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Sample records for zinc acetylacetonate effect

  1. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  2. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Biswal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002 to (101 planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  3. Surfactant controlled low-temperature thermal decomposition route to zinc oxide nanorods from zinc(II) acetylacetonate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Sarma, Bedabrat; Bhattacharjee, Chira R., E-mail: crbhattacharjee@rediffmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized via a low-temperature thermal decomposition of zinc(II) acetylacetonate monohydrate, [Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O. A relatively inexpensive surfactant, octadecylamine (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}NH{sub 2}) served both as a reaction solvent and a capping agent during the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, UV–visible, and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The XRD spectrum furnished evidence for the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. TEM images revealed the material to be rod shaped having diameter 30 nm and length 200 nm. The HRTEM image showed that the lattice fringes between the two adjacent planes are 0.244 nm apart, which corresponds to the interplanar separation of the (1 0 1) plane of hexagonal ZnO. The electron diffraction (ED) pattern confirmed the single crystalline nature of the nanorods. The PL spectrum showed two UV emissions at 356 nm (∼3.48 eV) and 382 nm (∼3.25 eV). ZnO nanorods also showed very weak blue bands at 445, 453 and 470 nm. - Highlights: Low temperature thermal decomposition of zinc(II) acetylacetonate monohydrate gave zinc oxide nanorods. Powder XRD showed hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO having average diameter about 24 nm. TEM images revealed the material to be of rod shape having diameter 30 nm and length 200 nm. ZnO showed band gap luminescence at 356 nm, excitonic emission at 382 nm and defect related blue bands. The synthesis is simple and can act as a paradigm for obtaining various metal oxide nanomaterials.

  4. Quantum Effects for a Proton in a Low-Barrier, Double-Well Potential: Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of Acetylacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, Vitaliy; Prince, Kevin C; Coreno, Marcello; Melandri, Sonia; Maris, Assimo; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Giuliano, Barbara M; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    We have performed core level photoemission spectroscopy of gaseous acetylacetone, its fully deuterated form, and two derivatives, benzoylacetone and dibenzoylmethane. These molecules show intramolecular hydrogen bonds, with a proton located in a double-well potential, whose barrier height is different for the three compounds. This has allowed us to examine the effect of the double-well potential on photoemission spectra. Two distinct O 1s core hole peaks are observed, previously assigned to two chemical states of oxygen. We provide an alternative assignment of the double-peak structure of O 1s spectra by taking full account of the extended nature of the wave function associated with the nuclear motion of the proton, the shape of the ground and final state potentials in which the proton is located, and the nonzero temperature of the samples. The peaks are explained in terms of an unusual Franck-Condon factor distribution.

  5. Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.; Edwards, J.; Rickard, C.E.F.; Tempest, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonate complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 )UClsub(3-x)(acac)sub(x), where x = 1 or 2, and the corresponding bis triphenylphosphine oxide (tppo) complexes have been prepared. The bis cyclopentadienyl complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 U(acac) 2 and (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac)(tppo) 2 have also been prepared and are stable with respect to disproportionation, whereas (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac) is not. The IR and UV/visible spectra of the complexes are reported, together with some additional information on the UCl 2 (acac) 2 thf and -tppo systems. (author)

  6. Applicability of light sources and the inner filter effect in UV/acetylacetone and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bingdang; Yang, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Yin, Ran [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang, Shujuan, E-mail: sjzhang@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China)

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Acetylacetone (AA) could directly use solar irradiation to decolorize dyes. • AA had a wider applicability than H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to a variety of light sources. • The photonic efficiency in the UV/AA process was target-dependent. • An accurate calculation approach for the inner filter effect was developed. - Abstract: Light source is a crucial factor in the application of a photochemical process, which determines the energy efficiency. The performances of acetylacetone (AA) in conversion of aqueous contaminants under irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp, a medium-pressure mercury lamp, a xenon lamp, and natural sunlight were investigated and compared with those of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as reference. In all cases, AA was superior to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the degradation of Acid Orange 7. Using combinations of the different light sources with various cut-off and band-pass filters, the spectra responses of the absorbed photons in the UV/AA and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} processes were determined for two colored and two colorless compounds. The photonic efficiency (φ) of the two photochemical processes was found to be target-dependent. A calculation approach for the inner filter effect was developed by taking the obtained φ into account, which provides a more accurate indication of the reaction mechanisms.

  7. Effect of the substituents on the photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence properties of OLED dopant Iridium bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato- N,C2')(acetylacetonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of two substituents: clorine and 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, placed on different position in the molecule of Iridium (III) bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C2')- (acetylacetonate) (bt)2Ir(acac), on its electrochemical behaviour, photophysical and electroluminescence properties were investigated. Three complexes (bt)2Ir(acac), Iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2']-acetylacetonate (Clbt)2Ir(acac), in which the Cl atom was introduced on the 4-position in the benzothiazole ring, and the new Iridium (Ill) bis[2 -phenylbenzothiazolato -N,C2'] -(1,3 -diphenylpropane-1,3 -dionate) (bt)2Ir(dbm), where ancillary acetylacetonate ligand was replaced by 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, were synthesized and characterised by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The HOMO/LUMO energy levels of the complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and their properties were established by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The application of (Clbt)2Ir(acac), (bt)2Ir(bsm) and (bt)2Ir(acac) as dopants in hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light- emitting diodes(OLEDs). It was found that with respect to the reference (bt)2Ir(acac): both LUMO and HOMO of the substituted complexes were shifted to more positive values accordingly with 0.23 and 0.19 eV for (Clbt)2Ir(acac) and 0.14 and 0.12 eV for (bt)2Ir(dbm). OLEDs doped with 1 w% of the complexes irradiated the warm white light with Commission internationale de l'eclairage (CIE) coordinates: 0.24;0.38 for (Clbt)2Ir(acac), 0.30;0.44 for (bt)2Ir(acac) and 0.28;0.46 for (bt)2Ir(dbm). Devices doped with 10 w% of all complexes irradiated in the yellow orange region of the spectrum.

  8. Surface defect modification of ZnO quantum dots based on rare earth acetylacetonate and their impacts on optical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lixi, E-mail: wanglixi_njut@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jing [China Geol Survey, Nanjing Ctr, Nanjing, 210016, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qitu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Song, Bo; Wong, Chingping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, GA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy and Tb) can realize the defects modification of ZnO QDs based on the linkage occurs between the protons of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of ZnO QDs and the π–system of acetylacetone. The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. The stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with average sizes of about 3.0 nm can be obtained. The calculated band gap data also proved the efficient modification of Ce(AcAc){sub 3} for ZnO QDs with the largest variation of band gap energy of 0.039 eV (from 3.583 eV to 3.544 eV). - Highlights: • Defects modification of ZnO QDs based on rare earth acetylacetonate. • Stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with an average sizes of about 3.0 nm. • The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. - Abstract: The surface defect modification has an important effect on the application of ZnO quantum dots, and it has gained much progress in recently years, propelled by the development of additives. Our research efforts are directed toward developing a new surface modification additive RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy, Tb) to achieve fine ZnO QDs and adjust their surface properties. RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs nanostructured materials have been designed and prepared, and particular emphasis has been given to the relation between the surface modification and optical properties. The effects of RE(III) acetylacetonate modification on the FT-IR, TEM images and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated, and the surface defect modification principle and effect were discussed in details. The band gap (E{sub g}) was also calculated to prove the surface modification effect. For the RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs complex materials, stable linkage occurs because of the affinity of −COOH from acetylacetonate anionic ligand to zinc oxide surfaces, with attachment

  9. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  10. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  12. Enhancement of thermal stability of silver(I) acetylacetonate by platinum(II) acetylacetonate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, T.; Kovářík, T.; Pola, M.; Jakubec, Ivo; Bezdička, Petr; Bastl, Zdeněk; Pokorná, Dana; Urbanová, Markéta; Galíková, Anna; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 554, FEB (2013), s. 1-7 ISSN 0040-6031 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : thermal gravimetric analysis * differential scanning calorimetry * silver(I) acetylacetonate * platinum(II) acetylacetonate * enhancement of thermal stability Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2013

  13. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. L Barkat, A Boumendjel, C Abdennour, MS Boulakoud, A El Feki, M Messarah ...

  14. Preparation of ferric acetylacetonate, bonzonate and caprate labelled with Fe-55 and tests of application to liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1990-01-01

    The methods of preparation of ferric acetylacetonate, benzoate and caprate labelled with 55 Fe are described. The quenching effect, the spectral baehaviour and the count rate stability are studied by liquid scintillation measurements in toluene, INSTAGEL and HISAFE II, for two different values of the sample concentration. The ferric acetylaceton-ate is stable for all the three scintillators but shows a strong quench, while the ferric benzoate and caprate are stable only for INSTAGEL and HISAFE II showing no significant quench at the concentrat-ions of interest in habitual measurements. (Author)

  15. Effects of dietary zinc status on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal zinc content in the El (epilepsy) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, M; Itoh, M

    1990-10-08

    The effects of dietary zinc status on the development of convulsive seizures, and zinc concentrations in discrete hippocampal areas and other parts of the limbic system were studied in the El mouse model receiving zinc-adequate, zinc-deficient or zinc-loaded diets. Seizure susceptibility of the El mouse was increased by zinc deficiency, and decreased by zinc loading, while an adequate diet had no effect. Zinc loading was accompanied by a marked increase in hippocampal zinc content in the El mouse. Conversely, hippocampal zinc content declined in the El mouse fed a zinc-deficient diet. These results suggest that zinc may have a preventive effect on the development of seizures in the El mouse, and hippocampal zinc may play an important role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures of epilepsy.

  16. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: Importance of zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, N.R.; Lenz, M.; Wehrli, B.; Fent, K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of

  17. Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation in Treating Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Marezkha Farrah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has a high prevalence among women, especially in young women. Zinc has been proved to have a beneficial effect in treating pain. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in treating dysmenorrhoeal pain. Method: This is an experimental study, using pre and post-test design. The study participants were medical staffs of H. Adam Malik Hospital and other satellite hospitals. This study was conducted on March 2016 to June 2016. Thirty seven patients with moderate to severe primary menstrual pain were given 30 mg of zinc per day (divided into two doses, 2 days prior to menstruation until its cessation, for two to three months. The pain was assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS. Results: The mean age of participants was 22.95±1.33 years old and the mean body weight, height, and body mass index were 55.54 ± 9.36 kg, 160.16 ± 5.46 cm, 22.02 ± 3.44 kg/m2, respectively. The mean pain score is higher prior to zinc supplementation (4.92 ± 1.80; moderate pain and the score decreased over three months of zinc supplementation, resulting in a mean score of 2.7 ± 2.03 (moderate pain. The differences were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000. Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is frequently found in young women. Two to three months of zinc supplementation during menstruation is proved to be useful in reducing the intensity of dysmenorrheal pain.

  18. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  19. Adducts of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Kalenichenko, Yu.V.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth and yttrium (r.e.e., M) acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MA 3 xnDMSO are synthesized. The acetylacetonates of light r.e.e. (M=La-Tb) are shown by different physico-chemical methods to form diadducts of the MA 3 x2DMSOxH 2 O composition, where A - -acetylacetonate-ion, and the acetyl-acetonates of heavy r.e.e. (M=Dy-Lu, Y)-monoadducts MA 3 xDMSO. The estimation of adduct thermal stability is carried out using the values of seeming activation energy of their thermal degradation. Monoadducts are shown to give volatile forms of rare earth acetylacetonates during heating in vacuum, and diadducts do not form volatile forms of acetylacetonates

  20. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic structure of binuclear acetylacetonates of boron difluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Sergey A.; Svistunova, Irina V.; Samoilov, Ilya S.; Osmushko, Ivan S.; Borisenko, Aleksandr V.; Vovna, Vitaliy I.

    2018-05-01

    The electronic structure of boron difluoride acetylacetonate and its three derivatives was studied using photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, as well as the density functional theory. In a series of binuclear acetylacetonate complexes containing bridge-moieties of sulfur and selenium atoms, it was found an appreciable mixing of the π3-orbital of the chelate cycle with atomic orbitals S 3p and Se 4p resulting in destabilization of the HOMO levels by 0.4-0.6 eV, in comparison with the monomer. The positively charged fragment C(CH3)-CX-C(CH3) causes the field effect, which leads to stabilization of the LUMO levels by 0.3-0.4 eV and C 1s-levels by 0.5-1.2 eV. An analysis of the research results on the electronic structure made it possible to determine the effect of substituents in the γ position on the absorption spectra, which is mainly determined by the electron density transfer from the chalcogen atoms to the chelate cycles. It is shown that the calculated energy intervals between electron levels correlate well with the structure of the photoelectron spectra of valence and core electrons.

  2. Zone-refining of beryllium(II) acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei

    1975-01-01

    Zone melting was applied to bis (acetylacetonato) beryllium(II), Be(AA) 2 , to remove trace metal constiutents. The effective distribution coefficient, k, of a minor component measured in a binary mixture with the majority of Be(AA) 2 , fell in the range of 0.4 to 0.8, while the value obtained in a multiple component mixture fell in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 except Zn(II)- and Ni(II) chelates. Cr(AA) 3 was concentrated upward in the direction of the zone travelling, and similar results were obtained with Cu(II)-, Co(III)- Fe(III)- and Al(III) acetylacetonates, while Zn(II)-, Ni(II)- and Mn(III) chelates were fractionated in the both ends of the column. On the other hand, when the zone was moved downward, the minor components were concentrated in the lower end of a column. Efficiency in zone refining was compared to each other between the upward- and downward zone travelling modes on the crude beryllium acetylacetonates obtained from a commercial reagent of beryllium nitrate, and the latter mode was found more effective in the concentration of trace components. Discussion was given on possible mechanisms resulting in the difference in the refining efficiency. (author)

  3. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally induced diarrhea in rats. ... Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS) can reduce the ...

  4. Effects of zinc and nitrogen application on agronomic traits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among yield components only number of seed per silique was affected by zinc and increased in the first year. Oil percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but zinc had no significant effect on oil in the second year. Salinity stress increased glucosinolate and protein content. Other treatments had ...

  5. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  6. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...... cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N',N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl...

  7. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  8. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  9. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake

  10. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadighi, A.; Moradi, A.; Roshan, Marjan M.; Ostadrahimi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  11. New Mechanism for the Reduction of Vanadyl Acetylacetonate to Vanadium Acetylacetonate for Room Temperature Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamie, Jack S. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Liu, Caihong [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Energy Storage and Conversion Energy Materials, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-12-29

    In this study, a new mechanism for the reduction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO(acac)2, to vanadium acetylacetonate, V(acac)3, is introduced. V(acac)3 has been studied for use in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for some time; however, contamination by moisture leads to the formation of VO(acac)2. In previous work, once this transformation occurs, it is no longer reversible because there is a requirement for extreme low potentials for the reduction to occur. Here, we propose that, in the presence of excess acetylacetone (Hacac) and free protons (H+), the reduction can take place between 2.25 and 1.5 V versus Na/Na+ via a one-electron-transfer reduction. This reduction can take place in situ during discharge in a novel hybrid Na-based flow battery (HNFB) with a molten Na–Cs alloy as the anode. The in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge is shown to allow the Coulombic efficiency of the HNFB to be ≈100 % with little or no capacity decay over cycles. In addition, utilizing two-electron-transfer redox reactions (i.e., V3+/V4+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples) per V ion to increase the energy density of RFBs becomes possible owing to the in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge. The concept of in situ recovery of material can lead to more advances in maintaining the cycle life of RFBs in the future.

  12. Pressure of saturated vapor of yttrium and zirconium acetylacetonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembovetskij, G.V.; Berdonosov, S.S.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-08-01

    The static method and the flow method using /sup 91/Y and /sup 95/Zr radioactive indicators have been applied to determine pressure of saturated vapour of yttrium and zirconium acetylacetonates. Values of thermodynamic functions ..delta..Hsub(subl)=(98+-16)kJ/mol and ..delta..Ssub(subl.)=(155+-30)J/mol x K are calculated for sublimation of yttrium acetylacetonate. For sublimation of zirconium acetylacetonates ..delta..Hsub(subl) equals (116+-38) kJ/mol and ..delta..Ssub(subl) is equal to (198+-65) J/molxK.

  13. Protective effect of zinc against lethality of the irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, J.; Inada, T.; Machida, K.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of adding 1000 ppm Zn in the drinking water 10 days before gamma irradiation (562 - 1000 rad) of mice were studied. The mice which had received zinc had a lower mortality rate and a longer survival time compared to the controls. The LD 50 of gamma radiation was 690 rad in the control group and 770 rad in the zinc group. Zinc added to the culture medium of human melanoma cells did not shown any change in radiosensitivity; thus the radioprotective effect of zinc appears to work at the whole body level. (U.K.)

  14. The effect of severe zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi Boroujeni, S; Naghdi, N; Shahbazi, M; Farrokhi, A; Bagherzadeh, F; Kazemnejad, A; Javadian, M

    2009-07-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and during lactation has been shown to impair cognitive function and motor activity in offspring rats. In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory in Morris Water Maze (MWM) and motor activity in open field were investigated. Pregnant rats after mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a zinc deficient (ZnD) group fed a diet deficient in zinc (0.5-1.5 ppm) and a zinc supplement (ZnS) group fed a standard diet and enhanced zinc in the drinking water (10 ppm). All the diets were exposed during the last trisemester of pregnancy and during lactation. Rat's offspring in these groups were tested for spatial learning and memory in MWM at post natal day (PND) 56 and were tested for motor activity in open field at PND 66.The Escape Latency (EL) and Traveled Distance (TD) in the ZnD group were increased but Percentage of Time Spent in the target quadrant (PTS) was decreased compared to the control group. In addition, these were no significant differences in EL and TD, but PTS had significant increase in ZnS compared to the control group. In the open field, Total Distance Moved (TDM) and Time of Motor Activity (TMA) for the ZnD were decreased compared to the control group, but there were no significant differences in TDM and TMA between control and ZnS groups. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation impaired spatial learning and memory in their offsprings and has also negative effect on motor activity. In addition, ZnS has a significant effect on spatial learning and memory but no effect on motor activity in their offsprings.

  15. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF 3D-METALS ACETYLACETONATES WITH THIOSEMICARBAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Koksharova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordination Compounds of 3d-Metals acetylacetonates with Thiosemicarbazide were synthesized. Their physical and chemical properties and structure were studied by conductometry, IR spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, magnetochemistry and thermo-gravimetricstudies. The complexes compositions correspond to the formulas Co(L2(Acac and M(L(Acac, where M = Cu, Ni, Zn, HL is thiosemicarbazide, HAcac is acetylacetone. All of them are nonelectrolytes. Thiosemicarbazide is deprotonated and coordinated through the nitrogen and sulphur atoms with the formation of four-membered ring in all cases. Acetylacetonate co-ordination mode does not change at acetylacetonates with Thiosemicarbazide interaction. Copper(II and nickel(II complexes have square-planar structure, and cobalt(III complex is octahedral.

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on selected ... of 96h at different water temperatures representing the seasonal temperatures in the ... are mobilised to meet increased energy demands during periods of stress.

  18. Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and immunology of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ekrem Şanver Çelik, Hasan Kaya, Sevdan Yilmaz, Mehmet Akbulut, Arınç Tulgar ...

  19. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Zinc is a vital micronutrient in humans and its deficiency in children can thwart their growth and development, compromise their immunity and cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of studies about the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functions. This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of schoolchildren. Materials and Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial was carried out in public elementary school in Mashhad- Iran to investigate the effect of Zinc on cognition of 45 healthy children. The cognitive test used in the trial was Raven IQ (Intelligence Quotient test. A total of 45 first grade children aged 6 to 8 years were enrolled and divided into two experiment and control groups. The cases group, received 20 mg of zinc sulfate syrup vs.  the control group  received a placebo each day for 6 months. Raven IQ test was administered under basal conditions before and after the supplementation of zinc or placebo. Results The memory and intellectual development in the experimental group was significantly more than in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate the positive relationship between zinc administration and some aspects of intellectual development and personality features, emphasizing the significance of this element in the normal psychological status of children.

  20. Genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Julia; Felder, Eva; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Heinrich, Ulf Ruediger; Brochhausen, Christoph; Mailänder, Volker; Tremel, Wolfgang; Brieger, Juergen

    2015-05-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles has currently provoked public and scientific discussions, and attempts to develop generally accepted handling procedures for nanoparticles are under way. The investigation of the impact of nanoparticles on human health is overdue and reliable test systems accounting for the special properties of nanomaterials must be developed. Nanoparticular zinc oxide (ZnO) may be internalised through ambient air or the topical application of cosmetics, only to name a few, with unpredictable health effects. Therefore, we analysed the determinants of ZnO nanoparticle (NP) genotoxicity. ZnO NPs (15-18 nm in diameter) were investigated at concentrations of 0.1, 10 and 100 μg mL-1 using the cell line A549. Internalised NPs were only infrequently detectable by TEM, but strongly increased Zn2+ levels in the cytoplasm and even more in the nuclear fraction, as measured by atom absorption spectroscopy, indicative of an internalised zinc and nuclear accumulation. We observed a time and dosage dependent reduction of cellular viability after ZnO NP exposure. ZnCl2 exposure to cells induced similar impairments of cellular viability. Complexation of Zn2+ with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) resulted in the loss of toxicity of NPs, indicating the relevant role of Zn2+ for ZnO NP toxicity. Foci analyses showed the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by ZnO NPs and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Treatment of the cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) resulted in strongly decreased intracellular ROS levels and reduced DNA damage. However, a slow increase of ROS after ZnO NP exposure and reduced but not quashed DSBs after NAC-treatment suggest that Zn2+ may exert genotoxic activities without the necessity of preceding ROS-induction. Our data indicate that ZnO NP toxicity is a result of cellular Zn2+ intake. Subsequently increased ROS-levels cause DNA damage. However, we found evidence for

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  2. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  3. Effect of gypsum, pressmud, fulvic acid and zinc sources on yield and zinc uptake by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, M.

    1980-01-01

    The application of fulvic acid to a saline-sodic soil augmented the solubility of zinc by thousands fold. Zinc fulvate when applied at levels equivalent to that of zinc sulphate was more effective in enhancing diffusion of zinc in the soil. Application of gypsum, zinc sulphate and fulvic acid significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of zinc by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil. Application of gypsum with pressmud or with fulvic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significantly higher yield and zinc uptake than in other treatments. (orig.)

  4. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  6. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  7. Effect of application of fertilizer nitrogen, zinc and selenium on zinc nutrition of ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongpu; Bai Lingyu; Yao Yunyin; Hua Luo

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of zinc or selenium fertilizer applied alone, combined application of nitrogen, zinc and selenium fertilizer on zinc nutrition of ryegrass in mono culture or in mixed culture in mountain yellow-brown earth of Hubei province. The results showed that: 1) Zn content was enhanced by mixed culture (white clover: ryegrass = 1:4), at the same time, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was increased with increasing of Zn fertilizer. 2) The main reason of Zn content of ryegrass decreased in mixed culture was dilution effect due to the increase of dry weight. 3) In mono-Se treatment, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was decreased with increasing of Se fertilizer. 4) In 9 treatment of combined applications of N, Zn and Se fertilizer, treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was N46Zn25Se1; treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mono culture was N30Zn25Se5

  8. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic thin film transistors were fabricated using evaporated zinc phthalocyanine as the active layer. Parylene film ... At room temperature, these transistors exhibit p-type conductivity with field-effect ... Keywords. Organic semiconductor; field effect transistor; phthalocyanine; high mobility. ... The evaporation rate was kept at ...

  9. Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc application on yield, yield components and zinc accumulation of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most important problems of agriculture in crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Under these conditions, in addition to management strategies, proper and adequate nutrition also has an important role in crop improvement. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of 4 different irrigation water salinities (blank, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1, prepared with 1:1 molar ratio of chlorides of calcium and sodium and magnesium sulphate salts. and 5 different zinc applications (0, 10, 20, 30 mg Kg-1 soil and foliar application of salt of zinc sulphate on yield, yield components and zinc concentration of wheat, using a completely randomized design, factorial with three replications. Plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per spike, grain and straw yield was decreased by Irrigation water salinity. And all of these parameters were improved by zinc application except 1000 grain weight. Zinc absorption and concentration in straw and grain was decreased by Saline water compared to blank. And concentration of zinc significantly was increased in straw and grain by increase zinc application. The results indicated that, zinc application under low to medium salinity conditions improved growth and yield of wheat due to decreasing the impacts salinity.

  10. Microcirculatory effects of zinc on fructose-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, R C; Barros, C M M R; Boa, B C S; Bouskela, E

    2016-04-01

    Fructose is a major dietary component directly related to vascular dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Zinc is considered a non-pharmacological alternative for treating diabetes due to its antioxidant and hyperglycemia-lowering effects in diabetic animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the microcirculatory parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, whereas control animals were fed drinking water alone. Their microcirculatory function was evaluated using cheek pouch preparation, as well as their blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Their microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator) as well as the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were noted. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was significantly increased in control animals with high zinc supplementation compared to the groups without zinc supplementation. Zinc was able to protect against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups, although the microvascular permeability was higher in animals fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution compared to those fed filtered drinking water alone. Our results indicate that dietary zinc supplementation can improve microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent dilatation and reducing the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by I/R in fructose-fed animals. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of acetylacetonates of 3d-metals on the γ radiolysis of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatonskii, S.V.; Makhlyarchuk, V.V.; Morozova, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the formation of diphenyl and phenylcyclohexadiene in the radiolysis of benzene in the presence of the following acetylacetonates: Cr (AA) 3 , Mn (AA) 2 .2H 2 O, Mn (AA) 3 , Fe (AA) 2 .2H 2 O, Fe (AA) 3 , Co (AA) 3 . It was found that bisacetylacetonatocobalt (II) lowers the radiation chemical yields of the dimers to a substantial degree. It was suggested that the effect is caused by a reaction of addition of free radicals, arising under the action of radiation, to the central ion of the chelate

  12. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    4Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: Zinc ... regeneration of the intestinal epithelium, increase the ... cells (Berni et al., 2005). ... The student t-test was used to ... faeces after 24 hours of diarrhea induction and drug .... the gastrointestinal relaxing effects of the stem.

  13. Effects of Deposition Potentialon the Optical Properties of Zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) were grown on glass substrate by electrodeposition technique. The optical characterization of the grown films (ZnS) was done by using a Janway 6405 UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 300-900nm using a step size of 20. The effect of deposition potential variationon the films optical ...

  14. Effect of oral zinc on hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patton Patton

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral zinc has been shown to reduce serum unconjugated bilirubin in animals, adolescents and low birth weight neonates. However, studies in healthy tenn neonates given oral zinc showed no reduction in hyperbilirubinemia based on time measurement in days. In order to improve accuracy, hyperbilirubinemia may be determined based on time measurements in hours. Objective To determine the effect of oral zinc on hyperbiliru-binemia in full term neonates, based on time measurement in hours, rather than days. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical trial on healthy term neonates born spontaneously or through elective caesarean section in Hasan Sadikin Hospital from June to July 2010. Subjects were randomized into two groups: those receiving 5 mg of zinc sulphate and those receiving a placebo, sucrose, each twice daily. Serum total bilirubin level was examined at discharge and upon followup at day 5 of life. Factors which may be related to hyperbilirubinemia such as maternal age, infants' gender, umbilical cord bilirubin levels and type of feeding, were analyzed by Chi-square test. Hyperbilirubinemia persistence and comparison of survival distributions were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Logrank test. Results Out of 60 subjects, 26 had hyperbilirubinemia. The mean duration of hyperbilirubinemia in the 15 subjects in the zinc group and 11 in the placebo group were 116.5 hours and 117.3 hours, respectively. There was no significant difference in hyperbilirubinemia duration between the two groups ( P=0.496, 95% CI 111.5 to 122.7. In addition, Chi-square analysis of factors which may be related to hyperbilirubinemia showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions Oral zinc 5 mg tMce daily made no significant difference in hyperbilirubinemia duration in full tenn neonates despite measuring in hours.

  15. Effects of zinc complexes on the distribution of zinc in calcareous soil and zinc uptake by maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Rico, María I

    2003-09-10

    The movement and availability of Zn from six organic Zn sources in a Typic Xerorthent (calcareous) soil were compared by incubation, column assay, and in a greenhouse study with maize (Zea mays L.). Zinc soil behavior was studied by sequential, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, and Mehlich-3 extractions. In the incubation experiment, the differences in Zn concentration observed in the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction strongly correlated with Zn uptake by plants in the greenhouse experiment. Zinc applied to the surface of soil columns scarcely moved into deeper layers except for Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) that showed the greatest distribution of labile Zn throughout the soil and the highest proportion of leaching of the applied Zn. In the upper part of the column, changes in the chemical forms of all treatments occurred and an increase in organically complexed and amorphous Fe oxide-bound fractions was detected. However, the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction was not detected. The same results were obtained at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant increases were found in plant dry matter yield and Zn concentration as compared with the control treatment without Zn addition. Increasing Zn rate in the soil increased dry matter yield in all cases but Zn concentration in the plant increased only with Zn-EDTA and Zn-ethylenediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate (EDDHA) fertilizers. Higher Zn concentration in plants (50.9 mg kg(-)(1)) occurred when 20 mg Zn kg(-)(1) was added to the soil as Zn-EDTA. The relative effectiveness of the different Zn carriers in increasing Zn uptake was in the order: Zn-EDTA > Zn-EDDHA > Zn-heptagluconate >/= Zn-phenolate approximately Zn-polyflavonoid approximately Zn-lignosulfonate.

  16. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damitha De Mel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  17. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-15

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  18. Anti-corrosive Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube and Zinc Particle Shapes on Zinc Ethyl Silicate Coated Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, JiMan; Shon, MinYoung; Kwak, SamTak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Zinc ethyl silicate coatings containing multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared, to which we added spherical and flake shaped zinc particles. The anti-corrosive effects of MWCNTs and zinc shapes on the zinc ethyl silicate coated carbon steel was examined, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and corrosion potential measurement. The results of EIS and corrosion potential measurement showed that the zinc ethyl silicate coated with flake shaped zinc particles and MWCNT showed lesser protection to corrosion. These outcomes were in agreement with previous results of corrosion potential and corrosion occurrence.

  19. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  20. The Effects of Zinc-biocomplex and Zinc-methionate supplementation on the ration for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc-biocomplex and zinc-methionate on the growth of young sheep were studied in this trial. Eighteen young male local sheeps were grouped into 3 groups based on body weight. The treatments are: R1 (Control, R2 (R1 + Zn-biocomplex supplementation, R3 (R1 + Zn-methionate supplementations, with the concentration of Zn was 50 mg kg-1 in daily concentrate. Zink biocomplex and methionate were prepared in IRIAP laboratory. Feeds given were Elephant grass ad libitum and 200 g h-1 concentrate (CP = 15.40%. The initial body weights were 12.36 to 12.97 kg. Body weights were measured every forthnight and feed consumption was recorded daily. Completely randomized design was applied in this trial. Statistical analysis was carried out by using General Linear Model (GLM. After 3 months feeding trial the average daily gains were 52.65, 71.28 and 71.30 g h-1 (P0.05 growth.

  1. Effect of Extracellular Zinc Chelator on Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell Number, and Taurine and Zinc Transporters in These Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asarí Márquez García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans causes decreased antioxidants in the retina and is related with abnormal darkness adaptation, cataracts, blindness, and macular degeneration. There is little information about the effects of zinc on the taurine system in mammalian retinal cells. Therefore, we studied the effect of zinc on the taurine transporter (TAUT and zinc transporters (ZnT-1 and 3 using the extracellular zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA by fluorescence immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry in the ganglion cells (CG and cell layers of the retina of rats. Three days after administration of DTPA (10µM primary antibodies and secondary antibodies conjugated with rhodamine or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC were used as required. For immunocytochemical labeling approximately three hundred cells per condition were counted. For immunohistochemical labeling, the fluorescence intensity was measured as integrated optical density (DOI in four areas for each layer of tissue. DTPA produced a decrease of 32 % and 29 % in GC of the total cells labeled with antibody against glycoprotein Thy 1.1 and γ-synuclein, respectively. It also produced a significant decrease in TAUT localization in 27 and 28 % compared to controls. DTPA produced a decrease in the localization of ZnT-1 and ZnT-3 in the retina layers (ganglion cells, GCC and the outer and inner plexiform, CEP and CIP. The study of these molecules in the retina is relevant to understanding the interactions of taurine and zinc in this structure.

  2. Effects of zinc supplementation on catch-up growth in children with failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seul-Gi; Choi, Ha-Neul; Yang, Hye-Ran; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2017-12-01

    Although globally the numbers of children diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT) have decreased, FTT is still a serious pediatric problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation for 6 months on growth parameters of infants and children with FTT. In this retrospective study, of the 114 participants aged between 4 months and 6 years, 89 were included in the zinc supplementation group and were provided with nutrition counseling plus an oral zinc supplement for 6 months. The caregivers of the 25 participants in the control group received nutrition counseling alone. Medical data of these children, including sex, age, height, weight, serum zinc level, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) level were analyzed. Zinc supplementation for 6 months increased weight-for-age Z-score and serum zinc levels (5.5%) in the zinc supplementation group of underweight category children. As for stunting category, height-for-age Z-score of the participants in the zinc supplementation group increased when compared with the baseline, and serum zinc levels increased in the normal or mild stunting group. Serum IGF1 levels did not change significantly in any group. Thus, zinc supplementation was more effective in children in the underweight category than those in the stunted category; this effect differed according to the degree of the FTT. These findings suggest that zinc supplementation may have beneficial effects for growth of infants and children with FTT, and zinc supplementation would be required according to degree of FTT.

  3. Protective effects of zinc acetate toward the toxicity of nickelous acetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Kasprzak, K.S.; Ohshima, M.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of zinc pretreatment on the acute toxicity of nickel. Male Fischer rats received either nickel alone (i.p.), zinc alone (s.c.), zinc plus nickel, or saline (i.p. and s.c.; controls). Zinc pretreatment significantly increased the 14-day survival of nickel-related rats. Zinc did not, however, prevent the reduction in weight gain over 2 weeks seen with nickel treatment. Histopathologically, at 120 h following nickel exposure, kidneys in the group receiving nickel alone generally showed moderate nephropathy (multifocal proximal tubule degeneration with necrosis) while in the zinc plus nickel group the nephropathy was generally mild. Zinc pretreatment had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of nickel over 24 h as assessed by urinary excretion, blood levels or organ distribution. Zinc pretreatment also did not alter the subcellular distribution of renal nickel 6 h after nickel exposure. Enhanced synthesis of metallothionein did not appear to play a critical role in the reduction of nickel toxicity, since renal concentrations of this metalbuilding protein, although elevated compared to control, were not different in rats receiving zinc and nickel or zinc alone. Zinc pretreatment did, however, have marked effect on nickel-induced hyperglycemia, reducing both the duration and severity of elevated blood glucose levels. Results of the study show that zinc can prevent some of the toxic effects of nickel and that the mechanism of this action does not appear to involve either metalothionein or alterations in the pharmacokinetics of nickel. (author)

  4. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.

  5. Dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of isomeric bis-(3-acetylacetonate)benzene ligands: synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancan, Marzio; Dolmella, Alessandro; Seraglia, Roberta; Orlandi, Simonetta; Quici, Silvio; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Armelao, Lidia

    2012-05-07

    Highly versatile coordinating ligands are designed and synthesized with two β-diketonate groups linked at the carbon 3 through a phenyl ring. The rigid aromatic spacer is introduced in the molecules to orient the two acetylacetone units along different angles and coordination vectors. The resulting para, meta, and ortho bis-(3-acetylacetonate)benzene ligands show efficient chelating properties toward Cu(II) ions. In the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine, they promptly react and yield three dimers, 1, 2, and 3, with the bis-acetylacetonate unit in bridging position between two metal centers. X-ray single crystal diffraction shows that the compounds form supramolecular chains in the solid state because of intermolecular interactions. Each of the dinuclear complexes shows a magnetic behavior which is determined by the combination of structural parameters and spin polarization effects. Notably, the para derivative (1) displays a moderate antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -3.3 cm(-1)) along a remarkably long Cu···Cu distance (12.30 Å).

  6. Effects of pyrithiones and surfactants on zinc and enzyme levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, R C; Ciuchta, H P

    1980-04-01

    The effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and sodium pyrithione (NaPT), including the influence of various vehicles, upon whole blood and plasma zinc levels and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) have been investigated in rabbits following dermal and/or iv administration. Two such vehicles, ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and triethanolamine lauryl sulfate, affected zinc homeostasis differently than the pyrithiones, in that, unlike the pyrithiones, no whole blood changes were observed, although there were delayed and sustained declines in plasma zinc and SAP values. These changes were most likely related to the skin irritation caused by the surfactants. In contrast, NaPT-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dermal and iv exposures produced rapid decreases in plasma zinc followed by quick recovery, coupled with smaller and unsustained declines in SAP. Large increases in whole blood zinc were also observed in both cases, as well as in a ZnPT-DMSO iv exposure. DMSO itself had no effects on the measured parameters. Experiments involving combinations of the pyrithiones and ALS demonstrated effects on zinc homeostasis that were attributable to both substances, i.e. large increases in whole blood zinc (PT effect), quick drops in plasma zinc (PT effect) and slowly recovering plasma zinc and SAP values (surfactant effect). The chelating nature of the PT molecule may have been responsible for some of the observed changes in zinc distribution.

  7. Clinical applications of indium-111-acetylacetone-labelled blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, P.; Sinn, H.; Wellman, H.; Clorius, J.H.; Becker, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method permitting red-cell labelling with 111 In-acetylacetone was reported in 1974 for evaluating intestinal blood loss, the liver-spleen ratio and the red-cell volume. White blood cells can be tagged similarly. In white-cell labelling, simultaneous red-cell or platelet tagging is avoided. Several procedures (dextran separation and gradient centrifugations) have been combined, to develop a highly selective cell separation. In osteomyelitis it may not be as advantageous to use 67 Ga-citrate, as in inflammatory soft tissue processes. The detection of inflammatory processes with labelled leukocytes could be of great importance for the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitidies. A group of 97 patients with suspected osteomyelitis have been examined using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled leukocytes ( 111 In-AAL) immediately following positive routine skeletal scintigraphy. Images obtained 24 h post injection usually were the most satisfactory. In the followup group of 70 patients 21 true positives, 43 true negatives, 21 false negatives and 3 false positives were observed. These findings result in a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 50% and accuracy of 70% with 111 In-AAL for osteomyelitis. Preliminary investigations using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled thrombocytes ( 111 In-AAT) were carried out to detect rejection of transplanted kidneys. The platelets were separated by means of additional special density gradient centrifugations but no dextran from 15-20 ml of autologous whole blood. Scans have been obtained 15 min, 2.5 h and 24 h post injection in an initial group of 10 patients. In acute rejection, a high transplant uptake has been detected, whereas patients without acute rejection showed no or only a minimum activity accumulation. Patients with chronic rejection have intermediate uptakes

  8. Zinc Addition Effects on General Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels in PWR Primary Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Peipeng; Zhang Lefu; Liu Ruiqin; Jiang Suqing; Zhu Fawen

    2010-01-01

    Zinc addition effects on general corrosion of austenitic stainless steel 316 and 304 were investigated in simulated PWR primary coolant without zinc or with 50 ppb zinc addition at 315 degree C for 500 h. The results show that with the addition of zinc, the corrosion rate of austenitic stainless steel is effectively reduced, the surface oxide film is thinner, the morphology and chemical composition of surface oxide scales are evidently different from those without zinc. There are needle-like corrosion products on the surface of stainless steel 304. (authors)

  9. Saturated vapor pressure of lutetium tris-acetylacetonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembovetskij, G.V.; Berdonosov, S.S.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-12-01

    By the statical method using /sup 177/Lu radioactive isotope the saturated vapor pressure of anhydrous lutetium acetylacetonate at 130 to 160 deg is determined. The calculations are carried out assuming the vapor to be monomolecular. The equation of lgP versus 1/T takes the form: lg Psub((mmHg))=(8.7+-1.6)-(4110+-690)/T. The thermodynamical characteristics of LuA/sub 3/ sublimation are calculated to be ..delta..Hsub(subl.)=79+-13 kJ/mol; ..delta..Ssub(subl.)=111+-20 J/kxmol.

  10. Anodic dissolution of samarium in acetonitrile solution of acetylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Trebnikov, A.G.; Shirokij, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical dissolution of metal samarium in acetonitrile medium in the presence of 0.1 M tetraethylammoniumbromide and 0.9 M acetylacetone (HAA) in argon atmosphere under a voltage of 3 V was considered for studying feasibility of electrochemical synthesis of samarium β-diketonates. Using IR and mass spectrometry, thermal and elementary analyses it was ascertained that, depending on cathode and anode areas ratio, anodic dissolution of samarium can give rise to formation of complexes of bi- and trivalent samarium featuring the composition Sm 4 (AA) 8 · 3HAA, Sm(AA) 3 · HAA and Sm(AA) 3 · 4HAA [ru

  11. The effect of oral zinc loading on the absorption of 65Zinc in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, H.; Weismann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Seven groups of 8 rats each were orally loaded with zinc, the daily dose varying from 1.8 to 58 mg, corresponding to about 3 to 100 times of their estimated daily intake of zinc. To record the absorption of zinc, the rats were given a single dose of 65 Zn. The rentention of the isotope was measured in a whole animal counter at regular intervals. The dose of 58mg was obviously toxis, since half of the animals died within 5 days. The net absorption of zinc in the remaining experimental groups was found to vary from about 7% in the group receiving the smallest loading dose to 1.8% in the group receiving the highest dose. From the absorption values, as determined by extrapolation of semilog retention curves, the total amount of absorbed zinc was estimated. It was found to differ from about 170μg to about 530μg zinc daily, increasing three times as the loading dose was increased 16 times. This discrepancy suggests the existence of regulatory mechanisms of the absorption of zinc from the intestine. (orig.) [de

  12. Effects of Zinc Injection on the Cladding Oxide Thickness in the Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hak Kyu; Kim, Hong Jin; Shin, Jung Cheol [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The first commercial plant for zinc injection demonstration was Farley-2 in 1994, and the effect of zinc injection was successfully demonstrated. Since then the PWR with zinc injection has been increased, there are about 80 PWR with zinc injection in the world in 2012. Zinc injection at the high duty plant has potential risk of increasing the cladding oxide thickness. Zinc injection doesn't affect the cladding corrosion directly but it may negatively affect crud deposit in the subcooled boiling region of the fuel. So the effect of zinc injection on fuel integrity has been evaluated. For low duty plant it is confirmed that zinc injection doesn't affect the fuel integrity. For high duty plant Callaway in U. S. and Vandellos II in Spain were successfully demonstrated but the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was still lacking. Thus EPRI recommend the fuel surveillance programs for the high duty plant to apply zinc. The High Duty Core Index (HDCI) of most domestic nuclear power plant is above 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F. Those plants with a HDCI of 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F or greater may be considered as 'high duty'. As aforementioned, the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was lacking. Thus to apply zinc injection in domestic plant with high duty, prudent approach is needed. In this study the effect of zinc injection in Hanul unit 1 with a HDCI of around 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F was evaluated. And in the next study the effect of zinc injection in the plant of HDCI of around 200 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F will be evaluated. Zinc injection had not caused any increase in oxide thickness in Hanul unit 1. Most of the oxide thickness measurement data with zinc injection are well within the non-zinc injection database. And the computer code which was developed based on non-zinc injection database well predicts oxide thickness for fuel rod with zinc injection. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc injection doesn

  13. Effects of Zinc Injection on the Cladding Oxide Thickness in the Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hak Kyu; Kim, Hong Jin; Shin, Jung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The first commercial plant for zinc injection demonstration was Farley-2 in 1994, and the effect of zinc injection was successfully demonstrated. Since then the PWR with zinc injection has been increased, there are about 80 PWR with zinc injection in the world in 2012. Zinc injection at the high duty plant has potential risk of increasing the cladding oxide thickness. Zinc injection doesn't affect the cladding corrosion directly but it may negatively affect crud deposit in the subcooled boiling region of the fuel. So the effect of zinc injection on fuel integrity has been evaluated. For low duty plant it is confirmed that zinc injection doesn't affect the fuel integrity. For high duty plant Callaway in U. S. and Vandellos II in Spain were successfully demonstrated but the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was still lacking. Thus EPRI recommend the fuel surveillance programs for the high duty plant to apply zinc. The High Duty Core Index (HDCI) of most domestic nuclear power plant is above 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F. Those plants with a HDCI of 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F or greater may be considered as 'high duty'. As aforementioned, the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was lacking. Thus to apply zinc injection in domestic plant with high duty, prudent approach is needed. In this study the effect of zinc injection in Hanul unit 1 with a HDCI of around 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F was evaluated. And in the next study the effect of zinc injection in the plant of HDCI of around 200 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F will be evaluated. Zinc injection had not caused any increase in oxide thickness in Hanul unit 1. Most of the oxide thickness measurement data with zinc injection are well within the non-zinc injection database. And the computer code which was developed based on non-zinc injection database well predicts oxide thickness for fuel rod with zinc injection. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc injection doesn't accelerate clad corrosion. Based

  14. Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using 65 Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation

  15. Effect of inorganic and organic zinc supplementation on coccidial infections in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Strnadová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of zinc-enriched diet fed to goats and their kids on the number of Coccidia oocysts shed by kids, on clinical signs of coccidiosis, weight gains, and kids’ blood plasma concentration of zinc. A total of 22 goat kids were divided into 4 groups of 5 or 6 animals. Goats and kids from the control group did not receive any additional zinc, the second group was supplemented with inorganic zinc (zinc oxide, the third group was given zinc lactate, and the fourth group received chelated zinc. Samples of kids’ faeces were taken weekly from 3 to 9 weeks of their age (a total of 7 samples were taken. Samples of faeces were examined by a quantitative method to detect the number of oocysts. Kids were weighed weekly and their blood was taken in order to determine zinc concentrations in blood plasma. Animals from the group supplemented with zinc chelate and zinc lactate shed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05 lower number of oocysts (13.4% and 11.9%, respectively compared to the number of oocyst shed by control and zinc oxide supplemented groups (25% and 49.7%, respectively. Shedding of oocysts was not accompanied by clinical symptoms of coccidiosis in any of the groups. Kids supplemented with zinc chelate showed significantly highest weight gains and blood plasma concentration of zinc (p ≤ 0.05 as compared to control and inorganic zinc supplemented groups. Organic zinc is to be recommended to be used as a prophylaxis against coccidiosis in goat kids.

  16. Efecto del hialuronato de zinc sobre las úlceras en pacientes con diabetes Zinc hyaluronate effects on ulcers in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ramos Cuevas

    2007-06-01

    assesed through the time in weeks required to getting complete closure of ulcer with epitelial tissue (Average healing time. Material and methods: Controlled clinical test. Patients with own ulcers on the diabetic foot. July 1st- September 30th, 2004. Twent-five patients by group. Results: Ulcer area in zinc hyaluronate group was 12,48 cm2 ± 10,92 versus 7 cm2 ± 5,3 (p< 0,05. Average healing time in zinc hyaluronate group was 7,8 weeks ± 3,49 and all patients' ulcers healed, with only two patients in control group showed complete closure after twelve weeks folowing period (p< 0,05. Two patients in zinc hyaluronate group reported paresthesia and another hypergranulation as adverse effects that were resolved spontaneously without treatment interruption. Conclusions: Zinc hyaluronate achieved complete closure of diabetic foot ulcers in lesser time than conventional treatment with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  18. Zinc absorption in experimental osmotic diarrhea: effect of long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Wapnir, R A

    1993-03-01

    The effect of free fatty acids on zinc absorption was studied in a rat model of chronic osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein. In vivo rates of zinc removal from the lumen and analysis of tissue for zinc uptake and metallothionein alterations were monitored. One mmol/L stearate enhanced zinc absorption in rats with or without diarrhea, from 207 +/- 22 and 353 +/- 13 pmol/min x cm to 676 +/- 34 and 610 +/- 26 pmol/min x cm, respectively. Palmitate was only effective in normal rats. Zinc absorption inversely correlated with mucosal zinc content in the perfused intestinal segments, in both type of rats. Hepatic metallothionein was enhanced by zinc and even more by oleate plus zinc in both groups; kidney metallothionein in animals with diarrhea was normalized by either oleate or zinc. The data support previous reports on the effect of long-chain fatty acids on the enhancement of zinc absorption: saturation and a longer chain appear to be positive factors. A membrane modification role of long-chain fatty acids could have nutritional implications in the formulation of special diets.

  19. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  20. Combinatorial effects of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Beaver

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency and chronic low level exposures to inorganic arsenic in drinking water are both significant public health concerns that affect millions of people including pregnant women. These two conditions can co-exist in the human population but little is known about their interaction, and in particular, whether zinc deficiency sensitizes individuals to arsenic exposure and toxicity, especially during critical windows of development. To address this, we utilized the Danio rerio (zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that parental zinc deficiency sensitizes the developing embryo to low-concentration arsenic toxicity, leading to altered developmental outcomes. Adult zebrafish were fed defined zinc deficient and zinc adequate diets and were spawned resulting in zinc adequate and zinc deficient embryos. The embryos were treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 50, and 500 ppb arsenic. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced the amount of zinc in the developing embryo by ~7%. The combination of zinc deficiency and low-level arsenic exposures did not sensitize the developing embryo to increased developmental malformations or mortality. The combination did cause a 40% decline in physical activity of the embryos, and this decline was significantly greater than what was observed with zinc deficiency or arsenic exposure alone. Significant changes in RNA expression of genes that regulate zinc homeostasis, response to oxidative stress and insulin production (including zip1, znt7, nrf2, ogg1, pax4, and insa were found in zinc deficient, or zinc deficiency and arsenic exposed embryos. Overall, the data suggests that the combination of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure has harmful effects on the developing embryo and may increase the risk for developing chronic diseases like diabetes.

  1. Protective effect of zinc against ischemic neuronal injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Youji; Iida, Yasuhiko; Abe, Jun; Ueda, Masashi; Mifune, Masaki; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Ohta, Masayuki; Igarashi, Kazuo; Saito, Yutaka; Saji, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of vesicular zinc on ischemic neuronal injury. In cultured neurons, addition of a low concentration (under 100 microM) of zinc inhibited both glutamate-induced calcium influx and neuronal death. In contrast, a higher concentration (over 150 microM) of zinc decreased neuronal viability, although calcium influx was inhibited. These results indicate that zinc exhibits biphasic effects depending on its concentration. Furthermore, in cultured neurons, co-addition of glutamate and CaEDTA, which binds extra-cellular zinc, increased glutamate-induced calcium influx and aggravated the neurotoxicity of glutamate. In a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, the infarction volume, which is related to the neurotoxicity of glutamate, increased rapidly on the intracerebral ventricular injection of CaEDTA 30 min prior to occlusion. These results suggest that zinc released from synaptic vesicles may provide a protective effect against ischemic neuronal injury.

  2. Films deposited from reactive sputtering of aluminum acetylacetonate under low energy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglin, Felipe Augusto Darriba; Prado, Eduardo Silva; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano, E-mail: elidiane@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Caseli, Luciano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Silva, Tiago Fiorini da; Tabacniks, Manfredo Harri [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Films were deposited from aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3 ) using a methodology involving reactive sputtering and low energy ion bombardment. The plasma was generated by the application of radiofrequency power to the powder containing electrode and simultaneously, negative pulses were supplied to the electrode where the substrates were attached. It was investigated the effect of the duty cycle of the pulses (Δ) on the properties of the coatings. Association of ion bombardment to the deposition process increased film thickness, structure reticulation and organic content. Ions from the deposition environment were implanted at the film-air interface or underneath it. Morphology and topography were altered depending on Δ. Considering the enhancement of Δ, it affected the flux of ions reaching the depositing interface and then the deposition rate, H content, crosslinking degree and surface microstructure. Alumina groups were detected in the infrared spectra, whereas the precipitation of amorphous alumina was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  3. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  4. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Li, Linsen; Hu, Ping; Chen, Song; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys) 5 ) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys) 5 shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases

  5. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  6. Novel Effects of Nanoparticulate Delivery of Zinc on Growth, Productivity, and Zinc Biofortification in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Layam Venkata; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Krishna, Thimmavajjula Giridhara; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-05-18

    In the present investigation, nanoscale zinc oxide particulates (ZnO-nanoparticulates) were prepared using a modified oxalate decomposition method. Prepared ZnO-nanoparticulates (mean size = 25 nm) were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and zeta potential analyzer. Different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates were examined to reveal their effects on maize crop on overall growth and translocation of zinc along with bulk ZnSO4 and control. Highest germination percentage (80%) and seedling vigor index (1923.20) were observed at 1500 ppm of ZnO-nanoparticulates. The yield was 42% more compared to control and 15% higher compared to 2000 ppm of ZnSO4. Higher accumulation of zinc (35.96 ppm) in grains was recorded with application of 100 ppm followed by 400 ppm (31.05 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates. These results indicate that ZnO-nanoparticulates have significant effects on growth, yield, and zinc content of maize grains, which is an important feature in terms of human health.

  7. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nusetti, Sonia; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1?100 ?M). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution wit...

  8. An application of the coincidence Doppler spectroscopy for substances of chemical interest: phthalocyanine and acetylacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence Doppler spectroscopy, which is particularly powerful when one is concerned with high momentum components of positron annihilation gamma-rays, has been applied to two different kinds of organo-metallic ligands: metal phthalocyanines and metal acetylacetonates. The energy (momentum) profiles of the annihilation gamma-rays were the same for metal phthalocyanines indicating that positron and/or positronium are not interacting with the metal ions. However, the profiles for the metal acetylacetonates evidently showed a dependence on the kind of metal ions. Discussion is made on the features of positron interaction which are different for phthalocyanines and acetylacetonates.

  9. Daya antibakteri penambahan Propolis pada zinc oxide eugenol dan zinc oxide terhadap kuman campur gigi molar sulung non vital (The antibacterial effect of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide on polybacteria of necrotic primary molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemy Ameliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Materials commonly used for root canal filling of primary teeth is zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol has some disadvantages that can irritate the periapical tissues, has the risk of disturbing the growth and development of permanent tooth buds, and has a narrow antibacterial spectrum. Studies showed that propolis at concentration of 20 % has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of root canal pastes with the additional of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol (ZOEP and to zinc oxide (ZOP. Methods: Polybacteria cultures collected from root canals of necrotic primary molar from 5 children patients who received root canal treatment. The bacteria were grown in BHI Broth, and inoculated into Muller Hinton Agar media. The agar plates was divided into 3 areas, and one well was made at each area. The first well filled with ZOE as a control, second well filled with ZOEP and the third well filled with ZOP, then incubated for 24 hour at 370 C. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameters of inhibition zones of polybacteria growth. The data were statistically analyzed by independent T-test. Results: The pasta mixture of zinc oxide propolis had the strongest antibacterial activity against polybacteria of necrotic primary molar, followed by zinc oxide eugenol propolis paste, and zinc oxide eugenol paste. There were significant differences of inhibition zones between ZOE, ZOEP and ZOP (p<0,05. Conclusion: The study suggested that the additional of propolis to zinc oxide paste could increase the antimicrobial effect against root canal polybacteria of necrotic primary molar.Latar belakang: Bahan yang sering digunakan untuk pengisian saluran akar gigi sulung adalah zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol memiliki beberapa kekurangan yaitu dapat mengiritasi jaringan periapikal, beresiko mengganggu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan benih gigi permanen pengganti

  10. Acid formic effect in zinc coatings obtained by galvanostatic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, C.; David, M.; Souza, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deposits obtained from electrodeposition is widely used for the purpose of protecting steel substrates from corrosion. They are generally added to Zn deposition bath many additives for improving certain characteristics of the deposit. As far as is known there is no information in literature about the effect of formic acid in corrosion resistance of a Zn deposit. Because it is an acid additive, it has the use of cyclohexylamine, in order for the electrolytic bath continue with a pH equal to the one used commercially, around 5. The main goal of this study is analyze the effect of the formic acid addition in the corrosion resistance of an Zn electrodeposition obtained by galvanostatic deposition. The results obtained by performance tests, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray diffraction showed that the formic acid addition may be promising in combating the corrosion of materials. (author)

  11. The effect of zinc addition on PWR corrosion product deposition on zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.S.; Page, J.D.; Gaffka, A.P.; Kingsbury, A.F.; Foster, J.; Anderson, A.; Wickenden, D.; Henshaw, J.; Zmitko, M.; Masarik, V.; Svarc, V.

    2002-01-01

    During the period 1995 to 2001 a programme of loop irradiation tests have been performed to confirm the effectiveness of zinc additions on PWR circuit chemistry and corrosion. The programme included two loop irradiation experiments, and subsequent PIE; the experiments were a baseline test (no added zinc) and a test with added zinc (10 ppb). This paper addresses the findings regarding corrosion product deposition and activation on irradiated Zircaloy-4 surfaces. The findings are relevant to overall corrosion of the reactor primary circuit, the use of zinc as a corrosion inhibitor, and activation and transport of corrosion products. The irradiation experience provides information on the equilibration of the loop chemistry, with deliberate injection of zinc. The PIE used novel and innovative techniques (described below) to obtain samples of the oxide from the irradiated Zircaloy. The results of the PIE, under normal chemistry and zinc chemistry, indicate the effect of zinc on the deposition and activation of corrosion products on Zircaloy. It was found that corrosion product deposition on Zircaloy is enhanced by the addition of zinc (but corrosion product deposition on other materials was reduced in the presence of zinc). Chemical analysis and radioisotope gamma counting results are presented, to interpret the findings. A computer model has also been used to simulate the corrosion product deposition and activation, to assist in the interpretation of the results. (authors)

  12. Effects of iron, tin, and copper on zinc absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc absorption as measured by body retention of [65Zn]zinc chloride or a turkey test meal extrinsically labeled with 65Zn was determined in human subjects by whole body counting after 7 days. Average 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride in persons with a high iron-absorbing capacity was similar to persons with a low capacity to absorb iron. Inorganic iron, 920 mumol (51 mg), or HB iron, 480 mumol (26 mg), inhibited 65Zn absorption from 92 mumol (6 mg) of zinc chloride. When 610 mumol of iron (34 mg) was added to a turkey test meal containing 61 mumol of zinc (4 mg), 65Zn absorption was not inhibited. Tin, 306 mumol (36 mg), given with zinc chloride or turkey test meals (61 mumol, 4 mg, of Zn) significantly reduced 65Zn absorption. Copper, 79 mumol (5 mg), had no significant effect on the 65Zn absorption from 7.9 mumol (0.5 mg) of zinc chloride. In summary, the capacity to absorb iron did not influence 65Zn absorption, but both inorganic iron and heme-iron inhibited 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride. Inorganic iron had no effect, however, on 65Zn absorption from the turkey test meal. Tin in a large dose also inhibited 65Zn absorption from both zinc chloride and the turkey test meal

  13. Effect of soluble zinc additions on the SCC performance of nickel alloys in deaerated hydrogenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.S.; Thompson, C.D.; Gladding, D.; Schurman, M.K.

    1997-08-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth rates (SCCGR) of alloy 600, EN82H and X-750 were measured in deaerated hydrogenated water to determine if soluble zinc mitigates SCCGR. Constant load compact tension specimen tests were conducted. Two test strategies were used to discern a possible zinc effect. The first strategy employed separate SCCGR tests in zinc and non-zinc environments and compared the resulting crack growth rates. The second strategy varied zinc levels at the midterm of single specimen SCCGR tests and characterized the resulting crack growth rate effect through an electrical potential drop in-situ crack monitor. Results from the direct comparison and midterm changing chemistry tests did not discern a zinc influence; any apparent zinc influence is within test to test variability (∼1.5x change in crack growth rate). AEM, AUGER and ESCA crack tip fracture surface studies identified that zinc was not incorporated within crack tip oxides. These studies identified nickel rich crack tip oxides and spinel, with incorporated zinc, (∼5 atom percent) bulk surface oxides

  14. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  15. Protective effect of zinc over lead toxicity on testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, M.; Shaikh, S.P.; Tahir, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of lead and zinc on testes. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from August 2003 to December 2005. Methodology: Sixty adult (90 days old) albino rats were obtained from animal house JPMC for the study and divided into 3 groups. Group A received injection normal saline 1 cc intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. Group B received lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily. Group C received zinc chloride in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight before half an hour of injection of lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily so that to provide pre-treatment. On the day of completion of treatment the animals were sacrificed testes removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid. Testes were dehydrated in the ascending strength of alcohol, 5 mu m thick sections were cut and stained with PAS Iron Hematoxylin. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubule was 291.91+-1.18, 198.53 +- 1.67 and 288.77 +- 1.11 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased by 31.99% in group B (p < 0.001; CI 89.023 to 97.736) as compared group A and while group B comparing with group C, the diameter of seminiferous tubules was decreased by 31.25% (p-value = 0.076; CI -94.264 to -86.203). Mean thickness of germinal epithelium was 96.19 +- 1.01, 50.69 +- 1.20 and 94.94 +- 0.54 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Thickness of germinal epithelium decreased by 47.30 in group B (P < 0.001; CI 42.503 to 48.496) as compared to group A and while comparing group B with group C, the thickness of germinal epithelium was decreased by 46.61% (p=-44.25; CI -46.704 to -41.787). Conclusion: Zinc prevented toxic effects of lead on germinal epithelium in the albino rats. (author)

  16. Influence of post-deposition annealing on structural, morphological and optical properties of copper (II) acetylacetonate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, H; El-Samahi, M I; El-Mahalawy, Ahmed M

    2018-05-21

    In this study, the effect of thermal annealing under vacuum conditions on structural, morphological and optical properties of thermally evaporated copper (II) acetylacetonate, cu(acac) 2 , thin films were investigated. The copper (II) acetylacetonate thin films were deposited using thermal evaporation technique at vacuum pressure ~1 × 10 -5  mbar. The deposited films were thermally annealed at 323, 373, 423, and 473 K for 2 h in vacuum. The thermogravimetric analysis of cu(acac) 2 powder indicated a thermal stability of cu(acac) 2 up to 423 K. The effects of thermal annealing on the structural properties of cu(acac) 2 were evaluated employing X-ray diffraction method and the analysis showed a polycrystalline nature of the as-deposited and annealed films with a preferred orientation in [1¯01] direction. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) technique was used to negate the decomposition of copper (II) acetylacetonate during preparation or/and annealing up to 423 K. The surface morphology of the prepared films was characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A significant enhancement of the morphological properties of cu(acac) 2 thin films was obtained till the annealing temperature reaches 423 K. The variation of optical constants that estimated from spectrophotometric measurements of the prepared thin films was investigated as a function of annealing temperature. The annealing process presented significantly impacted the nonlinear optical properties such as third-order optical susceptibility χ (3) and nonlinear refractive index n 2 of cu(acac) 2 thin films. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors – Physicochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryk, Holger, E-mail: h.kryk@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kästner, Wolfgang; Alt, Sören; Seeliger, André; Renger, Stefan [Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology, Theodor-Körner-Allee 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Physicochemical effects due to post-LOCA zinc corrosion in PWR were elucidated. • Decreasing solubility of corrosion products with increasing temperature was found. • Solid corrosion products may be deposited on hot surfaces and/or within hot-spots. • Corrosion products precipitating from coolant were identified as zinc borates. • Depending on coolant temperature, different types of zinc borate are formed. - Abstract: Within the framework of the reactor safety research, generic experimental investigations were carried out aiming at the physicochemical background of possible zinc corrosion product formation, which may occur inside the reactor pressure vessel during the sump circulation operation after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors. The contact of the boric acid containing coolant with hot-dip galvanized steel containment internals causes corrosion of the corresponding materials resulting in dissolution of the zinc coat. A retrograde solubility of zinc corrosion products with increasing temperature was observed during batch experiments of zinc corrosion in boric acid containing coolants. Thus, the formation and deposition of solid corrosion products cannot be ruled out if the coolant containing dissolved zinc is heated up during its recirculation into hot regions within the emergency cooling circuit (e.g. hot-spots in the core). Corrosion experiments at a lab-scale test facility, which included formation of corrosion products at a single heated cladding tube, proved that dissolved zinc, formed at low temperatures in boric acid solution by zinc corrosion, turns into solid deposits of zinc borates when contacting heated zircaloy surfaces during the heating of the coolant. Moreover, the temperature of formation influences the chemical composition of the zinc borates and thus the deposition and mobilization behavior of the products.

  18. Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors – Physicochemical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryk, Holger; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kästner, Wolfgang; Alt, Sören; Seeliger, André; Renger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physicochemical effects due to post-LOCA zinc corrosion in PWR were elucidated. • Decreasing solubility of corrosion products with increasing temperature was found. • Solid corrosion products may be deposited on hot surfaces and/or within hot-spots. • Corrosion products precipitating from coolant were identified as zinc borates. • Depending on coolant temperature, different types of zinc borate are formed. - Abstract: Within the framework of the reactor safety research, generic experimental investigations were carried out aiming at the physicochemical background of possible zinc corrosion product formation, which may occur inside the reactor pressure vessel during the sump circulation operation after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors. The contact of the boric acid containing coolant with hot-dip galvanized steel containment internals causes corrosion of the corresponding materials resulting in dissolution of the zinc coat. A retrograde solubility of zinc corrosion products with increasing temperature was observed during batch experiments of zinc corrosion in boric acid containing coolants. Thus, the formation and deposition of solid corrosion products cannot be ruled out if the coolant containing dissolved zinc is heated up during its recirculation into hot regions within the emergency cooling circuit (e.g. hot-spots in the core). Corrosion experiments at a lab-scale test facility, which included formation of corrosion products at a single heated cladding tube, proved that dissolved zinc, formed at low temperatures in boric acid solution by zinc corrosion, turns into solid deposits of zinc borates when contacting heated zircaloy surfaces during the heating of the coolant. Moreover, the temperature of formation influences the chemical composition of the zinc borates and thus the deposition and mobilization behavior of the products

  19. Antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the antibacterial mechanisms, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated with 0.8 μg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles. The results reveal that zinc oxide nanoparticles could damage cell membranes, lead to leakage of ...

  20. Effect of Zinc supplementation on the Management of Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementing the treatment of acute watery diarrhea with Zinc in just 2 cases will prevent recurrence of diarrhea in one of the children in the following 12 weeks. Fourteen days supplementation of Zinc in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children significantly reduced the average number of watery stools and duration of ...

  1. Effect of a new condensation product on electrodeposition of zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    steel in aerospace, electrical, and fastener industries owing to its excellent corrosion ... The most commonly used sacrificial coating is zinc and its alloys. Zinc by ... cause of their non-polluting nature (Arthoba Naik et al. 2002). Organic additives ...

  2. The effect of zinc injection into PWR primary coolant on the reduction of radiation buildup and corrosion control. The solubilities of zinc, nickel and cobalt spinel oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Kaori; Hirano, Hideo

    1999-01-01

    The use of zinc injection into PWR primary coolant to reduce radiation buildup has been widely studied, and te reduction effect has been experimentally confirmed. However, some items, such as the optimal concentration of zinc required to reduce radiation buildup, the corrosion control effect of zinc injection, and the influence of zinc injection on the integrity of fuel cladding, have not been clarified yet. In particular, the corrosion suppression effect of zinc remains unconfirmed. Therefore, it is necessary to measure and calculate the solubilities of zinc and nickel spinel oxides, which are formed on the surface of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary systems. In this study, in order to assess the effectiveness of zinc injection in the reduction of radiation buildup and the corrosion control of Ni-based alloy, the potential-pH diagrams for Zn-Cr-H 2 O, Ni-Cr-H 2 O, and Co-Cr-H 2 O systems at 300degC were constructed and the solubilities of Zn-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr spinel oxides were calculated. It is concluded that under pH conditions for which NiCr 2 O 4 is stable, zinc injection is effective in corrosion control as well as in reducing radiation buildup. (author)

  3. Effects of zinc supplementation on Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Ryoko; Katsuge, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yosuke; Goto, Shinya; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2017-10-07

    Swine edema disease is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Addition of highly concentrated zinc formulations to feed has been used to treat and prevent the disease, but the mechanism of the beneficial effect is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly concentrated zinc formulations on bacterial growth, hemolysin production, and an Stx2e release by STEC in vitro. STEC strain MVH269 isolated from a piglet with edema disease was cultured with zinc oxide (ZnO) or with zinc carbonate (ZnCO 3 ), each at up to 3,000 ppm. There was no effect of zinc addition on bacterial growth. Nonetheless, the cytotoxic activity of Stx2e released into the supernatant was significantly attenuated in the zinc-supplemented media compared to that in the control, with the 50% cytotoxic dose values of 163.2 ± 12.7, 211.6 ± 33.1 and 659.9 ± 84.2 after 24 hr of growth in the presence of ZnO, ZnCO 3 , or no supplemental zinc, respectively. The hemolytic zones around colonies grown on sheep blood agar supplemented with zinc were significantly smaller than those of colonies grown on control agar. Similarly, hemoglobin absorbance after exposure to the supernatants of STEC cultures incubated in sheep blood broth supplemented with zinc was significantly lower than that resulting from exposure to the control supernatant. These in vitro findings indicated that zinc formulations directly impair the factors associated with the virulence of STEC, suggesting a mechanism by which zinc supplementation prevents swine edema disease.

  4. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  5. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmstadt, G.L.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Ahmed, S.; Feldman, C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Baqui, A.H.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc

  6. Effect of zinc fertilization on growth and yield of cocoyam ( Colocasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of zinc fertilization on growth and yield of cocoyam ( Colocasia spp ) in Anambra East ... research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Igbariam Sub-Station. ... Zinc fertilizer was applied at 5 levels 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg ha-1.

  7. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia : micronutrient interactions and effects of supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Pre-training Administration of Zinc Oxide and ‎Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Long-term Memory of Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Issapare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Zinc oxide nanoparticles are one of the most widely used nanoparticles in fields of industry, medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, cosmetics, and nutrition. Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the nervous system, while others have revealed their enhancing effects on the activity of nerve cells, involved in memory processes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide on long-term memory of mice. METHODS: In this experimental study, 49 NMRI adult male mice, with the mean weight of 25±5 g, were randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of seven mice: control group, three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide nanoparticles (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of  zinc oxide nanoparticles, respectively, and three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of zinc oxide, respectively. Intraperitoneal injections were performed before training (electric shock. Passive avoidance memory of mice was evaluated, using the Step-Down device. The latency time to descend the platform was regarded as an indicator of memory on days 1, 3, and 7 following training. FINDINGS: Pre-training administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg yielded no effects on the motor activity of mice. However, a significant decline was reported in the latency time to descend the platform on days 1, 3, and 7 following training (58±17, 45±13, and 39±14 in the zinc oxide group and 93±18, 62±12, and 14±3 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively (p<0.01 however, the dosage of 5 mg/kg had less significant short-term effects (130±38, 49±14, and 68±10 in the zinc oxide group and 132±46, 41±13, and 58±24 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively. Also, the dosage of 1 mg/kg was almost ineffective. CONCLUSION: The results showed that weakened long-term memory, caused by zinc oxide administration, is not

  9. Effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor proliferation in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Elise C; Morris, Deborah R; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Brownstein, Naomi C; Levenson, Cathy W

    2016-05-01

    There is great deal of debate about the possible role of adult-born hippocampal cells in the prevention of depression and related mood disorders. We first showed that zinc supplementation prevents the development of the depression-like behavior anhedonia associated with an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This work then examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the proliferation of new cells in the hippocampus that have the potential to participate in neurogenesis. Rats were fed a zinc adequate (ZA, 30ppm) or zinc supplemented (ZS, 180ppm) diet for 4wk followed by TBI using controlled cortical impact. Stereological counts of EdU-positive cells showed that TBI doubled the density of proliferating cells 24h post-injury (pprecursor cells in the hippocampus was robust, use of targeted irradiation to eliminate these cells after zinc supplementation and TBI revealed that these cells are not the sole mechanism through which zinc acts to prevent depression associated with brain injury, and suggest that other zinc dependent mechanisms are needed for the anti-depressant effect of zinc in this model of TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strain effects in polytypical wurtzite/zinc-blend nanowhiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Guilherme; Faria, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    The recent interest on III-V nanowhiskers has led to the growth of high quality samples of systems with two different crystalline structures [1]. The crystals grown in [111]-direction for the zinc-blend (ZB) phase and [0001]-direction for the wurtzite (WZ) phase are very similar and can both be described as stacked hexagonal layers. The effect of two different structural phases coexisting in the same nanostrucure is known as polytypism and creates confinement profiles similar to a heterostructure. One can notice band offsets at the interface and the formation of electronic minibands that can be explored to design systems for device applications. Although some of the III-V compounds do not present WZ structure in bulk form, recent calculations [2] presented a theoretical prediction of their band structure. However, as they considered that ZB and WZ to have the same lattice parameters no strain effects should appear on a first approach. Our theoretical approach introduces strain effects in our previous model [3] by using group theory arguments. It allows the analysis of the biaxial strain effects for both structures in a single matrix. [1] P. Caroff et al. Nature Nanotech. 4, 50, 2009. [2] A. De and C. E. Pryor, Phys. Rev. B 81, 155210, 2010 [3] http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.022

  11. Comparison of the effects and distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc ions in activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Chew, Evelyn; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-09-19

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry, which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zinc Oxide NPs and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (as ZnSO 4 ). It was found that even 1 mg/L of ZnO NPs could have a small impact on COD and ammonia removal. Under 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NP exposure, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from 79.8% to 78.9%, 72.7% and 65.7%, respectively. The corresponding ammonium (NH 4 + N) concentration in the effluent significantly (P zinc ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to ZnO NPs. Under 50 mg/L exposure, the effluent Zn level was 5.69 mg/L, implying that ZnO NPs have a strong affinity for activated sludge. The capacity for adsorption of ZnO NPs onto activated sludge was found to be 2.3, 6.3, and 13.9 mg/g MLSS at influent ZnO NP concentrations of 1.0, 10 and 50 mg/L respectively, which were 1.74-, 2.13- and 2.05-fold more than under Zn ion exposure.

  12. On the role of the ground state Tb(3)/acetylacetone complex in sensitized emission of Tb(3) in ethanol solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, S.; Elbanowski, M.; Marciniak, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Tb(3)-acetylacetone system in ethanol solution has been studied by spectroscopic methods. The formation of a Tb(3)/acetylacetone (1:1) complex in the ground state has been proved and its stability constant determined, K = (0,97 ± 0,06).10 4 dm 3 mol -1 . The role of this complex in the spectrofluorimetric determination of Ln(3) ions in the presence of acetylacetone has been discussed. (Authors)

  13. Effect of condensation product on electrodeposition of zinc on mild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. Electrodeposition of zinc on steel was obtained from acid chloride bath containing condensation products (CP) of 3,4 ..... nucleation number and hence smaller grain size. The ... thesis, Bangalore University, Bangalore. Venkatesha ...

  14. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirahata, Takahiro [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); School of Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Shizuo, E-mail: fujitasz@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Orita, Hiroyuki [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10{sup −4} Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac){sub 2}], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH{sub 3} to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac){sub 2}] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  15. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahata, Takahiro; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Shizuo; Orita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10"−"4 Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac)_2], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH_3 to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10"−"3 Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac)_2] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10"−"3 Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  16. Effect of electrolysis condition of zinc powder production on zinc-silver oxide battery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Goodarzi, M.; Sharifi, B.; Vahdati Khaki, J.

    2011-01-01

    A research conducted to produce zinc powder through electrolysis of alkaline solutions by using various concentrations of KOH and zincate in the bath. Different current densities were applied for each concentration and then, morphological changes of Zn powder batches were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Afterward, an anode electrode was produced from each pack of powder. Thirty-six Zn-AgO battery cells were prepared totally. Discharge parameters of the cells were examined and time-voltage curves were analyzed. Discharge times were investigated for various conditions of Zn deposition and the proper terms were suggested. It has been seen that increase of KOH concentration and decrease of zincate ion in the bath solution will change the zinc morphology and increase the resultant battery discharge time. The longest time of discharge, before reduction of cell voltage to 1.25 V, was 7.91 min. This result was obtained for Zn powder produced in zincate concentration of 0.5 M, KOH concentration of 11 M and current density of 2500 A/m 2 .

  17. Effect Of Joint Iron And Zinc Supplementation On Malarial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjusted geometric mean serum ferritin concentration in the Iron-zinc Group was significantly higher than in the Control Group (22.9 fg/L versus 16.9 fg/L), F (1, 156) = 6.336, p = 0.013. Conclusions: Joint iron and zinc supplementation appears to be a better option than iron-only supplementation in malaria-endemic areas.

  18. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  19. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country

  20. Photodynamic effect of aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines were activated with a 672nm wavelength laser to investigate the photodynamic effects on melanoma cancer, dermal fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cells. Aluminium tetrasulfophthalocyanine was more...

  1. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone .... a role in the production, storage and secretion of .... This study was done to assess the effects of oral zinc.

  2. Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields components of sole early maturing maize ( Zea mays ) and bambaranut ( Vigna subterranean Thour. ) and in intercrop under southern guinea savannah ecology zone.

  3. Crystal orientation effects on the piezoelectric field of strained zinc-blende quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny

    2008-01-01

    direction show important changes in strain and the electric distribution due to piezoelectric effects. The findings indicate the quantitative importance of a fully coupled model even for zinc blende, in particular when discussing electronic band structure and optoelectronic properties....

  4. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  5. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  6. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  7. Effects of dissolved metals and other hydrominerals on in vivo intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Chris N.; Hogstrand, Christer

    2003-01-01

    For aquatic organisms, zinc is both an essential nutrient and an environmental contaminant. The intestine is potentially the most important route of zinc absorption, yet little is known regarding this uptake pathway for zinc in fish. A recently developed in vivo perfusion system was used to investigate the effect of luminal composition upon intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Perfusate cadmium and copper had specific, yet distinct, antagonistic effects upon lumen to tissue zinc movement. Copper significantly reduced the proportion of zinc taken up from the perfusate, and concomitantly limited the passage of zinc into the circulation and beyond. Conversely, cadmium decreased subepithelial zinc accumulation, with rates falling to 29 nmol g -1 h -1 from the control (zinc alone) values of 53 nmol g -1 h -1 . Calcium had a similar action to copper, also reducing post-intestinal zinc accumulation from 0.06 to 0.02 nmol g -1 h -1 , an effect attributed to interactions between calcium and the zinc uptake pathway. In addition to these effects, luminal composition also had a marked influence upon epithelial response to zinc. Calcium, copper and magnesium all greatly reduced zinc-induced mucus secretion. Cadmium, a toxic metal, significantly increased mucus secretion. It is proposed that these modifications were related to the essentiality of each element, and their potential mechanisms of uptake. Despite changes at the epithelium, the post-epithelial accumulation of zinc was dependent mainly upon the nature of the competing cation. Intestinal saline ion substitution experiments suggested a potential link of potassium ion efflux to zinc uptake. The effect of pH buffering of luminal solutions was also investigated

  8. Vanadium oxide thin films and fibers obtained by acetylacetonate sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezina, O.; Kirienko, D. [Department of Physical Engineering, Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation); Pergament, A., E-mail: aperg@psu.karelia.ru [Department of Physical Engineering, Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation); Stefanovich, G.; Velichko, A. [Department of Physical Engineering, Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation); Zlomanov, V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium oxide films and fibers have been fabricated by the acetylacetonate sol–gel method followed by annealing in wet nitrogen. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction and electrical conductivity measurements. The effects of a sol aging, the precursor decomposition and the gas atmosphere composition on the annealing process, structure and properties of the films are discussed. The two-stage temperature regime of annealing of amorphous films in wet nitrogen for formation of the well crystallized VO{sub 2} phase is chosen: 1) 25–550 °C and 2) 550–600 °C. The obtained films demonstrate the metal–insulator transition and electrical switching. Also, the effect of the polyvinylpyrrolidone additive concentration and electrospinning parameters on qualitative (absence of defects and gel drops) and quantitative (length and diameter) characteristics of vanadium oxide fibers is studied. - Highlights: • Vanadium oxide thin films and fibers are synthesized by sol–gel method. • The effect of annealing, atmosphere, time and electrospinning parameters is studied. • Produced VO{sub 2} structures exhibit metal–insulator transition and electrical switching.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  11. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  12. Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyıldırım, Serhan; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sahna, Engin; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.

  13. Properties and adduct structure of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with o-phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    Adducts of acetylacetonates of rare earths (M, REE) with O-phenanthroline (Phen) of the composition MA 3 xPhen (M=La-Lu, Y) are synthesized by different methods and studied. Phen coordination by M 3+ ion is proved using infrared spectroscopy, individual character of obtained preparations and their isostructure in a series of REE derivatives is confirmed by X-ray radiography. MA 3 xPhen thermal stability is much higher than that of corresponding hydrates of rare-earth acetylacetonates MA 3 xnH 2 O. In high vacuum under conditions of mass-spectrometric measurements MA 3 xPhen adducts degradate forming volatile rare earth acetylacetonates of MA 3 composition. When heating in vacuum (∼ 10 2 mm Hg) MA 3 xPhen are qualitatively sublimated not changing the composition. MA 3 xPhen volatility determined for the whole REE series may be of interest in practical problem solving

  14. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H.; Nahalparvari, H.

    2005-01-01

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN) 6 4- and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement

  15. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Kaznina; A.F. Titov

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM) and the ...

  17. Effect of ZincOxide in Weaned Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Vastenhouw, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Development of immune competence in pigs is important for resilience, disease resistance, and performance later in life. Dietary interventions in early life can contribute to immune system development. Use of model dietary interventions, such as diets with a high concentration of zinc, can

  18. Effect of various parameters on the efficiency of zinc phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and CMG852 showed enhanced solubilization in presence of 1% sodium chloride. 1% glucose is required for the solubilization of zinc phosphate and no solubilization was appeared in presence of 0.1% glucose. CMG851 (A. lwoffi), CMG 860 (pseudomonas aeruginosa) CMG 857 (Bacillus thuringiensis) were found to be ...

  19. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  20. Synthesis and physicochemical analysis of Sm (II, III) acetylacetone chelate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Trebnikov, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Sm (II, III) acetylacetone chelate complexes were synthesized by electrochemical method. It was shown that anode dissolution of the metal samarium over acetylacetone leads to formation of the Sm (II, III) chelate complexes: xSm(acac)2 · ySm(acac)3 · zH(acac). Factors x, y and z depend on quantity of the electricity, which flew through the electrolysis cell. The compositions of the obtained substances were confirmed by the physicochemical analysis (ultimate analysis, IR-, mass spectroscopy and thermal analysis (thermogravimetric, isothermal warming-up and differential scanning colorimetry). (Authors)

  1. Synthesis and investigation of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates addUcts with acetylaceoneimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trembovetskij, G.V.; Smirnov, E.V.; Murav'eva, I.A.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Adducts of tris-acetylacetonates of pare earths With acetylacetonimine of the composition MA 3 x2L (M=La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb) and MA 3 XL (M=Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, LU) have been synthesized. The compounds prepared are studied using the methods of elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, PMR spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis. Volatile tris-acetylacetonates of the yttrium subgroUp rare earths have been prepared by thermal decomposition of MA 3 xL in vacuum

  2. Sequestration of zinc from zinc oxide nanoparticles and life cycle effects in the sediment dweller amphipod Corophium volutator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, Julia; Tantra, Ratna; Amer, Aisha; Stolpe, Bjorn; Tomkins, Jordan; Fry, Tony; Lead, Jamie R; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2012-01-17

    We studied the effects of ZnO nanoparticles [ZnO NPs, primary particle size 35 ± 10 nm (circular diameter, TEM)], bulk [160 ± 81 nm (circular diameter, TEM)], and Zn ions (from ZnCl(2)) on mortality, growth, and reproductive endpoints in the sediment dwelling marine amphipod Corophium volutator over a complete lifecycle (100 days). ZnO NPs were characterized by size, aggregation, morphology, dissolution, and surface properties. ZnO NPs underwent aggregation and partial dissolution in the seawater exposure medium, resulting in a size distribution that ranged in size from discrete nanoparticles to the largest aggregate of several micrometers. Exposure via water to all forms of zinc in the range of 0.2-1.0 mg L(-1) delayed growth and affected the reproductive outcome of the exposed populations. STEM-EDX analysis was used to characterize insoluble zinc precipitates (sphaerites) of high sulfur content, which accumulated in the hepatopancreas following exposures. The elemental composition of the sphaerites did not differ for ZnO NP, Zn(2+), and bulk ZnO exposed organisms. These results provide an illustration of the comparable toxicity of Zn in bulk, soluble, and nanoscale forms on critical lifecycle parameters in a sediment dwelling organism.

  3. Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere, S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere and S3 (bulk soil using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted was higher than soil 2 (polluted, perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

  4. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  5. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.

  6. Zinc Nanoparticles Effect on the Parameters of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Trumsiņa, E; Kukle, S; Zommere, G

    2011-01-01

    The article is associated with the detection of metal nanoparticles concentration in water. The main risks associated with the metal covered textile use are metal nanoparticle separation from material in use and maintenance processes, resulting in a threat to living organisms. This article aims to look at options to recognize the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles in water, applying the GDV electrography method and by analyzing parameters of electrogrammes, distinguish those who respond to ...

  7. The effect of preparation of biogenic sorbent on zinc sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jenčárová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare biogenic sulphides by using bacteria for the removal of zinc cations from their solutions. Theproduction was realized in a bioreactor under anaerobic conditions at 30 °C. Sorbents were prepared by sulphate-reducing bacteria indifferent nutrient medium modifications, under two modes of bacteria cultivation. Created precipitates of iron sulphides were removedfrom the liquid phase of the cultivation medium by filtration, dried and used for the sorption experiments.

  8. The beneficial effects of zinc on diabetes-induced kidney damage in murine rodent model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Bing; Dong, Xiaoming; Cui, Wenpeng; Luo, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multi-factorial metabolic disorder resulting from impaired glucose homeostasis. Zinc is a key co-factor for the correct functioning of anti-oxidant enzymes. Zinc deficiency therefore, impairs their synthesis, leading to increased oxidative stress within cells. Zinc deficiency occurs commonly in diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of zinc on diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the underlying mechanisms involved. FVB male mice aged 8 weeks were injected intraperitoneally with multiple low-dose streptozotocin at a concentration of 50mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with special diets supplemented with zinc at varying concentrations (0.85mg/kg, 30mg/kg, 150mg/kg) for 3 months. The mice were fed with zinc diets to mimic the process of oral administration of zinc in human. Zinc deficiency to some extent aggravated the damage of diabetic kidney. Feeding with normal (30mg/kg zinc/kg diet) and especially high (150mg/kg zinc/kg diet) concentration zinc could protect the kidney against diabetes-induced damage. The beneficial effects of zinc on DN are achieved most likely due to the upregulation of Nrf2 and its downstream factors NQO1, SOD1, SOD2. Zinc upregulated the expression of Akt phosphorylation and GSK-3β phosphorylation, resulting in a reduction in Fyn nuclear translocation and export of Nrf2 to the cytosol. Thus, regular monitoring and maintaining of adequate levels of zinc are recommended in diabetic individuals in order to delay the development of DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations of the conditions of obtaining and of purifying zirconium acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, J.; Kozera, F.; Hubicki, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The method of obtaining zirconium acetylacetonate with a yield of 90% has been elaborated and there has been presented the way of removing the impurities of Fe, Ti, Cl, N and Hf. The conditions of transforming the hydrated compound into an anhydrous one without using large quantities of anhydrous solvents have been determined. (author)

  10. EFFECTS OF THE HEAVY METAL, ZINC, ON THE FRESHWATER FISH TILAPIA NILOTICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA S. CARING

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills, gonads, and blood of Tilapia nilotica exposed to different concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. 7H2O exhibited histological effects. Gills of posthatch larvae exposed chronically for 21 days to 2 ppm zinc sulfate and fingerlings to 10 ppm sublethal zinc concentrations exhibited hyperplasia that resulted in fusion of adjacent secondary gill lamellae. The same effects were observed in 4-hour short-term exposure to 30 ppm lethal dose. Posthatch larvae subjected to 2 and 5 ppm sublethal levels of zinc for 30 days retained undifferentiated gonads with differentiation with oogonial proliferation. Ovaries of control fish demonstrated healthy oocyte growth and other normal histological features after 57 days. In contrast, ovaries in treated groups exhibited excessive amounts of connective tissue, hyperemia and markedly reduced oocyte number. Oocytes had wavy irregular surface outlines. Deviation from normal was observed to be dose dependent. In juvenile tilapia, spermatogenesis was observed in control testes. Testes of zinc-exposed fish, on the other hand, remained immature. Hyperemia was markedly pronounced in both testes and ovary after 90 days exposure to zinc. Blood of Tilapia nilotica fingerlings exposed to sublethal concentrations of 2, 5, and 10 ppm zinc for 30, 60, and 90 days exhibited anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. There was an increase in hematocrit values in zinc-reared fish which, however, reverted to control/near control levels at day 90. Hemoglobin values were inversely proportional to the level of zinc in the rearing water. The marked reduction in hemoglobin values in fish reared at the higher zinc concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm suggests the development of some degree of anemia which is also supported by the observations of anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal contamination of aquatic environments has become a current serious problem because of increased industrialization. In the Philippines, data gathered

  11. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverted polymer:fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO3 transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted

  12. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, P.; Moet, D. J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    Inverted polymer: fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO(3) transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted

  13. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  14. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  15. Effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index, pulmonary function and hospitalization in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataee, Pedram; Najafi, Mehri; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aflatounian, Majid; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Khodadad, Ahmad; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Motamed, Farzaneh; Fallahi, Glolam Hossein; Kalantari, Najmoddin; Soheili, Habib; Modarresi, Vajiheh; Modarresi, Mozhgan Sabbaghian; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency, which is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), can lead to several complications that may increase the number of hospital admissions in this group of patients. As supplementary zinc can prevent such complications, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and number of hospitalizations in CF patients. In this study, 30 children with CF, who were referred to the Digestive Diseases Clinic of the Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled. Supplementary zinc of 2 mg/kg per day was administered to all patients. Serum level of zinc, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin as well as BMI, FEV1, and number of hospitalizations were compared before and after zinc administration. Height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.001) were significantly increased after zinc, while the number of hospitalizations was significantly decreased (p=0.023). In contrast to patients with normal pulmonary function tests who received supplement therapy, BMI was not increased in those with abnormal pulmonary function after supplementary zinc. Supplementary zinc can increase BMI in CF patients, mostly in those with normal pulmonary function. While supplementary zinc may decrease the number of hospitalizations, other factors can also influence the hospitalization number.

  16. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Omu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat. Materials and Methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and cadmium (Cd, (b serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, (c interleukin-4 (IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively. Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05, as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05 compared with control and zinc supplementation groups. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

  17. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Feldman, Candace; Van Raaij, Joop M A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Hautvast, J G A J; Fuchs, George J

    2012-04-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc or placebo, respectively. The mothers received zinc supplementation from 12-16 weeks' gestation until delivery, and the infants were followed up until 6 months of age. Among the infants of mothers who received zinc supplementation during the antenatal period, 10.6% had at least 1 episode of impetigo compared with 19.6% of the infants of mothers in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infants in the treatment group had a 54% reduction in incidence rate of episodes of impetigo when compared with infants in the placebo group (P = 0.01). The effect of zinc supplementation was more pronounced among male infants (64% reduction) and intrauterine growth restricted and low birth weight infants (73% reduction) and among infants of mothers with increased parity (60% reduction) or decreased socioeconomic status (71% reduction).

  18. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloid-β plaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  19. Metallothionein provides zinc-mediated protective effects against methamphetamine toxicity in SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Swinscoe, John; Shavali, Shaik; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2005-11-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse and neurotoxin that induces Parkinson's-like pathology after chronic usage by targeting dopaminergic neurons. Elucidation of the intracellular mechanisms that underlie METH-induced dopaminergic neuron toxicity may help in understanding the mechanism by which neurons die in Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the METH-induced death of human dopaminergic SK-N-SH cells and further assessed the neuroprotective effects of zinc and metallothionein (MT) against METH-induced toxicity in culture. METH significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, decreased intracellular ATP levels and reduced the cell viability. Pre-treatment with zinc markedly prevented the loss of cell viability caused by METH treatment. Zinc pre-treatment mainly increased the expression of metallothionein and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion caused by METH. Chelation of zinc by CaEDTA caused a significant decrease in MT expression and loss of protective effects of MT against METH toxicity. These results suggest that zinc-induced MT expression protects dopaminergic neurons via preventing the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species and halting the decrease in ATP levels. Furthermore, MT may prevent the loss of mitochondrial functions caused by neurotoxins. In conclusion, our study suggests that MT, a potent scavenger of free radicals is neuroprotective against dopaminergic toxicity in conditions such as drug of abuse and in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Effect of zinc and/or iron supplementations on ICF-level in prepubertal anaemic girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.; Noure Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of iron and zinc supplementations separated or combined on levels of iron, zinc and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-) in prepuberal girls suffering from iron deficiency anaemia. Hematological and biochemical changes of thirty two anaemic prepubertal girls (mean age 10.5 ± 2.01 year) were compared with normal fifteen girls have the same age. The anaemic girls were divided into three groups according to treatment; groupA (iron, group B(zinc) and group C (iron+zinc)and received supplementations for 8 weeks. Significant decreases in erythrocytic counts (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit % (Hct%) and reticulocytes%(Rt%) were recorded in blood samples of the three groups before supplementations while non-significant differences were detected in the values of other blood indices. Significant decreases were detected in iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels while non-significant decrease in ferritin was detected in group (A). Erythropoietin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) showed significant increases in the same group. Total iron binding capacity, iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels showed significant decreases while there were significant increases in erythropoetin and ferritin in group (B). The results revealed that ferritin,iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased while erythropoietin and TIBC were significantly increased in group (C). After treatment, group (B) showed sligh significant increases in the concentration of Hb, Hct% and Rt%. with non-significant increase in RBCs count but in group (C) the results revealed significant increases in RBCs count, Hb, Hct% and Rt%. Non- significant differences were detected in RBCs count, Hb and Hct% in group (A) while significant increase was detected in Rt% in the same group

  1. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; Said, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    significant protection against the toxic effect of acetaminophen, in comparison with that of acetaminophen treated group. In conclusion, biochemical evaluation revealed that zinc aspartate has a partial protective effect against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity and oxidative stress. Accordingly, zinc may be an effective therapeutic agent in prevention and treatment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and free radical production

  2. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  3. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: pournaghiazar@tabrizu.ac.ir; Nahalparvari, H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement.

  4. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanravan, Neda; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Hedayati, Mehdi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Mesri Alamdari, Naimeh; Anari, Farideh; Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 -April 2013 were randomly divided into zinc (n=22) and placebo (n=22) groups and recived 30mg/day zinc gluconate and (n=22), and placebo for eight consecutive weeks respectively. Dietary food intake was estimated from 3-days diet records. Serum levels of zinc, fasting blood sugar, and insulin were measured by conventional methods. Also homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Serumlevels of fasting blood sugar, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance slightly decreased in zinc group, but these changes were not statistically significant. Serum zinc levels (P =0.012), energy (P=0.037), protein (P=0.019) and fat (P=0.017) intakes increased statistically significant in the zinc group after intervention but not in the placebo group. Oral supplementation with zinc could be effective in increasing serum zinc levels and energy intake with no effects on fasting blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin levels.

  6. Study on the effect of x-ray irradiation of seed on zinc uptake in maize (Zea Mays L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gargi; Singh, K.P.; Joshi, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiations by X-rays at the two dose levels (1.1 KR and 2.2 KR) of seeds on uptake of zinc ion in maize (Zea Mays L.) plants were studied. The uptake and internal distribution of zinc ion in the maize plants was carried out by incorporating radioactive zinc as zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) in the nutrient solution to the plants. The localization and translocation of radioactive zinc was studied employing phosphor imaging systems (FX). The radioactivity measurement has been carried out using solid scintillation counter. It was observed that zinc ions uptake was higher in plants out of 2.2 KR X-rays irradiated seeds. (author)

  7. Mechanism and efficiency of cell death of type II photosensitizers: effect of zinc chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S

    2012-01-01

    A series of meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, which have methyl and octyl substituents, was studied in order to understand the effect of zinc chelation and photosensitizer subcellular localization in the mechanism of cell death. Zinc chelation does not change the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers (all molecules studied are type II photosensitizers) but affects considerably the interaction of the porphyrins with membranes, reducing mitochondrial accumulation. The total amount of intracellular reactive species induced by treating cells with photosensitizer and light is similar for zinc-chelated and free-base porphyrins that have the same alkyl substituent. Zinc-chelated porphyrins, which are poorly accumulated in mitochondria, show higher efficiency of cell death with features of apoptosis (higher MTT response compared with trypan blue staining, specific acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, stronger cytochrome c release and larger sub-G1 cell population), whereas nonchelated porphyrins, which are considerably more concentrated in mitochondria, triggered mainly necrotic cell death. We hypothesized that zinc-chelation protects the photoinduced properties of the porphyrins in the mitochondrial environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Inhibition effects of protein-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ying; Wang Huajie; Cao Cui; Sun Yuanyuan; Yang Lin; Wang Baoqing; Zhou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a facile and environmentally friendly method was applied to fabricate BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the stable and well-dispersed nanoparticles with the diameter of 15.9 ± 2.1 nm were successfully prepared. The energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction measurements showed that the obtained nanoparticles had the amorphous structure and the coordination occurred between zinc sulfide surfaces and BSA in the nanoparticles. In addition, the inhibition effects of BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth were described in detail by cell viability analysis, optical and electron microscopy methods. The results showed that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles could inhibit the metabolism and proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.36 mg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles had the application potential as cytostatic agents and BSA in the nanoparticles could provide the modifiable site for the nanoparticles to improve their bioactivity or to endow them with the target function.

  9. The effect of zinc on healing of renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Monabbati, Ahmad; Ensafdaran, Mohammad Reza; Adib, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have previously been performed to promote kidney healing after injuries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc on renal healing after traumatic injury in rats. Forty healthy female rats were selected and one of their kidneys was incised. Half of the incisions were limited only to the cortex (renal injury type I) and the other ones reached the pelvocalyceal system of the kidney (renal injury type II). All the rats in the zinc treated group (case group) received 36.3 mg zinc sulfate (contained 8.25 mg zinc) orally. After 28 days, the damaged kidneys were removed for histopathological studies. In the rats with type I injury, kidney inflammation of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the result was not significant in rats with type II injury. Tissue loss and granulation tissue formation were significantly lower in the case group than the control group in both type I and II kidney injuries. Overall, Zinc can contribute to better healing of the rat's kidneys after a traumatic injury.

  10. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Kaznina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM and the excess of zinc (Zn 1000 μM on the growth and photosynthesis of the winter wheat (cv. Mironovskaya 39 was studied. As a result, similarities and differences in the response of plants to these two types of stress were revealed. In particular, both with a lack and with an excess of metal in the nutrient solution, shoot growth and photosynthesis rate are inhibited which leads to a decrease in the accumulation of dry biomass. Excess of metal, in contrast to its deficiency, leads to inhibition of root growth, and also a negative impact on pigment content, including light-harvesting complexes, and on maximum quantum yield of PS II. It is assumed that these changes in the photosynthetic apparatus are the main causes of a decrease of photosynthesis rate in plants under these conditions, whereas in the case of zinc deficiency, an inhibition of the process intensity is most likely due to a change in the activity of zinc-containing enzymes involved in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

  11. Effect of manganese and zinc on the growth of Anacystis nidulans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L.H.; Lustigman, B.; Dandorf, D. (Montclair State College, Upper Montclair, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Anacystis nidulans is a unicellular member of the cyanobacteria, one of the largest groups of the Kingdom Monera. It is similar to other bacteria in the structure and chemistry of the cell wall, and its cell division and genetic recombination. Photoautotrophy is the main mode of nutrition and the photosynthetic apparatus is similar to that of other cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are excellent organisms to serve as environmental pollution indicators for the investigation of a wide variety of biological problems. There have been several studies on the effects of heavy metals on A. nidulans. Some of these elements, such as manganese, are known to be essential nutrients for cyanobacteria. Others, such as cadmium, are not known to be necessary for normal growth and metabolism. Large amounts of either essential or non-essential elements can be toxic. Manganese and zinc are essential elements for all living organisms. Manganese is a cofactor for a number of different enzymatic reactions particularly those involved in phosphorylation. Iron deficiency induced by a number of metals, cobalt and manganese in particular, inhibit chlorophyll biosynthesis. Zinc deficiency affects early mitotic events and the cells are large and aberrant in appearance. Light is essential for cells to take in zinc. As an industrial contaminant, zinc has been found to block photosynthesis by causing structural damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. In the presence of various pH ranges, high zinc concentrations can be associated with low pH. It has been indicated that pH value and EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid) have an influence on the effect of some metals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of manganese and zinc on the growth of Anacystis nidulans, with and without EDTA.

  12. Effect of EDTA and gypsum on self diffusion coefficient of zinc in alkali soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.N.; Deb, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of EDTA and gypsum application on the rate of zinc diffusion was studied in an alkali soil. Gypsum application at the rate of half gypsum requirement (GR) increased the apparent self diffusion coefficient of zinc (DaZn) and decreased the capacity factor (B) of soil. The higher rates (full GR and double GR) depressed the rate of zinc diffusion and increased the B value. Application of EDTA at the rate of 0.77 μeg -1 of soil produced 1600 and 24 fold increase in DaZn and DpZn values respectively and 100 times drop in B value. Addition of 55 ppm Zn to the soil significantly increased the DaZn and DpZn values. (author)

  13. Effect of Zinc Phosphate on the Corrosion Behavior of Waterborne Acrylic Coating/Metal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-06-14

    Waterborne coating has recently been paid much attention. However, it cannot be used widely due to its performance limitations. Under the specified conditions of the selected resin, selecting the function pigment is key to improving the anticorrosive properties of the coating. Zinc phosphate is an environmentally protective and efficient anticorrosion pigment. In this work, zinc phosphate was used in modifying waterborne acrylic coatings. Moreover, the disbonding resistance of the coating was studied. Results showed that adding zinc phosphate can effectively inhibit the anode process of metal corrosion and enhance the wet adhesion of the coating, and consequently prevent the horizontal diffusion of the corrosive medium into the coating/metal interface and slow down the disbonding of the coating.

  14. Effect of sublethal concentrations of zinc on reproduction in the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio Hamilton--Buchanan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A.W.; Seeley, R.J.; Seeley, V.A.; Perlmutter, A.

    1977-03-01

    Adult zebrafish, when held in water containing a threshold concentration (55 ppM) of zinc for a 9-day period in which the gametes were maturing, showed a delay in spawning. When spawning did occur, the experimental pairs of fish produced an average of 165 eggs of which only 21.1 percent were viable. In contrast, control pairs of fish produced an average of 434 eggs of which 90.2 percent were viable. In addition, survival of the eggs to hatching was significantly lower than in controls, the survival rate for the experimentals being 0.9 percent, that of the controls, 63.3 percent. The adverse effects on zebrafish of exposure to zinc can be reversed by returning the fish to a zinc-free environment.

  15. Low-temperature solution-processed zinc oxide field effect transistor by blending zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-mo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Kim, Jun Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel methods of fabricating low-temperature (180 °C), solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors using a ZnO precursor that is blended with zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] and zinc oxide hydrate (ZnO • H2O) in an ammonium solution. By using the proposed method, we successfully improved the electrical performance of the transistor in terms of the mobility (μ), on/off current ratio (I on/I off), sub-threshold swing (SS), and operational stability. Our new approach to forming a ZnO film was systematically compared with previously proposed methods. An atomic forced microscopic (AFM) image and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that our method increases the ZnO crystallite size with less OH‑ impurities. Thus, we attribute the improved electrical performance to the better ZnO film formation using the blending methods.

  16. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  17. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    A feeding experiment was carried out over 42 d with four groups of broiler chickens fed experimental diets formulated to provide no supplementation, 20 mg zinc bacitracin, 60 mg salinomycin, or both feed additives in combination. During the fifth week of the experiment, four chickens from each pen......, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens were counted. In homogenates of pancreas obtained from four animals, the activities of amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin were measured. A significant growth-promoting effect was observed in the group receiving zinc bacitracin in combination with salinomycin...

  18. A CASE REPORT ON ZINC PHOSPHIDE POISONING AND ITS RARE EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Raghunandan Thota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Zinc phosphide is widely in use as a rodenticide. After ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. The toxic effects of zinc phosphide poisoning is through the phosphine gas that produces various metabolic and non-metabolic intermediate compounds. Patients develop features of shock, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary oedema and congestive heart failure. In this case report, we present a common complication of the poison that manifested earlier than it is depicted in the current literature.

  19. The effect of substrate temperature on atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Johan, E-mail: johan.lindahl@angstrom.uu.se; Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se; Wätjen, J. Timo, E-mail: timo.watjen@angstrom.uu.se; Edoff, Marika, E-mail: marika.edoff@angstrom.uu.se; Törndahl, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.torndahl@angstrom.uu.se

    2015-07-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the film properties were investigated for varying deposition temperatures in the range of 90 to 180 °C. It was found that the [Sn]/([Sn] + [Zn]) composition is only slightly temperature dependent, while properties such as growth rate, film density, material structure and band gap are more strongly affected. The growth rate dependence on deposition temperature varies with the relative number of zinc or tin containing precursor pulses and it correlates with the growth rate behavior of pure ZnO and SnO{sub x} ALD. In contrast to the pure ZnO phase, the density of the mixed ZTO films is found to depend on the deposition temperature and it increases linearly with about 1 g/cm{sup 3} in total over the investigated range. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy suggests that zinc rich ZTO films contain small (~ 10 nm) ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, and that these crystallites increase in size with increasing zinc content and deposition temperature. These crystallites are small enough for quantum confinement effects to reduce the optical band gap of the ZTO films as they grow in size with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • Zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition. • The structure and optical properties were studied at different growth temperatures. • The growth temperature had only a small effect on the composition of the films. • Small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites were observed by TEM in zinc rich ZTO films. • The growth temperature affects the crystallite size, which influences the band gap.

  20. The effect of substrate temperature on atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Johan; Hägglund, Carl; Wätjen, J. Timo; Edoff, Marika; Törndahl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the film properties were investigated for varying deposition temperatures in the range of 90 to 180 °C. It was found that the [Sn]/([Sn] + [Zn]) composition is only slightly temperature dependent, while properties such as growth rate, film density, material structure and band gap are more strongly affected. The growth rate dependence on deposition temperature varies with the relative number of zinc or tin containing precursor pulses and it correlates with the growth rate behavior of pure ZnO and SnO x ALD. In contrast to the pure ZnO phase, the density of the mixed ZTO films is found to depend on the deposition temperature and it increases linearly with about 1 g/cm 3 in total over the investigated range. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy suggests that zinc rich ZTO films contain small (~ 10 nm) ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, and that these crystallites increase in size with increasing zinc content and deposition temperature. These crystallites are small enough for quantum confinement effects to reduce the optical band gap of the ZTO films as they grow in size with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • Zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition. • The structure and optical properties were studied at different growth temperatures. • The growth temperature had only a small effect on the composition of the films. • Small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites were observed by TEM in zinc rich ZTO films. • The growth temperature affects the crystallite size, which influences the band gap

  1. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  2. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  3. Effect of barium doping on the physical properties of zinc oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. Effect of barium doping on the physical properties of zinc oxide ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  4. Combined effects of zinc and earthworm density on soil ecosystem functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Kools, S.A.E.; Hout, van der A.; Faber, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    In traditional environmental risk assessment for soils, interactions between biota, contaminants and soil functioning are seldom taken into account. Also, single species toxicity tests are conducted with a fixed number of test animals. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of zinc

  5. Effects of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti - corrosion properties of paints can be optimised when adequate proportion of the paint constituents are used. Effect of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux Marine Enamel paints on corrosion resistance of mild steel was studied. Quantitative Analysis and Potentiodynamic Polarisation Technique were ...

  6. A novel mechanism for the pyruvate protection against zinc-induced cytotoxicity: mediation by the chelating effect of citrate and isocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Jee-Won; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jean; Suh, Young-Ah; Hwang, Jung Jin; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular accumulation of free zinc contributes to neuronal death in brain injuries such as ischemia and epilepsy. Pyruvate, a glucose metabolite, has been shown to block zinc neurotoxicity. However, it is largely unknown how pyruvate shows such a selective and remarkable protective effect. In this study, we sought to find a plausible mechanism of pyruvate protection against zinc toxicity. Pyruvate almost completely blocked cortical neuronal death induced by zinc, yet showed no protective effects against death induced by calcium (ionomycin, NMDA) or ferrous iron. Of the TCA cycle intermediates, citrate, isocitrate, and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate, protected against zinc toxicity. We then noted with LC-MS/MS assay that exposure to pyruvate, and to a lesser degree oxaloacetate, increased levels of citrate and isocitrate, which are known zinc chelators. While pyruvate added only during zinc exposure did not reduce zinc toxicity, citrate and isocitrate added only during zinc exposure, as did extracellular zinc chelator CaEDTA, completely blocked it. Furthermore, addition of pyruvate after zinc exposure substantially reduced intracellular zinc levels. Our results suggest that the remarkable protective effect of pyruvate against zinc cytotoxicity may be mediated indirectly by the accumulation of intracellular citrate and isocitrate, which act as intracellular zinc chelators.

  7. Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on malaria and diarrhoeal morbidity in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Zinc is important for innate and adaptive immune responses
    to infection. Preventive zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce
    the incidence of acute diarrhoea by 20%. Few trials have evaluated its effect
    against malaria. Because trial results for both outcomes are

  8. Effect of different levels of magnesium saturation on the extractability of native and applied zinc in red and alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.; Das, S.K.; Sachdev, Pamila

    1978-01-01

    The investigation showed that Mg saturation of soil has a beneficial effect on the extractibility of native and applied zinc in soil. The soils used in the investigation were alluvial soil from Delhi and red soil from Karnataka under upland and waterlogged conditions. Zinc was applied in the form of ZnSO 4 solution labelled with 65 Zn. (M.G.B.)

  9. Teratogenic effect of calcium edetate (CaEDTA) in rats and the protective effect of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C F; Brownie, C; Noden, D; Krook, L; Haluska, M; Aronson, A L

    1986-03-15

    The calcium chelate of EDTA (CaEDTA) currently is the drug of choice in the treatment of lead intoxication. This study investigated the teratogenic potential of CaEDTA, administered parenterally during periods of organogenesis and determined if incorporating zinc into EDTA would protect against teratogenic effects. Four doses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mmol/m2/day) of CaEDTA, two concentrations (8 and 20 mmol/m2/day) of ZnEDTA and ZnCaEDTA (molar ratio 0.5:0.5:1) were used, and a saline control (0.9% NaCl). Timed-pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned at random to the treatment groups, 20 per dose for each chelate and 30 to the saline control. Rats were injected with the chelate or saline solution sc, twice daily during the 11th through 15th days of gestation. Pups removed by cesarean section on the 21st day were processed for osseous and visceral examination. Additional animals per treatment group were used for maternal plasma and liver and fetal zinc determinations. Results showed increases in several abnormalities (submucous cleft, cleft palate, adactyly-syndactyly, curly tail, abnormal rib and vertebrae) with increasing amounts of CaEDTA. No malformations were seen with ZnEDTA at either dose or with ZnCaEDTA at 8 mmol/m2/day. However, submucous cleft was seen in 6 of 20 litters from the dams receiving the higher dose of ZnCaEDTA. It was concluded that CaEDTA is teratogenic in rats at concentrations which, except for decreased weight gain, produce no discernible toxicity to the dam, and which are comparable to the recommended therapeutic dosage in humans (1500 mg/m2/day corresponding to 4 mmol/m2/day). Protection is afforded by incorporating zinc in the chelate.

  10. Mass-spectrometric investigation of rare earth acetylacetonates dipivaloylmethanates and their adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrishzhuk, E.M.; Dzyubenko, N.G.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    Peculiarities of fragmentation of molecular ions of rare earth acetylacetonates and dipivaloylmethanates under mass-spectrometric investigation of these compounds as well as their adducts with o-phenanthroline, α,α'-dipyridyl, triphenylphosphine oxide are considered in the given review. Similar data for identical derivants of some transitions metals are presented. Data on potentials of appearance and dissociation energy of basic ions in mass-spectra of the studied β-diketonates are analyzed

  11. The therapeutic effect on bone mineral formation from biomimetic zinc containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP in zinc-deficient osteoporotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×10(4 µg/g and phosphate (4×10(4 ppm after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×10(3 µg/g. In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, β-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc. CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and β-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model.

  12. 1,3-Dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, acetylacetone and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvents for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox-flow-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Noack, J.; Fischer, P.; Tübke, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solvents were employed in a non-aqueous redox flow battery system. • Coulombic efficiencies of 85.9–98.5% and energy efficiencies of 26.6–43.6% were achieved. • Discharge power density was enhanced up to 0.080 mW cm −2 . • Solubility of V(acac) 3 was increased to 0.8 M compared to the acetonitrile system. -- Abstract: A non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox flow battery with different organic solvents and tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate has been investigated. Cyclic voltammograms show three redox couples in 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, acetylacetone and two redox couples in dimethyl sulfoxide. Cell potentials between 2.21 and 2.61 V are measured, depending on the solvent used. Impedance Spectroscopy has been used to determine rate limiting step in the non-aqueous redox flow battery. Experiments in a charge–discharge test cell yielded coulombic and energy efficiencies of 85.9–98.5% and 26.6–43.6%, respectively

  13. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  14. Effect of zinc, copper and mercury on Channa marulius (Hamilton)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Static bioassay acute toxicity tests of zinc, copper and mercury were conducted to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC/sub 50/S) of a freshwater telcost Channa marulius (HAM.) The 96 h LC/sub 50/ for Zn/sup 2 +/ were 25.61 mg/l; 0.90 mg/l for Cu/sup 2 +/ and 0.314 mg/l for Hg/sup 2 +/. However, these values decreased at 240 h of exposure and were: 21.09 mg Zn/sup 2 +//l; 0.66 mg Cu/sup 2 +//l; and 0.31 mg Hg/sup 2 +//l. The relative potency ratio of Zn/Hg, Zn/Cu and Cu/Hg suggests that fish were most sensitive to Hg, followed by Cu and Zn ions. The acute toxicities of mixtures of Zn/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/; Zn/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/; Cu/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/ and Zu/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/ up to 48 h of exposure were also investigated. The additive index and ranges for Zn/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/ were -0.241 for Zn-Hg; 0.285 for Cu-Hg; and -0.542 for Zn-Cu-Hg. All the mixtures tested showed a greater than additive toxicity because index ranges overlapped zero.

  15. Effect of Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin C and E on Boar Ejaculate Quality at Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiment was to test effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E to reduce the impact of heat stress at boars. In the experiment, boars of Duroc breed were tested. The first control group (n = 10 was not supplemented with antioxidants. The second experimental group (n = 10 was supplemented with antioxidants in the following quantities of 0.5 mg of selenium (seleno-methionine, 100 mg of zinc (zinc-methionine, 70 mg of vitamin E (alpha‑tocopherol and 350 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid per kilogram of their feed. The experiment was carried out for 120 days and took place in summer (June to September. During the experiment, average and maximum daily temperatures, where boars were stabled, were monitored. Average daily temperature ranged from 12 to 28 °C. Maximum temperature during the day was from 13 to 32 °C. The evaluation of the semen quality has revealed increased number of abnormal spermatozoa in the control group of boars by 39 % (P < 0.05. There were observed no significant changes at other monitored parameters (ejaculate volume, total count of produced sperm, motility and sperm concentration. The results show that the addition of selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E may reduce the effect of heat stress to some extent at breeding boars.

  16. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats.

  17. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad; Rezvaneh, Ghazanfari; Shahroo, Etemad-Moghadam; Mojgan, Alaeddini; Azam, Khorshidian; Shahram, Rabbani; Reza, Shamshiri Ahmad; Nafiseh, Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL) width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats. PMID:27275614

  18. The zinc-loss effect and mobility enhancement of DUV-patterned sol-gel IGZO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuan-Hsun; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Soppera, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the composition of the DUV-patterned sol-gel indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and observe a significant zinc loss effect during developing when the DUV exposure is insufficient. The zinc loss, however, is beneficial for increasing the mobility. Reducing zinc to indium composition ratio from 0.5 to 0.02 can effectively increase mobility from 0.27 to 7.30 cm2 V-1 s-1 when the gallium to indium ratio is fixed as 0.25 and the post annealing process is fixed as 300 °C for 2 h. On the other hand, an IGO TFT fails to deliver a uniform film and a reproducible TFT performance, revealing the critical role of zinc in forming homogeneous IGZO TFTs.

  19. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  20. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro and in vivo effects of zinc on cytokine signalling in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varin, Audrey; Larbi, Anis; Dedoussis, George V; Kanoni, Stavroula; Jajte, Jolanta; Rink, Lothar; Monti, Daniela; Malavolta, Marco; Marcellini, Fiorella; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Herbein, Georges; Fulop, Tamas

    2008-05-01

    Aging is associated with changes in the immune response which are collectively called immunosenescence. The changes mainly affect the adaptive immune response and especially the T cell-mediated cellular immune response. There are a few data indicating that the cytokine signalling in T cells is altered with aging. Zinc has been specifically shown to have potent immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present work was to study the IL-2 and IL-6 cytokine signalling and activation induced cell death (AICD) in T cells of elderly subjects of various ages and from various European countries. These experiments were performed in the frame of European Community financed project called ZINCAGE "Nutritional zinc, oxidative stress and immunosenescence: biochemical, genetic and lifestyle implications for healthy ageing", assembling 17 laboratories from 8 countries through Europe. The study was carried out in a total of 312 French and a group of 201 (26 from Italy, 63 from France, 57 from Greece, 24 from Poland and 30 from Germany) healthy non-institutionalized men and women older than 60 years of age, with available dietary data. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from heparinized blood and were stimulated in vitro by IL-2 or IL-6 for various periods and the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 was measured by FACScan. The activation induced cell death (AICD) was measured after anti-CD3 and CD28 restimulation for 48h by using the Annexin:FITC Apoptosis Kit. We found that there is an IL-2 signalling defect with aging up to 90 years of age which cannot be modulated by zinc. In contrast at 90 years and over the zinc could reverse the negative signalling effect of IL-2. There is also a signalling defect for STAT3 and STAT5 activation in T cells under IL-6 stimulation with aging and the zinc supplementation could potentiate only the STAT5 activation in the age-group 90 years and over. Studying signalling in PBL from different countries we detected less

  2. Electrochemical evaluation of zinc effect on the corrosion of nickel alloy in PWR solutions with increasing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvial M, Gaston; Neves, Celia F.C.; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.; Quinan, Marco Antonio D.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective for the addition of zinc acetate to the reactor coolant system of PWRs is to effect radiation dose rate reductions. However, zinc is also added as an approach to mitigate the occurrence or severity of primary water stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloy 600. The mechanism by which zinc affects the corrosion of austenitic nickel-base alloys is by incorporation of zinc into the spinel oxide corrosion films. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of zinc on the corrosion behavior of the nickel alloy 600 in PWR chemical environment (1200 ppm B, 2.2 ppm Li, deoxygenated water) with increasing temperature at room pressure. Electrochemical tests (anodic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were used to characterize the alloy 600. Two conditions were applied: 0 and 100 ppb zinc and the temperature range was 50 - 90 deg C, at ambient pressure. Potentiodynamic polarization was inefficient to present conclusive results. Impedance measurements showed single semicircle in the Nyquist plane suggesting reduction of the charge transference resistance in zinc-containing solutions. This effect is evident at 90 deg C suggesting prejudicial influence of zinc for the alloy 600 at room pressure. (author)

  3. Effect of cholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of zinc in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S.I.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of cholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of 65 Zn was assessed in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rachitic chicks, using the in situ ligated loop techniques. Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect 65 Zn absorption in either group, although the synthesis of the intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in both groups was similar. In an analogous study, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased 47 Ca absorption and induced the synthesis of CaBP but exerted no effect on 65 Zn absorption in zinc-deficient rachitic chicks. When fed a diet adequate in cholecalciferol, more CaBP was present in the intestine of the zinc-adequate group than in the zinc-deficient group, possibly due to the greater rate of growth and therefore the greater need for calcium by the former group. These results suggest that cholecalciferol and its most active metabolite do not directly affect zinc absorption and, by inference, that the vitamin D-dependent transport mechanism is not involved in zinc homeostasis, or in the interaction between calcium and zinc

  4. A COMMUNITY BASED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IRON AND ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION IN INFANTS: EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lind

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies of iron and zinc are associated with delayed development, growth faltering, and increased infectious disease morbidity during infancy and childhood. Combined iron and zinc supplementation may therefore be a logical preventive strategy. Objective: the objective of the study was to compare the effects of combined iron and zinc supplementation in infancy with the effects of iron and zinc as single micronutrients on growth, psychomotor development, and incidence of infectious disease. Design: Indonesian infants (n = 680 were randomly assigned to daily supplementation with 10 mg Fe (Fe group, 10 mg Zn (Zn group, 10 mg Fe and 10 mg Zn (Fe + Zn group, or placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. Anthropometric indexes, developmental indexes (bay ley scales of infant development; sid, and morbidity were recorded. Results: at 12 mo, two factor analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between Iron and Zinc for weight for age z score, knee heel length, and sid psychomotor development. Weight forage z score was higher in the Zn group than in the placebo and Fe + Zn groups, knee heel length was higher in the Zn and Fe groups than in the placebo group, and the sid psychomotor development index was higher in the Fe group than in the placebo group. No significant effect on morbidity was found. Conclusions: single supplementation with zinc significantly improved growth, and single supplementation with iron significantly improved growth and psychomotor development, but combined supplementation with iron and zinc had no significant effect on growth or development. Combined, simultaneous supplementation with iron and zinc to infants cannot be routinely recommended at the iron to zinc ratio used in this study.Key words: infants, growth, knee heel length, development, iron, zinc.

  5. Effect of zinc on nectar secretion of Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawidis, Thomas; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Voulgaropoulou, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Zinc toxicity in secretory cells caused a range of effects, mainly depending on metal concentration. Low concentrations activated nectary function increasing nectar secretion but secretion was greatly inhibited or stopped entirely by ongoing concentration. Water loss rate of zinc treated flower parts was significantly reduced whereas green sepals were dehydrated more rapidly in comparison to colored petals. The content of zinc, calcium, magnesium and manganese increased mainly in sepals under excess of zinc, but in the secreted nectar this metal was not evident. Morphological changes were observed in mucilage cells concerning the mucilage structure and appearance. The parenchymatic, subglandular cells displayed an early vacuolarization and cytoplasm condensation. Secretory hairs appeared to be thinner, the apical cell folded inwards and plasmolytic shrinkage became severe in all cells. The waxy cuticula showed an increased electron density. A plasmalemma detachment from the external cell walls was observed creating a gap between cell wall and plasmalemma. ER cisterns of all treated nectary hairs dominated the cytoplasm and electron dense deposits were seen within its profiles. A great number of other organelles were also present, showing electron dense deposits in their membranes as well. The vacuome was drastically reduced in all cells, except in the subglandular ones and electron dense membrane remnants were observed.

  6. Free zinc ion and dissolved orthophosphate effects on phytoplankton from Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Topping, B.R.; Woods, P.F.; Carter, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Coeur d'Alene Lake in northern Idaho is fed by two major rivers: the Coeur d'Alene River from the east and the St. Joe River from the south, with the Spokane River as its outlet to the north. This phosphorus-limited lake has been subjected to decades of mining (primarily for zinc and silver) and other anthropogenic inputs. A 32 full-factorial experimental design was used to examine the interactive effects of free (uncomplexed) zinc ion and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations on phytoplankton that were isolated from two sites along a longitudinal zinc-concentration gradient in Coeur d'Alene Lake. The two sites displayed different dominant taxa. Chlorella minutissima, a dominant species near the southern St. Joe River inlet, exhibited greater sensitivity to free Zn ions than Asterionella formosa, collected nearer the Coeur d'Alene River mouth with elevated dissolved-zinc concentrations. Empirical phytoplankton-response models were generated to describe phytoplankton growth in response to remediation strategies in the surrounding watershed. If dissolved Zn can be reduced in the water column from >500 nM (i.e., current concentrations near and down stream of the Coeur d'Alene River plume) to management of phosphorus inputs by surrounding communities will ultimately determine the limnologic state of the lake.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation and nano-zinc oxide content on the properties of recycled polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ana Luiza F.; Mendes, Luis C.; Cestari, Sibele P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote the barrier action to the ultraviolet radiation and increase of mechanical characteristics, nanocomposites of recycled polycarbonate (rPC) and nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) containing 1, 2 and 3 % (wt/wt) of nano oxide were prepared. Since for obtaining nanocomposites and irradiating polymers are promising tools and attractive for improving the material performance, the effects of nano-zinc oxide and gamma radiation, at doses ranged from 10 to 50 kGy, were evaluated in terms of thermal characteristics of the rPC. The rPC/nZnO nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential exploratory calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). There was a progressive decrease of the T_g as function of gamma dosage and nano-zinc oxide content. Initially, the T_o_n_s_e_t and T_m_a_x decayed as function of gamma dosage but a recovery was observed. The amount of nano-zinc oxide induced a decreasing of T_o_n_s_e_t and T_m_a_x. (author)

  8. The effect of zinc thickness on corrosion film breakdown of Colombian galvanized steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; E Torres Ramirez, J.; Cabrales-Villamizar, P. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the corrosion behaviour of Colombian galvanized steel in solutions of chloride and sulphate ions. The effect of the thickness and exposure time on the film’s breakdown susceptibility and protectiveness of the corrosion products were studied using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion products were analysed using SEM-EDS and XRD. The samples with a higher thickness level in the zinc film (Z180) have the lowest corrosion rate. In this case, one of the products that was formed by the chemical reactions that occurred was Zinc hydroxide, which exhibits a passive behaviour as observed in the Pourbaix curves of the obtained potentials and in how the different Ph levels of the solutions worked. The sheets with the highest thickness (Z180) had the best performance, since at the end of the study they showed the least amount of damage on the surface of the zinc layer. This is because the thickness of the zinc layer favours the formation of simonkolleite, which is the corrosion product that protects the material under the conditions of the study.

  9. Effect of zinc insertion and hydrophobicity on the membrane interactions and PDT activity of porphyrin photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Christiane; Uchoa, Adjaci F; Oliveira, Carla S; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S

    2009-02-01

    A series of photosensitizers (PS), which are meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, was synthesized in order to study the role of amphiphilicity and zinc insertion in photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Several properties of the PS were evaluated and compared within the series including photophysical properties (absorption spectra, fluorescence quantum yield Phif, and singlet oxygen quantum yield PhiDelta), uptake by vesicles, mitochondria and HeLa cells, dark and phototoxicity in HeLa cells. The photophysical properties of all compounds are quite similar (Phifzinc in the porphyrin ring result in higher vesicle and cell uptake. Binding in mitochondria is dependent on the PS lipophilicity and on the electrochemical membrane potential, i.e., in uncoupled mitochondria PS binding decreases by up to 53%. The porphyrin substituted with octyl groups (TC8PyP) is the compound that is most enriched in mitochondria, and its zinc derivative (ZnTC8PyP) has the highest global uptake. The stronger membrane interaction of the zinc-substituted porphyrins is attributed to a complexing effect with phosphate groups of the phospholipids. Zinc insertion was also shown to decrease the interaction with isolated mitochondria and with the mitochondria of HeLa cells, an effect that has been explained by the particular characteristics of the mitochondrial internal membrane. Phototoxicity was shown to increase proportionally with membrane binding efficiency, which is attributed to favorable membrane interactions which allow more efficient membrane photooxidation. For this series of compounds, photodynamic efficiency is directly proportional to the membrane binding and cell uptake, but it is not totally related to mitochondrial targeting.

  10. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  11. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  12. Effects of separate delivery of zinc or zinc and vitamin A on hemoglobin response, growth, and diarrhea in young Peruvian children receiving iron therapy for anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Karl; Kolsteren, Patrick W; Prada, Ana M; Chian, Ana M; Velarde, Ruth E; Pecho, Iris L; Hoeree, Tom F

    2004-11-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. Attempts to improve iron indexes are affected by deficiency of and interaction between other micronutrients. Our goal was to assess whether zinc added to iron treatment alone or with vitamin A improves iron indexes and affects diarrheal episodes. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted in Peru. Anemic children aged 6-35 mo were assigned to 3 treatment groups: ferrous sulfate (FS; n = 104), ferrous sulfate and zinc sulfate (FSZn; n = 109), and ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, and vitamin A (FSZnA; n = 110). Vitamin A or its placebo was supplied only once; iron and zinc were provided under supervision >/=1 h apart 6 d/wk for 18 wk. The prevalence of anemia was 42.97%. The increase in hemoglobin in the FS group (19.5 g/L) was significantly less than that in the other 2 groups (24.0 and 23.8 g/L in the FSZn and FSZnA groups, respectively). The increase in serum ferritin in the FS group (24.5 mug/L) was significantly less than that in the other 2 groups (33.0 and 30.8 mug/L in the FSZn and FSZnA groups, respectively). The median duration of diarrhea and the mean number of stools per day was significantly higher in the FS group than in other 2 groups (P < 0.005). Adding zinc to iron treatment increases hemoglobin response, improves iron indexes, and has positive effects on diarrhea. No additional effect of vitamin A was found.

  13. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Effect of Zinc Lozenge on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Borzoo; Grondin, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is commonly seen after endotracheal intubation, and oral zinc prevents oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy. This study is designed to evaluate the effects of administration of zinc lozenges on POST. Seventy-nine patients undergoing low- or moderate-risk surgery with endotracheal intubation were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Control group received placebo and zinc group received 40-mg zinc lozenges 30 minutes preoperatively. Patients were assessed for incidence and severity (4-point scale, 0-3) of POST at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of POST at 0, 2, and 24 hours and the severity of POST. At 4 hours, there was a significantly lower incidence of POST in the zinc group, 7%, than the control group, 29% (P = .046). The incidence of POST at 0 hour was 0% in zinc group and 24% in control group (P = .004). The highest incidence of POST occurred at the second hour after surgery, with the rate of 10% in the zinc group and 34% in the control group (P = .0495). The incidence of POST at 24 hours was 13% in zinc group and 24% in control group (not significant). The severity of POST was significantly lower in the zinc group for mild (P = .003) and moderate (P = .004) POST. The administration of a single dose of 40-mg zinc lozenge 30 minutes preoperatively is effective to reduce both incidence of POST in the first 4 hours and severity of mild and moderate POST in the immediate postoperative period.

  15. Effect of Zinc Sulfate Use on Acute Diarrhea in Children (A Clinical Trial

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    Z. Movahedi, MD*; , MD*; , MSc**;

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesDiarrhea which leads to zinc wasting from body is one of the major causes of mortality in children around the world. Zinc is one of the elements that facilitate the repair of stomach and intestinal mucosa, stimulation of immune system, control and transfer of water and electrolytes in our body. World Health Organization (WHO recommends use of zinc sulfate in all cases of diarrhea in addition to replacement of fluids and continuation of feeding in treatment of children with diarrhea. The objective of this study is evaluation of the effect of zinc sulfate (ZnSo4 on the recovery duration and appetite in children with diarrhea. This study evaluates the effect of ZnSo4 in prevention of respiratory infection and diarrhea for two months after taking the ZnSo4.MethodsTwo groups of children (total n=153 with non dysenteric acute diarrhea who were hospitalized in Qom’s children hospital in 2007 were used in this clinical trials. Sixty four of these children (n=64 were randomized to the study group and eighty nine (n=89 to the control group. The children in the control group received the standard therapy (fluid & electrolyte therapy &continuation of feeding for treatment of diarrhea and the children in the study group received standard treatment, and 5 mg of zinc sulfate twice daily for two weeks. Neither of these two groups received any anti diarrhea therapy and/or antibiotics. Both groups were monitored for occurrence of new episodes of diarrhea and/or respiratory tract infection for two months after the end of their hospitalization. T-score and Fisher tools were used for statistical analysis of the gathered data.ResultsChildren in two groups had several similarities such as gender, decrease in appetite, nausea and vomiting. There was not a significant difference between two groups with respect to the length of recovery, new incidence of diarrhea, and respiratory tract infection within two months after hospitalization. However

  16. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  17. Combined effect of zinc, chromium, and cadmium on bacterial biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsak, M N; Nakani, D V; Chol' naya, G G

    1976-01-01

    The present work was carried out at the Rybinskoye storage-lake in 1974. Some tolerance limits of zinc, chromium and cadmium were chosen for the investigation. The bacterial production was estimated by /sup 14/C heterotrophic assimilation. Natural water included in polyethylene reservoirs was used. The bacterial production was determined in one to three days after the beginning of the experiment. In most off the experiments the negative influence of zinc and chromium on the bacterial biomass production was registered only after 3 days of exposure. The effect of cadmium during the entire period of observations proved to be unreliable. The effect of chromium was fairly constant in different seasons. The interaction of toxicants was not revealed in any the of experiments. 8 references.

  18. The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Safflower Plant Growth and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hafizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a study of the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on safflower growth and physiology was performed. Each of these elements plays a particular role in the plant life, the presence of these elements is necessary for plant’s life cycle and growth. Zinc deficiency causes the biggest problems in safflower’s production. Considering the importance of nanoparticles in today's world, this research investigated the effect of Zinc oxide nanoparticles on the concentration of guaiacol peroxidase, polypeptide oxidase, dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde in four plant sample groups in greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Results of showed that malondialdehyde enzyme increased with different treatments of various concentrations of Zinc oxide. The enzyme guaiacol oxidase increased at concentrations of 100 mg/L and polyphenol oxide at concentrations of 10 and 500 mg/L and dehydrogenase in 1000 mg/L and decreased in other treatments. In addition to showing the effect of nanoparticles in plants, these findings determine the beneficial concentrations of nanoparticles that have a positive effect on the level of enzymes in plants.

  19. Effects of extracellular zinc ion on the rate of oxygen consumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitory effect of extracellular zinc ion on the rate of oxygen consumption of rat brain mitochondria pre-incubated in 1.0 mM Ca2+EDTA were determined. There was a significant increase [P<0.01] in the rate of oxygen consumption in the rat brain mitochondria pre-incubated in 1.0 mM. Ca2+EDTA in a succinate ...

  20. Effects of the zinc and zinc-nickel alloys electroplating on the corrodibility of reinforced concrete rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. CEDRIM

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper shows the analysis performed on the corrosion parameters of three groups of reinforcing steel bars, two of these coated by electroplating process with Zinc (Zn and Zinc-Nickel (Zn-Ni, and the other without any coating. It was used reinforced concrete specimens, which ones were grouped and then subjected to two different corrosion accelerating methods: aging wetting/drying cycles and salt spray exposure. Corrosion potential was measured to qualitative monitoring of the process and, after the end of the tests, corrosion rate was estimated by measuring the mass loss, to quantitative analyses. As it was expected, coated bars presented a better performance than the average bars regarding the corrosion resistance in chloride ions containing environments. It was also observed that the drying/ NaCl solution wetting cycles seems to be more severe than salt spray fog apparatus with respect to the acceleration of corrosion process.

  1. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

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    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  2. Lack of effect of zinc sulfate on wheezing after bronchiolitis in infants less than two years

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    R Abasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Wheezing after bronchiolitis is known as a risk factor for asthma. No cure or effective vaccine has been identified for such disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc sulfate on persistent wheezing after bronchiolitis in infants less than two years. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 90 infants under two years of age suffering from the first attack with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis wheezing hospitalized in Imam Sajjad Hospital, Yasuj. All infants were equally placed in test groups and control group. In addition to bronchiolitis usual treatment, test group received 20 mg of elemental zinc for seven days. Patient information including risk factors associated with wheezing and persistent wheezing were compared 48 hours and two weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t tests. Results: In all 90 infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis, wheezing was observed. After 48 hours and two weeks wheezing was continued in 67 patients (74.4% and 54 patients (60% respectively Conclusion: The results showed Zinc sulfate had no effect on the improvement of wheezing after bronchiolitis.

  3. Effects of zinc and female aging on nymphal life history in a grasshopper from polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Maria; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Kozłowski, Michał; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Michał

    2008-01-01

    Insect reproduction is influenced by various factors, including food quality and quantity, temperature, population density and female age. Contamination, including heavy metals, may disturb reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to assess interactions between effects of aging in female Chorthippus brunneus and environmental pollution on their reproduction measured in number of laid eggs. We also compared basic developmental parameters (number of hatchlings, body mass, embryonic developmental rate) in grasshopper nymphs additionally exposed to zinc during diapause. Aging grasshoppers from heavily polluted areas (Olkusz and Szopienice) lay significantly fewer eggs than insects from the reference site (Pilica). Zinc application caused the decrease in hatching success and duration of embryogenesis in insects from each site. This suggests a cumulative effect of female age, pollutants and additional stressing factors. The intensity of this process differed between populations. In insects from the reference site, it was shown in a moderate degree. In insects from Szopienice, an additional stressor exerted a weaker effect than in insects from Pilica. In grasshoppers from Olkusz, we found the strongest decrease of hatching percentage and increase in duration of embryogenesis after zinc intoxication. This may indicate that the population from Olkusz exists at the limit of its energetic abilities.

  4. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effect of zinc therapy in patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis on some trace elements in serum and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBedewl, A.E.; ElSaid, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of zinc therapy on some trace elements in serum and skin had been studied in forty patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis with age range between 20-65 years. Patients were treated with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 week. Significant increases in both serum and skin copper levels were detected. Also, serum and skin calcium and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients were significantly decreased, while iron level was significantly increased in psoriasis and significantly decreased in a topic patients. It could be conclude that zinc therapy could affect copper, calcium, iron and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients

  6. Synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide on flammability behaviour of aerospace epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardancy of mono-component epoxy resin (RTM6, widely used for aerospace composites, treated with zinc borate (ZB, aluminium trihydroxide (ATH and their mixtures at different concentrations have been investigated by morphological and thermal characterization. Cone calorimeter data reveal that combustion behaviour, heat release rate peak (PHRR and heat release rate average (HRR Average of RTM6 resin decrease substantially when synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide intervene. Thermogravimetric (TGA results and analysis of the residue show that addition higher than 20% w/w of ZB, ATH, and their mixture greatly promotes RTM6 char formation acting as a barrier layer for the fire development. Depending upon the different used flame additives, SEM micrographs indicate that the morphology of residual char could vary from a compact amalgam-like structure, for the RTM6+ZB system, to a granular structure, characterized by very small particles of degraded resin and additive for the ATH.

  7. Chondroprotective effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles in conjunction with hypoxia on bovine cartilage-matrix synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Eraj Humayun; Pan-Pan, Chong; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar Bin; Djordjevic, Ivan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a tissue specifically adapted to a specific niche with a low oxygen tension (hypoxia), and the presence of such conditions is a key factor in regulating growth and survival of chondrocytes. Zinc deficiency has been linked to cartilage-related disease, and presence of Zinc is known to provide antibacterial benefits, which makes its inclusion attractive in an in vitro system to reduce infection. Inclusion of 1% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) in poly octanediol citrate (POC) polymer cultured in hypoxia has not been well determined. In this study we investigated the effects of ZnONP on chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis cultured under normoxia (21% O2 ) and hypoxia (5% O2 ). We report an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in hypoxic culture. Results demonstrate a synergistic effect of oxygen concentration and 1% ZnONP in up-regulation of anabolic gene expression (Type II collagen and aggrecan), and a down regulation of catabolic (MMP-13) gene expression. Furthermore, production of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF-1A) in response to hypoxic condition to regulate chondrocyte survival under hypoxia is not affected by the presence of 1% ZnONP. Presence of 1% ZnONP appears to act to preserve homeostasis of cartilage in its hypoxic environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of different chelated zinc sources on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

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    M. Tahir

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during spring, 2007 to evaluate the effect of different chelated zinc sources on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.. Crop was sown on well prepared soil in 1st week of March, 2007. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design. The treatments comprised of different chelated zinc sources: ZnSO4-DTPA, ZnSO4-Fulvate, ZnSO4-Lignosulphonate, ZnSO4-EDTA and ZnSO4-H2O along with control (no zinc, repeated three times. Results showed that number of cobs plant-1, grain rows cob-1 and oil contents did not differ significantly. However, differences among treatments for plant height at harvest (cm, leaf area plant-1 (cm2, stem diameter (cm, cob length (cm, cob diameter (cm, 100-grains weight (g, number of grains cob-1, grains weight cob-1(g, biological yield (tons ha-1, grain yield (tons ha-1 and protein contents (% were significantly higher. Moreover, results also revealed that ZnSO4-DPTA was found the most effective Zn chelated source among all the treatments. Rest of the chelating agents were not too impressive as they showed varied response for different variables. The result of this experiment suggest further experimentation to explore behaviour of Zn-DTPA with other macro and micro nutrients and to calculate cost benefit ratio for use ofZn chelated compounds.

  9. Effect of long-term zinc pollution on soil microbial community resistance to repeated contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg(-1) soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g(-1) soil dw each) were added. There was a highly significant effect of soil type, copper treatment and oxytetracycline/captan treatment. The initial respiration rate of chronically zinc-polluted soil was higher than that of unpolluted soil, but in the copper treatment it showed a greater decline. Microorganisms in copper-treated soil were more susceptible to oxytetracycline/captan contamination. After the successive soil contamination trials the decline of soil respiration was greater in zinc-polluted soil than in unpolluted soil.

  10. The effect of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of casting Al-Cu alloys

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    Manasijević Ivana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the main alloying elements for aluminum casting alloys. As an alloying element, copper significantly increases the tensile strength and toughness of alloys based on aluminum. The copper content in the industrial casting aluminum alloys ranges from 3,5 to 11 wt.%. However, despite the positive effect on the mechanical properties, copper has a negative influence on the corrosion resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In order to further improve the properties of Al-Cu alloys they are additional alloyed with elements such as zinc, magnesium and others. In this work experimental and analytical examination of the impact of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys was carried out. In order to determine the effect of the addition of zinc to the structure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys two alloys of Al-Cu-Zn system with selected compositions were prepared and then examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The experimental results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria.

  11. Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the 109 Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the 65 Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the 65 Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the 109 Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of 65 Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age

  12. Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grider, A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the /sup 65/Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the /sup 65/Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of /sup 65/Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age.

  13. Zinc Sulfate: An Effective Micronutrient for Common Colds in Children: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cold is defined as a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The disease is more common in children than in adults and usually requires greater attention and care. Methods This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial (zinc versus placebo of zinc was carried out using a repeated measures design. After excluding the cases that met the exclusion criteria, data was collected from 120 participants and analyzed. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months (June 2015 to August 2015. The intervention group received Zinc (1 mg/kg for 7 days and the control group received the same amount of placebo. Results The durations of runny nose and nasal congestion was significantly shorter in patients in the intervention group, who had received zinc, when compared with the control group (P = 0.017 and P = 0.001, respectively. Moreover, there were significant differences between patients, who received zinc and those, who did not receive the drug, in terms of the duration, severity of signs and symptoms, severity of illness, and weakness (P = 0.018. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and other similar studies, zinc sulfate has positive effects on children with colds. Thus, the results of these studies could be utilized by medical teams to adopt a more accurate and complete clinical approach towards the use of zinc sulfate for patients with colds.

  14. Effects of Dietary Zinc Oxide and a Blend of Organic Acids on Broiler Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Serum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Sarvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. A total of 2400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, with average initial body weight 44.21±0.19g, was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30% were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. The experimental diets were supplied ad libitum for 42 days. There were significant performance differences among birds fed the different zinc oxide and organic acid blend levels until 42 d of age (p<0.01. The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. Carcass traits were not influenced by the experimental supplements. Zinc oxide supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.01. The organic acid blend reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance.

  15. Effect of synthesized zinc stearate on the properties of natural rubber vulcanizates in the absence and presence of some fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helaly, F.M.; El Sabbagh, S.H.; El Kinawy, O.S.; El Sawy, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The mechanical properties of NR were enhanced through partial and complete replacement of zinc stearate. → The effect of adding different concentrations of zinc stearate on the physic-mechanical and SEM properties has been investigated. → Zinc stearate was found to play dual role, it reinforces the matrix blow its melting point and higher temperature it plasticizers the system. → Zinc stearate can be used as activator for sulfur vulcanization process of rubber instead of ZnO and stearic acid; in absence and presence of fillers. -- Abstract: Zinc stearate was synthesized by precipitation method through two steps; neutralization of stearic acid by sodium hydroxide then double decomposition using zinc sulphate to precipitate zinc stearate. Mass balances of the two steps were calculated and the physical properties of the prepared zinc stearate were measured and compared to standard. It was characterized and incorporated it into natural rubber in the absence and presence of some filler through mixing process of rubber. The vulcanization process was carried out at 142 o C. The rheological properties of natural rubber mixes were measured using oscillating disc rheometer. The plysico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates were determined using tensile testing machine. It was found that, partial and complete replacement of synthesized zinc stearate instead of the conventional zinc oxide and stearic acid; enhanced the physico-mechanical properties of natural rubber. The measured reinforcing parameter value α f can be arranged according to the type of filler as follows: HAF>Hisil>CaCO 3 >Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 >BaSO 4 >Talc The highest value of α f represents the strength of filler and consequently the reinforcing effect of carbon black (HAF) filler while the lowest value of α f was observed for Talc which show moderate reinforcing effect of Talc. The scanning electron microscope study showed high surface homogenity and good dispersion of zinc

  16. Investigation of zirconium oxychloride interaction with acetylacetone by the method of pH-metric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkova, N.Ya.; Martynenko, L.I.; Dzyubenko, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    Interaction of zirconium oxychloride with acetylacetone (NA) was studied by the method of pH-metric titration using KOH and NH 4 OH as neutralizing agents. It is shown that processes of hydrolysis and complexation complete in the system. It was established that decrease of hydrolysis of Zr-containing complex forms and ZrA 4 · 10H 2 O isolation takes place in relatively concentrated solutions of ZrOCl 2 and NA mixture, taken with 1:4 molar ratio when using NH 4 OH as neutralizing agent

  17. Mass spectrometry study of sublimation of rare earth acetylacetonate adducts with hexamethylphosphorustriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Semyannikov, P.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk

    1991-01-01

    Process of vacuum sublimation of MA 3 ·Q adducts (M=Nd,Ho,Er; A - -acetylacetonate-ion; Q-hexamethylphosphorustriamide) was studied by mass-spectrometry method. Composinion of gaseous phase, formed in 20-140 deg C range at 10 -5 mm Hg, was determined. Scheme of MA 3 ·Q sublimation, including Q splitting and transition of MA 3 ·Q adducts and MA 3 and Q products of their thermodestruction to gaseous phase, was suggested. ΔH values of MA 3 ·Q thermodestruction and MA 3 sublimation were calculated

  18. Extraction of acetylacetonates of some metals from melts of trihydrate lithium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevast'yanov, A.I.; Rudenko, N.P.; Kuznetsov, A.F.; Lanskaya, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Extraction of beryllium cobalt and lithium from melts of trihydrate lithium nitrate at 37 deg C using 0.5 mol solutions of acetylacetone in chloroform, tetrachlorethylene and carbon tetrachloride is studied. Beryllium is quantitatively extracted at pH 3.8-5.5, the phase volume ratio being V org :V melt from 1:1 to 1:10. The degree of the beryllium complex unitary extraction from melt depends on the nature of organic solvent and is 100% for CCl 4 , CHCl 3 and 85% for C 2 Cl 4 . Solvents on Be extraction ability are placed in the following series CCl 4 > CHCl 3 >C 2 Cl 4

  19. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Growth Outcomes in Children under 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enju Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2 Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017. Inclusion selection and data extractions were performed independently and in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Findings were pooled using random effects meta-analysis, with heterogeneity assessed by I2 and τ2 statistic, stratified analyses, and meta-regression, and publication bias by Egger’s and Begg’s tests; (3 Results: Seventy-eight trials with 34,352 unique participants were identified, including 24 during pregnancy and 54 in infancy/childhood. Maternal zinc supplementation did not significantly increase birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD = 0.08 kg, 95%CI: −0.05, 0.22 or decrease the risk of low birth weight (RR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.52–1.11. Zinc supplementation after birth increased height (WMD = 0.23 cm, 95%CI: 0.09–0.38, weight (WMD = 0.14 kg, 95%CI: 0.07–0.21, and weight-for-age Z-score (WMD = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.001–0.087, but not height-for-age Z-score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: −0.01–0.06 or weight-for-height Z score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: −0.03–0.06. Child age at zinc supplementation appeared to modify the effects on height (P-interaction = 0.002 and HAZ (P-interaction = 0.06, with larger effects of supplementation starting at age ≥2 years (WMD for height = 1.37 cm, 95%CI: 0.50–2.25; WMD for HAZ = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.05–0.19. No significant effects of supplementation were found on the risk of stunting, underweight or wasting; (4 Conclusion: Although the possibility of

  20. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their effect on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... chemical technique and their properties were studied with the help of scanning electron microscope ... The effect of nanoparticles on bacteria is very important ... citrate tribasic dehydrate, ammonium sulphate, ethanol and.

  1. Bioprotective effect of zinc in macro- and nanoaquachelate form on embryonal development of rats in conditions of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of studied influence of low doses of lead and zinc (nanozinc on embryonal development in a la¬boratory experiment on rats. Negative influence of lead on pregnancy of laboratory animals, manifested in violation of the physiological dynamics of the rectal temperature and decrease in body weight gain was revealed. Embryotoxic effect of low doses of lead results in increased fetal mortality by 2.16 times compared to the control group of animals, de¬terioration of the morphometric indices of fetuses, violation of placentogenesis. Simultaneous injections of zinc on back¬ground of lead intoxication causes a protective effect on the body of pregnant rats and embryonal development of the offspring, more pronounced for zinc citrate, received by using aquananotehnology, as compared to zinc chloride. Thus, by morphometry indices, male fetuses were more sensitive to prenatal lead exposure in comparison to female fetuses.

  2. Effect of Zinc Sulfate Use on Acute Diarrhea in Children (A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movahedi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Diarrhea which leads to zinc wasting from body is one of the major causes of mortality in children around the world. Zinc is one of the elements that facilitate the repair of stomach and intestinal mucosa, stimulation of immune system, control and transfer of water and electrolytes in our body. World Health Organization (WHO recommends use of zinc sulfate in all cases of diarrhea in addition to replacement of fluids and continuation of feeding in treatment of children with diarrhea. The objective of this study is evaluation of the effect of zinc sulfate (ZnSo4 on the recovery duration and appetite in children with diarrhea. This study evaluates the effect of ZnSo4 in prevention of respiratory infection and diarrhea for two months after taking the ZnSo4.

    Methods

    Two groups of children (total n=153 with non dysenteric acute diarrhea who were hospitalized in Qom’s children hospital in 2007 were used in this clinical trials. Sixty four of these children (n=64 were randomized to the study group and eighty nine (n=89 to the control group. The children in the control group received the standard therapy (fluid & electrolyte therapy &continuation of feeding  for treatment of diarrhea and the children in the study group received standard treatment, and 5 mg of zinc sulfate twice daily for two weeks. Neither of these two groups received any anti diarrhea therapy and/or antibiotics. Both groups were monitored for occurrence of new episodes of diarrhea and/or respiratory tract infection for two months after the end of their hospitalization. T-score and Fisher tools were used for statistical analysis of the gathered data.

    Results

    Children in two groups had several similarities such as gender, decrease in appetite, nausea and vomiting. There was not a significant difference between two groups with respect to the length of recovery, new incidence of

  3. Synergistic Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Fatty Acids on Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Kermanizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The ZnO NPs exposure concentration dependently induced cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells showing as reduced proliferation and activity measured by 3 different assays. PA exposure induced cytotoxicity, and coexposure to ZnO NPs and PA showed the largest cytotoxic effects. The presence......Fatty acids exposure may increase sensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells to cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ZnO NPs and palmitic acid (PA) or free fatty acids (FFAs) mixture (oleic/PA 2:1) on toxicity to human colon...

  4. Effect of dislocations of forest on relaxation of mechanical stresses in irradiated zinc crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Kalymbetov, P.U.; Kusainov, S.G.; Shambulov, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of forest dislocations on the value of electron-plastic effect (EPE) in zinc crystals during their irradiation by accelerated electron packets is investigated. The following mechanical parameters are determined experimentally: total relaxation of voltages Δσ for 180s; change in reforming voltage Δσpl in single pulses of irradiation on the slope and bottom of relaxation curves. The results obtained testify to the effectiveness of forest dislocations as surmountable obstacles for the dislocations shiding in the basis plane

  5. Effects of natural organic matter properties on the dissolution kinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is a key step of controlling their environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity. Rates of dissolution often depend upon factors such as interactions of NPs with natural organic matter (NOM). We examined the effects of 16 different NOM isolates on the dissolution kinetics of ZnO NPs in buffered potassium chloride solution using anodic stripping voltammetry to directly measure dissolved zinc concentrations. The observed dissolution rate constants (kobs) and dissolved zinc concentrations at equilibrium increased linearly with NOM concentration (from 0 to 40 mg C L–1) for Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. When dissolution rates were compared for the 16 NOM isolates, kobs was positively correlated with certain properties of NOM, including specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), aromatic and carbonyl carbon contents, and molecular weight. Dissolution rate constants were negatively correlated to hydrogen/carbon ratio and aliphatic carbon content. The observed correlations indicate that aromatic carbon content is a key factor in determining the rate of NOM-promoted dissolution of ZnO NPs. The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of the fate of ZnO NPs in organic-rich aquatic environments and highlight SUVA as a facile and useful indicator of NOM interactions with metal-based nanoparticles.

  6. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Seligson, F.H.; Hughes, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    We measured the effect of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on whole-body retention of zinc-65 in 11 and iron-59 in 13 healthy, postmenopausal women. In a single-blind, controlled, crossover study, each subject, on three occasions, ingested a standard test meal supplemented with iron-59 or zinc-65 and capsules containing placebo or 500 mg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate or hydroxyapatite. Whole-body countings were performed prior to, 30 min after, and 2 wk after each meal. Mean (SEM) zinc retention was 18.1 +/- 1.0% with placebo (control) and did not vary significantly with calcium carbonate (110.0 +/- 8.6% of control) or hydroxyapatite (106.0 +/- 7.9% of control). Iron retention, 6.3 +/- 2.0% with placebo, was significantly reduced with both calcium carbonate (43.3 +/- 8.8% of control, p = 0.002) and hydroxyapatite (45.9 +/- 10.0% of control, p = 0.003). Iron absorption may be significantly reduced when calcium supplements are taken with meals

  7. The effects of zinc on cobalt deposition in PWRs: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet, Peter

    1996-01-01

    An experiment has been performed in a PWR loop of the Halden reactor to investigate the effects of the addition of 50 ppb zinc to the coolant on the incorporation of cobalt into the oxide films on primary circuit constructional materials. This report summarises the results from the three phases of the test. It was shown that zinc addition inhibits the corrosion of both new metal surfaces and surfaces with well-established oxides; this results in thinner oxide layers and reduced incorporation of cobalt into the oxide. Generally, there were no significant differences between the deposition of cobalt-60 onto pre-oxidised and new metal surfaces. In Phase 1 of the experiment, Co-60 deposition rates (normalised to the circulating Co-60 concentration) were lower than those measured in previous experiments in the loop by factors in the range from 5 to 10. In Phase 2, differences were observed in the behaviour of iron- and nickel-based alloys: larger decreases in the deposition rate compared with Phase 1 took place for stainless steel samples (i.e. factors > 20), whilst decreases on nickel-based coupons were generally less than a factor of 5. Co-60 deposition rates onto stainless steel coupons newly installed for Phase 3 of the experiment were greater by an order of magnitude than on coupons which had been exposed for all three phases; i.e. they were similar to those observed in Phase 1. The mechanisms by which zinc acts to inhibit corrosion and the incorporation of activity into oxide layers are not fully understood. More experimental data are required to resolve this issue, including information on the chemical form of the zinc within the oxide layer. (author)

  8. Sublethal haematological effects of zinc on the freshwater fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... were taken from the control and experimental fish. ... differential white blood cell counts were decreased except for the lymphocytes in which ... this indicates a depressive effect on tissue respiration ..... the reduction in cellular blood iron, resulting in reduced ... Changes in carbohydrate metabolism occur in.

  9. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  10. Acetylacetone as an efficient electron shuttle for concerted redox conversion of arsenite and nitrate in the opposite direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Song, Xiaojie; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Bingdang; Zhang, Guoyang; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-11-01

    The redox conversion of arsenite and nitrate has direct effects on their potential environment risks. Due to the similar reduction potentials, there are few technologies that can simultaneously oxidize arsenite and reduce nitrate in one process. Here, we demonstrate that a diketone-mediated photochemical process could efficiently do this. A combined experimental and theoretical investigation was conducted to elucidate the mechanisms behind the redox conversion in the UV/acetylacetone (AA) process. Our key finding is that UV irradiation significantly changed the redox potential of AA. The excited AA, 3 (AA)*, acted as a semiquinone radical-like electron shuttle. For arsenite oxidation, the efficiency of 3 (AA)* was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of quinone-type electron shuttles, whereas the consumption of AA was 2-4 orders of magnitude less than those of benzonquinones. The oxidation of arsenite and reduction of nitrate could be both accelerated when they existed together in UV/AA process. The results indicate that small diketones are some neglected but potent electron shuttles of great application potential in regulating aquatic redox reactions with the combination of UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, structure, theoretical studies and luminescent properties of a ternary erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone and bathophenanthroline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Silva, Pedro S. Pereira, E-mail: psidonio@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Chamorro-Posada, Pedro [Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Milne, Bruce F. [Centre for Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Donostia International Physics Centre, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Nogueira, Fernando [Centre for Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Martín-Gil, Jesús [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    A novel erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone (Hacac) and bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bath) ligands, formulated as [Er(acac){sub 3}(bath)], has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the theoretical part of this study, semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3, PM6 and PM7 models have been employed to predict the structure of the complex, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with spectroscopic data using INDO/S-CI calculations. Real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) has also been used to calculate the optical absorption spectrum of the complex in the gas phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of a new erbium(III) β-diketonate complex. • TDDFT used for the first time to calculate the optical absorption spectrum. • Complex show strong near-infrared luminescence at 1.53 µm due to antenna effect.

  12. Synthesis, structure, theoretical studies and luminescent properties of a ternary erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone and bathophenanthroline ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Milne, Bruce F.; Nogueira, Fernando; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    A novel erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone (Hacac) and bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bath) ligands, formulated as [Er(acac) 3 (bath)], has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the theoretical part of this study, semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3, PM6 and PM7 models have been employed to predict the structure of the complex, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with spectroscopic data using INDO/S-CI calculations. Real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) has also been used to calculate the optical absorption spectrum of the complex in the gas phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of a new erbium(III) β-diketonate complex. • TDDFT used for the first time to calculate the optical absorption spectrum. • Complex show strong near-infrared luminescence at 1.53 µm due to antenna effect

  13. The effect of polymers onto the size of zinc layered hydroxide salt and its calcined product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Abd Rahman, Mohd Zaki

    2009-02-01

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate, a brucite-like layered material was synthesized using pH control method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene glycol) were used at various percentages as size decreasing agents during the synthesis of zinc hydroxide nitrate. SEM and PXRD showed the decrease of size and thickness of the resultant zinc hydroxide nitrates. TG and surface area data confirmed the decrease of the particle sizes, too. When zinc hydroxide nitrates were heat treated at 500 °C, the physical properties of nano zinc oxides obtained depended on the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate.

  14. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antila, H.M.J.; Salo, M.S.; Kirvelae, O.; Nikkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. (orig.)

  15. The effects of element Cu on the electrochemical performances of Zinc-Aluminum-hydrotalcites in Zinc/Nickel secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xing; Yang, Zhanhong; Xie, Xiaoe; Feng, Zhaobin; Huang, Jianhang

    2015-01-01

    Zn-Cu-Al-CO_3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been successfully synthesized by using the method of constant pH co-precipitation. And it also has been proposed as a novel anodic material in Zinc-Nickel secondary batteries. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the as-prepared sample exhibit that the samples are well crystallized and have hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of Zn-Al-LDHs and Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs with different Zn/Cu/Al molar ratios are investigated by the measurements such as galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Comparing with the pure Zn-Al-LDHs, Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs show more stable cycling performance, exhibit better reversibility and display lower charge-transfer resistance. Especially, the Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs with the Zn/Cu/Al molar ratio being 2.8:0.2:1 exhibits the best electrochemical properties than other samples. After 800 cell cycles, the specific discharge capacity of Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs with the Zn/Cu/Al molar ratio of 2.8:0.2:1is 345 mA h g"−"1, while that of pure Zn-Al-LDHs is only 177 mA h g"−"1. Based on these observations, the prepared Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs may be a promising anode active material for Zinc/Nickel secondary batteries.

  16. Cobalt(2) and nickel(2) tris-acetylacetonates with alkali metal cations in outer sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steblyanko, A.Yu.; Grigor'ev, A.N.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1996-01-01

    Anhydrous tris-acetylacetonates of Co(2) and Ni(2) with alkali metal cations in outer sphere were synthesized and investigated by different physicochemical methods. Chemical analysis and IR-spectroscopy show, that complex composition corresponds to the formula Eh[MA 3 ] (where Eh + - Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + ; M - Co(2), Ni(2); A - - acetyacetonate-ion). Eh[MA 3 ] heating in vacuum leads to transition of volatile Co(2) and Ni(2) acetylacetonates to gaseous phase. The data of photoelectron spectroscopy and vacuum sublimation show, that Li[MA 3 ] is transformed to gaseous phase congruently and only partially dissociates to EhA and MA 2 . Li[MA 3 ] and Cs[MA 3 ] are characterized by the lowest thermal stability at atmospheric pressure. Low stability of Li[MA 3 ] is related with detachment of one of A - radical from [MA 3 ] complex anion by Li + cation under conditions, when LiA and Li[MA 3 ] are volatile. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. A New Homogeneous Catalyst for the Dehydrogenation of Dimethylamine Borane Starting with Ruthenium(III Acetylacetonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Ünel Barın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of ruthenium(III acetylacetonate was investigated for the first time in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane. During catalytic reaction, a new ruthenium(II species is formed in situ from the reduction of ruthenium(III and characterized using UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, 1H NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The most likely structure suggested for the ruthenium(II species is mer-[Ru(N2Me43(acacH]. Mercury poisoning experiment indicates that the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane is homogeneous catalysis. The kinetics of the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane starting with Ru(acac3 were studied depending on the catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and temperature. The hydrogen generation was found to be first-order with respect to catalyst concentration and zero-order regarding the substrate concentration. Evaluation of the kinetic data provides the activation parameters for the dehydrogenation reaction: the activation energy Ea = 85 ± 2 kJ·mol−1, the enthalpy of activation ∆H# = 82 ± 2 kJ·mol−1 and the entropy of activation; ∆S# = −85 ± 5 J·mol−1·K−1. The ruthenium(II catalyst formed from the reduction of ruthenium(III acetylacetonate provides 1700 turnovers over 100 hours in hydrogen generation from the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane before deactivation at 60 °C.

  18. Effect of inhibitors on Zn-dendrite formation for zinc-polyaniline secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Jinqing; Xue Huaiguo; Mu Shaolin [Dept. of Chemistry, Teacher`s College, Yangzhou Univ. (China)

    1998-07-15

    The effects of Pb{sup 2+}, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100 on inhibition of Zn-dendrite growth in Zn-polyaniline batteries were studied by scanning electron micrograph and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that Triton X-100 in the region of 0.02-500 ppm in the electrolyte containing 2.5 M ZnCl{sub 2} and 2.0 M NH{sub 4}Cl with pH 4.40 can effectively inhibit zinc-dendrite growth during charge-discharge cycles of the battery and yield longer cycles. (orig.)

  19. Effect of phosphorus and organic matter on zinc availability on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.N.; Kamath, M.B.; Motsara, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pot culture experiment was conducted on grey brown podzolic soil (Palampur) and Tarai soil (Pantnagar) to study the influence of the addition of organic matter, phosphorus and zinc on the uptake and utilization of zinc by rice crop. In podzolic soils the combined application of Zn-P and Zn-organic matter resulted in reduced zinc content in crop but the crop yield was not affected. The uptake and utilization of applied zinc increased with P application. In Tarai soil, crop response to Zn, P and organic matter was obtained when applied separately. A negative zinc x P and zinc x organic matter interaction was obtained on yield. However, zinc content of the crop increased due to the application of P, organic matter and zinc. The uptake and utilization of applied zinc increased with P application. The analysis of soils after crop harvest indicated an increased amount of 0.1 N HCl extractable zinc in soils treated with zinc in Tarai soils while in podzolic soil from Palampur, the available zinc increased only under the combined application of zinc and P. (author)

  20. Gold-Gilded Zinc Oxide Nanodiamonds: Plasmonic and Morphological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, G. R.; Khan, R. A.

    The novel properties, diverse applications and device performance of nanocomposites can be greatly modulated through astute combination of plasmonic and morphological effects. The biosensing sensitivity, semiconducting capability, photocatalytic efficiency and antibacterial efficacy of ZnO nanostructures can be enhanced by a diamond-like morphology of ZnO via incorporation of plasmonic gold owing to their exceptional specific surface area, outstanding photoluminescence and excellent biocompatibility. Toward the realization of this goal, Au-Zno nanodiamonds have been successfully synthesized by a microwave assisted solution phase route without use of any costly solvents, surfactants, substrates, post-synthesis treatment or hazardous ingredients. It shows the ability to control the concentration of Au nanoparticles in ZnO and the evolution of its growth in diamond shape. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by high-resolution measurements such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffractometory (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the results discussed in detail.

  1. Effect of Intensive Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion on Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Serum Levels in Neonates with Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem El-Mazary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies reported that copper, zinc and magnesium play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Exchange transfusion and intensive phototherapy are known two modalities of therapy for severe neonatal hyper bilirubinemia, but the effect of them on those trace elements is unknown.Materials and MethodsCopper, Zinc and Magnesium serum levels were measured before and after treatment with intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusion in full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Minia and Sohag University hospitals, Egypt, during 2014-2016 and comparison with normal healthy neonates was done.ResultsThere were significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels in neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia than controls before and after intensive phototherapy. These levels were significantly changed after exchange transfusion to be comparable with controls. Significant positive correlations between the total bilirubin levels and hemoglobin, copper, and magnesium serum levels and significant negative correlations with serum zinc levels were present. There were no significant correlations between maternal and neonatal copper, zinc or magnesium serum levels.ConclusionNeonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia had significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels than healthy neonates which were not related to their maternal serum levels. Intensive phototherapy had no effect on their levels while exchange transfusion changed these levels to be comparable with that of normal healthy neonates.

  2. Effect of long-term intraperitoneal zinc administration on liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Mursel; Gunay, Mehmet; Akil, Mustafa; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of zinc administration on liver glycogen levels of rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and which were subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study was conducted on 80 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, zinc-administrated control; group 3, zinc-administrated diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, zinc-administrated swimming; group 6, zinc-administrated diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control group. In order to induce diabetes, animals were injected with 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) streptozotocin. The injections were repeated in the same dose after 24 h. Animals which had blood glucose at or above 300 mg/dl 6 days after the last injections were accepted as diabetic. Zinc was administrated ip for 4 weeks as 6 mg/kg/day per rat. Hepatic tissue samples taken from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Cross sections of 5 µm thickness, taken by the help of a microtome from the tissue samples buried in paraffin, were placed on a microscope slide and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and evaluated by light microscope. All microscopic images were transferred to a PC and assessed with the help of Clemex PE3.5 image analysis software. The lowest liver glycogen levels in the study were obtained in groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Liver glycogen levels in group 5 were higher than groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8, but lower than groups 1 and 2 (p swimming exercise were restored by zinc administration and that diabetes induced in rats prevented the protective effect of zinc.

  3. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hua; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including preterm delivery, fetal death, teratogenicity, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Previous reports showed that zinc protected against LPS-induced teratogenicity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (75 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were administered zinc sulfate through drinking water (75 mg elemental Zn per liter) throughout the pregnancy. As expected, an i.p. injection with LPS daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in 36.4% (4/11) of dams delivered before GD18. In dams that completed the pregnancy, 63.2% of fetuses were dead. Moreover, LPS significantly reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Of interest, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly alleviated LPS-induced IUGR and skeletal development retardation. Further experiments showed that zinc supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Zinc supplementation also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in mononuclear sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth zone. It inhibited LPS-induced placental AKT phosphorylation as well. In conclusion, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  4. Effect of zinc on grain characteristics of draught-resistant rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.; Rofail, N.B.; Eissa, E.A.; Hassan, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Through the use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), zinc concentration was determined in kernels resulted on plants of six drought-resistant rice mutant lines fertilized with zinc sulphate. It was found that zinc fertilization increased zinc residues in the kernels with varying concentrations depending on the line, each line reacted and responded to zinc independently. Zinc content in the kernels ranged from 5.63 to 91.4 ppm in the unfertilized control lines. This range was enlarged due to zinc fertilization of the plants to be from 93.51 to 554.53 ppm. It was also noticed that zinc fertilization increased seed heaviness in varying degrees depending on the line itself. This increase may be due to the increase in kernel thickness rather than in kernel width or length. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  5. Effects of peroral supplementation of different forms of zinc on the ruminal mucosa of goat kids – a morphometric study

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    Julius Černík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the effect of supplementation of various forms of zinc on the ruminal mucosa and dimensions of ruminal papillae in 6-month-old goat kids. The experimental period lasted from weaning to slaughter (4 months. All 20 kids divided into four groups of five animals, were fed with the same feeding dose, which was different only in the quantity and form of zinc. Control group was without additional zinc supplementation (group A, the other groups were supplemented with zinc in the form of ZnO (group B, zinc in the form of chelate (group C and zinc in the form of lactate (group D. Samples for histopathological and morphometric examination were collected after the slaughter of all animals from the bottom of saccus ruminis ventralis everytime from the same place. Significant differences were reported within the comparison of the length of ruminal papillae between groups B and C (P = 0.026 and B and D (P = 0.040, within the comparison of the width of ruminal papillae between groups A and D (P = 0.020 and within the comparison of the intensity of keratinisation of the mucosa of ruminal papillae between groups A and B (P = 0.034, A and C (P = 0.038 and A and D (P = 0.001. Histopathological and morphometric examination of ruminal mucosa indicated that the ruminal papillae of kids supplemented with zinc in the form of ZnO (group B were better developed compared to the other groups. This result indicates better utilisation of the supplemented zinc in the form of ZnO.

  6. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  7. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  8. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

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    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  9. Comparison of indium-111-oxine and indium-111-acetylacetone labelled leucocytes in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Karimjee, S.; Saverymuttu, S.H.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-11-01

    /sup 111/In leucocyte scanning in a series of 132 patients has shown this technique to be a reliable and accurate means of diagnosing sepsis. Labelling with /sup 111/In oxine and with /sup 111/In acetylacetone gave similar values of sensitivity and specificity, and higher than those of ultrasound.

  10. Determination of Chromium(III), Chromium(VI), and Chromium(III) acetylacetonate in water by ion-exchange disk extraction/metal furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamakura, Nao; Inui, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masaru; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A new method for the separate determination of Chromium(III) (Cr(III)), Chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)), and Cr(III) acetylacetonate (Cr(acac) 3 ) in water was developed using a cation-exchange extraction disk (CED) and an anion-exchange extraction disk (AED) combined with metal furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (MFAAS). A 100-mL water sample was adjusted to pH 5.6 and passed through the CED placed on the AED. Cr(acac) 3 and Cr(III) were adsorbed on the CED, and Cr(VI) was adsorbed on the AED. The adsorbed Cr(acac) 3 was eluted with 50 mL of carbon tetrachloride, followed by the elution of Cr(III) with 50 mL of 3 mol L −1 nitric acid. Cr(VI) was eluted with 50 mL of 3 mol L −1 nitric acid. The chemical species of Cr eluted from the CED with carbon tetrachloride was identified as Cr(acac) 3 using infrared spectroscopy. The eluate of Cr(acac) 3 was diluted to 100 mL with carbon tetrachloride, and those of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were diluted to 100 mL with deionized water. All of the solutions were subsequently analyzed by MFAAS. The calibration curve for the Cr(acac) 3 aqueous solutions exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 1 ng. The detection limit of Cr, which corresponded to three times the standard deviation (n = 10) of the blank values, was 20 pg. The recovery test for Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(acac) 3 exhibited desirable results (96.0%–107%) when 5 μg of each species (50 μg L −1 ) was added to 100 mL water samples (i.e., tap water, rainwater, and bottled drinking water). In a humic acid solution, Cr(acac) 3 was quantitatively recovered (103%), but Cr(III) and Cr(VI) exhibited poor recoveries (i.e., 84.8% and 78.4%, respectively). - Highlights: • A determination method of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III) acetylacetonate in water was developed. • The combination of ion-exchange resin disks with metal furnace AAS was used. • No effect of humic acid on the recovery of Cr(III) acetylacetonate was observed. • The proposed method enabled the determination

  11. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  12. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, A., E-mail: alexandra.levesque@univ-reims.fr [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France); Chouchane, S. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Douglade, J. [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France); Rehamnia, R. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Chopart, J.-P. [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France)

    2009-06-30

    The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. The modification of crystal orientation of the alloy by the superimposition of a high magnetic field is discussed for alloys with a content of nickel range 6-13 at%. Whatever the phase composition obtained without magnetic field, either {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} or a mixture of the {gamma} and zinc phases, which depends on the concentration of Ni{sup 2+} in the electrolyte bath, the preferential orientation (1 0 1) of the zinc phase is always favoured with perpendicular and parallel magnetic field. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. An additional phenomenon is observed in presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field since the (3 3 0) preferential orientation of the {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} disappears with high values of B.

  13. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, A.; Chouchane, S.; Douglade, J.; Rehamnia, R.; Chopart, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. The modification of crystal orientation of the alloy by the superimposition of a high magnetic field is discussed for alloys with a content of nickel range 6-13 at%. Whatever the phase composition obtained without magnetic field, either γ-Ni 5 Zn 21 or a mixture of the γ and zinc phases, which depends on the concentration of Ni 2+ in the electrolyte bath, the preferential orientation (1 0 1) of the zinc phase is always favoured with perpendicular and parallel magnetic field. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. An additional phenomenon is observed in presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field since the (3 3 0) preferential orientation of the γ-Ni 5 Zn 21 disappears with high values of B.

  14. Verification test for radiation reduction effect and material integrity on PWR primary system by zinc injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, H.; Nagata, T.; Yamada, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp. (Japan); Kasahara, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Nishimura, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc injection is known to be an effective method for the reduction of radiation source in the primary water system of a PWR. There is a need to verify the effect of Zn injection operation on radiation source reduction and materials integrity of PWR primary circuit. In order to confirm the effectiveness of Zn injection, verification test as a national program sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) was started in 1995 for 7-year program, and will be finished by the end of March in 2002. This program consists of irradiation test and material integrity test. Irradiation test as an In-Pile-Test managed by AEAT Plc(UK) was performed using the LVR-15 reactor of NRI Rez in Check Republic. Furthermore, Out-of-Pile-Test using film adding unit was also performed to obtain supplemental data for In-Pile-Test at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. Material Integrity test was planned to perform constant load test, constant strain test and corrosion test at the same time using large scale Loop and slow strain extension rate testing (SSRT) at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. In this paper, the results of the verification test for Zinc program at present are discussed. (authors)

  15. Protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion: SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Rattalino, Davide; Mirando, Maria; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste against an erosive challenge produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Forty specimens were assigned to 4 groups of 10 specimens each (group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 3: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 4: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. A visual rating system was used to evaluate the condition of the enamel surface; results were analyzed by nonparametric statistical methods. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples untreated and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1, 2); the highest grade of damage was found in group 2, while the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 4. Comparing the groups, the two analyzed toothpaste tended to protect in different extend. In this study treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. This was greater than the effect observed for a normal fluoride toothpaste and confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology can provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges.

  16. A comparative study of roles played by aluminum tribromide and aluminum acetylacetonate on the thermal degradation of PMMA by simultaneous thermoanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.; Arif, M.

    2008-01-01

    Blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared with aluminum tribromide (AlBr/sub 3/) and aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)/sub 3/) in definite ratios. Thermal studies (TG-DTG-DTA) of polymer and blends with both additives were carried out in inert atmosphere to investigate the mode of degradation and the effects of stability/destability on either component. The addition of compounds in polymer resulted early decompositions. The intermediates formed during decomposition were also identified. The possible explanation of the thermal degradation reactions is advanced on the basis of results gathered. The apparent activation energy (E/sub o/) and order of reaction (n) of the pyrolytic reactions were determined by Horowitz and Metzger method from the corresponding TG curves. (author)

  17. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  18. [Effect of cultivation in zinc media on the growth of and the degree of zinc in organic form in transgenic metallothionein mushroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Shen, Lin; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich and metal-binding functional proteins. Transgenic MT mushroom can be used as functional food additives, but its zinc-enriching ability has not been studied systemically until now. The zinc contents in mycelia of transgenic MT mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and wild type mushroom mycelia cultivated in different zinc concentration media were analyzed by ICP-OES. The growth status, zinc-enriching ability and degree of zinc in organic form (DZOF) were also analyzed. Results showed that MT mushroom mycelia grew rapidly, but the growth was inhibited when the zinc content in solid media was higher than 1.6 mmol x L(-1). MT mushroom mycelia could enrich more zinc than that of wild type, and the zinc content in MT mushroom mycelia could be 2.56-27.49 mg x kg(-1) when it was cultivated in a liquid media with 0.6-1.2 mmol x L(-1) zinc. DZOF of MT mushroom mycelia in a liquid media with 0.6 mmol x L(-1) zinc at 7 d was significantly higher (88.7%) than that in the wild type (82.1%, alpha = 0.05), but there was no significant difference in DZOF when the MT mushroom mycelia was cultivated in a liquid media with different zinc content at 7 d.

  19. Effects of zinc pyrithione and copper pyrithione on microbial community function and structure in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, DG; Dahllof, I.; Nielsen, LP

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine incorporat......The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine...... DNA content, whereas the LOEC for CPT was 0.1 nmol/g dry sediment for the nitrate flux and total DNA content. Nitrate fluxes increased significantly following additions of both ZPT and CPT, whereas ammonium fluxes decreased significantly after ZPT addition, suggesting changes in the nitrification...... and denitrification processes. The total DNA content decreased significantly following addition of both ZPT and CPT, but at the highest addition of ZPT (10 nmol ZPT/g dry sediment), an increase in total DNA content was found. Increased protein synthesis and bacterial diversity were also observed at this concentration...

  20. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Photoconductivity, photoluminescence and optical Kerr nonlinear effects in zinc oxide films containing chromium nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Torres, C.; García-Cruz, M.L.; Castañeda, L.; Rangel Rojo, R.; Tamayo-Rivera, L.; Maldonado, A.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Chromium doped zinc oxide thin solid films were deposited on soda–lime glass substrates. The photoconductivity of the material and its influence on the optical behavior was evaluated. A non-alkoxide sol–gel synthesis approach was used for the preparation of the samples. An enhancement of the photoluminescence response exhibited by the resulting photoconductive films with embedded chromium nanoclusters is presented. The modification in the photoconduction induced by a 445 nm wavelength was measured and then associated with the participation of the optical absorptive response. In order to investigate the third order optical nonlinearities of the samples, a standard time-resolved Optical Kerr Gate configuration with 80 fs pulses at 830 nm was used and a quasi-instantaneous pure electronic nonlinearity without the contribution of nonlinear optical absorption was observed. We estimate that from the inclusion of Cr nanoclusters into the sample results a strong optical Kerr effect originated by quantum confinement. The large photoluminescence response and the important refractive nonlinearity of the photoconductive samples seem to promise potential applications for the development of multifunctional all-optical nanodevices. - Highlights: ► Enhancement in photoluminescence for chromium doped zinc oxide films is presented. ► A strong and ultrafast optical Kerr effect seems to result from quantum confinement. ► Photoconductive properties for optical and optoelectronic functions were observed.

  2. Photoconductivity, photoluminescence and optical Kerr nonlinear effects in zinc oxide films containing chromium nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Torres, C., E-mail: crstorres@yahoo.com.mx [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Z, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, DF 07738 (Mexico); Garcia-Cruz, M.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A. P. J-48, Puebla 72570, Mexico (Mexico); Castaneda, L., E-mail: luisca@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A. P. J-48, Puebla 72570, Mexico (Mexico); Rangel Rojo, R. [CICESE/Depto. de Optica, A. P. 360, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Tamayo-Rivera, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 01000 (Mexico); Maldonado, A. [Depto. de Ing. Electrica, CINVESTAV IPN-SEES, A. P. 14740, Mexico DF 07000 (Mexico); Avendano-Alejo, M., E-mail: imax_aa@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-186, 04510, DF (Mexico); and others

    2012-04-15

    Chromium doped zinc oxide thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates. The photoconductivity of the material and its influence on the optical behavior was evaluated. A non-alkoxide sol-gel synthesis approach was used for the preparation of the samples. An enhancement of the photoluminescence response exhibited by the resulting photoconductive films with embedded chromium nanoclusters is presented. The modification in the photoconduction induced by a 445 nm wavelength was measured and then associated with the participation of the optical absorptive response. In order to investigate the third order optical nonlinearities of the samples, a standard time-resolved Optical Kerr Gate configuration with 80 fs pulses at 830 nm was used and a quasi-instantaneous pure electronic nonlinearity without the contribution of nonlinear optical absorption was observed. We estimate that from the inclusion of Cr nanoclusters into the sample results a strong optical Kerr effect originated by quantum confinement. The large photoluminescence response and the important refractive nonlinearity of the photoconductive samples seem to promise potential applications for the development of multifunctional all-optical nanodevices. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement in photoluminescence for chromium doped zinc oxide films is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong and ultrafast optical Kerr effect seems to result from quantum confinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoconductive properties for optical and optoelectronic functions were observed.

  3. Volatile mixed-ligand lanthanum (3) complex with acetylacetone and 1,10-phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Chuparov, N.V.; Pisarevskij, A.P.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1997-01-01

    La(Acac) 3 Phen complex is synthetized, its X-tray structure analysis is carried out. Crystals are monoclinic ones, sp.gr. P2 1 /n, a=17.11 (12), b=18.16 (3), c=17.86 (2) A, β=91.32 (2) deg, V=5548 (13) A 3 , Z=8. Structure contains two crystallographically non-equivalent types of molecules differing in interatomic distances and valent angles, as well as, in angles between ligand planes. Behaviour of La(Acac) 3 Phen at heating in vacuum (0.1-0.01 mm Hg) is studied. It is shown that under those conditions processes of Phen splitting, of sublimation and polymerization of La(Acac) 3 lanthanum acetylacetonate formed following Phen splitting and that under 220 deg C during 30 min quantitative transition of La(Acac) 3 Phen into gas phase is reached. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. The molecular interactions in the extraction system: acetylacetone-InCl3-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulawik, I.; Bogon, E.

    1978-01-01

    The extraction process in the chelate system: acetylacetone-InCl 3 -Water and possibility of the investigations of some physico-chemical properties of this system were discussed. The preliminary measurements for determination the adsorption kinetics and the equilibrium in the system were presented. Also extraction coefficient of indium salt was determined. The results of the principal measurements of the surface and interfacial tension as a function of concentration and temperature in the phases were presented. The measurements were done in different conditions when the both phases were in contact during the same time but in the various temperature. The experimental data served also for the calculation of the work of cohesion and adhesion in the system. The entropy and surface energy of the particular phases of the system were also determined. (author)

  5. Dose-dependent effect of homoeopathic drug Zinc sulphate on plant growth using Bacopa monnieri as model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients in plants required in very low quantity for plant growth and development. In higher concentration, it is known to to reduce the rate of photosynthesis, So homoeopathic preparations tested to see it role on plan growth. Objective: To analyse the effect of homoeopathic preparation of Zinc sulphate on plants through in-vitro assay using Bacopa monnieri as a model plant system. Materials and Methods: Six homoeopathic potencies (1X to 6X of Zinc sulphate were used on a decimal scale along with the control (MS basal agar medium. The samples were evaluated by adding fixed amount (100 μl in the media as well as by dipping the explants in the test sample overnight. At the completion of the incubation period (14 days the fresh and dry weight, number and length of the roots, number and length of the shoots and the number of leaves were analysed. Results: It was observed that Zinc sulphate showed growth inhibition at potencies from 1X to 5X, whereas at potency 6X, it exhibited growth promotion effect, when compared with the control. Conclusion: Homoeopathic drug (Zinc sulphate exhibited growth promotion at higher potency (6X and growth inhibition at lower potencies (1X to 5X on Bacopa monneiri.

  6. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  7. Effect of boron and zinc fertilization on white oats grown in soil with average content of these nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with zinc or boron on the growth and dry matter production, nutritional value and accumulation of nutrients in white oats. The study comprised two experiments conducted in glasshouses, the first consisting of the application of four doses of zinc (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of zinc sulphate (20% Zn, and the second consisting of the application of four doses of boron (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of Borax (11% B. The experimental design in each case was a randomized block design, with five replicates. Fertilization with zinc and boron increased the growth of white oats, but had no significant effect on the nutritional value of the forage. Higher levels of absorption and accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues were observed following the application of boron and zinc at rates of up to 0.60 mg/dm³ of soil.

  8. Effects of zinc and "health belief model" education on upper respiratory infections in hajj travelers: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudian S.A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common cold is the most prevalent sickness and an important cause of absence from job. Furthermore, it often disturbs travel, including the practice of hajj, causing the use of many inappropriate drugs by these travelers. The health belief model is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc and health belief model based educational intervention on the behavior of hajj travelers with regard to viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed among hajj travelers in 2005. Preventive measures were randomly allocated to four groups: 1- education + zinc sulfate. 2- education + placebo. 3- zinc sulfate only 4- placebo only. Data regarding incidence and duration of URTIs, background disorders, vaccination and health behaviors for cold were gathered by questionnaire by physicians and finally analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using chi-square, t-test and independent samples t-test.Results: A total of 646 travelers were studied. The incidence of common cold in groups receiving zinc were significantly less than that for those receiving the placebo. (P=0.05. However, incidence was statistically the same for those who received education versus those who did not. Use of handkerchief was the most prevalent behavior and use of mask was the least prevalent behavior. Mean duration of symptoms was less in those receiving zinc and education (3.7 days comparing to those who received placebo and education (5.6 days.  Conclusions: This study showed that zinc consumption can decrease the incidence and duration of the common cold. Health belief model based education could promote some preventive behaviors although most people do not take advantage of them. We recommend the use of zinc by those attending hajj.

  9. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  10. Physico-chemical characterization of mixed-ligand complexes of Mn(III based on the acetylacetonate and maleic acid and its hydroxylamine derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakić Suzana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new Mn(III mixed-ligand complexes with two acetylacetonate (acac ligands and one maleate ligand and its hydroxylamine derivative of the general formula [Mn(C5H7O22L] were prepared. Their structure was established by using elemental analysis, FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods, as well as magnetic measurement. Replacement of the acetylacetonate ligand by the corresponding acid ligand has been confirmed in Mn(III acetylacetonate. Based on the obtained experimental data and literature indications, structural formulae to these compounds were assigned.

  11. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds: Effect on morphology, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saleem; Zainol, Ismail; Idrus, Ruszymah Hj

    2017-11-01

    The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aflatoxin B1 Induced Systemic Toxicity in Poultry and Rescue Effects of Selenium and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Jameel; Peng, Xi; Kamboh, Asghar Ali; Zhou, Yi; Fang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Among many challenges, exposure to aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), is one of the major concerns in poultry industry. AFB 1 intoxication results in decreased meat/egg production, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, disturbance in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and reproduction, immune suppression, and increased disease susceptibility. Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), in dietary supplementation, offer easy, cost-effective, and efficient ways to neutralize the toxic effect of AFB 1 . In the current review, we discussed the impact of AFB 1 on poultry industry, its biotransformation, and organ-specific noxious effects, along with the action mechanism of AFB 1 -induced toxicity. Moreover, we explained the biological and detoxifying roles of Se and Zn in avian species as well as the protection mechanism of these two trace elements. Ultimately, we discussed the use of Se and Zn supplementation against AFB 1 -induced toxicity in poultry birds.

  13. The effect of red cell and plasma transfusion on serum zinc and copper levels in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W J; Pendray, M R; Quigley, G

    1983-11-01

    Transfusion of packed red cells (15 to 20 ml/kg) in 11 preterm infants resulted in a slight increase in mean serum zinc levels on the 3rd post transfusion day but no effect was noted on serum copper levels. No significant difference was found between the changes in serum zinc in 141 paired specimens collected a week apart when zero, one, two or three packed cell transfusions were given in the intervening week. A slight decrease in the mean copper level was noted when one transfusion was given. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in six newborns with abdominal wall defects resulted in initial serum copper levels two to three times greater than the reference mean for newborns. No effect was noted on zinc levels. Serum copper results should be interpreted with caution in infants who have been transfused with plasma.

  14. Effect of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on the floral decoration of zinc oxide synthesized by solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Khang, Gilson; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2008-01-01

    Effect of the structure-directing agent on the floral (depicting flower) morphological variation of ZnO is systematically studied and presented here. Flowery decorated (resembling flower) zinc oxide structure composed of hexagonal nanorods (sharp tips and wider bases) was synthesized at 90 deg. C using zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide at various concentrations of hydroxylamine hydrochloride for 12 h by solution method. Single crystalline nature with the wurtzite hexagonal phase remained unaltered with increasing concentration of hydroxylamine hydrochloride while the morphology changes from nanorod to plate like structure. Photoelectron spectroscopic measurement presented spectra close to the standard bulk ZnO, with an O 1s peak composed of surface adsorbed O-H group, O 2- in the oxygen vacancies on ZnO structure and ZnO. At higher concentration (0.8 M), surface adsorbed O-H group increases while other component decreases because of the changes in the nucleation and surface energy. Results clearly indicate that hydroxylamine hydrochloride works as a structure-directing agent without affecting other properties

  15. Effects of humic substances on precipitation and aggregation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Lau, Boris L.T.; Aiken, George R.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticulate metal sulfides such as ZnS can influence the transport and bioavailability of pollutant metals in anaerobic environments. The aim of this work was to investigate how the composition of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) influences the stability of zinc sulfide nanoparticles as they nucleate and aggregate in water with dissolved NOM. We compared NOM fractions that were isolated from several surface waters and represented a range of characteristics including molecular weight, type of carbon, and ligand density. Dynamic light scattering was employed to monitor the growth and aggregation of Zn−S−NOM nanoparticles in supersaturated solutions containing dissolved aquatic humic substances. The NOM was observed to reduce particle growth rates, depending on solution variables such as type and concentration of NOM, monovalent electrolyte concentration, and pH. The rates of growth increased with increasing ionic strength, indicating that observed growth rates primarily represented aggregation of charged Zn−S−NOM particles. Furthermore, the observed rates decreased with increasing molecular weight and aromatic content of the NOM fractions, while carboxylate and reduced sulfur content had little effect. Differences between NOM were likely due to properties that increased electrosteric hindrances for aggregation. Overall, results of this study suggest that the composition and source of NOM are key factors that contribute to the stabilization and persistence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

  16. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of zinc injection from hot functional test at Tomari Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Mino, Yoshitaka; Nakahama, Satoshi; Aizawa, Yamato; Shimizu, Yuichi; Umehara, Ryuji; Kogawa, Noritaka

    2012-09-01

    At Tomari Nuclear Power Station unit 3 (hereafter Tomari unit 3, PWR, commercial operation from December 2009), the zinc injection for dose-rate reduction was started as early as at the Hot Functional Test (hereafter HFT) stage, for the first time in the world. The results of the Steam Generator (hereafter SG) insert plate analysis and the ambient dose-rate measurement till the end of the test operation reported heretofore, show the formation of the robust oxide film on the primary material surfaces and the associated corrosion suppression effect, and a considerable dose-rate reduction of about 40 to 60% lower than a reference plant. (*: Asian Water Chemistry Symposium in Nagoya on 2009 and NPC2010 in Canada). The material of SG tube is Alloy 690TT in Tomari unit 3. Generally, the dose-rates of the plants with Alloy 690TT SG are the highest at the 1. or 2. refueling outage (hereafter RFO), due to the effects of the Ni dissolution from the initial corrosion of Alloy 690TT. Therefore, the dose-rate of Tomari unit 3 at the 1. RFO is compared with those of the other Japanese PWR plants at their 1. RFO. As the result, the dose-rates inside the main components such as SG, Main Coolant Pipe (hereafter MCP) and Reactor Vessel (hereafter RV) are about 50% lower at the 1. RFO of Tomari unit 3 than those of a reference plant (a 3-Loop PWR plant in Japan). Therefore, an additional dose-rate reduction effects is expected by the Ni release rate reduction from Alloy 690TT and the effect of zinc injection. In this report, the actual dose-rates at the primary main components, the trends of the water chemistry and dose rates reduction effect with the zinc injection at the 1. RFO (offline in January 2011) of Tomari unit 3 are introduced. Also, a part of the experiences at the 2. RFO (offline in May 2012) is introduced. (authors)

  18. The Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Levels on Essential Oil Yield and some Morphological Traits of Hypericum perforatums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zadeh Esfahlan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of nitrogen and zinc fertilizer on the morphological traits and essential oil yield of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum a greenhouse experiment in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Treatments consisted of three levels of zinc sulphate with a concentration of zinc fertilizer (zero, 3 and 6 parts per thousand and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (zero, 50, 100, 150 kg/ha. One half of the fertilizers were applied 20 days after planting of plants and the rest 40 days after transplanting. Traits evaluated were plant height, inflorescence number, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weights and plant essential oil content. The results showed that the traits under study were affected by rate of fertilizer applications. Highest plant height, number of inflorescences, leaf area and essential oil yield were obtained by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen and applying zinc with 0.006 concentration. Highest fresh and dry weights of above ground parts were also produced by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer along with zinc fertilizer 0.003.

  19. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  20. Effects of Germanium Tetrabromide Addition to Zinc Tetraphenyl Porphyrin / Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Suzuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of germanium tetrabromide addition to tetraphenyl porphyrin zinc (Zn-TPP/fullerene (C60 bulk heterojunction solar cells were characterized. The light-induced charge separation and charge transfer were investigated by current density and optical absorption. Addition of germanium tetrabromide inserted into active layer of Zn-TPP/C60 as bulk heterojunction had a positive effect on the photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic mechanism of the solar cells was discussed by experimental results. The photovoltaic performance was due to light-induced exciton promoted by insert of GeBr4 and charge transfer from HOMO of Zn-TPP to LUMO of C60 in the active layer.

  1. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senegacnik, M.

    1957-06-01

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO 2 → CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO 2 ↔ ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [fr

  2. Effects of zinc supplementation on fatigue and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sofia Miranda de Figueiredo; Braga, Camila Bitu Moreno; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, José Joaquim Ribeiro da; Cunha, Selma Freire Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on fatigue intensity and quality of life of patients during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 24 patients on chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma in a tertiary care public hospital. The study patients received zinc capsules 35mg (Zinc Group, n=10) or placebo (Placebo Group, n=14) orally, twice daily (70mg/day), for 16 weeks, from the immediate postoperative period to the fourth chemotherapy cycle. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of the tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen. Before each of the four cycles of chemotherapy, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale was completed. We used a linear mixed model for longitudinal data for statistical analysis. The scores of quality of life and fatigue questionnaires were similar between the groups during the chemotherapy cycles. The Placebo Group presented worsening of quality of life and increased fatigue between the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy, but there were no changes in the scores of quality of life or fatigue in the Zinc Group. Zinc supplementation prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy. Investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral de zinco sobre a intensidade da fadiga e a qualidade de vida de pacientes durante a quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal. Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego conduzido em um hospital universitário público terciário, com 24 pacientes em regime quimioterápico para adenocarcinoma colorretal. Os pacientes receberam cápsulas de zinco 35mg (Grupo Zinco, n=10) ou placebo (Grupo Placebo, n=14) por via oral, duas vezes ao dia (70mg/dia), durante 16 semanas, desde o período pós-operatório imediato até o quarto ciclo de quimioterapia. Todos os pacientes receberam quimioterapia por

  3. Sodium Silicate Gel Effect on Cemented Tailing Backfill That Contains Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag at Early Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lijie; Li, Wenchen; Yang, Xiaocong; Xu, Wenyuan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the priming effect of sodium silicate gel (SS) on cemented tailing backfill (CTB) that contains lead-zinc smelting slag. CTB and cemented paste (CP) containing lead-zinc smelting slag samples with SS of 0 and 0.4% of the mass of the slag were prepared and cured at 20°C for 1, 3, 7, and 28 days. Mechanical test and pore structure analyses were performed on the studied CTB samples, microstructural analyses (X-ray diffraction analysis a...

  4. Effects of a parasite, Eubothrium salvelini (Cestoda:Pseudophyllidea), on the resistance of juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, N.P.; Yamada, S.B.

    1977-05-01

    Most research to date on the tolerance of natural populations to physical and chemical stressors appears to have overlooked that parasites may themselves be stressors, and that they may be capable of modifying the resistance of the host to other applied stressors. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts trapped at the outlet of Babine Lake, central British Columbia, were subjected to 1 mg/l dissolved zinc under laboratory conditions. Smolts infected with the intestinal cestode Eubothrium salvelini proved to be significantly more susceptible to zinc than were noninfected smolts. We recommend that future investigations of environmental effects, especially on wild populations, include consideration of the state of parasitism of the test organisms.

  5. Ketamine-induced behavioural and brain oxidative changes in mice: an assessment of possible beneficial effects of zinc as mono- or adjunct therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Ademakinwa, Olayemi Quyyom; Olalekan, Temitayo Opeyemi; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-09-01

    We studied the influence of zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine on neurobehaviour (open-field, radial arm maze and elevated plus maze) and brain antioxidant status in vehicle- or ketamine-treated mice, with the aim of ascertaining the potentials of zinc in counteracting ketamine's effects. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of zinc in healthy animals and the relative degrees of modulation of ketamine's effects by zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine, respectively. Experiment 2 assessed the modulation of ketamine's effects following co-administration of zinc with haloperidol or olanzapine. Male mice weighing 18-20 g each were used. Animals were pretreated with ketamine (except vehicle, zinc, haloperidol and olanzapine controls) for 10 days before commencement of 14-day treatment (day 11-24) with vehicle, zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine (alone or in combination). Ketamine injection also continued alongside zinc and/or standard drugs in the ketamine-treated groups. Zinc, haloperidol and olanzapine were administered by gavage. Treatments were given daily and behaviours assessed on days 11 and 24. On day 24, animals were sacrificed and whole brain homogenates used for estimation of glutathione, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Ketamine increased open-field behaviours, nitric oxide and MDA levels, while it decreased working memory, social interaction and glutathione. Administration of zinc alone or in combination with haloperidol or olanzapine was associated with variable degrees of reversal of these effects. Zinc may have the potential of a possible therapeutic agent and/or adjunct in the reversal of schizophrenia-like changes in behaviour and brain oxidative status.

  6. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  7. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  8. Concentration effect on the spectroscopic behavior of Tb3+ ions in zinc phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavulu, C.R.; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine; Dousti, M.R.; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Catunda, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Zinc phosphate glasses (PZABPTb) in the compositional system: P 2 O 5 –ZnO–Al 2 O 3 –BaO–PbO doped with variable Tb 3+ concentrations (1–5 wt% Tb 2 O 3 ) were prepared and characterized through absorption, excitation, emission and intensity decay rate measurements. The Judd–Ofelt model has been adopted to evaluate the radiative properties of the 5 D 4 → 7 F 6–3 emission transitions. The effect of Tb 3+ ion concentration on the emissions from the 5 D 3,4 excited levels is discussed in detail. Analysis of the intensity decay curves corresponding to blue and green emissions from levels 5 D 3 and 5 D 4 , respectively, allowed determination of effective lifetimes, which confirmed the Tb 3+ ion concentration quenching of the blue emission in these glasses. The decay curves for the 5 D 3 level are found to be non-exponential in nature for all the studied concentrations due to ion–ion energy transfer through cross-relaxation. In an attempt to identify the origin of the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were well fitted to the Inokuti–Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer process is of dipole–dipole type. The optical band gap energy (E opt ) has been evaluated taking into account the ultraviolet edge of absorption spectra. - Highlights: • Tb 3+ -doped zinc phosphate glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. • Effects of Tb 3+ concentration on luminescence of the glasses were studied. • Strong intense laser transition for Tb 3+ ion in PZABPTb glasses is 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 (0.54 μm). • PZABPTb glasses could be used in the development of green color display devices and solid state visible lasers

  9. A multilateral investigation of the effects of zinc level on pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgan Çelikel, Özgül; Doğan, Özlem; Aksoy, Nurkan

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between maternal zinc level and birth weight, birth week, delivery type, garvida, maternal age, etc., contribute to diagnosis and clinical follow-up. Multivariate investigated for data of 275 patients were obtained during their pregnancy periods until birth. 3 cc blood samples were centrifuged for 15 minutes at 2500 g within a period of 30 minutes and were stored at -80°C until the time of analysis. The zinc levels of the patients were found to be within the range of 49-129 μg/dL. Patients were divided into 8 groups according to their zinc levels (49-59, 60-69, …, 120-129) and the relationships of zinc level with the parameters related to the mode of delivery, week of delivery, birth weight, age, early membrane rupture, live-stillbirth, and gravid were statistically analyzed to determine differences between the groups. There was a significant difference between the live births and stillbirths with a 95% confidence level regarding the zinc level. The zinc level affected the live-stillbirth status; patients with a zinc level of 49-59 μg/dL had stillbirths, the live birth rate for 59-69 μg/dL was approximately 50%, whereas it was approximately 88% for in the patients with a zinc level of 109-119 μg/dL. All patients with a zinc level of 119 μg/dL and above had live births. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that zinc supplementation may be an appropriate treatment for the pregnant women with low zinc levels to provide the realization of live births. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of moulding sand on statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solution for zinc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rupinder [Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana (India)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of the present investigations is to study the effect of moulding sand on decreasing shell wall thickness of mould cavities for economical and statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solutions (combination of three dimensional printing and conventional sand casting) for zinc alloys. Starting from the identification of component/ benchmark, technological prototypes were produced at different shell wall thicknesses supported by three different types of sands (namely: dry, green and molasses). Prototypes prepared by the proposed process are for assembly check purpose and not for functional validation of the parts. The study suggested that a shell wall with a less than recommended thickness (12mm) is more suitable for dimensional accuracy. The best dimensional accuracy was obtained at 3mm shell wall thickness with green sand. The process was found to be under statistical control

  11. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  12. Effect of Long-Term Zinc Pollution on Soil Microbial Community Resistance to Repeated Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg−1 soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg−1 soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg−1 soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g−1 soil dw each) were added. There was a highl...

  13. Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckhoff, Matthew A; Stroh, Esther D; Grabner, Keith W

    2013-04-15

    We assessed the quality of plant communities across a range of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations at a variety of sites associated with Pb mining in southeast Missouri, USA. In a novel application, two standard floristic quality measures, Mean Coefficient of Conservatism (Mean C) and Floristic Quality Index (FQI), were examined in relation to concentrations of Pb and Zn, soil nutrients, and other soil characteristics. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Regression Tree Analyses identified soil Pb and Zn concentrations as primary explanatory variables for plant community composition and indicated negative relationships between soil metals concentrations and both Mean C and FQI. Univariate regression also demonstrated significant negative relationships between metals concentrations and floristic quality. The negative effects of metals in native soils with otherwise relatively undisturbed conditions indicate that elevated soil metals concentrations adversely affect native floristic quality where no other human disturbance is evident. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Role of H2O2 in the Oxidative Effects of Zinc Exposure in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a global environmental health concern. Zinc (Zn(2+)) is a ubiquitous respiratory toxicant that has been associated with PM health effects. However, the molecular mechanism of Zn(2+) toxicity is not fully understood. H202 and Zn(2+) hav...

  15. Effect of food processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) IKMP-5 on the level of phenolics, phytate, iron and zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanabria Eyzaguirre, R.; Nienaltowska, K.; Jong, de L.E.Q.; Hasenack, B.B.E.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Pearl millet is consumed as a staple food in semi-arid tropical regions. With a view to upgrading the micronutrient status of pearl millet-based foods, the effects of single operations and of porridge preparation scenarios on levels and in vitro solubility (IVS) of iron and zinc and mineral

  16. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  17. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  18. investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  19. Investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum Arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  20. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning

  1. Effect of shelf life on compressive strength of zinc phosphate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiputri, D. R.; Damiyanti, M.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    Usage of zinc phosphate cements with no account of the shelf life left before the expiry date can affect its compressive strength. The aim of this study is to determine the different compressive strength values of zinc phosphate cement with different shelf lives before expiry. Three groups of zinc phosphate cement (GC Elite cement 100) with different expiry dates were tested for compressive strength using a universal testing machine (crosshead speed 1 mm/min: load cell of 250 kgF). The results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the compressive strengths of zinc phosphate cement in group III (2 months before expiry date), group I (2 years and 5 months before expiry date), and group II (11 months before expiry date). It can be concluded that there is a significant decrease in compressive strength of zinc phosphate cement near its expiry date.

  2. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on the Production Parameters of Bombyx mori L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Benţea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the influence of Zinc, administered as food supplement for silkworm (Bombyx moriL. on the larvae weight, the weight of the serigene gland, cocoon weight, cocoon shell. The research has been carried out on 5 groups of silkworms one control group (Gr.1 and 4 experimental groups (4 groups receiving zinc, consisting of 50 larvae/group. Zinc was administered in doses of 17, 34, 68 and 136 mg kg-1 larvae - Gr.2-Gr.5. The use of Zinc determined a very significant increase of the larvae weight, to group Gr.5 followed by groups Gr.4, Gr.3 and Gr.2 compared to the control group. The use of Zinc positively influenced the mass of the serigene glands, the cocoon weight, cocoon shell. The Zn content of the pupae from the experimental groups was higher compared to the one recorded in the control group.

  3. The Effect of Ductile Cast Iron Matrix on Zinc Coating During Hot Dip Galvanising of Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showeda heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds. Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived.Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.

  4. The Effect of Ductile Cast Iron Matrix on Zinc Coating During Hot Dip Galvanising of Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showed a heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at 450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds. Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived. Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.

  5. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  6. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  7. The effect of the electrode material on the electrodeposition of zinc from deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.; Schennach, R.; Gollas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanistic insight into zinc electrodeposition from deep eutectic solvents. • Overpotential for hydrogen evolution affects the electrodeposition of zinc. • Electrodeposited zinc forms surface alloys on Cu, Au, and Pt. • In situ PM-IRRAS of a ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent on glassy carbon. - Abstract: The voltammetric behaviour of the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent choline chloride/ethylene glycol 1:2 was investigated on glassy carbon, stainless steel, Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn electrodes. While cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon and stainless steel showed a cathodic peak for zinc electrodeposition only in the anodic reverse sweep, a cathodic peak was found also in the cathodic forward sweep on Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn. This behaviour is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of zinc deposition from an intermediate species Z, whose formation depends on the cathodic reduction potential of the solvent. The voltammetric reduction of the electrolyte involves hydrogen evolution and as a result the formation of Z and its reduction to zinc depend on the hydrogen overpotential for each electrode material. On Au, Pt, and Cu also the anodic stripping was different from that on glassy carbon and steel due to the formation of surface zinc alloys with the three former metals. The morphology of the zinc layers on Cu has been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and focussed ion beam. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zinc and a Cu_4Zn phase. Spectroelectrochemistry by means of polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) on a glassy carbon electrode in the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent showed characteristic potential dependent changes. The variation of band intensities at different applied potentials correlate with the voltammetry and suggest the formation of a compact blocking layer on the electrode surface, which inhibits the electrodeposition of zinc at sufficiently negative

  8. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  9. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth.Clinical Trail Registration India (CTRI CTRI

  10. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  11. Effects of intratesticular injection of zinc-based solution in rats in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs during chemical sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Barros de Macedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control, G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone; G3 (dipyrone/ zinc; G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc; G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc, and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc in a single dose per day during 7 days. Animals were analyzed at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatments. Results: The zinc-induced a widespread testicular degeneration and decreased testosterone levels even in combination with anti-inflammatories or pain relievers. Testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle had a weight reduction. The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone interfered in the desired action of zinc gluconate in the 1st 15 days and celecoxib up to 7 days. Conclusion: Meloxicam plus dipyrone did not impair the chemical sterilization based on zinc gluconate, and it can be used to reduce nociceptive effects in animals after chemical sterilization.

  12. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Divrikli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1 two control groups and 2 study groups: i Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by, and ii Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode. At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Conclusion: Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  13. Effect of DHA and CoenzymeQ10 Against Aβ- and Zinc-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sadli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beta-amyloid (Aβ protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and it has been reported that mitochondria is involved in the biochemical pathway by which Aβ can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an essential cofactor involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in AD. Zinc toxicity also affects cellular energy production by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR and ATP turnover in human neuronal cells, which can be restored by the neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Method: In the present study, using Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analysis we investigated the effect of DHA and CoQ10 alone and in combination against Aβ- and zinc-mediated changes in the mitochondrial function of M17 neuroblastoma cell line. Results: Here, we observed that DHA is specifically neuroprotective against zinc-triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, but does not directly affect Aβ neurotoxicity. CoQ10 has shown to be protective against both Aβ- and zinc-induced alterations in mitochondrial function. Conclusion: Our results indicate that DHA and CoQ10 may be useful for the prevention, treatment and management of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  14. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, Gülten; Küçükatay, Melek Bor; Turgut, Sebahat; Erken, Haydar Ali; Cömlekçi, Selçuk; Divrikli, Umit; Genç, Osman

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF) on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1) two control groups and 2) study groups: i) Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by), and ii) Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode). At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  15. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  16. CREEP BEHAVIOR OF BORATE-TREATED STRANDBOARD: EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE RETENTION, WOOD SPECIES, AND LOAD LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Wu,Qinglin; Lee,Ong N; Cai,Zhiyong; Zhou,Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Creep performance of zinc borate-treated strandboard from southern pine (Pinus taeda L.) and red oak (Quercus falcata) was investigated at 25(0)C temperature and 65% relative humidity. It was shown that the borate treatment had some significant effect on creep deflection of the test panels, and the effect varied with wood species. There was no significant effect of creep loading on residual bending properties of treated strandboard under the stress levels used. The four element spring-dashpot...

  17. The effects of selenium, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on performance of Broiler Breeder Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zezza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...

  18. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility

  19. Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, A.; Kityk, I.V.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Fuks-Janczarek, I.; Berdowski, J.; Berdowska, E.; Tylczynski, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of irradiation by a cw 532 nm laser on the behavior of the absorption and optical second harmonic generation of triglicyne-zinc chloride crystal has been studied. Additional absorption bands correlate well with the time of the cw laser exposure. These lines occur at 260 nm, 305 nm, and, with small intensity, at 355 nm. The remaining part of the spectra shows substantially less changes. According to the performed quantum chemical simulations, one may expect that the observed dependences and the stability of the observed photoinduced changes are caused by formation of polarized electron-phonon states and the principal role should belong here to the electron-phonon anharmonicities, which cause the effects described by the non-polar third rank polar tensor like optical second harmonic generation. The increasing optical SHG signal shows a clear correlation with the behavior of the green laser-532 nm. It is important principal that for the blue laser-405 nm, the SHG effect is substantially less. This may reflect that the additional absorption maxima may be responsible for the non-linear optical effects. The effect demonstrates a slow time decay.

  20. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  1. The Effect of Zinc Sulfate Different Amount Soil and Foliar Application on Correlated Grain Characters in Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmoodi,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects different concentrations of zinc sulfate applications at different growth stages on sweet corn at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch in 2012. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were seven levels of zinc sulfate application methods: (control, soil application, foliar application at 6-8 leaf growth stage, tasseling, grain filling stage, foliar application at three stages, soil application with foliar application at three stages as main plot, three levels of foliar and soil application of zinc sulfate: (0.003, 0.005 and 0.007 for foliar application and 15, 25 and 35 kg/ha for soil application as sub plot. Results showed that the highest grain yield correlated characters were obtained in foliar application at three stages and soil application with foliar application at three stages. In these conditions increasing of dry grain yield and ear were more than 50%. The higher values for grain production were obtained in Zn foliar application with 0.005 concentration (25 kg/ha soil application. Zinc sulfate increased Zn content of grains produced more than 100%. Thus, using Zn not only increases sweet corn grain and ear yield but also increased quality of products.

  2. Effects of lead and zinc mining contamination on bacterial community diversity and enzyme activities of vicinal cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Juanjuan; Ren, Guangming; Chen, Bao; Fan, Jinghua; E, Yong

    2011-11-01

    In the process of mining activity, many kinds of heavy metals enter into soils with dust, causing serious contamination to the environment. In this study, six soils were sampled from cropland at different distances from a lead/zinc mine in Heilongjiang Province, China. The total contents of lead and zinc in the vicinal cropland exceeded the third level of environmental quality standard for soil in China, which indicated that soils in this area were moderately contaminated. Bacterial community diversity and population were greatly decreased when the concentrations of lead and zinc were beyond 1,500 and 995 mg kg(-1), respectively, as analyzed by plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bands of DGGE patterns varied with the degree of contamination. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase were negatively correlated with the concentrations of lead and zinc. The highest inhibitory effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activities was observed in urease. It was noted that PCR-DGGE patterns combined with soil enzyme activity analysis can be indices for the soil quality assessment by heavy metal contamination.

  3. The Effect of Adjuvant Zinc Therapy on Recovery from Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Qasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pneumonia is one of the common mortality causes in young children. Some studies have shown beneficial effect of zinc supplements on treatment of pneumonia. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of short courses of zinc administration on recovery from this disease in hospitalized children. Methods. In a parallel Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial at Ayatollah Golpaygani Hospital in Qom, 120 children aged 3–60 months with pneumonia were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive zinc or placebo (5 mL every 12 hours along with the common antibiotic treatments until discharge. Primary outcome was recovery from pneumonia which included the incidence and resolving clinical symptoms and duration of hospitalization. Results. The difference between two groups in all clinical symptoms at admittance and the variables affecting the disease such as age and sex were not statistically significant (P<0.05 at baseline. Compared to the placebo group, the treatment group showed a statistically significant decrease in duration of clinical symptoms (P=0.044 and hospitalization (P=0.004. Conclusions. Supplemental administration of zinc can expedite the healing process and results in faster resolution of clinical symptoms in children with pneumonia. In general, zinc administration, along with common antibiotic treatments, is recommended in this group of children. It can also reduce the drug resistance caused by multiple antibiotic therapies. This trial is approved by Medical Ethic Committee of Islamic Azad University in Iran (ID Number: 8579622-Q. This study is also registered in AEARCTR (The American Economic Association's Registry for Randomized Controlled Trials. This trial is registered with RCT ID: AEARCTR-0000187.

  4. Gamma irradiation effects of 51Cr(III) isotope exchange in doped magnesium chromate - zinc chromate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfouz, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Gamma irradiation effects of 51 Cr(III) isotope exchange in magnesium chromate - zinc chromate mixtures doped with 51 Cr(III) were investigated. It was found that γ irradiation has an oxidation effect and the percentage of exchanged 51 Cr(VI) increases with the increasing γ-ray dose. The data are explained in terms of mechanistic model involving metal and ligand vacancies exchange and substitution reactions. (author)

  5. Contribution to the study of the chemical consequences of the (n, {gamma}) reaction in solid Co(3) tris-acetylacetone; Contribution a l'etude des consequences chimiques de la reaction (n, {gamma}) dans le tris-acetylacetonate de cobalt (3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnane Machado, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The fragmentation and annealing of thermal neutron irradiated Co(III) tris-acetylacetone was investigated using the thin layer chromatographic technique (silica-gel 1 mm thickness). Low temperature irradiations (0 C - -72 C and -180 C) lead to {sup 60}Co retentions as low as (1,1 {+-} 0,2) per cent. Annealing by linear temperature programming at different heating rates has shown the existence of eight reactions. The influences of pile dose and of gases (air and helium) as well as of thermal decomposition on the annealing processes were confirmed. A temperature and dose dependent effect was found out for the retentions of the {sup 60m}Co - {sup 60}Co isomers. (author) [French] On a etudie par chromatographie en couches minces (silicagel 1 mm), les phenomenes de fragmentation et de recuit sur l'acetylacetonate de Co(III) irradie aux neutrons thermiques. La valeur minimale de la retention observee pour des irradiations a basse temperature (0 C, -72 C, -180 C) se situe a (1,1 {+-} 0,2) pour cent. Le recuit thermique, par montee lineaire de la temperature a differentes vitesses de chauffage, montre l'existence de huit reactions. On confirme, de plus, l'influence sur les processus de recuit de la dose recue en pile, de l'atmosphere dans laquelle l'echantillon se trouve (air et helium) ainsi que de la decomposition thermique. Cette dependance de la temperature et de la dose est prouvee par les valeurs des retentions mesurees sur les isomeres {sup 60m}Co - {sup 60}Co. (auteur)

  6. Concentration effect on the spectroscopic behavior of Tb{sup 3+} ions in zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavulu, C.R., E-mail: crkesavulu2005@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine [Laboratorio de Novos Materials Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberândia, MG (Brazil); Dousti, M.R. [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dantas, Noelio Oliveira [Laboratorio de Novos Materials Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberândia, MG (Brazil); Camargo, A.S.S. de; Catunda, Tomaz [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Zinc phosphate glasses (PZABPTb) in the compositional system: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–ZnO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–BaO–PbO doped with variable Tb{sup 3+} concentrations (1–5 wt% Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared and characterized through absorption, excitation, emission and intensity decay rate measurements. The Judd–Ofelt model has been adopted to evaluate the radiative properties of the {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6–3} emission transitions. The effect of Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration on the emissions from the {sup 5}D{sub 3,4} excited levels is discussed in detail. Analysis of the intensity decay curves corresponding to blue and green emissions from levels {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4}, respectively, allowed determination of effective lifetimes, which confirmed the Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration quenching of the blue emission in these glasses. The decay curves for the {sup 5}D{sub 3} level are found to be non-exponential in nature for all the studied concentrations due to ion–ion energy transfer through cross-relaxation. In an attempt to identify the origin of the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were well fitted to the Inokuti–Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer process is of dipole–dipole type. The optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) has been evaluated taking into account the ultraviolet edge of absorption spectra. - Highlights: • Tb{sup 3+}-doped zinc phosphate glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. • Effects of Tb{sup 3+} concentration on luminescence of the glasses were studied. • Strong intense laser transition for Tb{sup 3+} ion in PZABPTb glasses is {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} (0.54 μm). • PZABPTb glasses could be used in the development of green color display devices and solid state visible lasers.

  7. [Effect of cigarette smoking on coexistence of cadmium and zinc in retained wisdom teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Drugacz, Jan; Malara, Beata

    2005-01-01

    The change in coexistence pattern of elements (antagonism-synergism) in conditions of excessive level of toxic element is observed in many biological samples. The aim of this study was to establish the cadmium and zinc content in hard tissues of retained wisdom teeth of smokers and non-smokers and to find out if active exposure to cigarette smoke has an influence on coexistence of both metals in these tissues. Material consisted of 127 retained wisdom teeth (65 from smokers and 62 from non-smokers). Cadmium and zinc contents were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. We found out that retained wisdom tooth from smokers exhibited higher cadmium and zinc contents compared to non-smokers' teeth. Moreover, coexistence pattern of cadmium and zinc in teeth depends on exposure to heavy metals and exhibits strong synergism in smokers.

  8. EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM AND MAGNESIUM ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ZINC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klimek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the research on corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings with varying aluminium and magnesium content. Aluminium and magnesium were added directly to the zinc bath at 10:1 rate. There was found more than sixfold increase in corrosion resistance of zinc coatings with aluminium content at the level of 4% of weight and magnesium content at the level of 0.4% of weight. In contrast to the amounts applied in the literature, such content of these alloy additives in the zinc bath limits to a significant extent the amount of intermetallic phases in zinc coatings obtained from such baths. This, in consequence, results in high resistance to corrosion with simultaneous retention of high plasticity of these coatings.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic.

  11. [Effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations of free-living Chilean elderly adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos H, Rosa Isela; Atalah S, Eduardo; Urteaga R, Carmen; Castañeda L, Rutila; Orozco L, Maribel; Avila, Laura; Martínez, Homero

    2007-08-01

    Zinc intake is well below recommendation among Chilean free living elderly adults of low socioeconomic level. To assess the effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations in elderly adults (EA). Ambulatory EA (> or = 70) with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure, ascribed to public family health centers were studied. They were separated in a control and intervention group, without blinding techniques. The intervention group consumed daily 50 g of a special nutritional supplement prepared as a soup or porridge, provided by the Government, for 3 months. The control group did not receive the supplement. A good compliance with the supplement was defined as a consumption of 7 portions per week. A fasting venous blood sample was obtained to determine plasma zinc at the beginning and end of the study. Forty three supplemented EA aged 76+/-5 years (21 women) and 31 non supplemented EA aged 78+/-5 years (20 women), completed 3 months of follow up. Mean compliance with the supplement was 40.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 40.3-40.6%). General characteristics of the study subjects upon recruitment were similar, except for the literacy that was higher in the intervention group. We fitted a multiple linear regression model which explained 39% of the variance, where the consumption of the nutritional supplement increased the concentration of plasmatic zinc by 4.14 microg/dL (95% CI 0.25-8.02) (pfood supplement significantly increased plasma zinc concentrations in Chilean elderly adults.

  12. Evaluation of Effect of a New Natural Radioprotectors in Nano Particles Form From Zinc Coumarate and Zinc Caffeiate on Rats Exposed to Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El -Metwaly, M.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural Radioprotectors as para -coumaric acids and caffeic acids are natural compounds in nano form zinc coumarate nano particles (Zn Coum.NPs) and zinc caffeiate nano particles (Zn Caf.NPs) have been shown to confer various biological effects, anticancer, enhance immune system and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radio protective and possess ability of Zn Coum.NPs and Zn Caf.NPs against whole body -irradiation with a dose of 3 Gy, 4 times, every week up to 12 Gy. Zn Coum.NPs and Zn Caf.NPs were given to rats by intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 successive days, post irradiation for (Zn Coum.NPs + Zn Caf.NPs) and [(Zn Coum.NPs + Zn Caf.NPs) + Irradiated] groups and for 30 successive days for (Zn Coum.NPs + Zn Caf.NPs), [(Zn Coum.NPs + Zn Caf.NPs) + Irradiated] and [Irradiated + (Zn Coum.NPs + Zn Caf.NPs)] groups. The results indicated that gamma- irradiated group caused a significant decrease of body weight, antioxidants levels and (ThCD 4 and TcCD 8 ), and disorder in morphological, hematological, lipid profile and cell cycle as well as liver and kidney dysfunction, and increased in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, free radicals and DNA fragment, and histological changes in the hepatic tissues as vacuoles degeneration and necrosis of a great number of hepatocytes together with several hemorrhage and interstitial oedema. Whilst, the treatment with Zn Coum.NPs + Zn Caf.NPs pre or post-exposure to gamma-ray protected cellular system from harmful effects of gamma-radiation. The results clearly indicated that Zn Coum.NPs and Zn Caf.NPs possess protective effect to protect bimolecules from radiation induced damage and ability to scavenge free radicals might be playing an important role in its radio protective manifestation especially in cancer treatment with radiotherapy

  13. Zinc-chelation contributes to the anti-angiogenic effect of ellagic acid on inhibiting MMP-2 activity, cell migration and tube formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Teng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA, a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2 activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined by gelatin zymography, which was reversed dose-dependently by adding zinc chloride. In addition, EA was demonstrated to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs as analyzed by Western blot method, which was also reversed by the addition of zinc chloride. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK, known to down-regulate the MMP-2 activity, was induced by EA at both the mRNA and protein levels which was correlated well with the inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Interestingly, zinc chloride could also abolish the increase of EA-induced RECK expression. The anti-angiogenic effect of EA was further confirmed to inhibit matrix-induced tube formation of endothelial cells. The migration of endothelial cells as analyzed by transwell filter assay was suppressed markedly by EA dose-dependently as well. Zinc chloride could reverse these two effects of EA also in a dose-dependent manner. Since magnesium chloride or calcium chloride could not reverse the inhibitory effect of EA, zinc was found to be involved in tube formation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these results demonstrated that the zinc chelation of EA is involved in its anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting MMP-2 activity, tube formation and cell migration of vascular endothelial cells. The role of zinc was confirmed to be important in the process of angiogenesis.

  14. Effects of Zinc Deuteroporphyrin Bis Glycol on Newborn Mice After Heme-Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cynthia X.; Campbell, Claire M.; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora S.; Schulz, Stephanie; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with hemolytic diseases frequently develop hyperbilirubinemia, but standard phototherapy only eliminates bilirubin after its production. A better strategy might be to directly inhibit heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in bilirubin production. Metalloporphyrins (Mps) are heme analogs that competitively inhibit HO activity in vitro and in vivo and suppress plasma bilirubin levels in vivo. A promising Mp, zinc deuteroporphyrin bis glycol (ZnBG), is orally absorbed and effectively inhibits HO activity at relatively low doses. We determined the I50 (the dose needed to inhibit HO activity by 50%) of orally administered ZnBG in vivo and then evaluated ZnBG’s effects on in vivo bilirubin production, HO activity, HO protein levels, and HO-1 gene expression in newborn mice following heme-loading, a model analogous to a hemolytic infant. The I50 of ZnBG was found to be 4.0 μmol/kg body weight (BW). At a dose of 15-μmol/kg BW, ZnBG reduced in vivo bilirubin production, inhibited heme-induced liver HO activity and spleen HO activity to and below baseline, respectively, transiently induced liver and spleen HO-1 gene transcription, and induced liver and spleen HO-1 protein levels. We conclude that ZnBG may be an attractive compound for treating severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia caused by hemolytic disease. PMID:21785387

  15. Effect of Zinc Incorporation on the Performance of Red Light Emitting InP Core Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lifei; Cho, Deok-Yong; Besmehn, Astrid; Duchamp, Martial; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lam, Yeng Ming; Kardynał, Beata E

    2016-09-06

    This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores.

  16. Differential effects of lead and zinc on inhibitory avoidance learning in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of chronic intoxication with the heavy metals lead (Pb2+ and zinc (Zn2+ on memory formation in mice. Animals were intoxicated through drinking water during the pre- and postnatal periods and then tested in the step-through inhibitory avoidance memory task. Chronic postnatal intoxication with Pb2+ did not change the step-through latency values recorded during the 4 weeks of the test (ANOVA, P>0.05. In contrast, mice intoxicated during the prenatal period showed significantly reduced latency values when compared to the control group (day 1: q = 4.62, P<0.05; day 7: q = 4.42, P<0.05; day 14: q = 5.65, P<0.05; day 21: q = 3.96, P<0.05, and day 28: q = 6.09, P<0.05. Although chronic postnatal intoxication with Zn2+ did not alter a memory retention test performed 24 h after training, we noticed a gradual decrease in latency at subsequent 4-week intervals (F = 3.07, P<0.05, an effect that was not observed in the control or in the Pb2+-treated groups. These results suggest an impairment of memory formation by Pb2+ when the animals are exposed during the critical period of neurogenesis, while Zn2+ appears to facilitate learning extinction.

  17. Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan CH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hong Pan,1,2,* Wen-Te Liu,3,4,* Mauo-Ying Bien,4,5 I-Chan Lin,6 Ta-Chih Hsiao,7 Chih-Ming Ma,8 Ching-Huang Lai,2 Mei-Chieh Chen,9 Kai-Jen Chuang,10,11 Hsiao-Chi Chuang3,4 On behalf of the Taiwan CardioPulmonary Research (T-CPR Group 1Institute of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Labor, 2School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, 4School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 5Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 7Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, 8Department of Cosmetic Application and Management, St Mary’s Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Sanxing, 9Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, 10Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, 11School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs on the ­respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to Zn

  18. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  19. Effect of Zinc and Melatonin on Oxidative Stress and Serum Inhibin-B Levels in a Rat Testicular Torsion-Detorsion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semercioz, Atilla; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat

    2017-12-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the effects of 3-week zinc and melatonin administration on testicular tissue injury and serum Inhibin-B levels caused by unilateral testicular torsion-detorsion in rats. The study was performed on 60 Wistar Albino-type adult male rats. The animals were allocated to 6 groups in equal numbers. 1. Control; 2. Sham; 3. Ischemia-reperfusion; 4. Zinc + ischemia-reperfusion; 5. Melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion; 6. Zinc + melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion. Zinc and melatonin were administered before ischemia-reperfusion at doses of 5 and 3 mg/kg respectively, by intraperitoneal route for a period of 3 weeks. Testicular torsion-detorsion procedures consisted of ischemia for 1 h and then reperfusion for another hour of the left testis. Blood and testicular tissue samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte and tissue GSH and plasma and tissue MDA, Inhibin-B levels. The highest erythrocyte and testis GSH values were found in zinc, melatonin, and zinc + melatonin groups (p zinc-, melatonin-, and melatonin + zinc-supplemented groups have higher inhibin-B and spermatogenetic activity (p zinc, melatonin, and melatonin + zinc administration partially restores the increased oxidative stress, as well as the reduced inhibin-B and spermatogenic activity levels in testes ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Suppressed inhibin-B levels in the testicular tissue may be a marker of oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on dams and embryo–fetal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Yu-Ri Kim,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOSM20[-] NPs; negatively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(- NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 20, and all the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight at 400 mg/kg/day and decreased liver weight, and increased adrenal glands weight at 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day. However, no treatment-related difference in the number of corpora lutea, the number of implantation sites, the implantation rate (%, resorption, dead fetuses, litter size, fetal deaths, fetal and placental weights, and sex ratio were observed between the groups. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated no significant difference in the incidences of abnormalities between the groups. No significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed

  1. Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Chen, T.P.; Liu, Z.; Tan, C.S.; Leong, K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of electrical properties and thin-film transistor characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films synthesized by RF sputtering with O 2 plasma immersion has been examined. O 2 plasma immersion results in an enhancement in the Hall mobility and a decrease in the electron concentration; and the transistor performance can be greatly improved by the O 2 plasma immersion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the effect of O 2 plasma immersion on the electrical properties and the transistor performance can be attributed to the reduction of the oxygen-related defects in the IGZO thin films. - Highlights: • Oxygen plasma immersion effect on indium gallium zinc oxide thin film properties • Oxygen-related defect reduces in the InGaZnO thin film with oxygen plasma immersion. • Increasing oxygen plasma immersion duration on device will decrease the off current. • Oxygen plasma immersion enhances the performance of device

  2. Effect of zinc intake on mental and motor development in infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.

  3. The effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng

    2015-01-01

    Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.

  4. Spectroscopic attributes of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass: Effects of silver nanoparticles inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, F.; Hussin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    We report the modified optical properties of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass system with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inclusion. Three glass samples were prepared using melt quenching method and characterized. TEM images revealed the nucleation of Ag NPs with average diameter ≈12.50 nm. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra showed thirteen absorption bands. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs was manifested at 446 nm. FTIR spectra disclosed the bonding vibrations for P-O bonds, P-O-P linkages, and PO2 units. Ag NPs concentration dependent bonding parameters and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated. The JO parameter Ω2 was reduced with the increase of Ag NPs contents, indicating the ionicity and symmetry enhancement between Sm3+ ions with their surrounding ligands. The emission spectra of all samples under the excitation wavelength of 402 nm exhibited four significant peaks centered at 562, 599, 644 and 702 nm which are allocated to 4G5/2 →6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions, respectively. Inclusion of Ag NPs was discerned to augment the luminescence intensity by a factor of two, which was majorly ascribed to the local field effect of Ag NPs and subsequent energy transfer from the NPs to Sm3+ ions.

  5. Effect of bismuth ion substitution on structural properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraavula Suresh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth doped nano zinc ferrite particles having the general formula ZnFe2-xBixO4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 were synthesized by sol-gel combustion method. The effect of bismuth doping on structural properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD spectra confirm the single phase cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes of all the samples were determined by Debye-Scherrer equation and are in the range 16–20 nm. The lattice parameter increases with the increase of bismuth ion concentration. This is due to the larger ionic radius of Bi3+ ions substituting smaller Fe3+ ions at octahedral sites (B-sites. The surface morphology of all compounds was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The microstructure analysis and the particle size were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM. The compositional stoichiometry of these samples was verified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis.

  6. Liver Cancer Detection by a Simple, Inexpensive and Effective Immunosensor with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congo Tak-Shing Ching

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of blood α-fetoprotein (AFP and/or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA levels is important for the routine screening of liver cancer. However, AFP and CEA have a much lower specificity than des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP to detect liver cancer. Therefore, the study reported here was designed, to develop a screen-printed DCP immunosensor incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles, for accurate determination of DCP. The designed immunosensor shows low detection limits for the detection of DCP: 0.440 ng/mL (based on impedance measurement, 0.081 ng/mL (based on real part of impedance measurement and 0.078 ng/mL (based on imaginary part of impedance measurement, within the range of 3.125 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. In addition, there was little interference to DCP determination by molecules such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, glucose, urea, and uric acid. It is therefore concluded that the DCP immunosensor developed and reported here is simple, inexpensive and effective, and shows promise in the rapid screening of early-stage liver cancer at home with a point-of-care approach.

  7. Effect of incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of conventional glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Aghaee, Mohammadamin; Hasani, Elham; Safa, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the physical properties of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs) compared to GICs supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofiller particles at 5% (w/w). In this in vitro study, ZnO nanoparticles of different morphologies (nanospherical, nanorod, and nanoflower) were incorporated to glass ionomer powder. The samples were subjected to the flexural strength ( n = 20) and surface hardness test ( n = 12) using a universal testing machine and a Vickers hardness machine, respectively. Surface analysis and crystal structure of samples were performed with scanning electron microscope and X-radiation diffraction, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk, and Tukey's tests ( P glass ionomer containing nanoparticles was not significantly different from the control group ( P > 0.05). The surface hardness of the glass ionomer containing nanospherical or nanoflower ZnO was significantly lower than the control group ( P glass ionomer containing nanorod ZnO was not significantly different from the control group ( P = 0.868). Incorporation of nanospherical and nanoflower ZnO to glass ionomer decreased their surface hardness, without any changes on their flexural strength. Incorporation of nanorod ZnO particles caused no effect on the mechanical properties.

  8. Effect of Variable Doses of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Male Albino Mice Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Javeria; Iqbal, Shahid; Zahra, Kiran; Javed, Zulha; Shad, Muhammad Aslam; Akbar, Atif; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Furhan

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days. Group D (control) orally received 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (solvent for ZnO NPs) for the same duration. A series of neurological tests (Rota rod, open field, novel object and light-dark box test) were conducted in all groups and performance was compared between ZnO NPs treated and control group. Muscular functioning during rota rod test was significantly improved in all ZnO NPs treated mice as compared to control group. While no significant differences in open field, novel object and light-dark box test performance were observed when data from studied parameters of specific ZnO NPs treatment were compared with the control group indicating that applied doses of ZnO NPs did not affect the exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and object recognition capability of adult male albino mice.

  9. Inhibition effect of zinc in wastewater on the N2O emission from coastal loam soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ou, Danyun; Chen, Shunyang; Chen, Bin; Liu, Wenhua; Bai, Renao; Chen, Guangcheng

    2017-03-15

    The effects of zinc (Zn) on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes from coastal loam soil and the abundances of soil nitrifier and denitrifier were studied in a tidal microcosm receiving livestock wastewater with different Zn levels. Soil N 2 O emission significantly increased due to discharge of wastewater rich in ammonia (NH 4 + -N) while the continuous measurements of gas flux showed a durative reduction in N 2 O flux by high Zn input (40mgL -1 ) during the low tide period. Soil inorganic nitrogen concentrations increased at the end of the experiment and even more soil NH 4 + -N was measured in the high-Zn-level treatment, indicating an inhibition of ammonia oxidation by Zn input. Quantitative PCR of soil amoA, narG and nirK genes encoding ammonia monooxygenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, respectively, showed that the microbial abundances involved in these metabolisms were neither affected by wastewater discharge nor Zn contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of intradermal human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase on random pattern flaps in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Ophir; Westreich, Melvyn; Shalom, Avshalom

    2013-09-01

    Studies have focused on enhancing flap viability using superoxide dismutase (SOD), but only a few used SOD from human origin, and most gave the compound systemically. We evaluated the ability of SOD to improve random skin flap survival using human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Hr-CuZnSOD) in variable doses, injected intradermally into the flap. Seventy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Cephalic random pattern flaps were elevated on their backs and intradermal injections of different dosages of Hr-CuZnSOD were given 15 minutes before surgery. Flap survival was evaluated by fluorescein fluorescence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test statistical analyses were performed. Flap survival in all treated groups was significantly better than in the controls. The beneficial effect of HR-CuZnSOD on flap survival is attained when it is given intradermally into the flap tissue. Theoretically, Hr-CuZnSOD delivered with local anesthetics used in flap elevation may be a valuable clinical tool. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dendritic Zinc Growth in Acid Electrolyte: Effect of the pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, Leandro N.; Pary, Paola; Seré, Pablo R.; Conconi, M. Susana; Egli, Walter A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, dendritic growth at the edges of electrogalvanized steel strip has been studied using a specially designed rotating washer electrode which simulates the fluid dynamic conditions and the current density distribution at the steel strip edge found in a production line. The effect of electrolyte pH and current density on dendritic growth in an acidic zinc plating bath (ZnSO4 and H2SO4) was addressed. The temperature was kept constant at 60 °C. Solution pH was adjusted to 1, 2 or 3 using different amounts of H2SO4. In addition, the influence of temperature on the pH of the solution was determined. The current density was set at 40 or 60 A/dm2, similar to that used in the industry. Deposits were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that pH strongly affects dendrites shape, length and texture. Furthermore, the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge and of deposits on the flat portion of the washer changed considerably as solution pH was increased from 1 to 3. It was found that the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge stems from the morphology of the deposit on its flat portion, which in turn determines their shape.

  12. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  13. Anion effect controlling the selectivity in the zinc-catalysed copolymerisation of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Elmas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the anion has a surprisingly strong effect on the incorporation of CO2 into the polymer obtained during the zinc-catalysed copolymerisation of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide. The product span ranges from polyethercarbonates, where short polyether sequences alternate with carbonate linkages, to polycarbonates with a strictly alternating sequence of the repeating units. Herein, we report on the influence of the coordination ability of the anion on the selectivity and kinetics of the copolymerisation reaction.

  14. Spectral studies on the interaction of acetylacetone with aluminum-containing MCM-41 mesoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanjanchi, M.A.; Vaziri, M.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to study the interaction of acetylacetone (acac) with the mesoporous aluminum-containing MCM-41 materials. A room temperature synthesis method was used for preparation of purely siliceous MCM-41 and for aluminum-containing MCM-41 materials. Samples with Si/Al ratios of 50, 20, 10 and 5 were synthesized. The synthesized mesoporous materials possess highly ordered structure and high surface area as evidenced from X-ray diffraction and nitrogen physisorption measurements, respectively. The treatment of the as-synthesized aluminum-containing MCM-41 samples with acac shows a distinct band at ∼290 nm. This band is assigned to six coordinated aluminum atoms in the structure which is produced by diffusion of acac molecules through surfactant micelles and their interaction with aluminum atoms. The 290-nm band disappears upon several successive washing of the sample with ethanol. The treatment of the calcined aluminum-containing MCM-41 sample with acac produces the same 290-nm band where its intensity increases with the aluminum content of the sample. The intensity of this band is reduced upon successive ethanol washing, but remains nearly constant after three times washing. This irremovable aluminum species can be assigned to framework aluminum. The measured acidity for our aluminum-containing MCM-41 samples correlates linearly with the intensity of 290-nm band for the ethanol treated samples. This supports the idea that the Bronsted acidity in aluminum-modified MCM-41 samples is a function of the amount of tetrahedral framework aluminum in the structure

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Oral Zinc Supplementation on Acute Watery Diarrhea with Moderate Dehydration: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karamyyar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the therapeutic effects of oral zinc supplementation on acute watery diarrhea of children with moderate dehydration.Methods: All 9-month to 5-year-old children who were admitted with acute watery diarrhea and moderate dehydration to the Children Ward of Motahari Hospital, Urmia, Iran in 2008 were recruited. After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group to receive zinc plus oral rehydration solution (ORS and the other one to receive ORS plus placebo. All the patients were rehydrated using ORS and then receiving ORS for ongoing loss (10 ml/kg after every defecation. Additionally, the patients in the intervention group received zinc syrup (1 mg/kg/day divided into two doses. A detailed questionnaire was filled daily for each patient by trained pediatrics residents; it contained required demographic characteristics, nutrition and hydration status, and disease progression. The primary outcome (frequency and consistency of diarrhea and the secondary outcomes (duration of hospitalization and change in patients’ weight were compared between the two groups.Results: The mean diarrhea frequency (4.5±2.3 vs. 5.3±2.1; P=0.004 was lower in the group receiving zinc +ORS; however, the average weight was relatively similar between the two groups (10.5±3.1 vs. 10.1±2.3; P=0.14. The qualitative assessment of stool consistency also confirmed earlier improvement in the treatment group in the first three days of hospitalization (P <0.05. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly lower in the patients receiving zinc supplements (2.5±0.7 vs. 3.3±0.8 days; P=0.001. Conclusion: Our results imply the beneficial effects of therapeutic zinc supplementation on disease duration and severity in patients with acute diarrhea and moderate dehydration in Iran. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201201241580N2

  16. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  17. Comparison of 111In-oxine and 111In-acetylacetone for the labeling of cells: in vivo and in vitro biological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, C.J.; Heaton, W.A.; Welch, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Several complexes of indium were compared as cell labels: indium-111-acetylacetone, indium-111-oxine, and indium-111-chloride complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) immediately prior to use. In labeling with acetylacetone, it was shown that the labeling efficiency is directly proportional to the amount of acetylacetone present, but the cell viability (as measured by in vitro aggregation studies), is inversely proportional to the amount of acetylacetone present. Biological studies were carried out in dogs using indium-111-labeled platelets; survival times and recovery values obtained with platelets labeled using all three techniques were similar. The same solutions were also used to label white blood cells; labeling efficiencies of greater than 80% were obtained in all cases, and the viability (as measured by trypan blue exclusion) was high in all cases. Chemotactic ability of the white cells labeled with indium-111-oxine is higher than that of unlabeled control cells; however, cells labeled with indium-111-acetylacetone were the same as the unlabeled control cells. (author)

  18. The effect of Al and Cr additions on pack cementation zinc coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Papazoglou, M.; Tsipas, S.; Pavlidou, E.; Skolianos, S.; Stergioudis, G.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is widely used as a protective coating material due to its corrosion resistant properties. The structure and oxidation resistance of Al and Cr mixed zinc coatings, deposited by pack cementation process, is thoroughly examined in this work. The morphology and chemical composition of the as-deposited and oxidized samples was accomplished by electron microscopy while the phase identification was performed by XRD diffraction analysis. The experimental results showed that the addition of aluminum or chromium in the pack mixture forms only Al and Cr rich phases on the surface of the specimens without affecting significantly the phase composition of the rest zinc coatings. In the case of Zn-Al coatings, the overlying layer contains high concentrations of Al together with lower amounts of zinc and iron and in Zn-Cr coatings this layer contains Cr, Fe and Zn atoms and has much smaller thickness. The presence of these additional layers promotes significantly the oxidation resistance of the zinc pack coatings and they preserve most of their initial thickness and chemical content when exposed to an aggressive environment while their oxidation mass gain was measured at low levels during the oxidation tests.

  19. Effect of dietary organic zinc sources on growth performance, incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue zinc concentrations, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary organic zinc (Zn sources on growth performance, the incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue Zn concentration, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits. A total of 120 New Zealand White rabbits aged 35 d and with an initial body weight of 755±15 g, were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups for a 49 d feeding trial. Dietary treatments were designed with different Zn supplements as follows: (1 Control group: 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4; (2 ZnLA group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn lactate; (3 ZnMet group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn methionine; (4 ZnGly group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn glycine. The results showed that, when compared with rabbits fed ZnSO4, supplementation with ZnLA improved (P4. Supplementing with ZnLA increased duodenum villi height (681.63 vs. 587.14 μm, P4, except that feeding ZnMet led to higher (P4. The results indicated that supplementation with 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnLA could improve growth performance, increase liver Zn concentration and enhance duodenum morphology, while reducing the incidence of diarrhoea in growing rabbits.

  20. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  1. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahedi, K.; Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L.; Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) = 20.12 x 10 -12 (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  2. Kinetics and Photodegradation Study of Aqueous Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Using Zinc Oxide: The Effect of Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki S. Seddigi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide of different average particle sizes 25 nm, 59 nm, and 421 nm as applied in the photodegradation of MTBE. This study was carried out in a batch photoreactor having a high pressure mercury lamp. Zinc oxide of particle size of 421 nm was found to be the most effective in degrading MTBE in an aqueous solution. On using this type of ZnO in a solution of 100 ppm MTBE, the concentration of MTBE has decreased to 5.1 ppm after a period of five hours. The kinetics of the photocatalytic degradation of MTBE was found to be a first order reaction.

  3. Effects of sintering temperature on structural and electrical transport properties of zinc ferrites prepared by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Malik, M.A.; Ahmad, I.; Nasir, S.; Mubeen, M.; Abdullah, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sintering temperature on the structural and electrical transport properties of nanocrystalline zinc ferrites are reported. The zinc ferrites were prepared by WOWS sol-gel synthesis route. The prepared sample was sintered at temperatures 500 deg. C, 700 deg. C and 900 deg. C respectively for 2 h. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique was used to describe the structural properties. The crystallite size, lattice parameters and porosity of samples were measured from the analysis of XRD data. The average crystallite size for each sample was measured using the Scherrer formula by considering the most intense (3 1 1) peak. The dielectric constant (e), dielectric loss tangent (tan theta ) and AC electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline Zn ferrites are investigated as a function of frequency and sintering temperature. All the electrical properties are explained in accordance with MaxwellWagner model and Koops phenomenological theory. (author)

  4. Effect of Different Post Deposition Annealing Treatments on Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Arora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different post deposition annealing atmospheres of oxygen and forming gas have been investigated for the improvement of rf sputtered zinc oxide thin films. The results show that type of atmosphere (oxidant o reduction plays an important role in the changes observed in structural, electrical and optical properties. It has been found that the structural properties of rf sputtered zinc oxide films improve in all the annealing environments. The intensity and grain size increases as the annealing temperature increases. It has been found that films become stress free at lowest temperature in oxygen as compare to forming gas annealing. The zinc oxide films annealed in oxygen shows sufficient resistivity associated to high transmittance (83 % characteristics required for MEMS based acoustic devices.

  5. Sodium Silicate Gel Effect on Cemented Tailing Backfill That Contains Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the priming effect of sodium silicate gel (SS on cemented tailing backfill (CTB that contains lead-zinc smelting slag. CTB and cemented paste (CP containing lead-zinc smelting slag samples with SS of 0 and 0.4% of the mass of the slag were prepared and cured at 20°C for 1, 3, 7, and 28 days. Mechanical test and pore structure analyses were performed on the studied CTB samples, microstructural analyses (X-ray diffraction analysis and thermal gravity analysis were performed on the studied CP samples, whereas the electrical conductivity of CTB was monitored. The results reveal that SS has a significant positive effect on cementitious activity of binder mixed by cement and lead-zinc smelting slag. This activation leads to the acceleration of binder hydration process, the formation of more cement hydration products in the CTBs, and the refinement of their pore structure, which is favorable for the strength development of CTB.

  6. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  7. Rodenticide Comparative Effect of Klerat® and Zinc Phosphide for Controlling Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad VEYSI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a neglected disease with public health importance that is common in many rural areas of Iran. In recent years, behavioral resistance and/or bait shyness against the common rodenticide among reservoir hosts of ZCL have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Klerat® and zinc phosphide against natural reservoir of ZCL.Methods: This survey was carried out in four villages located 45 to 95 km far from Esfahan City Esfahan province, central Iran from April to November 2011. The rodent burrows were counted destroyed and reopened holes baited around all villages. Effect of rodent control operation on the main vector density and incidence of ZCL were evaluated.Results: The reduction rate of rodent burrows after intervention calculated to be at 62.8% in Klerat® and 58.15% in zinc phosphide treated areas. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the densities of the vector in indoors and outdoors in intervention and control areas. The incidence of the disease between treated and control areas after intervention was statistically different (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Klerat® could be a suitable alternative for zinc phosphide in a specific condition such as behavior resistance or occurrence of bait shyness.

  8. Facile synthesis of soluble functional graphene by reduction of graphene oxide via acetylacetone and its adsorption of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minghan; Chai, Jing; Hu, Nantao; Huang, Da; Wang, Yuxi; Huang, Xiaolu; Wei, Hao; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of graphene (GR) from graphene oxide (GO) typically involves harmful chemical reducing agents that are undesirable for most practical applications. Here we report a green and facile synthesis method for the synthesis of GR that is soluble in water and organic solvents and that includes the additional benefit of adsorption of heavy metal ions. Acetylacetone, as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer, was used to prepare soluble GR from GO. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy provide clear evidence for the formation of few-layer GR. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show that reduction of GO to GR has occurred. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also indicate the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from GO, resulting in the formation of GR. The results of dispersion experiments show that GR can be highly dispersed in water and N,N-Dimethylformamide. The reaction mechanism for acetylacetone reduction of exfoliated GO was also proposed. This method is a facile and environmentally friendly approach to the synthesis of GR and opens up new possibilities for preparing GR and GR-based nanomaterials for large-scale applications. Of even greater interest is that inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy suggests that synthesized GR may be applied in the absorption of Cd 2+ and Co 2+ due to the strong coordination capacity of acetylacetone on the surfaces and edges of GR and the large surface area of GR in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorptions are 49.28 mg g −1 for Cd 2+ , which is 4.5 times higher than that of carbon nanotubes, and 27.78 mg g −1 for Co 2+ , which is 3.6 times higher than that of titania beans. (paper)

  9. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  10. The effectiveness of zinc supplementation in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled superiority trial with 18 months of follow-up was conducted to investigate whether oral zinc supplementation could further promote spermatogenesis in males with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH receiving sequential purified urinary follicular-stimulating hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (uFSH/hCG replacement. Sixty-seven Chinese male IHH patients were recruited from the Departments of Endocrinology in eight tertiary hospitals and randomly allocated into the sequential uFSH/hCG group (Group A, n = 34 or the sequential uFSH plus zinc supplementation group (Group B, n = 33. In Group A, patients received sequential uFSH (75 U, three times a week every other 3 months and hCG (2000 U, twice a week treatments. In Group B, patients received oral zinc supplementation (40 mg day−1 in addition to the sequential uFSH/hCG treatment given to patients in Group A. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a sperm concentration ≥1.0 × 106 ml−1 during the 18 months. The comparison of efficacy between Groups A and B was analyzed. Nineteen of 34 (55.9% patients receiving sequential uFSH/hCG and 20 of 33 (60.6% patients receiving sequential uFSH/hCG plus zinc supplementation achieved sperm concentrations ≥1.0 × 106 ml−1 by intention to treat analyses. No differences between Group A and Group B were observed as far as the efficacy of inducing spermatogenesis (P = 0.69. We concluded that the sequential uFSH/hCG plus zinc supplementation regimen had a similar efficacy to the sequential uFSH/hCG treatment alone. The additional improvement of 40 mg day−1 oral zinc supplementation on spermatogenesis and masculinization in male IHH patients is very subtle.

  11. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  12. Surface-initiated addition polymerization of norbornene by a Pd(II) catalyst bearing acetylacetone ligand on the glass slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaohui; Wang, Kaiti; Chen, Yiwang; Yuan, Bin

    2012-02-01

    A Pd catalyst bearing acetylacetone ligand [(CH3CO)2CHPdCl2] was covalently attracted onto the surface of glass slides, and then these Pd-terminated glass slides were immersed into a toluene solution of norbornene (NB) to produce a vinyl-type addition polynorbornene (PNB) layer on the surface of glass slides. It was found that the contract angles of the PNB-terminated glass slides surface increased with the increasing of polymerization time, and the thickness of the PNB layers were approximately 0-44.0 μm when the polymerization time was 0.5-24 h. The researching on etching also has been operated.

  13. Effects of polyamine inhibitors on zinc uptake by COMMA-1D mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.C.; Haedrich, L.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Zn uptake or transport is stimulated by glucocorticoids in many types of epithelial cells, including the COMMA-1D mouse mammary cell line. The current objective was to determine whether polyamines also mediate glucocorticoid stimulation of Zn-uptake. Initially, cells grown in lactogenic hormone supplemented-media had approximately 65% greater {sup 65}Zn-uptake over 24 h than cells in nonsupplemented growth media (GM). {sup 65}Zn-uptake from HM with 10{sup {minus}5}M methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) (s-adenosyl-methionine decarboxylase inhibitor to block polyamine synthesis) added was less than from GM. Exogenous spermidine added to the MGBG-HM media increased {sup 65}Zn-uptake. However, up to 10mM difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a more specific inhibitor of sperimidine synthesis, had no significant effect on 24-h {sup 65}Zn-uptake by cells in HM. In GM, DFMO caused a slight dose-dependent decrease in {sup 65}Zn-uptake over the range 10{sup {minus}6} to 5 {times} 10{sup 3}M. Also, with 8 h of incubation, DFMO tended to decrease {sup 65}Zn-uptake in HM-stimulated cells. These data cannot yet distinguish between the possibilities that DFMO is inactivated during the 24-h incubation or that the dramatic effects of MGBG on {sup 65}Zn-uptake in these mammary-derived cells is not related to its inhibition of polyamine synthesis. Because COMMA-1D cells alter Zn uptake in response to lactogenic hormones and MGBG, the model system is suitable for further studies of the mechanisms of zinc transport in epithelia.

  14. Inhibitory effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassani Sangani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Bacterial biofilm formation causes many persistent and chronic infections. The matrix protects biofilm bacteria from exposure to innate immune defenses and antibiotic treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biofilm formation of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs on biofilm. Materials and Methods: After collecting bacteria from clinical samples of hospitalized patients, the ability of organisms were evaluated to create biofilm by tissue culture plate (TCP assay. ZnO NPs were synthesized by sol gel method and the efficacy of different concentrations (50- 350 µg/ml of ZnO NPs was assessed on biofilm formation and also elimination of pre-formed biofilm by using TCP method. Results:The average diameter of synthesized ZnO NPs was 20 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles was 150- 158 μg/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration was higher (325 µg/ml. All 15 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were able to produce biofilm. Treating the organisms with nanoparticles at concentrations of 350 μg/ml resulted in more than 94% inhibition in OD reduction%. Molecular analysis showed that the presence of mRNA of pslA gene after treating bacteria with ZnO NPs for 30 minutes. Conclusion: The results showed that ZnO NPs can inhibit the establishment of P. aeruginosa biofilms and have less effective in removing pre-formed biofilm. However the tested nanoparticles exhibited anti-biofilm effect, but mRNA of pslA gene could be still detected in the medium by RT-PCR technique after 30 minutes treatment with ZnO.

  15. Effects of zinc-methionine on growth performance, intestinal flora and immune function in pigeon squabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yi, L; Zhao, M L; Wu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Cheng, X C

    2014-01-01

    1. Different concentrations of zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) were given to pigeon squabs, and the resulting effects on growth, immune functions and intestinal microflora were investigated from hatching to 28 d of age. A total of 180 artificially hatched pigeon squabs were randomly allotted to each of three treatments with three replicates of 20 squabs. The three treatments given were either one ml (2 mg/ml) Zn-Met, one ml (10 mg/ml) Zn-Met or one ml 0.9% NaCl solution. 2. The results showed that Zn-Met improved the growth performance of squabs. The average daily and average weekly weight gain was significantly greater in squabs treated with Zn-Met than in the control group. 3. The group given 2 and 10 mg supplemental Zn-Met had heavier thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius than the control group at d 28. 4. Maternal antibody titres against Newcastle disease haemagglutination inhibition and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase were significantly higher in squabs treated with supplemental 2 and 10 mg Zn-Met compared to the control group at d 14 and d 28. 5. Additionally, the squabs given supplemental 2 mg Zn-Met exhibited significantly higher Bacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations at d 14 and d 28, but lower Escherichia coli populations at d 28 compared to the control group. On the contrary, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly decreased with 10 mg Zn-Met at d 28. 6. This study indicates that supplementation with Zn-Met has a positive effect on growth performance, immune function and regulation of intestinal flora in pigeons. An inclusion level of 2 mg seems to be better than 10 mg Zn-Met per day per bird.

  16. Soil pH effects on the interactions between dissolved zinc, non-nano- and nano-ZnO with soil bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Daniel S.; Matzke, Marianne; Gweon, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    nanoparticles due to the practice of applying sewage sludge as a fertiliser or as an organic soil improver. However, understanding on the interactions between soil properties, nanoparticles and the organisms that live within soil is lacking, especially with regards to soil bacterial communities. We studied......Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an array of products and processes, ranging from personal care products to antifouling paints, textiles, food additives, antibacterial agents and environmental remediation processes. Soils are an environment likely to be exposed to manmade...... the effects of nanoparticulate, non-nanoparticulate and ionic zinc (in the form of zinc chloride) on the composition of bacterial communities in soil with a modified pH range (from pH 4.5 to pH 7.2). We observed strong pH-dependent effects on the interaction between bacterial communities and all forms of zinc...

  17. The effect of inorganic and organic form of zinc on digestibility of nutrients in dairy cows in three stages of reproductive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Balabánová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to compare the effect of feeding inorganic and organic forms of zinc in premix on the coefficient of digestibility of nutrients in the feeding ration for cows in three stages of reproductive cycle – 14 d before calving and 30 and 60 d after calving. The experiment was carried out on 19 Holstein cows that were divided into two groups. A control group of nine cows designated as “Inorganic zinc form” (IZF was fed a diet supplemented with mineral premix containing inorganic form of zinc (ZnO. An experimental group of ten cows designated as “Organic zinc form” (OZF had zinc oxide replaced with zinc fixed to methionine (Khei-chelate Zn powder 15% by Kheiron. The experiment was divided into three periods - the first period lasted from 14th day before calving until 2nd day after calving, the second period lasted from 3rd day to 30th day after calving and the third period lasted from 31st day to 60th day after calving. Cows were fed the diet based on maize silage, lucerne haylage, sugar beet pulp silage, grass or lucerne hay and concentrate containing premix with either inorganic or organic zinc form. During the experiment samples of feeding ration and faeces were taken in 3 intervals, it si on 14th day before calving, on 30th day and on 60th day after calving to determine nutrients content. Digestibility of nutrients was calculated using indicator method (ash insoluble in 3 M HCl.After feeding organic forms of zinc a tendency to higher digestibility of crude protein, fat, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extracts, ash and zinc was observed in cows regardless of stage of reproductive cycle. The digestibility of the zinc and fiber were the most increased. Digestibility of zinc in OZF on 14th day before calving was higher than in IZF (P < 0.05. Feeding of organic zinc forms had downward effect only on the digestibility of copper.

  18. Influence of the compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of herbage in mixed and pure culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjun; Hua Luo

    2002-01-01

    Under pot culture, the influence of compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of ryegrass in mono-culture and ryegrass/clover in mixture were studied on yellow brown earth which collected from sub-tropic mountain sward of southern China. The result showed as follows: (1) The percentage of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (% Ndfa) was decreased by nitrogen application in early growth stage and suitable amount of nitrogen application increased it in later growth stage. The % Ndfa of white clover in mixture was the highest with 6 mg/kg zinc application in all nitrogen levels. The transfer of fixed nitrogen by white clover to ryegrass was decreased by nitrogen application and increased by low amount of zinc application. (2) The percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) was significantly increased by nitrogen application, of which the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application was higher than other zinc application treatments on ryegrass in monoculture, and the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application on white clover/ryegrass in mixture was lower than other zinc treatments at the range from 30 to 90 mg/kg nitrogen application. (3) The percentage of nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs) of ryegrass both in pure and in mixture was significantly decreased as the increasing of the levels of nitrogen application, of which ryegrass in mono-culture was not obviously influenced by zinc application, and ryegrass/clover in mixture was decreased by 6-20 mg/kg zinc application under all nitrogen levels

  19. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smijs TG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Threes G Smijs1–3, Stanislav Pavel4 1Faculty of Science, Open University in The Netherlands, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2University of Leiden, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands; 3Erasmus MC, Center for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 4Charles University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Pilsen, Czech Republic Abstract: Sunscreens are used to provide protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet (UVB (290–320 nm and UVA (320–400 nm radiation. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, the protection factor against UVA should be at least one-third of the overall sun protection factor. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO minerals are frequently employed in sunscreens as inorganic physical sun blockers. As TiO2 is more effective in UVB and ZnO in the UVA range, the combination of these particles assures a broad-band UV protection. However, to solve the cosmetic drawback of these opaque sunscreens, microsized TiO2 and ZnO have been increasingly replaced by TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs (<100 nm. This review focuses on significant effects on the UV attenuation of sunscreens when microsized TiO2 and ZnO particles are replaced by NPs and evaluates physicochemical aspects that affect effectiveness and safety of NP sunscreens. With the use of TiO2 and ZnO NPs, the undesired opaqueness disappears but the required balance between UVA and UVB protection can be altered. Utilization of mixtures of micro- and nanosized ZnO dispersions and nanosized TiO2 particles may improve this situation. Skin exposure to NP-containing sunscreens leads to incorporation of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in the stratum corneum, which can alter specific NP attenuation properties due to particle–particle, particle–skin, and skin–particle–light physicochemical interactions. Both sunscreen NPs induce (photocyto- and genotoxicity and have been sporadically observed in viable

  20. Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite A on total blood calcium in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R. J.; Hansen, T.; Jensen, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Danish Holstein dairy cows in late lactation and milked in the morning only were used as a model for dry pregnant cows to determine the effect of oral drenching with zeolite A and zinc oxide, respectively, on total serum calcium. Ten cows were assigned randomly to two groups of five cows each......, given either synthetic zeolite A (group A) or zinc oxide (group B). Blood samples were drawn daily at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. during the whole experiment, and total serum calcium was determined. Daily fluctuations in blood calcium were recorded, with morning values being consistently lower than evening...... values. Oral drenching with a single dose of zinc oxide of 100 mg/kg of body weight as well as with zeolite in doses of 500 g of zeolite/cow twice a day for 2.5 d was reflected in serum calcium levels. In the group given zeolite A, there was a depression in evening values of total serum calcium although...

  1. The Effects of Micro Elements of Iron and Zinc on Morphological Characteristics of Mycorrhized Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micro-nutrients in human diet may cause health problems. To increase the amount of these elements in the edible parts of the plants would eliminate the incidence of these health problems. Thus, the effects of iron and zinc on seed yield and morphological characteristics of mycorrhized barley (cv. Bahman root was studied in Karaj, Iran, during growing season of 2013-14. It was carried out in afactorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted two levels of mycorrhiza, non-inoculation (M0 and inoculation with 10 kg/ha of Glomus intraradices (M1, and three levels of iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 as control (F0, 2.5 kg/ha (F1 and 5kg/ha (F2 and three levels of zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 as control (Z0, 25 kg/ha (Z1 and 50 kg/ha (Z2. The results showed that application of mycorrhiza increased parameters like total root length (TRL, root length density (RLD, specific root length (SLR, root colonization percentage and grain yield by 900.6 cm, 0.52 cm/cm3, 1738.1 cm/g, 5.41% and 1ton/ha respectively. Mean comparisons also revealed that using iron, mycorrhiza and without Zn application increased levels of root dry weight (RDW by 2.81 g.

  2. Toxic effect of zinc nanoscale metal-organic frameworks on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Fei, E-mail: paper_mail@126.com [Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Yang, Baochun; Cai, Jing [Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Jiang, Yaodong [Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Xu, Jun [Department of Health Economy Administration, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wang, Shan [Department of Pharmacy, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY 11501 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a newborn family of hybrid materials. • MOFs have already shown promise in a number of biological applications. • The biological applications of MOFs raise concerns for potential cytotoxicity. • Substantial information about MOF's neurotoxicity is still quite scarce. • This study reveals for the first time the interaction of MOFs with neural cells. - Abstract: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess unique properties desirable for delivery of drugs and gaseous therapeutics, but their uncharacterized interactions with cells raise increasing concerns of their safety in such biomedical applications. We evaluated the adverse effects of zinc nanoscale MOFs on the cell morphology, cytoskeleton, cell viability and expression of neurotrophin signaling pathway-associated GAP-43 protein in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. At the concentration of 25 μg/ml, zinc MOFs did not significantly affect morphology, viability and membrane integrity of the cells. But at higher concentrations (over 100 μg/ml), MOFs exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, indicating their entry into the cells via endocytosis where they release Zn{sup 2+} into the cytosol to cause increased intracellular concentration of Zn{sup 2+}. We demonstrated that the toxicity of MOFs was associated with a disrupted cellular zinc homeostasis and down-regulation of GAP-43 protein, which might be the underlying mechanism for the improved differentiation in PC12 cells. These findings highlight the importance of cytotoxic evaluation of the MOFs before their biomedical application.

  3. Toxic effect of zinc nanoscale metal-organic frameworks on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Fei; Yang, Baochun; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Yaodong; Xu, Jun; Wang, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a newborn family of hybrid materials. • MOFs have already shown promise in a number of biological applications. • The biological applications of MOFs raise concerns for potential cytotoxicity. • Substantial information about MOF's neurotoxicity is still quite scarce. • This study reveals for the first time the interaction of MOFs with neural cells. - Abstract: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess unique properties desirable for delivery of drugs and gaseous therapeutics, but their uncharacterized interactions with cells raise increasing concerns of their safety in such biomedical applications. We evaluated the adverse effects of zinc nanoscale MOFs on the cell morphology, cytoskeleton, cell viability and expression of neurotrophin signaling pathway-associated GAP-43 protein in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. At the concentration of 25 μg/ml, zinc MOFs did not significantly affect morphology, viability and membrane integrity of the cells. But at higher concentrations (over 100 μg/ml), MOFs exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, indicating their entry into the cells via endocytosis where they release Zn 2+ into the cytosol to cause increased intracellular concentration of Zn 2+ . We demonstrated that the toxicity of MOFs was associated with a disrupted cellular zinc homeostasis and down-regulation of GAP-43 protein, which might be the underlying mechanism for the improved differentiation in PC12 cells. These findings highlight the importance of cytotoxic evaluation of the MOFs before their biomedical application

  4. Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkardeş, Yasemin; Ozmert, Elif N; Unal, Fatih; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on behaviour in low-income school aged children. Double-blind randomized, placebo controlled trial. Low-income district primary school in Turkey. Third grade students in the school. Among 252 students, 226 participated and 218 completed the study. Children in each class were randomized either to the study group to receive 15 mg/day elemental zinc syrup or to placebo group to receive the syrup without zinc for 10 weeks. The change in Conner's Rating Scales for Teachers and Parents scores after supplementation. The mean Conner's Rating Scale for Parents scores on attention deficit, hyperactivity, oppositional behaviour and conduct disorder decreased significantly in the study and placebo groups after supplementation (p children with clinically significant parent ratings on attention deficit (p = 0.01) and hyperactivity (p = 0.004) decreased in the study group while prevalence of oppositional behaviour (p = 0.007) decreased in the placebo group. In children of mothers with low education all mean Parents' scores decreased significantly (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour decreased only in the study group (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit and hyperactivity. The affect on behaviour was more evident in the children of low educated mothers.

  5. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  6. Effect of zinc fertilizer applications on yield and element contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... Zinc was applied to the soil at four doses 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg da-1 before sowing. During the ... biomass production and compromised the plant's capa- city to respond to water stress by ..... and Pakistan. J Plant Nutr . 23(10): ...

  7. Optoelectronic properties of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide : effect of aluminum doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, R.; Kieft, E.R.; Linden, J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films exhibiting a rough surface morphol. are deposited on glass substrates utilizing expanding thermal plasma. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to evaluate optical and electronic film properties. The presence of aluminum donors in doped films is confirmed by a shift in

  8. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew T.; Steiner, Andrew; Tassone, Christopher J.; Toney, Michael F.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz

  9. Effect of Thermal Cycling on Zinc Antimonide Thin Film Thermoelectric Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhosseini, M.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, performance and stability of zinc antimonide thin film thermoelectric sample is analyzed under transient thermal conditions. The thermoelectric materials are deposited on glass based substrate where the heat flow is parallel with the thermoelectric element length. The specimen...

  10. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant on alumina modified zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.gac@umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Zawadzki, Witold; Słowik, Grzegorz; Pawlonka, Justyna; Machocki, Andrzej [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Lipke, Agnieszka; Majdan, Marek [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 2 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of novel ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides in the presence of CTAB surfactant. • Determination of the structural, surface and optical properties. • Nanocrystalline, high-surface area ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. • ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials of different gap energy. - Abstract: Novel alumina modified zinc oxide materials were prepared by co-precipitation method in the presence of different amounts of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. X-ray diffraction, {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced formation of 10–15 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of the small amounts of surfactant. Amorphous alumina and zinc aluminate phases of different coordination environment of Al sites were identified. An increase of surfactant concentration led to the elongation of nanoparticles and changes of the nature of hydroxyl groups. Precipitation in the high CTAB concentration conditions facilitated formation of mesoporous materials of high specific surface area. The materials were composed of very small (2–3 nm) zinc aluminate spinel nanoparticles. High concentration of CTAB induced widening of band gap energy.

  11. Zinc effects on the embryos and larvae of the sharptooth catfish, Claias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of early life stages of Sharp tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), to determine which stage to use during effluent assessment. The target water quality of zinc was used ranging from 0...

  12. Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural growth and optical and photovoltaic properties of the organic–inorganic hybrid structures of zinc oxide (ZnO)-nanorods/poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and two variations of organic polymer blends of ZnO/P3HT:C(sub60) fullerene and ZnO/P3...

  13. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  14. The effect of zinc on the growth, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and thiol groups of the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filova, A.; Molnarova, M.

    2015-01-01

    In these experiments were studied the effects of zinc chloride (Zn 2+ ) on the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindak. The changes in the growth stimulation/inhibition, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and thiol groups were the aim of the article. The zinc concentration 0.036 mg.l -1 supported the algal growth. The first toxic effect of Zn on the growth was observed at the zinc concentration 0.072 mg.l -1 . However, the significant inhibitory effect on the growth was showed in the algal suspensions with 0.360 and 4.320 mg Zn.l -1 . Inhibition of the algal growth was in the range 65 - 70% compared to control (0% inhibition). The content of chlorophyll a was significant inhibited at the zinc concentration 0.0240 mg.l -1 , but at the higher used concentration was inhibited with the extremely significations. With increased zinc content in the algal medium the thiol (-SH) groups content increased and in the highest zinc concentrations (2.160 and 4.320 mg.l -1 ) overreached control three times. (authors)

  15. Comparison of the Effect of Mouthwashes with and without Zinc and Fluocinolone on the Healing Process of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unspecified etiology, appearing as a result of stress, genetic predisposition and immunologic factors. Erosive type of the disease is more important because of its clinical symptoms of pain, irritation and malignancy risk. Despite various medications used, a definite cure for lichen planus is unknown. Regarding the effect of zinc on healing of ulcers, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of a mouthwash with and without zinc and fluocinolone on healing of erosive oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. Twenty randomly-selected patients with erosive oral lichen planus were divided into two groups of 10. One group received zinc mouthwash with fluocinolone ointment and the other group received placebo with ointment. The largest dimension of the ulcers was measured by digital calipers and the intensity of pain was determined by visual analogue scale. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results. Pain, irritation and lesion surface area decreased in both groups. Decrease in pain severity was identical in both groups (P = 0.11. However, decrease in surface area with zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone was more than that with only fluocinolone (P = 0.037. Conclusion. 0.2% zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone and only fluocinolone were both effective in decreasing pain, irritation, and surface area of OLP. However, decrease in surface area with zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone was more than that with fluocinolone alone.

  16. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  17. Effect of sibutramine on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and selected oxidative biomarkers on brain regions of female rats in the presence of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, David C; García, Ernestina H; Mejía, Gerardo B; Olguín, Hugo J; Jiménez, Francisca T; Soto, Erick B; Del Angel, Daniel S; Aparicio, Liliana C

    2012-05-01

    A number of drugs, like sibutramine, which are used clinically in weight control, act on serotonergic metabolism. However, their relation with zinc and free radical (FR) production in central nervous system remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sibutramine and zinc on FR production. Female Wistar rats (about 250 g) were used in this study. The animals received 400 μg/kg of zinc and 10 mg/kg of sibutramine intraperitoneally every 36 hr for 15 days. At the end of the study, the rats were killed and their brains used for the measurement of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ), calcium and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, all by means of validated methods. Corporal weight and food consumption were found to be decreased in the zinc/sibutramine group. TBARS decreased in cortex, hemispheres and medulla oblongata. GSH decreased in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum in the sibutramine group. Zinc given alone and in combination with sibutramine decreased H(2) O(2) concentration in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum but increased calcium and 5-HIAA concentration in all brain regions. Our results suggest that sibutramine and zinc are associated with weight loss, an effect that was more pronounced in the group treated with both drugs. Reduction in oxidative stress may be involved in these effects. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  18. Silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex: An efficient catalyst for the oxidative condensation reaction of benzyl alcohol with amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasu, G.; Malathy, M.; Karthikeyan, P.; Rajavel, R.

    2017-09-01

    Silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex via the one pot reaction of silica functionalized 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with acetyl acetone and copper acetate has been reported. The synthesized material was well characterized by analytical techniques such as FT-IR, UV-DRS, XRD, SEM-EDX, HR-TEM, EPR, ICP-AES and BET analysis. The characterization results confirmed the grafting of Cu(II) Schiff base complex on the silica surface. The catalytic activity of synthesized silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex was evaluated through the oxidative condensation reaction of benzyl alcohol to imine.

  19. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  20. The Effect of Exogenous Zinc Concentration on the Responsiveness of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts to Surface Microtopography: Part II (Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Dorst

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Osseointegration of bone implants is a vital part of the recovery process. Numerous studies have shown that micropatterned geometries can promote cell-substrate associations and strengthen the bond between tissue and the implanted material. As demonstrated previously, exogenous zinc levels can influence the responsiveness of pre-osteoblasts to micropatterns and modify their migratory behavior. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of exogenous zinc on differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on micropatterned vs. planar substrates. Levels of activated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, as well as early stage differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase, were altered with the addition of zinc. These results suggest that exogenous zinc concentration and micropatterning may interdependently modulate osteoblast differentiation.

  1. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  2. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, Frédéric, E-mail: girault@ipgp.fr [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France. (France); Clozel-Leloup, Blandine [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Villeurbanne, France. (France); Douay, Francis [Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo Environnement, ISA Lille, Lille, France. (France)

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC{sub Ra}), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km{sup 2} around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC{sub Ra} values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg{sup −1}, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg{sup −1} < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC{sub Ra} values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC{sub Ra} correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC{sub Ra} values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC{sub Ra} mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC{sub Ra} mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC{sub Ra

  3. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Clozel-Leloup, Blandine; Douay, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC_R_a), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km"2 around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC_R_a values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg"−"1, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg"−"1 < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC_R_a values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC_R_a correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC_R_a values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC_R_a mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC_R_a mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC_R_a may provide a novel index to identify soils

  4. Effect of different levels of dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats%不同剂量补锌对大鼠体重和学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 李积胜

    2004-01-01

    [Objective]:To investigate the effect of increasing dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats.[Methods]Zinc supplemental diet contained 200, 400, 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc,respectively.Y-labyrinth test was applied to exam the learning and memory function of rats.[Results]Significantly greater weight gain was observed in rats fed with 400 mg/kg zinc diet than in rats fed with 200 mg/kg zinc diet(P<0.05). During the early experiment, lower weight increments were notably observed in rats with 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc supplementation than that in control group, respectively. But the influence on weight relief became weaker in pace with time on the whole. Learning and memory function for rats were strikingly improved at level of 200 mg/kg zinc diet compared with the control level(P<0.05), and were damaged in varying degrees at higher(except 1 600 mg/kg) zinc supplementation levels in feeds, among which,800 mg/kg zinc dosage had produced obviously lesion for learning ability in rats compared with normal, 200 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc levels(P<0.05, respectively).[Conclusion]These results suggest that different levels of zinc supplementation have some incompletely parallel effects on the growth, memory and capacity to learn in rats.

  5. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  6. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (Plong-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  7. The Effects of Superovulation Prior to Mating and Zinc Supplementation on Milk Yields in Etawah-Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW ranged from 20.4 to 44.2 kg and age ranged from 2.5 to 7 years were used to study the effects of superovulation prior to mating and zinc supplementation on milk yields. The experimental does were assigned into a randomized block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection with 2 levels (0 IU/kg BW [nonsuperovulation–NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [Superovulation–SO]. The second factor was zinc concentration in the diet with 3 levels (40 mg/kg DM [Z-40], 60 mg/kg DM [Z-60], and 80 mg/kg DM [Z-80]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four  hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected  to  stimulate superovulation. After  sponge removal,  5 experimental does  were mixed with 1 buck for natural mating. During  pregnancy  the experimental does were fed and  raised in   individual stables. Udder volume  was measured every other week from weeks 12 to 21 of  pregnancy.  During lactation  (one week to  5 months post partum kids were separated from the does, and   milk was harvested by hand milking. Milk samples were taken every other week for determination of milk quality. The results  indicated that  superovulation increased udder differential growth  by 80% (822.85 vs 1481.25 cm3/head, milk yield by  32% (567.14 vs 746.52 g/head/day.  Zinc concentration  increased udder differential growth and milk yield. Milk productions for does receiving 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg DM were 565.68, 737.88 and 666.92 g/day, respectively.It was concluded that  superovulation and zinc supplementation  increased milk  yield in Etawah Grade does. (Animal Production 6(2: 86-94 (2004   Key Words:  Superovulation, Zinc, Milk  Yield, Etawah-Grade

  8. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  9. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  10. Effect of effective mass and spontaneous polarization on photocatalytic activity of wurtzite and zinc-blende ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ming; Zhang, Jinfeng; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor zinc sulphide (ZnS) has two common phases: hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc-blende structures. The crystal structures, energy band structures, density of states (DOS), bond populations, and optical properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende ZnS were investigated by the density functional theory of first-principles. The similar band gaps and DOS of wurtzite and zinc-blende ZnS were found and implied the similarities in crystal structures. However, the distortion of ZnS 4 tetrahedron in wurtzite ZnS resulted in the production of spontaneous polarization and internal electric field, which was beneficial for the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes

  11. The effects of air pollution and smoking on placental cadmium, zinc concentration and metallothionein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Akbulut, Metin; Divrikli, Umit; Erken, Gulten; Demirhan, Huriye; Duzcan, Ender; Elci, Latif; Celik, Ismail; Yozgatli, Unsal

    2007-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and blood progesterone level. Placental Zn and Cd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Presence of placental MT was determined immunohistochemically. Placental changes were examined by light microscope after H and E and PAS staining. Immunohistochemical MT staining of syncytiotrophoblastic and villous interstitial cells were scored as positive or negative. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (Group I), 29 had been exposed to air pollution (Group II) and 30 were non-smoker rural residents who had never been exposed to air pollution (Group III). Mean off-spring birth weight of 3198.62 ± 380.01 g and mean placenta weight of 561.38 ± 111.55 g of Group II were lower when compared with those of other two groups. In Group I, mean placental Cd and Zn were 0.063 ± 0.022 μg/g and 39.84 ± 15.5 μg/g, respectively, being higher than in other groups. In Group II, mean placental Cd and Zn levels were higher than those of Group III. Blood progesterone levels of subjects in Group I (121 ng/ml) were the lowest of all groups. While the mean count of villi was the highest in Group III; the highest mean count of syncytial knots was in Group II. Thickening of vasculo-syncytial membrane was most prominent in Group I. Similarly, MT staining was positive and very dense in 72.7% (24/33) of cases in Group I (p ≤ 0.05). MT staining was positive in 69.0% (29/20) and denser in Group II cases compared to 36% (11/30) in Group III (p ≤ 0.05). This study showed that smoking increased Cd levels in placenta and accompanied an increase in placental MT expression immunohistochemically. The effects of exposure to air pollution are equally

  12. The Silver Oxide-Zinc Alkaline Primary Cell. Part 2. Effects of Various Types of Negative Electrodes on Cell Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepherd, C. M

    1951-01-01

    ... (generally a potassium hydroxide solution). During discharge, the silver peroxide in the positive electrode is reduced to metallic silver and the metallic zinc in the negative electrode is oxidized either to zinc oxide or to a complex zincate ion...

  13. Surface stoichiometry of zinc sulfide and its effect on the adsorption behaviors of xanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Meng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the surface stoichiometry, acid-base properties as well as the adsorption of xanthate at ZnS surfaces were studied by means of potentiometric titration, adsorption and solution speciation modeling. The surface proton binding site was determined by using Gran plot to evaluate the potentiometric titration data. Testing results implied that for stoichiometric surfaces of zinc sulfide, the proton and hydroxide determine the surface charge. For the nonstoichiometric surfaces, the surface charge is controlled by proton, hydroxide, zinc and sulfide ions depending on specific conditions. The xanthate adsorption decreases with increasing solution pH, which indicates an ion exchange reaction at the surfaces. Based on experimental results, the surface protonation, deprotonation, stoichiometry and xanthate adsorption mechanism were discussed.

  14. Zinc Vacancy Formation and its Effect on the Conductivity of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Enamul; Weber, Marc; Langford, Steve; Dickinson, Tom

    2010-03-01

    Exposing single crystal ZnO to 193-nm ArF excimer laser radiation can produce metallic zinc nanoparticles along the surface. The particle production mechanism appears to involve interstitial-vacancy pair formation in the near-surface bulk. Conductivity measurements made with one probe inside the laser spot and the other outside show evidence for rectifying behavior. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the presence of Zn vacancies. We suggest that Zn vacancies are a possible source of p-type behavior in irradiated ZnO. Quadrupole mass spectroscopy shows that both oxygen and zinc are emitted during irradiation. Electron-hole pair production has previously been invoked to account for particle desorption from ZnO during UV illumination. Our results suggest that preexisting and laser-generated defects play a critical role in particle desorption and Zn vacancy formation.

  15. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.

  16. The peculiar effect of forest dislocations on single twin layer development in zinc and beryllium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentev, F.F.; Bosin, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    This is an investigation of the effect of different types of forest dislocation on the rate of twin layer broadening, Vsub(n), in zinc and beryllium crystals, and on the velocity of the twinning dislocation movement, Vsub(t), in zinc crystals under the action of a constant external shear stress. Increasing the forest basal dislocation density, rhosub(b), was found to result in increasing Vsub(n) and reducing Vsub(t), while increasing the forest pyramidal dislocation density, rhosub(p), causes Vsub(n) to decrease. An analysis in terms of crystal geometry shows that the dualism of the influence of the basal dislocations stems from the fact that they behave as twinning dislocation sources whose density, increasing with rhosub(b) leads to higher Vsub(n). The decrease in the effective stress, tausup(*), with increasing rhosub(b) is estimated. An analysis of the experimental data yielded the relation Vsub(t)(tausup(*)) and an estimate of the activation volume, which amounted to 6 x 10 -21 cm 3 . The close coincidence of the activation volumes as obtained from Vsub(t)(tausup(*)) and Vsub(n)(tau) suggests that the rate-controlling mechanism of the twin layer development in zinc crystals with large forest basal dislocation density is the twinning dislocation inhibition. In Be crystals, the increasing Vsub(n) effect is observed during untwinning. In Be twinned crystals, electron microscopy revealed twinning dislocations with a density of about 10 5 cm -1 at the twin boundaries and a large forest basal dislocation density inside the twin (ca. 10 8 cm -2 ). (Auth.)

  17. The effects of probiotics and zinc supplementation on the porcine innate immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Hansche, Bianca F.

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of a transfer of antibiotic resistance genes led to banning the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine production in the European Union since January 1, 2006. Due to the high number of piglet losses - mainly caused by diarrhea during the weaning period - viable alternatives to antibiotics are needed. One possibility is the use of specific feed additives such as probiotics or zinc. Probioti...

  18. Effects of Zinc Deuteroporphyrin Bis Glycol on Newborn Mice After Heme-Loading

    OpenAIRE

    He, Cynthia X.; Campbell, Claire M.; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora S.; Schulz, Stephanie; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with hemolytic diseases frequently develop hyperbilirubinemia, but standard phototherapy only eliminates bilirubin after its production. A better strategy might be to directly inhibit heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in bilirubin production. Metalloporphyrins (Mps) are heme analogs that competitively inhibit HO activity in vitro and in vivo and suppress plasma bilirubin levels in vivo. A promising Mp, zinc deuteroporphyrin bis glycol (ZnBG), is orally absorbed and effecti...

  19. Photodynamic therapy effect of aluminum and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available , Cancer, Aluminum Tetrasulfophthalocyanines, Zinc Tetrasulfophthalocyanines 1. INTRODUCTION Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising oncology treatment which aims at offering treatment that is selective and localized. PDT is a very simple principle... which requires three essential components a photosensitizer (PS), visible light (laser source) and molecular oxygen present in the biological tissue. The combination of these components will result in the destruction of tumor cells.1 This oncology...

  20. Synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles for effective adsorption of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadian, Mahboubeh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Fard, Mina Matin; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The threat of toxic substances such as heavy metals to public health and wildlife has led to an increasing public awareness. Different techniques for neutralizing the toxic effects of heavy metals in wastewater have been used. Here, we prepared a new and efficient type of adsorbent, zinc oxide-graphene nanocomposite (ZnO-Gr), via a green method to remove Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions. A facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique in the presence of an ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [C6mim] [NTf2], was used to prepare ZnO-Gr. The synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles in this new adsorbent for Ni (II) ions caused a maximum adsorption capacity of 66.7 mg g-1 at room temperature which is much higher than that of graphene nanosheets (3.8 mg g-1) and other carbonaceous nanomaterials used as an adsorbent in the literature. The maximum desorption percentage (90.32%) was achieved at pH 3.6. By thermodynamic study, we found that the adsorption of this heavy metal ion on ZnO-Gr was spontaneous (Δ G° = -6.14 kJ mol-1) and endothermic (Δ H° = 53.31 kJ mol-1) with entropy change of Δ S° = 199.45 J K-1 mol- 1.

  1. The effect of zinc (Zn) content to cell potential value and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akranata, Ahmad Ridho; Sulistijono, Awali, Jatmoko

    2018-04-01

    Sacrificial anode is sacirifial component that used to protect steel from corrosion. Generally, the component are made of aluminium and zinc in water environment. Sacrificial anode change the protected metal structure become cathodic with giving current. The advantages of aluminium is corrosion resistance, non toxicity and easy forming. Zinc generally used for coating in steel to prevent steel from corrosion. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of zinc content to the value of cell potential and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode with sand casting method in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment. The sacrificial anode fabrication made with alloying aluminium and zinc metals with variation composition of alloy with pure Al, Al-3Zn, Al-6Zn, and Al-9Zn with open die sand casting process. The component installed with ASTM A36 steel. After the research has been done the result showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential, protection efficiency, and anode efficiency from steel plate. Cell potential value measurement and weight loss measurement showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential value into more positive that can protected the ASTM A36 steel more efficiently that showed in weight loss measurement where the protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of Al-9Zn sacrificial anode is better than protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of pure Al. The highest protection efficiency gotten by Al-9Zn alloy

  2. THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC IONS DURING THEIR BINDING WITH HUMAN SERUM γ-GLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cheknev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformational changes of human serum γ-globulin were studied during and after its binding with copper and zinc ions, using molecular ultrafiltration and differential spectrophotometry. The contents of nonbound metals in the filtrate were evaluated, resp., with sodium diethyl thyocarbamate and o-phenanthroline. It has been shown that copper and zinc exhibited common biological properties during their interactions with protein, but the binding differed sufficiently under similar experimental conditions. E.g., it was confirmed that copper was more active at the external sites of γ-globulin molecule, whereas zinc demonstrated tropicity for the areas of protein intraglobular compartments. The metal-binding sites have been described that differ in their parameters of interactions with cations and their spatial location within globular domains. Approaches are suggested for dynamic analysis of saturation for these differently located sites by the metal ions. We discuss the issues of altered conformational state of the γ-globulin molecule during the binding of cations, as well as potential usage of these data in clinical immunology.

  3. Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almada Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined whether supplementing the diet with a commercial supplement containing zinc magnesium aspartate (ZMA during training affects zinc and magnesium status, anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and/or training adaptations. Forty-two resistance trained males (27 ± 9 yrs; 178 ± 8 cm, 85 ± 15 kg, 18.6 ± 6% body fat were matched according to fat free mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner either a dextrose placebo (P or ZMA 30–60 minutes prior to going to sleep during 8-weeks of standardized resistance-training. Subjects completed testing sessions at 0, 4, and 8 weeks that included body composition assessment as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests on the bench and leg press, a Wingate anaerobic power test, and blood analysis to assess anabolic/catabolic status as well as markers of health. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicated that ZMA supplementation non-significantly increased serum zinc levels by 11 – 17% (p = 0.12. However, no significant differences were observed between groups in anabolic or catabolic hormone status, body composition, 1-RM bench press and leg press, upper or lower body muscular endurance, or cycling anaerobic capacity. Results indicate that ZMA supplementation during training does not appear to enhance training adaptations in resistance trained populations.

  4. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  5. Effect of FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah; Arif, M.; Shah, P.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rain fed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rain fed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha/sup -1/ wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dry land conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rain fed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production. (Author)

  6. Remineralizing effect of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion caused by soft drinks: Ultrastructural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Mirando, Maria; Rattalino, Davide; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fifty specimens were assigned to 5 groups of 10 specimens each. (Group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, 3: erosive challenge, toothpaste without fluoride, group 4: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 5: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples used as control and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1 and 2): indeed among all groups the highest grade of damage was found in group 2. Instead the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 5 (Zinc hydroxyapatite toothpaste). The results of this study confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology could provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges. The treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. Key words: Dental erosion, enamel, SEM, toothpaste.

  7. Models for mass transfer effects in semi-fuel cells and for a silver-zinc battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Murali Sankar

    Semi-Fuel Cells (SFCs) and Silver-Zinc batteries have been recognized as batteries for high power applications. For channel flow between two parallel plates, featured in SFCs, obstacles may take the form of ordered asymmetrical porous nets. The net controls the spacing between the two electrode plates. The effect of the inert insulating net and its geometry on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in such a system is presented. The governing equations for momentum, continuity, and energy are solved in a three-dimensional domain using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software for fully developed flow with constant temperature boundary conditions. The local Nusselt number is calculated from the resulting temperature distribution. This net also affects the limiting current distribution in an SFC operating at limiting current because it disrupts the parabolic laminar flow velocity distribution. Hence, the current density distribution is obtained from the Nusselt number distribution through a heat and mass transfer analogy. The location, spacing, and number of the longitudinal and transverse ribs of the net are shown to affect the local and average current density distributions and Nusselt numbers on each of the two electrode plates. The results show that transverse ribs have a greater effect and that the enhancements of the average current density of 250% can be obtained for a spacing of 0.94 x 10-3 m with greater than 16 transverse ribs. A silver-zinc battery shows similar mass transfer limitations while discharged at moderate to high discharge rates. A one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a negative (zinc) electrode, separator, and positive (silver) electrode, has been developed to study the performance and thermal behavior of the silver-zinc cell during discharge. The physical phenomena described here are reaction kinetics, mass transfer and heat generation. The analysis includes finite matrix conductivities (thermal and electrical

  8. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but .... Analysis of variance on canola traits affected by nitrogen, zinc and salinity at ...... a result less of the latter are available for fat synthesis ... Na+ and Cl- in plant tissues, effects of nitrogen and zinc ... Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced.

  9. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    , glutathione peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the diabetic rats. The present results demonstrate beneficial effects and amelioration of inflammation in the respiratory system of type 2 diabetic rats by leucine, zinc, and chromium supplements, probably due to their hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties. Using safe and effective nutritional supplements, such as leucine, chromium and zinc, to replace proven conventional medical treatments may help to control diabetes and/or its complications.

  10. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    , myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the diabetic rats. The present results demonstrate beneficial effects and amelioration of inflammation in the respiratory system of type 2 diabetic rats by leucine, zinc, and chromium supplements, probably due to their hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties. Using safe and effective nutritional supplements, such as leucine, chromium and zinc, to replace proven conventional medical treatments may help to control diabetes and/or its complications. PMID:26185997

  11. Effect of zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles injection on jawbone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Ito, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) nano particles were injected into zinc-deficient rats to promote osteogenesis. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (4 weeks old, average weight of 70 g) were divided into four groups: Normal rats (not ovariectomized (OVX)), Control rats (OVX), and OVX rats injected with a suspension of ZnTCP nano particles or ZnSO 4 . The ZnTCP contained 6.17% zinc. The suspensions (0.6 mg as a zinc volume/0.2 ml) were injected around the jaw bone once a week for 12 weeks. Local effects on the bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, and systemic effects on body weight, the BMC of both femurs determined by X-ray computed tomography, and bone mechanical strength (BMS) measured by the three-point bending method, were examined. The BMC of jaw bone was significantly higher in the ZnTCP-treated group than un-treated or ZnSO 4 -treated group. Body weight, the BMC of femurs, and BMS were also significantly higher in the ZnTCP treated-group. The zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles were effective at preventing bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats and have potential uses for treating periodontitis. (author)

  12. Photo-Electrochemical Effect of Zinc Addition on the Electrochemical Corrosion Potentials of Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys in High Temperature Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yi-Ching; Fong, Clinton; Fang-Chu, Charles; Chang, Ching

    2012-09-01

    Hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) is one of the main mitigating methods for stress corrosion cracking problem of reactor core stainless steel and nickel based alloy components. Zinc is added to minimize the radiation increase associated with HWC. However, the subsequently formed zinc-containing surface oxides may exhibit p-type semiconducting characteristics. Upon the irradiation of Cherenkov and Gamma ray in the reactor core, the ECP of stainless steels and nickel based alloys may shift in the anodic direction, possibly offsetting the beneficial effect of HWC. This study will evaluate the photo-electrochemical effect of Zinc Water Chemistry on SS304 stainless steel and Alloy 182 nickel based weld metal under simulated irradiated BWR water environments with UV illumination. The experimental results reveal that Alloy 182 nickel-based alloy generally possesses n-type semiconductor characteristics in both oxidizing NWC and reducing HWC conditions with zinc addition. Upon UV irradiation, the ECP of Alloy 182 will shift in the cathodic direction. In most conditions, SS304 will also exhibit n-type semiconducting properties. Only under hydrogen water chemistry, a weak p-type property may emerge. Only a slight upward shift in the anodic direction is detected when SS304 is illuminated with UV light. The potential influence of p-type semiconductor of zinc containing surface oxides is weak and the mitigation effect of HWC on the stress corrosion cracking is not adversely affected. (authors)

  13. Antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saturega multica and zinc oxide namoparticle on coagulase gene expression on clinical and standard samples of MRSA (Methicilin resistant staph aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moridikia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as nosocomial pathogens have been causing severe and deadly diseases around the world.  Coagulase is an important virulence factor for this bacterium and exisist in all staphylococcus aureus isolates. In recent years, studies carried out into the effects of medicinal plants, nanoparticles against bacteria and pathogenic bacteria’s expression genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of satureja mutica hydroalcoholic extract, zinc oxide nanoparticle, and zinc complex on the coagulase gene expression in clinical and standard isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, using micro dilution and MTT, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of hydro-alcoholic extracts of satureja mutica and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested against MRSA strains. By polymerase chain reaction ((RT- PCR coa gene expression in satureja mutica extract and zinc oxide nanoparticles treated were qualitatively evaluated. Data were analyzed using statistical tests Results: The MIC of hydro alcoholic extract of Satureja mutica  for standard strains and clinical S. aureus  were 3000 and 1500 µg/ml respectively, whereas, the MIC  of nanoparticle zinc oxide on Standards and clinical isolates  were 40 and 20 µg/ml.The hydro alcoholic extract of Satureja mutica on MIC concentration has significant inhibitory effect on coagulase gene expression but no effect was seen for clinical and standard MRSA. Conclusion: The results show a decline in the coa gene expression in vitro by RT- PCR method using satureja mutica  , but no effect on gene expression Housekeeping arc C. An inhibitory effect was observed on bacterial growth by zinc oxide nanoparticles, but no inhibitory effect on gene expression was seen.

  14. Effect of Storage Time and Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Impressions Made with Zinc Oxide Impression Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Habibzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of storage time and temperature on dimensional stability of impressions made with Cavex Outline zinc oxide impression paste.Materials and Methods: A round stainless steel mold with five grooves (three horizontal and two vertical was used in this in-vitro experimental study. Cavex Outline impression paste was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions and applied to the mold. The mold was placed on a block and stored at 35°C and 100% humidity for setting. The impressions were poured with stone immediately and also after 30, 120, 240 and 420 minutes and 24 hours. The distance between the vertical lines on the casts was measured and compared with that in the immediately poured cast.Results: Storage in a refrigerator and at room temperature for zero to seven hours had no significant effect on dimensional stability of the impressions; however, 24 hours of storage in a refrigerator or at room temperature decreased the dimensional stability of Cavex Outline (P=0.001. Also, a significant association was found between dimensional changes following 24 hours of storage in a refrigerator (4°C and at room temperature (23°C; P<0.01.Conclusions: The optimal pouring time of Cavex Outline impressions with stone is between zero to seven hours, and 24 hours of storage significantly decreases the dimensional stability.Keywords: Dental Impression Materials; Zinc Oxide; Cavex

  15. Effects of pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide on growth of post-weaning pigs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, James

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacological dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations of 1,000 to 3,000 mg/kg diet from Zn oxide have been found to increase growth in post-weaning pigs. However, results were inconsistent among studies. A frequentist meta-analysis, in which effects were numerically described with standardized effect sizes (Hedges's g), was conducted in order to identify and quantify the responses in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G/F) in post-weaning pigs upon dietary Zn supplementation from Zn oxide. The inability of independent continuous variables to explain significant heterogeneity obtained with fixed effect models necessitated the use of random effects models to calculate summary statistics. Dietary Zn supplementation increased (P potential environmental pollution will have to be negated by alternative feed additives and management strategies in order to prevent economic losses.

  16. Potential effect on the cathodic efficiency of a Zinc electrodeposition in a cyanide free alkaline bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, J. A.; Muller, C.; Grande, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work has been the study of the potential advantages of ursin a potentiostatic method in galvanizing industrial processes. The behaviour of cyanide-free alkaline zinc bath has been analyzed using the process cathodic efficiency as control parameter. By anodic re dissolution (Q 0 x/Q r ed measurement), the potential range of maximum cathodic efficiency has been set. Finally, the method has been scaled up to a semi-pilot plant in order to check the stability of the results and as a previous step to industry implementation. At this scale, the cathodic efficiency has been measured by weight loss tests. (Author) 22 refs

  17. pH effect on structural and optical properties of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munef, R. A. [Kirkuk Iraq, Kirkuk university, college of science physics department, phone: 009647702180337, Iraq Rafeamonef@yahoo.com (Iraq)

    2015-03-30

    ZnO nanostructures were Deposited on Objekttrager glasses for various pH values by chemical bath deposition method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O (zinc nitrate hexahydrate) solution at 75°C reaction temperature without any posterior treatments. The ZnO nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, UV). The structure was hexagonal and it was found that some peaks disappear with various pH values. The grain sizes of ZnO films increases from 22-to-29nm with increasing pH. The transmission of the films was (85-95%)

  18. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rising, Russell; Scaglia, Julio F; Cole, Conrad; Tverskaya, Rozalia; Duro, Debora; Lifshitz, Fima

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn) deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH) resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi), was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100) had increased IGFBP-3 (p < 0.05) as compared with NSS (215 ± 23 vs. 185 ± 17 ...

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  20. Economically attractive route for the preparation of high quality magnetic nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Fernando B; Couto, Ricardo A; Kiyohara, Pedro K; Machado, Giovanna; Masunaga, Sueli H; Jardim, Renato F; Rossi, Liane M

    2017-03-17

    The thermal decomposition (TD) methods are among the most successful in obtaining magnetic nanoparticles with a high degree of control of size and narrow particle size distribution. Here we investigated the TD of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine, and a series of alcohols in order to disclose their role and also investigate economically attractive alternatives for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles without compromising their size and shape control. We have found that some affordable and reasonably less priced alcohols, such as 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, may replace the commonly used and expensive 1,2-hexadecanediol, providing an economically attractive route for the synthesis of high quality magnetic nanoparticles. The relative cost for the preparation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs is reduced to only 21% and 9% of the original cost when using 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, respectively.

  1. On synergism in inhibition of liquidphase oxidation of styrene and tetralin by organic phosphites and transition eleement acetylacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pobedimskij, D.G.; Nasobullin, Sh.A.; Kadyrova, V.Kh.; Kirpichnikov, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Synergism has been observed during inhibiting initiated oxidation of styrene or tetralin by organic phosphites in the presence of complex compounds of some transition metals. The results are given of non-additive intensification of antioxidative activity of triphenylphosphite (TPP) and tri-(4-methyl-6-tert.-- butyl)-phenyl-phosphite (TMBP) in the process of initiated oxidation of styrene or tetralin with addition of acetylacetonates of cobalt and vanadyl. During styrene oxidation, inhibition of the reaction with chelate complex of vanadyl is weakened considerably when phosphite is added into the reaction system. During tetralin oxidation, postcatalytic (or branched) oxidation is observed only for large concentration of vanadyl complex. Addition of TPP to above complex sharply increases the induction period. When the induction period is completed, oxidation of tetralin follows the mechanism of usual, i.e. initiated, reaction

  2. Detection limits in the chromatographic element trace analysis - quantitative TLC, HPLC and GC with the example of beryllium acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwedt, G.

    1981-01-01

    Chromatographic analyses of beryllium acetylacetonate are carried out in synthetic solutions within the nano- and picogram range of beryllium. For thin-layer chromatography (TLC) normal and silanized silica gel is used, for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) silica gel of 7 μm particles, for gas chromatography (GC) silicone SE-30 as stationary phase. Visual evaluation and remission measurements in TLC, UV-254 nm absorption measurements in HPLC and measurements with a FID in GC are employed for the determination of the calibration curves. A calibration curve through the origin and a detection limit of 150 pg Be determinable form are received by HPLC only. For trace analyses by GC a new definition of a detection limit for the evaluation of substance peaks on a solvent tailing is suggested. (orig.) [de

  3. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  4. Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the nutritional status of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Tostes, Maria das Graças; Verediano, Thaisa Agrizzi; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria

    2016-03-15

    Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. In Caco-2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng mg(-1) protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 µmol mg(-1) protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children, no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin, 41.2 ± 23.2 and 28.9 ± 40.4 µg L(-1) ; hemoglobin, 13.7 ± 2.2 and 13.1 ± 3.2 g dL(-1) ; plasma zinc, 119.2 ± 24.5 and 133.9 ± 57.7 µg dL(-1) ; erythrocyte zinc, 53.5 ± 13.8 and 59.4 ± 17.1 µg g(-1) hemoglobin). Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  6. Effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, John E.; Apel, William A.; Lee, Brady D.; Peyton, Brent M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: →At. caldus sorbs lead, zinc, and copper across a range of pH and temperature. →At. caldus shows a relatively high sorption capacity for zinc and copper at low pH. → Lead, zinc, and copper sorption decreases in tertiary mixtures. → Copper appears to sorb via a different mechanism(s) than lead or zinc. - Abstract: This study describes the effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13 with a Langmuir model. Copper exhibited the highest loading capacity, 4.76 ± 0.28 mmol g -1 , to viable cells at pH 5.5. The highest k L (binding-site affinity) observed was 61.2 ± 3.0 L mmol -1 to dehydrated cells at pH 4.0. The pHs that maximized loading capacities and binding-site affinities were generally between 4.0 and 5.5, where the sum of free-proton and complexed-metal concentrations was near a minimum. Of additional importance, lead, zinc, and copper sorbed to viable cells at pH values as low as 1.5. Previous studies with other acidithiobacilli did not measure viable-cell sorption below pH 4.0. In separate experiments, desorption studies showed that far less copper was recovered from viable cells than any other metal or cell condition, suggesting that uptake may play an important role in copper sorption by At. caldus strain BC13. To reflect an applied system, the sorption of metal mixtures was also studied. In these experiments, lead, zinc, and copper sorption from a tertiary mixture were 40.2 ± 4.3%, 28.7 ± 3.8%, and 91.3 ± 3.0%, respectively, of that sorbed in single-metal systems.

  7. Effect of low zinc intake and oral contraceptive agents on nitrogen utilization and clinical findings in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, F M; King, J C; Margen, S

    1977-12-01

    In a previous paper we reported that serum, urine and fecal zinc levels fell markedly in women taking a combination oral contraceptive agent (+OCA) and in women with normal menstrual cycles (-OCA) when they consumed a low-zinc diet (less than 0.2 mg/day) for 35 days. We evaluated other biochemical and clinical data in order to determine if depletion of accessible body zinc and/or physiologic adjustment to conserve body zinc stores had occurred. Neither low zinc intake nor oral contraceptive use appeared to influence nitrogen balance or body weight. Use of contraceptive drugs appeared to influence the response of blood parameters to zinc depletion. Serum transferrin and cholesterol declined significantly in the -OCA group, whereas alkaline phosphatase and gamma-globulin changed significantly in both groups. Clinical problems developed in all the subjects with serum zinc levels below 50 microgram/dl during the study; three of the six with serum zinc levels above 50 microgram/dl also complained of clinical symptoms. The results suggest that zinc deficiency through depletion of accessible body zinc stores developed during the 35-day study.

  8. Effect of varying levels of zinc and manganese of drymatter yield and mineral composition of wheat plant at maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.; Deb, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The fertilizer zinc uptake by wheat increased with increasing zinc levels but the percentage utilisation was much lower with 10 kg Zn ha -1 application (0.65 per cent) as compared to 5 kg Zn ha -1 (1.22 per cent). The zinc derived from fertilizer was significantly affected by the levels of zinc application only in wheat straw and not in grain. The application of varying levels of manganese did not affect the per cent Zndff and fertilizer zinc uptake by wheat. The wheat crop required only 405 g of zinc per hectare with a harvest of 4.7 tonnes of grains and 6.4 tonnes of straw but under zinc deficient soil conditions even this amount could not be met and consequently zinc deficiency resulted in low drymatter production . Only about 66 g of the applied zinc was utilised by the crop but it gave an extra yield of 3.2 q ha -1 of grain and 9.8 q ha -1 of straw compared to that obtained with no zinc application. Application of manganese did not affect the total drymatter yield and straw yield, but grain yield showed significant depression at 20 kg ha -1 level as compared to 10 kg Mn ha -1 level. (author). 6 tabs., 9 refs

  9. Neodymium conversion layers formed on zinc powder for improving electrochemical properties of zinc electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Zhang Hui; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong

    2008-01-01

    Zinc powder, as active material of secondary alkaline zinc electrode, can greatly limit the performance of zinc electrode due to corrosion and dendritic growth of zinc resulting in great capacity-loss and short cycle life of the electrode. This work is devoted to modification study of zinc powder with neodymium conversion films coated directly onto it using ultrasonic immersion method for properties improvement of zinc electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and other characterization techniques are applied to prove that neodymium conversion layers are distributing on the surface of modified zinc powder. The electrochemical performance of zinc electrodes made of such modified zinc powder is investigated through potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The neodymium conversion films are found to have a significant effect on inhibition corrosion capability of zinc electrode in a beneficial way. It is also confirmed that the neodymium conversion coatings can obviously suppress dendritic growth of zinc electrode, which is attributed to the amelioration of deposition state of zinc. Moreover, the results of cyclic voltammetry reveal that surface modification of zinc powder enhances the cycle performance of the electrode mainly because the neodymium conversion films decrease the amounts of ZnO or Zn(OH) 2 dissolved in the electrolyte

  10. The Effect of Salts in Promoting Specific and Competitive Interactions between Zinc Finger Proteins and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongyu; Yuan, Siming; Zheng, Shihui; Chen, Yuting; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Yangzhong; Huang, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    Specific protein-metal interactions (PMIs) fulfill essential functions in cells and organic bodies, and activation of these functions in vivo are mostly modulated by the complex environmental factors, including pH value, small biomolecules, and salts. Specifically, the role of salts in promoting specific PMIs and their competition among various metals has remained untapped mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish nonspecific PMIs from specific PMIs by classic spectroscopic techniques. Herein, we report Hofmeister salts differentially promote the specific PMIs by combining nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence measurement and circular dichroism). Furthermore, to explore the influence of salts in competitive binding between metalloproteins and various metals, we designed a series of competitive experiments and applied to a well-defined model system, the competitive binding of zinc (II) and arsenic (III) to holo-promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). These experiments not only provided new insights at the molecular scale as complementary to previous NMR and spectroscopic results, but also deduced the relative binding ability between zinc finger proteins and metals at the molecular scale, which avoids the mass spectrometric titration-based determination of binding constants that is frequently affected and often degraded by variable solution conditions including salt contents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  12. Microstructural effects on the initiation of zinc phosphate coatings on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susac, D.; Sun, X.; Li, R.Y.; Wong, K.C.; Wong, P.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R.; Champaneria, R.

    2004-01-01

    The initiation of coatings deposited on to 2024-T3 aluminum alloy from supersaturated zinc phosphating solutions has been studied using scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The alloy microstructure, especially associated with the second-phase particles, strongly affects the formation stages of the coating process, where etching of the substrate has a significant role. At the start, zinc phosphate (ZPO) crystals form on the Al-Cu-Mg second-phase particles, rather than on the matrix or on the Al-Cu-Fe-Mn particles, with the initial nucleation appearing at interfaces between Al-Cu-Mg particles and the matrix. In contrast, the formation of the ZPO coating is delayed on the cathodic Al-Cu-Fe-Mn particles, compared to those of the Al-Cu-Mg composition. When the coating process is completed, the whole sample surface is covered with ZPO although its thickness varies at the different micro-regions

  13. The effects of zinc bath temperature on the coating growth behavior of reactive steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianhua, E-mail: super_wang111@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Design and Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Tu Hao; Peng Bicao; Wang Xinming; Yin, Fucheng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Design and Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Su Xuping, E-mail: xuping@xtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Design and Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of zinc bath temperature on the morphology and the thickness of reactive steel (Fe-0.1 wt.%Si alloy) coatings. The Fe-0.1 wt.%Si samples were galvanized for 3 min at temperatures in the range of 450-530 deg. C in steps of 10 deg. C. The coatings were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-rays analysis. It was found that the coating thickness reaches the maximum at 470 deg. C and the minimum at 500 deg. C, respectively. When the reactive steel is galvanized at temperatures in the range of 450-490 deg. C, the coatings have a loose {zeta} layer on the top of a compact {delta} layer. With the increase of the galvanizing temperature, the {zeta} layer becomes looser. When the temperature is at 500 deg. C, the {zeta} phase disappears. With the increase of temperature, the coatings change to be a diffuse-{Delta} layer ({delta}+ liquid zinc).

  14. Effect of Zinc Oxide Doping on Electroluminescence and Electrical Behavior of Metalloporphyrins-Doped Samarium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2018-02-01

    Samarium complex [(Sm(III)] as a new host material was used for preparation of red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with configurations of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):(poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/polyvinyl carbazole (PVK):[zinc oxide (ZnO)] (50 nm)/[(Sm(III)]:[zinc(II) 2,3-tetrakis(dihydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin and Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin] (60 nm)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (15 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. An electroplex occurring at the (PVK/Sm: Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin) interface has been suggested when ZnO nanoparticles were doped in PVK. OLED studies have revealed that the photophysical characteristics and electrical behavior of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of devices with pure PVK. The efficiency of devices based on [(Sm(III)] was superior than that of known aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and also our earlier reports on red OLEDs under the same conditions.

  15. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  16. Effects of Tungsten Addition on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-3.5B Alloy in Liquid Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tungsten addition on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Fe-3.5B alloys in a liquid zinc bath at 520 °C were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analysis. The microstructure evolution in different alloys is analyzed and discussed using an extrapolated Fe-B-W ternary phase diagram. Experimental results show that there are three kinds of borides, the reticular (Fe, W2B, the rod-like (Fe, W3B and flower-like FeWB. The addition of tungsten can refine the microstructure and improve the stability of the reticular borides. Besides, it is beneficial to the formation of the metastable (Fe, W3B phase. The resultant Fe-3.5B-11W (wt % alloy possesses excellent corrosion resistance to liquid zinc. When tungsten content exceeds 11 wt %, the formed flower-like FeWB phase destroys the integrity of the reticular borides and results in the deterioration of the corrosion resistance. Also, the corrosion failure resulting from the spalling of borides due to the initiation of micro-cracks in the grain boundary of borides is discussed in this paper.

  17. Oxygen effect of transparent conducting amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide films on Polyimide substrate for flexible electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yoon Duk; Lee, Chang Hun; Moon, Doo Kyung; Kim, Young Sung

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of oxygen on the transparent conducting properties and mechanical durability of the amorphous indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) films. IZTO films deposited on flexible clear polyimide (PI) substrate using pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at room temperature under various oxygen partial pressures. All IZTO films deposited at room temperature exhibit an amorphous structure. The electrical and optical properties of the IZTO films were sensitively influenced by oxygen partial pressures. At optimized deposition condition of 3.0% oxygen partial pressure, the IZTO film shows the lowest resistivity of 6.4 × 10 −4 Ωcm, high transmittance of over 80% in the visible range, and figure of merit value of 3.6 × 10 −3 Ω −1 without any heat controls. In addition, high work function and good mechanical flexibility of amorphous IZTO films are beneficial to flexible applications. It is proven that the proper oxygen partial pressure is important parameter to enhance the transparent conducting properties of IZTO films on PI substrate deposited at room temperature. - Highlights: • Indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) films were deposited on polyimide at room temperature. • Transparent conducting properties of IZTO were influenced with oxygen partial pressure. • The smooth surface and high work function of IZTO were beneficial to anode layer. • The mechanical reliability of IZTO shows better performance to indium tin oxide film

  18. Effect of Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium and Zinc Sulfates on Yield and Some Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ranjbar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and zinc sulfate on biodiesel produced from safflower, a field experiment was carried out as completely randomized blocks design with three replications, at Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments included nitrogen fertilizer at three levels (150, 200 and 300 kg/ha, potassium, magnesium and zinc sulfates at 150, 100 and 50 kg/ha, respectively, and control (no fertilizer application. By nourishing the safflower plants, the seed yield and biodiesel traits such as density, iodine value and saponification value were measured. The results showed that the seed yield under treatment of 300 kg/ha nitrogen (913 kg/ha was greater than other treatments. Magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate produced the highest oil percentage (32.84 and 32.5, respectively. The biodiesel production under utilization of potassium sulfate had greater density, iodine value and saponification value (867.25 kg/m3, 139.7 mg iodine per 100 g oil, and 190.6 mg sodium hydroxide per g oil, respectively compared to other treatments. In general, it was concluded that application of micronutrient fertilizers (especially potassium sulfate improves seed-oil and biodiesel characteristics of safflower.

  19. Effect of zinc and plant-population on the yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, K.M.; Sadiq, S.A.; Tariq, M.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2001 to study the effect of two levels of zinc (0 and 5 kg Zn ha-J) and three plant-densities (60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 plants ha-J) on the performance of two varieties of maize Azam and Pahari and two hybrids N7989 and Babar, at Malakandher Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Zinc at the rate of 5 kg ha-J increased the cob yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight, while increase in plant-density significantly increased the number of grains cob-J, number of cob-plant-J, cob-yield, grain-yield and 1000-grain weight. Results revealed that the highest plant-density of 100,000 plant ha-J decreased the number of cobs plant-J, number of grains cob-J and 1000-grain weight. Maximum number of cobs plant-J (0.87), number of grains cob-J (313), cob yield (4602 kg ha-J), grain yield (4222 kg ha-J) and 1000-grain weight (249 g) were obtained with plant- density of 80,000 plant ha-J. The maximum grain-yield of 4333 kg ha-J was recorded in plots of hybrid variety N7989. (author)

  20. Effects of nanorod structure and conformation of fatty acid self-assembled layers on superhydrophobicity of zinc oxide surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badre, Chantal; Dubot, P; Lincot, Daniel; Pauporte, Thierry; Turmine, Mireille

    2007-12-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have been prepared from nanostructured zinc oxide layers by a treatment with fatty acid molecules. The layers are electrochemically deposited from an oxygenated aqueous zinc chloride solution. The effects of the layer's structure, from a dense film to that of a nanorod array, as well as that of the properties of the fatty acid molecules based on C18 chains are described. A contact angle (CA) as high as 167 degrees is obtained with the nanorod structure and the linear saturated molecule (stearic acid). Lower values are found with molecules having an unsaturated bond on C9, in particular with a cis conformation (140 degrees ). These results, supplemented by infrared spectroscopy, indicate an enhancement of the sensitivity to the properties of the fatty acid molecules (conformation, flexibility, saturated or not) when moving from the flat surface to the nanostructured surface. This is attributed to a specific influence of the structure of the tops of the rods and lateral wall properties on the adsorption and organization of the molecules. CA measurements show a very good stability of the surface in time if stored in an environment protected from UV radiations.

  1. Immobilization of Zinc Phthalocyanines in Silicate Matrices and Investigation of Their Photobactericidal Effect on E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spas Artarsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to immobilize zinc phthalocyanines in a silicate matrix and to test the photobactericidal properties of the matrices so prepared toward Esherichia coli in model aqueous media. For the purpose, tetra tertiary butyl zinc phthalocyanine (TBZnPc and zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcTS were used. The abilities of these two photosensitizers to generate singlet oxygen in solution were compared by following the rate of photobleaching of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF at 430 nm in dimethylformamide (DMF.The results of this study show clearly that, under the conditions used here, the TBZnPc is the more effective generator of singlet oxygen; with it the DPBF was virtually completely photobleached in 4 min, while with the ZnPcTS under the same conditions, it took 12 min to reach this point. Glass conjugates with the two phthalocyanines were obtained by the sol-gel technique and were characterized by a well-defined color due to the phthalocyanine incorporated in the silicate matrix. Glasses with an intense, but inhomogeneous, green color were obtained when the tetrasulfonic derivative of the zinc phthalocyanine was used, while blue glasses of evenly distributed coloration were formed from the tetra tertiary butyl derivative.The ZnPcTS conjugate demonstrates more effective singlet oxygen evolution than is the case with the TBZnPc conjugate. These results are the opposite of those obtained for the free phthalocyanines in solution. The structural formulae of the compounds show that TBZnPc has a more pronounced hydrophobic character than the sulfonic derivative. In our view, the relative reactivities of the conjugates can be explained by the tetrasulfonic derivative being situated mainly in the surface parts of the glass matrix where the hydrophilic character is prevailing, while the tertiary butyl derivative is mainly present in the internal parts of the matrix as a result of which it is less accessible and

  2. The effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, H; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  3. Effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, H.; Araki, S.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  4. Interaction Effect between Phosphorus and Zinc on their Availability in Soil in Relation to their Contents in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kuntal; Dang, Raman; Shivananda, T. N.; Sur, Pintu

    2005-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore to study the interaction effect between phosphorus and zinc on their availability in soil in relation to their contents in stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). The results show that the amount of available P and Zn content in soil has been found to increase initially and, thereafter, the amount of the same decreased with the progress of plant growth up to 60 days irrespective of treatments. The amount of P and Zn in soils showed an increase with their separate applications either as soil or foliar spray while that of the same value significantly decreased both in soils and plants due to their combined applications, suggesting a mutual antagonistic effect between Zn and P affecting each other's availability in soil and content in the stevia plant. PMID:15980919

  5. Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uski, O., E-mail: oskari.uski@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Jalava, P.I., E-mail: pasi.jalava@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Happo, M.S., E-mail: mikko.happo@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Torvela, T., E-mail: tiina.torvela@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Leskinen, J., E-mail: jani.leskinen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mäki-Paakkanen, J., E-mail: jorma.maki-paakkanen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tissari, J., E-mail: jarkko.tissari@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sippula, O., E-mail: olli.sippula@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lamberg, H., E-mail: heikki.lamberg@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jokiniemi, J., E-mail: jorma.jokiniemi@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); and others

    2015-04-01

    Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml{sup −1}) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was