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Sample records for zinc 70 target

  1. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  2. Zinc absorption study using an enriched stable isotope (70Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gongpan.

    1990-04-01

    A weaning food from fermented soybean was prepared for increasing the bioavailability of zinc. The zinc absorption was compared with that of a weaning food from non-fermented soybean and normal staple food. A stable isotope tracer technique ( 70 Zn) and neutron activation were used for determining the absorption of zinc. Nine children aged 7 to 18 months were tested. Zinc bioavailability of weaning food from fermented soybean is higher than that of normal weaning food. The weight increment and zinc nutrition of children having weaning food from fermented soybean are improved by this diet. 5 tabs

  3. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  4. Improvement of Zinc Coating Weight Control for Transition of Target Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien Ming; Lin, Jeong Hwa; Hsu, Tse Wei; Lin, Rui Rong [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-06-15

    The product specification of the Continuous Hot Dip Galvanizing Line (CGL) changes and varies constantly with different customers' requirements, especially in the zinc coating weight which is from 30 to 150 g/m{sup 2} on each side. Since the coating weight of zinc changes often, it is very important to reduce time spent in the transfer of target values changed for low production cost and yield loss. The No.2 CGL in China Steel Corporation (CSC) has improved the control of the air knife which is designed by Siemens VAI. CSC proposed an experiment design which is an L{sub 9}(3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to find the relations between zinc coating weight and the process parameters, such as the line speed, air pressure, gap of air knife and air knife position. A non-linear regression formula was derived from the experimental results and applied in the mathematical model. A new air knife feedforward control system, which is coupled with the regression formula, the air knife control system and the process computer, is implemented into the line. The practical plant operation results have been presented to show the transfer time is obviously shortened while zinc coating weight target changing and the product rejected ratio caused by zinc coating weight out of specification is significantly reduced from 0.5% to 0.15%.

  5. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Glycoengineering of Human Cell Lines Using Zinc Finger Nuclease Gene Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric Paul; Clausen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Lectin affinity chromatography is a powerful technique for isolation of glycoproteins carrying a specific glycan structure of interest. However, the enormous diversity of glycans present on the cell surface, as well as on individual proteins, makes it difficult to isolate an entire glycoproteome...... with one or even a series of lectins. Here we present a technique to generate cell lines with homogenous truncated O-glycans using zinc finger nuclease gene targeting. Because of their simplified O-glycoproteome, the cells have been named SimpleCells. Glycoproteins from SimpleCells can be isolated...... in a single purification step by lectin chromatography performed on a long lectin column. This protocol describes Zinc finger nuclease gene targeting of human cells to simplify the glycoproteome, as well as lectin chromatography and isolation of glycopeptides from total cell lysates of SimpleCells....

  7. ZFNGenome: A comprehensive resource for locating zinc finger nuclease target sites in model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytas Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs have tremendous potential as tools to facilitate genomic modifications, such as precise gene knockouts or gene replacements by homologous recombination. ZFNs can be used to advance both basic research and clinical applications, including gene therapy. Recently, the ability to engineer ZFNs that target any desired genomic DNA sequence with high fidelity has improved significantly with the introduction of rapid, robust, and publicly available techniques for ZFN design such as the Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN method. The motivation for this study is to make resources for genome modifications using OPEN-generated ZFNs more accessible to researchers by creating a user-friendly interface that identifies and provides quality scores for all potential ZFN target sites in the complete genomes of several model organisms. Description ZFNGenome is a GBrowse-based tool for identifying and visualizing potential target sites for OPEN-generated ZFNs. ZFNGenome currently includes a total of more than 11.6 million potential ZFN target sites, mapped within the fully sequenced genomes of seven model organisms; S. cerevisiae, C. reinhardtii, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, D. rerio, C. elegans, and H. sapiens and can be visualized within the flexible GBrowse environment. Additional model organisms will be included in future updates. ZFNGenome provides information about each potential ZFN target site, including its chromosomal location and position relative to transcription initiation site(s. Users can query ZFNGenome using several different criteria (e.g., gene ID, transcript ID, target site sequence. Tracks in ZFNGenome also provide "uniqueness" and ZiFOpT (Zinc Finger OPEN Targeter "confidence" scores that estimate the likelihood that a chosen ZFN target site will function in vivo. ZFNGenome is dynamically linked to ZiFDB, allowing users access to all available information about zinc finger reagents, such as the

  8. Zinc-Modified Nanotransporter of Doxorubicin for Targeted Prostate Cancer Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Skalickova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles used as carriers for doxorubicin for targeted cancer delivery. Prepared nanocarriers were stabilized and functionalized via zinc ions incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticle backbone. We took the advantage of high expression of sarcosine in the prostate cancer cells. The prostate cancer targeting was mediated by the AntiSar antibodies decorated surface of the nanocage. Formation of the chitosan nanoparticles was determined using a ninhydrin assay and differential pulse voltammetry. Obtained results showed the strong effect of tripolyphosphine on the nanoparticle formation. The zinc ions affected strong chitosan backbone coiling both in inner and outer chitosan nanoparticle structure. Zinc electrochemical signal depended on the level of the complex formation and the potential shift from −960 to −950 mV. Formed complex is suitable for doxorubicin delivery. It was observed the 20% entrapment efficiency of doxorubicin and strong dependence of drug release after 120 min in the blood environment. The functionality of the designed nanotransporter was proven. The purposed determination showed linear dependence in the concentration range of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled gold nanoparticles from 0 to 1000 µg/mL and the regression equation was found to be y = 3.8x − 66.7 and R2 = 0.99. Performed ELISA confirmed the ability of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles with loaded doxorubicin to bind to the sarcosine molecule. Observed hemolytic activity of the nanotransporter was 40%. Inhibition activity of our proposed nanotransporter was evaluated to be 0% on the experimental model of S. cerevisiae. Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles, with loaded doxorubicin stabilized by Zn ions, are a perspective type of nanocarrier for targeted drug therapy managed by specific interaction with sarcosine and metallothionein for prostate cancer.

  9. On the preparation of self-supporting zinc target foils of separated isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the second report on the practical method of preparation of targets for nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-TL-121 (in Japanese)). In this report, a method is described for the preparation of self-supporting zinc foils from ZnO. The thicknesses of target foils and their uniformity were measured with an α-ray thickness gauge. (auth.)

  10. Predicting success of oligomerized pool engineering (OPEN for zinc finger target site sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Mathew J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise and efficient methods for gene targeting are critical for detailed functional analysis of genomes and regulatory networks and for potentially improving the efficacy and safety of gene therapies. Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN is a recently developed method for engineering C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs designed to bind specific DNA sequences with high affinity and specificity in vivo. Because generation of ZFPs using OPEN requires considerable effort, a computational method for identifying the sites in any given gene that are most likely to be successfully targeted by this method is desirable. Results Analysis of the base composition of experimentally validated ZFP target sites identified important constraints on the DNA sequence space that can be effectively targeted using OPEN. Using alternate encodings to represent ZFP target sites, we implemented Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine classifiers capable of distinguishing "active" targets, i.e., ZFP binding sites that can be targeted with a high rate of success, from those that are "inactive" or poor targets for ZFPs generated using current OPEN technologies. When evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation on a dataset of 135 experimentally validated ZFP target sites, the best Naïve Bayes classifier, designated ZiFOpT, achieved overall accuracy of 87% and specificity+ of 90%, with an ROC AUC of 0.89. When challenged with a completely independent test set of 140 newly validated ZFP target sites, ZiFOpT performance was comparable in terms of overall accuracy (88% and specificity+ (92%, but with reduced ROC AUC (0.77. Users can rank potentially active ZFP target sites using a confidence score derived from the posterior probability returned by ZiFOpT. Conclusion ZiFOpT, a machine learning classifier trained to identify DNA sequences amenable for targeting by OPEN-generated zinc finger arrays, can guide users to target sites that are most likely to function

  11. In vivo target bio-imaging of Alzheimer's disease by fluorescent zinc oxide nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lanmei; Zhao, Chunqiu; Su, Meina; Li, Xiaoqi; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hui; Amatore, Christian; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-07-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease which is difficult to cure. When Alzheimer's disease occurs, the level of zinc ions in the brain changes, and the relevant amount of zinc ions continue decreasing in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of Alzheimer's patients with disease exacerbation. In view of these considerations, we have explored a new strategy for the in vivo rapid fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease through target bio-labeling of zinc oxide nanoclusters which were biosynthesized in vivo in the Alzheimer's brain via intravenous injection of zinc gluconate solution. By using three-month-old and six-month-old Alzheimer's model mice as models, our observations demonstrate that biocompatible zinc ions could pass through the blood-brain barrier of the Alzheimer's disease mice and generate fluorescent zinc oxide nanoclusters (ZnO NCs) through biosynthesis, and then the bio-synthesized ZnO NCs could readily accumulate in situ on the hippocampus specific region for the in vivo fluorescent labeling of the affected sites. This study provides a new way for the rapid diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and may have promising prospects in the effective diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Tumor imaging and targeting potential of an Hsp70-derived 14-mer peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Gehrmann

    Full Text Available We have previously used a unique mouse monoclonal antibody cmHsp70.1 to demonstrate the selective presence of a membrane-bound form of Hsp70 (memHsp70 on a variety of leukemia cells and on single cell suspensions derived from solid tumors of different entities, but not on non-transformed cells or cells from corresponding 'healthy' tissue. This antibody can be used to image tumors in vivo and target them for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Tumor-specific expression of memHsp70 therefore has the potential to be exploited for theranostic purposes. Given the advantages of peptides as imaging and targeting agents, this study assessed whether a 14-mer tumor penetrating peptide (TPP; TKDNNLLGRFELSG, the sequence of which is derived from the oligomerization domain of Hsp70 which is expressed on the cell surface of tumor cells, can also be used for targeting membrane Hsp70 positive (memHsp70+ tumor cells, in vitro.The specificity of carboxy-fluorescein (CF- labeled TPP (TPP to Hsp70 was proven in an Hsp70 knockout mammary tumor cell system. TPP specifically binds to different memHsp70+ mouse and human tumor cell lines and is rapidly taken up via endosomes. Two to four-fold higher levels of CF-labeled TPP were detected in MCF7 (82% memHsp70+ and MDA-MB-231 (75% memHsp70+ cells compared to T47D cells (29% memHsp70+ that exhibit a lower Hsp70 membrane positivity. After 90 min incubation, TPP co-localized with mitochondrial membranes in memHsp70+ tumors. Although there was no evidence that any given vesicle population was specifically localized, fluorophore-labeled cmHsp70.1 antibody and TPP preferentially accumulated in the proximity of the adherent surface of cultured cells. These findings suggest a potential association between membrane Hsp70 expression and cytoskeletal elements that are involved in adherence, the establishment of intercellular synapses and/or membrane reorganization.This study demonstrates the specific binding and rapid

  13. Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (M. Fascicularis) was studied by: (1) determining zinc requirements of adolescent monkeys, (2) validating the use of extrinsic zinc label in peas, (3) validating the blood appearance and disappearance technique, and (4) measuring zinc absorption and endogenous excretion from control and legume diets. Ten monkeys were assigned to the control (CG) and legume groups (LG) based on their initial body weights and plasma zinc concentrations. Zinc salt or legumes served as the source of zinc for CG and LG, respectively. The animals were adapted for three weeks to 2.23, 5.70, 11.67, 16.70 and 30.00 ppm dietary zinc for the requirement and bioavailability experiments and 5.70 ppm dietary zinc for the extrinsic labeling study and the blood appearance and disappearance study. Zinc requirement was determined using the following criteria: body weight, clinical signs and plasma, leukocyte and erythrocyte zinc concentrations. The use of the extrinsic label was validated by comparing percent absorption of 65 Zn (salt) and intrinsically labeled 65 Zn from peas. The blood appearance and disappearance of orally administered /sup 69m/Zn (CG) and 65 Zn(LG) and intravenously administered 65 Zn was determined serially in blood over an eight hour period. Zinc absorption and regulation in the CG and LG was determined by the fecal balance method and endogenous excretion of intravenously administered 65 Zn. The zinc requirement for adolescent M. Fascicularis was between 11.67 and 16.70 ppm dietary zinc per day

  14. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  15. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  16. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  17. Zinc species distribution in EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-H.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wang, H. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Soil sample from a site heavily contaminated with >10 wt.% zinc is sampled and extracted with aqueous solutions of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) that is a reagent frequently used to extract heavy metals in soil remediation. Three liquid/soil ratios (5/1, 20/1, and 100/1) were used in the extracting experiment. The molecular environment of the residual Zn in the EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil is investigated with XANES technique. The results indicate that EDTA does not show considerable preference of chelating for any particular Zn species during the extraction. Zn species distribution in the sampled soil is found to resemble that in all EDTA-extract residues; Zn(OH) 2 is determined as the major zinc species (60-70%), seconded by organic zinc (21-26%) and zinc oxide (9-14%)

  18. Availability of native and fertilizer zinc in some Indian soils: studies with 65Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, J.; Deb, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopically exchangeable zinc (Et values) was determined by different methods in some soils having pH(H 2 O) varying from 3.05 to 8.40 using 65 Zn. The Et values obtained using different extractants showed significant correlation with available zinc, organic carbon and soil pH. The recovery of applied zinc in the aqueous phase was less than one percent in most of the soils having pH higher than 7.0. Application of zinc with complexing agents like DTPA and EDTA increased the recovery of applied zinc in the solution to about 95 percent. Soil pH, organic C and DTPA extractable zinc showed significant relationship with the recovery of applied zinc under different treatments. Use of EDTA and DTPA extractants reduced the zinc buffering capacity of soil to a value less than one, irrespective of the initial pH of the soil, whereas the values were comparatively higher in presence of different levels of zinc carrier. (auth.)

  19. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  20. Zinc Serum Level Can Be a Risk Factor In Babol Stroke Patients?

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    Alijan AhmadiAhangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The role of zinc as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of stroke was considered. Results: This cross-sectional study on 100 stroke patients in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and 100 control group from cohort master plan "Ageing and health projects Amirkola was conducted. Zinc levels Serum simultaneously with other blood tests in the early hours of hospitalization. Zinc serum level was defined 70 to 120 micrograms per deciliter. Findings: The difference in mean of zinc level in patients and control group was not significant (102.6±47.7 in control group vs 100.9±35.8 in patient, p=0.7. Difference in zinc Serum level had statically significant with IHD (under70 0 cases (0, 70 to120 8 cases (24, 120 and upper24 cases (75, p=0.003 and with type of stroke (under70 (3(3.3 hemorrhagic vs 0(0 ischemic, 70 to 120(19(21 vs6 (60, 120 and upper68 (75.6 vs4 (40, p=0.025 and also with patient and control group (under70 (3(3 in patient's vs 20(20 control group, 70 to 120(25(25 vs54 (54, 120 and upper72 (72 vs26 (26, p<0001. In patients group 72(73.5 of cases had zinc serum level above 120. HLP difference was significant in patient and control group (50(50 in control group vs 35(35 in patients, p=0.04. Regression logistic show that IHD (p<0001, OR=30, CI=6-152, HLP (p<0001, OR=4, CI=9.09-1.85, zinc serum level (p<0001, OR=15.5, CI=4-59.8 had significant role. Conclusions: Zinc serum levels, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hyperlipidemia were most risk factor that play role in Babol stroke patients.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Hep1 Is Required to Prevent the Self Aggregation of PfHsp70-3.

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    David O Nyakundi

    Full Text Available The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria, and molecular chaperones play a key role in the efficient translocation and proper folding of these proteins in the matrix. One such molecular chaperone is the eukaryotic mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; however, it is prone to self-aggregation and requires the presence of an essential zinc-finger protein, Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1, to maintain its structure and function. PfHsp70-3, the only Hsp70 predicted to localize in the mitochondria of P. falciparum, may also rely on a Hep1 orthologue to prevent self-aggregation. In this study, we identified a putative Hep1 orthologue in P. falciparum and co-expression of PfHsp70-3 and PfHep1 enhanced the solubility of PfHsp70-3. PfHep1 suppressed the thermally induced aggregation of PfHsp70-3 but not the aggregation of malate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase, thus showing specificity for PfHsp70-3. Zinc ions were indeed essential for maintaining the function of PfHep1, as EDTA chelation abrogated its abilities to suppress the aggregation of PfHsp70-3. Soluble and functional PfHsp70-3, acquired by co-expression with PfHep-1, will facilitate the biochemical characterisation of this particular Hsp70 protein and its evaluation as a drug target for the treatment of malaria.

  2. Determination of zinc contents in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah-ud-Din; Salariya, A.M.; Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Zinc content of three groups of vegetables (roots and tuber, leaves and fruits) collected from local markets was determined and are reported here. The determination was made by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained show that the zinc content of different vegetables ranged from 6.26-36.80 ppm, 8.80-70-70 ppm and 7.20-35.10 ppm for roots and tubers, fruits of vegetables respectively on dry weight basis. Generally, the values obtained in majority are not above, the maximum permissible limits. (author)

  3. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  4. Properties of RF sputtered zinc oxide based thin films made from different targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-01-01

    The effect of deposition parameters on optoelectronic and structural properties of ZnO based thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering have been studied. Different targets (pure Zn, ZnO, Zn-Al (98/2 at%), ZnO-Al (98/2 at%), and ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98/2 wt%)) have been investigated to compare resulting samples and establish the best target composition. From reactive sputtering, using a Zn-Al target, transparent conductive zinc oxide has been obtained at 380{sup o}C with E{sub g}=3.25-3.35 eV and {rho}=4.8x10{sup -4} {Omega}cm. Reduction of substrate temperature at 200{sup o}C has been possible by nonreactive sputtering from ZnO-Al and ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. The values of the energy gap and resistivity under these conditions are 3.30-3.35 eV and 1x10{sup -3} {Omega}cm respectively

  5. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few zinc-rich sources appeared in the diet that was predominantly plant-based. Mean dietary zinc intake was 4.6±2.2 mg/day. The mean value of serum zinc was 66.4±21.5 μg/dL, with 46% of the children having values less than the 70 μg/dL cutoff. The findings indicate a high risk of zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc ...

  6. Implication of extracellular zinc exclusion by recombinant human calprotectin (MRP8 and MRP14) from target cells in its apoptosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Satoru; Nakatani, Yuichi; Hunter, Michael J; Chazin, Walter J; Yamazaki, Masatoshi

    2002-06-01

    Calprotectin is a calcium-binding and zinc-binding protein complex that is abundant in the cytosol of neutrophils. This factor is composed of 8 and 14 kDa subunits, which have also been termed migration inhibitory factor-related proteins MRP8 and MRP14. We previously reported that rat calprotectin purified from inflammatory neutrophils induces apoptosis of various tumor cells or normal fibroblasts in a zinc-reversible manner. The present study was undertaken to elucidate which subunit is responsible for the apoptosis-inducing activity, and to explore the mechanism of zinc-reversible apoptosis induction. The apoptosis-inducing activity of recombinant human MRP8 (rhMRP8) and recombinant human MRP14 (rhMRP14) was examined against EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro. To determine whether zinc deprivation by calprotectin was essential for the cytotoxicity, the activity of calprotectin was tested under conditions where physical contact between the factor and the cells was precluded by a low molecular weight cut-off dialysis membrane. The cytotoxicity of rhMRP14 against EL-4 cells was first detected at 10 microM in a standard medium, whereas rhMRP8 caused only marginal cytotoxicity at 40 microM. A mixture of both proteins showed higher specific activity (onset of cytotoxicity at 5 microM). When the cells were cultured in divalent cation-depleted medium, each dose-response curve was shifted to about a four-fold lower concentration range. Calprotectin was found to induce cell death even when the complex and the target cells were separated by dialysis membrane. A membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), also induced target cell apoptosis in a similar time-course as calprotectin. Moreover, the activities of calprotectin and DTPA were completely inhibited by the presence of zinc ions. These data indicate that calprotectin has higher specific activity to induce apoptosis than the Individual subunits, and that the mechanism is exclusion of zinc

  7. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Forhan, S.E.; Hodgson, A.T.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake of 65 Zn and distribution of 65 Zn, total zinc, and insulin were measured in rat islets and islet granules under different conditions of islet culture. Specific activity of islet zinc ( 65 Zn/zinc) was less than 15% that of extracellular zinc even after 48 h. In contrast, once in the islet, 65 Zn approached 70% of equilibrium with granular zinc in 24 h and apparent equilibrium by 48 h. During a 24-h culture, at either high or low glucose, reduction of both islet zinc and insulin occurred. However, zinc depletion was greater than that predicted if zinc loss was proportional to insulin depletion and occurred only from the granular compartment, which represents only one third of the total islet zinc. Extension of culture to 48 h caused additional insulin depletion, but islet zinc was unchanged. Omission of calcium during the 48-h culture caused a predicted increase in insulin retention, presumably by inhibiting secretion; however, zinc retention was not increased proportionately. Pretreatment of rats with tolbutamide caused a massive depletion of insulin stored in isolated islets, with little change in total islet zinc; subsequent culture of these islets resulted in a greater loss of granular zinc than predicted from the small loss of granular insulin. None of the conditions tested affected the percentage of either 65 Zn or total zinc that was distributed in the islet granules. Results show that zinc exists in a metabolically labile islet compartment(s) as well as in secretory granules; and extra-granular zinc, although not directly associated with insulin storage, may act as a reservoir for granular zinc and may regulate insulin synthesis, storage, and secretion in ways as yet unknown

  8. Targeted genome editing by lentiviral protein transduction of zinc-finger and TAL-effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-04-24

    Future therapeutic use of engineered site-directed nucleases, like zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), relies on safe and effective means of delivering nucleases to cells. In this study, we adapt lentiviral vectors as carriers of designer nuclease proteins, providing efficient targeted gene disruption in vector-treated cell lines and primary cells. By co-packaging pairs of ZFN proteins with donor RNA in 'all-in-one' lentiviral particles, we co-deliver ZFN proteins and the donor template for homology-directed repair leading to targeted DNA insertion and gene correction. Comparative studies of ZFN activity in a predetermined target locus and a known nearby off-target locus demonstrate reduced off-target activity after ZFN protein transduction relative to conventional delivery approaches. Additionally, TALEN proteins are added to the repertoire of custom-designed nucleases that can be delivered by protein transduction. Altogether, our findings generate a new platform for genome engineering based on efficient and potentially safer delivery of programmable nucleases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01911.001. Copyright © 2014, Cai et al.

  9. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  10. Targeting Aberrant p70S6K Activation for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yao, Jun; Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Qingling; Brady, Samuel W; Arun, Banu; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Yu, Dihua

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer remains a major challenge in the cancer prevention field, although antiestrogen and aromatase inhibitors have shown adequate efficacy in preventing estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer. Lack of commonly expressed, druggable targets is a major obstacle for meeting this challenge. Previously, we detected the activation of Akt signaling pathway in atypical hyperplasic early-stage lesions of patients. In the current study, we found that Akt and the downstream 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway was highly activated in ER - premalignant breast lesions and ER - breast cancer. In addition, p70S6K activation induced transformation of ER - human mammary epithelial cells (hMEC). Therefore, we explored the potential of targeting Akt/p70S6K in the p70S6K activated, ER - hMEC models and mouse mammary tumor models for the prevention of ER - breast cancer. We found that a clinically applicable Akt/p70S6K dual inhibitor, LY2780301, drastically decreased proliferation of hMECs with ErbB2-induced p70S6K activation via Cyclin B1 inhibition and cell-cycle blockade at G 0 -G 1 phase, while it did not significantly reverse the abnormal acinar morphology of these hMECs. In addition, a brief treatment of LY2780301 in MMTV- neu mice that developed atypical hyperplasia (ADH) and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) lesions with activated p70S6K was sufficient to suppress S6 phosphorylation and decrease cell proliferation in hyperplasic MECs. In summary, targeting the aberrant Akt/p70S6K activation in ER - hMEC models in vitro and in the MMTV- neu transgenic mouse model in vivo effectively inhibited Akt/S6K signaling and reduced proliferation of hMECs in vitro and ADH/MIN lesions in vivo , indicating its potential in prevention of p70S6K activated ER - breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 641-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  12. Achieving high carrier mobility exceeding 70 cm2/Vs in amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Shin, Yeonwoo; Yun, Pil Sang; Bae, Jong Uk; Chung, In Jae; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new defect engineering concept for low-cost In- and Ga-free zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). This concept is comprised of capping ZTO films with tantalum (Ta) and a subsequent modest thermal annealing treatment at 200 °C. The Ta-capped ZTO TFTs exhibited a remarkably high carrier mobility of 70.8 cm2/Vs, low subthreshold gate swing of 0.18 V/decade, threshold voltage of -1.3 V, and excellent ION/OFF ratio of 2 × 108. The improvement (> two-fold) in the carrier mobility compared to the uncapped ZTO TFT can be attributed to the effective reduction of the number of adverse tailing trap states, such as hydroxyl groups or oxygen interstitial defects, which stems from the scavenging effect of the Ta capping layer on the ZTO channel layer. Furthermore, the Ta-capped ZTO TFTs showed excellent positive and negative gate bias stress stabilities. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Pectin-zinc-chitosan-polyethylene glycol colloidal nano-suspension as a food grade carrier for colon targeted delivery of resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andishmand, Hashem; Mahnaz Tabibiazar; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop chitosan-zinc-pectinate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) for colon-targeted delivery of resveratrol. The effects of pectin:ZnCl2:chitosan (PZnC) % w/v, pH and ionic strength of media, and addition of PEG on the colloidal stability and release...

  14. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  15. Targeted mutagenesis using zinc-finger nucleases in perennial fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Reut; Rivlin, Gil; Golobovitch, Sara; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit; Vainstein, Alexander; Tzfira, Tzvi; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-04-01

    Targeting a gene in apple or fig with ZFN, introduced by transient or stable transformation, should allow genome editing with high precision to advance basic science and breeding programs. Genome editing is a powerful tool for precise gene manipulation in any organism; it has recently been shown to be of great value for annual plants. Classical breeding strategies using conventional cross-breeding and induced mutations have played an important role in the development of new cultivars in fruit trees. However, fruit-tree breeding is a lengthy process with many limitations. Efficient and widely applied methods for targeted modification of fruit-tree genomes are not yet available. In this study, transgenic apple and fig lines carrying a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs) under the control of a heat-shock promoter were developed. Editing of a mutated uidA gene, following expression of the ZFN genes by heat shock, was confirmed by GUS staining and PCR product sequencing. Finally, whole plants with a repaired uidA gene due to deletion of a stop codon were regenerated. The ZFN-mediated gene modifications were stable and passed onto regenerants from ZFN-treated tissue cultures. This is the first demonstration of efficient and precise genome editing, using ZFN at a specific genomic locus, in two different perennial fruit trees-apple and fig. We conclude that targeting a gene in apple or fig with a ZFN introduced by transient or stable transformation should allow knockout of a gene of interest. Using this technology for genome editing allows for marker gene-independent and antibiotic selection-free genome engineering with high precision in fruit trees to advance basic science as well as nontransgenic breeding programs.

  16. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  17. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  18. Essential role for zinc-triggered p75NTR activation in preconditioning neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Tae-Youn; Koh, Jae-Young; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2008-10-22

    Ischemic preconditioning (PC) of the brain is a phenomenon by which mild ischemic insults render neurons resistant to subsequent strong insults. Key steps in ischemic PC of the brain include caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage, but upstream events have not been clearly elucidated. We have tested whether endogenous zinc is required for ischemic PC of the brain in rats. Mild, transient zinc accumulation was observed in certain neurons after ischemic PC. Moreover, intraventricular administration of CaEDTA during ischemic PC abrogated both zinc accumulation and the protective effect against subsequent full ischemia. To elucidate the mechanism of the zinc-triggered PC (Zn PC) effect, cortical cultures were exposed to sublethal levels of zinc, and 18 h later to lethal levels of zinc or NMDA. Zn PC exhibited the characteristic features of ischemic PC, including caspase-3 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, and HSP70 induction, all of which are crucial for subsequent neuroprotection against NMDA or zinc toxicity. HSP70 induction was necessary for protection, as it halted caspase-3 activation before apoptosis. Interestingly, in both Zn PC in vitro and ischemic PC in vivo, p75(NTR) was necessary for neuroprotection. These results suggest that caspase-3 activation during ischemic PC, a necessary event for subsequent neuroprotection, may result from mild zinc accumulation and the consequent p75(NTR) activation in neurons.

  19. Efficient immunoglobulin gene disruption and targeted replacement in rabbit using zinc finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Flisikowska

    Full Text Available Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM(+ and IgG(+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields.

  20. Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüpkes J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sputtered and wet-chemically texture etched zinc oxide (ZnO films on glass substrates are regularly applied as transparent front contact in silicon based thin film solar cells. In this study, chemical wet etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl on aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al films deposited by magnetron sputtering from ceramic tube targets at high discharge power (~10 kW/m target length is investigated. Films with thickness of around 800 nm were etched in diluted HCl acid and HF acid to achieve rough surface textures. It is found that the etching of the films in both etchants leads to different surface textures. A two steps etching process, which is especially favorable for films prepared at high deposition rate, was systematically studied. By etching first in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl these films are furnished with a surface texture which is characterized by craters with typical diameter of around 500 − 1000 nm. The resulting surface structure is comparable to etched films sputtered at low deposition rate, which had been demonstrated to be able to achieve high efficiencies in silicon thin film solar cells.

  1. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  2. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. STATUS ZINC PADA LANSIA LAKI-LAKI YANG ANEMIA DAN TIDAK ANEMIA DI DESA DAN KOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Rosmalina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ZINC STATUS OF ANEMIC AND NON-ANEMIC MALE ELDERLY IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS The elderly peoples are prone to micronutrients deficiency such as zinc. The impact of low intake of zinc is impaired functions of wound healing, immunity and taste and smell. The article presents the zinc state of elderly people with or without anemia. The age of subjects was 60 – 75 years. physically and clinically healthy, and agreed to participate in this study. Data collection including anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, mid-upper circumference, zinc, and Hb. Body Mass Index was calculated using ratio body weight to height. Hemoglobin level was analyzed using cyanmethemoglobin method and serum zinc was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The average Body weight, height and MUAC of urban elderly were statistically higher compared to rural elderly. The proportion of anemic among elderly in rural was 29.0 percent and 15.7 percent in urban. Serum zinc level showed that the proportion of elderly who have low serum zinc level was higher in rural compared to urban area (76.0% vs 54.9%. Out of 54 elderly whose anemic 87.1 percent have serum zinc level below 70 mg/L, while in urban area out of 64 anemic elderly 68.8 % have serum zinc level below 70 mg/L.The proportion of elderly who have suffered anemia and have low serum level were higher in rural compared to urban area. Keywords: anemia, zinc, elderly

  5. Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the nutritional status of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Tostes, Maria das Graças; Verediano, Thaisa Agrizzi; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria

    2016-03-15

    Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. In Caco-2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng mg(-1) protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 µmol mg(-1) protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children, no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin, 41.2 ± 23.2 and 28.9 ± 40.4 µg L(-1) ; hemoglobin, 13.7 ± 2.2 and 13.1 ± 3.2 g dL(-1) ; plasma zinc, 119.2 ± 24.5 and 133.9 ± 57.7 µg dL(-1) ; erythrocyte zinc, 53.5 ± 13.8 and 59.4 ± 17.1 µg g(-1) hemoglobin). Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. After oxidation, zinc nanoparticles lose their ability to enhance responses to odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Samantha; Daniels, Yasmine; Singletary, Melissa; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; MacCrehan, William A; Muramoto, Shin; Stan, Gheorghe; Lau, June W; Morrison, Edward E; Sorokulova, Iryna; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2016-12-01

    Electrical responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants were examined in the presence of zinc nanoparticles of various sizes and degrees of oxidation. The zinc nanoparticles were prepared by the underwater electrical discharge method and analyzed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Small (1.2 ± 0.3 nm) zinc nanoparticles significantly enhanced electrical responses of olfactory neurons to odorants. After oxidation, however, these small zinc nanoparticles were no longer capable of enhancing olfactory responses. Larger zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 nm and 70 nm) also did not modulate responses to odorants. Neither zinc nor zinc oxide nanoparticles produced olfactory responses when added without odorants. The enhancement of odorant responses by small zinc nanoparticles was explained by the creation of olfactory receptor dimers initiated by small zinc nanoparticles. The results of this work will clarify the mechanisms for the initial events in olfaction, as well as to provide new ways to alleviate anosmia related to the loss of olfactory receptors.

  7. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The measurement of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using double isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongguo

    1994-01-01

    The isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are measured by silicagel-thermal ionization mass spectrometry using the double isotope spikers. The double isotope spikers ( 70 Zn and 67 Zn-enriched isotopes) are used to correct the isotope mass fractionation for the zinc isotope ratios, and to certify the zinc concentrations in the unknown samples. The zinc concentrations of these double isotope spikers are surveyed by a spiker made of pure (99.99%) natural zinc metal powder. The correcting factors (f a , f t and f n ) of the zinc isotope ratios in the spiked mixture, spike and unspiked samples for the isotope mass fractionation, and the spike-to-unspiked ratios (X r ) of the zinc isotope r in the spiked mixture samples can be obtained to solve the matrix equations by numerical approximation. The natural zinc isotope ratios are: 64 Zn/ 67 Zn = 11.8498, 66 Zn/ 67 Zn = 6.7977, 68 Zn/ 67 Zn = 4.5730 and 70 Zn/ 67 Zn = 0.1520. The uncertainties determined of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are +- 0.16% and +-0.31%, respectively

  9. AAV-mediated delivery of zinc finger nucleases targeting hepatitis B virus inhibits active replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Weber

    Full Text Available Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB, imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy.

  10. Targeting HSP70 and GRP78 in canine osteosarcoma cells in combination with doxorubicin chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asling, Jonathan; Morrison, Jodi; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones subdivided into several families based on their molecular weight. Due to their cytoprotective roles, these proteins may help protect cancer cells against chemotherapy-induced cell death. Investigation into the biologic activity of HSPs in a variety of cancers including primary bone tumors, such as osteosarcoma (OSA), is of great interest. Both human and canine OSA tumor samples have aberrant production of HSP70. This study assessed the response of canine OSA cells to inhibition of HSP70 and GRP78 by the ATP-mimetic VER-155008 and whether this treatment strategy could sensitize cells to doxorubicin chemotherapy. Single-agent VER-155008 treatment decreased cellular viability and clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis in canine OSA cell lines. However, combination schedules with doxorubicin after pretreatment with VER-155008 did not improve inhibition of cellular viability, apoptosis, or clonogenic survival. Treatment with VER-155008 prior to chemotherapy resulted in an upregulation of target proteins HSP70 and GRP78 in addition to the co-chaperone proteins Herp, C/EBP homologous transcription protein (CHOP), and BAG-1. The increased GRP78 was more cytoplasmic in location compared to untreated cells. Single-agent treatment also revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activated and total Akt. Based on these results, targeting GRP78 and HSP70 may have biologic activity in canine osteosarcoma. Further studies are required to determine if and how this strategy may impact the response of osteosarcoma cells to chemotherapy.

  11. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  12. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (Plong-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  13. Lead and Zinc pollution of soils in the Kabwe lead-zinc mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musonda, B.M.; Tembo, F

    2004-01-01

    Lead and Zinc pollution of soils related to mining activities in Kabwe district is one of the major environmental problems in Zambia today. In this study, we investigated the distribution of lead and zinc in topsoil and subsoil. Samples were collected from topsoil(0-20cm) and subsoil(20-50cm)at predetermined sites using a 5km x 5km regional grid and a 500m x 500m local grid. After preparation 260 local and 200 regional samples were analysed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The background levels of cold HNO3 extractable lead and zinc are 50mg/kg and 70mg/kg respectively. The degree of Pb and Zn contamination of the soils varies with proximity of the soils to Kabwe mining centre. The content of Pb and Zn in topsoil that is very close to the mine is up to 1.6% and 3.9% respectively while soils that are very far from the mine generally contain less than 10mg/kg Pb and 20mg/kg Zn. The heavy metal contamination patterns in soils adjacent to the mine have been formed by wind dispersion of particulate matter and dry deposition. The risk of exposure of humans to lead and zinc is very high in areas that are adjacent to the mining centre. (author)

  14. The study of zinc ions binding to casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomastowski, P; Sprynskyy, M; Buszewski, B

    2014-08-01

    The presented research was focused on physicochemical study of casein properties and the kinetics of zinc ions binding to the protein. Moreover, a fast and simple method of casein extraction from cow's milk has been proposed. Casein isoforms, zeta potential (ζ) and particle size of the separated caseins were characterized with the use of capillary electrophoresis, zeta potential analysis and field flow fractionation (FFF) technique, respectively. The kinetics of the metal-binding process was investigated in batch adsorption experiments. Intraparticle diffusion model, first-order and zero-order kinetic models were applied to test the kinetic experimental data. Analysis of changes in infrared bands registered for casein before and after zinc binding was also performed. The obtained results showed that the kinetic process of zinc binding to casein is not homogeneous but is expressed with an initial rapid stage with about 70% of zinc ions immobilized by casein and with a much slower second step. Maximum amount of bound zinc in the experimental conditions was 30.04mgZn/g casein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  16. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S. B.; Jones, K. W.; Kraner, H. W.; Shroy, R. E.; Hanson, A. L.

    1981-03-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port has been used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determination in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Our measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage.

  17. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, S.B.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Shroy, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1980-06-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port was used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage

  18. Fluorescent zinc sensor with minimized proton-induced interferences: photophysical mechanism for fluorescence turn-on response and detection of endogenous free zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Lee, Sumin; You, Youngmin; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Ohkubo, Kei; Cho, Jaeheung; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Shin, Injae; Park, Soo Young; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-08-20

    A new fluorescent zinc sensor (HNBO-DPA) consisting of 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-naphthyl)benzoxazole (HNBO) chromophore and a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) metal chelator has been prepared and examined for zinc bioimaging. The probe exhibits zinc-induced fluorescence turn-on without any spectral shifts. Its crystal structure reveals that HNBO-DPA binds a zinc ion in a pentacoordinative fashion through the DPA and HNBO moieties. Steady-state photophysical studies establish zinc-induced deprotonation of the HNBO group. Nanosecond and femtosecond laser flash photolysis and electrochemical measurements provide evidence for zinc-induced modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from DPA to HNBO. Thus, the zinc-responsive fluorescence turn-on is attributed to suppression of PeT exerted by deprotonation of HNBO and occupation of the electron pair of DPA, a conclusion that is further supported by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) calculations. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.0), the probe displays a 44-fold fluorescence turn-on in response to zinc ions with a K(d) value of 12 pM. The fluorescent response of the probe to zinc ions is conserved over a broad pH range with its excellent selectivity for zinc ions among biologically relevant metal ions. In particular, its sensing ability is not altered by divalent transition metal ions such as Fe(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II). Cell experiments using HNBO-DPA show its suitability for monitoring intracellular zinc ions. We have also demonstrated applicability of the probe to visualize intact zinc ions released from cells that undergo apoptosis. More interestingly, zinc-rich pools in zebrafish embryos are traced with HNBO-DPA during early developmental stages. The results obtained from the in vitro and in vivo imaging studies demonstrate the practical usefulness of the probe to detect zinc ions.

  19. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam; Schmidt, Éder C.; Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Fisher, Andrew S.; Sheehan, David; Dafre, Alcir L.

    2014-01-01

    count). At 24 h post exposure, decreased (−29%) glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed in gills, but other biochemical responses were observed only after 48 h of exposure: lower GR activity (−28%) and levels of protein thiols (−21%), increased index of lipid peroxidation (+49%) and GPx activity (+26%). In accordance with ultrastructural changes and zinc load, digestive gland showed delayed biochemical responses. Except for a decreased GR activity (−47%) at 48 h post exposure, the biochemical alterations seen in gills were not present in digestive gland. The results indicate that gills are able to incorporate zinc prior (24 h) to digestive gland (48 h), leading to earlier mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress. Our data suggest that gills are the initial target of ZnONP and that mitochondria are organelles particularly susceptible to ZnONP in C. gigas

  20. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Schmidt, Éder C. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco [Centre for Bionano Interactions, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo [Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Campus Garopaba, Laboratory of Histological Markers, 88495-000 Garopaba, SC (Brazil); Bouzon, Zenilda L. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Fisher, Andrew S. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA Plymouth (United Kingdom); Sheehan, David [Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Dafre, Alcir L., E-mail: alcir.dafre@ufsc.br [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    hemocyte count). At 24 h post exposure, decreased (−29%) glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed in gills, but other biochemical responses were observed only after 48 h of exposure: lower GR activity (−28%) and levels of protein thiols (−21%), increased index of lipid peroxidation (+49%) and GPx activity (+26%). In accordance with ultrastructural changes and zinc load, digestive gland showed delayed biochemical responses. Except for a decreased GR activity (−47%) at 48 h post exposure, the biochemical alterations seen in gills were not present in digestive gland. The results indicate that gills are able to incorporate zinc prior (24 h) to digestive gland (48 h), leading to earlier mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress. Our data suggest that gills are the initial target of ZnONP and that mitochondria are organelles particularly susceptible to ZnONP in C. gigas.

  1. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic.

  2. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, S.B.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Shroy, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port has been used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton micorprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Our measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage. (orig.)

  3. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  4. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  5. The effect of severe zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi Boroujeni, S; Naghdi, N; Shahbazi, M; Farrokhi, A; Bagherzadeh, F; Kazemnejad, A; Javadian, M

    2009-07-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and during lactation has been shown to impair cognitive function and motor activity in offspring rats. In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory in Morris Water Maze (MWM) and motor activity in open field were investigated. Pregnant rats after mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a zinc deficient (ZnD) group fed a diet deficient in zinc (0.5-1.5 ppm) and a zinc supplement (ZnS) group fed a standard diet and enhanced zinc in the drinking water (10 ppm). All the diets were exposed during the last trisemester of pregnancy and during lactation. Rat's offspring in these groups were tested for spatial learning and memory in MWM at post natal day (PND) 56 and were tested for motor activity in open field at PND 66.The Escape Latency (EL) and Traveled Distance (TD) in the ZnD group were increased but Percentage of Time Spent in the target quadrant (PTS) was decreased compared to the control group. In addition, these were no significant differences in EL and TD, but PTS had significant increase in ZnS compared to the control group. In the open field, Total Distance Moved (TDM) and Time of Motor Activity (TMA) for the ZnD were decreased compared to the control group, but there were no significant differences in TDM and TMA between control and ZnS groups. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation impaired spatial learning and memory in their offsprings and has also negative effect on motor activity. In addition, ZnS has a significant effect on spatial learning and memory but no effect on motor activity in their offsprings.

  6. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  7. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  8. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  9. ZifBASE: a database of zinc finger proteins and associated resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punetha Ankita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the occurrence of zinc finger protein motifs in genomes is crucial to the developing field of molecular genome engineering. The knowledge of their target DNA-binding sequences is vital to develop chimeric proteins for targeted genome engineering and site-specific gene correction. There is a need to develop a computational resource of zinc finger proteins (ZFP to identify the potential binding sites and its location, which reduce the time of in vivo task, and overcome the difficulties in selecting the specific type of zinc finger protein and the target site in the DNA sequence. Description ZifBASE provides an extensive collection of various natural and engineered ZFP. It uses standard names and a genetic and structural classification scheme to present data retrieved from UniProtKB, GenBank, Protein Data Bank, ModBase, Protein Model Portal and the literature. It also incorporates specialized features of ZFP including finger sequences and positions, number of fingers, physiochemical properties, classes, framework, PubMed citations with links to experimental structures (PDB, if available and modeled structures of natural zinc finger proteins. ZifBASE provides information on zinc finger proteins (both natural and engineered ones, the number of finger units in each of the zinc finger proteins (with multiple fingers, the synergy between the adjacent fingers and their positions. Additionally, it gives the individual finger sequence and their target DNA site to which it binds for better and clear understanding on the interactions of adjacent fingers. The current version of ZifBASE contains 139 entries of which 89 are engineered ZFPs, containing 3-7F totaling to 296 fingers. There are 50 natural zinc finger protein entries ranging from 2-13F, totaling to 307 fingers. It has sequences and structures from literature, Protein Data Bank, ModBase and Protein Model Portal. The interface is cross linked to other public

  10. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  11. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  12. Zinc deficiency in the pediatric age group is common but underevaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralli, Dogus; Tumer, Leyla; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2017-08-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies have been gradually becoming more important as a public health problem and drawing attention of the health authorities. Today it has been known that detecting and treating people having deficiency symptoms alone is no longer sufficient. It is important to detect and prevent any deficiency before it displays clinical manifestations. Zinc deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the zinc status and the associated factors in healthy school-age children. The study was carried out in schools in Altindag, the district of Ankara. A total of 1063 healthy children, 585 girls and 478 boys, aged 5-16 years were included in the study. Serum zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count were measured. A serum zinc level zinc deficiency for children zinc concentration were set at 66 μg/dL for females and 70 μg/dL for males. A questionnaire was developed to collect socioeconomic and demographic information of the participants. The prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency in children attending the study was detected to be 27.8%. This high ratio showed zinc deficiency was an important health problem in the Altindag district of Ankara, Turkey. Evaluating the indicators of zinc deficiency such as serum zinc concentration, dietary zinc intake and stunting prevalence, this study is the most comprehensive epidemiological study performed in children in Turkey. This study reveals the high prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency and indicates that zinc deficiency is a public health concern for the study population.

  13. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Two zinc-binding domains in the transporter AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes facilitate high-affinity binding and fast transport of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Li, Nan; Wang, Hongcui; Cao, Xin; He, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Bing; He, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Gong; Sun, Xuesong

    2018-04-20

    Zinc is an essential metal in bacteria. One important bacterial zinc transporter is AdcA, and most bacteria possess AdcA homologs that are single-domain small proteins due to better efficiency of protein biogenesis. However, a double-domain AdcA with two zinc-binding sites is significantly overrepresented in Streptococcus species, many of which are major human pathogens. Using molecular simulation and experimental validations of AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes , we found here that the two AdcA domains sequentially stabilize the structure upon zinc binding, indicating an organization required for both increased zinc affinity and transfer speed. This structural organization appears to endow Streptococcus species with distinct advantages in zinc-depleted environments, which would not be achieved by each single AdcA domain alone. This enhanced zinc transport mechanism sheds light on the significance of the evolution of the AdcA domain fusion, provides new insights into double-domain transporter proteins with two binding sites for the same ion, and indicates a potential target of antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic Streptococcus species. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The structural analysis of zinc borate glass by laboratory EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajinami, Akihiko; Harada, Yasushi; Inoue, Shinsuke; Deki, Shigehito; Umesaki, Norimasa

    1999-01-01

    The structure of zinc borate glass has been investigated by laboratory EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurement as preliminary investigations for the detailed study in SPring-8. The zinc borate glass was prepared in the range from 40 to 65 mol% of zinc oxide content. The X-ray diffraction was measured by horizontal θ-θ goniometer with 60 kV and 300 mA output of Mo target. The EXAFS of zinc borate glass was measured by laboratory EXAFS system with 20 kV, 100 mA output of Mo target for the K absorption edge of zinc atom. From the X-ray diffraction and the EXAFS measurements, it is found that the zinc ion is surrounded by four oxygen atoms and formed a tetrahedral structure whose (Zn-O) distance is about 2 A and that the structure is unchanged with the zinc oxide content. The diffraction data show that the neighboring structure of boron atom transforms from BO 4 tetrahedra to BO 3 tetragonal planar structure with increasing of the zinc oxide content. (author)

  16. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    the need for direct biochemical and dietary assessments of population zinc status, as part of nationally representative nutritional surveys targeting countries estimated to be at high risk.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of zinc in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, R.K.; Shukla, Shobha

    2007-01-01

    We report formation of colloidal suspension of zinc oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at room temperature in different liquid environment. We have used photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the nanoparticles. The sample ablated in deionized water showed the photoluminescence peak at 384 nm (3.23 eV), whereas peaks at 370 nm (3.35 eV) were observed for sample prepared in isopropanol. The use of water and isopropanol as a solvent yielded spherical nanoparticles of 14-20 nm while in acetone we found two types of particles, one spherical nanoparticles with sizes around 100 nm and another platelet-like structure of 1 μm in diameter and 40 nm in width. The absorption peak of samples prepared in deionized water and isopropanol are seen to be substantially blue shifted relative to that of the bulk zinc oxide due to the strong confinement effect. The technique offers an alternative for preparing the nanoparticles of active metal

  18. A Zinc Chelator TPEN Attenuates Airway Hyperresponsiveness Airway Inflammation in Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukuyama

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: In pulmonary allergic inflammation induced in mice immunized with antigen without alum, zinc chelator inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. These findings suggest that zinc may be a therapeutic target of allergic asthma.

  19. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  20. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  1. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. High-efficiency genome editing via 2A-coupled co-expression of fluorescent proteins and zinc finger nucleases or CRISPR/Cas9 nickase pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duda, Katarzyna; Lonowski, Lindsey A; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Targeted endonucleases including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/Cas9 are increasingly being used for genome editing in higher species. We therefore devised a broadly applicable and versatile method for increasing editing...... higher genome editing rates. For ZFNs, this approach, combined with delivery of donors as single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides and nucleases as messenger ribonucleic acid, enabled high knockin efficiencies in demanding applications, including biallelic codon conversion frequencies reaching 30......-70% at high transfection efficiencies and ∼2% at low transfection efficiencies, simultaneous homozygous knockin mutation of two genes with ∼1.5% efficiency as well as generation of cell pools with almost complete codon conversion via three consecutive targeting and FACS events. Observed off-target effects...

  3. Composition control of tin-zinc electrodeposits through means of experimental strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Saurat, M.; Ayedi, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Tin-zinc coatings offer excellent corrosion protection and do not suffer the drawback of the voluminous white corrosion product of pure zinc or high zinc alloy coatings. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable electroplating conditions (i.e. electrolyte composition and cathode current density) to produce 70Sn-30Zn electrodeposits. Thus, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of experimental parameters (Zn II concentration, Sn IV concentration, pH and current density) on the Zn content of the electrodeposit. On the other hand, the electrodeposits were characterised by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlation between operating conditions, composition and morphology was attempted

  4. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    polymerized microtubules, their binding to MAP-tau, and molecular dynamics involved in cognition. Further, our theory supports novel AD therapeutic strategies targeting intra-neuronal zinc homeostasis and microtubule dynamics to prevent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

  5. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    microtubules, their binding to MAP-tau, and molecular dynamics involved in cognition. Further, our theory supports novel AD therapeutic strategies targeting intra-neuronal zinc homeostasis and microtubule dynamics to prevent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

  6. The Relevance of the Colon to Zinc Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lavaniya Gopalsamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, zinc deficiency is widespread, despite decades of research highlighting its negative effects on health, and in particular upon child health in low-income countries. Apart from inadequate dietary intake of bioavailable zinc, other significant contributors to zinc deficiency include the excessive intestinal loss of endogenously secreted zinc and impairment in small intestinal absorptive function. Such changes are likely to occur in children suffering from environmental (or tropical enteropathy (EE—an almost universal condition among inhabitants of developing countries characterized by morphologic and functional changes in the small intestine. Changes to the proximal gut in environmental enteropathy will likely influence the nature and amount of zinc delivered into the large intestine. Consequently, we reviewed the current literature to determine if colonic absorption of endogenous or exogenous (dietary zinc could contribute to overall zinc nutriture. Whilst we found evidence that significant zinc absorption occurs in the rodent colon, and is favoured when microbially-fermentable carbohydrates (specifically resistant starch are consumed, it is unclear whether this process occur in humans and/or to what degree. Constraints in study design in the few available studies may well have masked a possible colonic contribution to zinc nutrition. Furthermore these few available human studies have failed to include the actual target population that would benefit, namely infants affected by EE where zinc delivery to the colon may be increased and who are also at risk of zinc deficiency. In conducting this review we have not been able to confirm a colonic contribution to zinc absorption in humans. However, given the observations in rodents and that feeding resistant starch to children is feasible, definitive studies utilising the dual stable isotope method in children with EE should be undertaken.

  7. High quality aluminium doped zinc oxide target synthesis from nanoparticulate powder and characterisation of sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, P.J.M., E-mail: P.J.M.Isherwood@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Neves, N. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Bowers, J.W. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Newbatt, P. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticulate aluminium-doped zinc oxide powder was synthesised through detonation and subsequent rapid quenching of metallic precursors. This technique allows for precise compositional control and rapid nanoparticle production. The resulting powder was used to form sputter targets, which were used to deposit thin films by radio frequency sputtering. These films show excellent sheet resistance and transmission values for a wide range of deposition temperatures. Crystal structure analysis shows that crystals in the target have a random orientation, whereas the crystals in the films grow perpendicular to the substrate surface and propagate preferentially along the (002) axis. Higher temperature deposition reduces crystal quality with a corresponding decrease in refractive index and an increase in sheet resistance. Films deposited between room temperature and 300 °C were found to have sheet resistances equivalent to or better than indium tin oxide films for a given average transmission value. - Highlights: • Nanoparticulate AZO powder was used to produce sputter targets. • The powder synthesis technique allows for precise compositional control. • Sputtered films show excellent optical, electronic and structural properties. • High temperature films show reduced electrical and structural quality. • For a given transmission, films show equivalent sheet resistances to ITO.

  8. Metal cofactor modulated folding and target recognition of HIV-1 NCp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weitong; Ji, Dongqing; Xu, Xiulian

    2018-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid 7 (NCp7) plays crucial roles in multiple stages of HIV-1 life cycle, and its biological functions rely on the binding of zinc ions. Understanding the molecular mechanism of how the zinc ions modulate the conformational dynamics and functions of the NCp7 is essential for the drug development and HIV-1 treatment. In this work, using a structure-based coarse-grained model, we studied the effects of zinc cofactors on the folding and target RNA(SL3) recognition of the NCp7 by molecular dynamics simulations. After reproducing some key properties of the zinc binding and folding of the NCp7 observed in previous experiments, our simulations revealed several interesting features in the metal ion modulated folding and target recognition. Firstly, we showed that the zinc binding makes the folding transition states of the two zinc fingers less structured, which is in line with the Hammond effect observed typically in mutation, temperature or denaturant induced perturbations to protein structure and stability. Secondly, We showed that there exists mutual interplay between the zinc ion binding and NCp7-target recognition. Binding of zinc ions enhances the affinity between the NCp7 and the target RNA, whereas the formation of the NCp7-RNA complex reshapes the intrinsic energy landscape of the NCp7 and increases the stability and zinc affinity of the two zinc fingers. Thirdly, by characterizing the effects of salt concentrations on the target RNA recognition, we showed that the NCp7 achieves optimal balance between the affinity and binding kinetics near the physiologically relevant salt concentrations. In addition, the effects of zinc binding on the inter-domain conformational flexibility and folding cooperativity of the NCp7 were also discussed.

  9. Metal cofactor modulated folding and target recognition of HIV-1 NCp7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Ren

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 nucleocapsid 7 (NCp7 plays crucial roles in multiple stages of HIV-1 life cycle, and its biological functions rely on the binding of zinc ions. Understanding the molecular mechanism of how the zinc ions modulate the conformational dynamics and functions of the NCp7 is essential for the drug development and HIV-1 treatment. In this work, using a structure-based coarse-grained model, we studied the effects of zinc cofactors on the folding and target RNA(SL3 recognition of the NCp7 by molecular dynamics simulations. After reproducing some key properties of the zinc binding and folding of the NCp7 observed in previous experiments, our simulations revealed several interesting features in the metal ion modulated folding and target recognition. Firstly, we showed that the zinc binding makes the folding transition states of the two zinc fingers less structured, which is in line with the Hammond effect observed typically in mutation, temperature or denaturant induced perturbations to protein structure and stability. Secondly, We showed that there exists mutual interplay between the zinc ion binding and NCp7-target recognition. Binding of zinc ions enhances the affinity between the NCp7 and the target RNA, whereas the formation of the NCp7-RNA complex reshapes the intrinsic energy landscape of the NCp7 and increases the stability and zinc affinity of the two zinc fingers. Thirdly, by characterizing the effects of salt concentrations on the target RNA recognition, we showed that the NCp7 achieves optimal balance between the affinity and binding kinetics near the physiologically relevant salt concentrations. In addition, the effects of zinc binding on the inter-domain conformational flexibility and folding cooperativity of the NCp7 were also discussed.

  10. Precipitation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana E. Romo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained directly, avoiding the calcination step, by precipitation at 70°C in bicontinuous microemulsions stabilized with a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, wt./wt. containing 0.7 M zinc nitrate aqueous solution. Two concentrations of aqueous solution of precipitating agent sodium hydroxide were used under different dosing times on microemulsion. Characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed us to identify particles with an acicular rod-like morphology and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure as small as 8.5 and 30 nm in average diameter and length, respectively. Productivities much higher than those typical in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via reverse microemulsions were obtained. Particle size was the same at the two studied sodium hydroxide concentrations, while it increases as dosing time of the precipitant agent increases. It is believed that the surfactant film on the microemulsion channels restricts the particle diameter growth.

  11. New insight into the mechanism of cathodic electrodeposition of zinc oxide thin films onto vitreous carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ait Ahmed , N.; Eyraud , M.; Hammache , H.; Vacandio , F.; Sam , S.; Gabouze , N.; Knauth , P.; Pelzer , K.; Djenizian , T.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this study, the mechanism of zinc oxide (ZnO) electrodeposition from aqueous zinc nitrate solution at 70°C was investigated on vitreous carbon and bulk zinc electrodes using cyclic voltammetry experiments. Mechanisms are presented for the ZnO formation: the first widely accepted route corresponds to ZnO precipitation from Zn 2+ and OH-produced by NO3-reduction; the second route, which is discussed in this article, is due to Zn 2+ reduction into metallic Zn followed ...

  12. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  13. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  14. TARGETED DELETION OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 ABROGATES THE LATE INFARCT-SPARING EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract submitted for 82nd annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, May 4-8, 2002 in Washington D.C.Targeted Deletion of Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 Abrogates the Late Infarct-Sparing Effect of Myocardial Ischemic PreconditioningCraig...

  15. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Biswal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002 to (101 planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  16. REMOVING ZINC FROM GALVANIZED STEEL SCRAP TO FEASIBLE THE BOF SLUDGE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Marques Caetano de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Galvanized steel scraps generated at Usiminas Ipatinga are recycled in BOF converters. Although they are noble products, they contain a significant quantity of zinc that escapes from the bath due to its high vapor pressure and is captured by the gas control system, appearing in BOF sludge. As BOF sludge contains high iron content, it could be recycled to the process, but due to its zinc content, it is disposed in landfills. For this reason, this study aimed to treat these scraps to remove zinc layer using a thermal treatment process. The samples were fed to a rotative furnace in an inert ambient. It was tested the hot dip galvanized and eletrogalvanized scraps, varying the zinc coating weight between 20g/m2 and 150g/m2, temperature between 700°C and 900°C and time between 3 minutes and 10 minutes. Considering these conditions, it is verified that more than 70% of the zinc layer is removed at 700°C, in 10 minutes. Dust captured is about 60% of metallic zinc and 40% as zinc oxide. Based on these results, the recycling of BOF sludge can be feasible to the ironmaking process.

  17. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A., E-mail: shevtsov-max@mail.ru [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); A.L. Polenov Russian Research Scientific Institute of Neurosurgery, Mayakovsky str. 12, St. Petersburg 191014 (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, Boris P. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Yakovleva, Ludmila Y. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Dobrodumov, Anatolii V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Bolshoi pr. 31, St. Petersburg 199004 (Russian Federation); Marchenko, Yaroslav Y. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Margulis, Boris A. [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Pitkin, Emil [The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 3730 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guzhova, Irina V. [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION–Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M{sub 2}). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T{sub 2}-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION–Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M{sub 2} measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: • Second-harmonic nonlinear magnetic response is used for biodistribution analysis. • NLR-M{sub 2} ensures high sensibility in detection of SPIONs in tissue. • SPION–Hsp70 conjugates

  18. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A.; Nikolaev, Boris P.; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A.; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y.; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y.; Margulis, Boris A.; Pitkin, Emil; Guzhova, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION–Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M 2 ). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T 2 -weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION–Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M 2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: • Second-harmonic nonlinear magnetic response is used for biodistribution analysis. • NLR-M 2 ensures high sensibility in detection of SPIONs in tissue. • SPION–Hsp70 conjugates effectively target the

  19. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  20. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  1. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution coe�cients (Kd) were measured for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in laboratory batch experiments for 17 sandy aquifer materials at environmentally relevant solute concentrations (Cu: 5±300 mg/l, Zn: 20±3100 mg/l). The Kd values ranged two to three orders of magnitude (Cu: 70±10,800 l/ kg...

  2. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of no-carrier-added 64Cu from zinc metal irradiated under boron shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K R; Chaudhuri, T R; Cheng, T P; Morris, J S; Meyer, W A

    1994-02-01

    Positron emission tomography offers advantages for radioimmunodiagnosis of cancer but requires radionuclides of appropriate half-life that have high specific activity and high radio-purity. This work was designed to develop a viable method to produce and purify 64Cu, which has high specific activity, for positron emission tomography. 64Cu was produced at the University of Missouri Research Reactor by the nuclear reaction, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu. Highly pure zinc metal (99.9999%) was irradiated in a specially designed boron nitrite lined container, which minimized thermal neutron reactions during irradiation. A new two-step procedure was developed to chemically separate the no-carrier-added 64Cu from the zinc metal target. 64Cu recovery for 24 runs averaged 0.393 (+/- 0.007) mCi per milligram of zinc irradiated. The boron-lined irradiation container reduced unwanted zinc radionuclides 14.3-fold. Zinc radionuclides and non-radioactive zinc were separated successfully from the 64Cu. The new separation technique was fast (2 hours total time) and highly efficient for removing the zinc. The zinc separation factor for this technique averaged 8.5 x 10(-8), indicating less than 0.0000085% of the zinc remained after separation. Thus far, the highest 64Cu specific activity at end of irradiation was 683 Ci/mg Cu, with an average of 512 Ci/mg Cu for the last six analyzed runs. The boron-lined irradiation container has sufficient capacity for 75-fold larger-sized zinc targets (up to 45 g). The new separation technique was excellent for separating 64Cu, which appears to be a radionuclide with great potential for positron emission tomography.

  4. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific Zinc Finger Nucleases: Usability for targeted HIV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively. However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. Methods and Results First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol and (b two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN. Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN. Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of

  5. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific zinc finger nucleases: usability for targeted HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayengera, Misaki

    2011-07-22

    Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases) AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively). However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX) at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i) to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN) with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii) to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV) that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a) 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif) arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol) and (b) two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN). Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN). Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs) that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively) is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of the safety and efficacy of either of these

  6. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.

  7. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  8. The artificial zinc finger coding gene 'Jazz' binds the utrophin promoter and activates transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, N; Libri, V; Fanciulli, M; Tinsley, J M; Davies, K E; Passananti, C

    2000-06-01

    Up-regulation of utrophin gene expression is recognized as a plausible therapeutic approach in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have designed and engineered new zinc finger-based transcription factors capable of binding and activating transcription from the promoter of the dystrophin-related gene, utrophin. Using the recognition 'code' that proposes specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA binding sites, we engineered a new gene named 'Jazz' that encodes for a three-zinc finger peptide. Jazz belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and was engineered to target the nine base pair DNA sequence: 5'-GCT-GCT-GCG-3', present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. The entire zinc finger alpha-helix region, containing the amino acid positions that are crucial for DNA binding, was specifically chosen on the basis of the contacts more frequently represented in the available list of the 'code'. Here we demonstrate that Jazz protein binds specifically to the double-stranded DNA target, with a dissociation constant of about 32 nM. Band shift and super-shift experiments confirmed the high affinity and specificity of Jazz protein for its DNA target. Moreover, we show that chimeric proteins, named Gal4-Jazz and Sp1-Jazz, are able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the human utrophin promoter.

  9. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  10. Risedronate/zinc-hydroxyapatite based nanomedicine for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajuria, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: deepak_kumarkhajuria@yahoo.co.in [Laboratory for Integrative Multiscale Engineering Materials and Systems, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027 (India); Disha, Choudhary [Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027 (India); Vasireddi, Ramakrishna [Laboratory for Integrative Multiscale Engineering Materials and Systems, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Razdan, Rema [Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy [Laboratory for Integrative Multiscale Engineering Materials and Systems, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-06-01

    Targeting of superior osteogenic drugs to bone is an ideal approach for treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we investigated the potential of using risedronate/zinc-hydroxyapatite (ZnHA) nanoparticles based formulation in a rat model of experimental osteoporosis. Risedronate, a targeting moiety that has a strong affinity for bone, was loaded to ZnHA nanoparticles by adsorption method. Prepared risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vivo performance of the prepared risedronate/ZnHA nanoparticles was tested in an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therapy with risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation prevented increase in serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b better than risedronate/HA or risedronate. With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the femoral mid-shaft and correction of increase in urine calcium and creatinine levels, the therapy with risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation was more effective than risedronate/HA or risedronate therapy. Moreover, risedronate/ZnHA drug therapy preserved the cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture better than risedronate/HA or risedronate therapy. Furthermore, risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation showed higher values of calcium/phosphorous ratio and zinc content. The results strongly implicate that risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation has a therapeutic advantage over risedronate or risedronate/HA therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Risedronate functionalized zinc-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared. • Risedronate was used as a carrier to deliver zinc-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to bones. • Application of risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation in osteoporosis is described.

  11. Zinc electrode - its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling. 193 references.

  12. Efecto del hialuronato de zinc sobre las úlceras en pacientes con diabetes Zinc hyaluronate effects on ulcers in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ramos Cuevas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La úlcera en el pie diabético es una de las principales complicaciones de la diabetes en extremidades bajas. Del 50 al 70% de las amputaciones en extremidades bajas se realizan a pacientes con diabetes. El hialuronato de zinc ha sido probado en el tratamiento de las úlceras diabéticas del pie con resultados prometedores. Objetivo general: Determinar el grado de eficacia del hialuronato de zinc en la curación de úlceras del pie diabético. Diseño: Ensayo terapéutico abierto al azar. Se les dio seguimiento a los pacientes durante un período de doce semanas de junio a diciembre de 2004. Ubicación: Centro de cuidado terciario. Clínica del Pie Diabético. Pacientes: Fueron seleccionados por muestreo consecutivo cincuenta pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 con úlcera en pie, de ambos sexos y con edades entre los 40 y los 80 años y sin una isquemia más baja de la extremidad. Veinticinco de ellos fueron asignados aleatoriamente al grupo del hialuronato de zinc y el resto al grupo de control (tratamiento convencional. La distribución por sexo de género fue similar en ambos grupos, once del femenino (44% y 14 del masculino (56%. La edad promedio en el grupo de la combinación del ácido hialurónico y zinc fue 56,76 ± 8,78 y en el convencional 60,12 ± 8,42, NS. ningún paciente del grupo de hialuronato de zinc abandonó o fue retirado durante el período del estudio. Un paciente del grupo de control falleció. Intervención: El hialuronato de zinc fue aplicado una vez al día en la superficie de la úlcera después de limpiarla con la solución fisiológica salina. Medida principal del resultado: La eficacia del hialuronato de zinc fue determinada por las semanas que se requirieron para conseguir el cierre completo de la úlcera con el tejido fino epitelial (tiempo curativo medio. Material y métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado. Pacientes con úlceras propias del pie diabético. 1 de julio al 30 de septiembre de 2004, 25 pacientes

  13. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  14. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P Ia. PMID:26865405

  15. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  16. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZBg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZBg9. The synthesized GZNC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The GZNC in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO was sonicated for 10 minutes and the final concentrations 0.033, 0.099, 0.199, and 3.996 μg/μL of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hr. The hsp70 expression was measured by o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage was measured by trypan blue exclusion test, and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 μg/μL of GZNC was toxic for both 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure. The doses of 0.033 μg/μL and 0.099 of GZNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hr of duration.

  17. X-ray radiometric analysis of lead and zinc concentrates using germanium radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgachev, A.A.; Mamysh, V.A.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.; Berezkin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results of determination of lead, zinc and iron in lead and zinc concentrates by the X-ray-radiometric method with the use of germanium semiconductor detector are presented. In the experiments the 57 Co source and tritium-zirconium target were used. The activity of 57 Co was 2 mc. The area of the germanium detector employed was 5g mm 2 , its thickness - 2.3 mm. In lead concentrates zinc and iron were determined from the direct intensity of K-series radiation. In the analysis of zinc concentrates the same conditions of recording and excitation were used as in the case of lead concentrates, but the measurements were conducted in saturated layers. It is demonstrated that the use of germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with the suggested methods of measurements makes it possible to perform determination of iron, zinc and lead in zinc and lead concentrates with permissible error

  18. Detection of irradiation-induced, membrane heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in mouse tumors using Hsp70 Fab fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangl, Stefan; Themelis, George; Friedrich, Lars; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Molls, Michael; Skerra, Arne; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The major stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently overexpressed in highly aggressive tumors, and elevated intracellular Hsp70 levels mediate protection against apoptosis. Following therapeutic intervention, such as ionizing irradiation, translocation of cytosolic Hsp70 to the plasma membrane is selectively increased in tumor cells and therefore, membrane Hsp70 might serve as a therapy-inducible, tumor-specific target structure. Materials and methods: Based on the IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) cmHsp70.1, we produced the Hsp70-specific recombinant Fab fragment (Hsp70 Fab), as an imaging tool for the detection of membrane Hsp70 positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Results: The binding characteristics of Hsp70 Fab towards mouse colon (CT26) and pancreatic (1048) carcinoma cells at 4 deg. C were comparable to that of cmHsp70.1 mAb, as determined by flow cytometry. Following a temperature shift to 37 deg. C, Hsp70 Fab rapidly translocates into subcellular vesicles of mouse tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor-bearing mice Cy5.5-conjugated Hsp70 Fab, but not unrelated IN-1 control Fab fragment (IN-1 ctrl Fab), gradually accumulates in CT26 tumors between 12 and 55 h after i.v. injection. Conclusions: In summary, the Hsp70 Fab provides an innovative, low immunogenic tool for imaging of membrane Hsp70 positive tumors, in vivo.

  19. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  20. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  1. Oral Zinc Supplementation Reduces the Erythropoietin Responsiveness Index in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kobayashi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hemodialysis (HD patients, zinc depletion caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption, and removal by HD treatment leads to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA hyporesponsiveness. This study investigated the effects of zinc supplementation in HD patients with zinc deficiency on changes in the erythropoietin responsiveness index (ERI. Methods: Patients on HD with low serum zinc levels (<65 μg/dL were randomly assigned to two groups: The polaprezinc group (who received daily polaprezinc, containing 34 mg/day of zinc (n = 35 and the control group (no supplementation (n = 35 for 12 months. All the 70 patients had been taking epoetin alpha as treatment for renal anemia. ERI was measured with the following equation: Weekly ESA dose (units/dry weight (kg/hemoglobin (g/dL. Results: There were no significant changes in hemoglobin levels within groups or between the control and polaprezinc groups during the study period. Although reticulocyte counts were increased immediately after zinc supplementation, this change was transient. Serum zinc levels were significantly increased and serum copper levels were significantly decreased in the polaprezinc group after three months; this persisted throughout the study period. Although there was no significant change in the serum iron or transferrin saturation levels in the polaprezinc group during the study period, serum ferritin levels significantly decreased following polaprezinc treatment. Further, in the polaprezinc group, ESA dosage and ERI were significantly decreased at 10 months and nine months, respectively, as compared with the baseline value. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that the change in the serum zinc level was an independent predictor of lowered ERI. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation reduces ERI in patients undergoing HD and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with renal anemia and low serum zinc levels.

  2. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  3. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Zininga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  4. Mining the O-glycoproteome using zinc-finger nuclease-glycoengineered SimpleCell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Vester-Christensen, Malene B

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) gene targeting is emerging as a versatile tool for engineering of multiallelic gene deficiencies. A longstanding obstacle for detailed analysis of glycoproteomes has been the extensive heterogeneities in glycan structures and attachment sites. Here we applied ZFN target...

  5. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  6. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D.; Suschek, Christoph V.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation. PMID:25180171

  7. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  8. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  9. Zinc Homeostasis at the Bacteria/Host Interface-From Coordination Chemistry to Nutritional Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wątły, Joanna; Potocki, Sławomir; Rowińska-Żyrek, Magdalena

    2016-11-02

    Zinc is one of the most important metal nutrients for species from all kingdoms, being a key structural or catalytic component of hundreds of enzymes, crucial for the survival of both pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts. This work is an overview of the homeostasis of zinc in bacteria and humans. It explains the importance of this metal nutrient for pathogens, describes the roles of zinc sensors, regulators, and transporters, and summarizes various uptake systems and different proteins involved in zinc homeostasis-both those used for storage, buffering, and signaling inside the cell and those excreted in order to obtain Zn II from the host. The human zinc-dependent immune system response is explained, with a special focus given to 'zinc nutritional immunity', a process that describes the competition between the bacteria or fungus and the host for this metal, during which both the pathogen and host make huge efforts to control zinc availability. This sophisticated tug of war over Zn II might be considered as a possible target for novel antibacterial therapies. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  11. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues. [Proton induced x-ray emission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, S B; Jones, K W; Kraner, H W; Shroy, R E; Hanson, A L

    1980-06-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port was used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage.

  12. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  13. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  14. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point...

  15. Zinc Improves Cognitive and Neuronal Dysfunction During Aluminium-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2017-01-01

    Metals are considered as important components of a physiologically active cell, and imbalance in their levels can lead to various diseased conditions. Aluminium (Al) is an environmental neurotoxicant, which is etiologically related to several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's, whereas zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that regulates a large number of metabolic processes in the brain. The objective of the present study was to understand whether Zn provides any physiological protection during Al-induced neurodegeneration. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 140-160 g received either aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) orally (100 mg/kg b.wt./day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) in drinking water (227 mg/L) or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Al treatment resulted in a significant decline in the cognitive behaviour of rats, whereas zinc supplementation caused an improvement in various neurobehavior parameters. Further, Al exposure decreased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity, but increased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of L-citrulline as well as activities of nitric oxide and monoamine oxidase in the brain. However, zinc administration to Al-treated animals increased the levels of neurotransmitters and regulated the altered activities of brain markers. Western blot of tau, amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin, α-synuclein and Hsp 70 were also found to be elevated after Al exposure, which however were reversed following Zn treatment. Al treatment also revealed alterations in neurohistoarchitecture in the form of loss of pyramidal and Purkinje cells, which were improved upon zinc co-administration. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that zinc improves cognitive functions by regulating α-synuclein and APP-mediated molecular pathways during aluminium-induced neurodegeneration.

  16. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  17. New mechanical chemical equilibrium in the copper-zinc alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianez, M.J; Criado, J.M; Donoso, E; Diaz, G

    2006-01-01

    A series of copper zinc alloys have been synthesized in the entire composition range Cu10Zn to Cu70Zn respectively, by mechanical alloying at room temperature in a planetary high-energy mill. A mechanism is proposed for the mechanical alloying reaction of the copper and zinc. It is made clear that the mechanical treatment considerably extends the range of composition of the α phase up to a content of 41% zinc, instead of the 36% accepted by the conventional phase diagrams. Exact determinations of the phase α reticular parameter were carried out as a function of its composition which can be used to determine the zinc content of the brass α. The results show that a brass phase α may be obtained containing 49% zinc in samples that include a mixture of phases α and β' after reaching stationary state as a function of the milling time. The stability field of phases β' and γ also displace noticeably higher values than those expected from the conventional binary Cu-Zn diagram. This behavior has been explained as a function of the nanometric texture generated by the milling (CW)

  18. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the annelid Enchytraeus crypticus in agar-based exposure media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdá, K.; Opršál, J.; Knotek, P.; Pouzar, M.; Vlček, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 11 (2016), s. 1512-1520 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : terrestrial ecotocicity test * zinc ocide nanoparticles * potworm Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  19. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  20. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  1. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  2. Imaging of Hsp70-positive tumors with cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrmann MK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathias K Gehrmann,1 Melanie A Kimm,2 Stefan Stangl,1 Thomas E Schmid,1 Peter B Noël,2 Ernst J Rummeny,2 Gabriele Multhoff11Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Real-time imaging of small tumors is still one of the challenges in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of clinical outcome. Targeting novel biomarkers that are selectively expressed on a large variety of different tumors but not normal cells has the potential to improve the imaging capacity of existing methods such as computed tomography. Herein, we present a novel technique using cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibody-conjugated spherical gold nanoparticles for quantification of the targeted uptake of gold nanoparticles into membrane Hsp70-positive tumor cells. Upon binding, cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles but not nanoparticles coupled to an isotype-matched IgG1 antibody or empty nanoparticles are rapidly taken up by highly malignant Hsp70 membrane-positive mouse tumor cells. After 24 hours, the cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles are found to be enriched in the perinuclear region. Specificity for membrane Hsp70 was shown by using an Hsp70 knockout tumor cell system. Toxic side effects of the cmHsp70.1-conjugated nanoparticles are not observed at a concentration of 1–10 µg/mL. Experiments are ongoing to evaluate whether cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles are suitable for the detection of membrane-Hsp70-positive tumors in vivo.Keywords: heat shock protein 70, tumor biomarker, theranostics, multimodal CT, multispectral CT, k-edge

  3. Remediation of arsenic and lead with nanocrystalline zinc sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquette, Alan; Cannon, Cody; Apblett, Allen W

    2012-07-27

    Nanocrystalline (1.7 ± 0.3 nm) zinc sulfide with a specific surface area up to 360 m(2) g(-1) was prepared from the thermal decomposition of a single-source precursor, zinc ethylxanthate. Zinc ethylxanthate decomposes to cubic zinc sulfide upon exposure to temperatures greater than or equal to 125 °C. The resulting zinc sulfide was tested as a water impurity extractant. The target impurities used in this study were As(5+), As(3+), and Pb(2+). The reaction of the nanocrystalline ZnS with Pb(2+) proceeds as a replacement reaction where solid PbS is formed and Zn(2+) is released into the aqueous system. Removal of lead to a level of less than two parts per billion is achievable. The results of a detailed kinetics experiment between the ZnS and Pb(2+) are included in this study. Unlike the instance of lead, both As(5+) and As(3+) adsorb on the surface of the ZnS extractant as opposed to an ion-exchange process. An uptake capacity of > 25 mg g(-1) for the removal of As(5+) is possible. The uptake of As(3+) appears to proceed by a slower process than that of the As(5+) with a capacity of nearly 20 mg g(-1). The nanocrystalline zinc sulfide was extremely successful for the removal of arsenic and lead from simulated oil sand tailing pond water.

  4. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO by inducible NO synthase (iNOS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation.

  5. PREPARATION OF ZINC ENRICHED YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE BY CULTIVATION WITH DIFFERENT ZINC SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best known microorganism and therefore widely used in many branches of industry. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of three inorganic zinc salts. Our research presents the ability of this yeast to absorb zinc from liquid medium and such enriched biomass use as a potential source of microelements in animal and/or human nutrition. It was found that the addition of different zinc forms, i.e. zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate and zinc chloride in fixed concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.100 ml-1 did not affect the amount of dry yeast biomass yielded, i.e. 1.0 – 1.2 g of yeast cells from 100 ml of cultivation medium, while higher presence of zinc solutions caused significantly lower yield of yeast biomass. The highest amount of zinc in yeast cells was achieved when added in the form of zinc nitrate in concentration of 200 mg.100 ml-1 YPD medium. The increment of intracellular zinc was up to 18.5 mg.g-1 of yeast biomass.

  6. Cytosolic labile zinc: a marker for apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yong; Hwang, Jung Jin; Park, Mi-Ha; Koh, Jae-Young

    2006-01-01

    Cytosolic zinc accumulation was thought to occur specifically in neuronal death (necrosis) following acute injury. However, a recent study demonstrated that zinc accumulation also occurs in adult rat neurons undergoing apoptosis following target ablation, and in vitro experiments have shown that zinc accumulation may play a causal role in various forms of apoptosis. Here, we examined whether intraneuronal zinc accumulation occurs in central neurons undergoing apoptosis during development. Embryonic and newborn Sprague-Dawley rat brains were double-stained for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) detection of apoptosis and immunohistochemical detection of stage-specific neuronal markers, such as nestin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TuJ1 and neuronal nuclear specific protein (NeuN). The results revealed that apoptotic cell death occurred in neurons of diverse stages (neural stem cells, and dividing, young and adult neurons) throughout the brain during the embryonic and early postnatal periods. Further staining of brain sections with acid fuchsin or zinc-specific fluorescent dyes showed that all of the apoptotic neurons were acidophilic and contained labile zinc in their cell bodies. Cytosolic zinc accumulation was also observed in cultured cortical neurons undergoing staurosporine- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis. In contrast, zinc chelation with CaEDTA or N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced SNP-induced apoptosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis, indicating that cytosolic zinc accumulation does not play a causal role in all forms of apoptosis. Finally, the specific cytosolic zinc accumulation may have a practical application as a relatively simple marker for neurons undergoing developmental apoptosis.

  7. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  8. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  9. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  10. Patterned transparent zinc oxide films produced by sol-gel embossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J.; Koh, L.H.K.; Crean, G.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Microelectronic Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Brien, S. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Winfield, R.J.

    2008-08-15

    A low cost zinc oxide embossing technique is reported as a method of fabricating structures relevant to a variety of applications. A zinc based sol-gel material was prepared from zinc acetate[Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}], monoethanolamine[H{sub 2}NC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH] and isopropanol. The sol-gel was cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould a track design, placed in contact with the substrate and dried under vacuum at 70 C for 3 hours. The formed track pattern was further densified to provide a stable conductor film that retained the embossed shape. An optimum Zn sol-gel content of 0.6 M was identified. The embossed films had a transparency of greater than 83% in the visible region. The optical bandgap energy was evaluated to be 3.306 eV. The influence of ZnO sol-gel film synthesis and embossing parameters on the microstructure, morphology and optical transparency of fabricated structures is described. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  13. Design, construction, and analysis of specific zinc finger nucleases for microphthalmia - associate transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the design, construction, and cleavage analysis of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that could cut the specific sequences within microphthalmia - associate transcription factor (mitfa of zebra fish. The target site and ZFPs were selected and designed with zinc finger tools, while the ZFPs were synthesized using DNAWorks and two-step PCR. The ZFNs were constructed, expressed, purified, and analyzed in vitro. As expected, the designed ZFNs could create a double-stand break (DSB at the target site in vitro. The DNAWorks, two-step PCR, and an optimized process of protein expression were firstly induced in the construction of ZFNs successfully, which was an effective and simplified protocol. These results could be useful for further application of ZFNs - mediated gene targeting.

  14. Neodymium conversion layers formed on zinc powder for improving electrochemical properties of zinc electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Zhang Hui; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong

    2008-01-01

    Zinc powder, as active material of secondary alkaline zinc electrode, can greatly limit the performance of zinc electrode due to corrosion and dendritic growth of zinc resulting in great capacity-loss and short cycle life of the electrode. This work is devoted to modification study of zinc powder with neodymium conversion films coated directly onto it using ultrasonic immersion method for properties improvement of zinc electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and other characterization techniques are applied to prove that neodymium conversion layers are distributing on the surface of modified zinc powder. The electrochemical performance of zinc electrodes made of such modified zinc powder is investigated through potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The neodymium conversion films are found to have a significant effect on inhibition corrosion capability of zinc electrode in a beneficial way. It is also confirmed that the neodymium conversion coatings can obviously suppress dendritic growth of zinc electrode, which is attributed to the amelioration of deposition state of zinc. Moreover, the results of cyclic voltammetry reveal that surface modification of zinc powder enhances the cycle performance of the electrode mainly because the neodymium conversion films decrease the amounts of ZnO or Zn(OH) 2 dissolved in the electrolyte

  15. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  16. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  17. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  18. Development of annular targets for 99MO production-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.; Lewandowski, E. F.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Liberatore, M. W.; Walker, D. E.; Wiencek, T. C.; McGann, D. J.; Hofman, G. L.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-01-01

    The new annular target performed well during irradiation. The target is inexpensive and provides good heat transfer during irradiation. Based on these and previous tests, we conclude that targets with zirconium tubes and either nickel-plated or zinc-plated foils work well. We proved that we could use aluminum target tubes, which are much cheaper and easier to work with than the zirconium tubes. In aluminum target tubes nickel-plated fission-recoil barriers work well and prevent bonding of the foil to the new target tubes during irradiation. Also, zinc-plated and aluminum-foil barriers appear promising in anodized aluminum tubes. Additional tests are anticipated to address such issues as fission-recoil barrier thickness and uranium foil composition. Overall, however, the target was successful and will provide an inexpensive, efficient way to irradiate LEU metal foil for the production of 99 Mo

  19. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-e...

  20. Efficient methods for targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish using zinc-finger nucleases: data from targeting of nine genes using CompoZr or CoDA ZFNs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Sood

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that targeted mutagenesis using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs can be used to generate knockout zebrafish lines for analysis of their function and/or developing disease models. A number of different methods have been developed for the design and assembly of gene-specific ZFNs and TALENs, making them easily available to most zebrafish researchers. Regardless of the choice of targeting nuclease, the process of generating mutant fish is similar. It is a time-consuming and multi-step process that can benefit significantly from development of efficient high throughput methods. In this study, we used ZFNs assembled through either the CompoZr (Sigma-Aldrich or the CoDA (context-dependent assembly platforms to generate mutant zebrafish for nine genes. We report our improved high throughput methods for 1 evaluation of ZFNs activity by somatic lesion analysis using colony PCR, eliminating the need for plasmid DNA extractions from a large number of clones, and 2 a sensitive founder screening strategy using fluorescent PCR with PIG-tailed primers that eliminates the stutter bands and accurately identifies even single nucleotide insertions and deletions. Using these protocols, we have generated multiple mutant alleles for seven genes, five of which were targeted with CompoZr ZFNs and two with CoDA ZFNs. Our data also revealed that at least five-fold higher mRNA dose was required to achieve mutagenesis with CoDA ZFNs than with CompoZr ZFNs, and their somatic lesion frequency was lower (<5% when compared to CopmoZr ZFNs (9-98%. This work provides high throughput protocols for efficient generation of zebrafish mutants using ZFNs and TALENs.

  1. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  2. Apigenin induces apoptosis by targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and Ku70–Bax interaction in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Fu, Pingfu; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the apoptotic pathway in prostate cancer cells confers apoptosis resistance towards various therapies. A novel strategy to overcome resistance is to directly target the apoptotic pathway in cancer cells. Apigenin, an anticancer agent, selectively toxic to cancer cells induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mechanisms which are not fully explored. In the present study we provide novel insight into the mechanisms of apoptosis induction by apigenin. Treatment of androgen-refractory human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells with apigenin resulted in dose-dependent suppression of XIAP, c-IAP1, c-IAP2 and survivin protein levels. Apigenin treatment resulted in significant decrease in cell viability and apoptosis induction with the increase of cytochrome C in time-dependent manner. These effects of apigenin were accompanied by decrease in Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 and increase in the active form of Bax protein. The apigenin-mediated increase in Bax was due to dissociation of Bax from Ku70 which is essential for apoptotic activity of Bax. Apigenin treatment resulted in the inhibition of class I histone deacetylases and HDAC1 protein expression, thereby increasing the acetylation of Ku70 and the dissociation of Bax resulting in apoptosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, apigenin significantly reduced HDAC1 occupancy at the XIAP promoter, suggesting that histone deacetylation might be critical for XIAP downregulation. These results suggest that apigenin targets inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and Ku70–Bax interaction in the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and in athymic nude mouse xenograft model endorsing its in vivo efficacy. PMID:24563225

  3. Influence of soil zinc concentrations on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) is based on the phenomenon that toxic effects reduce survival of the most sensitive organisms, thus increasing community tolerance. Community tolerance for a contaminant is thus a strong indicator for the presence of that contaminant at the level of adverse concentrations. Here we assessed PICT in 11 soils contaminated with zinc runoff from galvanised electricity pylons and 11 reference soils sampled at 10 m distance from these pylons. Using PICT, the influence of background concentration and bioavailability of zinc on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities was assessed. Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities decreased significantly with increasing zinc concentrations in pore water and calcium chloride extracted fraction while no significant relationship was found with total zinc concentration in the soil. It was also found that functional diversity of microbial communities decreased with increasing zinc concentrations, indicating that increased tolerance is indeed an undesirable phenomenon when environmental quality is considered. The hypothesis that zinc sensitivity of microbial communities is related to background zinc concentration in pore water could not be confirmed. - Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease with increasing zinc concentration in the pore water

  4. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc carbonate and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Marashianpour, Zahra; Karimi, Meisam Sadeghpour; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide and its precursor i.e., zinc carbonate is widely utilized in various fields of industry, especially in solar energy conversion, optical, and inorganic pigments. In this work, a facile and clean electrodeposition method was utilized for the synthesis of zinc carbonate nanoparticles. Also, zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced by calcination of the prepared zinc carbonate powder. Zinc carbonate nanoparticles with different sizes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate as anode in the solution of sodium carbonate. It was found that the particle size of zinc carbonate might be tuned by process parameters, i.e., electrolysis voltage, carbonate ion concentration, solvent composition and stirring rate of the electrolyte solution. An orthogonal array design was utilized to identify the optimum experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the minimum size of the electrodeposited ZnCO3 particles is about 24 nm whereas the maximum particle size is around 40 nm. The TG-DSC studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation of ZnCO3 occurs in two steps over the temperature ranges of 150-250 and 350-400 °C. The electrosynthesized ZnCO3 nanoparticles were calcined at the temperature of 600 °C to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared ZnCO3 and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR techniques.

  5. Correlation of drinking water nutritional element levels with body composition of women aged 55-70 years living in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing interest in cellular targets of nutritional minerals and biochemical mechanisms has attracted the attentions of researchers towards their role in formation of obesity. However, there is no study investigating the effects of nutritional element levels of drinking water on body composition of the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of nutritional element levels in drinking water on body composition of women aged 55-70. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 participants in total, and was divided into three groups as overweight, obese and control women aged between 55-70. The bioelectric impedance device was used for measurements of body composition of the participants. Iron (Fe, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and selenium (Se levels of drinking water were measured via plasma mass spectrometry coupled inductively. Results: It was found that Se mineral content in drinking water correlated with the body mass index of the individuals living in Batman, Turkey. Moreover, it was found that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Se levels of drinking water significantly correlated with the abdominal adiposity of women of 55-70. Conclusion: It may be suggested that the obesity risk may be higher in women who are between 55-70 and consume drinking water with high levels of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and especially Se.

  6. Zinc-finger proteins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandri, Matteo; Smirnov, Artem; Novelli, Flavia; Pitolli, Consuelo; Agostini, Massimiliano; Malewicz, Michal; Melino, Gerry; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are one of the most abundant groups of proteins and have a wide range of molecular functions. Given the wide variety of zinc-finger domains, ZNFs are able to interact with DNA, RNA, PAR (poly-ADP-ribose) and other proteins. Thus, ZNFs are involved in the regulation of several cellular processes. In fact, ZNFs are implicated in transcriptional regulation, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, signal transduction, actin targeting, DNA repair, cell migration, and numerous other processes. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge of this class of proteins. Firstly, we describe the actual classification of ZNFs, their structure and functions. Secondly, we focus on the biological role of ZNFs in the development of organisms under normal physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. The relative efficiency of zinc carriers on growth and zinc nutrition of corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.; Sinha, K.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of different zinc carriers showed that application of Zn-DTPA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-fulvate and ZnSO 4 significantly increased the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn over the control treatment where no zinc was applied. The chelates in particular enhanced to a greater extent the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as the zinc carrier. Both the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn showed a positive and significant relationship with self-diffusion coefficient of zinc showing thereby that diffusion contributed mainly the supply of Zn from the ambient soil matrix to plant roots. The effectiveness of the chelates varied depending on their capacity to retain Zn in a soluble form in the soil solution. It is evident that zinc nutrition of plants in alkaline and calcareous soils can be more effectively regulated by both synthetic and natural chelates or organic manures which contain substantial amount of complexed zinc. (orig.)

  8. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  11. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  12. Zinc Transporters, Mechanisms of Action and Therapeutic Utility: Implications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element that plays a vital role in maintaining many biological processes and cellular homeostasis. Dysfunctional zinc signaling is associated with a number of chronic disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Cellular homeostasis requires mechanisms that tightly control the uptake, storage, and distribution of zinc. This is achieved through the coordinated actions of zinc transporters and metallothioneins. Evidence on the role of these proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is now emerging. Zinc plays a key role in the synthesis, secretion and action of insulin in both physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, recent studies highlight zinc’s dynamic role as a “cellular second messenger” in the control of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. This suggests that zinc plays an unidentified role as a novel second messenger that augments insulin activity. This previously unexplored concept would raise a whole new area of research into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and introduce a new class of drug target with utility for diabetes pharmacotherapy.

  13. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  14. Novel mechanism of aberrant ZIP4 expression with zinc supplementation in oral tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Sho; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Nakashima, Dai; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Zrt-Irt-like protein 4 (ZIP4) is critical molecule for proper mammalian development and releasing zinc from vesicular compartments. Recent studies suggested that ZIP4 plays an important role of tumor progression in pancreatic, prostate, and hepatocellular cancers, however, little is known about the detail mechanism of ZIP4 in their cancers. In the present study, we examined the possibility of ZIP4 as a new molecular target for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We evaluated ZIP4 expression in OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCC samples by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also analyzed the clinical correlation between ZIP4 status and clinical behaviors in patients with OSCC. In addition, ZIP4 knockdown cells (shZIP4 cells) and ZnCl 2 treatment were used for functional experiments, including cellular proliferation assay, zinc uptake assay, and cell-cycle analysis. ZIP4 mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. IHC showed that ZIP4 expression in the primary OSCC was positively correlated with primary tumoral size. The shZIP4 cells showed decrease accumulation of intercellular zinc and decreased cellular growth by cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, resulting from up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and down-regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Since cellular growth of OSCC cells after treatment with zinc was significantly greater than control cells, we speculated that intercellular ZnCl 2 accumulation is an important factor for cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, not only decreased zinc uptake by ZIP4 knockdown but also chelating agent, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), showed inhibitory effects of cellular proliferation. Therefore, our data provide evidence for an essential role of ZIP4 and intracellular zinc for tumoral growth in OSCC, suggesting that zinc uptake might be a

  15. Styrene-maleic acid-copolymer conjugated zinc protoporphyrin as a candidate drug for tumor-targeted therapy and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Liao, Long; Yin, Hongzhuan; Eguchi, Kanami; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated the potential of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) as an antitumor agent targeting to the tumor survival factor heme oxygenase-1, and/or for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, to achieve tumor-targeted delivery, styrene-maleic acid-copolymer conjugated ZnPP (SMA-ZnPP) was synthesized via amide bond, which showed good water solubility, having ZnPP loading of 15%. More importantly, it forms micelles in aqueous solution with a mean particle size of 111.6 nm, whereas it has an apparent Mw of 65 kDa. This micelle formation was not detracted by serum albumin, suggesting it is stable in circulation. Further SMA-ZnPP conjugate will behave as an albumin complex in blood with much larger size (235 kDa) by virtue of the albumin binding property of SMA. Consequently, SMA-ZnPP conjugate exhibited prolonged circulating retention and preferential tumor accumulation by taking advantage of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Clear tumor imaging was thus achieved by detecting the fluorescence of ZnPP. In addition, the cytotoxicity and PDT effect of SMA-ZnPP conjugate was confirmed in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Light irradiation remarkably increased the cytotoxicity (IC50, from 33 to 5 μM). These findings may provide new options and knowledge for developing ZnPP based anticancer theranostic drugs.

  16. Evolution of the zinc compound nanostructures in zinc acetate single-source solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Li Yinhua; Zhou Zhengzhi; Zu Xihong; Deng Yulin

    2011-01-01

    A series of nanostructured zinc compounds with different nanostructures such as nanobelts, flake-like, flower-like, and twinning crystals was synthesized using zinc acetate (Zn(Ac) 2 ) as a single-source. The evolution of the zinc compounds from layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA) to bilayered basic zinc acetate (BLBZA) and twinned ZnO nano/microcrystal was studied. The low-angle X-ray diffraction spectra indicate the layered spacing is 1.34 and 2.1 nm for LBZA and BLBZA, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra results confirmed that the bonding force of acetate anion with zinc cations decreases with the phase transformation from Zn(Ac) 2 to BLBZA, and finally to LBZA. The OH − groups gradually replaced the acetate groups coordinated to the matrix zinc cation, and the acetate groups were released completely. Finally, the Zn(OH) 2 and ZnO were formed at high temperature. The conversion process from Zn(Ac) 2 to ZnO with release of acetate anions can be described as Zn(Ac) 2 → BLBZA → LBZA → Zn(OH) 2 → ZnO.

  17. Effects of dietary zinc status on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal zinc content in the El (epilepsy) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, M; Itoh, M

    1990-10-08

    The effects of dietary zinc status on the development of convulsive seizures, and zinc concentrations in discrete hippocampal areas and other parts of the limbic system were studied in the El mouse model receiving zinc-adequate, zinc-deficient or zinc-loaded diets. Seizure susceptibility of the El mouse was increased by zinc deficiency, and decreased by zinc loading, while an adequate diet had no effect. Zinc loading was accompanied by a marked increase in hippocampal zinc content in the El mouse. Conversely, hippocampal zinc content declined in the El mouse fed a zinc-deficient diet. These results suggest that zinc may have a preventive effect on the development of seizures in the El mouse, and hippocampal zinc may play an important role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures of epilepsy.

  18. Attenuation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by low micromolar concentrations of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Kanno, Shingo; Sakurada, Naomi; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2008-10-01

    The role of zinc in long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is controversial because of the contrary results obtained when using zinc chelators. On the basis of the postulation that exogenous zinc enhances the action of zinc released from mossy fibers, mossy fiber LTP after tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 1 sec) was checked in the presence of exogenous zinc at low micromolar concentrations. Mossy fiber LTP was significantly attenuated in the presence of 5-30 microM ZnCl(2), and the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials 60 min after tetanic stimulation was decreased to almost the basal level. Mossy fiber LTP was also attenuated in the presence of 5 microM ZnCl(2) 5 min after tetanic stimulation. The present study is the first to demonstrate that low micromolar concentrations of zinc attenuate mossy fiber LTP. When mossy fiber LTP was induced in the presence of CaEDTA and ZnAF-2 DA, a membrane-impermeable and a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, respectively, extracellular and intracellular chelation of zinc enhanced a transient posttetanic potentiation (PTP) without altering LTP. It is likely that zinc released by tetanic stimulation is immediately taken up into the mossy fibers and attenuates mossy fiber PTP. These results suggest that attenuation of PTP rather than LTP at mossy fiber synapses is a more physiological role for endogenous zinc. Targeting molecules of zinc in mossy fiber LTP seem to be different between during and after LTP induction because of the differential synaptic activity between them. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  20. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  1. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  2. Virtual screening and evaluation of Ketol-Acid Reducto-Isomerase (KARI as a putative drug target for Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morya Vivek K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aspergillus is a leading causative agent for fungal morbidity and mortality in immuno-compromised patients. To identify a putative target to design or identify new antifungal drug, against Aspergillus is required. In our previous work, we have analyzed the various biochemical pathways, and we found Ketol Acid Reducto-Isomerase (KARI an enzyme involves in the amino acid biosynthesis, could be a better target. This enzyme was found to be unique by comparing to host proteome through BLASTp analysis. A homology based model of KARI was generated by Swiss model server. The generated model had been validated by PROCHECK and WHAT IF programs. The Zinc library was generated within the limitation of the Lipinski rule of five, for docking study. Based on the dock-score six molecules have been studied for ADME/TOX analysis and subjected for pharmacophore model generation. The Zinc ID of the potential inhibitors is ZINC00720614, ZINC01068126, ZINC0923, ZINC02090678, ZINC00663057 and ZINC02284065 and found to be pharmacologically active agonist and antagonist of KARI. This study is an attempt to Insilco evaluation of the KARI as a drug target and the screened inhibitors could help in the development of the better drug against Aspergillus.

  3. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low levels of arsenite enhance UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. • UV-initiated HPRT mutation frequency is enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc supplementation offsets DNA damage and mutation frequency enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc-dependent reduction of arsenite enhanced DNA damage is confirmed in vivo.

  4. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  5. Seeking for Non-Zinc-Binding MMP-2 Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modelling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ammazzalorso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors. In the present work, simplified analogues of previously-identified hits have been synthesized and tested in enzyme inhibition assays. Docking and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to rationalize the activity data.

  6. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Katsarakis, N.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering from pure metallic Zn and ceramic ZnO targets, as well as from Al-doped metallic ZnAl2at.% and ceramic ZnAl2at.%O targets at room temperature (RT). The effects of target composition on the film's surface topology, crystallinity, and optical transmission have been investigated for various oxygen partial pressures in the sputtering atmosphere. It has been shown that Al-doped ZnO films sputtered from either metallic or ceramic targets exhibit different surface morphology than the undoped ZnO films, while their preferential crystalline growth orientation revealed by X-ray diffraction remains always the (002). More significantly, Al-doping leads to a larger increase of the optical transmission and energy gap (E g ) of the metallic than of the ceramic target prepared films

  8. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  10. Effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor proliferation in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Elise C; Morris, Deborah R; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Brownstein, Naomi C; Levenson, Cathy W

    2016-05-01

    There is great deal of debate about the possible role of adult-born hippocampal cells in the prevention of depression and related mood disorders. We first showed that zinc supplementation prevents the development of the depression-like behavior anhedonia associated with an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This work then examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the proliferation of new cells in the hippocampus that have the potential to participate in neurogenesis. Rats were fed a zinc adequate (ZA, 30ppm) or zinc supplemented (ZS, 180ppm) diet for 4wk followed by TBI using controlled cortical impact. Stereological counts of EdU-positive cells showed that TBI doubled the density of proliferating cells 24h post-injury (pprecursor cells in the hippocampus was robust, use of targeted irradiation to eliminate these cells after zinc supplementation and TBI revealed that these cells are not the sole mechanism through which zinc acts to prevent depression associated with brain injury, and suggest that other zinc dependent mechanisms are needed for the anti-depressant effect of zinc in this model of TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of Specifications for Zinc-Rich Paints,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    inspected in 1976, the repair inorganic zinc was in very poor condition due to extensive " chicken pox " rusting. The original red lead alkyd and basic...Nebraska H-186 New Hampshire H-188 New Jersey H-189 /y’/9 7’ 𔃼 New Mexico H(-216.0 North Carolina H-217 North Dakota l1- 246 Ohio H-247 Oklahoma H-254...8217l.% 2. Olharfing I r A1 1 1e a £I )II d To be separately packaged in multiples of 0 54 pound of pox der per M . Cnpost vehicle. One 2.70 pound

  12. Sulfidation of zinc plating sludge with Na2S for zinc resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, D.; Fukuta, T.; Onyango, M.S.; Matsuda, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high amount of zinc disposed in the landfill sites as a mixed-metal plating sludge represents a valuable zinc source. To recover zinc from the plating sludge, a sulfidation treatment is proposed in this study, while it is assumed that ZnS formed could be separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was conducted by contacting simulated zinc plating sludge with Na 2 S solution at S 2- to Zn 2+ molar ratio of 1.5 for a period of 1-48 h, while changing the solid to liquid (S:L) ratio from 0.25:50 to 1.00:50. The conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS was determined based on the consumption of sulfide ions. The reaction products formed by the sulfidation of zinc were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was found that the conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS increased with an increase in S:L ratio. A maximum conversion of 0.809 was obtained at an S:L ratio of 1.00:50 after 48 h. However, when the zinc sludge treated at S:L ratio of 1.00:50 for 48 h was subjected to XRD analyses, only ZnS was identified in the treated zinc sludge. The result suggested that the rest of zinc sludge remained unreacted inside the agglomerates of ZnS. The formation behavior of ZnS was predicted by Elovich equation, which was found to describe the system satisfactorily indicating the heterogeneous nature of the sludge

  13. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  14. The DNLZ/HEP zinc-binding subdomain is critical for regulation of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPA9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T; Zhai, Peng; Lee, Juhye; Guerra, Cecilia; Liu, Shirley; Gustin, Michael C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2012-02-01

    Human mitochondrial DNLZ/HEP regulates the catalytic activity and solubility of the mitochondrial hsp70 chaperone HSPA9. Here, we investigate the role that the DNLZ zinc-binding and C-terminal subdomains play in regulating HSPA9. We show that truncations lacking portions of the zinc-binding subdomain (ZBS) do not affect the solubility of HSPA9 or its ATPase domain, whereas those containing the ZBS and at least 10 residues following this subdomain enhance chaperone solubility. Binding measurements further show that DNLZ requires its ZBS to form a stable complex with the HSPA9 ATPase domain, and ATP hydrolysis measurements reveal that the ZBS is critical for full stimulation of HSPA9 catalytic activity. We also examined if DNLZ is active in vivo. We found that DNLZ partially complements the growth of Δzim17 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we discovered that a Zim17 truncation lacking a majority of the C-terminal subdomain strongly complements growth like full-length Zim17. These findings provide direct evidence that human DNLZ is a functional ortholog of Zim17. In addition, they implicate the pair of antiparallel β-strands that coordinate zinc in Zim17/DNLZ-type proteins as critical for binding and regulating hsp70 chaperones. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  15. Differential sensitivities of cellular XPA and PARP-1 to arsenite inhibition and zinc rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L; Huestis, Juliana; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2017-09-15

    Arsenite directly binds to the zinc finger domains of the DNA repair protein poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and inhibits PARP-1 activity in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. PARP inhibition by arsenite enhances ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes, and the increase in DNA damage is reduced by zinc supplementation. However, little is known about the effects of arsenite and zinc on the zinc finger nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). In this study, we investigated the difference in response to arsenite exposure between XPA and PARP-1, and the differential effectiveness of zinc supplementation in restoring protein DNA binding and DNA damage repair. Arsenite targeted both XPA and PARP-1 in human keratinocytes, resulting in zinc loss from each protein and a pronounced decrease in XPA and PARP-1 binding to chromatin as demonstrated by Chip-on-Western assays. Zinc effectively restored DNA binding of PARP-1 and XPA to chromatin when zinc concentrations were equal to those of arsenite. In contrast, zinc was more effective in rescuing arsenite-augmented direct UVR-induced DNA damage than oxidative DNA damage. Taken together, our findings indicate that arsenite interferes with PARP-1 and XPA binding to chromatin, and that zinc supplementation fully restores DNA binding activity to both proteins in the cellular context. Interestingly, rescue of arsenite-inhibited DNA damage repair by supplemental zinc was more sensitive for DNA damage repaired by the XPA-associated NER pathway than for the PARP-1-dependent BER pathway. This study expands our understanding of arsenite's role in DNA repair inhibition and co-carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron and zinc concentrations and 59Fe retention in developing fetuses of zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.M.; Loennerdal, B.H.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Because disturbances in iron metabolism might contribute to the teratogenicity of zinc deficiency, we examined the effect of zinc deficiency on fetal iron accumulation and maternal and fetal retention of 59 Fe. Pregnant rats were fed from mating a purified diet containing 0.5, 4.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g. Laparotomies were performed on d 12, 16, 19 and 21 of gestation. Maternal blood and concepti were analyzed for zinc and iron. Additional groups of dams fed 0.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g diet were gavaged on d 19 with a diet containing 59 Fe. Six hours later maternal blood and tissues, fetuses and placentas were counted for 59 Fe. Maternal plasma zinc, but not iron, concentration was affected by zinc deficiency on d 12. Embryo zinc concentration on d 12 increased with increasing maternal dietary zinc, whereas iron concentration was not different among groups. On d 16-21 plasma iron was higher in dams fed 0.5 micrograms Zn/g diet than in those fed 4.5 or 100 micrograms/g, whereas plasma zinc was lower in dams fed 0.5 or 4.5 micrograms Zn/g than in those fed 100 micrograms Zn/g diet. On d 19 zinc concentration in fetuses from dams fed 0.5 micrograms/g zinc was not different from that of those fed 4.5 micrograms/g zinc, and iron concentration was higher in the 0.5 microgram Zn/g diet group. The increase in iron concentration in zinc-deficient fetuses thus occurs too late to be involved in major structural teratogenesis. Although whole blood concentration of 59 Fe was not different in zinc-deficient and control dams, zinc-deficient dams had more 59 Fe in the plasma fraction

  17. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  18. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  19. Direct separation of 67Ga citrate from zinc and copper target materials by an ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azony, K.M.; Ferieg, Kh.; Saleh, Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The separation of 6 7G a from zinc and copper target materials using an anion- f:exchanger (Dowex21K) and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 6 is described. The gallium-67 was separated in citrate solution and can be directly used for medical applications. Gallium-67 with a half-life of 78.3 h and gamma-rays with energies of 93, 185 and 300 keV is a cyclotron produced radioisotope for which a considerable demand exists. 6 7G a is frequently produced through proton or deuteron bombardment of natural or enriched Zn targets (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973). It is usually separated from Zn by ion exchange chromatography (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; van der Walt and Strelow, 1983) or by liquid extraction Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; Hupf and Beaver, 1970). The isotope is usually supplied in citrate solution which is widely used as 6 7G a Gallium citrate which is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for imaging soft tissue tumors and abscesses. Several routes for large scale production of 6 7G a and the development of medical applications have been reported (Silvester and Thakur, 1970; Dahl and Tilbury, 1972; Steyn and Meyer,1973; Vlatkovic et al., 1975; Neirinckx, 1976; Thakur, 1977). Various attempts were carried out to separate gallium-67 by using different ion exchange methods (Strelow et al., 1971; Das and Ramamoorthy, 1995; Boothe et al.,1991) through the labelling of citrate by using 6 7G a was carried out for medical applications

  20. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  1. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  2. Zinc and zinc transporters in macrophages and their roles in efferocytosis in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Hamon

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2

  3. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Walle, J; Behrens, T; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Delahaye, P; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V; Fraile, L M; Franchoo, S; Gernhäuser, R; Georgiev, G; Habs, D; Heyde, K; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Ibrahim, F; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Jolie, J; Kester, O; Köster, U; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Lauer, M; Lisetskiy, A F; Lutter, R; Marsh, B A; Mayet, P; Niedermaier, O; Pantea, M; Raabe, R; Reiter, P; Sawicka, M; Scheit, H; Schrieder, G; Schwalm, D; Seliverstov, M D; Sieber, T; Sletten, G; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M; Stefanescu, I; Thomas, J C; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Van Duppen, P; Verney, D; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Wolf, B H; Zielinska, M

    2009-01-01

    At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,20) values in 74-80Zn, B(E2,42) values in 74,76Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2 states in 78,80Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of 238U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondary target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, i...

  4. Mobile trap algorithm for zinc detection using protein sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamdar, Munish V.; Lastoskie, Christian M.; Fierke, Carol A.; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    We present a mobile trap algorithm to sense zinc ions using protein-based sensors such as carbonic anhydrase (CA). Zinc is an essential biometal required for mammalian cellular functions although its intracellular concentration is reported to be very low. Protein-based sensors like CA molecules are employed to sense rare species like zinc ions. In this study, the zinc ions are mobile targets, which are sought by the mobile traps in the form of sensors. Particle motions are modeled using random walk along with the first passage technique for efficient simulations. The association reaction between sensors and ions is incorporated using a probability (p 1 ) upon an ion-sensor collision. The dissociation reaction of an ion-bound CA molecule is modeled using a second, independent probability (p 2 ). The results of the algorithm are verified against the traditional simulation techniques (e.g., Gillespie's algorithm). This study demonstrates that individual sensor molecules can be characterized using the probability pair (p 1 ,p 2 ), which, in turn, is linked to the system level chemical kinetic constants, k on and k off . Further investigations of CA-Zn reaction using the mobile trap algorithm show that when the diffusivity of zinc ions approaches that of sensor molecules, the reaction data obtained using the static trap assumption differ from the reaction data obtained using the mobile trap formulation. This study also reveals similar behavior when the sensor molecule has higher dissociation constant. In both the cases, the reaction data obtained using the static trap formulation reach equilibrium at a higher number of complex molecules (ion-bound sensor molecules) compared to the reaction data from the mobile trap formulation. With practical limitations on the number sensors that can be inserted/expressed in a cell and stochastic nature of the intracellular ionic concentrations, fluorescence from the number of complex sensor molecules at equilibrium will be the measure

  5. MicroRNA-141 inhibits migration of gastric cancer by targeting zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ying; Wang, Lingfei; Wu, Honghai; Zhang, Yiyin; Wang, Kan; Wu, Dingting

    2015-09-01

    Human microRNA (miR)-141 is a member of the miR‑200 family, which has been reported to be downregulated in gastric cancer, and involved in the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. However, little is currently known regarding its role in the migration of gastric cancer. The present study investigated the function of miR‑141 in gastric cancer cell migration, and evaluated the contribution of zinc finger E‑box‑binding homeobox 1 and 2 (ZEB1/2) in miR‑141 mediated migration of gastric cancer cells. The expression levels of miR‑141 and its potential ZEB1/2 targets were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. The migration of SGC‑7901 and HGC‑27 gastric cancer cells, which had been transfected with an miRNA precursor, was examined by cell migration and wound healing assays. A luciferase activity assay was used to validate whether ZEB1/2 was a direct target of miR‑141. The results demonstrated that overexpression of miR‑141 markedly inhibited the migration of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Forced overexpression of miR‑141 significantly reduced the luciferase activity of the 3'‑untranslated region of ZEB2 in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ZEB2 were reduced in cells overexpressing miR‑141, whereas the protein expression levels of E‑cadherin were increased. In gastric tumor samples the expression levels of ZEB2 were inversely correlated with the expression of miR‑141. These results suggest that miR‑141 may be involved in the inhibition of gastric cancer cell migration, and that ZEB2 is a target gene of miR-141.

  6. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  7. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  8. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...... cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N',N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl...

  9. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  10. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  11. Chemical Approach to Biological Safety: Molecular-Level Control of an Integrated Zinc Finger Nuclease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Németh, Eszter; Asaka, Masamitsu N; Kato, Kohsuke

    2018-01-01

    circular dichroism spectroscopy, and nano-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. In situ intramolecular activation of the nuclease domain was observed, resulting in specific cleavage of DNA with moderate activity. This study represents a new approach to AN design through integrated nucleases consisting......Application of artificial nucleases (ANs) in genome editing is still hindered by their cytotoxicity related to off-target cleavages. This problem can be targeted by regulation of the nuclease domain. Here, we provide an experimental survey of computationally designed integrated zinc finger...... nucleases, constructed by linking the inactivated catalytic centre and the allosteric activator sequence of the colicin E7 nuclease domain to the two opposite termini of a zinc finger array. DNA specificity and metal binding were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, synchrotron radiation...

  12. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  13. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  14. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, D H; Kuizon, M D; Marero, L M; Mallillin, A C; Cruz, E M; Madriaga, J R [Department of Science and Technology, Manila (Philippines). Food and Nutrition Research Inst.

    1994-12-31

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, D.H.; Kuizon, M.D.; Marero, L.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Cruz, E.M.; Madriaga, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Evaluation of zinc toxicity in soils by means of the CaCl/sub 2/ method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, D; Koester, W

    1976-01-01

    Soils in the valleys of the rivers Innerste and Oker, north of the Harz mountains, are seriously contaminated by heavy metals. Above all high zinc contents cause severe plant damages. They are like injuries caused by air pollution in the environment of smelting-houses. Usually the heavy metal content of the soil is estimated by extraction with diluted acids, e.g., 0.43 N HNO/sub 3/. In this way nearly the whole zinc store is recorded. For an evaluation of the plant available zinc content we extracted contaminated soils with 0.025 N CaCl/sub 2/. This procedure records the influence of soil properties on the plant availability of the zinc like pH value and clay content. With 0.43 NHNO/sub 3/ 260-7500 ppM zinc were estimated. The maximum content of the CaCl/sub 2/ solution was 109 ppM. Cereals at stage of shooting contained 68-1210 ppM (DM), sugar beet leaves 72-812 ppM (DM). The CaCl/sub 2/ method brought about a closer relationship between soils and plants compared with the HNO/sub 3/ method. Beyond it these method permits the establishment of a preliminary toxicity limit which is supposed in the range of 1 ppM. The percent quota of Zn-CaCl/sub 2/ on Zn-HNO/sub 3/ as a measure of the zinc availability was closely related to the pH value of the soil. The relationship was closer the more soils with lower pH values were present, but there was an essential relationship even at pH levels above 7.0. In the environment of a smelting-house the zinc content of plants was closer related to Zn-HNO/sub 3/ compared with Zn-CaCl/sub 2/. In this case the zinc content of the plants was partly caused by the zinc pollution. But at increasing pH value of the soil even here the availability of the soil zinc decreased too. 33 references.

  17. Understanding the Contribution of Zinc Transporters in the Function of the Early Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho; Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-Aki

    2017-10-19

    More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review.

  18. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  19. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied 65 Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM 65 Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM 65 Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of 65 Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to 65 Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated 65 Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of 65 Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc

  20. Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc: A simple route to highly conducting high density targets for TCO thin-film fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, I.; Hilal, H. S.; Decourt, R.; Campet, G.; Pecquenard, B.

    2012-07-01

    Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc (ITZO) ceramics have been successfully prepared by direct sintering of the powders mixture at 1300 °C. This allowed us to easily fabricate large highly dense target suitable for sputtering transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, without using any cold or hot pressing techniques. Hence, the optimized ITZO ceramic reaches a high relative bulk density (˜ 92% of In2O3 theoretical density) and higher than the well-known indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) prepared under similar conditions. All X-ray diagrams obtained for ITZO ceramics confirms a bixbyte structure typical for In2O3 only. This indicates a higher solubility limit of Sn and Zn when they are co-doped into In2O3 forming a solid-solution. A very low value of electrical resistivity is obtained for [In2O3:Sn0.10]:Zn0.10 (1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm, lower than ITO counterpart) which could be fabricated to high dense ceramic target suing pressure-less sintering.

  1. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  2. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status is associated with the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Peer, P.G.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Franke, B.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the maternal and children's myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status in association with spina bifida risk. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-three mothers and 70 children with spina bifida and 102 control mothers and 85 control children were investigated. The

  4. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Li, E-mail: lili@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Guofan, E-mail: gfzhang@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  5. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  6. Effect of aluminum oxide doping on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of zinc oxide (AOZO) nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotus, A.F.; Kang, Y.C.; Walker, J.I.; Ramsier, R.D.; Chase, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanofibers doped with aluminum oxide were prepared by sol-gel processing and electrospinning techniques using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), zinc acetate and aluminum acetate as precursors. The resulting nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The nanofibers had diameters in the range of 60-150 nm. The incorporation of aluminum oxide resulted in a decrease in the crystallite sizes of the zinc oxide nanofibers. Aluminum oxide doped zinc oxide (AOZO) nanofibers exhibited lower bandgap energies compared to undoped zinc oxide nanofibers. However, as the aluminum content (Al/(Al + Zn) x 100%) was increased from 1.70 at.% to 3.20 at.% in the electrospinning solution, the bandgap energy increased resulting in lower conductivity. The electrical conductivity of the AOZO samples was found to depend on the amount of aluminum dopant in the matrix as reflected in the changes in oxidation state elucidated from XPS data. Electrospinning was found to be a productive, simple, and easy method for tuning the bandgap energy and conductivity of zinc oxide semiconducting nanofibers.

  7. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein: Two Decades of Molecular Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, Bandar Ali; Xu, Dakang; Williams, Bryan Raymond George

    2012-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein, also known as Zbtb16 or Zfp145, was first identified in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia, where a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21) resulted in a fusion with the RARA gene encoding retinoic acid receptor alpha. The wild-type Zbtb16 gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the POK (POZ and Krüppel) family of transcriptional repressors. In addition to nine Krüppel-type sequence-specific zinc fingers, which make it a member of the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein family, the PLZF protein contains an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and RD2 domain. PLZF has been shown to be involved in major developmental and biological processes, such as spermatogenesis, hind limb formation, hematopoiesis, and immune regulation. PLZF is localized mainly in the nucleus where it exerts its transcriptional repression function, and many post-translational modifications affect this ability and also have an impact on its cytoplasmic/nuclear dissociation. PLZF achieves its transcriptional regulation by binding to many secondary molecules to form large multi-protein complexes that bind to the regulatory elements in the promoter region of the target genes. These complexes are also capable of physically interacting with its target proteins. Recently, PLZF has become implicated in carcinogenesis as a tumor suppressor gene, since it regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis in many cell types. This review will examine the major advances in our knowledge of PLZF biological activities that augment its value as a therapeutic target, particularly in cancer and immunological diseases.

  8. Impact of anode substrates on electrodeposited zinc over cycling in zinc-anode rechargeable alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xia; Desai, Divyaraj; Yadav, Gautam G.; Turney, Damon E.; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Ag, Bi, Cu, Fe, Ni and Sn substrates on zinc deposition was evaluated over battery cycling by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of Bi, Cu, Ni, and Sn substrates on zinc electrodeposition during battery cycling was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behavior of each metal in 9 M KOH and the corrosion rates of zinc plated on each substrate were analyzed by Tafel extrapolation method from the potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the charge-transfer resistance (R_c_t) of zinc electrodeposition is lowest on Sn, Sn eventually corrodes on cycling in alkaline media. Use of Ni as a substrate causes zinc to deteriorate on account of rapid hydrogen evolution. Bi and Cu substrates are more suitable for use as current collectors in zinc-anode alkaline rechargeable batteries because of their low corrosion rate and compact zinc deposition over battery cycling.

  9. Immersion autometallography: histochemical in situ capturing of zinc ions in catalytic zinc-sulfur nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Bruhn, Mikkel; Søndergaard, Chris; Jensen, Dorete

    2004-12-01

    In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the "sulfide only immersion" was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old approach became obvious when Wenzel and co-workers presented their approach in connection with introduction by the Palmiter group of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). The Wenzel/Palmiter pictures are the first high-resolution, high-quality pictures taken from tissues in which free and loosely bound zinc ions have been captured in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals by immersion. The trick was to place formalin-fixed blocks of mouse brains in a solution containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% sodium sulfide, ingredients used for transcardial perfusion in the zinc-specific NeoTimm method. That the NeoTimm technique results in silver enhancement of zinc-sulfur nanocrystals has been proved by proton-induced X-ray multielement analyses (PIXE) and in vivo chelation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). The aims of the present study were (a) to make the immersion-based capturing of zinc ions in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals work directly on sections and slices of fixed brain tissue, (b) to work out protocols that ensure zinc specificity and optimal quality of the staining, (c) to apply "immersion autometallography" (iZnSAMG) to other tissues that contain zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, and (d) to make the immersion approach work on unfixed fresh tissue.

  10. Transient fluctuations of intracellular zinc ions in cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Maret, Wolfgang, E-mail: womaret@utmb.edu [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. When zinc becomes limited for cultured cells, DNA synthesis ceases and the cell cycle is arrested. The molecular mechanisms of actions of zinc are believed to involve changes in the availability of zinc(II) ions (Zn{sup 2+}). By employing a fluorescent Zn{sup 2+} probe, FluoZin-3 acetoxymethyl ester, intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations were measured in undifferentiated and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations are pico- to nanomolar in PC12 cells and are higher in the differentiated than in the undifferentiated cells. When following cellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations for 48 h after the removal of serum, a condition that is known to cause cell cycle arrest, Zn{sup 2+} concentrations decrease after 30 min but, remarkably, increase after 1 h, and then decrease again to about one half of the initial concentration. Cell proliferation, measured by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, decreases after both serum starvation and zinc chelation. Two peaks of Zn{sup 2+} concentrations occur within one cell cycle: one early in the G1 phase and the other in the late G1/S phase. Thus, fluctuations of intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations and established modulation of phosphorylation signaling, via an inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases at commensurately low Zn{sup 2+} concentrations, suggest a role for Zn{sup 2+} in the control of the cell cycle. Interventions targeted at these picomolar Zn{sup 2+} fluctuations may be a way of controlling cell growth in hyperplasia, neoplasia, and diseases associated with aberrant differentiation.

  11. Quantitative mapping of zinc fluxes in the mammalian egg reveals the origin of fertilization-induced zinc sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Emily L.; Bleher, Reiner; Duncan, Francesca E.; Kong, Betty Y.; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vogt, Stefan; Chen, Si; Garwin, Seth A.; Bayer, Amanda R.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; O' Halloran, Thomas V.

    2014-12-15

    Fertilization of a mammalian egg initiates a series of 'zinc sparks' that are necessary to induce the egg-to-embryo transition. Despite the importance of these zinc-efflux events little is known about their origin. To understand the molecular mechanism of the zinc spark we combined four physical approaches that resolve zinc distributions in single cells: a chemical probe for dynamic live-cell fluorescence imaging and a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional elemental tomography for high-resolution elemental mapping. We show that the zinc spark arises from a system of thousands of zinc-loaded vesicles, each of which contains, on average, 10(6) zinc atoms. These vesicles undergo dynamic movement during oocyte maturation and exocytosis at the time of fertilization. The discovery of these vesicles and the demonstration that zinc sparks originate from them provides a quantitative framework for understanding how zinc fluxes regulate cellular processes

  12. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa eBorrill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  13. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  14. Intracellular zinc flux causes reactive oxygen species mediated mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection. Zinc is crucial for cellular growth and disruption in its homeostasis hinders growth and survival in many cells. However, little is known about the role of zinc in Leishmania growth and survival. In this study, the effect of zinc on the growth and survival of L.donovani was analyzed by both Zinc-depletion and Zinc-supplementation using Zinc-specific chelator N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4. Treatment of parasites with TPEN rather than ZnSO4 had significantly affected the growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The pre-treatment of promastigotes with TPEN resulted into reduced host-parasite interaction as indicated by decreased association index. Zn depletion resulted into flux in intracellular labile Zn pool and increased in ROS generation correlated with decreased intracellular total thiol and retention of plasma membrane integrity without phosphatidylserine exposure in TPEN treated promastigotes. We also observed that TPEN-induced Zn depletion resulted into collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which is associated with increase in cytosolic calcium and cytochrome-c. DNA fragmentation analysis showed increased DNA fragments in Zn-depleted cells. In summary, intracellular Zn depletion in the L. donovani promastigotes led to ROS-mediated caspase-independent mitochondrial dysfunction resulting into apoptosis-like cell death

  15. Influence of usual zinc intake and zinc in a meal on 65Zn retention and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The influences of zinc in a meal and usual zinc intake on zinc retention and turnover were investigated in 7-wk-old male rats fed diets containing 12-151 mg Zn/kg for 3 wk before and after consuming a 65 Zn-labeled meal containing ZnCl 2 . Retention corrected to zero time and turnover rate were determined by whole-body counting. Percent zinc retention was inversely proportional to the natural logarithm of the meal zinc, between 0.09 and 26 mumol. In comparison to lower doses, higher doses resulted in lower percent retention but greater amounts of zinc retained. Although the latter relationship was slightly curvilinear, there was no indication of a limited capacity for zinc retention with high doses. However, doses above 4 mumol resulted in higher turnover rates in rats accustomed to lower zinc intakes. Percent retention and the reciprocal of the turnover rate were proportional to the reciprocal of the dietary zinc concentration. The greatest differences in retention and turnover occurred between 12 and 26 mg Zn/kg diet. The zinc dose in a meal and the usual dietary zinc separately influenced percent zinc retention. These factors also interacted, such that greater dose effects were observed at lower zinc intakes and greater dietary zinc effects were observed at lower doses

  16. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  17. Inhibition effects of protein-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ying; Wang Huajie; Cao Cui; Sun Yuanyuan; Yang Lin; Wang Baoqing; Zhou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a facile and environmentally friendly method was applied to fabricate BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the stable and well-dispersed nanoparticles with the diameter of 15.9 ± 2.1 nm were successfully prepared. The energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction measurements showed that the obtained nanoparticles had the amorphous structure and the coordination occurred between zinc sulfide surfaces and BSA in the nanoparticles. In addition, the inhibition effects of BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth were described in detail by cell viability analysis, optical and electron microscopy methods. The results showed that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles could inhibit the metabolism and proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.36 mg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles had the application potential as cytostatic agents and BSA in the nanoparticles could provide the modifiable site for the nanoparticles to improve their bioactivity or to endow them with the target function.

  18. The effect of zinc on the growth, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and thiol groups of the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filova, A.; Molnarova, M.

    2015-01-01

    In these experiments were studied the effects of zinc chloride (Zn 2+ ) on the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindak. The changes in the growth stimulation/inhibition, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and thiol groups were the aim of the article. The zinc concentration 0.036 mg.l -1 supported the algal growth. The first toxic effect of Zn on the growth was observed at the zinc concentration 0.072 mg.l -1 . However, the significant inhibitory effect on the growth was showed in the algal suspensions with 0.360 and 4.320 mg Zn.l -1 . Inhibition of the algal growth was in the range 65 - 70% compared to control (0% inhibition). The content of chlorophyll a was significant inhibited at the zinc concentration 0.0240 mg.l -1 , but at the higher used concentration was inhibited with the extremely significations. With increased zinc content in the algal medium the thiol (-SH) groups content increased and in the highest zinc concentrations (2.160 and 4.320 mg.l -1 ) overreached control three times. (authors)

  19. Parameters nanodimensional zinc films deposited by the laser method in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.K.; Gusakov, G.A.; Puzyrev, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the thickness and structure of a zinc films surface produced by the laser-plasma deposition has been carried out. The dependence of a film thickness and surface structure from laser radiation intensity has been determined. Threshold intensity has been determined when an evaporation of a target material begins. (authors)

  20. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  1. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd/A, was achieved. For comparison, 3.9 cd/A was achieved by the reference OLEDs fabricated on commercial indium-tin-oxide substrates

  2. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.The purpose of this article is to review theoretical aspects and research performed in Mexico suggesting the existence of marginal zinc deficiency in rural children and its consequences on health. Zinc is an indispensable nutrient for humans since it plays an important role in several metabolic pathways: it participates in the catalytic site of several enzymes, as a structural ion of biological membranes and is

  3. Gastroprotection studies of Schiff base zinc (II) derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hadi, A Hamid A; Majid, Nazia Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v), orally. Ethanol (95% v/v) was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10(-5) M/kg) was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II) complex (2.181×10(-5) and 4.362×10(-5) M/kg) protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10(-5) M/kg). The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism.

  4. Repletion of zinc in zinc-deficient cells strongly up-regulates IL-1β-induced IL-2 production in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Doha; Rosenkranz, Eva; Uciechowski, Peter; Rink, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    Mild zinc deficiency in humans negatively affects IL-2 production resulting in declined percentages of cytolytic T cells and decreased NK cell lytic activity, which enhances the susceptibility to infections and malignancies. T-cell activation is critically regulated by zinc and the normal physiological zinc level in T-cells slightly lies below the optimal concentration for T-cell functions. A further reduction in zinc level leads to T-cell dysfunction and autoreactivity, whereas high zinc concentrations (100 μM) were shown to inhibit interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced IL-1 receptor kinase (IRAK) activation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc regulates the IL-1β-induced IL-2 expression in T-cells. Zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells increased intracellular zinc levels by altering the expression of zinc transporters, particularly Zip10 and Zip12. A zinc signal was observed in the murine T-cell line EL-4 6.1 after 1 h of stimulation with IL-1β, measured by specific zinc sensors FluoZin-3 and ZinPyr-1. This signal is required for the phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and NF-κB subunit p65, which triggers the transcription of IL-2 and strongly increases its production. These results indicate that short-term zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells leads to a fast rise in zinc levels which subsequently enhance cytokine production. In conclusion, low and excessive zinc levels might be equally problematic for zinc-deficient subjects, and stabilized zinc levels seem to be essential to avoid negative concentration-dependent zinc effects on T-cell activation.

  5. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is closely connected with the process of the manufacturing of ZnO. The purity of the metal zinc has crucial influence on the quality of ZnO. ZnO can be produced by pyrometallurgical combustion of zinc and hard zinc. But this mentioned method of preparation leads to the creation of the enormous amount of waste including chemical complexes. On the basis of the occurrence of the residual content of other elements, it is possible to make prediction about the material behavior in the metallographic process. The input and finally materials were investigated and this investigation was done from the aspect of structural and chemical composition of the materials.

  6. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  7. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  8. Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Jamil, Moazzam; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-09-01

    Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis. All the selected isolates were also positive for oxidase activity (except ZM22), HCN production (except ZM27) and utilization of citrate. More than 70% of isolates produces ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, exopolysaccharides and cellulase. More than half of isolates also showed potential for urease activity and production of lipase. The ZM31 and S10 were the only isolates which showed the chitinase activity. All these isolates were evaluated in a jar trial for their ability to promote growth of maize under axenic conditions. Results revealed that inoculation of selected zinc solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates improved the growth of maize. In comparison, isolates ZM20, ZM31, ZM63 and S10 were best compared to other tested isolates in stimulating the growth attributes of maize like shoot length, root length, plant fresh and dry biomass. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. (ZM20), Bacillus aryabhattai (ZM31 and S10) and Bacillus subtilis (ZM63) through 16S rRNA sequencing. This study indicated that inoculation of Zn solubilizing strains have potential to promote growth and can be the potential bio-inoculants for biofortification of maize to overcome the problems of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc-mediated Allosteric Inhibition of Caspase-6*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Delgado, Elih M.; Hardy, Jeanne A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc and caspase-6 have independently been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Depletion of zinc intracellularly leads to apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Zinc inhibits cysteine proteases, including the apoptotic caspases, leading to the hypothesis that zinc-mediated inhibition of caspase-6 might contribute to its regulation in a neurodegenerative context. Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, we observed that caspase-6 binds one zinc per monomer, under the same conditions where the zinc leads to complete loss of enzymatic activity. To understand the molecular details of zinc binding and inhibition, we performed an anomalous diffraction experiment above the zinc edge. The anomalous difference maps showed strong 5σ peaks, indicating the presence of one zinc/monomer bound at an exosite distal from the active site. Zinc was not observed bound to the active site. The zinc in the exosite was liganded by Lys-36, Glu-244, and His-287 with a water molecule serving as the fourth ligand, forming a distorted tetrahedral ligation sphere. This exosite appears to be unique to caspase-6, as the residues involved in zinc binding were not conserved across the caspase family. Our data suggest that binding of zinc at the exosite is the primary route of inhibition, potentially locking caspase-6 into the inactive helical conformation. PMID:22891250

  10. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  11. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  12. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  13. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Radioactive zinc in soil-plant relationship studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, N.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc is one of the elements whose essentiality for plant growth and development has been proved beyond any doubt. Plant life and consequently the crop yield is impossible without zinc. The results of chemical, greenhouse, and field experiments on soils of Shiraz show that their level of available zinc for some crops is inadequate, despite the fact that the total amount of zinc in these soils may be relatively high. Obtaining the maximum yield, therefore, requires that either supplemental zinc be applied as chemical fertilizers or make the endogenous zinc more available to plants through some management practices. One of the isotopes of zinc, i.e. 65 Zn, is radioactive and has a detectable radiation which makes it suitable for tracer studies of zinc in soil, water, plant and animal. These studies help in understanding the soil plant relationships of zinc which in turn help to determine the optimum conditions of obtaining maximum yield. This paper presents and analyzes the results of some selected experiments to show different techniques of using radioactive zinc in understanding the behavior of zinc in soil and plant. Suggestions are also made of using this radioisotope in understanding the reactions of zinc in soils of Iran

  15. The effect of oral zinc loading on the absorption of 65Zinc in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, H.; Weismann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Seven groups of 8 rats each were orally loaded with zinc, the daily dose varying from 1.8 to 58 mg, corresponding to about 3 to 100 times of their estimated daily intake of zinc. To record the absorption of zinc, the rats were given a single dose of 65 Zn. The rentention of the isotope was measured in a whole animal counter at regular intervals. The dose of 58mg was obviously toxis, since half of the animals died within 5 days. The net absorption of zinc in the remaining experimental groups was found to vary from about 7% in the group receiving the smallest loading dose to 1.8% in the group receiving the highest dose. From the absorption values, as determined by extrapolation of semilog retention curves, the total amount of absorbed zinc was estimated. It was found to differ from about 170μg to about 530μg zinc daily, increasing three times as the loading dose was increased 16 times. This discrepancy suggests the existence of regulatory mechanisms of the absorption of zinc from the intestine. (orig.) [de

  16. Medicago truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease6 provides zinc to rhizobia-infected nodule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Isidro; Saéz, Ángela; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Escudero, Viviana; Rodríguez-Haas, Benjamín; Senovilla, Marta; Larue, Camille; Grolimund, Daniel; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is a micronutrient required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It has been proposed that in model legume Medicago truncatula, zinc is delivered by the root vasculature into the nodule and released in the infection/differentiation zone. There, transporters must introduce this element into rhizobia-infected cells to metallate the apoproteins that use zinc as a cofactor. MtZIP6 (Medtr4g083570) is an M. truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease (ZIP) that is expressed only in roots and nodules, with the highest expression levels in the infection/differentiation zone. Immunolocalization studies indicate that it is located in the plasma membrane of nodule rhizobia-infected cells. Down-regulating MtZIP6 expression levels with RNAi does not result in any strong phenotype when plants are fed mineral nitrogen. However, these plants displayed severe growth defects when they depended on nitrogen fixed by their nodules, losing of 80% of their nitrogenase activity. The reduction of this activity was likely an indirect effect of zinc being retained in the infection/differentiation zone and not reaching the cytosol of rhizobia-infected cells. These data are consistent with a model in which MtZIP6 would be responsible for zinc uptake by rhizobia-infected nodule cells in the infection/differentiation zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki [System Instruments Co., Ltd., 776-2 Komiya-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0031 (Japan); Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu [Division of Biomedical Food Research, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ikebukuro, Kazunori, E-mail: ikebu@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Zif268 fused to luciferase was used for E. coli O157, Salmonella and coliform detection. •Artificial zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was constructed for Norovirus detection. •An analyzer that automatically detects PCR products by zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was developed. •Target pathogens were specifically detected by the automatic analyzer with zinc finger protein fused to luciferase. -- Abstract: An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268–luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF–luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF–luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10{sup 6} copies.

  18. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Zif268 fused to luciferase was used for E. coli O157, Salmonella and coliform detection. •Artificial zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was constructed for Norovirus detection. •An analyzer that automatically detects PCR products by zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was developed. •Target pathogens were specifically detected by the automatic analyzer with zinc finger protein fused to luciferase. -- Abstract: An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268–luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF–luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF–luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10 6 copies

  19. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  20. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  1. Acetaminophen and zinc phosphide for lethal management of invasive lizards Ctenosaura similis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. AVERY, John D. EISEMANN, Kandy L. KEACHER,Peter J. SAVARIE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing populations of invasive lizards through trapping and shooting is feasible in many cases but effective integrated management relies on a variety of tools, including toxicants. In Florida, using wild-caught non-native black spiny-tailed iguanas Ctenosaura similis, we screened acetaminophen and zinc phosphide to determine their suitability for effective population management of this prolific invasive species. Of the animals that received acetaminophen, none died except at the highest test dose, 240 mg per lizard, which is not practical for field use. Zinc phosphide produced 100% mortality at dose levels as little as 25 mg per lizard, equivalent to about 0.5% in bait which is lower than currently used in commercial baits for commensal rodent control. We conclude that zinc phosphide has potential as a useful tool for reducing populations of invasive lizards such as the black spiny-tailed iguana provided target-selective delivery methods are developed [Current Zoology 57 (5: 625–629, 2011].

  2. Mechanisms of zinc binding to the solute-binding protein AztC and transfer from the metallochaperone AztD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Durga P; Avalos, Dante; Fullam, Stephanie; Roychowdhury, Hridindu; Yukl, Erik T

    2017-10-20

    Bacteria can acquire the essential metal zinc from extremely zinc-limited environments by using ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters are critical virulence factors, relying on specific and high-affinity binding of zinc by a periplasmic solute-binding protein (SBP). As such, the mechanisms of zinc binding and release among bacterial SBPs are of considerable interest as antibacterial drug targets. Zinc SBPs are characterized by a flexible loop near the high-affinity zinc-binding site. The function of this structure is not always clear, and its flexibility has thus far prevented structural characterization by X-ray crystallography. Here, we present intact structures for the zinc-specific SBP AztC from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans in the zinc-bound and apo-states. A comparison of these structures revealed that zinc loss prompts significant structural rearrangements, mediated by the formation of a sodium-binding site in the apo-structure. We further show that the AztC flexible loop has no impact on zinc-binding affinity, stoichiometry, or protein structure, yet is essential for zinc transfer from the metallochaperone AztD. We also found that 3 His residues in the loop appear to temporarily coordinate zinc and then convey it to the high-affinity binding site. Thus, mutation of any of these residues to Ala abrogated zinc transfer from AztD. Our structural and mechanistic findings conclusively identify a role for the AztC flexible loop in zinc acquisition from the metallochaperone AztD, yielding critical insights into metal binding by AztC from both solution and AztD. These proteins are highly conserved in human pathogens, making this work potentially useful for the development of novel antibiotics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR's and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ''natural zinc'' plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry

  4. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: Importance of zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, N.R.; Lenz, M.; Wehrli, B.; Fent, K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of

  5. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  6. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  8. Hydrothermally treated chitosan hydrogel loaded with copper and zinc particles as a potential micro-nutrient based antimicrobial feed additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban eRajasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that re-arranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml and zinc (800 μg/ml reduced the load of model gut-bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof of concept study, we show

  9. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  10. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadighi, A.; Moradi, A.; Roshan, Marjan M.; Ostadrahimi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  11. Effects of mine drainage on the River Hayle, Cornwall. Factors affecting concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in water, sediments and dominant invertebrate fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.E.

    1977-02-15

    Concentrations of copper, zinc and iron were measured in waters, sediments and invertebrates collected from the River Hayle. In river water at least 70% of copper and iron was associated with the ''particulate'' fraction whereas 80% of zinc was in the ''soluble'' form. Although total concentrations of zinc in water exceeded those of copper approximately ten fold, copper predominated over zinc in the sediments by a factor of approximately three. Iron was the most abundant metal recorded in both water and sediments. Seasonal differences in ''total'' metal content of waters suggested that concentrations of copper, zinc and iron increased during periods of high flow and decreased during lower flows. Copper concentrations in the sediment, unlike zinc and iron, showed markedly higher values during the summer sampling period when flows were minimal. In the ''free-living'' Trichoptera larvae, concentrations of copper and zinc in the tissue appeared to follow copper and zinc levels in the water. Similar relationships in Odonata and Plecoptera larvae were not obtained. Factors affecting animal/metal relationships are discussed with particular reference to adaptation shown by organisms exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals in their environment.

  12. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  13. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies of adsorption and desorption of zinc ions on zeolites by means of 65Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldesova, M.; Dillinger, P.; Lukac, P.

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of different metals by natural and chemically modified ion-exchangers, including zeolites, were studied in order to minimize the contamination of environment with metals in ionic form. In recent years considerable attention has been devoted to the studies of chemically modified zeolites their properties and applications. The used zeolite originated from the deposit Nizny Hrabovec, eastern Slovakia (NH) and from deposit of Ukraine (U). The zeolite from Slovakia is a clinoptilolite /40 -70%/ type, the zeolite from Ukraine is a mixed mordenite /75%/ and clinoptilolite /25%/ type. A fraction of 1.5 -2.5 mm was separated from the grained zeolite by sieving. The sedimentary zeolites, being the siliceous zeolites, should exhibit substantial non-selectivity for the divalent cations having a high hydration enthalpy , including zinc ( -2026 kJ/g). Zinc is an essential trace element in all-living systems from bacteria to humans. The toxicity of zinc and most of zinc compounds is generally low, however, sometimes industrial and household wastes contain zinc in concentrations, which can be harmful to the environment. The zinc-accompanying impurities, such as cadmium and lead, are of much greater danger .The main source of zinc are waste waters and continuous emission from the production and processing of zinc, other nonferrous smelters, from coal power plants and fossil combustion. The static radio-exchange method using model radioactive solutions was utilized for the determination of the sorption of Zn by the mentioned above zeolitic materials. For this purpose the aqueous solution of 5 · 10 -2 mol dm -3 ZnCl 2 labelled with 65 Zn was used. The areas of application of natural zeolites have been well defined. However, their use can become more efficient after chemical modification. The zeolites acquire new valuable properties, while retaining their original ones. The obtained results make these materials excellent candidates for their potential use for waste water

  15. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-06-05

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  16. High Resolution Melting Analysis Targeting hsp70 as a Fast and Efficient Method for the Discrimination of Leishmania Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Zampieri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a large spectrum of clinical manifestations known as Leishmaniases. These diseases are increasingly important public health problems in many countries both within and outside endemic regions. Thus, an accurate differential diagnosis is extremely relevant for understanding epidemiological profiles and for the administration of the best therapeutic protocol.Exploring the High Resolution Melting (HRM dissociation profiles of two amplicons using real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR targeting heat-shock protein 70 coding gene (hsp70 revealed differences that allowed the discrimination of genomic DNA samples of eight Leishmania species found in the Americas, including Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi, L. (L. amazonensis, L. (L. mexicana, L. (Viannia lainsoni, L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. guyanensis, L. (V. naiffi and L. (V. shawi, and three species found in Eurasia and Africa, including L. (L. tropica, L. (L. donovani and L. (L. major. In addition, we tested DNA samples obtained from standard promastigote culture, naturally infected phlebotomines, experimentally infected mice and clinical human samples to validate the proposed protocol.HRM analysis of hsp70 amplicons is a fast and robust strategy that allowed for the detection and discrimination of all Leishmania species responsible for the Leishmaniases in Brazil and Eurasia/Africa with high sensitivity and accuracy. This method could detect less than one parasite per reaction, even in the presence of host DNA.

  17. High Resolution Melting Analysis Targeting hsp70 as a Fast and Efficient Method for the Discrimination of Leishmania Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Laranjeira-Silva, Maria Fernanda; Muxel, Sandra Marcia; Stocco de Lima, Ana Carolina; Shaw, Jeffrey Jon; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a large spectrum of clinical manifestations known as Leishmaniases. These diseases are increasingly important public health problems in many countries both within and outside endemic regions. Thus, an accurate differential diagnosis is extremely relevant for understanding epidemiological profiles and for the administration of the best therapeutic protocol. Exploring the High Resolution Melting (HRM) dissociation profiles of two amplicons using real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting heat-shock protein 70 coding gene (hsp70) revealed differences that allowed the discrimination of genomic DNA samples of eight Leishmania species found in the Americas, including Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (Viannia) lainsoni, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) shawi, and three species found in Eurasia and Africa, including L. (L.) tropica, L. (L.) donovani and L. (L.) major. In addition, we tested DNA samples obtained from standard promastigote culture, naturally infected phlebotomines, experimentally infected mice and clinical human samples to validate the proposed protocol. HRM analysis of hsp70 amplicons is a fast and robust strategy that allowed for the detection and discrimination of all Leishmania species responsible for the Leishmaniases in Brazil and Eurasia/Africa with high sensitivity and accuracy. This method could detect less than one parasite per reaction, even in the presence of host DNA.

  18. Mitochondrial carrier protein biogenesis: role of the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Robitaille-Foucher, Philippe; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Young, Jason C

    2009-04-15

    Metabolite carrier proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane share homology in their transmembrane domains, which also carries their targeting information. In addition, some carriers have cleavable presequences which are not essential for targeting, but have some other function before import. The cytosolic chaperones Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) and Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) complex with carrier precursors and interact specifically with the Tom (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane) 70 import receptor to promote import. We analysed how the presequences of the PiC (phosphate carrier) and CIC (citrate carrier) relate to the mechanisms of chaperone-mediated import. Deletion of the PiC presequence reduced the efficiency of import but, notably, not by causing aggregation. Instead, binding of the protein to Hsc70 was reduced, as well as the dependence on Hsc70 for import. Hsp90 binding and function in import was not greatly affected, but it could not entirely compensate for the lack of Hsc70 interaction. Deletion of the presequence from CIC was shown to cause its aggregation, but had little effect on the contribution to import of either Hsc70 or Hsp90. The presequence of PiC, but not that of CIC, conferred Hsc70 binding to dihydrofolate reductase fusion proteins. In comparison, OGC (oxoglutarate carrier) lacks a presequence and was more soluble, though it is still dependent on both Hsc70 and Hsp90. We propose that carrier presequences evolved to improve targeting competence by different mechanisms, depending on physical properties of the precursors in the cytosolic targeting environment.

  19. Identification of autophagy genes participating in zinc-induced necrotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Slawomir A; Caplan, Allan B

    2011-05-01

    Eukaryotes use a common set of genes to perform two mechanistically similar autophagic processes. Bulk autophagy harvests proteins nonselectively and reuses their constitutents when nutrients are scarce. In contrast, different forms of selective autophagy target protein aggregates or damaged organelles that threaten to interfere with growth. Yeast uses one form of selective autophagy, called cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt), to engulf two vacuolar enzymes in Cvt vesicles ("CVT-somes") within which they are transported to vacuoles for maturation. While both are dispensable normally, bulk and selective autophagy help sustain life under stressful conditions. Consistent with this view, knocking out several genes participating in Cvt and specialized autophagic pathways heightened the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitory levels of Zn(2+). The loss of other autophagic genes, and genes responsible for apoptotic cell death, had no such effect. Unexpectedly, the loss of members of a third set of autophagy genes heightened cellular resistance to zinc as if they encoded proteins that actively contributed to zinc-induced cell death. Further studies showed that both sensitive and resistant strains accumulated similar amounts of H2O2 during zinc treatments, but that more sensitive strains showed signs of necrosis sooner. Although zinc lethality depended on autophagic proteins, studies with several reporter genes failed to reveal increased autophagic activity. In fact, microscopy analysis indicated that Zn(2+) partially inhibited fusion of Cvt vesicles with vacuoles. Further studies into how the loss of autophagic processes suppressed necrosis in yeast might reveal whether a similar process could occur in plants and animals.

  20. Fortification of staple foods with zinc for improving zinc status and other health outcomes in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dheeraj; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Gera, Tarun; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-06-09

    Zinc deficiency is a global nutritional problem, particularly in children and women residing in settings where diets are cereal based and monotonous. It has several negative health consequences. Fortification of staple foods with zinc may be an effective strategy for preventing zinc deficiency and improving zinc-related health outcomes. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of fortification of staple foods with zinc on health-related outcomes and biomarkers of zinc status in the general population. We searched the following databases in April 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3 of 12, 2015, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE & MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1950 to 8 April 2015), EMBASE (OVID) (1974 to 8 April 2015), CINAHL (1982 to April 2015), Web of Science (1900 to 9 April 2015), BIOSIS (1969 to 9 April 2015), POPLINE (1970 to April 2015), AGRICOLA, OpenGrey, BiblioMap, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), besides regional databases (April 2015) and theses. We also searched clinical trial registries (17 March 2015) and contacted relevant organisations (May 2014) in order to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included randomised controlled trials, randomised either at the level of the individual or cluster. We also included non-randomised trials at the level of the individual if there was a concurrent comparison group. We included non-randomised cluster trials and controlled before-after studies only if there were at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Interventions included fortification (central/industrial) of staple foods (cereal flours, edible fats, sugar, condiments, seasonings, milk and beverages) with zinc for a minimum period of two weeks. Participants were members of the general population who were over two years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion

  1. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, C.A. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary system surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.

  2. Further studies on selective radioprotection by organic zinc salts and synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.; Bieri, A.

    1990-01-01

    Protection of the haematocrit and thrombocytes by small doses of the aminothiol radioprotector WR 2721 was markedly improved by the concomitant administration of small doses of zinc aspartate. Zinc aspartate was the only one of the tested zinc salts not inhibiting the regression induced by radiotherapy of human tumours grown as xenografts in immunosuppressed mice. This also applied to zinc aspartate with WR 2721. A dose of zinc aspartate which afforded synergistic haematological protection did not enhance the toxicity of WR 2721. The synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721 and the differential radioprotection of the combined protocol may make it possible in clinical cancer radiotherapy to obtain selective radioprotection at a lower toxicity giving an improved therapeutic ratio compared with WR 2721 alone. (author)

  3. Comparison of Serum Zinc Level in Patients with Diabetes Type 1 and 2 and Its' Relation to HbA1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dorreh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a major health care problem. The relationship between DM and zinc has frequently been reported in various research. The present study aims to investigate serum zinc level in patients with type 1 (IDDM and type 2 (NIDDM. Association between glyaceted hemoglobin and level of zinc is also evaluted. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 subjects with DM (Type l: N=30; Type 2: N=30 who met inclusion criteria of the study. Patients’ serum zinc level and HbA1c were measured. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann-Withney U test. Results: Seventy five percent of the subjects were female. The average age of the IDDM was 15.36±5.28 years and that of NIDDM was 48.70±11.45 years. The average HbA1c of subjects was 8.06±1.64%. The average serum level of zinc in IDDM group was 95.82±14.51 μg/dl and that of NIDDM was 97.47±32.36 μg/dl, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Serum zinc difficiency was detected in 20% of the patients with NIDDM and 16.6% of the patients with IDDM. However, no significant correlation between HbA1c and serum level of zinc was detected in this study. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency was detected among a significant percentage of IDDM and NIDDM patients, but no significant correlation between serum zinc level and HbA1c was detected.

  4. Members of the heat-shock protein 70 family promote cancer cell growth by distinct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Mikkel; Daugaard, Mads; Jensen, Mette Hartvig

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the stress-inducible heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has gained plenty of attention as a putative target for tumor therapy, little is known about the role of other Hsp70 proteins in cancer. Here we present the first thorough analysis of the expression and function of the cytosolic Hsp70...... proteins in human cancer cells and identify Hsp70-2, a protein essential for spermatogenesis, as an important regulator of cancer cell growth. Targeted knock-down of the individual family members by RNA interference revealed that both Hsp70 and Hsp70-2 were required for cancer cell growth, whereas...

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  6. Differential Targeting of Hsp70 Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 and HSPA1A with Components of a Protein Disaggregation/Refolding Machine in Differentiated Human Neuronal Cells following Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Brown

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps co-operate in multi-protein machines that counter protein misfolding and aggregation and involve DNAJ (Hsp40, HSPA (Hsp70, and HSPH (Hsp105α. The HSPA family is a multigene family composed of inducible and constitutively expressed members. Inducible HSPA6 (Hsp70B' is found in the human genome but not in the genomes of mouse and rat. To advance knowledge of this little studied HSPA member, the targeting of HSPA6 to stress-sensitive neuronal sites with components of a disaggregation/refolding machine was investigated following thermal stress. HSPA6 targeted the periphery of nuclear speckles (perispeckles that have been characterized as sites of transcription. However, HSPA6 did not co-localize at perispeckles with DNAJB1 (Hsp40-1 or HSPH1 (Hsp105α. At 3 h after heat shock, HSPA6 co-localized with these members of the disaggregation/refolding machine at the granular component (GC of the nucleolus. Inducible HSPA1A (Hsp70-1 and constitutively expressed HSPA8 (Hsc70 co-localized at nuclear speckles with components of the machine immediately after heat shock, and at the GC layer of the nucleolus at 1 h with DNAJA1 and BAG-1. These results suggest that HSPA6 exhibits targeting features that are not apparent for HSPA1A and HSPA8.

  7. First Principles Investigation of Zinc-anode Dissolution in Zinc-air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Lundgård, Keld Troen

    2013-01-01

    With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive; in part because...... the fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more....... The applied methodology provides new insight into computational modelling and design of secondary metal-air batteries....

  8. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  9. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, and strontium in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Itoman, Moritoshi

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium in a human bone extracted by surgery were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The bone was decomposed with nitric acid, then diluted with water. A specific quantity of the solution was naturally dried on polyethylene film, and subjected to X-ray analysis. For determining the calibration curves in a mixture of phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium, for the analysis of phosphorus and calcium, germanium was used as the secondary target and aluminum as the filter; and for the analysis of iron, zinc and strontium, molybdenum and molybdenum-aluminum were used, respectively. Consequently, the calibration curves were able to be obtained with high precision in the ranges from 5 to 500 μg of phosphorus, from 1 to 50 μg of calcium and from 0.1 to 1.0 μg of iron, zinc and strontium. In this way, in 1 mg of the human bone by wet weight, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium were able to be determined. (J.P.N.)

  10. Construction and application of a zinc-specific biosensor for assessing the immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pulin; Huang Qiaoyun; Chen Wenli

    2012-01-01

    The inducibility and specificity of different czcRS operons in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied by lacZ gene fusions. The data of β-glycosidase activity confirmed that the czcR3 promoter responded quantitatively to zinc. A zinc-specific biosensor, P. putida X4 (pczcR3GFP), was constructed by fusing a promoterless enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene with the czcR3 promoter in the chromosome of P. putida X4. In water extracts of four different soils amended with zinc, the reporter strain detected about 90% of the zinc content of the samples. Both the bioavailability assessment and the sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the immobilization of zinc was highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of soils. The results also showed that the lability of zinc decreased over time. It is concluded that the biosensor constitutes an alternative system for the convenient evaluation of zinc toxicity in the environment. - Highlights: ► A zinc-specific bacterial biosensor was developed. ► Four spiked soils were used to test the application of this biosensor. ► The bioavailable zinc in soil-water extracts decreased due to aging. ► The immobilization and speciation of zinc were highly dependent on the soil type. - The immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in soil were investigated as a function of soil type and aging by a newly constructed zinc-specific biosensor coupled with chemical analysis.

  11. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution...

  12. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  14. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered

  15. The zinc-myoglobin relationships in porcine muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogd Joergensen, P.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc and myoglobin content in muscles from pigs were studied under various conditions. Zinc concentration was considerably higher in red than in white muscles. In muscles, where the metabolic pattern changes from glycolytic to oxidative during the period from birth to weaning, a simultaneous increase in zinc content was seen. A significant positive correlation exists between myoglobin and zinc content under normal conditions. However, while myoglobin concentration decreases due to iron deficiency anaemia no changes occur in zinc content. It is concluded that no functional link seems to exist between zinc metabolism and myoglobin synthesis in porcine muscles. (author)

  16. Study of silicon doped with zinc ions and annealed in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privezentsev, V. V.; Kirilenko, E. P.; Goryachev, A. N.; Batrakov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The results of studies of the surface layer of silicon and the formation of precipitates in Czochralski n-Si (100) samples implanted with "6"4Zn"+ ions with an energy of 50 keV and a dose of 5 × 10"1"6 cm"–"2 at room temperature and then oxidized at temperatures from 400 to 900°C are reported. The surface is visualized using an electron microscope, while visualization of the surface layer is conducted via profiling in depth by elemental mapping using Auger electron spectroscopy. The distribution of impurity ions in silicon is analyzed using a time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometer. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical state of atoms of the silicon matrix and zinc and oxygen impurity atoms is studied, and the phase composition of the implanted and annealed samples is refined. After the implantation of zinc, two maxima of the zinc concentration, one at the wafer surface and the other at a depth of 70 nm, are observed. In this case, nanoparticles of the Zn metal phase and ZnO phase, about 10 nm in dimensions, are formed at the surface and in the surface layer. After annealing in oxygen, the ZnO · Zn_2SiO_4 and Zn · ZnO phases are detected near the surface and at a depth of 50 nm, respectively.

  17. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  18. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are significantly greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc fortified micronutrient powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)

  19. Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc application on yield, yield components and zinc accumulation of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most important problems of agriculture in crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Under these conditions, in addition to management strategies, proper and adequate nutrition also has an important role in crop improvement. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of 4 different irrigation water salinities (blank, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1, prepared with 1:1 molar ratio of chlorides of calcium and sodium and magnesium sulphate salts. and 5 different zinc applications (0, 10, 20, 30 mg Kg-1 soil and foliar application of salt of zinc sulphate on yield, yield components and zinc concentration of wheat, using a completely randomized design, factorial with three replications. Plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per spike, grain and straw yield was decreased by Irrigation water salinity. And all of these parameters were improved by zinc application except 1000 grain weight. Zinc absorption and concentration in straw and grain was decreased by Saline water compared to blank. And concentration of zinc significantly was increased in straw and grain by increase zinc application. The results indicated that, zinc application under low to medium salinity conditions improved growth and yield of wheat due to decreasing the impacts salinity.

  20. A multi-platform metabolomics approach demonstrates changes in energy metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway in Chironomus tepperi following exposure to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Sara M.; Tull, Dedreia L.; Jeppe, Katherine J.; De Souza, David P.; Dayalan, Saravanan; Pettigrove, Vincent J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated metabolomics approach was applied to examine zinc exposure in midges. • Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism were observed using GC–MS. • Transsulfuration pathway is affected by zinc exposure. • Heavy metals other than zinc affect the transsulfuration pathways differently. - Abstract: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary

  1. A multi-platform metabolomics approach demonstrates changes in energy metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway in Chironomus tepperi following exposure to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Sara M., E-mail: hoskins@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Tull, Dedreia L., E-mail: dedreia@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Jeppe, Katherine J., E-mail: k.jeppe@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); De Souza, David P., E-mail: desouzad@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Dayalan, Saravanan, E-mail: sdayalan@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent J., E-mail: vpet@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); McConville, Malcolm J., E-mail: malcolmm@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Hoffmann, Ary A., E-mail: ary@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • An integrated metabolomics approach was applied to examine zinc exposure in midges. • Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism were observed using GC–MS. • Transsulfuration pathway is affected by zinc exposure. • Heavy metals other than zinc affect the transsulfuration pathways differently. - Abstract: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary

  2. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meika Foster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (−1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001; and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (−1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001. Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  3. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  4. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can...

  5. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  6. Effect of zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles injection on jawbone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Ito, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) nano particles were injected into zinc-deficient rats to promote osteogenesis. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (4 weeks old, average weight of 70 g) were divided into four groups: Normal rats (not ovariectomized (OVX)), Control rats (OVX), and OVX rats injected with a suspension of ZnTCP nano particles or ZnSO 4 . The ZnTCP contained 6.17% zinc. The suspensions (0.6 mg as a zinc volume/0.2 ml) were injected around the jaw bone once a week for 12 weeks. Local effects on the bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, and systemic effects on body weight, the BMC of both femurs determined by X-ray computed tomography, and bone mechanical strength (BMS) measured by the three-point bending method, were examined. The BMC of jaw bone was significantly higher in the ZnTCP-treated group than un-treated or ZnSO 4 -treated group. Body weight, the BMC of femurs, and BMS were also significantly higher in the ZnTCP treated-group. The zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles were effective at preventing bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats and have potential uses for treating periodontitis. (author)

  7. Prediction of Serum Zinc Levels in Mexican Children at 2 Years of Age Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Different Zinc Bioavailability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-06-01

    The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey documented a prevalence of zinc deficiency of almost 30% in children under 2 years of age. We sought to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary bioavailable zinc intake in 2-year-old Mexican children accounting for phytic acid intake and using serum zinc as a reference. This cross-sectional study was nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of 333 young children in Mexico City. Nonfasting serum zinc concentration was measured and dietary zinc intake was calculated on the basis of a semiquantitative FFQ administered to their mothers. The relationship between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc was assessed using linear regression, adjusting for phytic acid intake, and analyzed according to two distinct international criteria to estimate bioavailable zinc. Models were stratified by zinc deficiency status. Dietary zinc, adjusted for phytic acid intake, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of serum zinc. For each milligram of dietary zinc intake, serum zinc increased on average by 0.95 μg/dL (0.15 μmol/L) (p = .06). When stratified by zinc status, this increase was 0.74 μg/dL (p = .12) for each milligram of zinc consumed among children with adequate serum zinc (n = 276), whereas among those children with zinc deficiency (n = 57), serum zinc increased by only 0.11 μg/dL (p = .82). A semiquantitative FFQ can be used for predicting serum zinc in relation to dietary intake in young children, particularly among those who are zinc-replete, and when phytic acid or phytate intake is considered. Future studies should be conducted accounting for both zinc status and dietary zinc inhibitors to further elucidate and validate these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Eng, S.T.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Ishak Mat; Yussof Wahab

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 .2H 2 O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  9. Inhibition of Ku70 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ regulates Ku70-mediated DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Beom; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Jin Woo; Jeon, Young-Joo; Kim, Daehwan; Rhee, Sangmyung; Chae, Jung-Il; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2014-07-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can cause either cell death or genomic instability. The Ku heterodimer Ku70/80 is required for the NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) DNA DSB repair pathway. The INHAT (inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases) complex subunit, SET/TAF-Iβ, can inhibit p300- and PCAF-mediated acetylation of both histone and p53, thereby repressing general transcription and that of p53 target genes. Here, we show that SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with Ku70/80, and that this interaction inhibits CBP- and PCAF-mediated Ku70 acetylation in an INHAT domain-dependent manner. Notably, DNA damage by UV disrupted the interaction between SET/TAF-Iβ and Ku70. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpressed SET/TAF-Iβ inhibits recruitment of Ku70/80 to DNA damage sites. We propose that dysregulation of SET/TAF-Iβ expression prevents repair of damaged DNA and also contributes to cellular proliferation. All together, our findings indicate that SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with Ku70/80 in the nucleus and inhibits Ku70 acetylation. Upon DNA damage, SET/TAF-Iβ dissociates from the Ku complex and releases Ku70/Ku80, which are then recruited to DNA DSB sites via the NHEJ DNA repair pathway.

  10. Expression of zinc transporter genes in rice as influenced by zinc-solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj eKrithika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulphate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that zinc solubilizing bacteria could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  11. Effect of gypsum, pressmud, fulvic acid and zinc sources on yield and zinc uptake by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, M.

    1980-01-01

    The application of fulvic acid to a saline-sodic soil augmented the solubility of zinc by thousands fold. Zinc fulvate when applied at levels equivalent to that of zinc sulphate was more effective in enhancing diffusion of zinc in the soil. Application of gypsum, zinc sulphate and fulvic acid significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of zinc by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil. Application of gypsum with pressmud or with fulvic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significantly higher yield and zinc uptake than in other treatments. (orig.)

  12. Zinc Binding by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element in all organisms. A common method for the prevention of zinc deficiency is pharmacological supplementation, especially in a highly available form of a metalloprotein complex. The potential of different microbes to bind essential and toxic heavy metals has recently been recognized. In this work, biosorption of zinc by lactic acid bacteria (LAB has been investigated. Specific LAB were assessed for their ability to bind zinc from a water solution. Significant amount of zinc ions was bound, and this binding was found to be LAB species-specific. Differences among the species in binding performance at a concentration range between 10–90 mg/L were evaluated with Langmuir model for biosorption. Binding of zinc was a fast process, strongly influenced by ionic strength, pH, biomass concentration, and temperature. The most effective metal-binding LAB species was Leuconostoc mesenteroides (27.10 mg of Zn2+ per gram of dry mass bound at pH=5 and 32 °C, during 24 h. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis and electron microscopy demonstrated that passive adsorption and active uptake of the zinc ions were involved.

  13. Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Daniela; Molina-López, Jorge; Hogstrand, Christer; Lengyel, Imre; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Planells, Elena

    2018-09-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of many nutrients and especially zinc, depleting their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the zinc status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying the association with expression of zinc transporters. This investigation was a prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. Twelve critically ill patients from different hospitals and 12 healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent were recruited. Data on daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, inflammation, clinical and nutritional parameters, plasma and blood cell zinc concentrations, and levels of transcripts for zinc transporters in whole blood were taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Zinc levels on critical ill patient are diminish comparing with the healthy control (HS: 0.94 ± 0.19; CIPF: 0.67 ± 0.16 mg/dL). The 58% of critical ill patients showed zinc plasma deficiency at beginning of study while 50.0% of critical ill after 7 days of ICU stay. ZnT7, ZIP4 and ZIP9 were the zinc transporters with highest expression in whole blood. In general, all zinc transporters were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the critical ill population at admission in comparison with healthy subjects. Severity scores and inflammation were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with zinc plasma levels, and zinc transporters ZIP3, ZIP4, ZIP8, ZnT6, ZnT7. Expression of 11 out of 24 zinc transporters was analysed, and ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZIP4, which were downregulated by more than 3-fold in whole blood of patients. In summary, in our study an alteration of zinc status was related with the severity-of-illness scores and inflammation in critical ill patients since admission in ICU stay. SIRS

  14. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  15. Vacuolar zinc transporter Zrc1 is required for detoxification of excess intracellular zinc in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minsu; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an important transition metal in all living organisms and is required for numerous biological processes. However, excess zinc can also be toxic to cells and cause cellular stress. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a vacuolar zinc transporter, Zrc1, plays important roles in the storage and detoxification of excess intracellular zinc to protect the cell. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the S. cerevisiae ZRC1 gene in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Zrc1 was localized in the vacuolar membrane in C. neoformans, and a mutant lacking ZRC1 showed significant growth defects under high-zinc conditions. These results suggested a role for Zrc1 in zinc detoxification. However, contrary to our expectation, the expression of Zrc1 was induced in cells grown in zinc-limited conditions and decreased upon the addition of zinc. These expression patterns were similar to those of Zip1, the high-affinity zinc transporter in the plasma membrane of C. neoformans. Furthermore, we used the zrc1 mutant in a murine model of cryptococcosis to examine whether a mammalian host could inhibit the survival of C. neoformans using zinc toxicity. We found that the mutant showed no difference in virulence compared with the wildtype strain. This result suggests that Zrc1-mediated zinc detoxification is not required for the virulence of C. neoformans, and imply that zinc toxicity may not be an important aspect of the host immune response to the fungus.

  16. Effect of Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin C and E on Boar Ejaculate Quality at Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiment was to test effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E to reduce the impact of heat stress at boars. In the experiment, boars of Duroc breed were tested. The first control group (n = 10 was not supplemented with antioxidants. The second experimental group (n = 10 was supplemented with antioxidants in the following quantities of 0.5 mg of selenium (seleno-methionine, 100 mg of zinc (zinc-methionine, 70 mg of vitamin E (alpha‑tocopherol and 350 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid per kilogram of their feed. The experiment was carried out for 120 days and took place in summer (June to September. During the experiment, average and maximum daily temperatures, where boars were stabled, were monitored. Average daily temperature ranged from 12 to 28 °C. Maximum temperature during the day was from 13 to 32 °C. The evaluation of the semen quality has revealed increased number of abnormal spermatozoa in the control group of boars by 39 % (P < 0.05. There were observed no significant changes at other monitored parameters (ejaculate volume, total count of produced sperm, motility and sperm concentration. The results show that the addition of selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E may reduce the effect of heat stress to some extent at breeding boars.

  17. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  18. Anti-corrosive Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube and Zinc Particle Shapes on Zinc Ethyl Silicate Coated Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, JiMan; Shon, MinYoung; Kwak, SamTak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Zinc ethyl silicate coatings containing multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared, to which we added spherical and flake shaped zinc particles. The anti-corrosive effects of MWCNTs and zinc shapes on the zinc ethyl silicate coated carbon steel was examined, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and corrosion potential measurement. The results of EIS and corrosion potential measurement showed that the zinc ethyl silicate coated with flake shaped zinc particles and MWCNT showed lesser protection to corrosion. These outcomes were in agreement with previous results of corrosion potential and corrosion occurrence.

  19. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  20. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  1. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Characterization of Zur-dependent genes and direct Zur targets in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoyi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zinc uptake regulator Zur is a Zn2+-sensing metalloregulatory protein involved in the maintenance of bacterial zinc homeostasis. Up to now, regulation of zinc homeostasis by Zur is poorly understood in Y. pestis. Results We constructed a zur null mutant of Y. pestis biovar microtus strain 201. Microarray expression analysis disclosed a set of 154 Zur-dependent genes of Y. pestis upon exposure to zinc rich condition. Real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR was subsequently used to validate the microarray data. Based on the 154 Zur-dependent genes, predicted regulatory Zur motifs were used to screen for potential direct Zur targets including three putative operons znuA, znuCB and ykgM-RpmJ2. The LacZ reporter fusion analysis verified that Zur greatly repressed the promoter activity of the above three operons. The subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that a purified Zur protein was able to bind to the promoter regions of the above three operons. The DNase I footprinting was used to identify the Zur binding sites for the above three operons, verifying the Zur box sequence as predicted previously in γ-Proteobacteria. The primer extension assay was further used to determine the transcription start sites for the above three operons and to localize the -10 and -35 elements. Zur binding sites overlapped the -10 sequence of its target promoters, which was consistent with the previous observation that Zur binding would block the entry of the RNA polymerase to repress the transcription of its target genes. Conclusion Zur as a repressor directly controls the transcription of znuA, znuCB and ykgM-RpmJ2 in Y. pestis by employing a conserved mechanism of Zur-promoter DNA association as observed in γ-Proteobacteria. Zur contributes to zinc homeostasis in Y. pestis likely through transcriptional repression of the high-affinity zinc uptake system ZnuACB and two alternative ribosomal proteins YkgM and RpmJ2.

  3. The relative contribution of natural zinc complexing agents and ZnSO4 to growth and zinc nutrition of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Prasad, B.

    1989-01-01

    Relative evaluation of different natural zinc-complexes indicated that application of Zn-FA 2 (PM), Zn-FA 3 (Comp), Zn-FA 1 (BGS), Zn-FA 5 (PR), Zn-FA 4 (SS) and ZnSO 4 significantly enhanced the drymatter yield and zinc uptake by maize. The natural zinc-complexes in particular increased, to a greater extent, the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as zinc carrier. Significant positive relationship between self-diffusion coefficient of Zn and drymatter yield and uptake of zinc by maize suggested that diffusion is responsible for the supply of zinc from ambient soil matrix to plant roots. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Study of iron-zinc catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriola, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer parameters were determined on a series of catalyst mixtures of iron and zinc oxides with variable quantities of zinc. A change in the crystal structure of the iron oxide when introducing zinc into the samples was observed. The corundum structure of the α-Fe 2 O 3 phase was transformed into the spinel type of zinc ferrite when zinc oxide was present in any quantity. A strong electronic interaction between the zinc ferrite and the zinc oxide present in excess was evident. The catalysts were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence and x-ray diffraction methods. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Targeted genome regulation via synthetic programmable transcriptional regulators

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka Anna; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    genes in linear and interacting pathways in a native context. Modular DNA-binding domains from zinc fingers (ZFs) and transcriptional activator-like proteins (TALE) are amenable to bioengineering to bind DNA target sequences of interest. As a result, ZF

  6. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for delta = 0 that is strongly enriched in light isotopes relative to both brands of gloves. We caution others who measure

  7. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  8. A technical study to economize the amount of zinc used in the production of radiogallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, Shaban A.; Al-Abyad, Mogahed [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Physics Dept. - Cyclotron Facility; Szuecs, Zoltan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    2017-04-01

    For the production of radiogallium, the targets were prepared in two forms, namely, electroplated metal and pressed oxide. The target holder was selected from Cu-metal as a circular disk. The experimental yields of {sup 66,67,68}Ga produced from both irradiated {sup nat}ZnO and zinc metal targets are given and compared with the estimated yields as well as with the previously reported values. The ZnO target developed in this work appears to be more convenient and economical for local production of short-lived radiogallium, e.g. {sup 66}Ga and {sup 68}Ga.

  9. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  11. Uptake and loss of dissolved zinc by the stickleback gasterosteus Aculeatus l. [Zinc 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiessen, P.; Brafield, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Uptake and loss by sticklebacks of both stable zinc and /sup 65/Zn in hard and soft water were studied for periods up to 400 h. In calcium-free water, the zinc uptake curve is approximately asymptotic over a period of 24 h, while in hard water internal Zn levels dropped at 24 h. Over 5 h, fish in hard tapwater absorb about 3 to 5 times more Zn than those in calcium-free water. There is positive linear correlation between log Zn uptake and log wet weight of fish. Whole-body concentration factors (c.f.) at 16 h reach a maximum of 12.2 (mean = 2.9), highest concentrations of Zn being found in the gills (mean c.f. = 5.1), and lowest concentrations in the gonads (mean c.f. = 0.8). Over longer periods (400 h), internal stable zinc levels of fish exposed to 1 and 4 ppM Zn/sup +2/ remain little higher than controls (max. 28%) /sup 65/Zn efflux in zinc-free water falls to zero after 5 h, more zinc (78%) being lost after uptake in tapwater than in calcium-free water (56%).

  12. Zinc Enolate/Sulfinate Prepared from a Single-Run Reaction Using Zinc Dust with O-Tosylated 4-Hydroxy Coumarin and Pyrone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrated the preparation of new zinc complexes, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylzinc (I), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylzinc (II), by the oxidative addition of readily available zinc dust into the corresponding 4-tosylated coumarin (A) and pyrone (B), respectively. Of special interest, the thus-obtained zinc complexes showed an electrophile-dependent reactivity. The subsequent coupling reactions of I and II with a variety of acid chlorides provided the O-acylation product in moderate yields. More interestingly, it should be emphasized that the thus-prepared zinc complexes (I and II) functioned both as zinc enolate and zinc sulfinate, providing C(3)-disubstituted product (b) and sulfone (c), respectively, from a single-run reaction when I or II was treated with benzyl halides. Even though somewhat low yields were achieved under the nonoptimized conditions, the novel zinc complexes present another potential application for zinc reagents. Versatile applications of this discovery are currently underway.

  13. Zinc Enolate/Sulfinate Prepared from a Single-Run Reaction Using Zinc Dust with O-Tosylated 4-Hydroxy Coumarin and Pyrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the preparation of new zinc complexes, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylzinc (I), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylzinc (II), by the oxidative addition of readily available zinc dust into the corresponding 4-tosylated coumarin (A) and pyrone (B), respectively. Of special interest, the thus-obtained zinc complexes showed an electrophile-dependent reactivity. The subsequent coupling reactions of I and II with a variety of acid chlorides provided the O-acylation product in moderate yields. More interestingly, it should be emphasized that the thus-prepared zinc complexes (I and II) functioned both as zinc enolate and zinc sulfinate, providing C(3)-disubstituted product (b) and sulfone (c), respectively, from a single-run reaction when I or II was treated with benzyl halides. Even though somewhat low yields were achieved under the nonoptimized conditions, the novel zinc complexes present another potential application for zinc reagents. Versatile applications of this discovery are currently underway

  14. Radioisotopic investigations of zinc uptake into brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of zinc in the vicinity of the hippocampal mossy fibers has been repeatedly demonstrated, and several lines of evidence suggest that the mossy-fiber zinc is concentrated within the terminals of mossy fibers. In search of insight into the metabolism and function of mossy-fiber zinc, the present study investigated the transport of zinc into tissue slices and the response of the zinc transport to depolarization. Kinetic analysis of zinc accumulation by mouse brain slices in vitro revealed the presence of a high affinity uptake component with an apparent Km of 17.7 μM for hippocampus, 16.6 μM< for cortex and 25 μM for striatum and a V/sub max/ of 9.2 ng/mg/hr for the hippocampus, 10.1 ng/mg/hr for cortex and 9.6 ng/mg/hr for striatum. Cytoarchitectonic differences in zinc transport between the different hippocampal subregions were found with those regions containing granule cells or mossy fiber axons accumulating greater amounts of zinc than the CA 1 region. The present finding that mossy-fiber neuropil selectivity accumulates zinc suggests the presence of a zinc-binding substance unique to mossy-fiber tissue

  15. Daya antibakteri penambahan Propolis pada zinc oxide eugenol dan zinc oxide terhadap kuman campur gigi molar sulung non vital (The antibacterial effect of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide on polybacteria of necrotic primary molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemy Ameliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Materials commonly used for root canal filling of primary teeth is zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol has some disadvantages that can irritate the periapical tissues, has the risk of disturbing the growth and development of permanent tooth buds, and has a narrow antibacterial spectrum. Studies showed that propolis at concentration of 20 % has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of root canal pastes with the additional of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol (ZOEP and to zinc oxide (ZOP. Methods: Polybacteria cultures collected from root canals of necrotic primary molar from 5 children patients who received root canal treatment. The bacteria were grown in BHI Broth, and inoculated into Muller Hinton Agar media. The agar plates was divided into 3 areas, and one well was made at each area. The first well filled with ZOE as a control, second well filled with ZOEP and the third well filled with ZOP, then incubated for 24 hour at 370 C. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameters of inhibition zones of polybacteria growth. The data were statistically analyzed by independent T-test. Results: The pasta mixture of zinc oxide propolis had the strongest antibacterial activity against polybacteria of necrotic primary molar, followed by zinc oxide eugenol propolis paste, and zinc oxide eugenol paste. There were significant differences of inhibition zones between ZOE, ZOEP and ZOP (p<0,05. Conclusion: The study suggested that the additional of propolis to zinc oxide paste could increase the antimicrobial effect against root canal polybacteria of necrotic primary molar.Latar belakang: Bahan yang sering digunakan untuk pengisian saluran akar gigi sulung adalah zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol memiliki beberapa kekurangan yaitu dapat mengiritasi jaringan periapikal, beresiko mengganggu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan benih gigi permanen pengganti

  16. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  17. Zinc effects on the embryos and larvae of the sharptooth catfish, Claias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of early life stages of Sharp tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), to determine which stage to use during effluent assessment. The target water quality of zinc was used ranging from 0...

  18. Zinc oxide nanocolloids prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation in water at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Luisa; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bonsignore, Martina; Santangelo, Saveria; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Neri, Fortunato; Fazio, Enza

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide with wide direct band gap and high exciton binding energy is one of the most promising materials for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting devices. It further exhibits good performance in the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants under UV irradiation. In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/gold (ZnO/Au) nanocolloids are prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation (ps-PLA), using a Zn and Au metallic targets in water media at room temperature (RT) and 80°C. ZnO and Au nanoparticles (NPs) with size in the 10-50 nm range are obtained at RT, while ZnO nanorods (NRs) are formed when water is maintained at 80°C during the ps-PLA process. Au NPs, added to ZnO colloids after the ablation process, decorate ZnO NRs. The crystalline phase of all ZnO nanocolloids is wurtzite. Methylene blue dye is used to investigate the photo-catalytic activity of all the synthesised nanocolloids, under UV light irradiation.

  19. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  20. The thick-target 9Be(d,n) neutron spectra for deuteron energies between 2.6 and 7.0-MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    The measurement of the zero deg. neutron spectra and yields from deuterons incident on thick beryllium metal targets is described. 235 U and 238 U fission ion chambers were used as neutron detectors to span the neutron energy range above 0.05-MeV with a time resolution of ≤ 3 nanosec. Measurements were made for incident deuteron energies from 2.6 to 7.0-MeV, at 0.4-MeV intervals, using time-of-flight techniques with flight paths of 2.7 and 6.8 meters. The results are presented in graphical form and in tables

  1. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  2. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  3. Study of Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T.; Zolov, R.; Dimova, V.; Levay, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma spectra obtained from positron-electron annihilation in pure polycrystalline zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron have been investigated. The line shapes were measured by a Ge(Li) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The results are quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positrons are trapped by impurity atoms and vacancy-impurity pairs in zinc containing 0.05 at. % iron. (author)

  4. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  5. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang Won; Garnier, Philippe; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Swanson, Raymond A

    2004-08-01

    Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation and neuronal death after severe hypoglycemia. Zinc staining with N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ) showed depletion of presynaptic vesicular zinc from hippocampal mossy fiber terminals and accumulation of weakly bound zinc in hippocampal CA1 cell bodies after severe hypoglycemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of the zinc chelator calcium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) blocked the zinc accumulation and significantly reduced hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. CaEDTA also attenuated the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the enzymatic product of PARP-1, in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that zinc translocation is an intermediary step linking hypoglycemia to PARP-1 activation and neuronal death.

  6. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  7. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  8. Serum zinc reference intervals and its relationship with dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in 6- to 9-year-old healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Xavier Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an important cause of morbidity, particularly among young children. The dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators should be used to assess zinc status and to indicate the need for zinc interventions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the zinc status and reference intervals for serum zinc concentration considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in apparently healthy children in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Design: The cross-sectional study included 131 healthy children: 72 girls and 59 boys, aged between 6 and 9 years. Anthropometric assessment was made by body mass index (BMI and age; dietary assessment by prospective 3-day food register, and an evaluation of total proteins was performed. Zinc in the serum samples was analyzed in triplicate in the same assay flame, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: With respect to dietary assessment, only the intake of fiber and calcium was below the recommendations by age and gender. All subjects were eutrophic according to BMI and age classification. Zinc intake correlated with energy (p=0.0019, protein (p=0.0054, fat (p<0.0001, carbohydrate (p=0.0305, fiber (p=0.0465, calcium (p=0.0006, and iron (p=0.0003 intakes. Serum zinc correlated with protein intake (p=0.0145 and serum albumin (p=0.0141, globulin (p=0.0041, and albumin/globulin ratio (p=0.0043. Biochemical parameters were all within the normal reference range. Reference intervals for basal serum zinc concentration were 0.70–1.14 µg/mL in boys, 0.73–1.17 µg/mL in girls, and 0.72–1.15 µg/mL in the total population. Conclusions: This study presents pediatric reference intervals for serum zinc concentration, considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators, which are useful to establish the zinc status in specific groups. In this regard, there are few studies in the literature conducted under these conditions, which make it an innovative methodology.

  9. Study of silicon doped with zinc ions and annealed in oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, V. V., E-mail: v.privezentsev@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Kirilenko, E. P.; Goryachev, A. N. [Zelenograd, National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET” (Russian Federation); Batrakov, A. A. [National Research University “MEI” (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The results of studies of the surface layer of silicon and the formation of precipitates in Czochralski n-Si (100) samples implanted with {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with an energy of 50 keV and a dose of 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup –2} at room temperature and then oxidized at temperatures from 400 to 900°C are reported. The surface is visualized using an electron microscope, while visualization of the surface layer is conducted via profiling in depth by elemental mapping using Auger electron spectroscopy. The distribution of impurity ions in silicon is analyzed using a time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometer. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical state of atoms of the silicon matrix and zinc and oxygen impurity atoms is studied, and the phase composition of the implanted and annealed samples is refined. After the implantation of zinc, two maxima of the zinc concentration, one at the wafer surface and the other at a depth of 70 nm, are observed. In this case, nanoparticles of the Zn metal phase and ZnO phase, about 10 nm in dimensions, are formed at the surface and in the surface layer. After annealing in oxygen, the ZnO · Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Zn · ZnO phases are detected near the surface and at a depth of 50 nm, respectively.

  10. A novel thiolated human-like collage zinc complex as a promising zinc supplement: physicochemical characteristics and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yonghui; Mi, Yu; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao

    2014-11-01

    To improve zinc binding ability to human-like collagen (HLC) and stability of metal complex, HLC was thiolated by mercaptosuccinylation reaction with S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (S-AMSA) at pH8.0. One mole of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex possessed 24.3mol zinc ions when pH was 8.0 and zinc concentration was 15 mM. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex were investigated by UV-vis, CD, electrophoresis analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cell viability assay, respectively. The results showed that SHLC-Zn complex(1) exhibited higher zinc ions than that of native HLC and still maintained the secondary structure of HLC though interaction occurred between SHLC and zinc ions, (2) increased the apparent molecular weight when compared with native HLC, (3) exhibited greater thermal stability than native HLC, and (4) presented toxicity free for BHK cells. This study suggests that the SHLC-Zn complex is a potential nutrition as well as zinc supplement in the medical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Zinc injection method and device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Kazumi; Negishi, Itaru; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Ino, Takao; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Tadashi; Tobara, Hirotaka.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of injecting zinc into reactor water, and it can supply a solution of zinc at a high concentration by improving the solubility of zinc. Namely, zinc is used as a solute and is dissolved in an aqueous solution containing an electrolyte such as carbonic acid. The resultant zinc solution at a high concentration is injected to reactor water. In the device of the present invention, (1) a dissolution vessel for dissolving zinc comprises a zinc supply means at an upper portion thereof and a carbonic acid gas supply means at a lower portion, (2) an injection means supplies the solution in which zinc is dissolved at a high concentration to reactor water. An aqueous solution saturated with a carbonic acid gas is used as a solvent for dissolving zinc into reactor water at a high concentration. The dissolution vessel has a gas diffusion pipe at the bottom for introducing the carbonic acid gas and has a stirrer in the inside. Zinc is supplied continuously or discontinuously. Raw material zinc may be in the form of a plate, rod, granule, or powder, however, powdery zinc is preferably used. (I.S.)

  13. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  14. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  15. Zinc electrode shape change II. Process and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The process and mechanism of zinc electrode shape change is investigated with the radiotracer technique. It is shownthat during repeated cycling of the nickel oxide/zinc battery zinc material is transported over the zinc electrode via the battery electrolyte. During charge as well as during

  16. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-01-01

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc

  17. Formation of zinc-peptide spherical microparticles during lyophilization from tert-butyl alcohol/water co-solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Ni, Nina; Chen, Jia-Wen; Desikan, Sridhar; Naringrekar, Vijay; Hussain, Munir A; Barbour, Nancy P; Smith, Ronald L

    2008-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of spherical microparticle formation during lyophilizing a tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA)/water solution of a zinc peptide adduct. A small peptide, PC-1, as well as zinc PC-1 at (3:2) and (3:1) ratios, were dissolved in 44% (wt.%) of TBA/water, gradually frozen to -50 degrees C over 2 h ("typical freezing step"), annealed at -20 degrees C for 6 h ("annealing step"), and subsequently lyophilized with primary and secondary drying. Zinc peptide (3:1) lyophile was also prepared with quench cooling instead of the typical freezing step, or without the annealing step. Other TBA concentrations, i.e., 25%, 35%, 54% and 65%, were used to make the zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophile with the typical freezing and annealing steps. The obtained lyophile was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The zinc peptide solutions in TBA/water were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The surface tension of the TBA/water co-solvent system was measured by a pendant drop shape method. With typical freezing and annealing steps, the free peptide lyophile showed porous network-like structure that is commonly seen in lyophilized products. However, with increasing the zinc to peptide ratio, uniform particles were gradually evolved. Zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophiles obtained from 25%, 35% and 44% TBA exhibit a distinctive morphology of uniform and spherical microparticles with diameters of approximately 3-4 microm, and the spherical zinc peptide particles are more predominant when the TBA level approaches 20%. Adopting quench cooling in the lyophilization cycle leads to irregular shape fine powders, and eliminating the annealing step causes rough particles surface. When TBA concentration increases above 54%, the lyophiles demonstrate primarily irregular shape particles. A proposed mechanism of spherical particle formation of the 3:1 zinc peptide encompasses the freezing of a TBA/water solution (20-70% TBA) causing the formation of a TBA hydrate

  18. Implication of extracellular zinc exclusion by recombinant human calprotectin (MRP8 and MRP14 from target cells in its apoptosis-inducing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yui

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding and zinc-binding protein complex that is abundant in the cytosol of neutrophils. This factor is composed of 8 and 14 kDa subunits, which have also been termed migration inhibitory factor-related proteins MRP8 and MRP14. We previously reported that rat calprotectin purified from inflammatory neutrophils induces apoptosis of various tumor cells or normal fibroblasts in a zinc-reversible manner.

  19. Metallothionein provides zinc-mediated protective effects against methamphetamine toxicity in SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Swinscoe, John; Shavali, Shaik; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2005-11-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse and neurotoxin that induces Parkinson's-like pathology after chronic usage by targeting dopaminergic neurons. Elucidation of the intracellular mechanisms that underlie METH-induced dopaminergic neuron toxicity may help in understanding the mechanism by which neurons die in Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the METH-induced death of human dopaminergic SK-N-SH cells and further assessed the neuroprotective effects of zinc and metallothionein (MT) against METH-induced toxicity in culture. METH significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, decreased intracellular ATP levels and reduced the cell viability. Pre-treatment with zinc markedly prevented the loss of cell viability caused by METH treatment. Zinc pre-treatment mainly increased the expression of metallothionein and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion caused by METH. Chelation of zinc by CaEDTA caused a significant decrease in MT expression and loss of protective effects of MT against METH toxicity. These results suggest that zinc-induced MT expression protects dopaminergic neurons via preventing the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species and halting the decrease in ATP levels. Furthermore, MT may prevent the loss of mitochondrial functions caused by neurotoxins. In conclusion, our study suggests that MT, a potent scavenger of free radicals is neuroprotective against dopaminergic toxicity in conditions such as drug of abuse and in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  1. Modulation of ruminal and intestinal fermentation by medicinal plants and zinc from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradyová, Zora; Mravčáková, Dominika; Holodová, Monika; Grešáková, Ľubomira; Pisarčíková, Jana; Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Kišidayová, Svetlana; Čobanová, Klaudia

    2018-06-14

    Two experiments were conducted on sheep to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and a medicinal plant mixture on haematological parameters and microbial activity in the rumen and large intestine. In Experiment 1, 24 male lambs were randomly divided into four groups: One group was fed an unsupplemented basal diet (control), and three groups were fed a diet supplemented with 70 mg Zn/kg diet in the form of Zn sulphate (ZnSO 4 ), a Zn-chelate of glycine hydrate (Zn-Gly) or a Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro), for five months. The ruminal content was collected separately from each lamb, and batch cultures of ruminal fluid were incubated in vitro with mixture of medicinal plants (Mix) with different roughage:concentrate ratios (800:200 and 400:600, w/w). Bioactive compounds in Mix were quantified by UPLC/MS/MS. In Experiment 2, four sheep were fed a diet consisting of meadow hay and barley grain (400:600, w/w), with Zn-Gly (70 mg Zn/kg diet), Mix (10% replacement of meadow hay) or Zn-Gly and Mix (Zn-Gly-Mix) as supplements in a Latin square design. Mix decreased total gas (p  0.05). The diets containing medicinal plants and organic zinc thus helped to modulate the characteristics of fermentation in ruminants. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Savarimuthu, Baskar Raj; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Rubach, Jon K.; Brown, Eric N.; Ramaswamy, S. (Iowa)

    2017-07-07

    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentate chelators 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ~1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water.

  3. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  4. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  5. Zinc-Catalyzed Synthesis of Conjugated Dienoates through Unusual Cross-Couplings of Zinc Carbenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Sergio; González, María J; González, Jesús; López, Luis A; Vicente, Rubén

    2017-01-23

    Zinc-catalyzed selective cross-coupling of two carbene sources, such as vinyl diazo compounds and enynones, enabled the synthesis of conjugated dienoate derivatives. This reaction involved the unprecedented coupling of a zinc furyl carbene with vinyl diazo compounds through the γ-carbon. Alternatively, dienoates were also prepared by a commutative cross-coupling of zinc vinyl carbenes generated from cyclopropenes and simple diazo compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth.Clinical Trail Registration India (CTRI CTRI

  7. Research and application of zinc injection in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lei

    2012-01-01

    In the middle 1990s, some PWRs in USA and Germany started to inject Zinc into the reactor coolant system for reducing both radiation fields and primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Based on data from the labs and experience in the demonstration pants, Zinc injection obviously reduced radiation fields, and effectively mitigated PWSCC. Plants in USA injected high concentration zinc that is 15 ppb to 40 ppb to restrained PWSCC. Whereas, plants in Germany injected low concentration zinc that is 5 ppb to 10 ppb to reduce radiation fields. There are more than ten years at aspect of zinc rejection in overseas PWR, but domestic plants don't add zinc. The building PWR in Zhejiang Sanmen is the first AP1000 unit in the world, according to requirement of designers, it will start to inject zinc in the initial fuel cycle. (author)

  8. ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

  9. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  10. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Wakana; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Irié, Tarou; Izumi, Hironori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hara, Takafumi; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Robine, Sylvie; Mori, Hisashi; Hattori, Yuichi; Mishima, Kenji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27736879

  11. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Ohashi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  12. Efecto del hialuronato de zinc sobre las úlceras en pacientes con diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ramos Cuevas

    Full Text Available Contexto: La úlcera en el pie diabético es una de las principales complicaciones de la diabetes en extremidades bajas. Del 50 al 70% de las amputaciones en extremidades bajas se realizan a pacientes con diabetes. El hialuronato de zinc ha sido probado en el tratamiento de las úlceras diabéticas del pie con resultados prometedores. Objetivo general: Determinar el grado de eficacia del hialuronato de zinc en la curación de úlceras del pie diabético. Diseño: Ensayo terapéutico abierto al azar. Se les dio seguimiento a los pacientes durante un período de doce semanas de junio a diciembre de 2004. Ubicación: Centro de cuidado terciario. Clínica del Pie Diabético. Pacientes: Fueron seleccionados por muestreo consecutivo cincuenta pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 con úlcera en pie, de ambos sexos y con edades entre los 40 y los 80 años y sin una isquemia más baja de la extremidad. Veinticinco de ellos fueron asignados aleatoriamente al grupo del hialuronato de zinc y el resto al grupo de control (tratamiento convencional. La distribución por sexo de género fue similar en ambos grupos, once del femenino (44% y 14 del masculino (56%. La edad promedio en el grupo de la combinación del ácido hialurónico y zinc fue 56,76 ± 8,78 y en el convencional 60,12 ± 8,42, NS. ningún paciente del grupo de hialuronato de zinc abandonó o fue retirado durante el período del estudio. Un paciente del grupo de control falleció. Intervención: El hialuronato de zinc fue aplicado una vez al día en la superficie de la úlcera después de limpiarla con la solución fisiológica salina. Medida principal del resultado: La eficacia del hialuronato de zinc fue determinada por las semanas que se requirieron para conseguir el cierre completo de la úlcera con el tejido fino epitelial (tiempo curativo medio. Material y métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado. Pacientes con úlceras propias del pie diabético. 1 de julio al 30 de septiembre de 2004, 25 pacientes

  13. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Objectives To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016. We also contacted researchers. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Data collection and analysis Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. The primary outcomes were diarrhoea duration and severity. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using either a fixed-effect or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met our inclusion criteria. Most included trials were conducted in Asian countries that were at high risk of zinc deficiency. Acute diarrhoea There is currently not enough evidence from well-conducted RCTs to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months of age, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (MD −11.46 hours, 95% CI −19.72 to −3.19; 2581 children, 9 trials, low

  14. ZnO film deposition by DC magnetron sputtering: Effect of target configuration on the film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakelova, E.; Khachatryan, A.; Kteyan, A.; Avjyan, K.; Grigoryan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ballistic transport model for target-to-substrate atom transfer during magnetron sputter deposition was used to develop zinc target (cathode) configuration that enabled growth of uniform zinc oxide films on extensive surfaces and provided reproducibility of films characteristics irrespective of the cathode wear-out. The advantage of the developed target configuration for high-quality ZnO film deposition was observed in the sputtering pressure range of 5− 50 mTorr, and in the range of cathode-to-substrate distances 7–20 cm. Characteristics of the deposited films were demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as optical and electrical measurements. - Highlights: • Change of target configuration for optimization of magnetron sputtering deposition is proposed. • Improvement of ZnO film properties due to use of this target is demonstrated. • This configuration provided reproducibility of the deposited films properties.

  15. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and endogenous excretion of zinc have been derived as fits to data for specific study groups. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and the model for zinc currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection yield reasonably similar estimates of total-body retention and effective dose for internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but much different systemic distributions of activity and much different dose estimates for some individual tissues, particularly the liver. - Highlights: ► Zinc is an essential trace element with numerous functions in the human body. ► Several biokinetic models for zinc have been developed from tracer studies on humans. ► More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed in radiation protection. ► Biokinetic data for zinc are reviewed and a new biokinetic model is proposed for radiation protection. ► The proposed model may also be useful for investigation of zinc physiology and homeostasis.

  16. Band offset in zinc oxy-sulfide/cubic-tin sulfide interface from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, K.C.; Nair, P.K.; Nair, M.T.S., E-mail: mtsn@ier.unam.mx

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Zinc oxy-sulfide thin films, 175–240 nm, deposited by rf-sputtering from targets of ZnO + ZnS. • Oxygen content in thin films is enhanced 3–4 times compared with that in ZnO:ZnS targets. • Thin film ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with x = 0.88–0.27 and optical band gap 2.8–3.2 eV is suitable for solar cells. • The conduction band offset with SnS of cubic structure studied by XPS are +0.41 to −0.28 eV. - Abstract: Zinc oxy-sulfide, ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}, has been found to provide better band alignment in thin film solar cells of tin sulfide of orthorhombic crystalline structure. Here we examine ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}/SnS-CUB interface, in which the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin film was deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering on SnS thin film of cubic (CUB) crystalline structure with a band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.72 eV, obtained via chemical deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the valence band maxima of the materials and hence places the conduction band offset of 0.41 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} and −0.28 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12} interfaces. Thin films of ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with 175–240 nm in thickness were deposited from targets prepared with different ZnO to ZnS molar ratios. With the target of molar ratio of 1:13.4, the thin films are of composition ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} with hexagonal crystalline structure and with that of 1:1.7 ratio, it is ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12}. The optical band gap of the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin films varies from 2.90 eV to 3.21 eV as the sulfur to zinc ratio in the film increases from 0.12:1 to 0.73:1 as determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. Thus, band offsets sought for absorber materials and zinc oxy-sulfide in solar cells may be achieved through a choice of ZnO:ZnS ratio in the sputtering target.

  17. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damitha De Mel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  18. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-15

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  19. [Effect of cultivation in zinc media on the growth of and the degree of zinc in organic form in transgenic metallothionein mushroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Shen, Lin; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich and metal-binding functional proteins. Transgenic MT mushroom can be used as functional food additives, but its zinc-enriching ability has not been studied systemically until now. The zinc contents in mycelia of transgenic MT mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and wild type mushroom mycelia cultivated in different zinc concentration media were analyzed by ICP-OES. The growth status, zinc-enriching ability and degree of zinc in organic form (DZOF) were also analyzed. Results showed that MT mushroom mycelia grew rapidly, but the growth was inhibited when the zinc content in solid media was higher than 1.6 mmol x L(-1). MT mushroom mycelia could enrich more zinc than that of wild type, and the zinc content in MT mushroom mycelia could be 2.56-27.49 mg x kg(-1) when it was cultivated in a liquid media with 0.6-1.2 mmol x L(-1) zinc. DZOF of MT mushroom mycelia in a liquid media with 0.6 mmol x L(-1) zinc at 7 d was significantly higher (88.7%) than that in the wild type (82.1%, alpha = 0.05), but there was no significant difference in DZOF when the MT mushroom mycelia was cultivated in a liquid media with different zinc content at 7 d.

  20. BWR radiation buildup control with ionic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, W.J.; Wood, C.J.; Leighty, C.E.; Green, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983 a hypothesis was disclosed which suggested that the presence of ionic zinc in the reactor water of the BWR could reduce radiation buildup. This hypothesis was developed from correlations of plant data, and subsequently, from laboratory experiments which demonstrated clearly that ionic zinc inhibits the corrosion of stainless steel. The benefits of zinc addition have been measured at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center under and EPRI/GE project. Experimentation and analyses have been performed to evaluate the impact of intentional zinc addition on the IGSCC characteristics of primary system materials and on the performance of the nuclear fuel. It has been concluded that no negative effects are expected. The author conclude that the intentional addition of ionic zinc to the BWR reactor water at a concentration of approximately 10 ppb will provide major benefits in controlling the Co-60 buildup on primary system stainless steel surfaces. The intentional addition of zinc is now a qualified technique for use in BWRs

  1. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc

  2. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  3. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on zinc oxide manufacturing process. The present work deals with the character and morphology of the input material for the production of ZnO by the indirect pyrometallurgical process. Undesirable phases in the feedstock can be identified through profound recognition of the source material and the nature of its microstructure. If these compounds diffuse into the lining during thermal processes, they become the cause of stress in metallurgical ceramics. The emergence of these chemical reactions may subsequently affect the entire metallurgical zinc smelting process. The results obtained by analysis are used to minimize waste - zinc slag and to eliminate the conditions which enable the formation of the undesired product, thereby increasing the productivity of the ZnO production.

  4. The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, Tim H.; Cole, Ivan S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The zeta potentials of various oxide particles, as determined by microelectrophoresis, are reported as a function of pH. Particulates containing a majority of zinc hydroxycarbonate and zinc hydroxysulfate crystallites were found to possess a negative surface charge below pH 6, whilst zinc oxide-hydroxide and zinc hydroxychloride crystallites possessed isoelectric points (IEP's) higher than pH 8. The ability of chloride species to pass through a bed of 3 μm diameter zinc powder was found to increase for surfaces possessing carboxy and sulfate surface species, suggesting that negatively charged surfaces can aid in the repulsion of chloride ions. Electrochemical analysis of the open-circuit potential as a function of time at a fixed pH of 6.5 showed that the chemical composition of passive films on zinc plates influenced the ability of chloride ions to access anodic sites for periods of approximately 1 h

  5. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  6. Zinc injection helps reduce radiation field buildup in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1991-01-01

    The injection of zinc into the reactor water of BWRs (Boiling Water Reactors) was a technique developed by General Electric (GE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to control the buildup of radiation fields from cobalt-60 on out-of-core piping. The presence of 5-10ppb zinc in the reactor water reduces the growth of oxide films on stainless steel surfaces, thereby reducing the number of sites available for the incorporation of cobalt; zinc also competes with cobalt for the sites. In September 1990, EPRI organized a workshop at the request of several US utilities to provide a forum to discuss experiences with zinc injection. The meeting focused on six main issues: the effect of zinc on radiation fields in normal water chemistry; the radiation buildup in hydrogen water chemistry, with and without zinc; the effects of zinc-65; the corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials; the performance of zinc injection and monitoring equipment; and planning for zinc injection. (author)

  7. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed.

  8. Serum zinc status of neonates with seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Sharmeen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizure is a common neurological disorder in neonatal age group!. Primary metabolic derangement is one of the important reason behind this convulsion during this period. Among primary metabolic derangement hypoglycemia, is most common followed by bypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, low zinc status etc. As causes of many cases of convul­sion remain unknown in neonate. Objectives: To see the zinc status in the sera of neonate with convulsion. So that if needed early intervention can be taken up and thereby prevent complications. Method: A total of 50 neonates (1-28 days who had convulsion with no apparent reasons of convulsion were enrolled as cases and 50 healthy age and sex matched neonates were enrolled as controls. After a quick clinical evaluation serum zinc status was estimated from venous blood by atomic absorption method in Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre. Low zinc was considered if serum value was <0.7mg/L. Results: Among a total of 50 cases 6% had low zinc value & 2% of controls also had low zinc level. The mean serwu zinc level of cases and controls were 1.57±0.95 and 2.37±1.06 mmol/1 respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion: From the study it is seen that low zinc value is an important cause of neonatal seizure due to primary metabolic abnormalities. So early recognition and treatment could save these babies from long term neurological sequelies.

  9. Low-temperature solution-processed zinc oxide field effect transistor by blending zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-mo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Kim, Jun Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel methods of fabricating low-temperature (180 °C), solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors using a ZnO precursor that is blended with zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] and zinc oxide hydrate (ZnO • H2O) in an ammonium solution. By using the proposed method, we successfully improved the electrical performance of the transistor in terms of the mobility (μ), on/off current ratio (I on/I off), sub-threshold swing (SS), and operational stability. Our new approach to forming a ZnO film was systematically compared with previously proposed methods. An atomic forced microscopic (AFM) image and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that our method increases the ZnO crystallite size with less OH‑ impurities. Thus, we attribute the improved electrical performance to the better ZnO film formation using the blending methods.

  10. Critical rate of electrolyte circulation for preventing zinc dendrite formation in a zinc-bromine redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeon Sun; Park, Jong Ho; Ra, Ho Won; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    In a zinc-bromine redox flow battery, a nonaqueous and dense polybromide phase formed because of bromide oxidation in the positive electrolyte during charging. This formation led to complicated two-phase flow on the electrode surface. The polybromide and aqueous phases led to different kinetics of the Br/Br- redox reaction; poor mixing of the two phases caused uneven redox kinetics on the electrode surface. As the Br/Br- redox reaction was coupled with the zinc deposition reaction, the uneven redox reaction on the positive electrode was accompanied by nonuniform zinc deposition and zinc dendrite formation, which degraded battery stability. A single-flow cell was operated at varying electrolyte circulation rates and current densities. Zinc dendrite formation was observed after cell disassembly following charge-discharge testing. In addition, the flow behavior in the positive compartment was observed by using a transparent version of the cell. At low rate of electrolyte circulation, the polybromide phase clearly separated from the aqueous phase and accumulated at the bottom of the flow frame. In the corresponding area on the negative electrode, a large amount of zinc dendrites was observed after charge-discharge testing. Therefore, a minimum circulation rate should be considered to avoid poor mixing of the positive electrolyte.

  11. Influence of ageing on zinc bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-12-01

    Currently, soil quality criteria or soil risk assessments of metals are based on laboratory toxicity tests which are carried out in soils freshly spiked with metal salts. With these data, species sensitivity distributions are fitted, from which hazardous concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations are derived. However, due to long-term processes, called ageing, soil metal availability decreases with time. Here we show that pH is the most important parameter determining the effect of ageing on zinc partitioning in soils, with the effect of ageing becoming more important with increasing pH. Furthermore, zinc bioavailability, expressed as the internal zinc concentrations in red clover (Trifolium pratense) is closely related to pore water zinc concentration. In addition, there is a clear dose-response relationship between the survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the calcium chloride-extracted zinc fraction. These results indicate that zinc partitioning can be used to predict zinc bioavailability to terrestrial organisms. However, the use of spiked soils in toxicity assays can result in an over-estimation of the effects of zinc, especially at a high pH. - Zn ageing is affected by pH, while Zn partitioning can be used to predict its bioavailability.

  12. Introducing zinc cations into zeolite Y via the reduction of HY with zinc metal vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A.; Boddenberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites HY and NaY which were contacted with zinc metal vapour at 420°C were investigated by carbon monoxide and xenon adsorption as well as 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. The reaction of zeolite HY results in the incorporation of Zn 2+ cations which are shown to populate the supercage positions S II and S III to an unusually high extent. The supercage zinc cation concentration strongly decreases when the material is saturated with water and subsequently dehydrated at 400°C. The zeolite NaY turns out to be inert towards the reaction with zinc metal vapour.

  13. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  14. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  15. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Noviyana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C.

  16. Erythrocyte zinc levels in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik Yilmaz, E; Ozmen, S; Bostanci, I; Misirlioglu, E Dibek; Ertan, U

    2011-12-01

    Zinc deficiency may be suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis, control, and severity of asthma because of its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate whether there was any relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and childhood asthma. The erythrocyte zinc levels of 67 asthmatic and 45 healthy children were analyzed in this case-control study. The mean concentrations of erythrocyte zinc were 1215.8 ± 145.1 µg/dl in asthma patients and 1206.9 ± 119.5 µg/dl in controls with no significant difference (P = 0.472). The erythrocyte zinc level was below 1,000 µg/dl in 6 asthmatic patients (8.9%) and 2 control group patients (4.4%). There was no relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and duration of follow-up, severity, and control of the asthma (P > 0.05). On the other hand, patients hospitalized for an asthma attack had significantly lower erythrocyte zinc levels compared with nonhospitalized patients and the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.004 respectively). This study's findings indicate that asthmatic children are not a risk group for zinc deficiency. We emphasize that checking zinc levels in children who are hospitalized for an asthma attack may be useful. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Zinc vanadate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Lin, N.; Wei, T.; Liu, H.D.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of zinc vanadate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Zinc vanadate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue under solar light. - Abstract: Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and sodium vanadate as the raw materials. The zinc vanadate nanorods have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern and HRTEM image show that the zinc vanadate nanorods are composed of single crystalline monoclinic Zn 2 V 2 O 7 phase. SEM and TEM observations show that the diameter and length of the zinc vanadate nanorods are 50–100 nm and about 5 μm, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) has an essential role in the formation of zinc vanadate nanorods. The SDS-assisted nucleation and growth process have been proposed to explain the formation and growth of the zinc vanadate nanorods. Solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that the zinc vanadate nanorods have a band gap of 2.76 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the zinc vanadate nanorods have been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. The MB with the concentration of 10 mg L −1 can be degraded totally under the solar light irradiation for 4 h. It is suggested that the zinc vanadate nanorods exhibit promising application potential for the degradation of organic pollutants under solar light irradiation

  18. Zinc Finger Nuclease induced DNA double stranded breaks and rearrangements in MLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, To Uyen; Ho, Bay; Shih, Shyh-Jen; Vaughan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) targeting a leukemogenic hot spot for rearrangement in MLL is created. ► The novel ZFN efficiently cleaves MLL exon 13. ► Despite MLL cleavage and evidence of mis-repair, no leukemogenic translocations were produced. ► MLL cleavage alone is insufficient to generate leukemogenic translocations. - Abstract: Radiation treatment or chemotherapy has been linked with a higher risk of secondary cancers such as therapy related Acute Myeloid Leukemia (tAML). Several of these cancers have been shown to be correlated to the introduction of double stranded breaks (DSB) and rearrangements within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. We used Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) to introduce precise cuts within MLL to examine how a single DNA DSB might lead to chromosomal rearrangements. A ZFN targeting exon 13 within the Breakpoint Cluster Region of MLL was transiently expressed in a human lymphoblast cell line originating from a CML patient. Although FISH analysis showed ZFN DSB at this region increased the rate of MLL fragmentation, we were unable to detect leukemogenic rearrangements or translocations via inverse PCR. Interestingly, gene fragmentation as well as small interstitial deletions, insertions and base substitutions increased with the inhibition of DNA-PK, suggesting repair of this particular DSB is linked to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although mis-repair of DSBs may be necessary for the initiation of leukemogenic translocations, a MLL targeted DNA break alone is insufficient

  19. Zinc Finger Nuclease induced DNA double stranded breaks and rearrangements in MLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, To Uyen [Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States); Ho, Bay; Shih, Shyh-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States); Vaughan, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.vaughan@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► A Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) targeting a leukemogenic hot spot for rearrangement in MLL is created. ► The novel ZFN efficiently cleaves MLL exon 13. ► Despite MLL cleavage and evidence of mis-repair, no leukemogenic translocations were produced. ► MLL cleavage alone is insufficient to generate leukemogenic translocations. - Abstract: Radiation treatment or chemotherapy has been linked with a higher risk of secondary cancers such as therapy related Acute Myeloid Leukemia (tAML). Several of these cancers have been shown to be correlated to the introduction of double stranded breaks (DSB) and rearrangements within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. We used Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) to introduce precise cuts within MLL to examine how a single DNA DSB might lead to chromosomal rearrangements. A ZFN targeting exon 13 within the Breakpoint Cluster Region of MLL was transiently expressed in a human lymphoblast cell line originating from a CML patient. Although FISH analysis showed ZFN DSB at this region increased the rate of MLL fragmentation, we were unable to detect leukemogenic rearrangements or translocations via inverse PCR. Interestingly, gene fragmentation as well as small interstitial deletions, insertions and base substitutions increased with the inhibition of DNA-PK, suggesting repair of this particular DSB is linked to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although mis-repair of DSBs may be necessary for the initiation of leukemogenic translocations, a MLL targeted DNA break alone is insufficient.

  20. MCTS (Exams 70-640, 70-642 and 70-643)

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2011-01-01

    The must-have study guide for all three Windows Server 2008 R2 MCTS examsNetwork administrators boost their value to their employers with certification, and Microsoft?s three Windows Server 2008 exams offer certification specialties in configuring Active Directory, Network Infrastructure, and Applications Infrastructure. With complete coverage to prepare you for all three exams, this comprehensive study guide has three times the value. Real-world scenarios and hands-on exercises supplement the information to facilitate learning.The three Windows Server 2008 R2 exams (70-640, 70-642, and 70-643

  1. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  2. Results of zinc injection test for Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, K.; Masuda, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Sudo, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    1998-01-01

    A zinc injection test was preformed at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 for suppressing radiation dose rate on primary coolant recirculation piping after the replacement of piping. Zinc ion was injected by using injection system where Depleted Zinc Oxide was dissolved in carbonated water. Controllability of the system was sufficient to maintain concentration of zinc in primary water. The concentration of zinc in the primary coolant was controlled from 1 ppb to 5 ppb gradually. The increasing trend of concentration of Co-60 in the coolant was suppressed at zinc concentration of 3 ppb. It is evaluated that the deposition coefficient of Co-60 onto the surface of primary coolant recirculation piping was suppressed to one-third of previous cycle in average, and one-fourth of that just before injection start at zinc concentration of 5 ppb. We concluded that zinc injection is effective for suppressing dose rate on the primary coolant piping and no adverse effect occurs by zinc injection up to 5 ppb in the primary coolant. (J.P.N.)

  3. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  4. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  5. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  6. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  7. Influence of structural and surface properties of whey-derived peptides on zinc-chelating capacity, and in vitro gastric stability and bioaccessibility of the zinc-peptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udechukwu, M Chinonye; Downey, Brianna; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2018-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stability of zinc-peptide complexes is essential for zinc delivery. As peptide surface charge can influence their metal complex stability, we evaluated the zinc-chelating capacity and stability of zinc complexes of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH), produced with Everlase (WPH-Ever; ζ-potential, -39mV) and papain (WPH-Pap; ζ-potential, -7mV), during simulated digestion. WPH-Ever had lower amount of zinc-binding amino acids but showed higher zinc-chelating capacity than WPH-Pap. This is attributable to the highly anionic surface charge of WPH-Ever for electrostatic interaction with zinc. Release of zinc during peptic digestion was lower for WPH-Ever-zinc, and over 50% of zinc remained bound in both peptide complexes after peptic-pancreatic digestion. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests the involvement of carboxylate ion, and sidechain carbon-oxygen of aspartate/glutamate and serine/threonine in zinc-peptide complexation. The findings indicate that strong zinc chelation can promote gastric stability and impede intestinal release, for peptides intended for use as dietary zinc carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The stratigraphy of the Malmani dolomite subgroup in the Carletonville area, Transvaal: genetic implications for lead-zinc mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    The geological setting of a borehole intersection of lead-zinc mineralization in the Malmani Dolomite Subgroup in the Carletonville area is discussed. It is suggested that the lead and zinc ions were derived from the overlying shales, transported as bisulphide complexes in silica-enriched, alkaline solutions, and deposited during silicification in the upper part of the dolomite succession which contains relic evaporites. Lead isotope data suggests that the known lead-zinc deposits in the Transvaal sequence are not of major importance. However, the dolomites are regarded as very probable hosts for Mississippi Valley type base metal deposits and offer important exploration targets. This study includes lead isotopic data. Lead isotope compositions and model lead ages for galenas in the zinc deposits are shown. It is concluded that the leads have undergone either a two-stage evolution process, or have mixed with 206 Pb-enriched ores. Model ages suggest that the lead was derived from an approximate 2,7 Ga source and that mineralization took place at 1,7 Ga

  9. Zinc absorption and kinetics during pregnancy and lactation in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen M; Zapata, Carmiña L Vargas; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Shames, David M; Mukherjea, Ratna; King, Janet C

    2005-07-01

    Adjustments in zinc absorption and endogenous excretion maintain zinc homeostasis in nonpregnant adults fed low-zinc diets. The effects on zinc homeostasis of a low zinc intake during pregnancy and lactation have not been described in a longitudinal study. We examined longitudinal changes in fractional zinc absorption (FZA) and zinc kinetics in 10 healthy Brazilian women who habitually consumed a marginal zinc diet ( approximately 9 mg Zn/d). Zinc status was measured at 10-12 (early pregnancy; EP) and 34-36 (late pregnancy; LP) wk of pregnancy and at 7-8 wk after delivery (early lactation; EL). Zinc kinetics and FZA were studied by using stable isotopic tracers. Zinc intake averaged 9 +/- 3 mg/d throughout the study. FZA increased from 29 +/- 6% at EP to 43 +/- 10% at LP and to 39 +/- 13% at EL (P zinc at EL (r = -0.73, P = 0.02) and LP (r = -0.72, P = 0.07). Plasma zinc mass was 23% greater at LP than at EP or EL (P zinc (mg/d) that fluxed between plasma and the most-rapidly-turning-over extravascular pool was 53% greater at LP than at EP or EL (P zinc flux between plasma and the less-rapidly-turning-over zinc pool at EL was 27% greater than that at EP or LP, but this difference was not significant. FZA increased significantly in women with marginal zinc intakes during pregnancy and lactation; the increase was higher in women with low plasma zinc. Plasma zinc was distributed into a different exchangeable pool at LP than at EL.

  10. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  11. [Effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations of free-living Chilean elderly adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos H, Rosa Isela; Atalah S, Eduardo; Urteaga R, Carmen; Castañeda L, Rutila; Orozco L, Maribel; Avila, Laura; Martínez, Homero

    2007-08-01

    Zinc intake is well below recommendation among Chilean free living elderly adults of low socioeconomic level. To assess the effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations in elderly adults (EA). Ambulatory EA (> or = 70) with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure, ascribed to public family health centers were studied. They were separated in a control and intervention group, without blinding techniques. The intervention group consumed daily 50 g of a special nutritional supplement prepared as a soup or porridge, provided by the Government, for 3 months. The control group did not receive the supplement. A good compliance with the supplement was defined as a consumption of 7 portions per week. A fasting venous blood sample was obtained to determine plasma zinc at the beginning and end of the study. Forty three supplemented EA aged 76+/-5 years (21 women) and 31 non supplemented EA aged 78+/-5 years (20 women), completed 3 months of follow up. Mean compliance with the supplement was 40.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 40.3-40.6%). General characteristics of the study subjects upon recruitment were similar, except for the literacy that was higher in the intervention group. We fitted a multiple linear regression model which explained 39% of the variance, where the consumption of the nutritional supplement increased the concentration of plasmatic zinc by 4.14 microg/dL (95% CI 0.25-8.02) (pfood supplement significantly increased plasma zinc concentrations in Chilean elderly adults.

  12. First stages of zinc runoff in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meraz, E.; Veleva, L.; Acosta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relatively good atmospheric resistance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runoff. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdoor atmosphere (rural and urban). The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20-12,40±0.30 g/m''2 ano), being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed. (Author) 48 refs

  13. Plasma melting and recycling technology for decommissioning material. Removal of zinc and lead of ferrous scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Amakawa, Tadashi; Yasui, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    A great amount of nonradioactive waste such as concrete, metal and the like, will be generated intensively in a short period when dismantling nuclear power plants. Thus, it is very important for smooth dismantling to promote their recycling. Melting operates conditions to recycle metal easily, but degrades the quality by contamination of tramp elements. So it was performed to melt carbon steel coated with anti-corrosive paint including lead, zinc, etc. and to analyze the steel grade for study of obtaining the desired grade. On some test conditions, concentration of lead and zinc just after melting all samples lowered less than target concentration which was permissible for cast iron. About the unsatisfactory conditions when a lot of slag generated, concentration of zinc was simulated changing the sequence of plasma melting. The result showed that an efficient sequence controlled input energy to maintain molten bath after melting all samples as quickly as possible. (author)

  14. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  15. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  16. A regenerative zinc-air fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, Stuart I. [Electrochemical Technology Development Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Zhang, X. Gregory [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., 2380 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-20

    The zinc regenerative fuel cell (ZRFC) developed by the former Metallic Power Inc. over the period from 1998 to 2004 is described. The component technologies and engineering solutions for various technical issues are discussed in relation to their functionality in the system. The system was designed to serve as a source of backup emergency power for remote or difficult to access cell phone towers during periods when the main power was interrupted. It contained a 12 cell stack providing 1.8 kW, a separate fuel tank containing zinc pellet fuel and electrolyte, and a zinc electrolyzer to regenerate the zinc pellets during standby periods. Offsite commissioning and testing of the system was successfully performed. The intellectual property of the ZRFC technology is now owned by Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. (author)

  17. Hair Zinc: an Index for Zinc Status in Under-Five Children from Low-Income Communities in Kanam Area of North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryum, Kiri H; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday C; Stoecker, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of trace elements are among the top ten causes of death in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kanam Local Government Area of Nigeria, the problem is compounded by high levels of poverty and illiteracy. Abnormally low hair zinc levels are important, sensitive diagnostic biochemical indices of Zinc deficiency. The purpose of this study is to assess the zinc status of children less than 5 years in Kanam local government area, north-central Nigeria, by measuring the zinc level in hair samples collected from 44 under-5 children across the area. A household survey was made to assess the pattern and frequency of consumption of zinc-rich foods which was done by means of questionnaire. Hair samples were analysed for zinc content by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t test, z test, and Pearson correlation, while questionnaire-captured data were analysed by simple arithmetic. The results of the analyses showed that the average hair zinc level was 74.35 ± 48.05 μg/g. This was below the normal range of 130-140 μg/g, for children less than 5 years. Based on the results, 86.36% have hair zinc level below the lower limit of the normal range of 130 μg/g. Between the gender, boys have higher hair zinc content than girls. Data from the questionnaire showed that 53.45% of the population studied have poor/inadequate intake of zinc-rich foods of animal origin, a dietary behaviour reported to predispose to micronutrient deficiency, including zinc.

  18. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2009-03-01

    Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.

  19. Effect of phosphorus and organic matter on zinc availability on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.N.; Kamath, M.B.; Motsara, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pot culture experiment was conducted on grey brown podzolic soil (Palampur) and Tarai soil (Pantnagar) to study the influence of the addition of organic matter, phosphorus and zinc on the uptake and utilization of zinc by rice crop. In podzolic soils the combined application of Zn-P and Zn-organic matter resulted in reduced zinc content in crop but the crop yield was not affected. The uptake and utilization of applied zinc increased with P application. In Tarai soil, crop response to Zn, P and organic matter was obtained when applied separately. A negative zinc x P and zinc x organic matter interaction was obtained on yield. However, zinc content of the crop increased due to the application of P, organic matter and zinc. The uptake and utilization of applied zinc increased with P application. The analysis of soils after crop harvest indicated an increased amount of 0.1 N HCl extractable zinc in soils treated with zinc in Tarai soils while in podzolic soil from Palampur, the available zinc increased only under the combined application of zinc and P. (author)

  20. An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Denghui; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Ying; Xiao Jing; Liang Chunjun; Pei Zhiliang; Sun Chao

    2005-01-01

    Doped zinc oxides are attractive alternative materials as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO). Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. Films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 150-bar o C in 0.03 Pa of oxygen pressure. The electrical and optical properties of the film with the Al-doping amount of 2 wt% in the target were investigated. For the 300-nm thick AZO film deposited using a ZnO target with an Al content of 2 wt%, the lowest electrical resistivity was 4x10 -4 Ωcm and the average transmission in the visible range 400-700 nm was more than 90%. The AZO film was used as an anode contact to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. The device performance was measured and the current efficiency of 2.9 cd/A was measured at a current density of 100 mA/cm 2

  1. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  2. Zinc movement in the brain under kainate-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Hirate, Maki; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2003-05-01

    On the basis of the evidence that elimination of 65Zn from the brain of epilepsy (EL) mice is facilitated by induction of seizures, zinc movement in the brain was studied in mice injected with kainate (12 mg/kg x 3), which exhibited status epilepticus within 120 min after the last injection of kainate. Zinc concentrations in the brain were determined 24 h after the last injection of kainate. Zinc concentrations in the hippocampus, amygdala and cerebral cortex, in which zinc-containing glutamatergic neuron terminals exist, were significantly decreased by the treatment with kainate, while that in the cerebellum was not decreased. Timm's stain in the brain was extensively attenuated 24 h after the last injection of kainate. These results indicate that zinc homeostasis in the brain is affected by kainate-induced seizures. In the hippocampus of rats injected with kainate (10 mg/kg), furthermore, the release of zinc and glutamate into the extracellular fluid was studied using in vivo microdialysis. The levels of zinc and glutamate in the perfusate were increased along with seizure severity after injection of kainate. It is likely that zinc concentration in the synaptic vesicles is decreased by the excess excitation of glutamatergic neurons. The present study suggests that the excessive release of zinc and glutamate from the neuron terminals under kainate-induced seizures is associated with the loss of zinc from the brain.

  3. Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol...

  4. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, C.E.S.; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel pointof-use water ultrafiltration device

  5. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  6. Zinc removal from wastewater by complexation-microfiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    Trivunac Katarina; Sekulić Zoran; Stevanović Slavica

    2012-01-01

    As a result of its wide industrial applications, zinc has become an important contaminant in aquatic environment since it is a toxic heavy metal and some of its compounds such as zinc arsenate and zinc cyanide, may be extremely hazardous. Therefore, there is a growing need for developing simple methods capable of separating and recovering trace zinc from environmental waters. Nowadays, the ultra and microfiltration method for trace metals removal from waters by the addition of water-sol...

  7. Unusually effective microRNA targeting within repeat-rich coding regions of mammalian mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall-Levin, Michael; Rissland, Olivia S.; Johnston, Wendy K.; Perrimon, Norbert; Bartel, David P.; Berger, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous biological processes by base-pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), primarily through sites in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), to direct the repression of these targets. Although miRNAs have sometimes been observed to target genes through sites in open reading frames (ORFs), large-scale studies have shown such targeting to be generally less effective than 3′ UTR targeting. Here, we show that several miRNAs each target significant groups of genes through multiple sites within their coding regions. This ORF targeting, which mediates both predictable and effective repression, arises from highly repeated sequences containing miRNA target sites. We show that such sequence repeats largely arise through evolutionary duplications and occur particularly frequently within families of paralogous C2H2 zinc-finger genes, suggesting the potential for their coordinated regulation. Examples of ORFs targeted by miR-181 include both the well-known tumor suppressor RB1 and RBAK, encoding a C2H2 zinc-finger protein and transcriptional binding partner of RB1. Our results indicate a function for repeat-rich coding sequences in mediating post-transcriptional regulation and reveal circumstances in which miRNA-mediated repression through ORF sites can be reliably predicted. PMID:21685129

  8. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  9. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, with reduced zinc levels always associated with improvements in function. Taken together, these data support a role for zinc in regulating both development and lifespan in C. elegans, and that suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis in the worm may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy.

  10. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Barhydt, Tracy; Awasthi, Anjali; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Killilea, David W.; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, with reduced zinc levels always associated with improvements in function. Taken together, these data support a role for zinc in regulating both development and lifespan in C. elegans, and that suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis in the worm may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:27078872

  11. Knockout of Myostatin by Zinc-finger Nuclease in Sheep Fibroblasts and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN can negatively regulate the growth and development of skeletal muscle, and natural mutations can cause “double-muscling” trait in animals. In order to block the inhibiting effect of MSTN on muscle growth, we transferred zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN which targeted sheep MSTN gene into cultured fibroblasts. Gene targeted colonies were isolated from transfected fibroblasts by serial dilution culture and screened by sequencing. Two colonies were identified with mono-allele mutation and one colony with bi-allelic deletion. Further, we introduced the MSTN-ZFN mRNA into sheep embryos by microinjection. Thirteen of thirty-seven parthenogenetic embryos were targeted by ZFN, with the efficiency of 35%. Our work established the technical foundation for generation of MSTN gene editing sheep by somatic cloning and microinjection ZFN into embryos.

  12. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  13. [Interaction among the trace elements zinc, copper and iron after depletion and repletion of dairy cows with zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M; Schwarz, F J; Roth, H P; Schwarz, W A

    1978-12-01

    Imbalances in the supply with trace elements may be caused by the excessive administration of one or several elements or the insufficient administration in relation to other trace elements. This article deals with the interactions between the trace elements zinc and copper resp. zinc and iron under the conditions of the insufficient supply with Zn (6 mg per kg dry matter of the fodder) and the supply according to the demand with other trace elements (14 mg copper resp. 83 mg iron per dry matter of the fodder). For this purpose we investigated the copper, iron and zinc content of the milk and the serum of cows that were first depleted of zinc through a semi-synthetic zinc deficiency diet and then repleted with extra allowances of zinc. The closest connections exist between the copper and zinc content of the milk. Thus extreme Zn-deficiency feeding conditions the decreased Zn-content on the one hand and increased Cu-content on the other. In contrast to this, the cows' Zn-excretion in the milk increases after Zn-repletion whereas the Cu-content decreases. This shows a distinctly negative correlation. A loose connection could only be detected for the Cu- and Zn-content of the serum. Though the Zn-content changed considerably in dependence on the Zn-supply, the Cu-content remained largely uninfluenced. The Fe-content of both milk and serum shows no interaction with the nutritive Zn-supply. Only after 19 test weeks of extreme Zn-deficiency could a slight increase of the Fe-concentration be indicated.

  14. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  15. Public sector scale-up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; Lamberti, Laura M; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-12-01

    In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2-59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3%) compared to baseline (38.4%) but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS), increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93) and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10) compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care.

  16. Leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), melatonin and zinc levels in experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism: relation with melatonin and the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2018-03-02

    Background Melatonin, an important neurohormone released from the pineal gland, is generally accepted to exercise an inhibitor effect on the thyroid gland. Zinc mediates the effects of many hormones and is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors. Aim The present study aims to examine the effect of melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy on leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), melatonin and zinc levels in rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Methods This study was performed on the 70 male rats. Experimental animals in the study were grouped as follows: control (C); hypothyroidism (PTU); hypothyroidism + melatonin (PTU + M); hypothyroidism + pinealectomy (PTU + Pnx); hyperthyroidism (H); hyperthyroidism + melatonin (H + M) and hyperthyroidism + pinealectomy (H + Pnx). Blood samples collected at the end of 4-week procedures were analyzed to determine melatonin, leptin, NPY and zinc levels. Results It was found that thyroid parameters thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total T3 (TT3) and total T4 (TT4) decreased in hypothyroidism groups and increased in the groups with hyperthyroidism. The changes in these hormones remained unaffected by melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy. Melatonin levels rose in hyperthyroidism and fell in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels increased in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and pinealectomy, but increased in hyperthyroidism. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect leptin, NPY, melatonin and zinc values in different ways in rats. However, melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy do not have any significant influence on the changes occurring in leptin, NPY and zinc levels in thyroid dysfunction.

  17. Neurotoxicity of dental amalgam is mediated by zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobner, D; Asrari, M

    2003-03-01

    The use of dental amalgam is controversial largely because it contains mercury. We tested whether amalgam caused toxicity in neuronal cultures and whether that toxicity was caused by mercury. In this study, we used cortical cell cultures to show for the first time that amalgam causes nerve cell toxicity in culture. However, the toxicity was not blocked by the mercury chelator, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS), but was blocked by the metal chelator, calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA). DMPS was an effective mercury chelator in this system, since it blocked mercury toxicity. Of the components that comprise amalgam (mercury, zinc, tin, copper, and silver), only zinc neurotoxicity was blocked by CaEDTA. These results indicate that amalgam is toxic to nerve cells in culture by releasing zinc. While zinc is known to be neurotoxic, ingestion of zinc is not a major concern because zinc levels in the body are tightly regulated.

  18. Large zinc cation occupancy of octahedral sites in mechanically activated zinc ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, S. A.; Harris, V. G.; Hamdeh, H. H.; Ho, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The cation site occupancy of a mechanically activated nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powder was determined as (Zn 0.55 2+ Fe 0.18 3+ ) tet [Zr 0.45 2+ Fe 1.82 3+ ] oct O 4 through analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, showing a large redistribution of cations between sites compared to normal zinc ferrite samples. The overpopulation of cations in the octahedral sites was attributed to the ascendance in importance of the ionic radii over the crystal energy and bonding coordination in determining which interstitial sites are occupied in this structurally disordered powder. Slight changes are observed in the local atomic environment about the zinc cations, but not the iron cations, with respect to the spinel structure. The presence of Fe 3+ on both sites is consistent with the measured room temperature magnetic properties. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Kinetic analysis of zinc metabolism and its regulation in normal humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastney, M.E.; Aamodt, R.L.; Rumble, W.F.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc metabolism was studied in 32 normal volunteers after oral or intravenous administration of 65 Zn. Data were collected from the blood, urine, feces, whole body, and over the liver and thigh regions for 9 mo while the subjects consumed their regular diets (containing 10 mg Zn ion/day) and for an additional 9 mo while the subjects received an exogenous oral supplement of 100 mg Zn ion/day. Data from each subject were fitted by a compartmental model for zinc metabolism that was developed previously for patients with taste and smell dysfunction. These data from normal subjects were used to determine the absorption, distribution, and excretion of zinc and the mass of zinc in erythrocytes, liver, thigh, and whole body. By use of additional data obtained from the present study, the model was refined further such that a large compartment, which was previously determined to contain 90% of the body zinc, was subdivided into two compartments to represent zinc in muscle and bone. When oral zinc intake was increased 11-fold three new sites of regulation of zinc metabolism were identified in addition to the two sites previously defined in patients with taste and smell dysfunction (absorption of zinc from gut and excretion of zinc in urine). The three new sites are exchange of zinc with erythrocytes, release of zinc by muscle, and secretion of zinc into gut. Regulation at these five sites appears to maintain some tissue concentrations of zinc when dietary zinc increases

  20. Transparent indium zinc oxide thin films used in photovoltaic cells based on polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besleaga, Cristina; Ion, L.; Ghenescu, Veta; Socol, G.; Radu, A.; Arghir, Iulia; Florica, Camelia; Antohe, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were obtained using pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared by ablation of targets with In concentrations, In/(In + Zn), of 80 at.%, at low substrate temperatures under reactive atmosphere. IZO films were used as transparent electrodes in polymer-based – poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 1:1 blend – photovoltaic cells. The action spectra measurements revealed that IZO-based photovoltaic structures have performances comparable with those using indium–tin–oxide as transparent electrode. - Highlights: ► Indium zinc oxide films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. ► The films had large free carrier density and reasonably high mobility. ► These films fit for transparent electrodes in polymer-based photovoltaic cells.

  1. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  2. Histidine protects against zinc and nickel toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Murphy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a wide range of biological processes and human diseases. Zinc excess is deleterious, and animals require mechanisms to protect against zinc toxicity. To identify genes that modulate zinc tolerance, we performed a forward genetic screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we demonstrate that mutations of the C. elegans histidine ammonia lyase (haly-1 gene promote zinc tolerance. C. elegans haly-1 encodes a protein that is homologous to vertebrate HAL, an enzyme that converts histidine to urocanic acid. haly-1 mutant animals displayed elevated levels of histidine, indicating that C. elegans HALY-1 protein is an enzyme involved in histidine catabolism. These results suggest the model that elevated histidine chelates zinc and thereby reduces zinc toxicity. Supporting this hypothesis, we demonstrated that dietary histidine promotes zinc tolerance. Nickel is another metal that binds histidine with high affinity. We demonstrated that haly-1 mutant animals are resistant to nickel toxicity and dietary histidine promotes nickel tolerance in wild-type animals. These studies identify a novel role for haly-1 and histidine in zinc metabolism and may be relevant for other animals.

  3. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  4. Zinc oxide tetrapod: a morphology with multifunctional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide has emerged as a material of great interest due to its unique optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This review comprehensively covers the various aspects of zinc oxide tetrapods. Tetrapod is a one dimensional zinc oxide nano-microstructure and has been found to have very promising applications in diverse fields. The growth model, properties, synthesis methods and variations in the tetrapod morphology by varying the synthesis conditions have been discussed. The promising applications of zinc oxide tetrapod morphology have been also discussed in detail. (review)

  5. Bioavailability of zinc to aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Exudation, Oryza sativa , Rhizosphere, Rice, Soil, ZincZinc deficiency is a wide-spread constraint for crop production and human health. This thesis should contribute to alleviation of Zn deficiency problems and aimed at identifying soil

  6. Sorption of zinc on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc containing dental amalgams are sometimes used as fillings by dentists. The freshly mixed mass of the amalgam alloy and liquid mercury packed or condensed into a prepared tooth cavity. Zinc has been included in amalgams alloys up to 2% as an aid in manufacturing by helping to produce clean sound castings of the ingots. Although such restorations have a relatively long service life, they are subject to corrosion and galvanic action, thus releasing metallic products into the oral environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the uptake (sorption) of Zinc ionic species on human teeth using the radioactive tracer technique. For this purpose the isotope Zn-65 produced from pile-irradiation of zinc metal was used. The various liquids studied were drinking water (tap water), tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. Sorption was studied through immersion of a single human tooth (extracted) in each of these liquids

  7. Enrichment and identification of the most abundant zinc binding proteins in developing barley grains by Zinc-IMAC capture and nano LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Vincze, Eva

    2018-01-01

    exhibited zinc binding. In the aleurone/subaleurone, zinc affinity captured proteins were late abundant embryogenesis proteins, dehydrins, many isoforms of non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor. Conclusions: We have shown evidence that abundant barley grain proteins have......Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc...

  8. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs are becoming an invaluable animal model for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Unlike traditional transgenesis, which is accomplished by randomly inserting an exogenous transgene cassette into the natural chromosomal context, targeted genome editing...... confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems. These systems provide enormous potential applications. In this chapter, we review the use of TALENs for targeted genome editing with focus on their application in pigs. In addition, a brief protocol...

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Pre-training Administration of Zinc Oxide and ‎Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Long-term Memory of Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Issapare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Zinc oxide nanoparticles are one of the most widely used nanoparticles in fields of industry, medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, cosmetics, and nutrition. Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the nervous system, while others have revealed their enhancing effects on the activity of nerve cells, involved in memory processes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide on long-term memory of mice. METHODS: In this experimental study, 49 NMRI adult male mice, with the mean weight of 25±5 g, were randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of seven mice: control group, three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide nanoparticles (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of  zinc oxide nanoparticles, respectively, and three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of zinc oxide, respectively. Intraperitoneal injections were performed before training (electric shock. Passive avoidance memory of mice was evaluated, using the Step-Down device. The latency time to descend the platform was regarded as an indicator of memory on days 1, 3, and 7 following training. FINDINGS: Pre-training administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg yielded no effects on the motor activity of mice. However, a significant decline was reported in the latency time to descend the platform on days 1, 3, and 7 following training (58±17, 45±13, and 39±14 in the zinc oxide group and 93±18, 62±12, and 14±3 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively (p<0.01 however, the dosage of 5 mg/kg had less significant short-term effects (130±38, 49±14, and 68±10 in the zinc oxide group and 132±46, 41±13, and 58±24 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively. Also, the dosage of 1 mg/kg was almost ineffective. CONCLUSION: The results showed that weakened long-term memory, caused by zinc oxide administration, is not

  10. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  11. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake

  12. Zinc injection in German PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, K.

    2004-01-01

    Operating experience acquired at PWR NNPs shows that zinc injection at low concentrations of 5 ppb is a very effective source term reduction measure. This method does not lead to any operating restrictions or other negative effects on plant systems and components. The nuclear industry has been very successful in reducing radiation exposures within the past two decades. Annual exposures could be significantly decreased and are now at a level of around 1 man-Sv per plant and year. This great success can mainly be attributed to the general commitment of plant operators to maintaining radiation exposures of workers in the controlled access area as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA principle). The ALARA principle, of course, also implies evaluation of the economic benefit of radiation protection measures. Radiation source term reduction has drawn increasing attention of plant operators in recent years. For the new PWRs cobalt-based alloys in the primary system have successively been eliminated already at the design and construction phase within the last decade. Use of wear-resistant cobalt-free substitute materials in combination with the general use of advanced alloys for the steam generator tubing of PWRs resulted in low values for the two most common sources of plant radiation fields, namely 58 Co and 60 Co. Investigations showed that the beneficial effect of zinc can be related to its high affinity for mixed spinel oxide phases, resulting in the following two basic effects: -Zinc is incorporated preferentially into the oxide layer on primary system surfaces and thus reduces pickup of 58 Co and 60 Co and - Zinc can displace cobalt isotopes from existing oxide layers. In German PWRs with Incoloy 800 steam generator tubing material (Ni-content -32%), the observed reductions correspond to a decrease in dose rates of around 10 to 15% per year and thus follow, as predicted, the half-life time of 60 Co. Overall reductions in high radiation areas are now in the range of

  13. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Crystal structure of the UBR-box from UBR6/FBXO11 reveals domain swapping mediated by zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-10-01

    The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  15. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  16. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  17. A shortcut hydrothermal strategy for the synthesis of zinc nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianqiang; Chen Zhiwu; Xie Jingsi; Yu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanowires has opened many new possibilities for designing ideal building blocks for future nanodevices. In this work, zinc nanowires with lengths of micrometre magnitude were synthesized in high yield by a shortcut hydrothermal strategy. The synthesis involves a template-free, non-seed and catalyst-free solution-phase process to high-quality zinc nanowires, which is low-cost and proceeds at relatively short time. In this process, zinc nanowires were prepared through the reduction of zinc acetate with absolute ethanol in the presence of silver nitrate under hydrothermal atmosphere. The strategy suggests that silver ion plays a vital role in the synthesis of zinc nanowires, without which the substituted product is zinc oxide nanowires. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the final formation of zinc nanowires and component transformation from zinc oxide nanowires in the introduction of silver ion. We believe that with the efficient synthesis, longer zinc nanowires can be fabricated and may find potential applications for superconductors and nanodevices. (fast track communication)

  18. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  19. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  20. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2018-02-20

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.

  1. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2014-06-29

    Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent otitis media. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February week 4, 2014) and EMBASE (1974 to March 2014). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing otitis media. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. No new trials were identified for inclusion in this update. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There were a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc-supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite otitis media during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of otitis media in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of otitis media (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse

  2. Large zinc cation occupancy of octahedral sites in mechanically activated zinc ferrite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, S. A. [Center for Electromagnetic Research, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Harris, V. G. [Complex Materials Section, Code 6342, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hamdeh, H. H. [Department of Physics, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States); Ho, J. C. [Department of Physics, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2000-05-08

    The cation site occupancy of a mechanically activated nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powder was determined as (Zn{sub 0.55}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 0.18}{sup 3+}){sub tet}[Zr{sub 0.45}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 1.82}{sup 3+}]{sub oct}O{sub 4} through analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, showing a large redistribution of cations between sites compared to normal zinc ferrite samples. The overpopulation of cations in the octahedral sites was attributed to the ascendance in importance of the ionic radii over the crystal energy and bonding coordination in determining which interstitial sites are occupied in this structurally disordered powder. Slight changes are observed in the local atomic environment about the zinc cations, but not the iron cations, with respect to the spinel structure. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} on both sites is consistent with the measured room temperature magnetic properties. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  4. Pectin-zinc-chitosan-polyethylene glycol colloidal nano-suspension as a food grade carrier for colon targeted delivery of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andishmand, Hashem; Tabibiazar, Mahnaz; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop chitosan-zinc-pectinate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) for colon-targeted delivery of resveratrol. The effects of pectin:ZnCl 2 :chitosan (PZnC) % w/v, pH and ionic strength of media, and addition of PEG on the colloidal stability and release behavior of resveratrol from NPs were examined by Zeta potential, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) methods. The particle size and Zeta potential of PZnC NPs in the ratio of 10:1:3% w/v were 399±18nm and +25±1mV, respectively. The addition of PEG to PZnC as a solvent for resveratrol (10% w/v) noticeably decreased the size of NPs to approximately 83±4nm. More than 63% of the resveratrol was encapsulated into the developed NPs; furthermore, a low amount of resveratrol was released during one month, using simulated juice model (pH=4) as investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of resveratrol.The remaining resveratrol in NPs (∼49%) was released in simulated colon fluid in the presence of pectinase. These NPs can be introduced as a novel platform for successful c