperature, solution-based method. → The results showed that the sample had uniform rod-like morphology with a narrow size distribution and highly crystallinity. → Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of these nanorods show an exciton emission around 382 nm and a weak deep level emission, indicating the nanorods have high quality. → The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and fast response to ethanol gas at a work temperature of 400 deg. C. - Abstract: Uniform ZnO nanorods with a gram scale were prepared by a low temperature and solution-based method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the sample had uniform rod-like morphology with a narrow size distribution and highly crystallinity. Room-temperature PL spectra of these nanorods show an exciton emission around 382 nm and a negligible deep level emission, indicating the nanorods have high quality. The gas-sensing properties of the materials have been investigated. The results indicate that the as-prepared nanorods show much better sensitivity and stability. The n-type semiconductor gas sensor exhibited high sensitivity and fast response to ethanol gas at a work temperature of 400 deg. C. ZnO nanorods are excellent potential candidates for highly sensitive gas sensors and ultraviolet laser.

  12. Polyelectrolyte-assisted preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shijun

    2005-05-15

    The present work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films onto silicon wafers modified by self-assembled-monolayers via chemical bath deposition. Two precursor solutions were designed and used for the film deposition, in which two different polymers were introduced respectively to control the growth of the ZnO colloidal particles in solution. ZnO films were deposited from an aqueous solution containing zinc salt and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in the presence of a graft-copolymer (P (MAA{sub 0.50}-co(MAA-EO{sub 20}){sub 0.50}){sub 70}). A film-formation-diagram was established based on the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which describes the influence of the concentration of HMTA and copolymer on the ZnO film formation. According to the film morphology, film formation can be classified into three categories: (a) island-like films, (b) uniform films and (c) canyon-like films. The ZnO films annealed at temperatures of 450 C, 500 C, 600 C and 700 C were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After annealing, the films are polycrystalline ZnO with wurtzite structure. XRD measurements indicate that with increasing annealing temperature, the average grain size increases accordingly and the crystallinity of the films is improved. Upon heating to 600 C, the ZnO films exhibit preferred orientation with c-axis normal to substrate, whereas the films annealed at 700 C even show a more explicit texture. By annealing at temperatures above 600 C the ZnO film reacts with the substrate to form an interfacial layer of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, which grows thicker at elevated annealing temperatures. The ZnO films annealed at 600 C and 700 C show strong UV emission. Another non-aqueous solution system for ZnO thin film deposition was established, in which 2- propanol was used as a solvent and Zn(CH3COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as well as NaOH as reactants

  13. Tuning the nanostructures and optical properties of undoped and N-doped ZnO by supercritical fluid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaping; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Chu, Tian-Jian; Li, Yu-Chiuan; Li, Xiaojun; Liao, Xiaxia; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hua; Kang, Junyong; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of ZnO films in a supercritical fluid (SCF) has been reported to improve the performance of devices in which the treated ZnO films are incorporated; however, the mechanism of this improvement remains unclear. In this paper, we study the transformation of the surface morphologies and emission properties of ZnO films before and after SCF treatment, establishing the relationship between the treated and untreated structures and thereby enabling tuning of the catalytic or opto-electronic performance of ZnO films or ZnO-film-based devices. Both undoped and N-doped ZnO nanostructures generated by SCF treatment of films are investigated using techniques to characterize their surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) as well as room-temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) spectroscopy. The water-mixed supercritical CO2 (W-SCCO2) technology was found to form nanostructures in ZnO films through a self-catalyzed process enabled by the Zn-rich conditions in the ZnO films. The W-SCCO2 was also found to promote the inhibition of defect luminescence by introducing -OH groups onto the films. Two models are proposed to explain the effects of the treatment with W-SCCO2. This work demonstrates that the W-SCCO2 technology can be used as an effective tool for the nanodesign and property enhancement of functional metal oxides.

  14. Characterization of ZnO nanostructures: A challenge to positron annihilation spectroscopy and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Gerhard; Anwand, Wolfgang; Grambole, Dieter; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Egger, Werner; Sperr, Peter [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Neubiberg (Germany); Beinik, Igor; Wang, Lin; Teichert, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Kuriplach, Jan; Lang, Jan [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Zviagin, Sergei; Cizmar, Erik [Institut Hochfeld-Magnetlabor, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ling, Chi Chung; Hsu, Yuk Fan; Xi, Yan Yan; Chen, Xinyi; Djurisic, Aleksandra B. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-11-15

    ZnO nanostructures are of special interest for device applications. However, their structural characterization remains an ongoing challenge. This paper reviews recent efforts and latest achievements in this direction. Results comprise PAS in the form of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) and Pulsed Low Energy Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLEPS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM (C-AFM), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and latest theoretical investigations of structure-related and positron properties of selected defects. The fundamental importance of a relationship between fabrication conditions, native defect formation, and resulting optical and electronic properties is demonstrated by getting either inferior (nanorods) or significantly improved (tetrapods) optical properties compared to single crystal samples, depending on the nanostructure fabrication method. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Magnetic Properties of Gadolinium-Doped ZnO Films and Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-08-29

    The magnetic properties of Gd-doped ZnO films and nanostructures are important to the development of next-generation spintronic devices. Here, we elucidate the significant role played by Gd-oxygen-deficiency defects in mediating/inducing ferromagnetic coupling in in situ Gd-doped ZnO thin films deposited at low oxygen pressure by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Samples deposited at higher oxygen pressures exhibited diamagnetic responses. Vacuum annealing was used on these diamagnetic samples (grown at a relatively high oxygen pressures) to create oxygen- deficiency defects with the aim of demonstrating reproducibility of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). Samples annealed at oxygen environment exhibited super‐ paramagnetism and blocking-temperature effects. The samples possessed secondary phases; Gd segregation led to superparamagnetism. Theoretical studies showed a shift of the 4f level of Gd to the conduction band minimum (CBM) in Gd-doped ZnO nanowires, which led to an overlap with the Fermi level, resulting in strong exchange coupling and consequently RTFM.

  16. Investigation on Fe-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by a chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Das, D.

    2010-01-01

    Zn 1-x Fe x O (x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical route were characterized by different techniques. The structural characterization by XRD and TEM confirmed the phase purity of the samples and indicated a reduction in particle size with increase in the dopant (Fe) concentration in ZnO. The optical characterization of the nanoparticles by FTIR, PL and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed the formation of wurtzite structure and incorporation of Fe in the ZnO lattice. Magnetization measurements by VSM and Faraday balance techniques indicate presence of room temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped ZnO samples. Local environment around the Fe atoms has been probed by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and the measured isomer shifts confirmed the charge state of iron as Fe 3+ . Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements confirm the presence of cation vacancies in the nanoparticles and indicate a reduction of overall defect concentration with incorporation of Fe atoms in the ZnO structure.

  17. Investigation on Fe-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by a chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.K. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Das, D., E-mail: ddas@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2010-07-25

    Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O (x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical route were characterized by different techniques. The structural characterization by XRD and TEM confirmed the phase purity of the samples and indicated a reduction in particle size with increase in the dopant (Fe) concentration in ZnO. The optical characterization of the nanoparticles by FTIR, PL and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed the formation of wurtzite structure and incorporation of Fe in the ZnO lattice. Magnetization measurements by VSM and Faraday balance techniques indicate presence of room temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped ZnO samples. Local environment around the Fe atoms has been probed by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and the measured isomer shifts confirmed the charge state of iron as Fe{sup 3+}. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements confirm the presence of cation vacancies in the nanoparticles and indicate a reduction of overall defect concentration with incorporation of Fe atoms in the ZnO structure.

  18. Mechanisms of electron transport and recombination in ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Poot, Alberto G; Macías-Montero, Manuel; Idígoras, Jesus; Borrás, Ana; Barranco, Angel; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustín R; Lizama-Tzec, Francisco I; Oskam, Gerko; Anta, Juan A

    2014-04-14

    ZnO is an attractive material for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells and related devices. This material has excellent electron-transport properties in the bulk but its electron diffusion coefficient is much smaller in mesoporous films. In this work the electron-transport properties of two different kinds of dye-sensitized ZnO nanostructures are investigated by small-perturbation electrochemical techniques. For nanoparticulate ZnO photoanodes prepared via a wet-chemistry technique, the diffusion coefficient is found to reproduce the typical behavior predicted by the multiple-trapping and the hopping models, with an exponential increase with respect to the applied bias. In contrast, in ZnO nanostructured thin films of controlled texture and crystallinity prepared via a plasma chemical vapor deposition method, the diffusion coefficient is found to be independent of the electrochemical bias. This observation suggests a different transport mechanism not controlled by trapping and electron accumulation. In spite of the quite different transport features, the recombination kinetics, the electron-collection efficiency and the photoconversion efficiency are very similar for both kinds of photoanodes, an observation that indicates that surface properties rather than electron transport is the main efficiency-determining factor in solar cells based on ZnO nanostructured photoanodes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Homogeneous ZnO nanostructure arrays on GaAs substrates by two-step chemical bath synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Tzung-Han; Cheng, Chiao-Yang; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods, and nanoneedles, have been deposited on GaAs substrates by the two-step chemical bath synthesis. It was demonstrated that the O 2 -plasma treatment of GaAs substrates prior to the sol–gel deposition of seed layers was essential to conformally grow the nanostructures instead of 2D ZnO bunches and grains on the seed layers. Via adjusting the growth time and concentration of precursors, nanostructures with different average diameter (26–225 nm), length (0.98–2.29 μm), and density (1.9–15.3 × 10 9 cm −2 ) can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ZnO nanostructure arrays grown on GaAs substrates by the two-step chemical bath synthesis. As an anti-reflection layer on GaAs-based solar cells, the array of ZnO nanoneedles with an average diameter of 125 nm, a moderate length of 2.29 μm, and the distribution density of 9.8 × 10 9 cm −2 has increased the power conversion efficiency from 7.3 to 12.2 %, corresponding to a 67 % improvement.

  20. Functionalized tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures for plasmid DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Leng; Gao Lizeng; Yan Xiyun; Wang Taihong

    2007-01-01

    Functionalized tetrapodal ZnO nanostructures are tested in plasmid DNA experiments (1) as a solid-phase adsorbent for plasmid DNA purification (2) as improving reagents in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and (3) as novel carriers for gene delivery. The amino-modification, the tetrapod-like shape of the nanostructure and its high biocompatibility all contribute to measurements showing promise for applications. A sol-gel method is used for silica coating and amino-modification. Plasmid DNA is purified through reversible conjugations of amino-modified ZnO tetrapods with DNA. Also, as additional reagents, functionalized tetrapods are shown to improve the amount of PCR product. For transfection, ZnO tetrapods provide some protection against deoxyribonuclease cleavage of plasmid DNA and deliver plasmid DNA into cells with little cytotoxicity

  1. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C 29 H 60 ) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC 50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of External Gaseous Environments on the Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by a Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Procek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations of ZnO nanostructures, consisting of a mixture of nanoparticles and nanowires, obtained by the chemical (hydrothermal method. The influences of both oxidizing (NO2 and reducing gases (H2, NH3, as well as relative humidity (RH on the physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanostructures were tested. Carrier gas effect on the structure interaction with gases was also tested; experiments were conducted in air and nitrogen (N2 atmospheres. The effect of investigated gases on the resistance of the ZnO nanostructures was tested over a wide range of concentrations at room temperature (RT and at 200 °C. The impact of near- ultraviolet (UV excitation (λ = 390 nm at RT was also studied. These investigations indicated a high response of ZnO nanostructures to small concentrations of NO2. The structure responses to 1 ppm of NO2 amounted to about: 600% in N2/230% in air at 200 °C (in dark conditions and 430% in N2/340% in air at RT (with UV excitation. The response of the structure to the effect of NO2 at 200 °C is more than 105 times greater than the response to NH3, and more than 106 times greater than that to H2 in the relation of 1 ppm. Thus the selectivity of the structure for NO2 is very good. What is more, the selectivity to NO2 at RT with UV excitation increases in comparison at elevated temperature. This paper presents a great potential for practical applications of ZnO nanostructures (including nanoparticles in resistive NO2 sensors.

  3. Design of Highly Sensitive C2H5OH Sensors Using Self-Assembled ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Heun Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Various ZnO nanostructures such as porous nanorods and two hierarchical structures consisting of porous nanosheets or crystalline nanorods were prepared by the reaction of mixtures of oleic-acid-dissolved ethanol solutions and aqueous dissolved Zn-precursor solutions in the presence of NaOH. All three ZnO nanostructures showed sensitive and selective detection of C2H5OH. In particular, ultra-high responses (Ra/Rg = ~1,200, Ra: resistance in air, Rg: resistance in gas to 100 ppm C2H5OH was attained using porous nanorods and hierarchical structures assembled from porous nanosheets, which is one of the highest values reported in the literature. The gas response and linearity of gas sensors were discussed in relation to the size, surface area, and porosity of the nanostructures.

  4. CO gas sensing of CuO nanostructures, synthesized by an assisted solvothermal wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Oroojpour, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    CuO nanostructures with different morphologies and sizes were grown in a controlled manner using a simple low-temperature hydrothermal technique. By controlling the pH of reaction mixture, spherical nanoparticles and cloudlike CuO structures were synthesized at 100-150 o C with excellent efficiency. These CuO nanostructures have been tested for CO gas monitoring by depositing them as thick films on an interdigitated alumina substrate and evaluated the surface resistance of the deposited layer as a function of operating temperature and CO concentrations. The gas sensitivity tests have demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures, especially cloudlike morphology, exhibit high sensitivity to CO proving their applicability in gas sensors. The role of the nanostructure on the sensing properties of CuO is also discussed.

  5. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  6. Photoluminescence and hydrogen gas-sensing properties of titanium dioxide nanostructures synthesized by hydrothermal treatments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sikhwivhilu, LM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures were synthesized by microwave-assisted and conventionally heated hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 powder. The tubular structures were converted to a rodlike shape by sintering the samples at various temperatures...

  7. Variation in Structural and Optical Properties of Al Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Aravapalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing structural and optical properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO synthesized with two different precursors aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate. The nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and characterized at room temperature by sol-gel process. The objective of improving properties of ZnO nanoparticles by introducing dopants was successful with formation of nanoparticles having different crystalline sizes, optical absorption and luminescence properties. The two different sources influenced properties of ZnO. The particles with less crystalline size obtained from aluminum nitrate. Change in morphology from spherical to bar like morphology proved from SEM spectra. Presence of functional groups predicted from FTIR spectra. PL spectra proved UV emission and visible emission for AZO nanoparticles synthesized using dopant sources aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate respectively. The obtained properties prove successful utilization of AZO nanoparticles as building materials in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Identification and origin of visible transitions in one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures: Excitation wavelength and morphology dependence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baral, Arpit [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Khanuja, Manika, E-mail: manikakhanuja@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Islam, S.S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Sharma, Rishabh; Mehta, B.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2017-03-15

    In this present work, one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by mechanical assisted thermal decomposition process. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for morphology, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural characterization. Photoluminescence (PL) and Photoluminescence spectra evolution was studied as a function of (i) excitation wavelength (λ{sub Ex:} 310–370 nm) and (ii) morphology (nanoneedles and nanorods). PL spectra were observed to be highly asymmetric with strong dependence on excitation wavelength (λ{sub Ex}). PL spectra categorized into two types as a function of excitation wavelength (λ{sub Ex}): I. λ{sub Ex}≤345 nm and II. λ{sub Ex}≥350 nm. The PL spectra were deconvoluted into multiple Gaussian components for each excitation wavelength. The position of each component is a signature of its origin and corresponds to specific visible transition. The transition involving origin from conduction band (CB) are absent for excitation wavelength λ{sub Ex}≥350 nm. The tunable photoresponse is achieved in 1D ZnO nanostructures by varying (i) excitation wavelength and (ii) morphology: nanoneedles to nanorods. PL intensity increases as aspect ratio decrease from nanoneedles to nanorods morphology. This is attributed to non-radiative quenching by near surface defects.

  9. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One step bench top novel synthesis and growth dynamics of ZnO structures are successfully performed. • Nanostructures dispersing liquid crystals (NDLC) is recently found to have significant influence on the nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. • Electro-optical switching application ensures the bright field droplet design marble pattern of smectic G phase, nematic and most significant twist nematic phase pattern are obtained. • Spontaneous polarization, rotational viscosity and response time study, exploring smart applications in LCD technology. - Abstract: The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were

  10. Synthesizing Iron Oxide Nanostructures: The Polyethylenenemine (PEI) Role

    KAUST Repository

    Mozo, Sergio Lentijo

    2017-01-12

    Controlled synthesis of anisotropic iron oxide nanoparticles is a challenge in the field of nanomaterial research that requires an extreme attention to detail. In particular, following up a previous work showcasing the synthesis of magnetite nanorods (NRs) using a two-step approach that made use of polyethylenenemine (PEI) as a capping ligand to synthesize intermediate β-FeOOH NRs, we studied the effect and influence of the capping ligand on the formation of β-FeOOH NRs. By comparing the results reported in the literature with those we obtained from syntheses performed (1) in the absence of PEI or (2) by using PEIs with different molecular weight, we showed how the choice of different PEIs determines the aspect ratio and the structural stability of the β-FeOOH NRs and how this affects the final products. For this purpose, a combination of XRD, HRTEM, and direct current superconducting quantum interference device (DC SQUID) magnetometry was used to identify the phases formed in the final products and study their morphostructural features and related magnetic behavior.

  11. Synthesis of Cu Doped ZnO Nanostructures for Ultra Violet Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar Abbas SHAH; Muhammad ABID; Muhammad AMIN; Rahat AFRIN; Syed Zafar ILYAS

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly focused on the synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures, their characterization and their ultra violet light sensing response at room temperature. Nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets were synthesized by varying doping material copper by using vapor transport technique governed by the vapor-liquid-solid or vapor-solid mechanisms. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-...

  12. Structural and optical properties of ZnMgO nanostructures formed by Mg in-diffused ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, C.-J.; Hsu, H.-C.; Cheng, H.-M.; Wu, C.-Y.; Hsieh, W.-F.

    2007-01-01

    ZnMgO nanostructures with wurtzite phase were prepared by thermal diffusion of Mg into the ZnO nanowires. As ZnO light-emitting devices have been operated by using ZnMgO layers as energy barrier layers to confine the carriers, it is essential to realize the characterization of ZnMgO particularly. In this work, the Mg content in Zn 1 -x Mg x O alloy determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) shows a good coincidence. The variation of lattice constant and the blueshift of near-band-edge emission indicate that Zn 2+ ions are successfully substituted by Mg 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. In Raman-scattering studies, the change of E 2 (high) phonon line shape in ZnO:Mg nanostructures reveals the microscopic substitutional disorder. In addition to the host phonons of ZnO, two additional bands around 383 and 510 cm -1 are presumably attributed to the Mg-related vibrational modes. - Graphical abstract: We reported the synthesis of the ZnMgO nanostructures prepared by a simple vapor transport method. Magnesium-related anomalous modes are observed by Raman spectra for the first time in ZnMgO system

  13. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  14. Studies on the adsorption of RuN{sub 3} dye on sheet-like nanostructured porous ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Pan, Jie; Briggs, Evan P.; Thrash, Marvin; Kerr, Lei L. [Department of Paper and Chemical Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The interface between the ZnO and dye directly impacts the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. Nanostructured porous ZnO film was developed by a simple chemical solution process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated the uniform ZnO films with sheet-like nanostructure. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of RuN{sub 3} dye on the surface of ZnO films was approximately 0.016 mmol RuN{sub 3}/g ZnO films. Adsorption studies were conducted at 25 and 40 C. The results showed that the dye adsorption was significantly influenced by temperatures. Moreover, the problem of the dye aggregation on the ZnO surface was reduced at higher adsorption temperatures. The adsorption chemistry was studied with Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  15. Photoluminescence quenching processes by NO2 adsorption in ZnO nanostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretı, A.; Valerini, D.; Taurino, A.; Quaranta, F.; Lomascolo, M.; Rella, R.

    2012-04-01

    The optical response by NO2 gas adsorption at different concentrations has been investigated, at room temperature, in ZnO nanostructured films grown by controlled vapor phase deposition. The variation (quenching) in the photoluminescence signal from excitonic and defects bands, due to the interactions between the oxidizing gas molecules and the sample surface, has been detected and dynamic responses and calibration curves as a function of gas concentration have been obtained and analyzed for each band. We showed that the sensing response results larger in excitonic band than in defect one and that the emission signal rises from two different quenchable and unquenchable states. A simple model was proposed in order to explain the quenching processes on the emission intensity and to correlate them to the morphological features of the samples. Finally, the reversibility of the quenching effects has also been tested at high gas concentration.

  16. Electromagnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbonyl Tetrapod-Shaped Zno Nanostructures Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Qin, Hui; Huang, Yunhua

    2012-08-01

    CIP/T-ZnO/EP composite coatings with carbonyl iron powders (CIP) and tetrapodshaped ZnO (T-ZnO) nanostructures as absorbers, and epoxy resin (EP) as matrix were prepared. The complex permittivity, permeability and microwave absorption properties of the coatings were investigated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The effects of the weight ratio (CIP/T-ZnO/EP), the thickness and the solidification temperature on microwave absorption properties were discussed. When the weight ratio (CIP/TZnO/ EP), the thickness and the solidification temperature is 28:2:22, 1.8 mm, and 10°C, respectively, the optimal wave absorption with the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -22.38 dB at 15.67 GHz and the bandwidth (RLcoatings may have a promising application in Ku-band (12-18 GHz).

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of coated steel with poly(N-methyl pyrrole) synthesized in presence of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudian, M.R., E-mail: M_R_mahmoudian@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basirun, W.J.; Alias, Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Khorsand Zak, A. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-31

    Poly(N-methyl pyrrole) (PMPy) coating was electrodeposited on steel substrates in mixed electrolytes of dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid with oxalic acid in the absence and the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The morphology and compositions were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrode/coating/electrolyte system was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The comparison between the pore resistance (R{sub po}) of synthesized PMPy in the absence and presence of ZnO NPs indicated that the existence of ZnO increased the R{sub po} of the coating. The FESEM micrographs indicated that the size of micro-spherical grains in the morphology of PMPy is significantly reduced and the surface area of PMPy is increased with the presence of ZnO NPs. The increase of the ability to interact with the ions liberated during the corrosion reaction of steel and the increase of the rate probability for the occurrence of cathodic reduction of oxygen on the PMPy with the increase of the surface area can be considered as reasons for improvement of protective properties of synthesized PMPy in the presence of ZnO NPs.

  18. Photoelectrochemical study of nanostructured ZnO thin films for hydrogen generation from water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Abraham; Zhang, Jin Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Smith, Wilson A.; Zhao, Yiping [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Kuykendall, Tevye R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-06-23

    Photoelectrochemical cells based on traditional and nanostructured ZnO thin films are investigated for hydrogen generation from water splitting. The ZnO thin films are fabricated using three different deposition geometries: normal pulsed laser deposition, pulsed laser oblique-angle deposition, and electron-beam glancing-angle deposition. The nanostructured films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical techniques. Normal pulsed laser deposition produces dense thin films with ca. 200 nm grain sizes, while oblique-angle deposition produces nanoplatelets with a fishscale morphology and individual features measuring ca. 900 by 450 nm on average. In contrast, glancing-angle deposition generates a highly porous, interconnected network of spherical nanoparticles of 15-40 nm diameter. Mott-Schottky plots show the flat band potential of pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition, and glancing-angle deposition samples to be -0.29, -0.28 and +0.20 V, respectively. Generation of photocurrent is observed at anodic potentials and no limiting photocurrents were observed with applied potentials up to 1.3 V for all photoelectrochemical cells. The effective photon-to-hydrogen efficiency is found to be 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.6% for pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition and glancing-angle deposition samples, respectively. The photoelectrochemical properties of the three types of films are understood to be a function of porosity, crystal defect concentration, charge transport properties and space charge layer characteristics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis growth of ZnO and ZnO:Al nanostructured films: Application to photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenanakis, G., E-mail: gkenanak@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–ZnO thin films and nanostructures were obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. • The texture and morphology of the samples depend on the deposition parameters. • The photocatalytic degradation of stearic acid was studied upon UV-A irradiation. - Abstract: Pure and Al-doped ZnO (Al = 1, 3, 5%) nanostructured thin films were grown at 400 °C on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, a simple, environmental-friendly and inexpensive method, using aqueous solutions as precursors. The structural and morphological characteristics of the samples depend drastically on deposition parameters; ZnO nanostructured films, nanopetals and nanorods were systematically obtained by simply varying the precursor solution and/or the spraying time. Transmittance measurements have shown that all samples are transparent in the visible wavelength region. Finally, the photocatalytic properties of the samples were investigated against the degradation of stearic acid under UV-A light illumination (365 nm); both pure and Al-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films show good photocatalytic activity regarding the degradation of stearic acid, due to their good crystallinity and large surface area.

  20. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru; Khrypunov, G. S.; Korsun, V. E.; Lyubov, V. M.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Kopach, A. V. [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  1. Multifunctional ZnO interfaces with hierarchical micro- and nanostructures: bio-inspiration from the compound eyes of butterflies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sha; Yang, Yefeng; Jin, Yizheng; Huang, Jingyun; Zhao, Binghui; Ye, Zhizhen [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-07-15

    Multifunctional zinc oxide (ZnO) interfaces were fabricated by utilizing the technique of low-temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The ZnO interfacial material exhibit antiwetting, antireflectance, and photonic properties derived from the unique hierarchical micro- and nanostructures of the compound eye of the butterflies. We demonstrate that the fabrication of the multifunctional interfaces by using biotemplates can be applied to other materials, such as Pt. Our study provides an excellent example to obtain multifunctional interfaces by learning from nature. (orig.)

  2. Structural and photoluminescence properties of aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Xuan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089-WeiXing Road, Changchun, 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone Changchun, 130033 (China); Li Jinhua [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089-WeiXing Road, Changchun, 130022 (China); Zhao Dongxu, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone Changchun, 130033 (China); Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone Changchun, 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua; Wei Zhipeng [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089-WeiXing Road, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2010-08-02

    Aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Based on the analyses of the X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence result, it could be confirmed that the Sb has successfully doped in the ZnO crystal lattices to form an accepter energy level. At 85 K, the recombination of the acceptor-bound exciton was predominant in PL spectrum, which was attributed to the transition of the (Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn}) complex bound exciton. The acceptor binding energy had been calculated to be 123 meV.

  3. Structural and photoluminescence properties of aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xuan; Li Jinhua; Zhao Dongxu; Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shen Dezhen; Wang Xiaohua; Wei Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    Aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Based on the analyses of the X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence result, it could be confirmed that the Sb has successfully doped in the ZnO crystal lattices to form an accepter energy level. At 85 K, the recombination of the acceptor-bound exciton was predominant in PL spectrum, which was attributed to the transition of the (Sb Zn -2V Zn ) complex bound exciton. The acceptor binding energy had been calculated to be 123 meV.

  4. Photocatalytic studies of electrochemically synthesized polysaccharide-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Kaur, Harpreet

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the electrochemical synthesis of polysaccharide-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles using sodium hydroxide, starch, and zinc electrodes for the degradation of cationic dye (Rhodamine-B) under sunlight. Physiochemical properties of synthesized sample have been characterized by different techniques such as XRD, TEM, FESEM, EDS, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various factors such as effect of dye concentration, contact time, amount of photocatalyst, and pH has been studied. The results obtained from the photodegradation study showed that degradation rate of Rhodamine-B dye has been increased with increase of amount of photocatalyst and decreased with increase in initial dye concentration. Furthermore, the kinetics of the degradation has been investigated. It has been found that the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B dye follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and prepared photocatalyst can effectively degrade the cationic dye. Thus, this ecofriendly and efficient photocatalyst can be used for the treatment of dye-contaminated water. This catalyst also showed the antibacterial activity against Bacillus pumilus and Escherichia coli bacterial strains, so the synthesized nanoparticles also have the pharmaceutical properties.

  5. Microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of combustion synthesized Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinatha, N. [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Nair, K.G.M. [UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kalpakkam, Kokilamedu 603102 (India); Angadi, Basavaraj, E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India)

    2015-10-01

    We report on the microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) particles prepared by solution combustion technique using L-Valine as fuel. The detailed structural and micro-structural studies were carried out by XRD, HRTEM and TEM-SAED respectively, which confirms the formation of single phased, nano-sized particles. The electronic structure was determined through NEXAFS and atomic multiplet calculations/simulations performed for various symmetries and valence states of ‘Co’ to determine the valance state, symmetry and crystal field splitting. The correlations between the experimental NEXAFS spectra and atomic multiplet simulations, confirms that, ‘Co’ present is in the 2+ valence state and substituted at the ‘Zn’ site in tetrahedral symmetry with crystal field splitting, 10Dq =−0.6 eV. The optical properties and ‘Co’ induced defect formation of as-synthesized materials were examined by using diffuse reflectance and Photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Red-shift of band gap energy (E{sub g}) was observed in Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O samples due to Co (0.58 Å) substitution at Zn (0.60 Å) site of the host ZnO. Also, in PL spectra, a prominent pre-edge peak corresponds to ultraviolet (UV) emission around 360–370 nm was observed with Co concentration along with near band edge emission (NBE) of the wide band gap ZnO and all samples show emission in the blue region.

  6. Influence of Mn and Co on structural and morphological characteristics of ZnO synthesized by combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, R.A.; Costa, C.F.M.; Kiminami, R.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of doping of 0.2 mol of Mn and Co on structural and morphological characteristics of ZnO synthesized by combustion reaction. During the synthesis was the measurement of temperature and time of the combustion flame. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, particle size distribution and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The maximum temperature the reactions were 428 deg C and 436 deg C, reaction time, and 115 and 0 seconds for the samples doped with Mn and Co, respectively. The XRD data showed that for both impurities were formed only ZnO phase. For Co were formed secondary phase CoO. The crystallite size and surface area were 18 nm and 22 nm, and 52 and 38 m2/g for ZnO doped with Mn and Co, respectively. (author)

  7. InTaO4-based nanostructures synthesized by reactive pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Toyoyama, Hirokazu; Umezu, Ikurou; Sugimura, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured Ni-doped indium-tantalum-oxides (InTaO 4 ) were synthesized by a reactive pulsed laser ablation process, aiming at the final goal of direct splitting of water under visible sunbeam irradiation. The third harmonics beam of a Nd:YAG laser was focused onto a sintered In 0.9 Ni 0.1 TaO 4-δ target in pure oxygen background gases (0.05-1.00 Torr). Increasing the oxygen gas pressure, via thin films having nanometer-sized strong morphologies, single-crystalline nanoparticles were synthesized in the reactive vapor phases. The nanostructured deposited materials have the monoclinic layered wolframite-type structure of bulk InTaO 4 , without oxygen deficiency. (orig.)

  8. Effect of co-doping process on topography, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Syamsir, S. A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated of Undoped ZnO and Magnesium (Mg)-Aluminium (Al) co-doped Zinc Oxide (MAZO) nanostructured films were prepared by sol gel spin coating technique. The surface topography was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Based on the AFM results, Root Mean Square (RMS) of MAZO films have rougher surface compared to pure ZnO films. The optical and electrical properties of thin film samples were characterized using Uv-Vis spectroscopy and two point probes, current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The transmittance spectra for both thin samples was above 80% in the visible wavelength. The MAZO film shows the highest conductivity compared to pure ZnO films. This result indicates that the improvement of carrier mobility throughout doping process and possibly contribute by extra ion charge.

  9. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ziya Ozturk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  10. Photoluminescence quenching, structures, and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanostructures decorated plasma grown single walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, Brahim, E-mail: brahim.aissa@mpbc.ca [University of Quebec, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS-EMT (Canada); Nedil, Mourad [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT (Canada); Belaidi, Abdelhak; Isaifan, Rima J. [Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (Qatar); Bentouaf, Ali [University Hassiba Ben Bouali, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Algeria); Fauteux, Christian; Therriault, Daniel [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Laboratory for Multiscale Mechanics (LM2), Mechanical Engineering Department (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were successfully grown directly on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) template through the CO{sub 2} laser-induced chemical liquid deposition (LCLD) process. Photoluminescence (PL) of the deposited ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites exhibits, at room temperature, a narrow near UV band located at 390 nm with no emission bands in the visible region, indicating a high degree of crystalline quality of the ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, when the relative SWCNT loads are varied within the composites, the PL intensity and the diffused optical reflectance diminish in comparison with those of ZnO alone, owing to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from ZnO to the SWCNT, and the enhancement of the optical absorbance, respectively. Finally, these ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites are integrated into a heterojunction photovoltaic-based device, using PEDOT:PSS on ITO/glass substrate. The devices show an evident p–n junction behavior in the dark, and a clear I–V curve shift downward when illuminated with an open-circuit voltage of 1.1 V, a short circuit current density of 14.05 μA cm{sup −2}, and a fill factor of ∼35%. These results indicate that these composites fabricated via LCLD process could be promising for optoelectronic and energy-harvesting devices.

  11. On the possibility of room temperature ferromagnetism on chunk-shape BaSnO3/ZnO core/shell nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Core/shell BaSnO3/ZnO (BS-ZO) nanostructures were prepared by oxalate precipitation method and wet-chemical method. BaSnO3 (BSO) cubic perovskite structure and ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite sizes is 23 nm, 29 nm and 27 nm for BSO, ZnO and BS-ZO, respectively. Chunk-shape and cuboids morphology observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by VSM for bare and core-shell nano systems and the room temperature ferromagnetism observed for core-shell nanostructures. The BSO/ZnO shows enhanced coercivity and saturated magnetization as compared with BSO and ZnO nanostructures.

  12. Superhydrophobic ZnAl double hydroxide nanostructures and ZnO films on Al and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.de@bcrec.ac.in [Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal 713206 (India); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), L' Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Blvd. Université, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Québec G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and ZnO films have been fabricated on Al and glass substrates, respectively, by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition technique. Randomly oriented hexagonal patterned of ZnAl: LDHs thin nanoplates are clearly observed on Al-substrate in the scanning electron microscopic images. The average size of these hexagonal plates is ∼4 μm side and ∼30 nm of thickness. While on the glass substrate, a oriented hexagonal patterned ZnO nanorods (height ∼5 μm and 1 μm diameter) are observed and each rod is further decorated throughout the top few nanometers with several nanosteps. At the top of the nanorod, a perfectly hexagonal patterned ZnO surface with ∼250 nm sides is observed. The tendency to form hexagonal morphological features is due to the hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image. The ZnAl: LDHs and/or ZnO coated substrates have been passivated by using stearic acid (SA) molecules. Infrared spectra of passivated ZnAl: LDHs coated substrates confirm the presence of SA. X-ray diffraction pattern also corroborates the results of infrared spectrum. The contact angle of the as prepared samples is zero. The superhydrophobicity is achieved by observing contact angle of ∼161° with a hysteresis of ∼4° for Al-substrate. On the glass substrate, a higher contact angle of ∼168° with a lower hysteresis of ∼3° is observed. A lower surface roughness of ∼4.93 μm is measured on ZnAl: LDHs surface layer on the Al substrate as compare to a higher surface roughness of 6.87 μm measured on ZnO layer on glass substrate. The superhydrophobicity of passivated nanostructured films on two different substrates is observed due to high surface roughness and low surface energy. - Highlights: • ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoplates are fabricated on Al substrate. • ZnO nanorods are fabricated on

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopic studies of solvothermally synthesized ZnO nanobipyramids and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Biswas, Subhajit; Kar, Soumitra; Chaudhuri, Subhadra; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples in the form of hexagonal-based bipyramids and particles of nanometer dimensions were synthesized through solvothermal route and characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Positron annihilation experiments were performed to study the structural defects such as vacancies and surfaces in these nanosystems. From coincidence Doppler broadening measurements, the positron trapping sites were identified as Zn vacancies or Zn-O-Zn trivacancy clusters. The positron lifetimes, their relative intensities, and the Doppler broadened lineshape parameter S all showed characteristic changes across the nanobipyramid size corresponding to the thermal diffusion length of positrons. In large nanobipyramids, vacancies within the crystallites also trapped positrons and the effects of agglomeration of such vacancies due to increased temperatures of synthesis were reflected in the variation of the annihilation parameters with their base diameters. The sizes of the nanoparticles used were all in the limit of thermal diffusion length of positrons and the annihilation characteristics were in accordance with the decreasing contribution from surfaces with increasing particle size.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of galvanically synthesized nanostructure SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sumanta, E-mail: sumantajana85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mitra, Bibhas Chandra [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Bera, Pulakesh [Department of Chemistry, Panskura Banamali College, Purba Medinipur, Panskura 721152, WB (India); Sikdar, Moushumi [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mondal, Anup, E-mail: anupmondal2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India)

    2014-07-25

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured porous tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have been synthesized by simple and cost effective galvanic technique. The synthesized porous SnO{sub 2} thin films show excellent photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange (MO) dye under light irradiation. The porous morphological grain growth due to annealing is likely to play an active role for this degradation. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films have been successfully synthesized by galvanic technique. • A drastic morphological change occurs after annealing as deposited SnO{sub 2} thin films. • Morphological advantage results enhanced photodegradation of dye. - Abstract: The study demonstrates an approach to synthesize nanostructure SnO{sub 2} thin films on TCO (transparent conducting oxide) coated glass substrates by galvanic technique. Aqueous solution of hydrated stannic chloride (SnCl{sub 4}⋅5H{sub 2}O) in potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) solution was used as the working solution. The process involves no sophisticated reactor or toxic chemicals, and proceeds continuously under ambient condition; it provides an economic way of synthesizing nanostructure SnO{sub 2} semiconductor thin films. The influence of sintering temperature on crystalline structure, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties has been studied. A detail analysis of I−V, C−V and dielectrics for annealed SnO{sub 2} thin films have been carried out. The morphological advantage i.e. nanoporous flake like structure allows more efficient transport of reactant molecules to the active interfaces and results a strong photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange (MO) dye.

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence of ZnO obtained by thermal treatment of ZnS chemically synthesized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Orante B, V.R.; Grijalva M, H.; Perez S, R.; Bernal, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we report the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry of new nano phosphors of ZnO obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder. The synthesized ZnS nano powder was compressed in order to form pellet shaped pellets, which were afterwards subjected to a thermal annealing at 700 C during 24 h under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-disperse X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of ZnS to ZnO. Samples were exposed to several doses of beta radiation up to 600 Gy, and the optically stimulated luminescence with 470 nm wavelength light was recorded as a function of dose. The intensity of the OSL signal increases by increasing dose, for what it is concluded that these new phosphor materials are suitable to be used in optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  16. H2O2 sensing using HRP modified catalyst-free ZnO nanorods synthesized by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Priti; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Catalyst-free ( 00 l) oriented ZnO nanorods (NRs) -based biosensor for the H2O2 sensing has been reported. The (002) oriented ZnO NRs as confirmed by X-ray diffraction were successfully grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique without using any catalyst. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was immobilized on ZnO NRs by physical adsorption technique to prepare the biosensor. In this HRP/ZnO NR/ITO bioelectrode, nafion solution was added to form a tight membrane on surface. The prepared bioelectrode has been used for biosensing measurements by electrochemical analyzer. The electrochemical studies reveal that the prepared HRP/ZnO NR/ITO biosensor is highly sensitive to the detection of H2O2 over a linear range of 0.250-10 μM. The ZnO NR-based biosensor showed lower value of detection limit (0.125 μM) and higher sensitivity (13.40 µA/µM cm2) towards H2O2. The observed value of higher sensitivity attributed to larger surface area of ZnO nanostructure for effective loading of HRP besides its high electron communication capability. In addition, the biosensor also shows lower value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant, K m) of 0.262 μM which indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of HRP to H2O2. The reported biosensor may be useful for various applications in biosensing, clinical, food, and beverage industry.

  17. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on ZnO and M13 Bacteriophage nanostructures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Kyujungg; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the portable and wearable electronic devices, operated in the power range of microwatt to miliwatt, become available thank to the nanotechnology development and become an essential element for a comfortable life. Our recent research interest mainly focuses on the fabrication of piezoelectric nanogenerators based on smart nanomaterials such as zinc oxide novel nanostructure, M13 bacteriophage. In this talk, we present a simple strategy for fabricating the freestanding ZnO nanorods/graphene/ZnO nanorods double sided heterostructures. The characterization of the double sided heterostructures by using SEM, and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals the key process and working mechanism of a formation of the heterostructure. The mechanism is discussed in detail in term of the decomposed seed layer and the vacancy defect of graphene. The approach consists of a facile one-step fabrication process and could achieve ZnO coverage with a higher number density than that of the epitaxial single heterostructure. The resulting improvement in the number density of nanorods has a direct beneficial effect on the double side heterostructured nanogenerator performance. The total output voltage and current density are improved up to 2 times compared to those of a single heterostructure due to the coupling of the piezoelectric effects from both upward and downward grown nanorods. The facile one-step fabrication process suggests that double sided heterostructures would improve the performance of electrical and optoelectrical device, such as touch pad, pressure sensor, biosensor and dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, ioinspired nanogenerators based on vertically aligned phage nanopillars are inceptively demonstrated. Vertically aligned phage nanopillars enable not only a high piezoelectric response but also a tuneable piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity is also modulated by tuning of the protein's dipoles in each phage. The sufficient electrical power from phage nanopillars thus

  18. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Characteristics of Nanostructured NiO Thin Films Synthesized by SILAR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Çorlu, Tugba; Yıldırım, M. Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured NiO thin films have been synthesized by a facile, low-cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and the effects of the film thickness on their hydrogen gas sensing properties investigated. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The XRD results revealed that the crystallinity improved with increasing thickness, exhibiting polycrystalline structure. SEM studies showed that all the films covered the glass substrate well. According to optical absorption measurements, the optical bandgap decreased with increasing film thickness. The gas sensing properties of the nanostructured NiO thin films were studied as a function of operating temperature and gas concentration. The samples showed good sensing performance of H2 gas with high response. The maximum response was 75% at operating temperature of 200°C for hydrogen gas concentration of 40 ppm. These results demonstrate that nanostructured NiO thin films synthesized by the SILAR method have potential for application in hydrogen detection.

  19. SWAXS investigations on diffuse boundary nanostructures of metallic nanoparticles synthesized by electrical discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoai, E-mail: xiaoai.guo@kit.edu; Gutsche, Alexander; Nirschl, Hermann [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Mechanical Process Engineering and Mechanics (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Metallic nanoparticles have attracted a particular interest in scientific research and industrial applications due to their unique size-dependent physical and chemical properties. An eco-friendly and cost-effective synthesis method called electrical discharge enables large scale production of metallic nanoparticles. Systematic investigations of such synthesized metallic nanoparticles help to optimize the synthesis process and improve the product quality. In this work, for the first time we have investigated the diffuse interfacial boundary nanostructures of the metallic nanoparticles, which were synthesized under different conditions by electrical glow and arc discharges in the carrier gas, by means of a small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) technique using a laboratory X-ray source. Meanwhile, this unique SWAXS technique allows simultaneous study of the primary particle size, morphology, and crystallinity. The metallic nanoparticles (copper and nickel) under investigation cover a size range of 10–80 nm, and the determined thickness of the diffuse boundary nanostructured layer of metallic nanoparticles is in the range of 1–3 nm. The experimental results obtained by SWAXS were compared to the TEM/EDX observation and the XRD reference patterns from RRUFF database, and a good agreement was found. Our SWAXS investigations indicated that the existence of a diffuse nanostructured solid layer on the synthesized metallic nanoparticle surface causes a negative deviation of the scattering intensity (Ι∝q{sup -α}, α>4) from Porod’s law which corresponds to the case of ideal two-phase particle systems with sharp boundaries (Ι∝q{sup -α}, α=4) . This implies that the electron density profile is not sharp but changes gradually between two phases, and hence the exponent α is greater than four. Two electron density profile models, sigmoidal electron-density gradient model and linear electron-density gradient model, have been taken into account in

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured ZnO Thick Film Gas Sensors Prepared by Screen Printing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. BORSE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized ZnO was prepared by self propagating solution combustion synthesis method. The synthesized ZnO thick films were deposited on alumina substrate by using standard screen printing technique and fired at 700 0C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX. The electrical behaviors of ZnO thick films were investigated. From XRD spectra it is revealed that ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. The average grain size of 87.44 nm has been estimated for the film fired at 700 0C using Scherrer’s formula. EDAX clearly shows the peaks corresponding to Zn and O element which confirms the successful growth of ZnO films. Gas sensing study for these samples shows high sensitivity and selectivity towards NO2 at all operating temperatures. The resistivity, TCR and activation energy of the ZnO films have been evaluated and discussed.

  1. Visible and UV photo-detection in ZnO nanostructured thin films via simple tuning of solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhra, Richa; Bharti, Bandna; Lee, Heung-No; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-11-08

    This study demonstrates significant visible light photo-detection capability of pristine ZnO nanostructure thin films possessing substantially high percentage of oxygen vacancies [Formula: see text] and zinc interstitials [Formula: see text], introduced by simple tuning of economical solution method. The demonstrated visible light photo-detection capability, in addition to the inherent UV light detection ability of ZnO, shows great dependency of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with the nanostructure morphology. The dependency was evaluated by analyzing the presence/percentage of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] using photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Morphologies of ZnO viz. nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanoflowers (NFs), as a result of tuning of synthesis method contended different concentrations of defects, demonstrated different photo-detection capabilities in the form of a thin film photodetector. The photo-detection capability was investigated under different light excitations (UV; 380~420 nm, white ; λ > 420 nm and green; 490~570 nm). The as fabricated NSs photodetector possessing comparatively intermediate percentage of [Formula: see text] ~ 47.7% and [Formula: see text] ~ 13.8% exhibited superior performance than that of NPs and NFs photodetectors, and ever reported photodetectors fabricated by using pristine ZnO nanostructures in thin film architecture. The adopted low cost and simplest approach makes the pristine ZnO-NSs applicable for wide-wavelength applications in optoelectronic devices.

  2. Structural and Morphological Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Particles Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method with Horizontal Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in a horizontal furnace at 500°C using different zinc nitrate hexahydrate concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 M as reactive solution by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The physical-chemical properties of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. With the TGA is has optimized the temperature at which the initial reactive (Zn(NO32·6H2O, is decomposed completely to give way to its corresponding oxide, ZnO. SEM revealed secondary particles with a quasispherical shape that do not change significantly with the increasing of precursor solution concentration as well as some content of the broken spheres. Increasing the precursor solution concentration leads to the increase in the average size of ZnO secondary particles from 248±73 to 470±160 nm; XRD reveals the similar tendency for the crystallite size which changes from 23±4 to 45±4 nm. HRTEM implies that the secondary particles are with hierarchical structure composed of primary nanosized subunits. These results showed that the precursor concentration plays an important role in the evolution on the size, stoichiometry, and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles.

  3. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  4. Facile solvothermal synthesis of abnormal growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures by ring-opening reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G., E-mail: gxu@alum.imr.ac.cn; Wang, X.L.; Liu, G.Z.

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanostructures in super high alkaline alcoholic condition. • The exact role and chemical transformations of PVP in solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanostructures was revealed. • Mechanism of abnormal growth of ZnO nanopyramids was proposed based on ring-opening reaction of PVP. - Abstract: Abnormal growth of one-dimensional (1-D) ZnO nanostructures (NSs) have been accomplished with the assistance of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) under a super high alkaline alcoholic solvothermal condition. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy. The effect of synthetic conditions, such as reaction temperature and the addition of PVP, on the morphologies of ZnO products were investigated. The results show that PVP molecules had the significant role in the transformation of morphologies of ZnO NSs ranging from nanorods, nanoparticles to pyramids, as well as flower-like assembly features. The possible growth mechanism of ZnO pyramids was proposed based on ring-opening reaction of PVP.

  5. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  6. Blue-emitting photoluminescence of rod-like and needle-like ZnO nanostructures formed by hot-water treatment of sol–gel derived coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wai Kian, E-mail: tanwaikian@cie.ignite.tut.ac.jp [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang 14300 Malaysia (Malaysia); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tut.ee.ac.jp [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The morphological evolution of the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures generated by hot-water treatment (HWT) of sol–gel derived coatings as a function of temperature from 30 to 90 °C was investigated. With increasing HWT temperature, the ZnO crystals evolved from nanoparticles to rod-like and needle-like nanostructures. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations of rod-like and needle-like nanostructures generated at 60 and 90 °C indicated single crystal ZnO wurtzite structure was obtained. All the hot-water treated samples exhibited blue emission at approximately 440 nm in room temperature. The intensity of blue emission increased with higher HWT temperatures. The unique photoluminescence emission characteristic remained even after heat-treatment at 400 °C for 1 h. As the emission peak obtained in our work is approximately 440 nm (2.82 eV), the emission peak is corresponding to the electron transition from the interstitial Zn to the top of valence band. This facile formation of blue-emitting ZnO nanostructures at low-temperature can be utilized on substrate with low thermal stability for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices and biological fluorescence labeling. - Highlights: • Facile and novel formation of ZnO nanostructures by low temperature hot-water treatment. • No catalyst or inhibitor is used. • Evolution of ZnO nanostructures formation as a function of temperature is reported. • Dominant blue emissions are observed from the as-formed and annealed ZnO films. • Ultraviolet and visible emissions are observed for hot-water treated films.

  7. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO_2 seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO_2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO_2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO_2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO_2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO_2 seed layer.

  8. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Sedlak, Jakub, E-mail: j1sedlak@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Pastorek, Miroslav, E-mail: pastorek@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.

  9. Improved sensitivity and selectivity of pristine zinc oxide nanostructures to H2S gas: Detailed study on the synthesis reaction time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, David E

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized at various reaction times are reported in this study. The response of ZnO nanostructures to H(sub2), NH(sub3), H(sub2)S and NO(sub2) gases was investigated at different operating...

  10. Supercapacitive properties of hydrothermally synthesized sphere like MoS2 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Sivaprakasam; Kim, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS 2 nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Randomly stacked MoS 2 was obtained. • FE-SEM studies show the sphere like morphology of MoS 2 . • Specific capacitance of 92.85 F/g was achieved using charge–discharge analysis. • MoS 2 electrode shows capacitance retention of about 93.8% after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: In this communication, we have investigated the supercapacitive behaviour of MoS 2 nanostructures prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach using ammonium heptamolybdate and thiourea as starting materials. The X-ray diffraction study revealed the formation of randomly stacked layers of MoS 2 . The field-emission scanning electron microscope studies suggested the formation of sphere like MoS 2 nanostructures and a plausible mechanism for the formation of the obtained structure is discussed. The cyclic voltammetry study shows the typical rectangular shaped curves with a specific capacitance of 106 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements suggested the maximum specific capacitance of about 92.85 F/g at discharge current density of 0.5 mA/cm 2 . Cyclic stability tests revealed the capacitance retention of about 93.8% after 1000 cycles suggesting a good cyclic capacity of the prepared MoS 2 . The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic results such as Nyquist and Bode phase angle plots suggested that the hydrothermally synthesized MoS 2 nanostructures will be a suitable candidate for electrochemical supercapacitor applications

  11. Controlling the Optical and Magnetic Properties of Nanostructured Cuprous Oxide Synthesized from Waste Electric Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbasir, S. M.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Rayan, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Cuprous oxide Cu2O nanopowders were purposefully synthesised from waste electric cables (WECs) via a simple precipitation route at room temperature using lactose as a reducing agent. In this regard, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was first applied as an organic solvent for the dissolution of the cable insulating materials. Several parameters were investigated during dissolution of WECs such as dissolution temperature, time and solid/liquid ratio to determine the dissolution percentage of the insulating materials in DMSO. The morphology and the optical properties of the formed Cu2O particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible-near IR spectrophotometer. XRD data confirmed the presence of single crystalline phase of Cu2O nanoparticles. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed spherical, cubic and octahedral shapes with the various particle sizes ranged from 16 to 57 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. A possible mechanism explaining the Cu2O nanostructures formation was proposed. The band gap energies of the Cu2O nanostructures were estimated and the values were located between 1.5 and 2.08 eV. Photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis clearly showed a noticeably blue-shifted emission for the synthesized samples compared to spectrum of the bulk. Eventually, magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer and the attained results implied that the synthesized particles are weakly ferromagnetic in nature at normal temperature.

  12. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukanov, Alexandre, E-mail: loukanov@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Saitama University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Japan); Filipov, Chavdar [University of Forestry, Department of Infectious pathology, hygiene, technology and control of food stuffs of animal origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Bulgaria); Valcheva, Violeta [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of microbiology (Bulgaria); Lecheva, Marta [University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”, Laboratory of Engineering NanoBiotechnology, Department of Engineering Geoecology (Bulgaria); Emin, Saim [University of Nova Gorica, Materials Research Laboratory (Slovenia)

    2015-04-15

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600–1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol–gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  13. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Valcheva, Violeta; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600–1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol–gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications

  14. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Valcheva, Violeta; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600-1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol-gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  15. Electrical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties of Fe-doped ZnO nanomaterials synthesized by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Cherif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol gel technique. Fine-scale and single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples were confirmed by SEM and XRD, respectively. The band gap energy depends on the amount of Fe and was found to be in the range of 3.11–2.53 eV. The electric and dielectric properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. AC conductivity data were correlated with the barrier hopping (CBH model to evaluate the binding energy (Wm, the minimum hopping distance (Rmin and the density of states at Fermi level, N(EF. Fe doping in ZnO also improved the photocatalytic activity. Thus, the sample Zn0.95Fe0.05O showed high degradation potential towards methylene blue (MB, i.e. it degrades 90% of BM in 90 min under UV light.

  16. Cycling behaviour of sponge-like nanostructured ZnO as thin-film Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garino, Nadia; Lamberti, Andrea; Gazia, Rossana; Chiodoni, Angelica; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn is thermally oxidized in ambient air to obtain sponge-like ZnO film. • Polycrystalline, transparent, porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stabile specific capacity (∼300 mAh g −1 ) after prolonged cycling. • Sponge-like ZnO film shows promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Single phase wurtzitic porous ZnO thin films are obtained by a simple two-step method, involving the sputtering deposition of a sponge-like metallic Zn layer, followed by a moderately low temperature treatment for the complete zinc oxidation. Thanks to its 3D nanostructuration, the superimposition of small branches able to grow in length almost isotropically and forming a complex topography, sponge-like ZnO can combine the fast transport properties of one dimensional material and the high surface area usually provided by nanocrystalline electrodes. When galvanostatically tested in lithium cell, after the initial decay, it can provide an almost stable specific capacity higher than 50 μAh cm −2 after prolonged cycling at estimated 0.7 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency

  17. Cycling behaviour of sponge-like nanostructured ZnO as thin-film Li-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.garino@iit.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Lamberti, Andrea; Gazia, Rossana; Chiodoni, Angelica [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Zn is thermally oxidized in ambient air to obtain sponge-like ZnO film. • Polycrystalline, transparent, porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stabile specific capacity (∼300 mAh g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling. • Sponge-like ZnO film shows promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Single phase wurtzitic porous ZnO thin films are obtained by a simple two-step method, involving the sputtering deposition of a sponge-like metallic Zn layer, followed by a moderately low temperature treatment for the complete zinc oxidation. Thanks to its 3D nanostructuration, the superimposition of small branches able to grow in length almost isotropically and forming a complex topography, sponge-like ZnO can combine the fast transport properties of one dimensional material and the high surface area usually provided by nanocrystalline electrodes. When galvanostatically tested in lithium cell, after the initial decay, it can provide an almost stable specific capacity higher than 50 μAh cm{sup −2} after prolonged cycling at estimated 0.7 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency.

  18. Effective tuning of electron charge and spin distribution in a dot-ring nanostructure at the ZnO interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk

    2018-05-01

    Electronic states and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in ZnO quantum dot-ring nanostructures containing few interacting electrons reveal several unique features. We have shown here that in contrast to the dot-rings made of conventional semiconductors, such as InAs or GaAs, the dot-rings in ZnO heterojunctions demonstrate several unique characteristics due to the unusual properties of quantum dots and rings in ZnO. In particular the energy spectra of the ZnO dot-ring and the Aharnov-Bohm oscillations are strongly dependant on the electron number in the dot or in the ring. Therefore even small changes of the confinement potential, sizes of the dot-ring or the magnetic field can drastically change the energy spectra and the behavior of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the system. Due to this interesting phenomena it is possible to effectively control with high accuracy the electron charge and spin distribution inside the dot-ring structure. This controlling can be achieved either by changing the magnetic field or the confinement potentials.

  19. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yeung, Kelvin W.K. [Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics & Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilin.wu@gmail.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Carbon naonotubes/chitosan/ZnO coating was first constructed on Ti implants. • This system endowed Ti implants with excellent self-antibacterial activity. • The amount of Zn could be precisely controlled by atom layer deposition. • This system could regulate cell behaviors on metallic implants. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  20. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon naonotubes/chitosan/ZnO coating was first constructed on Ti implants. • This system endowed Ti implants with excellent self-antibacterial activity. • The amount of Zn could be precisely controlled by atom layer deposition. • This system could regulate cell behaviors on metallic implants. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  1. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  2. Femtosecond pulse laser-induced self-organized nanostructures on the surface of ZnO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Minjian; Guo Guanglei; Yang Junyi; Ma Ninghua; Ye Guo; Ma Hongliang; Guo Xiaodong; Li Ruxin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports self-organized nanostructures observed on the surface of ZnO crystal after irradiation by a focused beam of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate of 250 kHz. For a linearly polarized femtosecond laser, the periodic nanograting structure on the ablation crater surface was promoted. The period of self-organization structures is about 180 nm. The grating orientation is adjusted by the laser polarization direction. A long range Bragg-like grating is formed by moving the sample at a speed of 10 μm/s. For a circularly polarized laser beam, uniform spherical nanoparticles were formed as a result of Coulomb explosion during the interaction of near-infrared laser with ZnO crystal

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-structured Ceramic Powders Synthesized by Emulsion Combustion Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatori, Kazumasa; Tani, Takao; Watanabe, Naoyoshi; Kamiya, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    The emulsion combustion method (ECM), a novel powder production process, was originally developed to synthesize nano-structured metal-oxide powders. Metal ions in the aqueous droplets were rapidly oxidized by the combustion of the surrounding flammable liquid. The ECM achieved a small reaction field and a short reaction period to fabricate the submicron-sized hollow ceramic particles with extremely thin wall and chemically homogeneous ceramic powder. Alumina, zirconia, zirconia-ceria solid solutions and barium titanate were synthesized by the ECM process. Alumina and zirconia powders were characterized to be metastable in crystalline phase and hollow structure. The wall thickness of alumina was about 10 nm. The zirconia-ceria powders were found to be single-phase solid solutions for a wide composition range. These powders were characterized as equiaxed-shape, submicron-sized chemically homogeneous materials. The powder formation mechanism was investigated through the synthesis of barium titanate powder with different metal sources

  4. Magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized C-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: dung.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Son, Cao Thai; Loc, Pham Vu; Cuong, Nguyen Huu; Kien, Pham The; Huy, Pham Thanh [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, Ngo Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-25

    ZnO doping with Carbon (C-doped ZnO) materials were prepared by sol-gel technique following with a heat treatment process. Single phase of Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO was concluded via x-ray diffraction (XRD) with a large amount of excess C tracking by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Two types of ZnO crystals (twinning particles) with different grain sizes and shapes were identified via scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The first type has a smaller grain size of about 20 nm and hexagonal shape. And the second type has a larger grain size of about 80–120 nm and round shape. C substitutions of both Zn and O sites to form C–O and C–Zn bonds were conclusively confirmed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Experimental evidences for the co-existence of different ferromagnetic phases in the materials are reported and discussed. Two Curie points at high temperatures (>500 °C) are presented. A metamagnetic transition was observed at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe which was related to the co-existence of ferromagnetic phases. These involve in the formation of twinning C-doped ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Formation of sol-gel prepared single phase wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. • Two morphological C-doped ZnO nanoparticles of different grain sizes. • The room temperature ferromagnetism. • An abnormal metamagnetic transition at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe. • Two different Curie points (T{sub C}) at 500–600 °C.

  5. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaikun; Xu, Congkang; Huang, Liwei; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Howard

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  6. Microstructures and photocatalytic properties of porous ZnO films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huihu; Dong, Shijie; Chang Ying; Zhou Xiaoping; Hu Xinbin

    2012-01-01

    Different porous ZnO film structures on the surface of alumina substrates were prepared through a simple chemical bath deposition method in the methanolic zinc acetate solution. The surface morphology and phase structure of porous ZnO film were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Both initial zinc acetate concentration and sintering temperature have great impact on the final film structures. With the increase of initial zinc acetate concentration, the porous structures can be finely tuned from circular nest like assemblies composed film into successive nest like film, and finally to globular aggregates composed film. By increasing the sintering temperature, the porous structure of successive nest like film can be further controlled. Furthermore, the crystallinity of photocatalysts also can be greatly improved. The photodegradation results of Methyl Orange revealed that porous ZnO film with successive nest like structure sintered at 500 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV illumination.

  7. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel iron anodization process under controlled dynamic conditions was evaluated. • Iron oxide nanostructures composed mainly by hematite were synthesized. • Different morphologies were obtained depending on the electrode rotation speed. • A suitable photocatalyst was obtained by stirring the electrode at 1000 rpm.. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm −2 at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  8. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose, E-mail: jgarciaa@iqn.upv.es

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Novel iron anodization process under controlled dynamic conditions was evaluated. • Iron oxide nanostructures composed mainly by hematite were synthesized. • Different morphologies were obtained depending on the electrode rotation speed. • A suitable photocatalyst was obtained by stirring the electrode at 1000 rpm.. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm{sup −2} at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  9. ZnO nanostructures with tunable visible luminescence: Effects of kinetics of chemical reduction and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method. The morphology and optical properties of these nanoparticles are found to be highly sensitive to the growth parameters such as the concentration of reducing agent and annealing temperature. Indeed, the concentration of the reducing agent can alter the morphology of nanoparticles from quasi-spherical to rod-like and then to flower-like structures. Attempts were made to tune the emission wavelength over the visible region by varying the kinetics of chemical reduction and annealing. The possibility of tuning the emission in a visible range from orange to red and then to green by changing the nature of defects by annealing is also reported. Analysis of the Raman spectrum, with its intensity observed at 580 cm−1 corresponding to E1 (LO mode, revealed that the kinetics and thermodynamics of formation and growth of these nanoparticles determined the nature and density of the probable defects such as oxygen vacancies, interstitial zinc atoms and their complexes.

  10. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F., E-mail: koaolf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, B.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-04-15

    In this work undoped and Cu{sup 2+}-doped ZnO nanostructures were prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 80 °C. The structural, optical and luminescence properties of the undoped and Cu{sup 2+}-doped ZnO nanostructures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible Spectroscopy (UV) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) analyses. XRD analysis showed the sample prepared were hexagonal ZnO with grain sizes in the order of 46±1 nm. The estimated grain size was found not to dependent on the concentration of the Cu{sup 2+} ions used. The SEM analysis revealed that the shapes of the particles were flower-like and the addition of Cu{sup 2+} ions influenced the morphology of the samples. In the UV–Visible study the reflectance intensity decreased with an increase in the molar concentration of Cu{sup 2+} and there was no shift in the absorption edges. The PL analyses revealed that the highest luminescence intensity was obtained for the undoped ZnO. Thus Cu incorporated into the ZnO resulted in the change in its morphological, structural, and optical and luminescence properties.

  11. Microstructural, chemical and textural characterization of ZnO nanorods synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Fuentes-Cobas, L.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Pérez-García, S.A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Unidad Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto TiO{sub 2} covered borosilicate glass substrates. Deposition parameters were optimized and kept constant. Solely the effect of different nozzle velocities on the growth of ZnO nanorods was evaluated in order to develop a dense and uniform structure. The crystalline structure was characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction in grazing incidence and Bragg–Brentano configurations. In addition, two-dimensional grazing incidence synchrotron radiation diffraction was employed to determine the preferred growth direction of the nanorods. Morphology and growth characteristics analyzed by electron microscopy were correlated with diffraction outcomes. Chemical composition was established by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of wurtzite ZnO and anatase TiO{sub 2} phases. Morphological changes noticed when the deposition velocity was lowered to the minimum, indicated the formation of relatively vertically oriented nanorods evenly distributed onto the TiO{sub 2} buffer film. By coupling two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and computational modeling with ANAELU it was proved that a successful texture determination was achieved and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Texture analysis led to the conclusion of a preferred growth direction in [001] having a distribution width Ω = 20° ± 2°. - Highlights: • Uniform and pure single-crystal ZnO nanorods were obtained by AACVD technique. • Longitudinal and transversal axis parallel to the [001] and [110] directions, respectively. • Texture was determined by 2D synchrotron diffraction and electron microscopy analysis. • Nanorods have its [001] direction distributed close to the normal of the substrate. • Angular spread about the preferred orientation is 20° ± 2°.

  12. Red luminescence from hydrothermally synthesized Eu-doped ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    turally characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy ... II–VI compound semiconductor with large exciton binding .... ions occupy a site with inversion symmetry and 617 nm ... TEM image of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles with (a) 1⋅2 at. .... Jacquier B, Lebrasseur E, Guy S, Belarouci A and Menchini F.

  13. Gel-combustion-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles for visible light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diet in Africa [19], consumed by 500 million people around the world [20] and is ... water splitting by ZnO involves ZnO/Zn redox mechanism where the conversion of .... important tool to study the crystal quality and the vibrations occuring due to ...

  14. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-structured Zinc(II)-based metal-organic frameworks as precursors for the synthesis of ZnO nano-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Fahime; Ghasempour, Hosein; Azhdari Tehrani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A 3D, porous Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)]·(DMF) 1.5 } n (TMU-21), (4-bpmn=N,N'-Bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-naphtalene-1,5-diamine, H 2 oba=4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)) with nano-rods morphology under ultrasonic irradiation at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Sonication time and concentration of initial reagents effects on the size and morphology of nano-structured MOFs were studied. Also {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)] (TMU-21) and {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmb)] (TMU-6), 4-bpmb=N,N'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(1-(pyridin-4-yl)methanimine) were easily prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained by calcination of these compounds and their de-solvated analogue as activated MOFs, at 550°C under air atmosphere. As a result of that, different Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  16. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  17. Electron transport properties in ZnO nanowires/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrid nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Ke; Cheng Gang; Wang Shujie; Fu Dongwei; Zou Bingsuo; Du Zuliang

    2010-01-01

    The ZnO nanowires (NWs) array/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid prototype device was fabricated. An ultraviolet (UV) light of λ = 350 nm is used to investigate the photo-electric properties of the ZnO NWs array and hybrid structure. In this way, we can avoid the excitation of P3HT, which can give us a real electron transport ability of ZnO NWs itself. Our results demonstrated a higher and faster photo-electric response of 3 s for the hybrid structure while 9 s for the ZnO NWs array. The surface states related slow photo-electric response was also observed for them. The charge transfer mechanism and the influence of surface states were discussed. The current work provides us profound understandings on the electron transport ability of ZnO NWs array in a working hybrid polymer solar cell, which is crucial for optimizing the device performance.

  18. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  19. Shape-Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of Hydrothermally Synthesized Cadmium Sulfide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Joyjit; Khilari, Santimoy; Pradhan, Debabrata

    2017-03-22

    The effective surface area of the nanostructured materials is known to play a prime role in catalysis. Here we demonstrate that the shape of the nanostructured materials plays an equally important role in their catalytic activity. Hierarchical CdS microstructures with different morphologies such as microspheres assembled of nanoplates, nanorods, nanoparticles, and nanobelts are synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method by tuning the volume ratio of solvents, i.e., water or ethylenediamine (en). With an optimum solvent ratio of 3:1 water:en, the roles of other synthesis parameters such as precursor's ratio, temperature, and precursor combinations are also explored and reported here. Four selected CdS microstructures are used as photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue and photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen generation. In spite of smaller effective surface area of CdS nanoneedles/nanorods than that of CdS nanowires network, the former exhibits higher catalytic activity under visible light irradiation which is ascribed to the reduced charge recombination as confirmed from the photoluminescence study.

  20. Defect-induced room temperature ferromagnetic properties of the Al-doped and undoped ZnO rod-like nanostructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jule, L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available : 151-155 Defect-induced room temperature ferromagnetic properties of the Al-doped and undoped ZnO rod-like nanostructure Jule L Dejene F Ali AG Roro KT Mwakikunga BW ABSTRACT: In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR...

  1. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simimol, A. [Nanomaterials Research Lab, Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Anappara, Aji A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Greulich-Weber, S. [Department of Physics, Nanophotonic Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Chowdhury, Prasanta [Nanomaterials Research Lab, Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Barshilia, Harish C., E-mail: harish@nal.res.in

    2015-06-07

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.{sub Co}) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.{sub Co }≤ 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.{sub Co} ≤ 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopant concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.{sub Co} of 0.05 mM, while for c.{sub Co }> 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.{sub Co }> 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions. Our findings provide a new insight for tuning the

  2. Effects of stabilizer ratio on photoluminescence properties of sol-gel ZnO nano-structured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjouan, F.; Chelouche, A.; Touam, T.; Djouadi, D.; Khodja, S.; Tazerout, M.; Ouerdane, Y.; Hadjoub, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films with different molar ratios of MEA to zinc acetate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) have been deposited on glass substrates by a sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the effect of MEA stabilizer ratio on structural, morphological, absorbance and emission properties of the ZnO thin films. Diffraction patterns have shown that all the films are polycrystalline and exhibit a wurtzite hexagonal structure. The c axis orientation has been enhanced with increasing stabilizer ratio. SEM micrographs have revealed that the morphology of the ZnO films depend on stabilizer ratio. The UV–visible absorption spectra have demonstrated that the optical absorption is affected by stabilizer ratio. The photoluminescence spectra have indicated one ultraviolet and two visible emission bands (green and red), while band intensities are found to be dependent on stabilizer ratio. ZnO thin films deposited at MEA ratio of 1.0 show the highest UV emission while the minimum UV emission intensity is observed in thin films deposited at ratio of 0.5 and the maximum green has been recorded for films deposited at MEA ratio of 2.0. - Highlight: • c axis orientation increases with increasing MEA ratio. • The increase of MEA ration from 0.5 to 1.0 enhances greatly the UV emission. • The larger I UV /I visible is obtained for the MEA to Zn ratio of 1:1. • The MEA ratio of 0.5 favors the formation of large density of V zn . • The MEA ratio of 2.0 increases the V o density

  3. Photoluminescence study of novel phosphorus-doped ZnO nanotetrapods synthesized by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongqi; Hu Lizhong; Qiao Shuangshuang; Zhang Heqiu; Fu Qiang; Chen Xi; Sun Kaitong; Len, Song-En Andy; Len, L K

    2009-01-01

    Novel phosphorus-doped and undoped single crystal ZnO nanotetrapods were fabricated on sapphire by a simple chemical vapour deposition method, using phosphorus pentoxide (P 2 O 5 ) as the dopant source. The optical properties of the samples were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Low-temperature PL measurements of phosphorus-doped and undoped samples were compared, and the results indicated a decrease in deep level defects due to the incorporation of a phosphorus acceptor dopant. The PL spectrum of the phosphorus-doped sample at 10 K exhibited several acceptor-bound exciton related emission peaks. The effect of phosphorus doping on the optical characteristics of the samples was investigated by excitation intensity and temperature dependent PL spectra. The acceptor-binding energies of the phosphorus dopant were estimated to be about 120 meV, in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical and experimental values in phosphorus-doped ZnO films and nanowires.

  4. Growth-morphology-luminescence correlation in ZnO-containing nanostructures synthesized in different media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japic, Dajana [Laboratory for the Spectroscopy of the Materials, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Antonio Paramo, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Marinsek, Marjan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva cesta 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strzhemechny, Yuri M., E-mail: Y.Strzhemechny@tcu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Crnjak Orel, Zorica, E-mail: zorica.crnjak.orel@ki.si [Laboratory for the Spectroscopy of the Materials, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence Polimat, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-06-15

    Zinc hydroxide particles were prepared by a two-step process employing zinc nitrate hexahydrate, urea, ethylene glycol, water and p-toluene-sulfonic acid monohydrate (p-TSA). We used different concentrations of the reactants as well as different volume ratios of the solvents. ZnO particles were obtained by thermal treatment of the reaction products at two different temperatures: 350 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. The samples were characterized by scanning field emission electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, BET analysis, thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that after the thermal treatment particles become smaller, with the p-TSA concentration strongly affecting the morphology of the particles. Luminescence properties of the samples probed by PL at 8 K and room temperature exhibited a remarkable correlation with specimens Prime nanomorphology. Luminescent features at {approx}2.0-2.2 eV, {approx}2.4-2.5 eV, {approx}2.65 eV, {approx}2.9 eV, {approx}3.0-3.1 eV and {approx}3.3 eV were observed in most specimens, although their relative intensity and temperature dependence were specific to an individual group of samples vis-a-vis their growth history and morphology. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO-containing nanostructures grown by precipitation were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples' morphology can be carefully tailored via growth control parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong dependence of optoelectronic properties on specimens' morphology was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient control of composition, morphology and luminescence via synthesis parameters.

  5. Growth-morphology-luminescence correlation in ZnO-containing nanostructures synthesized in different media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japic, Dajana; Antonio Paramo, J.; Marinsek, Marjan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.; Crnjak Orel, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide particles were prepared by a two-step process employing zinc nitrate hexahydrate, urea, ethylene glycol, water and p-toluene-sulfonic acid monohydrate (p-TSA). We used different concentrations of the reactants as well as different volume ratios of the solvents. ZnO particles were obtained by thermal treatment of the reaction products at two different temperatures: 350 °C and 500 °C. The samples were characterized by scanning field emission electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, BET analysis, thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that after the thermal treatment particles become smaller, with the p-TSA concentration strongly affecting the morphology of the particles. Luminescence properties of the samples probed by PL at 8 K and room temperature exhibited a remarkable correlation with specimens′ nanomorphology. Luminescent features at ∼2.0–2.2 eV, ∼2.4–2.5 eV, ∼2.65 eV, ∼2.9 eV, ∼3.0–3.1 eV and ∼3.3 eV were observed in most specimens, although their relative intensity and temperature dependence were specific to an individual group of samples vis-à-vis their growth history and morphology. - Highlights: ► ZnO-containing nanostructures grown by precipitation were investigated. ► Samples' morphology can be carefully tailored via growth control parameters. ► Strong dependence of optoelectronic properties on specimens' morphology was observed. ► Efficient control of composition, morphology and luminescence via synthesis parameters.

  6. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method. The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.

  7. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramelan, Ari Handono; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul; Munawaroh, Hanik

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO cause of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.

  8. Correlation between reflectance and photoluminescent properties of al-rich ZnO nano-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Ahmad, Nafis; Lee, Gun Hee; Seo, Tae Hoon; Suh, Eun-kyung; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Al rich zinc oxide nano-structured films were synthesized using spin coating sol-gel technique. The films were annealed in oxygen ambient in the temperature range of 200-700 °C. The structural, optical, and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the films were studied at various annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence emission spectra measurement, and Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The optical band gap was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature following the Gauss Amp function due to the confinement of the exciton. The PL peak intensity in the near band region (INBE) was found to increase with the increase of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C, then to decrease fast to a lower value for the annealing temperature of 700 °C due to crystalline quality. The Raman peak of E2 (low) was red shifted from 118 cm-1 to 126 cm-1 with the increase of the annealing temperature. The intensity of the second order phonon (TA+LO) at 674 cm-1 was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature. The normalized values of the reflectance and the PL intensity in the NBE region were highest for the annealing temperature of 600 °C. A special correlation was found between the reflectance at λ = 1000 nm and the normalized PL intensity in the green region due to scattering due to presence of grains.

  9. A third kind growth model of tetrapod: Rod-based single crystal ZnO tetrapod nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, J.F.; Huang, H.B.; Wang, Z.Q.; Zhao, X.N.; Yang, S.G.; Yu Zhongzhen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, rod-based ZnO tetrapods were successfully synthesized by burning Zn particles in air covered with two firebricks. The products show hexagonal wurtzite phase. The microstructures of the tetrapod were studied carefully by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), SAED and HRTEM. The results show that tetrapod has single crystalline phase with one broader nanorod growing along [0 0 0 1] direction, three triangular nanosheets, growing out of the three trisection planes along [101-bar0] direction, and three epitaxial nanowires, growing from each tip of the triangular nanosheets. Based on the experimental results, a rod-based growth model was proposed to interpret its growth mechanism. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum reveals that the ZnO tetrapods have ultra violet (UV) emission band (389 nm) and a green emission band (517 nm)

  10. Controlled synthesis of various ZnO nanostructured materials by capping agents-assisted hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, M. Shaheer; Khan, M. Alam; Yang, O-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, Jeon-Ju (Korea); New and Renewable Energy Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeon-Ju (Korea); Jeon, Myung Seok [Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemistry Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejon 305-343 (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO materials could be controlled by changing the capping agent at constant alkali solution in hydrothermal process. ZnO nanomaterials with the structure of flowers, sheet-spheres and plates were obtained with the capping agent of ammonia, citric acid and oxalic acid, respectively. Thus prepared ZnO nanomaterials were characterized and applied as the photo-anode materials for dye-sensitized solar cell. All synthesized ZnO nanomaterials possessed high crystalline wurtzite structures grown in the (001) direction with the size of 2-4{mu}m, which consist of ZnO units around 20-400 nm. Among them, Sheet-sphere ZnO showed the highest crystallinity, surface area and uniform film morphology, resulting in the significantly improved PV performance with the overall conversion efficiency of 2.61% in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated with sheet-sphere ZnO. It is notable that the ZnO materials with sphere structure may be the optimal photo-anode material among various ZnO nanomaterials for DSSC. (author)

  11. Random laser based on Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available Random laser based on Rh6G doped PMMA thin films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by a simple hydrothermal oxidation method has been demonstrated. This kind of random laser medium is based on waveguide structure consisting of ZnO nanorods, Rh6G doped PMMA film and air. By controlling the time of hydrothermal oxidation reaction, wheat-like and hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods have been successfully fabricated. The emission spectra of these gain mediums based on different ZnO nanorods are different. The one based on wheat-like ZnO nanorods mainly exhibits amplified spontaneous emission, and the other one based on hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods shows random laser emission. The threshold of the random laser medium is about 73.8 μJ/pulse, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM is around 2.1 nm. The emission spectra measured at different detecting angles reveal that the output direction is strongly confined in ±30° by the waveguide effect. Our experiments demonstrate a promising method to achieve organic random laser medium. Keywords: Random laser, ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal oxidation, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G, Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA

  12. Synthesized zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs): a novel antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory approach toward polymicrobial burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sameh Samir; Morsy, Reda; El-Zawawy, Nessma Ahmed; Fareed, Mervat F; Bedaiwy, Mohamed Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Increasing of multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an intractable challenge for burn patients. Innovative nanomaterials are also in high demand for the development of new antimicrobial biomaterials that inevitably have opened new therapeutic horizons in medical approaches and lead to many efforts for synthesizing new metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for better control of the MDR associated with the polymicrobial burn wounds. Recently, it seems that metal oxides can truly be considered as highly efficient inorganic agents with antimicrobial properties. In this study, zinc peroxide NPs (ZnO 2 -NPs) were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Synthesized ZnO 2 -NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The characterization techniques revealed synthesis of the pure phase of non-agglomerated ZnO 2 -NPs having sizes in the range of 15-25 nm with a transition temperature of 211°C. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO 2 -NPs was determined against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Aspergillus niger (AN) strains isolated from burn wound infections. Both strains, PA6 and AN4, were found to be more susceptible strains to ZnO 2 -NPs. In addition, a significant decrease in elastase and keratinase activities was recorded with increased concentrations of ZnO 2 -NPs until 200 µg/mL. ZnO 2 -NPs revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against PA6 and AN4 strains as demonstrated by membrane stabilization, albumin denaturation, and proteinase inhibition. Moreover, the results of in vivo histopathology assessment confirmed the potential role of ZnO 2 -NPs in the improvement of skin wound healing in the experimental animal models. Clearly, the synthesized ZnO 2 -NPs have demonstrated a competitive capability as antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory candidates, suggesting that the

  13. Photoelectrochemical characterization of the role of organic sensitizers adsorbed on nanostructured ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastall, Andreas; Loewenstein, Thomas; Schlettwein, Derck [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Porous sensitized ZnO is a promising material for application as electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) to utilize the intense absorption of organic sensitizers in the visible spectral range. Electrochemical deposition of ZnO from aqueous solutions is a low temperature process (<150 C) which allows the use of various substrates. The process can be performed at low energy input and cost and is therefore promising short pay-back times and high net energy gains. The role of the adsorbed sensitizer dye and resulting charge carrier generation, collection, but also recombination in the interface of ZnO/sensitizer/electrolyte of DSSC were analyzed in detail by transient photocurrent measurements, intensity modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS), photovoltage decay and charge-extraction. Results are discussed for different sensitizers adsorbed to the ZnO surface and for ZnO prepared on various substrates and optimized in structure and morphology.

  14. Nano-structural properties of ZnO films for Si based heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, T.H. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: t.h.breivik@fys.uio.no; Diplas, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Center for Material Science and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 1126, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo (Norway); Ulyashin, A.G. [Section for Renewable Energy, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Gunnaes, A.E. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway); Olaisen, B.R.; Wright, D.N.; Holt, A. [Section for Renewable Energy, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Olsen, A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-10-15

    Properties and structure of ZnO and ZnO:Al films deposited on c-Si, a-Si:H/Si and glass substrates are studied by various methods. The transmittance of the ZnO:Al was found to be higher when compared to ZnO, and the refractive index lower. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the screening efficiency in the presence of core holes is enhanced in the Al doped ZnO. The roughness of the ZnO:Al surfaces is strongly substrate dependent. With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) a 2-3 nm thick amorphous interfacial layer was observed independently of substrate and doping. Deposition of ZnO on a-Si:H substrate results in crystallization of the a-Si:H layer independently of Al doping.

  15. Nano-structural properties of ZnO films for Si based heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, T.H.; Diplas, S.; Ulyashin, A.G.; Gunnaes, A.E.; Olaisen, B.R.; Wright, D.N.; Holt, A.; Olsen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Properties and structure of ZnO and ZnO:Al films deposited on c-Si, a-Si:H/Si and glass substrates are studied by various methods. The transmittance of the ZnO:Al was found to be higher when compared to ZnO, and the refractive index lower. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the screening efficiency in the presence of core holes is enhanced in the Al doped ZnO. The roughness of the ZnO:Al surfaces is strongly substrate dependent. With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) a 2-3 nm thick amorphous interfacial layer was observed independently of substrate and doping. Deposition of ZnO on a-Si:H substrate results in crystallization of the a-Si:H layer independently of Al doping

  16. Structural, photoluminescence and XPS properties of Tm3þ ions in ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Finally, Tm 4d core level was detected in ZnO: 0.5 mol% Tm(sup3+) sample from high resolution X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) scan....

  17. Bio-hydrogen production based on catalytic reforming of volatiles generated by cellulose pyrolysis: An integrated process for ZnO reduction and zinc nanostructures fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Adriana Veloso; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Nova Mussel, Wagner da; Brito, Walter de; Duarte Pasa, Vanya Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a process of cellulose thermal degradation with bio-hydrogen generation and zinc nanostructures synthesis. Production of zinc nanowires and zinc nanoflowers was performed by a novel processes based on cellulose pyrolysis, volatiles reforming and direct reduction of ZnO. The bio-hydrogen generated in situ promoted the ZnO reduction with Zn nanostructures formation by vapor-solid (VS) route. The cellulose and cellulose/ZnO samples were characterized by thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The hydrogen was detected by TPR (Temperature Programmed Reaction) tests. The results showed that in the presence of ZnO the cellulose thermal degradation produced larger amounts of H 2 when compared to pure cellulose. The process was also carried out in a tubular furnace with N 2 atmosphere, at temperatures up to 900 o C, and different heating rates. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction, at temperatures lower than those required in the carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of zinc nanostructures that are crystalline, were obtained without significant re-oxidation and whose morphologies are dependent on the heating rates of the process. This route presents a potential use as an industrial process taking into account the simple operational conditions, the low costs of cellulose and the importance of bio-hydrogen and nanostructured zinc.

  18. Construction of 3D Arrays of Cylindrically Hierarchical Structures with ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Synthesized on Optical Fiber Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixuan Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With ZnO nanorods hydrothermally synthesized on manually assembled arrays of optical fiber cores, 3D arrays of ZnO nanorod-based cylindrically hierarchical structures with nominal pitch 250 μm or 375 μm were constructed. Based on micrographs of scanning electron microscopy and image processing operators of MATLAB software, the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures were quantitatively characterized. The values of the actual diameters, the actual pitches, and the parallelism errors suggest that the process capability of the manual assembling is sufficient and the quality of the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures is acceptable. The values of the characteristic parameters such as roughness, skewness, kurtosis, correlation length, and power spectrum density show that the surface morphologies of the cylindrically hierarchical structures not only were affected significantly by Zn2+ concentration of the growth solution but also were anisotropic due to different curvature radii of the optical fiber core at side and front view.

  19. On the origin of blue emission from ZnO quantum dots synthesized by a sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Li-Li; Cui, Lan; Du, Xi-Wen; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Jiang-Long

    2012-01-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with blue emission were synthesized by a sol–gel method. A series of control experiments were conducted to explore the origin of the blue emission. It is found that the blue emission arises from neither the quantum confinement nor intermediate products, and it can be achieved only in the presence of Li + cations and excessive OH − anions. Moreover, the long decay time of the blue emission suggests a defect-related de-excitation process. On the basis of the experimental and calculation results, possible de-excitation paths for light emission were discussed, and the origin of the blue emission was determined as the electron transition from the conduction band to interstitial oxygen defects. Excessive OH − anions are responsible for the formation of interstitial oxygen defects, and Li + ions can stabilize the defects by substituting for Zn atoms. Besides, Li + ions can block the growth of ZnO QDs, broaden their band gap and cause a blue shift of the blue emission. (paper)

  20. Low Temperature Ferromagnetism and Optical Properties of Fe Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present investigation, pure and Fe doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol gel method.The structural and optical properties were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM, Transmission electron microscope (TEM, Ultraviolet spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL techniques.The structural characterization of XRD analysis confirmed the phase purity of the samples and crystallite size can be decreased with increasing doping concentrations.SEM image show that nanoparticles in spherical shape. The optical band gap calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy is found to be increasing from 3.48 to 3.57eV. TEM analysis depicted the crystallinity of nanoparticles prepared and chemical composition conformed the EDAX analysis. The PL spectra reveal that, Fe doped ZnO exhibit a decrease in intensity of the band edge emission peak while the intensity of the deep level emission peak increases.The enhancement of low temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO: Fe was achieved.

  1. Spatially Correlated, Single Nanomaterial-Level Structural and Optical Profiling of Cu-Doped ZnO Nanorods Synthesized via Multifunctional Silicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Truong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a straightforward and effective method to synthesize vertically oriented, Cu-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs using a novel multipurpose platform of copper silicide nanoblocks (Cu3Si NBs preformed laterally in well-defined directions on Si. The use of the surface-organized Cu3Si NBs for ZnO NR growth successfully results in densely assembled Cu-doped ZnO NRs on each NB platform, whose overall structures resemble thick bristles on a brush head. We show that Cu3Si NBs can uniquely serve as a catalyst for ZnO NRs, a local dopant source of Cu, and a prepatterned guide to aid the local assembly of the NRs on the growth substrate. We also ascertain the crystalline structures, optical properties, and spectroscopic signatures of the Cu-doped ZnO NRs produced on the NBs, both at each module of NRs/NB and at their ensemble level. Subsequently, we determine their augmented properties relative to the pristine form of undoped ZnO NRs and the source material of Cu3Si NBs. We provide spatially correlated structural and optical data for individual modules of Cu-doped ZnO NRs assembled on a Cu3Si NB by resolving them along the different positions on the NB. Ensemble-averaged versus individual behaviors of Cu-doped ZnO NRs on Cu3Si NBs are then compared. We further discuss the potential impact of such ZnO-derived NRs on their relatively unexplored biological and biomedical applications. Our efforts will be particularly useful when exploiting each integrated module of self-aligned, Cu-doped ZnO NRs on a NB as a discretely addressable, active element in solid-state sensors and miniaturized luminescent bioprobes.

  2. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  3. Composites of Laminar Nanostructured ZnO and VOx-Nanotubes Hybrid as Visible Light Active Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Benavente

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of hybrid heterostructured nanocomposites of ZnO with V2O5 nanotubes (VOx-NTs in different mixing ratios were synthesized, with the aim of reducing the recombination of photoinduced charge carriers and to optimize the absorption of visible light. The study was focused on the use of heterostructured semiconductors that can extend light absorption to the visible range and enhance the photocatalytic performance of ZnO in the degradation of methylene blue as a model pollutant. The addition of VOx-NTs in the synthesis mixture led to a remarkable performance in the degradation of the model dye, with hybrid ZnO (stearic acid/VOx-NTs at a ratio of 1:0.06 possessing the highest photocatalytic activity, about seven times faster than pristine zinc oxide. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements and experiments in the presence of different trapping elements allowed us to draw conclusions regarding the band positions and photocatalytic degradation mechanism. The photocatalytic activity measured in three subsequent cycles showed good reusability as no significant loss in efficiency of dye degradation was observed.

  4. Performance and stability analysis of curcumin dye as a photo sensitizer used in nanostructured ZnO based DSSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D.; De, D.; Ayaz, A.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental friendly natural dye curcumin extracted from low-cost Curcumina longa stem is used as a photo-sensitizer for the fabrication of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Nanostructured ZnO is fabricated on a transparent conducting glass (TCO), using a cost-effective chemical bath deposition technique. Scanning electron microscopic images show hexagonal patterned ZnO nano-towers decorated with several nanosteps. The average length of ZnO nano-tower is 5 μm and diameter is 1.2 μm. The UV-Vis spectroscopic study of the curcumin dye is used to understand the light absorption behavior as well as band gap energy of the extracted natural dye. The dye shows wider absorption band-groups over 350-470 nm and 500-600 nm with two peaks positioned at 425 nm and 525 nm. The optical band gap energy and energy band position of the dye is derived which supports its stability and high electron affinity that makes it suitable for light harvesting and effortless electron transfer from dye to the semiconductor or interface between them. FTIR spectrum of curcumin dye-sensitized ZnO-based DSSC shows the presence of anchoring groups and colouring constitutes. The I-V and P-V curves of the fabricated DSSC are measured under simulated light (100 mW/cm2). The highest visible light to electric conversion efficiency of 0.266% (using ITO) and 0.33% (using FTO) is achieved from the curcumin dye-sensitized cell.

  5. Thermal replacement reaction: a novel route for synthesizing eco-friendly ZnO@γ-In2Se3 hetero-nanostructures by replacing cadmium with indium and their photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Choi, Mingi; Baek, Minki; Yong, Kijung

    2015-05-21

    A novel route called thermal replacement reaction was demonstrated for synthesizing eco-friendly ZnO@γ-In2Se3 hetero-structural nanowires on FTO glass by replacing the element cadmium with indium for the first time. The indium layer was coated on the surface of the ZnO nanowires beforehand, then CdSe quantum dots were deposited onto the coated indium layer, and finally the CdSe quantum dots were converted to γ-In2Se3 quantum dots by annealing under vacuum at 350 °C for one hour. The prepared ZnO@γ-In2Se3 hetero-nanostructures exhibit stable photoelectrochemical properties that can be ascribed to the protection of the In2O3 layer between the ZnO nanowire and γ-In2Se3 quantum dots and better photocatalytic performance in the wide wavelength region from 400 nm to nearly 750 nm. This strategy for preparing the ZnO@γ-In2Se3 hetero-nanostructures not only enriches our understanding of the single replacement reaction where the active element cadmium can be replaced with indium, but also opens a new way for the in situ conversion of cadmium-based to eco-friendly indium-based nano-devices.

  6. Catalytic growth of ZnO nanostructures by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Hernández María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.

  7. Growth of Comb-like ZnO Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated by using well-crystallized ZnO nanocombs directly grown onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO via noncatalytic thermal evaporation process. The thin films of as-grown ZnO nanocombs were used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs, which exhibited an overall light to electricity conversion efficiency of 0.68% with a fill factor of 34%, short-circuit current of 3.14 mA/cm2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.671 V. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report in which thin film of ZnO nanocombs was used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs.

  8. Catalyst-free growth and tailoring morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures by plasma-enhanced deposition at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W. Z. [Quanzhou Normal University, Key Laboratory of Information Functional Material for Fujian Higher Education, College of Physics & Information Engineering (China); Wang, B. B. [Chongqing University of Technology, College of Chemical Engineering (China); Qu, Y. Z.; Huang, X. [Xiamen University, College of Energy, Xiang’an Campus (China); Ostrikov, K. [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering (Australia); Levchenko, I.; Xu, S. [Nanyang Technological University, Plasma Sources and Applications Centre, National Institute of Education (Singapore); Cheng, Q. J., E-mail: qijin.cheng@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, College of Energy, Xiang’an Campus (China)

    2017-03-15

    ZnO nanostructures were grown under different deposition conditions from Zn films pre-deposited onto Si substrates in O{sub 2}-Ar plasma, ignited in an advanced custom-designed plasma-enhanced horizontal tube furnace deposition system. The morphology and structure of the synthesized ZnO nanostructures were systematically and extensively investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the morphology of ZnO nanostructures changes from the hybrid ZnO/nanoparticle and nanorod system to the mixture of ZnO nanosheets and nanorods when the growth temperature increases, and the density of ZnO nanorods increases with the increase of oxygen flow rate. The formation of ZnO nanostructures was explained in terms of motion of Zn atoms on the Zn nanoparticle surfaces, and to the local melting of Zn nanoparticles or nanosheets. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures were studied, and it was revealed that the photoluminescence spectrum features two strong ultraviolet bands at about 378 and 399 nm and a series of weak blue bands within a range of 440–484 nm, related to the emissions of free excitons, near-band edge, and defects of ZnO nanostructures. The obtained results enrich our knowledge on the synthesis of ZnO-based nanostructures and contribute to the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.

  9. Catalyst-free growth and tailoring morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures by plasma-enhanced deposition at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W. Z.; Wang, B. B.; Qu, Y. Z.; Huang, X.; Ostrikov, K.; Levchenko, I.; Xu, S.; Cheng, Q. J.

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown under different deposition conditions from Zn films pre-deposited onto Si substrates in O 2 -Ar plasma, ignited in an advanced custom-designed plasma-enhanced horizontal tube furnace deposition system. The morphology and structure of the synthesized ZnO nanostructures were systematically and extensively investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the morphology of ZnO nanostructures changes from the hybrid ZnO/nanoparticle and nanorod system to the mixture of ZnO nanosheets and nanorods when the growth temperature increases, and the density of ZnO nanorods increases with the increase of oxygen flow rate. The formation of ZnO nanostructures was explained in terms of motion of Zn atoms on the Zn nanoparticle surfaces, and to the local melting of Zn nanoparticles or nanosheets. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures were studied, and it was revealed that the photoluminescence spectrum features two strong ultraviolet bands at about 378 and 399 nm and a series of weak blue bands within a range of 440–484 nm, related to the emissions of free excitons, near-band edge, and defects of ZnO nanostructures. The obtained results enrich our knowledge on the synthesis of ZnO-based nanostructures and contribute to the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.

  10. Inactivation of E. Coli in Water Using Photocatalytic, Nanostructured Films Synthesized by Aerosol Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratim Biswas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanostructured films were synthesized by an aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD method with different controlled morphologies: columnar, granular, and branched structures for the photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli in water. Effects of film morphology and external applied voltage on inactivation rate were investigated. As-prepared films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, and UV-VIS. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical inactivation of E. coli using as-prepared TiO2 films were performed under irradiation of UVA light (note: UVA has a low efficiency to inactivate E. coli. Inactivation rate constants for each case were obtained from their respective inactivation curve through a 2 h incubation period. Photocatalytic inactivation rate constants of E. coli are 0.02/min (using columnar films, and 0.08/min (using branched films. The inactivation rate constant for the columnar film was enhanced by 330% by applied voltage on the film while that for the branched film was increased only by 30%. Photocatalytic microbial inactivation rate of the columnar and the branched films were also compared taking into account their different surface areas. Since the majority of the UV radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface is UVA, this study provides an opportunity to use sunlight to efficiently decontaminate drinking water.

  11. Microwave synthesized nanostructured TiO2-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, M.; Bhat, D. Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure TiO 2 has been prepared by a microwave assisted synthesis method. ► Microwave irradiation was varied with time duration on the formation of nanoparticles. ► TiO 2 -activate carbon show very good specific capacitance for supercapacitor. ► Electrochemical properties were studied on electroanalytical techniques. - Abstract: Electrochemical properties of a supercapacitor based on nanocomposite electrodes of activated carbon with TiO 2 nano particles synthesized by a microwave method have been determined. The TiO 2 /activated carbon nanocomposite electrode with a composition of 1:3 showed a specific capacitance 92 Fg −1 . The specific capacitance of the electrode decreased with increase in titanium dioxide content. The p/p symmetrical supercapacitor fabricated with TiO 2 /activated carbon composite electrodes showed a specific capacitance of 122 Fg −1 . The electrochemical behavior of the neat TiO 2 nanoparticles has also been studied for comparison purpose. The galvanostatic charge–discharge test of the fabricated supercapacitor showed that the device has good coulombic efficiency and cycle life. The specific capacitance of the supercapacitor was stable up to 5000 cycles at current densities of 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA cm −2 .

  12. Optical properties and photocatalytic activities of spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO structures synthesized by facile hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yongling [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Li, Zhongyu, E-mail: zhongyuli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Changzhou Expansion New Stuff Technology Limited Company, Changzhou 213122 (China); Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Song [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Han, Dandan; Lu, Dayong [Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO were prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. •The as-prepared ZnO showed high photocatalytic activity over MO degradation. •The as-prepared ZnO were well crystallized and exhibited good optical properties. -- Abstract: Spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO were prepared by facile hydrothermal method at 180 °C and 160 °C, respectively. The as-prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra. The optical properties of as-prepared sample, such as photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman spectra were studied. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared ZnO particles were investigated by degrading the methyl orange (MO) under UV light irradiation. The photocatalytic studies showed that the organic pollutants have been almost completely degraded and mineralized after irradiation of the UV light. These results indicated that the as-prepared ZnO particles exhibited good optical properties and high photocatalytic activities.

  13. Temperature-dependence on the structural, optical, andparamagnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available of the phonon peak at 580 cm(sup-1) was gradually enhanced with the increase of annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that all ZnO samples possess a typical wurtzite structure with high...

  14. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  15. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO thin films surfaces by electrophoretic deposition process on aluminum substrates. • Effect of bath temperature on the physical and superhydrophobic properties of thin films. • The water contact angle of 155° ± 3 with roll off property has been observed on the film that was grown at bath temperatures of 50 °C. • The activation energy for electrophoretic deposition of SA-functionalized ZnO nanoparticle is calculated to be 0.50 eV. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 μm, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  16. A comparative study of field-emission from different one dimensional carbon nanostructures synthesized via thermal CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.; Banerjee, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Different one dimensional (1D) carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanonoodles (CNNs), carbon nanospikes (CNSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via thermal chemical vapour deposition (TCVD) technique. The different 1D morphologies were synthesized by varying the substrate material and the deposition conditions. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FESEM and TEM images showed that the diameters of the CNNs and CNTs were ∼40 nm while the diameters of the CNSs were around 100 nm. Field emission studies of the as-prepared samples showed that CNSs to be a better field emitter than CNNs, whereas CNTs are the best among the three producing large emission current. The variation of field emission properties with inter-electrode distance has been studied in detail. Also the time dependent field emission studies of all the nanostructures have been carried out.

  17. Imprinted ZnO nanostructure-based electrochemical sensing of calcitonin: A clinical marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular imprinting-based sensor for medullary thyroid carcinoma marker was developed. • ZnO nanostructure was used as a platform for synthesis of imprinted polymer. • Imprinted polymer was prepared by ARGET–ATRP method. • A novel and biocompatible tyrosine amino acid derivative was used as monomer. • Linear working range is found from 9.99 ng L −1 to 7.919 mg L −1 with LOD 3.09 ng L −1 . - Abstract: The present work describes an exciting method for the selective and sensitive determination of calcitonin in human blood serum samples. Adopting the surface molecular imprinting technique, a calcitonin-imprinted polymer was prepared on the surface of the zinc oxide nanostructure. Firstly, a biocompatible tyrosine derivative as a monomer was grafted onto the surface of zinc oxide nanostructure followed by their polymerization on vinyl functionalized electrode surface by activator regenerated by electron transfer–atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET–ATRP) technique. Such sensor can predict the small change in the concentration of calcitonin in the human body and it may also consider to be as cost-effective, renewable, disposable, and reliable for clinical studies having no such cross-reactivity and matrix effect from real samples. The morphologies and properties of the proposed sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, difference pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The linear working range was found to be 9.99 ng L −1 to 7.919 mg L −1 and the detection limit as low as 3.09 ± 0.01 ng L −1 (standard deviation for three replicate measurements) (S/N = 3)

  18. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.V.; Job, A.E.; Mussel, W.N.; Pasa, V.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn (v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Zn v , that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  19. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholizadeh, A; Reyhani, A; Mortazavi, S Z; Parvin, P

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O 2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ∼100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc , reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV–blue spectral range. (paper)

  20. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ~100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc, reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV-blue spectral range.

  1. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  2. Composition of silicon fibrous nanostructures synthesized using ultrafast laser pulses under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition of nanostructures generated owing to ablation of crystalline silicon using high repletion rate femtosecond laser under ambient condition is investigated. The web-like silicon fibrous nanostructures are formed in and around the laser irradiated area. Electron Microscopy investigation revealed that the nanostructures are made of nanoparticles of size about 40 nm. In addition Micro-Raman analysis shows that the nanofibrous structures comprises a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals the oxidized and un-oxidized elemental states of silicon in the nanostructures. Moreover web-like fibrous nanostructures are generated due to condensation of super saturated vapour and subsequent nucleus growth in the laser induced plasma plume.

  3. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  4. CuO urchin-nanostructures synthesized from a domestic hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyson, D.; Volanti, D.P.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2008-01-01

    This letter reports the synthesis of CuO urchin-nanostructures by a simple and novel hydrothermal microwave method. The formation and growth of urchin-nanostructures is mainly affected by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The hierarchical malachite particles are uniform spheres with a diameter of 0.7-1.9 μm. CuO urchin-nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The specific surface area of the CuO nanostructured microspheres was about 170.5 m 2 /g. A possible mechanism for the formation of such CuO urchin-nanostructures is proposed

  5. A Resistive Humidity Sensor Based on Nanostructured WO3-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Tiwari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper reports morphological and humidity sensing studies of WO3 and WO3-ZnO composite pellets prepared in the weight % ratio of 10:1, 4:1 and 2:1 by solid-state reaction route. The pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 300-500 °C. XRD pattern shows peaks of ZnWO4 formed due to solid state reaction between WO3 and ZnO. SEM micrographs show that the sensing elements manifest porous structure. Granulation and tendency to agglomerate seen in the SEM micrograph are due to the presence of zinc ions in ZnWO4. Nanoparticles are having their sizes in the range 37-182 nm. The average Kelvin radius at 20˚C room temperature is 27 Ả. Humidity sensing application of the pellets has been studied in a humidity control cabinet. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, there is decrease in the resistance of pellets in the range 10-85 % RH. Sensing element of WO3-ZnO in 2:1 weight % ratio shows best results in 10-85 % relative humidity range. The average sensitivity of this sample is 1.25 MΩ/%RH. This sensing element shows good reproducibility, low hysteresis and less effect of aging.

  6. Effect of temperature on structural, optical and photoluminescence studies on ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the standard co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, K. Pradeev [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, CSI College of Engineering, Ooty 643215, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadayandi, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivagangai 630003, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-04-15

    This present study brings the synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the standard aqueous chemical route technique. The impact of calcination temperature on the extent of the ZnO nanoparticles is studied for its lattice constraints. X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirms the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. From the Williamson–Hall (W–H) plot, positive slope is inferred for pure and calcined ZnO NPs and confirms the presence of tensile strain. From the SEM images it is found that the crystallinity enhances with calcination temperature. From the optical studies, it is found that the band gap energy decreases with improved transmission. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals the UV emission is strong near the band-edge. The emission peaks around 400–480 nm result in blue emission and the peaks around 540–560 nm result in green emission. Decrease in band gap energy and enhancement in PL studies reveal the red shift of the calcined ZnO exhibiting solid quantum confinements.

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence of ZnO obtained by thermal treatment of ZnS chemically synthesized; Luminiscencia opticamente estimulada de ZnO obtenido por tratamiento termico de ZnS sintetizado quimicamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Orante B, V.R.; Grijalva M, H.; Perez S, R.; Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we report the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry of new nano phosphors of ZnO obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder. The synthesized ZnS nano powder was compressed in order to form pellet shaped pellets, which were afterwards subjected to a thermal annealing at 700 C during 24 h under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-disperse X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of ZnS to ZnO. Samples were exposed to several doses of beta radiation up to 600 Gy, and the optically stimulated luminescence with 470 nm wavelength light was recorded as a function of dose. The intensity of the OSL signal increases by increasing dose, for what it is concluded that these new phosphor materials are suitable to be used in optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  8. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu, Hongfeng [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Qu, Fengyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Cai, Xue, E-mail: xuecai@mail.sdu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Wu, Xiang, E-mail: wuxiang@hrbnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  9. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment

  10. Au-controlled enhancement of photoluminescence of NiS nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella Cebisa; Mwakikunga, Bonex Wakufwa; Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton; Coville, Neil John

    2014-01-01

    Nickel sulphide (NiS) nanostructures decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. Binary phase NiS (α and β) crystalline nanostructures, bare, and decorated with Au NPs were obtained and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. TEM analysis revealed that the NiS nanostructures were of various shapes. A quantum confinement effect was confirmed by the blue shift PL emissions and high optical energy band gap observed for the as-synthesized sample. A threefold light emission enhancement due to Au NP coatings was obtained when Au metal NP decoration concentrations was varied from 1% to 10%. These enhancements were attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation of the surface decorated metal NPs which results in an increased rate of spontaneous emission. The PL enhancement factor was observed to vary at different NiS emissions as well as with the size of the Au NPs. The effect of metal NP decoration on the PL emission of NiS is to the best of our knowledge, presented for the first time. - Highlights: • Binary phase NiS decorated with gold nanoparticles. • Quantum confinement effect confirmed by PL analysis. • PL enhancement depending more on particle size distribution. • Effect of gold on NiS PL is to the best of our knowledge reported for the first time

  11. Ag nanodots decorated SiO2 coated ZnO core-shell nanostructure with enhanced luminescence property as potential imaging agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jagriti; Barick, K. C.; Hassan, P. A.; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2018-04-01

    Ag decorated silica coated ZnO nanocomposite (Ag@SiO2@ZnO NCs) has been synthesized by soft chemical approach. The physico-chemical properties of Ag@SiO2@ZnO NCs are investigated by various sophisticated characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction confirms the phase formation of ZnO and Ag in nanocomposite. TEM micrograph clearly shows that Ag nanodots are well decorated over silica coated ZnO NCs. The photoluminescent study reveals the enhancement in the photoluminance property when the Ag nanodots are decorated over silica coated ZnO nanocomposite due to an electromagnetic coupling between excitons and plasmons. Furthermore, the photoluminescent property is an important tool for bio-imaging application, reveal that NCs give green and red emission after excitation with 488 and 535 nm. Therefore, low cytotoxicity and excellent fluorescence stability in vitro makes it a more suitable material for both cellular imaging and therapy for biomedical applications.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  13. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Haiyang; Wu Di; Wu Wengang; Hao Yilong [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Jun, E-mail: wuwg@ime.pku.edu.c [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-11-04

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 {mu}m. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  14. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Haiyang; Wu Di; Wu Wengang; Hao Yilong; Xu Jun

    2009-01-01

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 μm. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  15. Interface-defect-mediated photocatalysis of mesocrystalline ZnO assembly synthesized in-situ via a template-free hydrothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Qifeng; Ren, Baosheng; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiaopeng; Duan, Ran

    2017-08-01

    Both architecture construction and defects engineering of photocatalysts are highly vital in the photocatalytic activity. We report herein that the interface-defect-mediated photocatalytic activity of pompon-like ZnO (P-ZnO) mesocrystal photocatalyst synthesized via an aqueous approach, in the presence of sodium citrate without any other organic templates. The microstructure and defects of the diverse ZnO photocatalysts were examined with various techniques. The results indicated that the P-ZnO assemblies were composed of mesocrystal nanosheets exposed high energy (002) facet with high crystallinity. More importantly, the defects located at the interfaces among the nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals played an important role in the photocatalytic activity than that of interstitial zinc vacancies in bulk, which was confirmed by photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue (MB) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The results showed that the P-ZnO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of the nanosized ZnO (N-ZnO), which could be attributed to not only the unique mesocrystal structure and high energy (002) facet exposed, but also the defects located at interfaces among nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals. In addition, the formation mechanism of the P-ZnO was investigated via a time-dependent method. It was found that the formation of P-ZnO hierarchical architecture assembled with ZnO mesocrystals involved a nonclassical crystallization growth and Ostwald Ripening process. This study provides a perspective on the improvement in photocatalytic activity via adjusting the bulk and interface defects and construction of hierarchical architectures of semiconductors.

  16. Linear and nonlinear optics, dynamics, and lasing in ZnO bulk and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingshirn, C.; Fallert, J.; Gogolin, O.; Wissinger, M.; Hauschild, R.; Hauser, M.; Kalt, H.; Zhou, H.

    2008-01-01

    In linear optics, we report on measurements of the absolute external quantum efficiency of bulk ZnO and powders using an integrating sphere. At low temperature the near band edge emission efficiency can reach 0.15 in the best samples. For deep center luminescence this value may be even higher. When going to room temperature (RT) the quantum efficiency drops by about one order of magnitude. From time resolved luminescence measurements we deduce the lifetime of the free and bound excitons to be in the sub ns regime and find for the latter a systematic increase with increasing binding energy. Concerning lasing, we discuss the role of excitonic processes and the recombination in an inverted electron-hole plasma (EHP). While excitonic processes seem well justified at lower temperatures and densities, doubts arise concerning the concept of excitonic lasing at RT in ZnO. The densities at laser threshold at RT are frequently close to the Mott density or above but below the density at which population inversion in an EHP is reached. We suggest alternative processes which can explain stimulated emission in this density regime in an EHP at RT

  17. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  18. In-situ PXRD studies of ZnO nanoparticle growth: How do various salts influence the hydrothermal growth of ZnO?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjesen, Espen Drath

    ZnO is a material of great scientific and everyday relevance; it is used widely in all sorts of application. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles can be performed by a wide assortment of methods and a tremendous variety of sizes and shapes, it has been suggested that ZnO is the one known compound showing...... the broadest range of nanostructures. Previously many different in-situ characterization methods have been used to investigate the ZnO formation under various synthesis conditions; these include UV-VIS and SAXS. These methods were primarily used to give information on particle size of ZnO formed using soft...... chemical methods and non-aqueous solvents. In our work we have studied the formation of ZnO during hydrothermal syntheses using in-situ powder X-ray diffraction, thus enabling us to extract crystallographic as well as microstructural information. The data was analyzed using Rietveld refinement and whole...

  19. Raman scattering and band-gap variations of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical colloid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Shih-Shou; Huang, Dison; Tu, Chun Hsiang; Hou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study synthesizes Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticles using a chemical colloid process. Raman scattering analysis shows that Al doping increases the lattice defects and induces Raman vibration modes of 651 cm -1 . The Raman shift of the active mode E 2 (high) of AZO nanoparticles shows the presence and increase in the stress in nanoparticles when the Al dopant concentration increases. Room-temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) spectra of synthesized AZO nanoparticles exhibit strong UV emissions near the band edges. The RT-PL peak shifts to a higher photon energy region as the Al concentration increases, indicating a broadening of the band gap.

  20. The Influence of Shape on the Output Potential of ZnO Nanostructures: Sensitivity to Parallel versus Perpendicular Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardoso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the consistent shrinking of devices, micro-systems are, nowadays, widely used in areas such as biomedics, electronics, automobiles, and measurement devices. As devices shrunk, so too did their energy consumptions, opening the way for the use of nanogenerators (NGs as power sources. In particular, to harvest energy from an object’s motion (mechanical vibrations, torsional forces, or pressure, present NGs are mainly composed of piezoelectric materials in which, upon an applied compressive or strain force, an electrical field is produced that can be used to power a device. The focus of this work is to simulate the piezoelectric effect in different ZnO nanostructures to optimize the output potential generated by a nanodevice. In these simulations, cylindrical nanowires, nanomushrooms, and nanotrees were created, and the influence of the nanostructures’ shape on the output potential was studied as a function of applied parallel and perpendicular forces. The obtained results demonstrated that the output potential is linearly proportional to the applied force and that perpendicular forces are more efficient in all structures. However, nanotrees were found to have an increased sensitivity to parallel applied forces, which resulted in a large enhancement of the output efficiency. These results could then open a new path to increase the efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators.

  1. Snowflake-Shaped ZnO Nanostructures-Based Gas Sensor for Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been considered severe risks to human health. Gas sensors for the sensitive detection of VOCs are highly required. However, the preparation of gas-sensing materials with a high gas diffusion performance remains a great challenge. Here, through a simple hydrothermal method accompanied with a subsequent thermal treatment, a special porous snowflake-shaped ZnO nanostructure was presented for sensitive detection of VOCs including diethyl ether, methylbenzene, and ethanol. The fabricated gas sensors exhibit a good sensing performance including high responses to VOCs and a short response/recovery time. The responses of the ZnO-based gas sensor to 100 ppm ethanol, methylbenzene, and diethyl ether are about 27, 21, and 11, respectively, while the response times to diethyl ether and methylbenzene are less than 10 seconds. The gas adsorption-desorption kinetics is also investigated, which shows that the gas-sensing behaviors to different target gases are remarkably different, making it possible for target recognition in practical applications.

  2. Enhanced ductility in thermally sprayed titania coating synthesized using a nanostructured feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.S.; Marple, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured and conventional titania (TiO 2 ) feedstock powders were thermally sprayed via high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF). The microstructure, porosity, Vickers hardness, crack propagation resistance, bond strength (ASTM C633), abrasion behavior (ASTM G65) and the wear scar characteristics of these two types of coatings were analyzed and compared. The coating made from the nanostructured feedstock exhibited a bimodal microstructure, with regions containing particles that were fully molten (conventional matrix) and regions with embedded particles that were semi-molten (nanostructured zones) during the thermal spraying process. The bimodal coating also exhibited higher bond strength and higher wear resistance when compared to the conventional coating. By comparing the wear scars of both coatings (via scanning electron microscopy and roughness measurements) it was observed that when the coatings were subjected to the same abrasive conditions the wear scar of the bimodal coating was smoother, with more plastically deformed regions than the conventional coating. It was concluded that this enhanced ductility of the bimodal coating was caused by its higher toughness. The results suggest that nanostructured zones randomly distributed in the microstructure of the bimodal coating act as crack arresters, thereby enhancing toughness and promoting higher critical depth of cut, which provides a broader plastic deformation range than that exhibited by the conventional coating. This work provides evidence that the enhanced ductility of the bimodal coating is a nanostructured-related property, not caused by any other microstructural artifact

  3. Particle size and shape modification of hydroxyapatite nanostructures synthesized via a complexing agent-assisted route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HAP), Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , nanostructures including nanorods, nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared via a simple precipitation method. In the present method, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were used as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. Besides, the Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and different diamines were used as complexing agents for the in situ formation of Ca 2+ complexes. The formation mechanism of 0-D and 1-D nanostructures of HAP was also considered. When the complexing agents could coordinate to the Ca 2+ ions through N and O atoms to form the [CaN 2 O 2 ] 2+ complexes, HAP nanoparticles were generated. On the other hand, nanorods and nanobundles of HAP were obtained by forming the [CaN 2 ] 2+ as well as [CaO 2 ] 2+ complexes in the reaction solution. This work is the first successful synthesis of pure HAP nanostructures in the presence of Schiff bases instead of using the common surfactants. - Highlights: • HAP nanostructures have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. • To control shape and particle size of HAP, different Schiff bases were employed. • 0-D and 1-D HAP nanostructures have been formed by this method

  4. Platinum-based electrocatalysts synthesized by depositing contiguous adlayers on carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2013-03-26

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means and the nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. Subsequent film growth may be performed via the initial quasi-underpotential deposition of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a more noble metal. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  5. Ultra-Fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Substrates for UV Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pimentel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, tracing and Whatman papers were used as substrates to grow zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures. Cellulose-based substrates are cost-efficient, highly sensitive and environmentally friendly. ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal under microwave irradiation using an ultrafast approach, that is, a fixed synthesis time of 10 min. The effect of synthesis temperature on ZnO nanostructures was investigated from 70 to 130 °C. An Ultra Violet (UV/Ozone treatment directly to the ZnO seed layer prior to microwave assisted synthesis revealed expressive differences regarding formation of the ZnO nanostructures. Structural characterization of the microwave synthesized materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical characterization has also been performed. The time resolved photocurrent of the devices in response to the UV turn on/off was investigated and it has been observed that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on Whatman paper substrate present a responsivity 3 times superior than the ones grown on tracing paper. By using ZnO nanorods, the surface area-to-volume ratio will increase and will improve the sensor sensibility, making these types of materials good candidates for low cost and disposable UV sensors. The sensors were exposed to bending tests, proving their high stability, flexibility and adaptability to different surfaces.

  6. Morphology and phase transformations of tin oxide nanostructures synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of dicarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, Tatyana; Bataev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures with different morphologies and the phase compositions has been evaluated. The nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of dicarboxylic acids ― aminoterephthalic or oxalic ― with nanocrystalline SnO 2 powder, which was obtained via the sol-gel technology. The products were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and XRD analysis. It was shown that the controlled addition of a dicarboxylic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO 2 –SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 –Sn 3 O 4 –SnO phase transformations. A single-phase Sn 3 O 4 in the form of the well-separated hexagonal nanoplates and mixed SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 phases in the form of hierarchical flower-like structures were obtained in the presence of organic additives. The effects of concentration, redox activity of the acids and heat treatment on the basic characteristics of the synthesized tin oxide nanostructures and phase transformations in the synthesized materials are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The controlled addition of aminoterephthalic or oxalic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO 2 –SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 –Sn 3 O 4 –SnO phase transformations. - Highlights: • A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures is studied. • Tin oxide structures are synthesized via hydrothermal method with dicarboxylic acids. • Morphology and phase composition are changed with redox activity and dosage of acid. • The redox activity of acid has an effect on ratio of SnO and SnO 2 in crystal structure. • A pure phase Sn 3 O 4 nanoplates and SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 hierarchical structures are formed.

  7. Effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungula, J., E-mail: ungulaj@qwa.ufs.ac.za; Dejene, B.F.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol–gel method. The effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ( EDS). The XRD patterns showed single phase hexagonal structure. The crystallite size of as prepared ZnO nanoparticles was found to decrease from 28.1 nm to 10.8 nm with the increase in volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent as peak intensities and sharpness increase with corresponding increase in volume ratio of water. SEM micrographs showed that samples prepared in water medium are fairly spherical which turned to tiny rods with increasing volume ratios of ethanol. A sharp ultraviolet (UV) emission peak centred about 385 nm and a broad green–yellow emission at about 550 nm are observed with PL measurements. The band gap of ZnO decreased from 3.31 to 3.17 eV with an increase in the ethanol composition in the solvent, implying that the optical properties of these materials are clearly affected by the synthesis medium.

  8. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Pozina, Galia; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 81 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-04-28

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (∼575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.

  9. Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid nanostructured materials as quantum-dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Mendez, Jose R.; Matos, Juan; Cházaro-Ruiz, Luis F.; González-Castillo, Ana C.; Barrios-Yáñez, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    The microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid materials was performed. Saccharose, titanium isopropoxide and zinc acetate were used as organic and inorganic sources for the synthesis. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the textural and optoelectronic properties of the hybrid materials was verified. Carbon quantum-dots of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured spheres were obtained in a second pot by controlled calcination steps of the precursor hybrid materials. A carefully characterization by adsorption-desorption N2 isotherms, XRD, XPS, SEM, UV-vis/DR and electro- and photo-electrochemistry properties of the carbon quantum-dots TiO2 and ZnO spheres was performed. The photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2-C and ZnO-C films proved to be dependent on the conditions of synthesis. It was found a red-shift in the energy band gap of the semiconductors with values of 3.02 eV and 3.13 eV for the TiO2-C and ZnO-C, respectively, clearly lower than those on bare semiconductors, which is associated with the C-doping effect. From the photo-electrochemistry characterization of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO films can be concluded that the present materials have potential applications as photoelectrodes for quantum-dots sensitized solar cells.

  10. In-situ functionalization of mesoporous hexagonal ZnO synthesized in task specific ionic liquid as a photocatalyst for elimination of SO2, NOx, and CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsari, Elaheh; Abdpour, Soheil

    2017-12-01

    A novel mesoporous structure of zinc oxide was synthesized in hydrothermal autocalve in the presence of a functional ionic liquid (FIL) {[CH2CH2] O2 (mm)2}. This FIL with ether groups was used simultaneously as a designer templating agent and a source of the hydroxyl radical. The presence of this ionic liquid led to producing ethylene glycol in the reaction media, which adsorb on the surface of mesoporous hexagonal ZnO plates. These mesoporous structures can adsorb pollutant gases and increase photocatalytic oxidation of pollutant gases in compare with commercial ZnO nanoparticles and agglomerated nanoparticles synthesized in this work. XPS data confirmed ethylene glycol production by the ionic liquid, which could prove a role for ionic liquids as designers. The estimated BET surface area values of ZnO hexagonal mesoporous plates and agglomerated particles were 84 m2/g and 12 m2/g respectively. Optical properties of the mesoporous structures were analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy. The performance of these structures as efficient photocatalysts was further demonstrated by their removal of NOx, SO2, and CO under UV irradiation. The removal of NOx, SO2, and CO under UV irradiation was 56%, 81%, and 35% respectively, after 40 min of irradiation time. Reusability of the photocatalyst was determined; the results show no significant decrease of activity of photocatalyst. after five cycles.

  11. Characterization of CaSn(OH6 and CaSnO3 Nanostructures Synthesized by a New Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moshtaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, calcium stannate nanoparticles were synthesized by a fast and simple co-precipitation procedure. For CaSnO3 preparation ammonia was used as precipitation agent. The effect of various surfactants such as cationic, anionic and neutral on the morphology of the products was investigated. By changing in Ca(Sal2 as a new precursor different morphologies were obtained. Ligand as a capping agent with steric hindrance leads to preparation of product with lower particle size. These semiconductor nanostructures have photo-catalyst activities and can degrade organic dyes as water pollution. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopy.

  12. Shape-Selective Syntheses of Gold and Copper Nanostructures: Insights From Density-Functional Theory and Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Hsien

    Density-functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) were used to resolve the origins of shape-selective syntheses of {111}-faceted Au nanostructures mediated by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as well as {100}-faceted Cu nanostructures mediated by hex- adecylamine(HDA) seen in experiment. For the work in PVP on Au surfaces, the hexagonal reconstruction of Au(100) was considered. DFT results indicate that the Au(111) surface covered by the PVP segment, 2-pyrrolidone (2P), has a lower surface energy than the 2P- covered (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex surface, and that PVP may exhibit a binding affinity for Au(111) comparable to or greater than (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex. With MD, it is shown that the PVP-covered Au(111) surface has a lower surface energy than the PVP-covered (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex surface, and that the atactic PVP isosamer chains have a binding affinity for Au(111) comparable to (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex. Also, the (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex surface may have a higher flux of Au atoms than the Au(111) surface. Therefore, the Au(111) surface would be thermodynamically and kinetically favored in PVP-mediated syntheses, leading to {111}-faceted Au nanostructures. For the work in HDA on Cu surfaces, DFT results show that the HDA-covered Cu(100) surface has a slightly higher surface energy than the HDA- covered Cu(111) surface. However, HDA has a significant binding preference on Cu(100) over Cu(111). Therefore, the Cu(100) surface would be kinetically favored in HDA-mediated syn- theses, leading to {100}-faceted Cu nanostructures. Further, a metal-organic many-body (MOMB) force field for HDA-Cu interactions was developed based on the DFT work, and the force field was used to resolve the HDA binding patterns on Cu(100) at molecular level. With MD, it is found that decylamine (DA) may be used as an effective capping agent in the synthesis of {100}-faceted Cu nanostructures since DA as well as HDA are organized on Cu surfaces and have the same binding preference on Cu(100) over Cu(111

  13. Effect of indium on photovoltaic property of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device prepared using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathalingam, Adaikalam; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyung-Moo; Valanarasu, Santiyagu; Mahalingam, Thaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of n-ZnO/p-Si heterostructures using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire films and their photovoltaic characterization is reported. The solution-grown ZnO nanowire film is characterized using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray, and optical absorption studies. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterostructures are studied using e-beam-evaporated aluminum as metal contacts. In order to use transparent contact and to simultaneously collect the photogenerated carriers, sandwich-type solar cells were fabricated using ZnO nanorod films grown on p-silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass as ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si. The electrical properties of these structures are analyzed from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. ZnO nanowire film thickness-dependent photovoltaic properties are also studied. Indium metal was also deposited over the ZnO nanowires and its effects on the photovoltaic response of the devices were studied. The results demonstrated that all the samples exhibit a strong rectifying behavior indicating the diode nature of the devices. The sandwich-type ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si solar cells exhibit improved photovoltaic performance over the Al-metal-coated n-ZnO/p-Si structures. The indium deposition is found to show enhancement in photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.3 V and short-circuit current (Isc) of 70×10-6 A under ultraviolet light excitation.

  14. Effect of Cu insertion on structural, local electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst properties of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures: XANES-EXAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Aditya; Varshney, Mayora [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Joon, E-mail: shj001@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (POSTECH), Pohang, 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Hyeon [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Keun Hwa, E-mail: khchae@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung Ok, E-mail: sowon@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We report detailed investigations on the synthesis, structural, morphology, electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst properties of Cu doped TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. All of the samples were synthesized by using the chemical precipitation method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and photocatalyst measurements. XRD studies revealed single phase nature of the samples and omitted the presence of trivial metallic or binary oxide phases. TiO{sub 2} set of samples have shown nanorod kind of morphology, however TEM images of ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} set of samples depicted the spherical morphology of particles. XANES spectra at the Cu K-edge and Cu L-edge, along with the atomic multiplet calculations, revealed the predominance of Cu{sup 2+} ions in all of the samples, within the entire doping range. Ti L-edge and Ti K-edge XANES confirmed the existence of Ti{sup 4+} ions in the pure and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} samples with anatase local structure. Zn L-edge XANES results confirmed the divalent character of Zn ions in the pure and Cu doped ZnO, which is further validated by the Zn K-edge XANES. Ni L-edge and Ni K-edge XANES conveyed the +2 valence state of Ni ions in the pure and Cu doped Ni (OH){sub 2} samples. EXAFS analysis at the Cu K-edge nullifies the formation of Cu metallic clusters and other trivial phases, suggesting random distribution of Cu atoms in the oxide materials. Though, local atomic arrangement of Cu ions is disparate in the different oxide compounds. As an application of the pure and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures, towards the degradation of water pollutant dyes, we demonstrate that all of the samples can serve as effective photocatalyst materials towards the degradation of methyl orange aqueous pollutant dye under the UV-light irradiation

  15. Effect of oxygen vacancy induced by pulsed magnetic field on the room-temperature ferromagnetic Ni-doped ZnO synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Min [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 149 Yanchang Road, 200072 Shanghai (China); Li, Ying, E-mail: liying62@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 149 Yanchang Road, 200072 Shanghai (China); Tariq, Muhammad; Hu, Yemin; Li, Wenxian; Zhu, Mingyuan; Jin, Hongmin [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 149 Yanchang Road, 200072 Shanghai (China); Li, Yibing [School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia)

    2016-08-05

    Room temperature ferromagnetic 2% Ni doped ZnO rods were synthesized by high pulsed magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal method. A detailed study on the effect of high pulsed magnetic field on morphology, structural and magnetic properties of the ZnO rods has been carried out systematically by varying the intensity of field from 0 to 4 T. X-ray diffraction, Energy-dispersive spectroscopy measurements, and Raman spectra analysis suggest that all the samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure without detectable impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the particle size of samples decrease with increasing intensity of field. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observation ensures that the Ni ions addition do not change the wurtzite host matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the incorporation of Ni elements as divalent state and the dominant presence of oxygen vacancies in samples fabricated under 4 T pulsed magnetic field. Hysteresis loops demonstrate that the saturation magnetization increased regularly with the mounting magnetic field. On the framework of bound magnetic polaron model, the rising content of oxygen vacancies, as donor defect, lead to the stronger ferromagnetism in samples with pulsed magnetic field. Our findings provide a new insight for tuning the defect density by precisely controlling the intensity of field in order to get the desired magnetic behavior at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the magnetization versus magnetic field curves for 2%Ni doped ZnO as prepared with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 T pulsed magnetic field at 290 K. For 0 T sample, no ferromagnetic response is observed. But all the samples synthesized with field were well-defined hysteresis loops. The saturation magnetization estimated from the hysteresis loop come out to be ∼0.0024, 0.0023, 0.0036 and 0.0061 emu/g for 1 T, 2 T, 3 T and 4 T samples, respectively. As shown in the curves, the room

  16. Morphologically controlled ZnO nanostructures as electron transport materials in polymer-based organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyu-Chae; Lee, Eun-Jin; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Lim, Dong-Chan; Kang, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Yang-Do; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jae Pil; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced efficiency of solar cells using ZnO nanocrystals for charge transport. • Morphology of the charge transport layer is controlled. • Mixture of nanoparticles and nanorods are advantageous for cell efficiency. - ABSTRACT: The morphology of ZnO electron transport layers based on ZnO nanoparticles were modified with incorporation of ZnO nanorods via their co-deposition from mixed colloidal solution of nanoparticles and nanorods. In particular, the short circuit current density and the fill factor of the constructed photovoltaic device were simultaneously improved by applying mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods. As a result, a large improvement of power conversion efficiency up to 9% for the inverted organic solar cells having a blend of low band gap polymers and fullerene derivative as an active layer was demonstrated with the morphologically controlled ZnO electron transport layer.

  17. Effect of Eosin Y Dye on Electrical Properties of ZnO Film Synthesized by Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents preparation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by the sol-gel technique. ZnO films were prepared by the doctor-blade method, and the resulting films were sensitized with eosin Y (EY) by immersing them in a solution of EY dye in ethanol. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. The monodispersed ZnO nanocrystals possess a wurtzite hexagonal structure with diameter of ˜7 nm to 17 nm as observed by XRD and TEM analyses. The absorption spectrum of EY-dye-sensitized ZnO (ZnO/EY) film is slightly broadened, with a red-shift in the peak position compared with the absorbance spectrum of the dye in ethanol. Measurements of electrical parameters such as dark conductivity and photoconductivity were carried out at different temperatures. Transient photoconductivity was also studied at different temperatures to investigate the photoconduction mechanism. The photosensitivity of the ZnO/EY film is higher than that of the ZnO film. Hall measurements show n-type behavior for both samples. The visible absorption spectrum and high photosensitivity of the ZnO/EY films support their potential use as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Influence of solvents on the changes in structure, purity, and in vitro characteristics of green-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles from Costus igneus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhini, G.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Maria Sheela Pauline, W.; Rajendran, V.; Aicher, Wilhelm Karl; Awitor, Oscar Komla

    2018-05-01

    The present study is intended to produce high-purity zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaves of Costus igneus and zinc acetate precursor via sustainable methods by the tribulation with three different solvents (hot water, methanol, and acetone) for the extraction of plant compounds. While examining the physico-chemical characteristics of ZnO nanoparticles incurred by the catalysis of plant bioactive compounds extracted from different solvents, the hot water extract-based green synthesis process yields higher purity (99.89%) and smaller particle size (94 nm) than other solvents. The optimization of the solvents used for the green synthesis of nanoparticles renders key identification in appropriate extraction of bioactive compounds suitable for the nucleation/production of nanoparticles in addition to annealing temperature. The impregnable usage of ZnO nanoparticles in clinical applications is further confirmed based on the treatment of particles (1-10 mg ml-1) against Gram-positive (S. aureus and S. epidermis) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) with respect to their growth inhibition. An in-force growth inhibition against particular S. aureus and S. epidermis imparted by the low concentration of ZnO nanoparticles signifies the utilization and consumption of green-synthesized high-purity nanoparticles for therapeutic and cosmetic applications.

  19. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have synthesized Zn1−xAgxO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 nanorods (NRs via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn1−xAgxO samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002 direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d33 as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn1−xAgxO NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  20. The effect of strontium doping on structural and morphological properties of ZnO nanofilms synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ouhaibi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pristine and strontium doped ZnO nanometric films were successfully synthesized on heated glass substrates by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, UV–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the hexagonal (wurtzite structure, where the most pronounced (002 peak indicates the preferential orientation along the c-axis perpendicular to the sample surface. The intensity of this peak was increased rapidly from the first doping of 1% and its position was shifted toward higher angles under Sr-doping effect. For the used doping range of 1–5%, the Sr-doping at 3% attracted an especial attention. At this concentration, the particular transformation in the surface morphology of doped ZnO films was observed. The surface became granular and rough by expanding the crystallites' size. From optical measurements, transmittance and PL spectra were found to be sensitive to Sr-doping, where two different behaviors were observed before and after 3% of Sr-doping. Keywords: Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, Sr-doped ZnO, Morphology study, Optical properties

  1. Magnetic and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, J.; Sasmal, I.; Nath, T. K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in, E-mail: tapnath@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, 721302 (India)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper we have reported the synthesis of high quality vertically aligned undoped and Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline nanorods arrays on Si (100) substrates using two steps process, namely, initial slow seed layer formation followed by solution growth employing wet chemical hydrothermal method. The shapes of the as grown single crystalline nanorods are hexagonal. The diameter and length of the as grown undoped ZnO nanorods varies in the range of 80-150 nm and 1.0 - 1.4 μm, respectively. Along with the lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal structure, the diameter and length of Mn doped ZnO nanorods are found to increase slightly as compared to the undoped ZnO nanorods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn atoms in Mn{sup 2+} state in the single crystalline ZnO nanorods. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum contains two emissions peaks having UV exciton emissions along with a green-yellow emission. The green-yellow emissions provide the evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements [M (H)] and zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization [M(T)] measurements have been carried out at different isothermal conditions in the temperature range of 5-300 K. The Mn doped ZnO nanorods clearly show room temperature ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature down to 5 K. The observed magnetization may be attributed to the long range ferromagnetic interaction between bound magnetic polarons led by singly charged oxygen vacancies.

  2. Temperature dependence of morphology, structural and optical properties of ZnS nanostructures synthesized by wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaneethan, M.; Archana, J.; Nisha, K.D.; Hayakawa, Y.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → ZnS nanoparticles and nanorods have been synthesized by wet chemical route. → Higher annealing temperature influenced the change in morphology due to aggregation of the nanoparticles. → The temperature dependent optical properties were investigated. → Absorption edge of nanoparticles (295 nm) and nanorods (326 nm) were shifted towards shorter wavelength compared to bulk ZnS (337 nm) due to the quantum confinement effect. → ZnS nanoparticles exhibit high photoluminescence intensity than that of ZnS nanorods annealed at 180 o C. - Abstract: ZnS nanostructures have been synthesized by simple wet chemical route and annealed at two different temperatures of 50 o C and 180 o C. From the measurements of transmission electron microscopy and contact-mode atomic force microscopy, it is found that annealed temperature changes the morphology from nanoparticles to nanorods. The optical properties of the synthesized ZnS nanomaterial have been characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The structural and elemental analyses were carried out by powder X-ray diffraction pattern and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Absorption edge of the nanoparticles (295 nm) and nanorods (326 nm) was shifted towards shorter wavelength compared to bulk ZnS (337 nm) due to the quantum confinement effect.

  3. Synthesis and properties of ZnO nanorods as ethanol gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabbaszadeh, K; Mehrabian, M

    2012-01-01

    Uniform ZnO nanorods were synthesized via the sol-gel process under mild conditions in which different ZnO nanostructures have been prepared by changing the pH of growth solution. It was seen that the optimum nanorods were grown at pH 11.33. The prepared ZnO nanostructures and morphologies were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements. The ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures were found to have a wurtzite hexagonal crystalline structure and grow along the [001] direction. The optimum nanorods were about 1 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter. The ZnO nanostructures have been tested for different concentrations and different operating temperatures for ethanol vapor in air and the surface resistance of the sensors has been evaluated as a function of different parameters. The gas sensor fabricated from ZnO nanorods grown in solution with a special pH exhibited good performance. The sensor response to 5000 ppm ethanol was up to about 2.5 at the operating temperature of 300 °C. The differences in gas-sensing performance between the sensors were analyzed based on the defects created in the nanorods during their fast growth. The correlations between material structures and the properties of the gas sensors are discussed.

  4. Structural features and electrochemical properties of nanostructured ZnCo2O4 synthesized by an oxalate precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Wenpei; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Shaojie; Shen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    As a Li-ion battery anode, the active substance with a porous nanostructure can be endowed with a high electrochemical performance because of its porosity and remarkable surface area. In this paper, the thermal decomposition of zinc–cobalt binary oxalate precursors, precipitated from a solvothermal medium of ethanol and water (75/25, v/v) at 100 °C, has been performed to synthesize phase-pure ZnCo 2 O 4 spinels, thoroughly giving porous and rod-like configurations with an average length of a few micrometers. Interestingly, each of the as-obtained porous microrods has been well characterized to consist of ∼35.2-nm single-crystalline nanoparticles with polydisperse interspaces. More interestingly, porous ZnCo 2 O 4 microrods can deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of 1,293.7 mAh g −1 with the coulombic efficiency of 76.8 % at 0.2 A g −1 , reaching a value of 937.3 mAh g −1 over 100 discharge–charge cycles. Even at a high current density of 2.0 A g −1 , the porous ZnCo 2 O 4 nanostructures can still possess a reversible discharge capacity of ∼925.0 mAh g −1 , further assigned to the synergistic effect of Zn- and Co-based oxide components. Anyway, the facile oxalate precursor method can realize the controlling synthesis of porous and rod-like ZnCo 2 O 4 nanostructures with a high electrochemical performance

  5. Non-covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures for synthesizing carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Song, Sing I; Song, Ga Young; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNSs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and nanodiamonds provide an important type of substrate for constructing a variety of hybrid nanomaterials. However, their intrinsic chemistry-inert surfaces make it indispensable to pre-functionalize them prior to immobilizing additional components onto their surfaces. Currently developed strategies for functionalizing CNSs include covalent and non-covalent approaches. Conventional covalent treatments often damage the structure integrity of carbon surfaces and adversely affect their physical properties. In contrast, the non-covalent approach offers a non-destructive way to modify CNSs with desired functional surfaces, while reserving their intrinsic properties. Thus far, a number of surface modifiers including aromatic compounds, small-molecular surfactants, amphiphilic polymers, and biomacromolecules have been developed to non-covalently functionalize CNS surfaces. Mediated by these surface modifiers, various functional components such as organic species and inorganic nanoparticles were further decorated onto their surfaces, resulting in versatile carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials with broad applications in chemical engineering and biomedical areas. In this review, the recent advances in the generation of such hybrid nanostructures based on non-covalently functionalized CNSs will be reviewed.

  6. Uniform Fe3O4 coating on flower-like ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Huang, Xianqin; Zhao, Haonan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Yu, Lei; Peng, Xiange; Qin, Yong

    2015-11-21

    An elegant atomic layer deposition (ALD) method has been employed for controllable preparation of a uniform Fe3O4-coated ZnO (ZnO@Fe3O4) core-shell flower-like nanostructure. The Fe3O4 coating thickness of the ZnO@Fe3O4 nanostructure can be tuned by varying the cycle number of ALD Fe2O3. When serving as additives for microwave absorption, the ZnO@Fe3O4-paraffin composites exhibit a higher absorption capacity than the ZnO-paraffin composites. For ZnO@500-Fe3O4, the effective absorption bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 5.2 GHz and the RL values below -20 dB also cover a wide frequency range of 11.6-14.2 GHz when the coating thickness is 2.3 mm, suggesting its potential application in the treatment of the electromagnetic pollution problem. On the basis of experimental observations, a mechanism has been proposed to understand the enhanced microwave absorption properties of the ZnO@Fe3O4 composites.

  7. Effect of different coating layer on the topography and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Asiah, M. N.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) co-doped zinc oxide (MAZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. MAZO thin films were prepared at different coating layers range from 1 to 9. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the topography of the thin films. According to the AFM results, Root Means Square (RMS) of MAZO thin films was increased from 0.747 to 6.545 nm, with increase of number coating layer from 1 to 9, respectively. The results shown the variation on structural and topography properties of MAZO seed film when it's deposited at different coating layers on glass substrate. The optical properties was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the transmittance spectra was increased as thin films coating layer increases.

  8. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured C-Ag Thin Films Synthesized by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Vladoiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured C-Ag thin films of 200 nm thickness were successfully synthesized by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA method. The influence of different substrates (glass, silicon wafers, and stainless steel on the microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of nanostructured C-Ag thin films was characterized by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, and TI 950 (Hysitron nanoindenter equipped with Berkovich indenter, respectively. The film’s hardness deposited on glass (HC-Ag/Gl = 1.8 GPa was slightly lower than in the case of the C-Ag film deposited on a silicon substrate (HC-Ag/Si = 2.2 GPa. Also the apparent elastic modulus Eeff was lower for C-Ag/Gl sample (Eeff = 100 GPa than for C-Ag/Si (Eeff = 170 GPa, while the values for average roughness are Ra=2.9 nm (C-Ag/Si and Ra=10.6 (C-Ag/Gl. Using the modulus mapping mode, spontaneous and indentation-induced aggregation of the silver nanoparticles was observed for both C-Ag/Gl and C-Ag/Si samples. The nanocomposite C-Ag film exhibited not only higher hardness and effective elastic modulus, but also a higher fracture resistance toughness to the silicon substrate compared to the glass substrate.

  9. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu 2 O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH) 2 . But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO

  10. MOVPE gallium-nitride nanostructures fabricated on ZnO nanorod templates grown from aqueous chemical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Li Shunfeng; Postels, Bianca; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas, E-mail: s.fuendling@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, 38096 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Concerning optoelectronic devices fabricated by epitaxial methods, the combination of ZnO and GaN has promising aspects regarding their good optical properties and a relatively good lattice matching between both as compared to other foreign substrates like sapphire or silicon. Moreover ZnO nanopillar arrays may serve as a template for GaN nanopillar fabrication or for high quality GaN layers by lateral overgrowth of the ZnO nanopillars. In this work, we investigate the combination of two very different growth methods - aqueous chemical low temperature growth (ACG) for the ZnO nanopillar templates on silicon substrates and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for the GaN overgrowth - in order to show to which extent the very cost efficient ZnO templates suit the high demands of GaN MOVPE. By a combination of annealing and photoluminescence experiments we show that the properties of the heterostructures change significantly with temperature.

  11. Synthesis and functional properties of nanostructured ceria materials; Synthese und funktionelle Eigenschaften nanostrukturierter Ceroxidmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, Meike

    2014-06-02

    Nanostructured ceria tubes have been synthesised using electro spun polymer fibers as templating material. These polymer mats are produced by electro spinning starting with a polymer solution. In a next step polymer fibers are decorated with cer containing sol, which is then dried. To receive ceria tubes the polymer is removed on the one hand by thermal decomposition of the polymer or on the other hand by oxygen plasma treatment of ceria/polymer hybrid material. The resulting ceria tubes have a specific surface area of 98 m2 g-1. TEM, XRD, SAED and Raman investigations show a fully nanostructured crystallinity with cubic fluorine type structure. This obtained material shows a photo catalytic activity within decomposition of methylene blue in the Vis part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This photo catalytic activity can be increased using doping ions of transition and rare earth elements that are introduced in the sol-gel synthesis. Also here XRD and TEM investigations show a fully nano crystalline structure of ceria. Raman spectroscopy verifies the doping of ceria by transition and rare earth elements up to 22% of doping. No phase separation can be observed. The photo catalytic activity can be increased using these doped materials. Additionally a catalytic activity of pure ceria and mixed ceria/zirconia materials have been investigated synthesis of dimethylcarboxilate without water addition. Here a direct dependence between turn over and doping cannot be detected. The dependence can be deduced to the synthesis process of the catalyst. Terminal sensoric properties of doped and undoped ceria (n-type semiconductor) are investigated. The prepared materials are used as chemiresistors against oxygen at temperatures of 700 C. These investigations show a reversible increase of the electrical resistance against oxygen.

  12. Glutathione-assisted synthesis of star-shaped zinc oxide nanostructures and their photoluminescence behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavita; Singh, Karamjit; Kumar, Sunil; Bhatti, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Star-shaped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by facile chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of glutathione. Glutathione, a reducing agent, shape modifier and an entirely benign antioxidant; acts as a capping agent in the present study. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the novel star-shaped ZnO nanostructures exhibit hexagonal structure. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopic studies confirmed the anchoring of glutathione on ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the star and cube-shaped shaped morphology of the glutathione modified nanocrystals. Optical characterization of synthesized nanocrystals has been done by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and steady state photoluminescence spectroscopy. Recorded Photoluminescence spectra confirm the multi-chromatic photoluminescence behavior of the synthesized nanostructures. - Highlights: • Morphology has been investigated as a function of capping agent concentration. • Comparison between capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles has been examined. • Diffraction scans show the crystalline wurtzite structure of synthesized product. • Recorded PL spectra show the multichromatic behavior of synthesized nanostructures

  13. Efficient acetone sensor based on Ni-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darunkar, Swapnil S.; Acharya, Smita A.

    2018-05-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin film was prepared by home-built spray pyrolysis unit for the detection of acetone at 300°C. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of as-developed thin film of undoped ZnO exhibits large quantity of spherical, non-agglomerated particles with uniform size while in Ni-doped ZnO, particles are quite non-uniform in nature. The particle size estimated by using image J are obtained to be around 20-200 nm. Ni-doping effect on band gaps are determined by UV-vis optical spectroscopy and band gap of Ni-doped ZnO is found to be 3.046 eV. Nickel doping exceptionally enhances the sensing response of ZnO as compared to undoped ZnO system. The major role of the Ni-doping is to create more active sites for chemisorbed oxygen on the surface of sensor and correspondingly, to improve the sensing response. The 6 at.% of Ni-doped ZnO exhibits the highest response (92%) for 100 ppm acetone at 300 °C.

  14. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: uu_gg_oo@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, C.U. Del. Coyoacan (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. {yields} During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. {yields} Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  15. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, H.; Reyes-Carmona, F.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. → During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. → Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  16. Physical properties and heterojunction device demonstration of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films synthesized at room ambient via sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaagac, Hakan, E-mail: hkaraagac@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Yengel, Emre; Saif Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Undoped and Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were successfully prepared using sol-gel technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural analysis has revealed that Al doping has a significant influence on preferential orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been observed that wrinkles forms on the surface of films when annealed with a fast heat ramp up rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical analysis has revealed that that the band gap energy of ZnO thin film increases with increasing Al doping concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest resistivity is observed for 1% Al ZnO thin film, which is 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} ({Omega} cm). - Abstract: ZnO and some of its ternary wide-bandgap alloys offer interesting opportunities for designing materials with tunable band gaps, strong piezoresistivity and controlled electrical conductance with high optical transparency. Synthesizing these materials on arbitrary substrates using low-cost and unconventional techniques can help in integrating semiconductors with different physical, electrical, and optical characteristics on a single substrate for heterogeneous integration of multifunctional devices. Here we report the successful synthesis of aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on soda-lime glass, silicon and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) pre-coated glass substrates by using sol-gel deposition method at ambient condition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that varying degree of Al doping significantly impacts the crystal orientation, semiconductor bandgap and optical transparency of the film. Crystal structure of the film is also found to be strongly correlated to the characteristics of the substrate material. The impact of heating rate during post annealing process is studied and optimized in order to improve the surface morphology of the deposited films. Optical characterizations have revealed that bandgap energy of AZO films can be tuned

  17. Study of chemically synthesized ZnO nano particles under a bio template using radioactive ion beam

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a project proposal to study nano sized semiconductor ZnO system, useful in biology and medicinal purposes, using radioactive ion beam from ISOLDE. Doping of the nano particles with Cu, Cd and Ga ions (in their variable valancy states) are expected to impart changes in the electrical structure and properties in the said system under study. The morphological changes, chemical environment, micro structure, electrical and optical properties of the nano size particles of ZnO system (developed under a bio template of folic acid) after the interaction with radioactive ion beam will be studied. The provision of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) study with respect to the changes in chemical environment, where ever possible will be attempted.

  18. Investigation on structural and electrical properties of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Mast; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat; Kumar, Arun; Negi, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, nanoparticles of Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) [Zn_1_-_xFe_xO where x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05] were prepared by cost effective solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffractometry confirms the formation of single phase wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the micrsostructure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The DC electrical conductivity was found to increase with temperature and measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-473K. DC electrical conductivity increases with temperature and decreases with Fe doping concentration.

  19. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    KAUST Repository

    Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; Lemine, O. M.; Bououdina, M.; Zhang, Bei; El Mir, Lassaad

    2013-01-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    KAUST Repository

    Omri, Karim

    2013-08-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transport and structural characterization of solution-processable doped ZnO nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Noriega, Rodrigo

    2009-08-18

    The use of ZnO nanowires has become a widespread topic of interest in optoelectronics. In order to correctly assess the quality, functionality, and possible applications of such nanostructures it is important to accurately understand their electrical and optical properties. Aluminum- and gallium-doped crystalline ZnO nanowires were synthesized using a low-temperature solution-based process, achieving dopant densities of the order of 1020 cm-3. A non-contact optical technique, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, is used to characterize ensembles of ZnO nanowires. By modeling the free charge carrier absorption as a Drude metal, we are able to calculate the free carrier density and mobility. Determining the location of the dopant atoms in the ZnO lattice is important to determine the doping mechanisms of the ZnO nanowires. Solid-state NMR is used to distinguish between coordination environments of the dopant atoms.

  2. Nanostructured Li4Ti5O12 synthesized in a reverse micelle: A bridge between pseudocapacitor and lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Tu Jiguo; Wang Shubo; Hou Jungang; Zhu Hongmin; Jiao Shuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of the Li–Ti–O precursors have been prepared using a reverse micelle method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the precursor had an amorphous structure. The average diameter of the amorphous Li–Ti–O particles was approximately 5 nm (within a range of ±2 nm). X-ray diffraction measurement (XRD) results showed that the conversion of the amorphous precursor to crystalline spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 occurred upon a heat treatment at 450 °C in an atmosphere. This is much lower than that for a standard solid-state reaction of Li 2 CO 3 and TiO 2 . An interesting result was that the spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 synthesized at 450 °C, with a particle size of 10–20 nm, had a good pseudocapacitor performance. The charge/discharge testing indicated that the specific capacity, using the activated material of the spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 synthesized at 450 °C, still remained 91 mAh g −1 even at a high charge/discharge rate of 40C after 100 cycles. In comparison, the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles synthesized at 650 °C have been grown to be the size of 50–60 nm, which mostly indicated a battery performance with a remaining specific capacity of 116 mAh g −1 at a charge/discharge rate of 40C over 100 cycles. The significance in this work disclosed that the nanostructured Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 prepared as a reverse micelle could be a bridging material between pseudocapacitor and lithium ion battery.

  3. Capacitive and photocatalytic performance of Bi_2S_3 nanostructures synthesized by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Kangqiang; Wang, Chenggang; Xu, Xijin; Leng, Jiancai; Ma, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Different Bi_2S_3 nanoarchitectures (nanorods and nanobelts) were successfully synthesized with a facile solvothermal method at different temperature. The nanobelts transformed into nanorods when the temperature was 200 °C increased from 150 °C. The nanorod-morphology was kept even the temperature was further increased. The galvanostatic charge/discharge performance showed that the prepared Bi_2S_3 nanorods had good performance of discharge efficiency at current density from 1 A g"−"1 to 4 A g"−"1. The specific capacitance was 270 F g"−"1 at a current density of 1 A g"−"1. Furthermore, the nanorods were also used as the efficient UV-light photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), which showed almost complete degradation (∼87%) of RhB dye at 100 min. - Highlights: • Bi_2S_3 nanorods were successfully synthesized with a facile solvothermal method. • The specific capacitance can be 270 F g"−"1 at a current density of 1 A g"−"1. • 87% of RhB dye can be degraded at 100 min.

  4. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of amorphous and crystalline aluminum oxide nanostructures synthesized by thermal decomposition of AACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, Shoaib, E-mail: smehboob@pieas.edu.pk [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Mushtaq [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Jamil; Tanvir, Muhammad Tauseef [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Izhar [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hassan, Syed Mujtaba ul [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this work is to study the changes in optical and dielectric properties with the transformation of aluminum ammonium carbonate hydroxide (AACH) to α-alumina, using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The nanostructured AACH was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the raw chemicals at 140 °C for 12 h. This AACH was then calcined at different temperatures. The AACH was decomposed to amorphous phase at 400 °C and transformed to δ* + α-alumina at 1000 °C. Finally, the crystalline α-alumina was achieved at 1200 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed to identify the phases formed after calcination. The morphology of samples was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed that the AACH sample had rod-like morphology which was retained in the calcined samples. THz-TDS measurements showed that AACH had lowest refractive index in the frequency range of measurements. The refractive index at 0.1 THZ increased from 2.41 for AACH to 2.58 for the amorphous phase and to 2.87 for the crystalline α-alumina. The real part of complex permittivity increased with the calcination temperature. Further, the absorption coefficient was highest for AACH, which reduced with calcination temperature. The amorphous phase had higher absorption coefficient than the crystalline alumina. - Highlights: • Aluminum oxide nanostructures were obtained by thermal decomposition of AACH. • Crystalline phases of aluminum oxide have higher refractive index than that of amorphous phase. • The removal of heavier ionic species led to the lower absorption of THz radiations.

  5. Observation of high coercive fields in chemically synthesized coated Fe-Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N., E-mail: rnp@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys have been synthesized via chemical reduction route using various capping agents; such as: oleic acid/oleylamine (route-1) and oleic acid/CTAB (route-2). We could able to synthesize Fe50Pt and Fe54Pt alloys via route 1 and 2, respectively. As-prepared Fe-Pt alloys crystallize in disordered fcc phase with crystallite sizes of 2.3 nm and 6 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Disordered Fe-Pt alloys were transformed to ordered fct phase after annealing at 600 °C. SEM studies confirm the spherical shape morphologies of annealed Fe-Pt nanoparticles with SEM particle sizes of 24.4 nm and 21.2 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. TEM study confirms the presence of 4.6 nm particles for annealed Fe50Pt alloys with several agglomerating clusters of bigger size and appropriately agrees well with the XRD study. Room temperature magnetization studies of as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys (fcc) show ferromagnetism with negligible coercivities. Average magnetic moments per particle for as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys were estimated to be 753 μ{sub B} and 814 μ{sub B}, for route 1 and 2, respectively. Ordered fct Fe-Pt alloys show high values of coercivities of 10,000 Oe and 10,792 Oe for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Observed magnetic properties of the fct Fe-Pt alloys nps were interpreted with the basis of order parameters, size, surface, and composition effects. - Highlights: • Synthesis of capped nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys via chemical routes. • Ordered fct phase were obtained at 600 °C. • Microstructural studies were carried out using SEM and TEM. • Investigation on evolution of magnetic properties from fcc to fct state. • Maximum values of coercivities up to 10,792 Oe were observed.

  6. Effect of doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructure ZnO films deposited onto a-Si:H/Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kermadi, S.; Keffous, A.; Kechouane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the structural; optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films as the n-type semiconductor for silicon a-Si:H/Si heterojunction photodiodes. The ZnO film forms the front contact of the super-strata solar cell and has to exhibit good electrical (high conductivity) and optical (high transmittance) properties. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of doping on device performance. The results show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the crystallites along c-axis. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology and the ZnO:Al exhibits a better grain uniformity. The transmittance of the doped films was found to be higher when compared to undoped ZnO. A low resistivity of the order of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω cm is obtained for ZnO:Al using 0.4 M concentration of zinc acetate. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a blue band with two peaks centered at 442 nm (2.80 eV) and 490 nm (2.53 eV). It is noted that after doping the ZnO films a shift of the band by 22 nm (0.15 eV) is recorded and a high luminescence occurs when using Al as a dopant. Dark I-V curves of ZnO/a-Si:H/Si structure showed large difference, which means there is a kind of barrier to current flow between ZnO and a-Si:H layer. Doping films was applied and the turn-on voltages are around 0.6 V. Under reverse bias, the current of the ZnO/a-Si:H/Si heterojunction is larger than that of ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/Si. The improvement with ZnO:Al is attributed to a higher number of generated carriers in the nanostructure (due to the higher transmittance and a higher luminescence) that increases the probability of collisions.

  7. Investigations on electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of Na doped ZnO synthesized from sol gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabib, Asma; Sdiri, Nasr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles doped with Na were prepared from sol-gel method. • Electric conductivity and dielectric properties were investigated. • The ZnO conductivity is estimated to be of p-type for critical Na doping of 1.5% at. - Abstract: Na doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were elaborated by sol gel technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the peaks are indexed to the hexagonal structure without any trace of an extra phase. Electric and dielectric properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra were analyzed in terms of equivalent circuits involving resistors, capacitors and constant phase elements (CPE). The contribution of grain boundary resistance to the total resistance of the system is remarkable. The AC conductivity increases with temperature following the Arrhenius law, with single apparent activation energy for conduction process. The frequency dependence of the electric conductivity follows a simple power law behavior, in according to relation σ{sub AC}(ω) = σ(0) + A ω{sup s}, where s is smaller than 1. The analysis of dc conductivity indicates that the conduction is ionic in nature. The study of its variation, at fixed temperature, with Na content shows sharp decrease which is explained by the formation of Na{sub Zn} acceptor. It was found that the dc conductivity reaches its minimum value for critical Na concentration of 1.5% at which the conductivity is estimated to be of p-type. Impedance and modulus study reveals the temperature dependent non-Debye type relaxation phenomenon. Dielectric studies revealed a promising dielectric properties (relatively high ε′ at low frequencies and low loss at high frequencies). In the low-frequency region, the values of M′ tends to zero suggesting negligible or absent electrode polarization phenomenon. The frequency dependent maxima in the imaginary modulus are found to obey to Arrhenius law.

  8. Influence of Codoping on the Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Synthesized on Glass Substrate by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe and K simultaneously doped ZnO thin films Zn0.99 K0.01 (Fex O (x=1, 2, 3, and 4% were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. The XRD investigation reveals that all the doped ZnO thin films are in hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure without impurity phases. With increase in Fe concentration, the growth of thin films along c axis is evident from the XRD which indicates the increase in intensity along (002 direction. The same is visible from the surface morphology which shows the formation of hexagonal structure for higher Fe concentration. The topography shows gradual variation with Fe incorporation. The optical energy band gap obtained from the transmittance spectrum decreases from 3.42 to 3.06 eV with increase in Fe concentration indicating the red shift and this trend is consistent with the earlier experimental results. The UV emission is centered around 3.59 eV. The optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and absorption coefficient which are essential for the optoelectronic applications were also determined.

  9. Ultrafast Formation of ZnO Nanorods via Seed-Mediated Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S T; Yahaya, M; Yap, C C; Umar, A A; Salleh, M M

    2013-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) zinc oxide, ZnO nanostructures have shown promising results for usage in photodiode and optoelectronic device due to their high surface area. Faster and conventional method for synthesis ZnO nanorods has become an attention for researcher today. In this paper, ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized via two-step process, namely alcothermal seeding and seed-mediated microwave hydrolysis process. In typical process, the ZnO nanoseeds were grown in the growth solution that contained equimolar (0.04 M) of zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn (NO 3 ).6H 2 O and hexamethylenetetramine, HMT. The growth process was carried inside the inverted microwave within 5- 20 s. The effect of growth parameters (i.e. concentration, microwave power, time reaction) upon the modification of ZnO morphology was studied. ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The densities of nanorods were evaluated by the Image J analysis. It was found that the morphology (e.g. shape and size) of nanostructures has changed drastically with the increment of growth solution concentration. The density of ZnO nanorods was proven to increase with the increasing of reaction time and microwave power. We hypothesize that the microwave power might enhance the rate of nucleation and promote the faster nanostructure growth as compared with the normal heating condition due to the superheating phenomenon. This method might promote a new and faster alternative way in nanostructure growth which can be applied in currently existing application.

  10. Ultrafast Formation of ZnO Nanorods via Seed-Mediated Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S. T.; Umar, A. A.; Yahaya, M.; Yap, C. C.; Salleh, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    One dimensional (1D) zinc oxide, ZnO nanostructures have shown promising results for usage in photodiode and optoelectronic device due to their high surface area. Faster and conventional method for synthesis ZnO nanorods has become an attention for researcher today. In this paper, ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized via two-step process, namely alcothermal seeding and seed-mediated microwave hydrolysis process. In typical process, the ZnO nanoseeds were grown in the growth solution that contained equimolar (0.04 M) of zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn (NO3).6H2O and hexamethylenetetramine, HMT. The growth process was carried inside the inverted microwave within 5- 20 s. The effect of growth parameters (i.e. concentration, microwave power, time reaction) upon the modification of ZnO morphology was studied. ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The densities of nanorods were evaluated by the Image J analysis. It was found that the morphology (e.g. shape and size) of nanostructures has changed drastically with the increment of growth solution concentration. The density of ZnO nanorods was proven to increase with the increasing of reaction time and microwave power. We hypothesize that the microwave power might enhance the rate of nucleation and promote the faster nanostructure growth as compared with the normal heating condition due to the superheating phenomenon. This method might promote a new and faster alternative way in nanostructure growth which can be applied in currently existing application.

  11. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  12. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M. F., E-mail: mfmalek07@gmail.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Musa, M. Z., E-mail: musa948@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Pulau Pinang, Jalan Permatang Pauh, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com; Ishak, A., E-mail: ishak@sarawak.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan, Jalan Meranek, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-06

    Optimization of the growth time parameter was conducted to synthesize high-quality c-axis ZnO nanorod arrays. The effects of the parameter on the crystal growth and properties were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the growth time influence the properties of ZnO nanorods where the crystallite size of the structures was increased at higher deposition time. Field emission scanning electron microsope analysis confirmed the morphologies structure of the ZnO nanorods. The ZnO nanostructures prepared under the optimized growth conditions showed an intense XRD peak which reveal a higher c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays thus demonstrating the formation of defect free structure.

  13. Effect of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the morphological, optical and decolorization properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah Mirzaie, Rasol, E-mail: mirzai_r@yahoo.com [Dep. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O. Box 167855-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamrani, Firouzeh [Masters Student in Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O. Box 167855-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anaraki Firooz, Azam [Dep. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O. Box 167855-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abbas Ali [Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different morphologies of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites synthesized via simple solid state reaction method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various Fe{sup 3+}/Zn{sup 2+} ratios affected on morphology, size and optical absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer addition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} shifted the absorption edge to the visible region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amount of added Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} strongly affected the decolorization of azo dye under visible light. - Abstract: Visible light sensitive photocatalysts of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by a simple solid-state reaction method, using zinc acetate, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sodium hydroxide at room temperature. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, UV-vis absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy and used for photodecolorization of Congo red. The characterization results showed that the morphology, crystallite size, BET surface area and optical absorption of the samples varied significantly with the Fe{sup 3+} to Zn{sup 2+} ratios. The nanocomposites show two absorption edges at ultraviolet and visible region. The optical band gap values of these nanocomposites were calculated to be about 3.98-3.81 eV and 2.88-2.98 eV, which show a red shift from that of pure ZnO. These red shifts are related to the formation of Fe s-levels below the conductive band edge of ZnO and effectively extend the absorption edge into the visible region. The growth mechanisms of the samples are proposed. These nanocomposites showed high decolorization ability in visible light with wavelength up to about 400 nm. Among the samples, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanoflower (molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+} to Zn{sup 2+} is 1:100) exhibited higher decolorization efficiency than the other nanocomposites. It could be considered as a promising photocatalyst for dyes treatment.

  14. nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    In this method no special electrolytes, chemicals and surfactants are needed. ... tures collected from the bottom of the cell are either nanothreads embodying beads of different diameters,. ~10–40 nm or .... when copious oxygen produced through electrolysis at- ... corresponding bandgap calculations of the as synthesized.

  15. Different valence Sn doping - A simple way to detect oxygen concentration variation of ZnO quantum dots synthesized under ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Qitu; Wang, Lixi; Song, Bo; Wu, Fan; Wong, C P

    2017-09-01

    An ultrasonic method is employed to synthesize the Sn doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots with green light emission. Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ ions are used to create different optical defects inside Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots and the changing trend of oxygen concentration under different ultrasonic irradiation power are investigated. The photoluminescence spectra are employed to characterize the optical defects of Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots. The UV-vis spectra are used to study the band gap of Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots, which is influenced by their sizes. The results indicate that ultrasonic power would influence the size of Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots as well as the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Changing trends in size of Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots are quite similar with each other, while the changing trends in optical defects types and concentration of Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots are different. The difference of the optical defects concentration changing between Sn 2+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots (V O defects) and Sn 4+ doped Zn 0.95 Sn 0.05 O quantum dots (O Zn and O i defects) shows that the formation process of ZnO under ultrasonic irradiation wiped oxygen out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical optimization and artificial neural network modeling for acridine orange dye degradation using in-situ synthesized polymer capped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Nitesh; Markandeya; Singh, Amrita; Verma, Neeraj K; Ajaria, Nidhi; Patnaik, Satyakam

    2017-05-01

    ZnO NPs were synthesized by a prudent green chemistry approach in presence of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum polymer (pAAm-g-GG) to ensure uniform morphology, and functionality and appraised for their ability to degrade photocatalytically Acridine Orange (AO) dye. These ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NPs were thoroughly characterized by various spectroscopic, XRD and electron microscopic techniques. The relative quantity of ZnO NPs in polymeric matrix has been estimated by spectro-analytical procedure; AAS and TGA analysis. The impact of process parameters viz. NP's dose, contact time and AO dye concentration on percentage photocatalytic degradation of AO dyes were evaluated using multivariate optimizing tools, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Congruity of the BBD statistical model was implied by R 2 value 0.9786 and F-value 35.48. At RSM predicted optimal condition viz. ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NP's dose of 0.2g/L, contact time of 210min and AO dye concentration 10mg/L, a maximum of 98% dye degradation was obtained. ANOVA indicated appropriateness of the model for dye degradation owing to "Prob.>F" less than 0.05 for variable parameters. We further, employed three layers feed forward ANN model for validating the BBD process parameters and suitability of our chosen model. The evaluation of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (ANN1) and Gradient Descent with adaptive learning rate (ANN2) model employed to scrutinize the best method and found experimental values of AO dye degradation were in close to those with predicated value of ANN 2 modeling with minimum error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  18. Nonequilibrium-Plasma-Synthesized ZnO Nanocrystals with Plasmon Resonance Tunable via Al Doping and Quantum Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Benjamin L; Ganguly, Shreyashi; Held, Jacob T; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Aydil, Eray S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-12-09

    Metal oxide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) tunable within the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by vacancy or impurity doping. Although a variety of these NCs have been produced using colloidal synthesis methods, incorporation and activation of dopants in the liquid phase has often been challenging. Herein, using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) NCs as an example, we demonstrate the potential of nonthermal plasma synthesis as an alternative strategy for the production of doped metal oxide NCs. Exploiting unique, thoroughly nonequilibrium synthesis conditions, we obtain NCs in which dopants are not segregated to the NC surfaces and local doping levels are high near the NC centers. Thus, we achieve overall doping levels as high as 2 × 10(20) cm(-3) in NCs with diameters ranging from 12.6 to 3.6 nm, and for the first time experimentally demonstrate a clear quantum confinement blue shift of the LSPR energy in vacancy- and impurity-doped semiconductor NCs. We propose that doping of central cores and heavy doping of small NCs are achievable via nonthermal plasma synthesis, because chemical potential differences between dopant and host atoms-which hinder dopant incorporation in colloidal synthesis-are irrelevant when NC nucleation and growth proceed via irreversible interactions among highly reactive gas-phase ions and radicals and ligand-free NC surfaces. We explore how the distinctive nucleation and growth kinetics occurring in the plasma influences dopant distribution and activation, defect structure, and impurity phase formation.

  19. Morphologies of Sol–Gel Derived Thin Films of ZnO Using Different Precursor Materials and their Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sudhir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe have shown that the morphological features of the sol–gel derived thin films of ZnO depend strongly on the choice of the precursor materials. In particular, we have used zinc nitrate and zinc acetate as the precursor materials. While the films using zinc acetate showed a smoother topography, those prepared by using zinc nitrate exhibited dendritic character. Both types of films were found to be crystalline in nature. The crystallite dimensions were confined to the nanoscale. The crystallite size of the nanograins in the zinc nitrate derived films has been found to be smaller than the films grown by using zinc acetate as the precursor material. Selected area electron diffraction patterns in the case of both the precursor material has shown the presence of different rings corresponding to different planes of hexagonal ZnO crystal structure. The results have been discussed in terms of the fundamental considerations and basic chemistry governing the growth kinetics of these sol–gel derived ZnO films with both the precursor materials.

  20. A model for the impact of the nanostructure size on its gas sensing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Alzanki, T.H.; Almeshal, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The size of a metal oxide nanostructure plays a key role in its performance as a gas sensor. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies including nanowires at different diameters and nanodisks at different thicknesses were synthesized hydrothermally. Gas sensors based on individual...... of the surface to volume ratio as well as the depletion region of the nanostructure. This work can be simply generalized for other metal oxides to enhance their performance as gas sensors....... nanostructures with different sizes were fabricated and their sensing properties were compared and investigated. Nanowires with smaller diameter size and higher surface to volume ratio showed enhanced gas sensing performance. Also, as the nanodisk thickness gets closer to the thickness of the ZnO depletion layer...

  1. Organometallic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for gas sensing: towards selectivity through nanoparticles morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhikov, Andrey; Jońca, Justyna; Kahn, Myrtil; Fajerwerg, Katia [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination (LCC), CNRS (France); Chaudret, Bruno [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de Nano-objets (LPCNO), INSA, UPS, CNRS (France); Chapelle, Audrey [Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS), CNRS (France); Ménini, Philippe [Université Toulouse III, Paul Sabatier (France); Shim, Chang Hyun [Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS), CNRS (France); Gaudon, Alain [Alpha M.O.S. SA (France); Fau, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.fau@lcc-toulouse.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination (LCC), CNRS (France)

    2015-07-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) with different morphologies such as nanorods (NR), isotropic NP, and cloud-like (CL) structures have been synthesized by an organometallic route. The prepared ZnO nanostructures have been deposited on miniaturized silicon gas sensor substrates by an inkjet method, and their responses to CO, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, and NH{sub 3} gases have been studied at different operating temperatures (340–500 °C) and relative humidity of 50 %. It is noteworthy that the morphology of the nanostructure of the sensitive layer is maintained after thermal treatment. The morphology of ZnO NP significantly influences the sensor response level and their selectivity properties to reducing gases. Among the three different ZnO types, sensors prepared with NR show the highest response to both CO and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Sensors made of isotropic NP and CL structures show a lower but similar response to CO. From all investigated nanostructures, sensors made of CL structures show the weakest response to C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. With NH{sub 3} gas, no effect of the morphology of the ZnO sensitive layer has been evidenced. These different responses highlight the important role of the nanostructure of the ZnO sensitive layer and the nature of the target gas on the detection properties of the sensors. Graphical Abstract: Three different ZnO nanoparticles morphologies (cloud-like, dots, rods) have been employed as sensitive layers in chemoresistive sensors for the selective detection of CO, C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and NH{sub 3}.

  2. Role of ZnO photoanode nanostructures and sensitizer deposition approaches on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şişman, İlkay; Tekir, Oktay; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-02-01

    Hierarchical bundle-like ZnO nanorod arrays (BNRs) were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method based on two consecutive temperature steps for cascade CdS/CdSe and ternary CdS1-xSex alloy quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) as photoanode. The CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex QDs were deposited on the surface of the ZnO BNRs by conventional and modified successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods, respectively. Using the ZnO BNRs/CdS/CdSe photoanode, the power conversion efficiency reaches 2.08%, which is 1.8 times higher than that of pristine ZnO nanorods/CdS/CdSe photoanode, while by applying ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex, the power conversion efficiency improves 2.52%. The remarkably improved photovoltaic performance is mainly derived from the bundle-like nanorod arrays structure, which increases the QDs loading amount and the scattering effect for light absorption, and the appropriate conduction band energy, sufficient Se amount and well coverage of the ternary CdS1-xSex QDs result in enhanced photogenerated electron injection, high light absorption and reduced recombination, respectively. As a result, ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex combination can significantly improve performance of QDSSCs.

  3. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León – Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); and others

    2015-07-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region.

  4. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH) 2 nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region

  5. Phase diagram of interfacial growth modes by vapor deposition and its application for ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Da-Jun; Xiong, Xiang; Liu, Ming; Wang, Mu

    2017-09-01

    Interfacial growth from vapor has been extensively studied. However, a straightforward picture of the growth mode under different growth conditions is still lacking. In this paper, we develop a comprehensive interfacial growth theory based on the stochastic approach. Using a critical interisland separation, we construct a general phase diagram of the growth modes. It has been revealed that if the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier EES is smaller than a critical value, the interfacial growth proceeds in a layer-by-layer (LBL) mode at any deposition rate. However, if EES is larger than the critical value, LBL growth occurs only at very small or very large deposition rates relative to the intralayer hopping rate, and multilayer (ML) growth occurs at a moderate deposition rate. Experiments with zinc oxide growth by chemical vapor deposition have been designed to qualitatively demonstrate the theoretical model. By changing the flux of the carrier gas (nitrogen gas) in chemical vapor deposition, we realize LBL, ML, and then reentrance of LBL homoepitaxial growth of ZnO successively. Moreover, we find that surface kinetics of ZnO is suppressed by decreasing oxygen partial pressure by comparing the experimental observations and theoretical models, which is supported by our recent first-principles calculations. Since the influence of the substrate and the growth species on growth can approximately be represented by binding energy and surface kinetics, we suggest that the phase diagram is essential for interfacial growth of different materials by vapor deposition.

  6. Modified gas diffusion layer for fuel cells synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrasu, Daniela; Stefanescu, Ioan; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Serban, Nicolae; Axente, Emil; Sima, Felix; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ioan N.; Enculescu, Ionut

    2010-01-01

    Full text; In this paper there are presented the first results regarding the development of a modified gas diffusion layer for fuel cells consisting of a simple or teflonized carbon cloth deposited by pulsed laser with metal oxide nanostructures. These are designed to operate both as co-catalyst, and oxidic support for other electrochemically active catalysts. We selected TiO 2 , ZnO and Al 2 O 3 doped (2 wt.%) ZnO which were uniformly distributed over the surface of gas diffusion layers in order to improve the catalytic activity, stability and lifetime, and reduce the production costs of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy that our depositions consisted of TiO 2 nanoparticles while in the case of ZnO and Al 2 O 3 doped (2 wt.%) ZnO transparent quasicontinuous films were synthesized. (authors)

  7. Nanostructure CdS/ZnO heterojunction configuration for photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velanganni, S.; Pravinraj, S.; Immanuel, P.; Thiruneelakandan, R.

    2018-04-01

    In the present manuscript, thin films of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a FTO substrate using a simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are sensitized over ZnO thin films using SILAR method. The synthesized nanostructured CdS/ZnO heterojunction thin films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles over ZnO nanostructure was found to be about 3.20 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the deposited CdS/ZnO thin films were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution under sun light irradiation.

  8. Au-controlled enhancement of photoluminescence of NiS nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Linganiso, EC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. TEM analysis revealed that the NiS nanostructures were of various shapes. A quantum confinement effect was confirmed by the blue shift PL emissions and high optical energy band gap observed for the as...

  9. Improved Sensitivity with Low Limit of Detection of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Based on rGO-Loaded Ni-Doped ZnO Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Vijendra Singh; Ranwa, Sapana; Rajamani, Saravanan; Kumari, Kusum; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-04-04

    We report enhanced hydrogen-gas-sensing performance of a Ni-doped ZnO sensor decorated with the optimum concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Ni-doped ZnO nanoplates were grown by radio frequency sputtering, rGO was synthesized by Hummer's method and decorated by the drop cast method of various concentration of rGO (0-1.5 wt %). The current-voltage characteristics of the rGO-loaded sensor are highly influenced by the loading concentration of rGO, where current conduction decreases and sensor resistance increases as the rGO concentration is increased up to 0.75 wt % because of the formation of various Schottky heterojunctions at rGO/ZnO interfaces. With the combined effect of more active site availability and formation of various p-n heterojunctions due to the optimum loading concentration of rGO (0.75 wt %), the sensor shows the maximum sensing response of ∼63.8% for 100 ppm hydrogen at moderate operating temperature (150 °C). The rGO-loaded sensors were able to detect a minimum of 1 ppm hydrogen concentration and showed high selectivity. However, a further increase in the rGO concentration (1.5 wt %) leads to the reduction of the relative response of hydrogen gas, ascribed to the formation of interconnections of rGO between electrodes. Therefore, it reduces the total resistance of the sensor and minimizes the effect of p-n heterojunction on sensor response.

  10. SnO2/ZnO composite structure for the lithium-ion battery electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mashkoor; Yingying, Shi; Sun, Hongyu; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    In this article, SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures have been synthesized by two steps hydrothermal method and investigated their lithium storage capacity as compared with pure ZnO. It has been found that these composite structures combining the large specific surface area, stability and catalytic activity of SnO 2 micro-crystals, demonstrate the higher initial discharge capacity of 1540 mA h g −1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 68% at a rate of 120 mA h g −1 between 0.02 and 2 V and found much better than that of any previously reported ZnO based composite anodes. In addition, a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 497 mA h g −1 is retained after 40 cycles. The improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life is attributed to the addition of SnO 2 structure, which act as good electronic conductors and better accommodation of the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process. - Graphical abstract: SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures demonstrate the improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life as compared with pure ZnO nanostructure. Highlights: ► Synthesis of SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures by two steps hydrothermal approach. ► Investigation of lithium storage capacity. ► Excellent lithium storage capacity and cycle life of SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures.

  11. Photovoltaic Performance of ZnO Nanosheets Solar Cell Sensitized with Beta-Substituted Porphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was fabricated using two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets (2D ZnO NSs sensitized with beta-substituted porphyrins photosensitizer, and its photovoltaic performance in solid-state DSSC with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 TNs modified poly (ethylene oxide (PEO polymer electrolyte was studied. The ZnO NSs were synthesized through hydrothermal method and were characterized through high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM, diffused reflectance spectra (DRS, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The crystallinity of the polymer electrolytes was investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis. The photovoltaic performance of the beta-substituted porphyrins sensitized solar cells was evaluated under standard AM1.5G simulated illumination (100 mW cm−2. The efficiency of energy conversion from solar to electrical due to 2D ZnO NSs based DSSCs is 0.13%, which is about 1.6 times higher than that of the control DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs as photoanode (0.08%, when TiO2 NTs fillers modified PEO electrolyte was incorporated in the DSSCs. The current-voltage (- and photocurrent-time (- curves proved stable with effective collection of electrons, when the 2D ZnO nanostructured photoanode was introduced in the solid-state DSSC.

  12. An investigation on linear optical properties of dilute Cr doped ZnO thin films synthesized via sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandjani, A. Esmaielzadeh; Tabriz, M. Farzalipour; Moradi, O. Mohammad; Mehr, H.R. Rezaeian; Kandjani, S. Ahmadi; Vaezi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In current work, ZnO:Cr thin films were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. → By increasing in dopant concentration the average roughness of the film increases slightly while the thickness of these films remains constant. → By increase in dopant concentration band gap values of thin films show a decrease while the interior microstrain shows an increase based on increase in its Urbach energies. → By increase in annealing temperature band gap values and interior microstrains of thin films show a decrease. → By increase in number of applied dip coating, film thickness increase from 74 nm (after 1 procedure dip coating) to 147 nm (3 procedures dip coating), band gap values and interior microstrains of thin films show a decrease. - Abstract: Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. The effects of dopant concentration (0%, 1.5% and 3%) annealing temperature and film thickness on UV-Vis spectra of prepared films were investigated. Also, the thickness and surface topology of thin films were investigated by thickness profile meter (DEKTAK) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. In addition, the band gap and Urbach energy of prepared films were calculated completely for the samples. The results showed that by increasing the dopant concentrations, the microstrain of the prepared thin film structures also increases while the band-gap values decrease. Meanwhile, an increase in annealing temperature makes a decrease in band gap and microstrain of thin films. The increase in thickness resulted in red shift in band gap and reduction in interior microstrains.

  13. Positron annihilation studies of vacancy-type defects and room temperature ferromagnetism in chemically synthesized Li-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Khan, Gobinda Gopal; Mandal, K.; Thapa, Samudrajit; Nambissan, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evidence of zinc vacancy-induced intrinsic ferromagnetism in Li-doped ZnO. • Modification of defects and properties through alkali metal substitution. • Study of defect-modification using positron annihilation spectroscopy. • New way to prepare ZnO-based magnetic semiconductor for spintronic applications. -- Abstract: In this article, we have investigated the effects of Li incorporation on the lattice defects and room-temperature d 0 ferromagnetic behaviour in ZnO nanocrystals by correlating X-ray photoelectron, photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic study in details. It is found that at low doping level ( 1+ is an effective substituent of Zn site, but it prefers to occupy the interstitial positions when Li-doping exceeds 7 at.% resulting in lattice expansion and increase of particle sizes. The pristine ZnO nanocrystals exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour which is further enhanced significantly after few percentage of Li-doping in ZnO. The magnitude of both saturation magnetizations (M S ) as well as the Curie temperature (T C ) are found to increase considerably up to Li concentration of 10 at.% and then started to decrease on further Li-doping. The gradual enhancement of Zn vacancy (V Zn ) defects in ZnO nanocrystals due to Li substitution as confirmed from photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements might be responsible to induce paramagnetic moments within ZnO host. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction between the localised moments of V Zn defects can be mediated though the holes arising due to Li-substitutional (Li Zn ) acceptor defects within ZnO. Hence, Li doping in ZnO favours in stabilizing considerable V Zn defects and thus helps to sustain long-range high-T C ferromagnetism in ZnO which can be a promising material in future spintronics

  14. Positron annihilation studies of vacancy-type defects and room temperature ferromagnetism in chemically synthesized Li-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S., E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Khan, Gobinda Gopal [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Mandal, K. [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Thapa, Samudrajit; Nambissan, P.M.G. [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Evidence of zinc vacancy-induced intrinsic ferromagnetism in Li-doped ZnO. • Modification of defects and properties through alkali metal substitution. • Study of defect-modification using positron annihilation spectroscopy. • New way to prepare ZnO-based magnetic semiconductor for spintronic applications. -- Abstract: In this article, we have investigated the effects of Li incorporation on the lattice defects and room-temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetic behaviour in ZnO nanocrystals by correlating X-ray photoelectron, photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic study in details. It is found that at low doping level (<7 at.%), Li{sup 1+} is an effective substituent of Zn site, but it prefers to occupy the interstitial positions when Li-doping exceeds 7 at.% resulting in lattice expansion and increase of particle sizes. The pristine ZnO nanocrystals exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour which is further enhanced significantly after few percentage of Li-doping in ZnO. The magnitude of both saturation magnetizations (M{sub S}) as well as the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) are found to increase considerably up to Li concentration of 10 at.% and then started to decrease on further Li-doping. The gradual enhancement of Zn vacancy (V{sub Zn}) defects in ZnO nanocrystals due to Li substitution as confirmed from photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements might be responsible to induce paramagnetic moments within ZnO host. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction between the localised moments of V{sub Zn} defects can be mediated though the holes arising due to Li-substitutional (Li{sub Zn}) acceptor defects within ZnO. Hence, Li doping in ZnO favours in stabilizing considerable V{sub Zn} defects and thus helps to sustain long-range high-T{sub C} ferromagnetism in ZnO which can be a promising material in future spintronics.

  15. One-step synthesis of bird cage-like ZnO and other controlled morphologies: Structural, growth mechanism and photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuo; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiuyan; Zhai, Hongju; Han, Donglai; Wei, Bing; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanocage arrays were synthesized by a one-step etching route. • ZnO nanocage exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than other samples. • The different photocatalytic activities of different samples were analyzed. • The formation mechanism of ZnO nanocages was proposed. - Abstract: ZnO nanocages and other nanostructures have been synthesized via a simple one-pot hydrothermal method with different reaction times. It is worth mentioning that this is a completely green method which does not require any other chemicals except that Zn foil served as Zn source in the experiment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–Vis diffuse reflection spectra were used to characterize the crystallinity, morphology and optical property of ZnO structures. Growth mechanisms of ZnO were proposed based on these results. Furthermore, ZnO films with different morphologies and crystal growth habits exhibited different activities to rhodamine B degradation. The influence of the reaction time on the morphology of ZnO films and the effect of the morphologies on the photocatalytic activity are discussed

  16. Enhanced field emission of ZnO nanoneedle arrays via solution etching at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Huanming; Qin, Zhiwei; Wang, Zaide

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays (ZnO nns) were synthesized by a facile two-step solution-phase method based on the etching of pre-synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO nws) with flat ends at room temperature. Field emission measurement results showed that the turn-on electronic fields of ZnO nns and nws wer...

  17. Synthesis of ZnO nanopowders by DC thermal plasma for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Choi, Jinsub [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanopowders were synthesized using DC thermal plasma process. ► Type and flow rate of reaction gas were controlled as experimental variables. ► Various morphologies were identified by changing the reaction gas. ► The photovoltaic performances were promoted by removing the unreacted precursors. ► DSSCs based on 1D nanostructure ZnO show the enhanced energy conversion efficiency. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized zinc powders (Aldrich Co., 98%, 10 μm) by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized zinc powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanopowders with a size of less than 300 nm. Two different reaction gases of oxygen and carbon dioxide were used as the oxygen source and each gas flow rate was controlled as a process variable. The obtained ZnO nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All synthesized ZnO nanopowders showed high crystalline wurtzite structures and the differences in their morphologies were strongly dependent on the operating variables. The photocurrent–voltage (J–V) curve of the ZnO nanopowders with a dye of ruthenium (II) 535 bis-TBA (N719, Solaronix) in redox electrolyte showed an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.54%, demonstrating that the application of the mass-producible ZnO nanopowders by thermal plasma processing to DSSC was feasible.

  18. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  19. Highly efficient betanin dye based ZnO and ZnO/Au Schottky barrier solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thankappan, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.subhash@gmail.com [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices (IUCND), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Divya, S.; Augustine, Anju K.; Girijavallaban, C.P.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V.P.N. [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India)

    2015-05-29

    Performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on betanin natural dye from red beets with various nanostructured photoanodes on transparent conducting glass has been investigated. In four different electrolyte systems cell efficiency of 2.99% and overall photon to current conversion efficiency of 20% were achieved using ZnO nanosheet electrode with iodide based electrolyte in acetonitrile solution. To enhance solar harvesting in organic solar cells, uniform sized metal nanoparticles (gold (Au) of ~ 8 nm) synthesized via microwave irradiation method were incorporated into the device consisting of ZnO. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 1.71% was achieved with ZnO/Au nanocomposite compared to the 0.868% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanosheet cell with ferrocene based electrolyte. - Highlights: • The influence of electrolytes has been studied. • Cell efficiency of 2.99% was achieved by ZnO. • Enhancement of efficiency with incorporation of Au nano.

  20. Multi-morphological growth of nano-structured In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by ambient pressure triethylene glycol based solution syntheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tongfei; Wang, Jian; Lai, Junyun; Zheng, Xuerong; Liu, Weiyan; Ji, Junna [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Jin, Zhengguo, E-mail: zhgjin@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoparticles, flower-like shaped and sheet-shaped nanocrystals were synthesized by a new, facile, ambient pressure triethylene glycol based solution chemical route using indium(III) chloride and selenium powder as precursors. The growing morphology, crystallization, chemical stoichiometry and light absorption property of the In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} products synthesized were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, FESEM, XRD, EDX and UV–vis–NIR measurements. Multi-morphological growth of the nano-structured In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in triethylene glycol based solution syntheses with changed assisting agents and reaction styles was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Multimorphological growth of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} was demonstrated based on solution chemistry. • A new, facile, low cost and fast air pressure TEG based solution process was used. • Nanoparticles, flower-like shaped and sheet-shaped nanocrystals were synthesized. • Morphology, crystallization, stoichiometry and light absorption was characterized. • Solution growth of β-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanosheets was firstly reported by this submission.

  1. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  2. Synthesis and optical properties of flower-like ZnO nanorods by thermal evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, J.H.; Jiang, Q.; Lian, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO nanorods have been synthesized by heating a mixture of ZnO/graphite powders using the thermal evaporation and vapor transport on Si (1 0 0) substrates without any catalyst. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of the products were characterized in detail by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized products consisted of large quantities of flower-like ZnO nanostructures in the form of uniform nanorods. The flower-like ZnO nanorods had high purity and well crystallized wurtzite structure, whose high crystalline quality was proved by Raman spectroscopy. The as-synthesized flower-like ZnO nanorods showed a strong ultraviolet emission at 386 nm and a weak and broad yellow-green emission in visible spectrum in its room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. In addition, the growth mechanism of the flower-like ZnO nanorods was discussed based on the reaction conditions.

  3. Influence of nanostructure Fe-doped ZnO interlayer on the electrical properties of Au/n-type InP Schottky structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padma, R.; Balaram, N.; Reddy, I. Neelakanta; Reddy, V. Rajagopal, E-mail: reddy_vrg@rediffmail.com

    2016-07-01

    The Au/Fe-doped ZnO/n-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) Schottky structure is fabricated with Fe-doped ZnO nanostructure (NS) as an interlayer. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results demonstrated that the surface morphology of the Fe−ZnO NS on n-InP is fairly smooth. The x-ray diffraction results reveal that the average grain size of the Fe−ZnO film is 12.35 nm. The electrical properties of the Au/n-InP metal-semiconductor (MS) and Au/Fe−ZnO NS/n-InP MIS Schottky structures are investigated by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements at room temperature. The Au/Fe−ZnO NS/n-InP MIS Schottky structure has good rectifying ratio with low-leakage current compared to the Au/n-InP MS structure. The barrier height obtained for the MIS structure is higher than those of MS Schottky structure because of the modification of the effective barrier height by the Fe−ZnO NS interlayer. Further, the barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance are determined for the MS and MIS Schottky structures using Norde and Cheung's functions and compared to each other. The estimated interface state density of MIS Schottky structure is lower than that of MS Schottky structure. Experimental results revealed that the Poole-Frenkel emission is the dominant conduction mechanism in the lower bias region whereas Schottky emission is the dominant in the higher bias region for both the Au/n-InP MS and Au/Fe−ZnO NS/n-InP MIS Schottky structures. - Highlights: • Barrier height of Au/n-InP Schottky diode was modified by Fe−ZnO nanostructure interlayer. • MIS structure has a good rectification ratio compared to the MS structure. • The interface state density of MIS structure is lower than that of MS structure. • Poole-Frenkel mechanism is found to dominate in both MS and MIS structure.

  4. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sheng Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the Zn(C5H7O22·xH2O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N2/O2, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM, and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002 and (101 as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL.

  5. Electrodeposition of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible stainless steel mesh for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hui; Zhai, Xiangyang; Liu, Wenwu; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min, E-mail: guomin@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were synthesized on flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) in large scale by a two-step facile electrodeposition method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The growth mechanism of the ZnO hierarchical nanostructures was also discussed. Moreover, the effect of ZnO morphology on the photovoltaic performance of the flexible DSSCs based on SSM supported ZnO nanostructures was investigated in detail. It is shown that the flexible DSSCs exhibited a relatively higher power conversion efficiency of 1.11% compared with that based on primary ZNRAs. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were prepared by electrodeposition method. • Flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) supported with hierarchical ZNRAs was first used for DSSCs. • The effect of ZnO morphology on the photovoltaic performance of flexible DSSCs was investigated. • The DSSC based on 3-Hierarchical ZNRAs/ZNPs showed a relatively efficiency of 1.11%.

  6. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of (poly-)antimonides and N-doped ZnO; Synthese und Charakterisierung von (Poly-)antimoniden und die Darstellung von N-dotiertem ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiwe, Magnus Josef Benedikt

    2014-06-16

    }Sb{sub y} (M = Hf, Zr) as representatives of binary antimonides were synthesized. Through Fe and/or Ni doping superconducting Phases have been found. Furthermore binary chromium-antimonides with partial Fe or Ni substitution were prepared. Cr{sub 2}Ni{sub 0,3}Sb{sub 3,7} was tested as potential anodic material and a capacity of 98% (520 mAh.g{sup -1}) of the theoretical capacity in the 2{sup nd} cycle was measured. All compounds indicated that antimonies with a covalent bonding character are more stable against lithium intercalation than the intermetallic ones. New compounds in the quaternary system Cu-Hg-Sb-X (X = Br, I) were obtained by using the reaction conditions for the earlier (lighter) elements of the V. main group (P, As). In the new structure [Hg{sub 3}Sb{sub 2}]{sub 4}[CuX{sub 3}]{sub 4}X{sub 2} (X = Br, I) X{sub 2} a barbell of the halide is present. This structure is the first example in the system Hf-Sb-X which shows two different interpenetrated networks: [Hg{sub 3}Sb{sub 2}]{sup 2+} and [CuX{sub 3}]{sup 2-}. For the first time it has been possible to calculate the Br-Br bond length by X-ray single crystal measurements at room temperature. Another topic of this work was to test the solution combustion method (SCM) in order to gain ZnO (Wurtzit structure) with nitrogen defects at the oxygen position. Standard synthesis methods for oxonitrides require high temperature or high pressure procedures. A softer synthesis method is the solution combustion method published by Mapa and Gopinath. The results of various experiments in cooperation with Stefan Soellradl yielded no intercalation of nitrogen defects into ZnO but a new phase was found which is identified as isocyanuric acid after reprocessing.

  8. Structural, optical and magnetic characterization of Ru doped ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kaur, Palvinder; Chen, C.L.; Thangavel, R.; Dong, C.L.; Ho, Y.K.; Lee, J.F.; Chan, T.S.; Chen, T.K.; Mok, B.H.; Rao, S.M.; Wu, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ruthenium (Ru = 0%, 1% and 2%) doped nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized by using well-known sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that Ru (0%, 1% and 2%) doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in the wurtzite structure having space group C 3v (P6 3 mc). Williamson and Hall plot reveal that in the nanoscale dimensions, incorporation of Ru induced the tensile strain in ZnO host matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies of Ru doped ZnO nanorods show the formation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies which may account for the observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in 2% Ru doped ZnO. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals that Ru replace the Zn atoms in the host lattice and maintain the crystal symmetry with slightly lattice distortion. Highlights: • Ru doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in the wurtzite structure having space group C 3v (P6 3 mc). • PL and Raman studies show the formation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies in 2% Ru doped ZnO. • XAS reveals that Ru replace the Zn atoms in the host lattice with slightly lattice distortion. • Doping of Ru in ZnO nanostructures gives rise to RTFM ordering. -- Abstract: Ruthenium (Ru = 0%, 1% and 2%) doped nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized by using well-known sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that Ru (0%, 1% and 2%) doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in the wurtzite structure having space group C 3v (P6 3 mc). Williamson and Hall plot reveal that in the nanoscale dimensions, incorporation of Ru induced the tensile strain in ZnO host matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies of Ru doped ZnO nanorods show the formation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies which may account for the observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in 2% Ru doped ZnO. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals that Ru replace the Zn atoms in the host lattice and maintain the crystal symmetry with slightly lattice

  9. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, D. D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C. Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L. R.

    2010-11-01

    High purity Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2O 4. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 °C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 °C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  10. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Z.Q., E-mail: chenzq@whu.edu.c [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, D.D.; Gong, J. [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cao, C.Y.; Tang, Z. [Department of Electronic and Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Huang, L.R. [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Opto-electronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-11-15

    High purity Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 {sup o}C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2{theta} scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 {sup o}C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 {sup o}C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  11. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Chen, Z.Q.; Wang, D.D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C.Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    High purity Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 o C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2 O 4 . Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 o C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 o C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  12. Field emission properties of nano-structured cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) synthesized by low-temperature chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S. M.; Suryawanshi, S. R.; More, M. A.; Sen, Debasis; Kolekar, Y. D.; Ramana, C. V.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the field-emission properties of structure-morphology controlled nano-CoFe2O4 (CFO) synthesized via a simple and low-temperature chemical method. Structural analyses indicate that the spongy-CFO (approximately, 2.96 nm) is nano-structured, spherical, uniformly-distributed, cubic-structured and porous. Field emission studies reveal that CFO exhibit low turn-on field (4.27 V/μm) and high emission current-density (775 μA/cm2) at a lower applied electric field of 6.80 V/μm. In addition, extremely good emission current stability is obtained at a pre-set value of 1 μA and high emission spot-density over large area (2 × 2 cm2) suggesting the applicability of these materials for practical applications in vacuum micro-/nano-electronics.

  13. Investigation of microstructural and optical properties of La0.8Ca0.2FeO3 nanostructure synthesized via gel combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Ali, S. Asad; Khan, Wasi; Khan, Shakeel

    2018-05-01

    Ca substituted LaFeO3 orthoferrite nanostructure perovskite has been synthesized by gel combustion method using citric acid as a fuel. The structural and optical properties were investigated by various tools. The structural analysis through Rietveld refinement of the XRD data revealed single phase of orthorhombic structure in R-3c space group of the sample without presence of any other impurity phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image exhibits non-uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in agglomerated form. The purity of the sample and stoichiometric ratio of the elements were established through energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). FTIR spectroscopy measurement predicts the presence of various band relation of the chemical species of Ca with LaFeO3. Optical properties were explored through UV-visible absorption spectroscopy that showed absorption edge at 347 nm and energy band gap was estimated as 3.47eV using Tauc's relation.

  14. A highly efficient urea detection using flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Manvi; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika, E-mail: monikatomar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2015-12-01

    A novel matrix based on flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnONF) has been fabricated using hydrothermal method and exploited successfully for the development of urea biosensor. Urease (Urs) is physically immobilized onto the ZnO nanostructure matrix synthesized over platinized silicon substrate. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the as-grown ZnONF have been characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The fabricated amperometric biosensor (Urs/ZnONF/Pt/Ti/Si) exhibits a linear sensing response towards urea over the concentration range 1.65 mM to 16.50 mM with an enhanced sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm{sup 2}) and a fast response time of 4 s. The relatively low value of Michaelis–Menten constant (K{sub m}) of 0.19 mM confirms the high affinity of the immobilized urease on the nanostructured ZnONF surface towards its analyte (urea). The obtained results demonstrate that flower-like ZnO nanostructures serve as a promising matrix for the realization of efficient amperometric urea biosensor with enhanced response characteristics. - Graphical abstract: The article focuses on the synthesis of flower-like morphology possessing zinc oxide nanostructures and its application towards urea detection with high sensitivity as well as selectivity. - Highlights: • Flower-like ZnO nanostructures based urea biosensor has been fabricated. • Grown ZnO nanostructures offer an advantageous urease immobilization platform owing to its very high surface area. • High sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm{sup 2}) and low Michaelis–Menten parameter (K{sub m}) value (~ 0.19 mM) were observed.

  15. A highly efficient urea detection using flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Manvi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A novel matrix based on flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnONF) has been fabricated using hydrothermal method and exploited successfully for the development of urea biosensor. Urease (Urs) is physically immobilized onto the ZnO nanostructure matrix synthesized over platinized silicon substrate. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the as-grown ZnONF have been characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The fabricated amperometric biosensor (Urs/ZnONF/Pt/Ti/Si) exhibits a linear sensing response towards urea over the concentration range 1.65 mM to 16.50 mM with an enhanced sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm 2 ) and a fast response time of 4 s. The relatively low value of Michaelis–Menten constant (K m ) of 0.19 mM confirms the high affinity of the immobilized urease on the nanostructured ZnONF surface towards its analyte (urea). The obtained results demonstrate that flower-like ZnO nanostructures serve as a promising matrix for the realization of efficient amperometric urea biosensor with enhanced response characteristics. - Graphical abstract: The article focuses on the synthesis of flower-like morphology possessing zinc oxide nanostructures and its application towards urea detection with high sensitivity as well as selectivity. - Highlights: • Flower-like ZnO nanostructures based urea biosensor has been fabricated. • Grown ZnO nanostructures offer an advantageous urease immobilization platform owing to its very high surface area. • High sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm 2 ) and low Michaelis–Menten parameter (K m ) value (~ 0.19 mM) were observed

  16. Antibacterial effect of novel synthesized sulfated β-cyclodextrin crosslinked cotton fabric and its improved antibacterial activities with ZnO, TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S; Rajiv Gandhi, R; Suresh, J; Gowri, S; Ravikumar, S; Sundrarajan, M

    2012-09-15

    Sulfated β-cyclodextrin was synthesized from sulfonation of β-cyclodextrin and sulfated polymer was crosslinked with cotton fabric using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as crosslinker. ZnO, TiO(2) and Ag nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by XRD, UV, DLS, SEM and PSA. The prepared nanoparticles were coated on crosslinked cotton fabric. The crosslinking and nanoparticles coating effects of cotton fabrics were studied by FTIR and SEM analysis. The antibacterial test was done against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli bacterium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  18. Enhancement of Si solar cell efficiency using ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Mehrabi, M.

    2018-01-01

    Here, Zinc Oxide nanowires are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition of a Zn granulate source and used to enhance a significant Si-solar cell efficiency with simple and low cost method. The nanowires are grown in various O2 flow rates. Those affect the shape, yield, structure and the quality of ZnO nanowires according to scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. This delineates that the ZnO nanostructure is dependent on the synthesis conditions. The photoluminescence spectroscopy of ZnO indicates optical emission at the Ultra-Violet and blue-green regions whose intensity varies as a function of diameter of ZnO nano-wires. The optical property of ZnO layer is measured by UV-visible and diffuse reflection spectroscopy that demonstrate high absorbance at 280-550 nm. Furthermore, the photovoltaic characterization of ZnO nanowires is investigated based on the drop casting on Si-solar cell. The ZnO nanowires with various diameters demonstrate different effects on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. We have shown that the reduction of the spectral reflectance and down-shifting process as well as the reduction of photon trapping are essential parameters on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. However, the latter is dominated here. In fact, the trapped photons during the electron-hole generation are dominant due to lessening the absorption rate in ZnO nano-wires. The results indicate that the mean diameters reduction of ZnO nanowires is also essential to improve the fill factor. The external and internal quantum efficiency analyses attest the efficiency improvement over the blue region which is related to the key parameters above.

  19. Ultra-high sensitive hydrazine chemical sensor based on low-temperature grown ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Singh, Kulvinder; Umar, Ahmad; Chaudhary, G.R.; Singh, Sukhjinder

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Systematic representation of the fabricated amperometric hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO NPs/Au modified electrode. Highlights: ► Synthesis of well-crystalline ZnO NPs has been achieved in aqueous solution. ► ZnO NPs act as efficient electron mediators for hydrazine sensor. ► Extremely high sensitivity and low-detection limit have been obtained. - Abstract: Using well-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), an ultra high sensitive hydrazine amperometric sensor has been fabricated and reported in this paper. The ZnO NPs have been synthesized by very simple aqueous solution process at 90 °C and characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties. The detailed investigations reveal that the synthesized products are well-crystalline NPs, possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibit good optical properties. The fabricated amperometric hydrazine sensor exhibits ultra-high sensitivity of ∼97.133 μA cm −2 μM −1 and very low-detection limit of 147.54 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which an ultra-high sensitivity and low-detection limit have been obtained for the hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO nanostructures.

  20. Tri-functional Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO nanoframework: magnetically retrievable antimicrobial photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2016-11-01

    Fe2O3-encased ZnO nanoframework was obtained by hydrothermal method and was doped with Ag through photoreduction process. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, selected area electron diffractometry, x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterization of the synthesized material. While the charge transfer resistance of the prepared nanomaterial is larger than those of Fe2O3 and ZnO the coercivity of the nanocomposite is less than that of hydrothermally obtained Fe2O3 nanostructures. Although Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO exhibits weak visible light absorption its band gap energy does not differ from that of ZnO. The photoluminescence of the fabricated nanoframework is similar to that of ZnO. The radiative recombination of charge carriers is slightly slower in Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO than in ZnO. The synthesized Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO, under UV A light, exhibits sustainable photocatalytic activity to degrade dye and is magnetically recoverable. Also, the Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO nanocomposite disinfects bacteria effectively in absence of direct illumination.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin film by low cost modified SILAR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haridas D. Dhaygude

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ZnO thin film is prepared on Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO coated glass substrate by using SILAR deposition technique containing ZnSO4.7H2O and NaOH as precursor solution with 150 deeping cycles at 70 °C temperature. Nanocrystalline diamond like ZnO thin film is characterized by different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform (FT Raman spectrometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM with Energy dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX, optical absorption, surface wettability and photoelectrochemical cell performance measurement. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the ZnO thin film is polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal crystal structure. The FT-Raman scattering exhibits a sharp and strong mode at 383 cm−1 which confirms hexagonal ZnO nanostructure. The surface morphology study reveals that deposited ZnO film consists of nanocrystalline diamond like morphology all over the substrate. The synthesized thin film exhibited absorption wavelength around 309 nm. Optical study predicted the direct band gap and band gap energy of this film is found to be 3.66 eV. The photoelectrochemical cell (PEC parameter measurement study shows that ZnO sample confirmed the highest values of, short circuit current (Isc - 629 mAcm−2, open circuit voltage (Voc - 878 mV, fill factor (FF - 0.48, and maximum efficiency (η - 0.89%, respectively.

  2. Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanorods and nanotowers: Morphology and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigircik, Gokmen, E-mail: gsigircik@cu.edu.tr [Chemistry Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Erken, Ozge [Department of Physics, Faculty Science and Letters, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Tuken, Tunc [Chemistry Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Gumus, Cebrail [Physics Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Ozkendir, Osman M. [Department of Energy Systems Engineering Tarsus Technology Faculty, Mersin University, 33400 Tarsus (Turkey); Ufuktepe, Yuksel [Physics Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. • Uniform and well-defined ZnO nano-towers and rods have been obtained via electrochemical deposition. • The presence of chloride ions altered the nucleation rate of ZnO particles on ITO substrates and resulting crystallographic properties. • Comparing the rod and tower nano-structured ZnO thin films, the excitation behavior of valance band electrons is different. - Abstract: Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. The resulting opto-electronic properties were interpreted extensively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and four probe techniques. The ZnO deposition is mass transport controlled process and the interaction of chloride ions with the surface has great influence on diffusion kinetics, considering the substantial species (Zn{sup 2+} and OH{sup −}) involved in the construction of ZnO film. This effect does not change major lattice parameters, as shown with detailed analysis of XRD data. However, the texture coefficient (T{sub c}) (0 0 2) value is higher in presence of chloride ions containing synthesis solution which gave vertically aligned, well defined and uniformly dispersed nanorods structure. The calculated E{sub g} values are in the range 3.28–3.41 eV and 3.22–3.31 eV for ZnO nanorods and nanotowers synthesized at different deposition periods, respectively. Furthermore, the charge mobility values regarding the deposition periods were measured to be in the ranges from 130.4 to 449.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 126.2 to 204.7 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for nanorods and nanotowers, respectively. From XANES results, it was shown that the Zn K

  3. Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanorods and nanotowers: Morphology and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigircik, Gokmen; Erken, Ozge; Tuken, Tunc; Gumus, Cebrail; Ozkendir, Osman M.; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. • Uniform and well-defined ZnO nano-towers and rods have been obtained via electrochemical deposition. • The presence of chloride ions altered the nucleation rate of ZnO particles on ITO substrates and resulting crystallographic properties. • Comparing the rod and tower nano-structured ZnO thin films, the excitation behavior of valance band electrons is different. - Abstract: Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. The resulting opto-electronic properties were interpreted extensively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and four probe techniques. The ZnO deposition is mass transport controlled process and the interaction of chloride ions with the surface has great influence on diffusion kinetics, considering the substantial species (Zn 2+ and OH − ) involved in the construction of ZnO film. This effect does not change major lattice parameters, as shown with detailed analysis of XRD data. However, the texture coefficient (T c ) (0 0 2) value is higher in presence of chloride ions containing synthesis solution which gave vertically aligned, well defined and uniformly dispersed nanorods structure. The calculated E g values are in the range 3.28–3.41 eV and 3.22–3.31 eV for ZnO nanorods and nanotowers synthesized at different deposition periods, respectively. Furthermore, the charge mobility values regarding the deposition periods were measured to be in the ranges from 130.4 to 449.2 cm 2 V −1 s −1 and 126.2 to 204.7 cm 2 V −1 s −1 for nanorods and nanotowers, respectively. From XANES results, it was shown that the Zn K-edge spectrum is dominated by the transition of Zn 1s core

  4. Synthesis and self-assembly of dumbbell shaped ZnO sub-micron structures using low temperature chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borade, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Joshi, K.U. [Anton-Paar India Pvt. Ltd., Thane (W), 400607 (India); Gokarna, A.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et D' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Walke, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Late, D. [National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune 400027 (India); Jejurikar, S.M., E-mail: jejusuhas@gmail.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2016-02-01

    We report well dispersed horizontal growth of ZnO sub-micron structures using simplest technique ever known i.e. chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples were prepared under two different cases A) dumbbell shaped ZnO grown in CBD bath and B) tubular ZnO structures evolved from dumbbell shaped structures by dissolution mechanism. Single phase wurtzite ZnO formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique in both cases. From the morphological investigations performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sample prepared under case A indicate formation of hex bit tool (HBT) shaped ZnO crystals, which observed to self-organize to form dumbbell structures. Further these microstructures are then converted into tubular structures as a fragment of post CBD process. The possible mechanism responsible for the self-assembly of HBT units to form dumbbell structures is discussed. Observed free excitonic peak located at 370 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra recorded at 18 K indicate that the micro/nanostructures synthesized using CBD are of high optical quality. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of Dumbbell shaped ZnO using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). • Growth mechanism of dumbbell shaped ZnO by self-assembling was discussed. • Quick Transformation of ZnO dumbbell structures in to tubular structures by dissolution. • Sharp UV Emission at 370 nm from both dumbbell and tubular structures.

  5. Polarization reversal in BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Davalos, Ivan; Ambriz-Vargas, Fabian [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Gómez-Yáñez, Carlos [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM, Zacatenco, CP 07738 DF, México (Mexico); Thomas, Reji, E-mail: reji.thomas@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Ruediger, Andreas, E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures and thin films were deposited by a microwave assisted hydrothermal process at low temperatures (<250 °C) on metallic Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in the Ba(OH){sub 2} alkaline solution are used as the precursors without any mineralizers. The incorporation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into precursor solution served as a strong oxidant and catalyst for the uniform nucleation of BaTiO{sub 3} on the substrate surface. The polycrystalline and epitaxial nature of the films were confirmed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies. We report the ferroelectric behavior of BaTiO{sub 3} films on Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by piezoresponse force microscopy. - Highlights: • Microwave assisted hydrothermal deposition of highly ordered BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on single crystal substrates. • Fast growth without the needof any mineralizers. • Moderate addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} significantly improves the surface coverage. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} substantially reduces hydrogen incorporation into the film and the associated leakage current. • Out-of-plane polarization reversal demonstrated locally.

  6. Capacitive and photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures synthesized by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Kangqiang, E-mail: liang_kangqiang@126.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Wang, Chenggang, E-mail: ujnsps_wangchg@163.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: sps_xuxj@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, 150025 (China); Leng, Jiancai, E-mail: jiancaileng@qlu.edu.cn [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Ma, Hong, E-mail: mahong@sdnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2017-02-12

    Different Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoarchitectures (nanorods and nanobelts) were successfully synthesized with a facile solvothermal method at different temperature. The nanobelts transformed into nanorods when the temperature was 200 °C increased from 150 °C. The nanorod-morphology was kept even the temperature was further increased. The galvanostatic charge/discharge performance showed that the prepared Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods had good performance of discharge efficiency at current density from 1 A g{sup −1} to 4 A g{sup −1}. The specific capacitance was 270 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the nanorods were also used as the efficient UV-light photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), which showed almost complete degradation (∼87%) of RhB dye at 100 min. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods were successfully synthesized with a facile solvothermal method. • The specific capacitance can be 270 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. • 87% of RhB dye can be degraded at 100 min.

  7. Influence of doping of Mn{sup +2} and Co{sup +2} in ZnO synthesized by combustion reaction for use in DMS; Influencia da dopagem do Mn{sup +2} e Co{sup +2} no ZnO sintetizado por reacao de combustao para uso em SMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torquato, R.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Shirsath, S.E. [Department of Physics, Vivekanand College, Aurangabad, MS (India); Kiminami, R.H.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    ZnO is a semiconducting ceramics used for development of electrical devices such as varistors, chemical sensors, piezoelectric transducers and diluted magnetic semiconductors. So this paper proposes to investigate the influence of doping of 0.1 mol of Mn{sup +2} and Co{sup +2} on the structure, morphology and magnetic measurements of ZnO synthesized by combustion reaction in DMS applications. The resulting samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, VSM. The combustion temperature for samples doped with Mn and Co were 512 deg C and 397 °C, respectively. XRD results for both samples showed the formation of ZnO as the major phase, with crystallite size of 21nm and 23nm and a surface area of 59 and 17 m2/g for samples doped with Mn{sup +2} and Co{sup +2}, respectively. The magnetic measurements showed values of saturation magnetization and coercive force of 12 and 3 emu/g, and 94 and 237Oe, respectively. (author)

  8. Electrosynthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles as inorganic component in organic thin-film transistor active layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picca, Rosaria Anna; Sportelli, Maria Chiara; Hötger, Diana; Manoli, Kyriaki; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris; Torsi, Luisa; Cioffi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PSS-capped ZnO NPs were synthesized via a green electrochemical-thermal method • The influence of electrochemical conditions and temperature was studied • Spectroscopic data show that PSS functionalities are retained in the annealed NPs • Nanostructured ZnO improved the performance of P3HT-based thin film transistors - Abstract: ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared via a green electrochemical synthesis method in the presence of a polymeric anionic stabilizer (poly-sodium-4-styrenesulfonate, PSS), and then applied as inorganic component in poly-3-hexyl-thiophene thin-film transistor active layers. Different parameters (i.e. current density, electrolytic media, PSS concentration, and temperature) influencing nanoparticle synthesis have been studied. The resulting nanomaterials have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, infrared, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies), assessing the most suitable conditions for the synthesis and thermal annealing of nanostructured ZnO. The proposed ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully coupled with a poly-3-hexyl-thiophene thin-film resulting in thin-film transistors with improved performance.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and nano-structuration of poly-thiophene derivatives for organic photovoltaic solar cells; Synthese, caracterisation et nanostructuration de derives du polythiophene pour des applications en cellules photovoltaiques organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, S

    2007-10-15

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of poly-thiophene derivatives with low bandgap and preserving high oxidation potential. Disubstituted thiophenes and 'Donor-Acceptor' bi-thiophenes were synthesized and then polymerized. The side chains of these polymers, donor or acceptor, were modified in order to tune the properties of material as well from the optical point of view as electrochemical. These polymers were also tested in blend with PCBM in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Voc delivered by the devices showed a linear dependence according to the potential of oxidation of the polymers. Copolymers containing cyano-thiophene and alkyl- or alkoxy-thiophene showed values of 0.8 V. However, in spite of power conversion efficiency of 1 %, these performances remain lower than the one obtained with the P3HT. Optimizations in terms of morphology are certainly necessary. Indeed, the morphology of the active layer plays a key role in obtaining high power conversion efficiency. An original technique of nano-structuration of the polymer on a nano-metric scale was developed during this work, leading to the development of fibrillar P3HT. These nano-structures, presenting an important degree of order, are formed spontaneously in solution. Their rate compared to amorphous material is perfectly controllable and adjustable in solution and in solid state. Measurements of mobilities show a strong improvement of the transport of load within these fibrillar layers compared to a traditional film of P3HT obtained without annealing. Power conversion efficiencies of 3.6% on glass and 3.3 % on plastic were reached without annealing. (author)

  10. Optical and Structural Properties of Multi-wall-carbon-nanotube-modified ZnO Synthesized at Varying Substrate Temperatures for Highly Efficient Light Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Saasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical and light detection properties on carbon-nanotube-modified ZnO thin films grown at various temperatures from room to 1173 K are investigated. The optical band gap values calculated from reflectivity data show a hump at a critical temperature range of 873-1073 K. Similar trends in surface roughness as well as crystallite size of the films are observed. These changes have been attributed to structural change from wurzite hexagonal to cubic carbon modified ZnO as also validated by x-ray diffraction, RBS and PIXE of these layers. UV and visible light detection properties show similar trends. It is demonstrated that the present films can sense both UV and visible light to a maximum response efficiency of 66 % which is much higher than the last reported efficiency 10 %. This high response is given predominantly by cubic crystallite rather than the wurzite hexagonal composites.

  11. Development of a hydrothermal method to synthesize spherical ZnSe nanoparticles: Appropriate templates for hollow nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gharibe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal method was used to synthesize pure ZnSe nanosphere materials. The effects of the reducing agent amount, the reaction time and temperature were investigated on the purity of ZnSe. Also, the effects of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (anionic and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB (cationic were studied on the morphology of ZnSe. The prepared nanospheres were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Through these techniques, it was found that the pure ZnSe nanoparticles have a zinc blend structure and in a spherical form with average diameter of 30 nm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.5

  12. ZnO nanocrystals and allied materials

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.

  13. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  14. Nanostructural Features of Silve