WorldWideScience

Sample records for zero-waste low-cost direction

  1. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  2. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R

    2017-07-01

    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  3. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A.; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings

  4. Directions of organisational and low-cost energy saving of engineering enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhedzhula Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses directions of energy saving of industrial enterprises. Taking into account the tendency to continuous growth of cost of energy resources, introduction of measures that would allow reduction of energy consumption of enterprises is an urgent task. One of the most important obstacles in the process of introduction of energy efficient solutions are fund limits and low awareness of owners and managers of industrial enterprises. The article offers a new classification of energy saving measures: apart from traditional expense and organisation measures it introduces the low-cost measures notion. It offers to consider low-cost those measures that are realised by the enterprise by means of own funds, moreover, their repayment term is not more than one year. It offers analytical expression for identification of annual funds saving from introduction of low-cost measures. It considers the process of identification of saving of funds from introduction of some of the main low-cost measures in detail: replacement of lighting units, balancing of ventilation networks and elimination of water leakages from pipelines and water supply equipment. Based on the analysis of bibliography information the article provides a list of main measures on energy saving, which could be referred to the low-cost ones. The proposed approaches would allow paying more attention to practical aspects of realisation of the concept of energy saving in the industry.

  5. Reconfigurable WDM-PON empowered by a low-cost 8-channel directly modulated laser module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-ke; Zhao, Ze-ping; Tian, Ye; Zhu, Ning-hua

    2017-11-01

    A 10 Gbit/s 16-km-long reconfigurable wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is presented empowered by a low-cost multi-channel directly modulated laser (DML) module. Compared with the case using discrete devices in conventional scheme, the proposed DML module provides a cost-effective solution with reduced complexity. The clear eye diagram and the bit error rate ( BER) of less than 2×10-7 with a sensitivity of -7 dBm are obtained. Due to the special packaging design, the crosstalk between channels under condition of simultaneous operation can be negligible.

  6. Low-cost coding of directivity information for the recording of musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Jonas; Martens, William L.; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2004-05-01

    Most musical instruments radiate sound according to characteristic spatial directivity patterns. These patterns are usually not only strongly frequency dependent, but also time-variant functions of various parameters of the instrument, such as pitch and the playing technique applied (e.g., plucking versus bowing of string instruments). To capture the directivity information when recording an instrument, Warusfel and Misdariis (2001) proposed to record an instrument using four channels, one for the monopole and the others for three orthogonal dipole parts. In the new recording setup presented here, it is proposed to store one channel at a high sampling frequency, along with directivity information that is updated only every few milliseconds. Taking the binaural sluggishness of the human auditory system into account in this way provides a low-cost coding scheme for subsequent reproduction of time-variant directivity patterns.

  7. Rheology and stability kinetics of bare silicon nanoparticle inks for low-cost direct printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Priyesh V.; Jeong, Sunho; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Seong Jip; Nahm, Sahn

    2013-01-01

    Highly dispersed and stable silicon nanoparticles ink is formulated for its application in direct printing or printable electronics. These dispersions are prepared from free-standing silicon nanoparticles which are not capped with any organic ligand, making it suitable for electronic applications. Silicon nanoparticles dispersions are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in benzonitrile or ethanol by using polypropylene glycol (PPG) as a binder. All the samples show typical shear thinning behavior while the dispersion samples show low viscosities signifying good quality dispersion. Such thinning behavior favors in fabrication of dense films with spin-coating or patterns with drop casting. The dispersion stability is monitored by turbiscan measurements showing good stability for one week. A low-cost direct printing method for dispersion samples is also demonstrated to obtain micro-sized patterns. Low electrical resistivity of resulting patterns, adjustable viscosity and good stability makes these silicon nanoparticles dispersions highly applicable for direct printing process

  8. Rheology and stability kinetics of bare silicon nanoparticle inks for low-cost direct printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Priyesh V.; Jeong, Sunho; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Jip [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 Korea and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-16

    Highly dispersed and stable silicon nanoparticles ink is formulated for its application in direct printing or printable electronics. These dispersions are prepared from free-standing silicon nanoparticles which are not capped with any organic ligand, making it suitable for electronic applications. Silicon nanoparticles dispersions are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in benzonitrile or ethanol by using polypropylene glycol (PPG) as a binder. All the samples show typical shear thinning behavior while the dispersion samples show low viscosities signifying good quality dispersion. Such thinning behavior favors in fabrication of dense films with spin-coating or patterns with drop casting. The dispersion stability is monitored by turbiscan measurements showing good stability for one week. A low-cost direct printing method for dispersion samples is also demonstrated to obtain micro-sized patterns. Low electrical resistivity of resulting patterns, adjustable viscosity and good stability makes these silicon nanoparticles dispersions highly applicable for direct printing process.

  9. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  10. High-performance polymer waveguide devices via low-cost direct photolithography process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Shustack, Paul J.; Garner, Sean M.

    2002-09-01

    All-optical networks provide unique opportunities for polymer waveguide devices because of their excellent mechanical, thermo-optic, and electro-optic properties. Polymer materials and components have been viewed as a viable solution for metropolitan and local area networks where high volume and low cost components are needed. In this paper, we present our recent progress on the design and development of photoresist-like highly fluorinated maleimide copolymers including waveguide fabrication and optical testing. We have developed and synthesized a series of thermally stable, (Tg>150 oC, Td>300 oC) highly fluorinated (>50%) maleimide copolymers by radical co-polymerization of halogenated maleimides with various halogenated co-monomers. A theoretical correlation between optical loss and different co-polymer structures has been quantitatively established from C-H overtone analysis. We studied this correlation through design and manipulation of the copolymer structure by changing the primary properties such as molecular weight, copolymer composition, copolymer sequence distribution, and variations of the side chain including photochemically functional side units. Detailed analysis has been obtained using various characterization methods such as (H, C13, F19) NMR, UV-NIR, FTIR, GPC and so forth. The co-polymers exhibit excellent solubility in ketone solvents and high quality thin films can be prepared by spin coating. The polymer films were found to have a refractive index range of 1.42-1.67 and optical loss in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 dB/cm at 1550nm depending on the composition as extrapolated from UV-NIR spectra. When glycidyl methacrylate is incorporated into the polymer backbone, the material behaves like a negative photoresist with the addition of cationic photoinitiator. The final crosslinked waveguides show excellent optical and thermal properties. The photolithographic processing of the highly fluorinated copolymer material was examined in detail using in

  11. Low cost digital wind speed meter with wind direction using PIC16F877A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujod, M.Z.; Ismail, M.M. [Malaysia Pahang Univ., Pahang (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Weather measurement tools are necessary to determine the actual weather and forecasting. Wind is one of the weather elements that can be measured using an anemometer which is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind. It is one of the instruments used in weather stations. This paper described a circuit design for speed and direction of the meter and created a suitable programming to measure and display the wind speed meter and direction. A microcontroller (PIC16F877A) was employed as the central processing unit for digital wind speed and direction meter. The paper presented and discussed the hardware and software implementation as well as the calibration and results. The paper also discussed cost estimation and future recommendations. It was concluded that the hardware and software implementation were carefully selected after considering the development cost where the cost was much lower than the market prices. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  12. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  13. Potential of thin stillage as a low-cost nutrient source for direct cellulose fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumana Islam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of thin stillage (TS, derived from grain-based ethanol production, was investigated as an alternative source for microbial growth nutrients during direct conversion of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1237. Fermentation end-products synthesized by C. thermocellum grown on media prepared with various concentrations (50-400 g/L of TS were compared to those synthesized by C. thermocellum grown on reagent grade chemical (reference medium. Cell-growth in TS media, monitored with the aid of quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR technique, showed prolonged growth with increasing TS concentration. Final fermentation end-product concentrations from TS media were comparable with those from the reference medium despite lower growth-rates. The volumetric H2 production generated by C. thermocellum grown with medium containing a low concentration (50 g/L of TS matched the volumetric H2 production by C. thermocellum grown in the reference medium, while higher concentrations (200 g/L of TS resulted in greater synthesis of ethanol. Supplementation of TS-media with Mg++ enhanced ethanol production, while hydrogen production remained unchanged. These results suggest that TS, an attractive source of low-cost nutrients, is capable of supporting the growth of C. thermocellum and that high concentrations of TS favor synthesis of ethanol over hydrogen from cellulose.

  14. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. W.; Faisal, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s-1, more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark—the control of the video arcade game ‘Pong’.

  15. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  16. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries - A South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa

  17. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    material. The physical‐chemical characteristics of fly ash, such as large uniformity coefficient, clay‐sized particles and rich in some metal elements and salts, show the possibility ofbeing a raw material also for bricks and lightweight aggregates. In the future we expect increasing political pressure......The ZeroWaste research group (www.zerowaste.byg.dtu.dk) at the Department of Civil Engineering was established in 2012 and covers the broad range of expertise required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have developed methods for removal of heavy metals...... and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes [1], providing the basis to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector.The amount of waste increases and it is both difficult and expensive to handle many waste types as e.g.different ashes. At the same time...

  18. Accuracy of a Low-Cost Novel Computer-Vision Dynamic Movement Assessment: Potential Limitations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroarty, M.; Giblin, S.; Meldrum, D.; Wetterling, F.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a preliminary validation of a low cost markerless motion capture system (CAPTURE) against an industry gold standard (Vicon). Measurements of knee valgus and flexion during the performance of a countermovement jump (CMJ) between CAPTURE and Vicon were compared. After correction algorithms were applied to the raw CAPTURE data acceptable levels of accuracy and precision were achieved. The knee flexion angle measured for three trials using Capture deviated by -3.8° ± 3° (left) and 1.7° ± 2.8° (right) compared to Vicon. The findings suggest that low-cost markerless motion capture has potential to provide an objective method for assessing lower limb jump and landing mechanics in an applied sports setting. Furthermore, the outcome of the study warrants the need for future research to examine more fully the potential implications of the use of low-cost markerless motion capture in the evaluation of dynamic movement for injury prevention.

  19. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150° while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°. In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99 with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range.

  20. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  1. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  2. Considerations for Informed Pursuit of Zero Waste: Lessons from Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, Jennifer Anne

    2013-01-01

    Starting in the early 2000s, a number of U.S. communities have adopted "zero waste" commitments to reduce waste as much as possible through recycling, composting, and other means. Little in-depth information exists about the impetus for or efficacy of these efforts. The author sought to build knowledge on the topic by conducting case studies of two communities: the zero waste efforts of Boulder, Colorado, and the Zero Waste Zones established in Atlanta. The two cases presented an interesting ...

  3. Performance comparison of portable direct methanol fuel cell mini-stacks based on a low-cost fluorine-free polymer electrolyte and Nafion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglio, V.; Stassi, A.; Modica, E.; Antonucci, V.; Arico, A.S.; Caracino, P.; Ballabio, O.; Colombo, M.; Kopnin, E.

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost fluorine-free proton conducting polymer electrolyte was investigated for application in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) mini-stacks. The membrane consisted of a sulfonated polystyrene grafted onto a polyethylene backbone. DMFC operating conditions specifically addressing portable applications, i.e. passive mode, air breathing, high methanol concentration, room temperature, were selected. The device consisted of a passive DMFC monopolar three-cell stack. Two designs for flow-fields/current collectors based on open-flow or grid-like geometry were investigated. An optimization of the mini-stack structure was necessary to improve utilization of the fluorine-free membrane. Titanium-grid current collectors with proper mechanical stiffness allowed a significant increase of the performance by reducing contact resistance even in the case of significant swelling. A single cell maximum power density of about 18 mW cm -2 was achieved with the fluorine-free membrane at room temperature under passive mode. As a comparison, the performance obtained with Nafion 117 membrane and Ti grids was 31 mW cm -2 . Despite the lower performance, the fluorine-free membrane showed good characteristics for application in portable DMFCs especially with regard to the perspectives of significant cost reduction.

  4. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in Transforming a City into a “Zero Waste City”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The currently consumption-driven society produces an enormous volume of waste every day. Continuous depletion of natural finite resources by urban populations is leading the globe to an uncertain future. Therefore, to prevent further depletion of global resources, sustainable consumption and a strategic waste management system would be required. It is evident that a significant number of global non-renewable resources such as cadmium, mercury and tellurium will experience permanent shortfall in global supply within the next two to three decades. Astonishingly, the current recycling rate of these very scarce metals is significantly low in all cities around the globe. The concept of the zero waste city includes a 100% recycling of municipal solid waste and a 100% recovery of all resources from waste materials. However, transforming currently over-consuming cities into zero waste cities is challenging. Therefore, this study aims to understand the key factors waste management systems in cities such as consumption, resource depletion and possible decoupling opportunity through implementing the “zero waste city” concept. The study proposes five significant principles for transforming current cities into zero waste cities in the context of long-term sustainability. A simultaneous and harmonized application of sustainable behaviour and consumption, product stewardship, a 100% recycling and recovery of resources, legislated zero landfill and incineration are required to transform current city into a zero waste city.

  6. Evaluation of solid waste management at campus using the “Zero Waste Index”: The case on campus of Islamic University of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kasam; Mulya Iresha Fajri; Ajie Prasojo Satrio

    2018-01-01

    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning (FCEP) Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) after doing zero waste program which has been going on September 2016. Zero waste concept are needed to measure how far the ability virgin material substitution to balance with the system of zero waste. The aims of this research is to calculate zero waste index (ZWI) value, to know the impact of zero waste index, and to give the solution for zero waste program. The location was doing in FCEP UII Campus. The...

  7. Design of High-Efficiency and Low-Cost Six-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Direct-Drive Small-Scale Wind Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Moazzen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG have a huge potential for direct-drive wind power applications. Therefore, optimal design of these generators is necessary to maximize their efficiency and to reduce their manufacturing cost and total volume. In this paper, an optimal design of a six-phase 3.5 KW direct-drive PMSG to generate electricity for domestic needs is performed. The aim of optimal design is to reduce the manufacturing cost, losses and total volume of PMSG. To find the best design, single/multi-objective design optimization is carried out. Cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA is adopted to solve the optimization problem. Comparison between the results of the single-objective and multi-objective models shows that simultaneous optimization of manufacturing cost, losses and total volume leads to more suitable design for PMSG. Finally, finite-element method (FEM is employed to validate the optimal design, which show a good agreement between the theoretical work and simulation results.

  8. Zero Waste and Conversion Efficiencies of Various Technologies for Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenyang

    2005-01-01

    Zero waste is a philosophy and a design principle of dealing with our waste stream for the 21st century. After reviewing the available information, the goal of zero waste from landfill is considered to be unachievable by using known and proven methods and approaches. The comparison of various technologies shows that the conversion efficiencies depend upon the type of system chosen for processing residual waste, and the best overall diversion rate of waste management system that can be achieved is about 71%. The maximum achievable overall diversion rate can be increased to approximate 92% if current environmental regulations to permit the routine use of the bottom ash or char for advanced thermal technologies.

  9. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  10. Low-Cost Direct Detect Spaceborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nd:YVO4 Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate NAS National Academy of Sciences NEAR/ELR Near Earth Asteroid ...it is on to the next challenge. For if there is anything that you all have taught me, it is to not stop learning, to not stop questioning, to not...enable the creation of more detailed 3-D maps of the world that can aid in planning and disaster response. This thesis will provide analysis of launch

  11. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  12. Low cost nuclear data printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachiya, S.; Aungkultewaraksa, S.; Pengphol, S.

    1988-01-01

    The data printer is essential for nuclear radiation measuring system. A low cost nuclear data printer is developed from an electronic printing calculator. It can transfer the counting data from scaler and printout. The basic concept is that the BCD data is transferred and converted to decimal data sequentially by the interfacing circuit. After the counting time is ended, each digit is transferred to the printing calculator by data bus, digit by digit, until all the data are transferred and printed out. The low cost nuclear data printer consists of a CASIO model HR-8 electronic printing calculator and a printer interface model either NT 2602 or NT 2603 which are designed for printing out 6 digit data from the counter/timer CANBERRA model 1772. In this research the NT 2602 interface is designed only to transfer and printing out data. While the NT 2603 interface is designed to transfer, print out and average data. The NT 2603 can average from 2 to 9 sets of counting data. This data interfacing technique can be applied to work with all scientific instruments having readout as digital display and all kinds of electronic printing calculator

  13. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  14. Benefits, challenges and critical factors of success for Zero Waste: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Natália; Ribeiro, José Luis Duarte; de Medeiros, Janine Fleith

    2017-09-01

    Considering the growing concern with solid wastes problems and the pressing need for a holistic approach to their management, this study developed a literature review about the subject "Zero Waste". To that end, a systematic literature review was executed, through which 102 published articles were analyzed with the aim to, initially, comprehend the concept of Zero Waste, and, then, map its benefits, challenges, and critical success factors. The results show that scholars have not reached a consensus regarding the concept of ZW. While some studies fully address this philosophy, other studies are based on just one or on some of its topics. The benefits were grouped and organized into four dimensions: benefits to the community, financial-economic benefits, benefits to the environment and benefits to the industry and stakeholders. As to the challenges, barriers were identified both in the macro environment (mainly political and cultural) and in the meso and micro environments (stakeholders, industries, and municipalities). The analysis of the articles enabled listing critical success factors, supported by a set of activities that must be carried out. Regarding future studies, it is worth noting that more empirical studies about ZW implementation are necessary, particularly with regard to educational practices designed to promote changes in user behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  16. Evaluation of solid waste management at campus using the “Zero Waste Index”: The case on campus of Islamic University of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning (FCEP Islamic University of Indonesia (UII after doing zero waste program which has been going on September 2016. Zero waste concept are needed to measure how far the ability virgin material substitution to balance with the system of zero waste. The aims of this research is to calculate zero waste index (ZWI value, to know the impact of zero waste index, and to give the solution for zero waste program. The location was doing in FCEP UII Campus. The method of sampling was using for this research is refers to SNI 19-3964-1994 about to calculate waste generation of residential. The result shows value of zero waste index at FCEP UII are 0,26. FCEP UII reuse 134,19 kg waste of total 516,37 kg waste that has been produced. The waste that has been reuse is organic waste 87,93 kg, plastic waste 21,49 kg, and paper waste 24,77 kg. 80,10% FCEP peoples already know about zero waste program at FCEP UII. 98,90% of FCEP peoples, was agree with waste segregate, and 57,50% FCEP peoples are don’t know that waste from FCEP have been manage. Although as many as 29% of element campus do not understand about the zero waste program but the majority of them support the program.

  17. LOW-COST PERSONNEL DOSIMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    specification was achieved by simplifying and improving the basic Bendix dosimeter design, using plastics for component parts, minimizing direct labor, and making the instrument suitable for automated processing and assembly. (Author)

  18. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  19. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market

  20. A {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} coolant management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennicott, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    In June of 1992 the Waste Minimization Program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) began a study to determine the best methods of managing water-based industrial metalworking fluids in the plant`s Tool Manufacturing Shop. The shop was faced with the challenge of managing fluids that could no longer be disposed of in the traditional manner, through the plant`s liquid process waste drains, due to a problem they, were having causing in the Liquid Waste Operations Evaporator. The study`s goal was to reduce the waste coolants being generated and to reduce worker exposure to a serious health risk. Results of this study and those of a subsequent study to determine relative compatibilities of various coolants and metals, led to the application of a {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} machine coolant management program. This program is currently saving the generation of 10,000 gallons of liquid waste annually, has eliminated worker exposure to harmful bacteria and biocides, and should result in extended machine tool life, increased product quality, fewer rejected parts, and decreases labor costs.

  1. Production of proteases from organic wastes by solid-state fermentation: downstream and zero waste strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Maria; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-04-01

    Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode). Activity after lyophilisation was tested. Solid waste valorisation after extraction was studied using respiration techniques and biogas production tests, as part of a zero waste strategy. Results showed a maximum extraction yield of 91% for SF and 121% for HS, both in agitated mode and distilled water as extraction agent. An average activity recovery of 95 ± 6 and 94 ± 6% for SF and HS, respectively, was obtained after lyophilisation and redissolution. To reduce the cost of extraction, a ratio 1:3 w : v solid-solvent in static mode is advised for SF, and 1:2 w : v extraction ratio in agitated mode for HS, both with distilled water as extracting agent. Both composting and anaerobic digestion are suitable techniques for valorisation of the waste material.

  2. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  3. Toward zero waste events: Reducing contamination in waste streams with volunteer assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenika, Ivana; Moreau, Tara; Zhao, Jiaying

    2018-03-22

    Public festivals and events generate a tremendous amount of waste, especially when they involve food and drink. To reduce contamination across waste streams, we evaluated three types of interventions at a public event. In a randomized control trial, we examined the impact of volunteer staff assistance, bin tops, and sample 3D items with bin tops, on the amount of contamination and the weight of the organics, recyclable containers, paper, and garbage bins at a public event. The event was the annual Apple Festival held at the University of British Columbia, which was attended by around 10,000 visitors. We found that contamination was the lowest in the volunteer staff condition among all conditions. Specifically, volunteer staff reduced contamination by 96.1% on average in the organics bin, 96.9% in the recyclable containers bin, 97.0% in the paper bin, and 84.9% in the garbage bin. Our interventions did not influence the weight of the materials in the bins. This finding highlights the impact of volunteers on reducing contamination in waste streams at events, and provides suggestions and implications for waste management for event organizers to minimize contamination in all waste streams to achieve zero waste goals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. PERANCANGAN PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SAMPAH ORGANIK ZERO WASTE DI KABUPATEN TEGAL (STUDI KASUS DI TPA PENUJAH KABUPATEN TEGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muiz Liddinillah Sanfiyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan sistem pengolahan sampah yang ada di Kabupaten Tegal adalah masih menggunakan sistem Open Dumping. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS Kabupaten Tegal pada tahun 2016, komposisi sampah organik adalah yang terbesar kedua setelah sampah plastik dan sangat berpotensi mengalami penambahan setiap tahunnya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat perancangan pembangkit listrik tenaga sampah organik zero waste di Kabupaten Tegal, dengan studi kasus di Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA sampah Penujah. Objek dalam penelitian ini adalah sistem pengolahan sampah organik yang ada di Kabupaten Tegal dengan menggunakan sistem pengolahan sampah zero waste. Sistem pengolahan sampah organik zero waste adalah sistem pengolahan sampah yang tidak menghasilkan sampah kembali. Jadi, diharapkan jumlah sampah organik akan berkurang secara bertahap. Sampah organik dapat dirubah menjadi biogas melalui proses fermentasi yang dibantu oleh bakteri secara anaerob di dalam reaktor biodigester. Biogas tersebut ditampung di dalam tempat penampungan untuk kemudian didistribusikan ke dalam genset biogas sebagai bahan bakar pembangkit listrik. Sisa pengolahan biogas dapat dirubah menjadi pupuk cair dan pupuk kompos yang bernilai ekonomis.

  5. Zero waste machine coolant management strategy at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.; Algarra, F.; Wilburn, D.

    1998-01-01

    Machine coolants are used in machining equipment including lathes, grinders, saws and drills. The purpose of coolants is to wash away machinery debris in the form of metal fines, lubricate, and disperse heat between the part and the machine tool. An effective coolant prolongs tool life and protects against part rejection, commonly due to scoring or scorching. Traditionally, coolants have a very short effective life in the machine, often times being disposed of as frequently as once per week. The cause of coolant degradation is primarily due to the effects of bacteria, which thrive in the organic rich coolant environment. Bacteria in this environment reproduce at a logarithmic rate, destroying the coolant desirable aspects and causing potential worker health risks associated with the use of biocides to control the bacteria. The strategy described in this paper has effectively controlled bacterial activity without the use of biocides, avoided disposal of a hazardous waste, and has extended coolant life indefinitely. The Machine Coolant Management Strategy employed a combination of filtration, heavy lubricating oil removal, and aeration, which maintained the coolant peak performance without the use of biocides. In FY96, the Laboratory generated and disposed of 19,880 kg of coolants from 9 separate sites at a cost of $145K. The single largest generator was the main machine shop producing an average 14,000 kg annually. However, in FY97, the waste generation for the main machine shop dropped to 4,000 kg after the implementation of the zero waste strategy. It is expected that this value will be further reduced in FY98

  6. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  7. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    one year. FastSat HSV01 also deployed a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (PPOD) for a separate nano ]satellite class spacecraft (Cubesat: Nano Sail Demonstration) in partnership with Ames Research Center. The Robotic lunar lander is a MSFC JHU APL partnership that led to the development of a flexible architecture for landers to support robotic missions to a wide range of lunar and asteroid destinations. The team started with the goal of meeting NASA agency directives that led to the creation of a test bed focusing on GN&C and software to demonstrate the descent and landing on any airless body for the final 30 to 60 meters. The team created a complex technology demonstration as well as Guidance Control and Navigation (GN&C) algorithms providing autonomous control of the lander. The team uses a green propellant of 90% hydrogen peroxide and has completed 18 successful test flights. The International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) is a technology demonstration payload to assist the SERVIR project with environmental monitoring for disaster relief and humanitarian efforts. The ISERV project was a partnership with TBE. The ISERV payload consists of a commercial off the shelf camera, telescope, and MSFC developed power distribution box and interfaces on ISS with the Window Observational Research Facility in the US Lab. MSFC has identified three key areas that enabled the low cost mission success to include culture, partnering, and cost/schedule control. This paper will briefly discuss these three Class D efforts, FastSat HSV-01, the Robotic Lunar Lander and the ISERV camera system, the lessons learned, their successes and challenges.

  8. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  9. Design of low cost glaucoma screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A. G.; Langerhorst, C. T.; Geijssen, H. C.; Greve, E. L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991 the Netherlands Glaucoma Patient Association organized a glaucoma screening survey. This survey was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low cost screening setting. During a screening period of 8 days, 1259 subjects over the age of 49 years were examined by a team of

  10. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  11. Low-cost high purity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  12. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  13. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  14. low-cost apparatus from locally available materials for teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    twofold: i) to design and produce appropriate low cost apparatus from locally .... How are the low-cost and manufactured apparatus compared in terms of cost and efficiency? ... BASIC TOOLS FOR THE LOW COST APPARATUS PRODUCTION.

  15. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Quadrotor schematic showing rotor direction of rotation (From [2])................3 Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from...Some examples are the Walkera UFO #5, Walkera UFO #8, Dragonfly, and Alien Air Jump Jet. Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from Walkera...the X- UFO made by Silverlit Electronics used small mechanical gyros. These were relatively cheap due to low-cost labor, but suffered from mechanical

  16. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Li; Yu Lixin; Peng Heping; Zhuang Wei

    2015-01-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies. (paper)

  17. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  18. THE MARKETING MIX FOR LOW COST HEALTHCARE

    OpenAIRE

    Julie George; Dr. Manita D. Shah

    2017-01-01

    The Indian health care industry has a history of dealing with poor doctor-patient ratio, shortage of medical professionals, poor health infrastructure, and low expenditure on healthcare information technology; steep out of pocket spending (OOP), low health insurance coverage, inadequate government spending, poor access to health care facilities and social stigma related to diseases. The unique mindset and ability for frugality has successfully been applied in offering low cost healthcare of u...

  19. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  20. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, L; Insabella, M [LADOP, University of Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bilbao, L [INFIP, University of Buenos Aires and CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-06-19

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emission from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using pressurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  1. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, L; Insabella, M; Bilbao, L

    2012-01-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emission from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using pressurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  2. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  3. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  4. Low cost sic coated erosion resistant graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.F.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of materials with unique and improved properties using low cost processes is essential to increase performance and reduce cost of the solid rocket motors. Specifically advancements are needed for boost phase nozzle. As these motors operate at very high pressure and temperatures, the nozzle must survive high thermal stresses with minimal erosion to maintain performance. Currently three material choices are being exploited; which are refractory metals, graphite and carbon-carbon composites. Of these three materials graphite is the most attractive choice because of its low cost, light weight, and easy forming. However graphite is prone to erosion, both chemical and mechanical, which may affect the ballistic conditions and mechanical properties of the nozzle. To minimize this erosion high density graphite is usually preferred; which is again very expensive. Another technique used to minimize the erosion is Pyrolytic Graphite (PG) coating inside the nozzle. However PG coating is prone to cracking and spallation along with very cumbersome deposition process. Another possible methodology to avoid this erosion is to convert the inside surface of the rocket nozzle to Silicon Carbide (SiC), which is very erosion resistant and have much better thermal stability compared to graphite and even PG. Due to its functionally gradient nature such a layer will be very adherent and resistant to spallation. The current research is focused on synthesizing, characterizing and oxidation testing of such a converted SiC layer on commercial grade graphite. (author)

  5. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, A.; Barlas, E.; Emirhan, E.; Kutlu, Ç.; Ozben, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the 222 Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  6. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    windings with well-defined thickness. Many advantages and disadvantages are described in depth. In this work, inverse coupling and direct coupling in the new geometry integrated inductors have been analyzed. Coupling characteristic caused by a special saturation behavior has been emphasis. And also...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  7. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  8. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  9. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  10. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  11. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  12. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  13. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  14. Low cost highly available digital control computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    When designing digital controllers for critical plant control it is important to provide several features. Among these are reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental protection, and low cost. An examination of several applications has lead to a design that can be produced for approximately $20,000 (1000 control points). This design is compatible with modern concepts in distributed and hierarchical control. The canonical controller element is a dual-redundant self-checking computer that communicates with a cross-strapped, electrically isolated input/output system. The input/output subsystem comprises multiple intelligent input/output cards. These cards accept commands from the primary processor which are validated, executed, and acknowledged. Each card may be hot replaced to facilitate sparing. The implementation of the dual-redundant computer architecture is discussed. Called the FS-86, this computer can be used for a variety of applications. It has most recently found application in the upgrade of San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train control currently in progress and has been proposed for feedwater control in a boiling water reactor

  15. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  16. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts

  17. Low Cost DIY Lenses kit For High School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn

    2017-09-01

    A set of lenses was fabricated from a low cost materials in a DIY (Do it yourself) process. The purpose was to demonstrate to teachers and students in high schools how to construct lenses by themselves with the local available materials. The lenses could be applied in teaching Physics, about the nature of a lens such as focal length and light rays passing through lenses in either direction, employing a set of simple laser pointers. This instrumental kit was made from a transparent 2 mm thick of acrylic Perspex. It was cut into rectangular pieces with dimensions of 2x15 cm2 and bent into curved shape by a hot air blower on a cylindrical wooden rod with curvature radii of about 3-4.5 cm. Then a pair of these Perspex were formed into a hollow thick lenses with a base supporting platform, so that any appropriate liquids could be filled in. The focal length of the lens was measured from laser beam drawing on a paper. The refractive index, n (n) of a filling liquid could be calculated from the measured focal length (f). The kit was low cost and DIY but was greatly applicable for optics teaching in high school laboratory.

  18. PEM Low Cost Endplates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Martin; Clyens, S.; Steenstrup, F.R.; Christiansen, Jens [Danish Technological Institute. Plastics Technology, Taastrup (Denmark); Yde-Andersen, S. [IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In the project, an endplate for the PEM-type fuel cells has been developed. The initial idea was to use an injection mouldable fibre reinforced polymer to produce the endplate and thereby exploit the opportunities of greater geometrical freedom to reduce weight and material consumption. Different PPS/glass-fibre compounds were produced and tested in order to use the results to optimize the results on the computer through FEM simulations. As it turned out, it was impossible to achieve adequate stiffness for the endplates within the given geometrical limitations. At the relatively high temperatures at which the endplates operate the material simply goes to soft. Material focus shifted to fibre reinforced high strength concrete composite. Test specimens were produced and tested so the results again could be used for FEM-simulations which also accounted for the technical limitations the concrete composite has regarding casting ability. In the process, the way the endplate is mounted was also alternated to better accommodate the properties of the concrete composite. A number of endplates were cast in specially produced moulds in order to map the optimum process parameters, and a final endplate was tested at IRD Fuel Cells A/S. The field test was in many aspects successful. However, the gas sealing and the surface finish can be further improved. The weight may still be an issue for some applications, even though it is lower than the endplate currently used. This issue can be addressed in a future project. The work has resulted in a new endplate design, which makes the stack assembly simpler and with fewer components. The endplates fabrication involves low cost methods, which can be scaled up as demand of fuel cells begin to take off. (Author)

  19. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  20. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  1. Lignocellulose: A sustainable material to produce value-added products with a zero waste approach-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Ahmad, Zanib; Asgher, Muhammad; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-06-01

    A novel facility from the green technologies to integrate biomass-based carbohydrates, lignin, oils and other materials extraction and transformation into a wider spectrum of marketable and value-added products with a zero waste approach is reviewed. With ever-increasing scientific knowledge, worldwide economic and environmental consciousness, demands of legislative authorities and the manufacture, use, and removal of petrochemical-based by-products, from the last decade, there has been increasing research interests in the value or revalue of lignocellulose-based materials. The potential characteristics like natural abundance, renewability, recyclability, and ease of accessibility all around the year, around the globe, all makes residual biomass as an eco-attractive and petro-alternative candidate. In this context, many significant research efforts have been taken into account to change/replace petroleum-based economy into a bio-based economy, with an aim to develop a comprehensively sustainable, socially acceptable, and eco-friendly society. The present review work mainly focuses on various aspects of bio-refinery as a sustainable technology to process lignocellulose 'materials' into value-added products. Innovations in the bio-refinery world are providing, a portfolio of sustainable and eco-efficient products to compete in the market presently dominated by the petroleum-based products, and therefore, it is currently a subject of intensive research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Large-Scale Consumption and Zero-Waste Recycling Method of Red Mud in Steel Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshan Ning

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To release the environmental pressure from the massive discharge of bauxite residue (red mud, a novel recycling method of red mud in steel making process was investigated through high-temperature experiments and thermodynamic analysis. The results showed that after the reduction roasting of the carbon-bearing red mud pellets at 1100–1200 °C for 12–20 min, the metallic pellets were obtained with the metallization ratio of ≥88%. Then, the separation of slag and iron achieved from the metallic pellets at 1550 °C, after composition adjustment targeting the primary crystal region of the 12CaO·7Al2O3 phase. After iron removal and composition adjustment, the smelting-separation slag had good smelting performance and desulfurization capability, which meets the demand of sulfurization flux in steel making process. The pig iron quality meets the requirements of the high-quality raw material for steel making. In virtue of the huge scale and output of steel industry, the large-scale consumption and zero-waste recycling method of red mud was proposed, which comprised of the carbon-bearing red mud pellets roasting in the rotary hearth furnace and smelting separation in the electric arc furnace after composition adjustment.

  3. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  4. Low-cost warning device industry assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Under direction of the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development, the U.S. Department of Transportations Research and Innovative Technology Administrations John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center conduc...

  5. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  6. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  7. Carbon payments and low-cost conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Neville D; Bryan, Brett A; Summers, David M

    2011-08-01

    A price on carbon is expected to generate demand for carbon offset schemes. This demand could drive investment in tree-based monocultures that provide higher carbon yields than diverse plantings of native tree and shrub species, which sequester less carbon but provide greater variation in vegetation structure and composition. Economic instruments such as species conservation banking, the creation and trading of credits that represent biological-diversity values on private land, could close the financial gap between monocultures and more diverse plantings by providing payments to individuals who plant diverse species in locations that contribute to conservation and restoration goals. We studied a highly modified agricultural system in southern Australia that is typical of many temperate agriculture zones globally (i.e., has a high proportion of endangered species, high levels of habitat fragmentation, and presence of non-native species). We quantified the economic returns from agriculture and from carbon plantings (monoculture and mixed tree and shrubs) under six carbon-price scenarios. We also identified high-priority locations for restoration of cleared landscapes with mixed tree and shrub carbon plantings. Depending on the price of carbon, direct annual payments to landowners of AU$7/ha/year to $125/ha/year (US$6-120/ha/year) may be sufficient to augment economic returns from a carbon market and encourage tree plantings that contribute more to the restoration of natural systems and endangered species habitats than monocultures. Thus, areas of high priority for conservation and restoration may be restored relatively cheaply in the presence of a carbon market. Overall, however, less carbon is sequestered by mixed native tree and shrub plantings. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Low-Cost Monitoring System of Sensors for Evaluating Dynamic Solicitations of Semitrailer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Luque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the fatigue life of a semitrailer structure necessitates identification of the loads and dynamic solicitations in the structure. These forces can be introduced in computer simulation software (multibody + finite element for analysing the response of different design solutions to them. These numerical models must be validated and some parameters need to be measured directly in a field test with real vehicles under various driving conditions. In this study, a low-cost monitoring system is developed for application to a real fleet of semitrailers. According to the definition of the numerical model, the guidance of a virtual vehicle is defined by the three-dimensional kinematics of the kingpin. For characterisation of these movements, a monitoring system having a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU and global positioning system (GPS antennas is developed with different configurations to enable analysis of the best cost-benefit (result accuracy solution, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF that characterises the kinematic guidance of the kingpin is proposed. A semitrailer was equipped with the experimental low-cost monitoring system and high-precision sensors (IMU, GPS in order to validate the results obtained by the experimental low-cost monitoring system and the inertial-extended Kalman filter developed. The validated system has applicability in the low-cost monitoring of a fleet of real vehicles.

  9. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy; Eid, Jessica; Ahlswede, Erik; Spiering, Stefanie; Powalla, Michael; Agrawal, Rakesh; Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning

  10. Mars Relay Satellite: Key to Enabling Low-Cost Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.; Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing evidence of a renewed focus on Mars exploration both by NASA and the international community. The thrust of this renewed interest appears to be manifesting itself in numerous low-cost missions employing small, light weight elements, which utilize advanced technologies including integrated microelectronics. A formidable problem facing these low-cost missions is communications with Earth. Providing adequate direct-link performance has very significant impacts on spacecraft power, pointing, mass and overall complexity. Additionally, for elements at or near the surface of Mars, there are serious connectivity constraints, especially at higher latitudes, which lose view of Earth for up to many months at a time. This paper will discuss the role a Mars relay satellite can play in enabling and enhancing low-cost missions to Mars...

  11. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  12. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  13. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian

    2003-01-01

    .... EKOS has developed a novel activated carbon fiber - (ACF) that combines the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical agents...

  14. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  15. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  16. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  17. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  18. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2 ... commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  19. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    tanning, metallurgical operation and manufacturing have led to the release ... pulmonary fibrosis and inhibit many enzymatic functions. (Liphadzi ... sector is a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal but has ... as its economic value is less. The aim ...

  20. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.

    1982-01-01

    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  1. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  2. Low-Cost Production of Photonic Bandgap Materials Through Bubbling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Wetzel, Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... This report proposes a simple low-cost method for PBGM production. A device has been constructed that produces micrometer-sized, monodisperse bubbles that can be assembled into a crystal lattice by surface tension...

  3. development of low-cost educational materials for chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    development of low-cost Chemistry materials from locally available materials. It finally lists the ... According to the World Bank discussion paper (3) large investments have been made to improve the .... official language in Ethiopia) and English.

  4. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  5. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  6. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  7. Low-Cost Chemical-Responsive Adhesive Sensing Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weirui; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Wei

    2017-12-06

    Chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip is a new low-cost analytical platform that uses adhesive tape loaded with indicator reagents to detect or quantify the target analytes by directly sticking the tape to the samples of interest. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chips can be used with paper to analyze aqueous samples; they can also be used to detect and quantify solid, particulate, and powder analytes. The colorimetric indicators become immediately visible as the contact between the functionalized adhesives and target samples is made. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip expands the capability of paper-based analytical devices to analyze solid, particulate, or powder materials via one-step operation. It is also a simpler alternative way, to the covalent chemical modification of paper, to eliminate indicator leaching from the dipstick-style paper sensors. Chemical-responsive adhesive chips can display analytical results in the form of colorimetric dot patterns, symbols, and texts, enabling clear understanding of assay results by even nonprofessional users. In this work, we demonstrate the analyses of heavy metal salts in silica powder matrix, heavy metal ions in water, and bovine serum albumin in an aqueous solution. The detection is one-step, specific, sensitive, and easy-to-operate.

  8. Mechanical design of a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hijazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator with small-to moderate size for direct electricity generation. Such model can be installed in rural areas which are not connected to governmental grid. Three diameters of the dish; 5, 10 and 20 m are investigated and the focal point to dish diameter ratio is set to be 0.3 in all studied cases. Special attention is given to the selection of the appropriate dimensions of the reflecting surfaces to be cut from the available sheets in the market aiming to reduce both cutting cost and sheets cost. The dimensions of the ribs and rings which support the reflecting surface are optimized in order to minimize the entire weight of the dish while providing the minimum possible total deflection and stresses in the beams. The study applies full stress analysis of the frame of the dish using Autodesk Inventor. The study recommends to use landscape orientation for the reflective facets and increase the ribs angle and the distance between the connecting rings. The methodology presented is robust and can be extended to larger dish diameters.

  9. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  11. Development of low-cost digital subtraction angiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imai, Yutaka; Yagishita, Akira; Kunieda, Etsuo.

    1983-01-01

    We developed a simple and low-cost DSA system. This system consists of a conventional fluoroscopic equipment for the GI tract and a mini-computer (GAMMA-11) which are connected each other with a video-disc recorder. The uniqueness of our system are 1. low-cost, 2. low-radiation dose, 3. off-line processing, 4. flexibility of software. The analysis of the time-density curve and image processing will bring us a more usefull information than DSA alone. (author)

  12. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  13. Low-cost satellite mechanical design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie-Gair, Nathaniel; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of techniques for low-cost design and construction of a CubeSat mechanical structure that can serve as a basis for academic programs and a starting point for government, military and commercial large-scale sensing networks, where the cost of each node must be minimized to facilitate system affordability and lower the cost and associated risk of losing any node. Spacecraft Design plays a large role in manufacturability. An intentionally simplified mechanical design is presented which reduces machining costs, as compared to more intricate designs that were considered. Several fabrication approaches are evaluated relative to the low-cost goal.

  14. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  15. Organizing for low cost space operations - Status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.

    1976-01-01

    Design features of the Space Transportation System (vehicle reuse, low cost expendable components, simple payload interfaces, standard support systems) must be matched by economical operational methods to achieve low operating and payload costs. Users will be responsible for their own payloads and will be charged according to the services they require. Efficient use of manpower, simple documentation, simplified test, checkout, and flight planning are firm goals, together with flexibility for quick response to varying user needs. Status of the Shuttle hardware, plans for establishing low cost procedures, and the policy for user charges are discussed.

  16. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  17. Low cost construction technologies and materials - case study Mozambuique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. Mozambique as with most of the developing world, from both historical...

  18. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  19. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  20. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  1. PRELIMINARY TESTS OF A NEW LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santise

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  2. Smartfactory, a modular, low cost productivity monitoring system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of the SMMEs the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step by step fashion with little training required in installation...

  3. Low-cost, locally available shelters in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammarah Mubarak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooding in 2010 affected 18 million people in Pakistan. With declining donor funds and flooding again in 2011 and 2012, the humanitarian community required low-cost solutions that could be scaled up to meet both the immediate and the transitional needs of large populations in differing geographical areas.

  4. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  5. Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling system in fruit and vegetables storage. ... on fruit and vegetables quality during harvesting, transportation, storage and marketing. ... The coolers were found to be effective in maintaining micro-environmental conditions for ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. sequential low cost interventions double hand hygiene rates among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... Request for reprints to: Onyema Ogbuagu, Yale University School of Medicine, Address – 135 College Street, suite 323, ... Objective: To assess the impact of multimodal low-cost interventions on hand hygiene ... system change including investment in provision ... Statistical software used was IBM SPSS.

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design, development and performance evaluation of a low cost waste-water treatment plant had been carried out. The aim was to harness the usefulness of waste-waters from residential, institutional and commercial sources. The facultative lagoon method of waste-water treatment was adopted. Biological analysis of ...

  8. Towards low-cost gigabit wireless systems at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haibing

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide availability of the huge amount of license-free spectral space in the 60 GHz band provides wide room for gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) wireless applications. A commercial (read: low-cost) 60-GHz transceiver will, however, provide limited system performance due to the stringent link budget

  9. Low-Cost Servomotor Driver for PFM Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Jurado, David; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Perez-Peña, Fernando

    2017-12-31

    Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM. A low-cost commercial servomotor is used as the base system for the development: a small PCB that fits inside the case and allocates all the electronic components to control the motor has been designed to replace the original. The potentiometer is retained as the feedback sensor and a microcontroller is responsible for controlling the position of the motor. The paper compares the performance of a PWM and a PFM controlled servomotor. The comparison shows that the servomotor with our controller achieves a faster mechanism for switching targets and a lower latency. This controller can be used with neuromorphic systems to remove the conversion from events to PWM.

  10. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discrim- inators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a ...

  11. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  12. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  13. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  14. Development of a low-cost sun sensor for nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Andrea; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Sun sensors represent a common and reliable technology for attitude determination, employed in many space missions thanks to their limited size and weight. Typically, two-axis digital Sun sensors employ an array of active pixels arranged behind a small aperture; the position of the sunlight's spot allows to determine the direction of the Sun. With the advent of smaller vehicles such as CubeSats and Nanosats, there is the need to further reduce the size and weight of such devices: as a trade-off, this usually results in the curtail of the performances. Nowadays, state of the art Sun sensors for CubeSats have resolutions of about 0.5°, with fields of view in the ±45° to ±90° range, with off-the-self prices of several thousands of dollars. In this work we introduce a novel low-cost miniaturized Sun sensor, based on a commercial CMOS camera detector; its main feature is the reduced size with respect to state-of-the-art sensors developed from the same technology, making it employable on CubeSats. The sensor consists of a precisely machined pinhole with a 10 μm circular aperture, placed at a distance of 7 mm from the CMOS. The standoff distance and casing design allow for a maximum resolution of less than 0.03°, outperforming most of the products currently available for nano and pico platforms; furthermore, the nature of the technology allows for reduced size and lightweight characteristics. The design, development and laboratory tests of the sensor are here introduced, starting with the definition of the physical model, the geometrical layout and its theoretical resolution; a more accurate model was then developed in order to account for the geometrical deviations and deformations of the pinhole-projected light-spot, as well as to account for the background noise and disturbances to the electronics. Finally, the laboratory setup is presented along with the test campaigns: the results obtained are compared with the simulations, allowing for the validation of the

  15. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  16. Sensing of the atmospheric variation using Low Cost GNSS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanto, Brian; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.; Kuntjoro, Wedyanto; Tampubolon, Daniel A.

    2018-05-01

    As the GNSS signals transmitted through the atmosphere, they are delayed by interference of TEC (Total Electron Content) in the ionosphere and water vapor in the troposphere. By using inverse-problem, name GNSS Meteorology, those parameters can be obtained precisely and several researches has approved and supported that method. However, the geodetic GNSS receivers are relatively high cost (30,000 to 70,000 each) to be established on a regular and uniform network. This research aims to investigate the potential use of low cost GNSS receiver (less than 2,000) to observe the atmospheric dynamic both in ionosphere and troposphere. Results indicated that low cost GNSS receiver is a promising tools to sensing the atmospheric dynamic, however, further processing is needed to enhance the data quality. It is found that both of ionosphere and troposphere dynamic has diurnal periodic component.

  17. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  18. Low-cost silicon wafer dicing using a craft cutter

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2014-05-20

    This paper reports a low-cost silicon wafer dicing technique using a commercial craft cutter. The 4-inch silicon wafers were scribed using a crafter cutter with a mounted diamond blade. The pre-programmed automated process can reach a minimum die feature of 3 mm by 3 mm. We performed this scribing process on the top polished surface of a silicon wafer; we also created a scribing method for the back-unpolished surface in order to protect the structures on the wafer during scribing. Compared with other wafer dicing methods, our proposed dicing technique is extremely low cost (lower than $1,000), and suitable for silicon wafer dicing in microelectromechanical or microfluidic fields, which usually have a relatively large die dimension. The proposed dicing technique is also usable for dicing multiple project wafers, a process where dies of different dimensions are diced on the same wafer.

  19. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  20. Alternative ceramic circuit constructions for low cost, high reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modes, Ch.; O'Neil, M.

    1997-01-01

    The growth in the use of hybrid circuit technology has recently been challenged by recent advances in low cost laminate technology, as well as the continued integration of functions into IC's. Size reduction of hybrid 'packages' has turned out to be a means to extend the useful life of this technology. The suppliers of thick film materials technology have responded to this challenge by developing a number of technology options to reduce circuit size, increase density, and reduce overall cost, while maintaining or increasing reliability. This paper provides an overview of the processes that have been developed, and, in many cases are used widely to produce low cost, reliable microcircuits. Comparisons of each of these circuit fabrication processes are made with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each technology. (author)

  1. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  2. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  3. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Pomar, A; Sandiumenge, F; Pinol, S; Mestres, N; Castano, O; Coll, M; Cavallaro, A; Palau, A; Gazquez, J; Gonzalez, J C; Gutierrez, J; Roma, N; Ricart, S; Moreto, J M; Rossell, M D; Tendeloo, G van

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  4. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST CAMERA FOR AGING ACCELERATED POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Duarte Felisbino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the design, construction and testing of a low cost chamber for accelerated aging of polymers that meets a low and high ultraviolet radiation cycle on the test specimens in accordance with ASTM G154. The methodology was based on the survey of the standards related to the tests of accelerated aging of polymers and of the existing equipment, providing the subsidies for the development of the project, which was validated by the construction and evaluation of its performance. The camera control is performed by an Arduino-based electronic system and uses commercially available components that meet project specifications. The equipment met the requirements for both the specifications and the low cost and will integrate the laboratories of the University of Mogi das Cruzes (UMC, Villa-Lobos campus, to carry out tests on polymer materials.

  6. Low-cost amplifier for alpha detection with photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domienikan, Cláudio; Costa, Priscila; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: pcosta@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A low-cost amplifier for Hamamatsu S3590-09 PIN photodiode to be used in alpha detection is presented. This amplifier consists basically of two circuits: a pulse preamplifier and a shaper-driver. The PIN photodiode is reverse-biased and connected to a charge preamplifier input. Incident alpha particles generate a small current pulse in the photodiode. The integrating circuit of the low noise preamplifier transforms current pulse into a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to the charge carried by the current pulse. The shaper-driver consists of a differentiator and an integrator and is responsible for filtering and further amplifying the preamplifier signal, generating a NIM-compatible energy pulse. The performance of the set photodiode-amplifier was successively tested through the use of a {sup 243}Am radioactive source. The low-cost photodiode amplifier was designed and constructed at IPEN - CNEN/SP using national components and expertise. (author)

  7. Anteseden Customer Loyalty Pada Low Cost Carrier Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  8. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types (p < 0.0001. Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  9. A low-cost electrically pulsed shower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conversi, M; Gentile, S; Nardi, M

    1976-01-01

    A sampling total absorption detector characterized by an extremely low cost and providing also identification of particle tracks has been developed. Preliminary results on the performance of a model with 14 radiation lengths, exposed to electrons of energies E up to 4 GeV, show that this instrument can measure the primary electron energy with an accuracy (r.m.s.) $\\Delta E/E= \\pm(12 $%) / $\\sqrt E$ (E in GeV).

  10. Command vector memory systems: high performance at low cost

    OpenAIRE

    Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...

  11. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  12. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  13. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  14. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  15. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  16. Low-Cost, Rapidly Responsive, Controllable, and Reversible Photochromic Hydrogel for Display and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqi; Guan, Lin; Gao, Guanghui

    2018-04-25

    Traditional optoelectronic devices without stretchable performance could be limited for substrates with irregular shape. Therefore, it is urgent to explore a new generation of flexible, stretchable, and low-cost intelligent vehicles as visual display and storage devices, such as hydrogels. In the investigation, a novel photochromic hydrogel was developed by introducing the negatively charged ammonium molybdate as a photochromic unit into polyacrylamide via ionic and covalent cross-linking. The hydrogel exhibited excellent properties of low cost, easy preparation, stretchable deformation, fatigue resistance, high transparency, and second-order response to external signals. Moreover, the photochromic and fading process of hydrogels could be precisely controlled and repeated under the irradiation of UV light and exposure of oxygen at different time and temperature. The photochromic hydrogel could be considered applied for artificial intelligence system, wearable healthcare device, and flexible memory device. Therefore, the strategy for designing a soft photochromic material would open a new direction to manufacture flexible and stretchable devices.

  17. The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole; Speakman, Jacquelyn; Nettleship, Ian

    2010-01-01

    As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

  18. AUTOMATED LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  19. Towards a low-cost mobile subcutaneous vein detection solution using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Simon; Flis, Vojko; Debevc, Matjaz; Holzinger, Andreas; Zalik, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature). The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database) the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  20. Towards a Low-Cost Mobile Subcutaneous Vein Detection Solution Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Juric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature. The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  1. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  2. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Leigh

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping' before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  3. Rugged, Low Cost, Environmental Sensors for a Turbulent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B.; Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing scientific research and resource management require a diverse range of high-quality and low-cost sensors to maximize the number and type of measurements that can be obtained. To accomplish this, we have developed a series of diversified sensors for common environmental applications. The TP-DownHole is an ultra-compact temperature and pressure sensor designed for use in CMT (Continuous Multi-channel Tubing) multi-level wells. Its 1 mm water depth resolution, 30 cm altitude resolution, and rugged design make it ideal for both water level measurements and monitoring barometric pressure and associated temperature changes. The TP-DownHole sensor has also been incorporated into a self-contained, fully independent data recorder for extreme and remote environments. This device (the TP-Solo) is based around the TP-DownHole design, but has self-contained power and data storage and is designed to collect data independently for up to 6 months (logging at once an hour), creating a specialized tool for extreme environment data collection. To gather spectral information, we have also developed a very low cost photodiode-based Lux sensor to measure spectral irradiance; while this does not measure the entire solar radiation spectrum, simple modeling to rescale the remainder of the solar spectrum makes this a cost-effective alternative to a thermopile pyranometer. Lastly, we have developed an instrumentation amplifier which is designed to interface a wide range of sensitive instruments to common data logging systems, such as thermopile pyranometers, thermocouples, and many other analog output sensors. These three instruments are the first in a diverse family aimed to give researchers a set of powerful and low-cost tools for environmental instrumentation.

  4. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Nisha; Teare, June; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Wright, Caradee Yael; Mathee, Angela

    2017-11-18

    Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb) from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types ( p informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  5. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  6. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  7. Hidden costs of low-cost screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrlak, D.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred women in Orange County, California, took part in a low-cost mammography screening project sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the KCBS-TV. Patients were followed up by telephone and questioned about actual costs incurred as a result of screening mammography, including costs of repeated and follow-up mammograms, US examinations and surgical consultations. The total number of biopsies, cancers found, and the costs involved were investigated. The authors' results suggest that particularly in centers with a high positive call rate, the cost of screening mammograms accounts for only a small proportion of the medical costs

  8. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  9. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  11. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  12. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  13. Low cost nuclear spectrometer based on micro-controller device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.A.; Aramayo, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a gamma radiation Multichannel Analyzer device. That is to say, the development of a device able to display in the screen of a conventional computer a histogram of radioactive accounts (or accounts rate) received, in function of the different emission energies. It is a low cost implementation, oriented to mainly educational activities, but also applicable, within its limitations, to medium precision investigation works. In this first phase all the necessary one was implemented to detect the radioactive emissions, to measure them in energy, to store a complete spectrum and electronically to transfer it to a PC for its subsequent analysis. (author)

  14. Lightning rod: a simple and low cost experiment for eletrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing to make significant the scientific learning, this work suggests a simple and low-cost experiment to demonstrate electrostatics knowledge studied in High School. The experimental proposal has yet the concern of focusing the content, linking it to daily technological elements. Doing that, and due to the practical interest it can arouse in student, we presented the operation of an idealized Lightning Rod to apply in electrostatics school knowledge and to show that the same one can have an important day by day usefulness and it cannot be a turned off abstraction or distant from the reality.

  15. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  16. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  17. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  18. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal

    1998-05-01

    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  19. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  20. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  1. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  2. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  3. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  4. Low-cost metamaterial-on-paper chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeqi, Aydin; Nejad, Hojatollah Rezaei; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2017-07-10

    We present a disposable low cost paper-based metamaterial for sensing liquids based on their dielectric properties. The sensor is based on resonance shift due to the change in the effective capacitance of each resonator in the metamaterial array. Key novelty in the design is the implementation of metamaterial on low cost and ubiquitous paper substrate. This metamaterial-on-paper sensor is fabricated in a totally cleanroom-free process using wax printing and screen printing. Wax patterning of paper enables creation of microfluidic channels such that liquid analytes can be delivered to each metamaterial unit cell for sensing. Screen printing is used to implement disc shaped resonator unit cells. We demonstrate sensing of liquids: Oil, methanol, glycerol and water each showing an average resonance frequency shift of 1.12 (9.6%), 4.12 (35.4%), 8.76 (75.3%) and 11.63 GHz (100%) around the center frequency of around 94 GHz respectively. Being label-free, this approach can be expanded to sense other liquids based on their dielectric constants.

  5. Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Tarchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar systems are largely employed for surveillance of wide and remote areas; the recent advent of drones gives the opportunity to exploit radar sensors on board of unmanned aerial platforms. Nevertheless, whereas drone radars are currently available for military applications, their employment in the civilian domain is still limited. The present research focuses on design, prototyping, and testing of an agile, low-cost, mini radar system, to be carried on board of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs or tethered aerostats. In particular, the paper faces the challenge to integrate the in-house developed radar sensor with a low-cost navigation board, which is used to estimate attitude and positioning data. In fact, a suitable synchronization between radar and navigation data is essential to properly reconstruct the radar picture whenever the platform is moving or the radar is scanning different azimuthal sectors. Preliminary results, relative to tests conducted in preoperational conditions, are provided and exploited to assert the suitable consistency of the obtained radar pictures. From the results, there is a high consistency between the radar images and the picture of the current environment emerges; finally, the comparison of radar images obtained in different scans shows the stability of the platform.

  6. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  7. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  8. Low-cost universal stereoscopic virtual reality interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Michael R.

    1993-09-01

    Low cost stereoscopic virtual reality hardware interfacing with nearly any computer and stereoscopic software running on any PC is described. Both are user configurable for serial or parallel ports. Stereo modeling, rendering, and interaction via gloves or 6D mice are provided. Low cost LCD Visors and external interfaces represent a breakthrough in convenience and price/performance. A complete system with software, Visor, interface and Power Glove is under $DOL500. StereoDrivers will interface with any system giving video sync (e.g., G of RGB). PC3D will access any standard serial port, while PCVR works with serial or parallel ports and glove devices. Model RF Visors detect magnetic fields and require no connection to the system. PGSI is a microprocessor control for the Power Glove and Visors. All interfaces will operate to 120 Hz with Model G Visors. The SpaceStations are demultiplexing, field doubling devices which convert field sequential video or graphics for stereo display with dual video projection or dual LCD SpaceHelmets.

  9. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  10. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  11. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  12. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  13. Low-cost digital counting interface for fermentation gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Deluiche, S.R.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory- and pilot-scale volumetric measurement of fermentation gas can be readily determined with a standard wet-test gas meter. The initial cost of the meter, however, is quite prohibitive for experimental work and researchers have searched for other means of quantifying gas production. Techniques using calibrated floating gas holders, liquid displacement, flexible membranes, and conventional gas meters have been reported. Many of these methods lack a high degree of accuracy for small gas volumes. Residential gas meters such as those manufactured by Singer company, and others appear well suited for this application as long as a relatively dry gas is passed through the meter and a method is developed to subdivide the meter scale and record the results. The objective of this report was to construct a low cost, accurate, digital counting interface for concurrent operation with a low cost bellows-type gas meter. Although initially constructed for use in gas measurement studies, the interface can be used in other applications where digital output or computer interfacing are desired. 2 references.

  14. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  15. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  17. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  18. Cu II Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Low Cost Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Hadi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study the possibility of utilization of waste tires rubber ash (WTRA as a low-cost adsorbent and are available as a type of solid waste for the removal of copper ions from industrial wastewater. Depending on batch adsorption experiments, the effect of different parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage WTRA, contact time, initial concentration of the ion and shacking speed were studied. Results showed that the highest removal Cu+2 ions was 97.8% at pH equal to 6, 120 min contact time, dose WTRA 1.5 g/L, shacking speed 150 rpm. The experimental data were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models showed great compatibility with Langmuir model (R2=0.923. Adsorption kinetics was studied and the data was showed agree with Pseudo-first-order equation where the value of (kt=0.5115/min. The study also showed the possibility of using WTRA efficiently as adsorbent and low cost in the removal of copper ions from industrial waste water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.17

  19. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  20. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  1. Optical incremental rotary encoder in low-cost-design; Optischer inkrementaler Drehgeber in Low-Cost-Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, David; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Optik; Seybold, Jonathan; Mayer, Volker [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Kueck, Heinz [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Zeitmesstechnik, Fein- und Mikrotechnik

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new concept for low-cost optical encoders to come up to meet the increasing demand for inexpensive rotary sensors. The principal idea is to use a micro patterned plastic disc with metal coating, as it is used for Compact Discs or DVDs. Such encoder discs can be manufactured by an efficient injection compression moulding process. With this well established technique it is possible to achieve highly precise micro patterns while running a cost effective process for high volume production. (orig.)

  2. Low cost Polymer Optical Fibre based transmission system for feeding integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Khoe, G.D.; Visser, D. Taco; Lenstra, Daan; Schouten, F. Hugo

    2002-01-01

    A bi-directional transmission system using low cost Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) to feed the required large number of radio access points in next-generation integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs is proposed. Results from simulations and experiments show that, by tuning system parameters, a

  3. Low-cost sensors to monitor groundwater drought in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one

  4. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  5. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  6. Simple and Low-Cost Wireless Distributed Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Flammini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and realization of a simple and low-cost system for distributed measurements. Traditional handheld digital multimeters have been equipped with a radio-frequency interface in order to implement what the authors call WDMM, the basic block of a wireless multi-probe data logger. New functionalities require very few components and result in a cost increase of less than 10$. In addition, also maintenance has been facilitated since tracking data such as working state or last calibration time are available to the user. Data inquiry can be performed by a purposely designed module that has the same hardware of the WDMM but a different user interface or by a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a traditional personal computer thanks to a USB connection. Simple supervisory software has been realized under the LabVIEW graphical programming environment.

  7. Low-cost SI-POF analogue TIA and equaliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Ignacio; García del Pozo, Jose Maria; Mateo, Javier; Urdangarín, Julen; Celma, Santiago

    2012-11-01

    This article proposes the two first blocks of an analogue front-end suitable for plastic optical fibre systems suitable for the standard IEEE 1394. These blocks consist of a preamplifier followed by an equaliser which employs low-cost commercial components and are designed with two different bipolar technologies. With a supply voltage of 3.3 V, the front-end consumes 396 mW. The total gain is 70 dBΩ and it operates at up to 800 Mb/s. At this bit rate, with fibre lengths of up to 30 m, the circuit has a BER ≤ 10-12 and a maximum jitter of 170 psrms.

  8. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  9. Hydrocarbons - In the era of low-cost oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic; Delamarche, Myrtille; Cognasse, Olivier; De Jaegher, Thibaut; Fleitour, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    A set of articles addresses the current context of low cost oil and steep drop in oil prices. Graphs illustrate the evolution of oil prices, of supply and demand, of exploitation costs. This drop is partly due to the high level of production in Russia, Iraq and USA. This context results in drastic reductions of investments by companies involved in the oil sector, and therefore in job reduction, and in reduction of service costs. These reductions impact actors of the seismic analysis sector. Other consequences are more positive for consumers and refiners, and a trend towards diversification and consolidation for operators. The chairman of Technip answers some questions on Technip activities, situation and strategy. The case of the petrochemical sector is also addressed

  10. Low-cost in vitro fertilization: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh PJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pek Joo Teoh, Abha MaheshwariAberdeen Fertility Centre, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Despite the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF more than 30 years ago, the cost of treatment remains high. Furthermore, over the years, more sophisticated technologies and expensive medications have been introduced, making IVF increasingly inaccessible despite the increasing need. Globally, the option to undergo IVF is only available to a privileged few. In recent years, there has been growing interest in exploring strategies to reduce the cost of IVF treatment, which would allow the service to be provided in low-resource settings. In this review, we explore the various ways in which the cost of this treatment can be reduced.Keywords: IVF, low-cost, accessible, developing world

  11. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  12. Low cost open data acquisition system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Laniewski-Wollk, Przemyslaw; Zaworski, Wojciech

    2005-09-01

    In the biomedical applications it is often necessary to collect measurement data from different devices. It is relatively easy, if the devices are equipped with a MIB or Ethernet interface, however often they feature only the asynchronous serial link, and sometimes the measured values are available only as the analog signals. The system presented in the paper is a low cost alternative to commercially available data acquisition systems. The hardware and software architecture of the system is fully open, so it is possible to customize it for particular needs. The presented system offers various possibilities to connect it to the computer based data processing unit - e.g. using the USB or Ethernet ports. Both interfaces allow also to use many such systems in parallel to increase amount of serial and analog inputs. The open source software used in the system makes possible to process the acquired data with standard tools like MATLAB, Scilab or Octave, or with a dedicated, user supplied application.

  13. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  14. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  15. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriessen, R. [Holst Centre - Solliance, PO Box 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, J.M. [ECN - Solliance, Petten (Netherlands); Aernouts, T. [Imec, Solliance, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Solliance, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    This article describes how the Solliance Organic PhotoVoltaics (OPV) shared research Program addresses efficiency, lifetime and production costs for (near) future OPV applications. The balance of these three parameters depends of the envisaged application, but at the end, OPV should be able to compete somehow with Si PV in the future. Efficiency improvements are realized by developing new materials, by exploring and optimizing new device structures and novel interconnection technologies. Lifetime improvements are realized by using stabilized device stacks and materials and by applying high end flexible barriers. Production cost control is done by using a home made Cost of Ownership tool which guides towards the use of low-cost materials and processes.

  16. Low cost strategies for microbiological purification of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of sunlight intensities and freezing on prevalence of coliform bacteria in water were assessed in this study. Fish pond water indicated 1100 figure of most probable number (MPN) of coliforms, while on MacConkey agar they appeared uncountable. When this water was exposed to sunlight it was found that a exposure of 1.5 hours in ceramic containers covered by petri plates and those with magnifying lenses of 3X powers indicated 58 and 78% reduction in the coliforms, respectively. Corresponding figures for 3 hours exposure were found to be 100 percent less than the control MPN value. Freezing with subsequent thawing also reduced the microbial population. The experiments reported here are suggestive to construct simple low cost water treatment plants to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. Antibiotics sensitivity and resistant patterns of coliforms for tetracycline, piperacillin, streptomycin, metronidazole, erythromycin and chloramphenicol in connection to pre- and post treatments are indicated. (author)

  17. Dyes removal from water using low cost absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, S.; Ramirez, A. P.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the removal capacity of low cost adsorbents during the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) at different concentrations (50 and 100mg·L-1) was evaluated. These adsorbents were produced from wood wastes (cedar and teak) by chemical activation (ZnCl2). Both studied materials, Activated Cedar (AC) and activated teak (AT) showed a good fit of their experimental data to the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities for AC were 2000.0 and 444.4mg·g-1 for MB and CR, respectively, while for AT, maximum adsorption capacities of 1052.6 and 86.4mg·g-1 were found for MB and CR, respectively.

  18. Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, D; Barabas, J; Bove, V M; Jolly, S; DellaSilva, C; Smithwick, Q

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an architecture for a relatively low-cost, pc-driven holovideo monitor. The geometry uses minimal optics and is built to host a multi-channel acousto-optic modulator that can be driven by up-converted VGA signals. The display's target specifications include a standard vertical resolution (480 lines) output driven by an 18 channel acousto-optic modulator, 30Hz refresh-rate and multiple color operation. This paper reports early tests of this geometry with a single acousto-optic channel. The goal is to create a small but functional holographic display that can be readily replicated, easily driven and provide basic monitor functionality with a bill of materials in the hundreds, rather than thousands, of dollars.

  19. Low-cost portable TRNG, implementation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermevc Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will show one of many possible hardware implementations of random sequence generators and give a short survey on existing work related to techniques used for producing true random bits. By using cheap electronic components found in every specialized store such as 8-bit RISC microcontroler, double analogue comparator chip and USB to RS232 interface integrated circuit, we were able to produce a low cost, higly portable device that outputs random sequences with excellent statistical characteristics and high entropy. The source of randomness is a mix of techniques such as electronic noise, phase noise and oscillator jitter. The device in question has a built-in debiasing algorithm similar to [1] and a security mechanism that protects the end user by constantly monitoring the quality of digitized noise signal. Finaly, we will show the results of comparative analysis of data acquired from our device and „random.org“ online service.

  20. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D

    2013-08-12

    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  1. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  2. Microinsurance: innovations in low-cost health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.

  3. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs.

  4. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI's previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

  5. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  6. YSAR: a compact low-cost synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas G.; Arnold, David V.; Long, David G.; Miner, Gayle F.; Karlinsey, Thomas W.; Robertson, Adam E.

    1997-09-01

    The Brigham Young University Synthetic Aperture Radar (YSAR) is a compact, inexpensive SAR system which can be flown on a small aircraft. The system has exhibited a resolution of approximately 0.8 m by 0.8 m in test flights in calm conditions. YSAR has been used to collect data over archeological sites in Israel. Using a relatively low frequency (2.1 GHz), we hope to be able to identify walls or other archeological features to assist in excavation. A large data set of radar and photographic data have been collected over sites at Tel Safi, Qumran, Tel Micnah, and the Zippori National Forest in Israel. We show sample images from the archeological data. We are currently working on improved autofocus algorithms for this data and are developing a small, low-cost interferometric SAR system (YINSAR) for operation from a small aircraft.

  7. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, B.; Bramwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG and E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California

  8. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Wenzler, C. J.; Rom, F. E.; Vanarsdale, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector for preheating ambient air was developed. This type of solar heating system would be applicable for preheating ventilation air for public buildings or other commercial and industrial ventilation requirements. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60 percent or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20 degrees for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that this type of solar system was economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, costs for the bare plate solar collector are attainable. Applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  9. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  10. Characterization of low cost orally disintegrating film (ODF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordao Barrozo Heinemann

    Full Text Available Abstract Orally disintegrating films (ODF produced with a hydrophilic polymers are a thin and flexible material, wich disintegrate in contact with saliva and can vehicule bioactive materials. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize ODF formulation with potential to act as a carrier for different bioactives compounds prepared with low cost polymers. Gelatin (G, starch (S, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and their blends (G:S, CMC:S, CMC:G, and CMC:S:G were prepared by casting technique with sorbitol as a plasticizer. The formulations were characterized in terms of visual aspects, FTIR, SEM, mechanical characteristics, hygroscopicity, dissolution (in vitro and in vivo and swelling index. FTIR analysis revealed that no interaction between polymers in ODF was observed. By SEM, it was possible to observe differences on surfaces by different polymers. ODF made with CMC and CMC:G presented higher water absorption (P<0.05 and higher swelling index probably due to the higher water affinity by CMC. Formulations with G, CMC:G and CMC:S:G presented the highest values of tensile strength (P<0.05. ODF prepared with S alone presented the highest disintegration time, the others formulations showed in vitro dissolution ranging from 5.22 to 8.50 min, while in vivo dissolution time ranged from 2.15 to 3.38 min. By the formulations made with G and blend of G:S and CMC:S:G it is possible to develop a ODF of low cost with desired characteristics being an alternative vehicle to deliver functional compounds for continuous use.

  11. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  12. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

  14. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  15. Low-cost safety enhancements for stop-controlled and signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present information on suggested effective, low-cost intersection countermeasures developed using intersection safety research results and input from an intersection safety expert panel. These low-cost countermeasur...

  16. Laser-based microstructuring of materials surfaces using low-cost microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Vara, G.; Diez, J. A.; O`Connor, Gerard M.; Arines, Justo; Gómez-Reino, C.; Flores-Arias, M.

    2012-03-01

    Since frictional interactions in microscopically small components are becoming increasingly important for the development of new products for all modern technology, we present a laser-based technique for micro-patterning surfaces of materials using low-cost microlens arrays. The microlens used were fabricated on soda-lime glass using a laser direct-write technique, followed by a thermal treatment into an oven. By combining laser direct-write and the thermal treatment it was possible to obtain high quality elements using a low cost infrared laser widely implemented in industry which makes this technique attractive in comparison with other more expensive methods. The main advantage of using microlens arrays for micropatterning surfaces is the possibility of fabricating a large number of identical structures simultaneously, leading to a highly efficient process. In order to study the capabilities of the microlens fabricated for microstructuring materials, identical structures and arrays of holes were fabricated over a variety of materials, such us, stainless steel, polymer and ceramic. The minimum diameter of the individual microstructure generated at surface is 5 μm. Different nanosecond lasers operating at Infrared, Green and UV were used. The topography and morphology of the elements obtained were determined using a confocal microscope SENSOFAR 2300 Plμ.

  17. LOW COST SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM. The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37–111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps

  18. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  19. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  20. Development of a low-cost cellulase production process using Trichoderma reesei for Brazilian biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellilä, Simo; Fonseca, Lucas; Uchima, Cristiane; Cota, Junio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Saloheimo, Markku; Sacon, Vera; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2017-01-01

    During the past few years, the first industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants have been inaugurated. Although the performance of the commercial cellulase enzymes used in this process has greatly improved over the past decade, cellulases still represent a very significant operational cost. Depending on the region, transport of cellulases from a central production facility to a biorefinery may significantly add to enzyme cost. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, cost-efficient cellulase production process that could be employed locally at a Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery. Our work focused on two main topics: growth medium formulation and strain improvement. We evaluated several Brazilian low-cost industrial residues for their potential in cellulase production. Among the solid residues evaluated, soybean hulls were found to display clearly the most desirable characteristics. We engineered a Trichoderma reesei strain to secrete cellulase in the presence of repressing sugars, enabling the use of sugarcane molasses as an additional carbon source. In addition, we added a heterologous β-glucosidase to improve the performance of the produced enzymes in hydrolysis. Finally, the addition of an invertase gene from Aspegillus niger into our strain allowed it to consume sucrose from sugarcane molasses directly. Preliminary cost analysis showed that the overall process can provide for very low-cost enzyme with good hydrolysis performance on industrially pre-treated sugarcane straw. In this study, we showed that with relatively few genetic modifications and the right growth medium it is possible to produce considerable amounts of well-performing cellulase at very low cost in Brazil using T. reesei . With further enhancements and optimization, such a system could provide a viable alternative to delivered commercial cellulases.

  1. Low-cost feedstock conversion to biodiesel via ultrasound technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, O.; Petrik, L.; Amigun, B.; Ameer, F. [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Amigun, B. [Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock - in this case waste cooking oil - in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 {sup o}C, a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration were obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. (authors)

  2. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, Omotola [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Petrik, Leslie [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Amigun, Bamikole [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa) and Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ameer, Faraouk [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-09-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 deg C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  3. Low-cost activation analysis at small research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, G P; Lemmel, H; Niedermaier, M R; Joestl, K; Schröder, P; Böck, H H; Schachner, H; Klapfer, E

    2003-01-01

    A software implementation of a loss-free counting multichannel analyzer, storing immediately into the multimegabyte memory of a low-cost 486 or Pentium type PC, enables the real-time control of a rabbit system as well as the collection of up to 1000 pairs of simultaneously recorded loss-corrected and non-corrected spectra of 16 k channels each, in a true sequence without time gaps in between, at throughput rates of up to 200 kc/s. Intended for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions, the system renders possible peak to background optimizations and separations of lines with different half-lives without an a priori knowledge of sample composition by summing up appropriate numbers of spectra over appropriate intervals of time. By automatically adapting the noise filtering time to individual pulse intervals, the Preloaded Digital Filter (PLDF) combines low- to medium-rate resolutions comparable to those of high-quality Gaussian amplifiers with throughput rates of up to 100 kc/s, and high-rate reso...

  4. Applications Of A Low Cost System For Industrial Automatic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, C.; Ayache, A.; Bruel, A.

    1987-05-01

    In industrial environment, some repetitive tasks wich do not need a high degree of understanding, can be solved automatically owing to Vision. Among the systems available on the market, most of them are rather expensive with various capabilities. The described system is a modular system, built with some standard circuit boards. One of the advantages of this system is that its architecture can be redefined for each application, by assembling judiciously the standard modules. The vision system has been used successfully to sort fruits according to their colour and diameter. The system can sort 8 fruits per second on each sorting line and manage simultaneously up to 16 lines. An application of sheep skin cutting has been implemented too. After chemical and mechanical treatments, the skins present many defaults all around their contour, that must be cut off. A movable camera follows and inspects the contour ; the vision system determines where the cutting device must cut the skin. A third application has been implemented ; it concerns automatic recording and reproduction of logotypes. A moving camera driven by the system picks up the points, of the logotype contours. Before reproduction, programs can modify the logotypes shape, change the scale, and so on. For every application, the system uses the world smallest CCD camera developped in the laboratory. The small dimensions of the vision system and its low cost are major advantages for a wide use in industrial automatic inspection.

  5. Low-Cost IoT: A Holistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ciuffoletti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable: an initial financial support may induce dependencies from technologies that become unsustainable in the long period. In addition, the initial adoption of an emerging technology that fails to affirm may jeopardize investment return. This paper investigates a smart-village use case, the success of which strongly depends on the initial cost and scalability, exploring a low-cost way for Internet of Things (IoT. We propose a simple conceptual framework for cost evaluation, and we verify its effectiveness with an exhaustive use case: a prototype sensor designed and tested with its surrounding eco-system. Using experimental results, we can estimate both performance and cost for a pilot system made of fifty sensors deployed in an urban area. We show that such cost grows linearly with system size, taking advantage of widely adopted technologies. The code and the design of the prototype are available, so that all steps are reproducible.

  6. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  7. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  8. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  9. Palliative and low cost radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry; Hussein, S.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. In many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative care centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Simple curative treatments could also be managed. Co60 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both Co60 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The role of palliative and low cost radiotherapy in Bangladesh is reviewed. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy.

  10. Low-cost hadron colliders at Fermilab: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.W.; Malamud, E.

    1996-01-01

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in collider energies as represented by the well known Livingston plot. The old idea of low cost, low field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (2) accurate remote guidance systems for tunnel survey and boring machine steering, (3) high T c superconductors operating at liquid N 2 or liquid H 2 temperatures, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables, (6) achievement of high luminosities in p-p and p-anti P colliders. The goal of this paper is to stimulate continuing discussions on approaches to this new collider and to identify critical areas needing calculations, construction of models, proof of principle experiments, and full scale prototypes in order to determine feasibility and arrive at cost estimates

  11. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  12. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  13. Odometry and Low-Cost Sensor Fusion in Tmm Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzino, A. M.; Taglioretti, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the most powerful motion model and filtering technique to represent an urban terrestrial mobile mapping (TMM) survey and ultimately to obtain the best representation of the car trajectory. The authors want to test how far a motion model and a more or less refined filtering technique could bring benefits in the determination of the car trajectory. To achieve the necessary data for the application of the motion models and the filtering techniques described in the article, the authors realized a TMM survey in the urban centre of Turin by equipping a vehicle with various instruments: a low-cost action-cam also able to record the GPS trace of the vehicle even in the presence of obstructions, an inertial measurement system and an odometer. The results of analysis show in the article indicate that the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) technique provides good results in the determination of the vehicle trajectory, especially if the motion model considers more states (such as the positions, the tangential velocity, the angular velocity, the heading, the acceleration). The authors also compared the results obtained with a motion model characterized by four, five and six states. A natural corollary to this work would be the introduction to the UKF of the photogrammetric information obtained by the same camera placed on board the vehicle. These data would permit to establish how photogrammetric measurements can improve the quality of TMM solutions, especially in the absence of GPS signals (like urban canyons).

  14. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  15. Characterization of a Large, Low-Cost 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imagery-based 3D scanning can be performed by scanners with multiple form factors, ranging from small and inexpensive scanners requiring manual movement around a stationary object to large freestanding (nearly instantaneous units. Small mobile units are problematic for use in scanning living creatures, which may be unwilling or unable to (or for the very young and animals, unaware of the need to hold a fixed position for an extended period of time. Alternately, very high cost scanners that can capture a complete scan within a few seconds are available, but they are cost prohibitive for some applications. This paper seeks to assess the performance of a large, low-cost 3D scanner, presented in prior work, which is able to concurrently capture imagery from all around an object. It provides the capabilities of the large, freestanding units at a price point akin to the smaller, mobile ones. This allows access to 3D scanning technology (particularly for applications requiring instantaneous imaging at a lower cost. Problematically, prior analysis of the scanner’s performance was extremely limited. This paper characterizes the efficacy of the scanner for scanning both inanimate objects and humans. Given the importance of lighting to visible light scanning systems, the scanner’s performance under multiple lighting configurations is evaluated, characterizing its sensitivity to lighting design.

  16. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  17. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  18. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  19. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  20. Low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktar, O.; Ari, G.; Guenduez, O.; Demirel, H.; Demirbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matri10. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared by an extruder in SANAEM. Molds suitable for extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and pressure were obtained. Plastic blocks prepared were optically and mechanically tested and its response against various radioactive sources was measured.This study has shown that plastic scintillators imported can be produced in SANAEM domestically and be used for detection of radioactive materials within the country or border gates.

  1. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Campo dell'Orto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient’s safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n=67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians.

  2. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo dell'Orto, Marco; Hempel, Dorothea; Starzetz, Agnieszka; Seibel, Armin; Hannemann, Ulf; Walcher, Felix; Breitkreutz, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient's safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n = 67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians. PMID:24288616

  3. Low cost light-sheet microscopy for whole brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Nasenbeny, Jordan; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia

    2018-02-01

    Light-sheet microscopy has evolved as an indispensable tool in imaging biological samples. It can image 3D samples at fast speed, with high-resolution optical sectioning, and with reduced photobleaching effects. These properties make light-sheet microscopy ideal for imaging fluorophores in a variety of biological samples and organisms, e.g. zebrafish, drosophila, cleared mouse brains, etc. While most commercial turnkey light-sheet systems are expensive, the existing lower cost implementations, e.g. OpenSPIM, are focused on achieving high-resolution imaging of small samples or organisms like zebrafish. In this work, we substantially reduce the cost of light-sheet microscope system while targeting to image much larger samples, i.e. cleared mouse brains, at single-cell resolution. The expensive components of a lightsheet system - excitation laser, water-immersion objectives, and translation stage - are replaced with an incoherent laser diode, dry objectives, and a custom-built Arduino-controlled translation stage. A low-cost CUBIC protocol is used to clear fixed mouse brain samples. The open-source platforms of μManager and Fiji support image acquisition, processing, and visualization. Our system can easily be extended to multi-color light-sheet microscopy.

  4. A Low Cost Mechatronics Device for STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Larry Eugene, Jr.

    All of the low-cost STEM education devices currently available are limited in function which limits learning. The motivation was to design and develop a device that will intrigue post-secondary students to learn STEM education concepts in a hands-on manner. The device needed to be open source so as to lower the cost to make it available to more students. And, making it feature rich was important for use with multiple projects the students may encounter or build themselves as they grow. The device has provided visual and physical feedback to students making the device more intriguing to use. Using the open-source C compiler reduced cost for students to use the device and taught them how to use an industry standard programming language. Students enjoyed the WAV file rendering for sound effects and LED lighting effects from the device. Most interviewees were intrigued by the device for use in their training facilities and classrooms. There are a couple of multi-axis controllers available but none with position feedback. Ethernet or Bluetooth interfacing was mentioned as a future feature and it was encouraged by nearly all who were interviewed.

  5. Very low cost multichannel analyzer with some additional features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudyka, Konrad, E-mail: konrad.tudyka@polsl.pl [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland); Bluszcz, Andrzej [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland)

    2011-12-11

    In this paper we present a multichannel analyzer (MCA) based on a digital signal controller (DSC). The multichannel analyzer is characterized by a very low cost and an additional feature of recording time intervals between pulses. The total cost of electronic parts used in construction of the MCA is around 50 USD. The electronic circuit is based on dsPIC30F2020 DSC unit from Microchip. The device has a 10-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) which can sample and convert 2 samples per {mu}s. The DSC samples the input voltage continuously and detects incoming pulses. The data belonging to a detected pulse and its time stamp are sent to a PC on-line. The analysis of data stored on the PC is performed off-line with the help of a genetic algorithm (GA) used to fit the pulse shape function. This allows determination of amplitude of each individual pulse. The effective resolution varies with the pulse length and is typically 1000 channels for pulses approximately 4{mu}s long.

  6. Low-Cost, Distributed Environmental Monitors for Factory Worker Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geb W. Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated network of environmental monitors was developed to continuously measure several airborne hazards in a manufacturing facility. The monitors integrated low-cost sensors to measure particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, noise, temperature and humidity. The monitors were developed and tested in situ for three months in several overlapping deployments, before a full cohort of 40 was deployed in a heavy vehicle manufacturing facility for a year of data collection. The monitors collect data from each sensor and report them to a central database every 5 min. The work includes an experimental validation of the particle, gas and noise monitors. The R2 for the particle sensor ranges between 0.98 and 0.99 for particle mass densities up to 300 μg/m3. The R2 for the carbon monoxide sensor is 0.99 for concentrations up to 15 ppm. The R2 for the oxidizing gas sensor is 0.98 over the sensitive range from 20 to 180 ppb. The noise monitor is precise within 1% between 65 and 95 dBA. This work demonstrates the capability of distributed monitoring as a means to examine exposure variability in both space and time, building an important preliminary step towards a new approach for workplace hazard monitoring.

  7. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  8. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  9. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  10. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  11. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  12. Technical features of a low-cost earthquake alert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyzes the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5,000 annually to maintain

  13. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  14. Application of Low-Cost Fixed-Wing UAV for Inland Lakes Shoreline Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Tomasz; Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Kosecki, Rafał

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors that influences the performance of geomorphologic parameters on urban lakes is the water level. It fluctuates periodically, causing shoreline changes. It is especially significant for typical environmental studies like bathymetric surveys, morphometric parameters calculation, sediment depth changes, thermal structure, water quality monitoring, etc. In most reservoirs, it can be obtained from digitized historical maps or plans or directly measured using the instruments such as: geodetic total station, GNSS receivers, UAV with different sensors, satellite and aerial photos, terrestrial and airborne light detection and ranging, or others. Today one of the most popular measuring platforms, increasingly applied in many applications is UAV. Unmanned aerial system can be a cheap, easy to use, on-demand technology for gathering remote sensing data. Our study presents a reliable methodology for shallow lake shoreline investigation with the use of a low-cost fixed-wing UAV system. The research was implemented on a small, eutrophic urban inland reservoir located in the northern part of Poland—Lake Suskie. The geodetic TS, and RTK/GNSS measurements, hydroacoustic soundings and experimental aerial mapping were conducted by the authors in 2012-2015. The article specifically describes the UAV system used for experimental measurements, the obtained results and the accuracy analysis. Final conclusions demonstrate that even a low-cost fixed-wing UAV can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying a shallow lake shoreline and generate valuable geoinformation data collected definitely faster than when traditional geodetic methods are employed.

  15. Accelerated GaAs growth through MOVPE for low-cost PV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Akinori; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Koseki, Shuichi; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsumoto, Koh; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2018-05-01

    The high growth rate of epitaxial GaAs was investigated using a novel horizontal metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor, from the point of view of realizing low-cost photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. The GaAs growth rate exhibited an approximately linear relationship with the amount of trimethylgalium (TMGa) supplied, up to a rate of 90 μm/h. The distribution of growth rate was observed for a two-inch wafer, along the flow direction, and the normalized profile of the distribution was found to be independent of the precursor input, from 20 to 70 μm/h. These tendencies indicated that significant parasitic prereaction did not occur in the gaseous phase, for this range of growth rate. GaAs p-n single-junction solar cells were successfully fabricated at growth rates of 20, 60, and 80 μm/h. The conversion efficiency of the cell grown at 80 μm/h was comparable to that of the 20 μm/h cell, indicating the good quality and properties of GaAs. The epitaxial growth exhibited good uniformity, as evidenced by the uniformity of the cell performance across the wafer, from the center to the edge. The result indicated the potential of high-throughput MOVPE for low-cost production, not only for PV devices but also for other semiconductor applications.

  16. Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Nicklas; Wells, Thomas; Andres, Britta; Bäckström, Joakim; Forsberg, Sven; Olin, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs. This results in high costs for a given energy-storage capacity. To address this, we developed a novel low-cost aqueous SC using graphite foil as the current collector and a mix of graphene, nanographite, simple water-purification carbons and nanocellulose as electrodes. The electrodes were coated directly onto the graphite foil by using casting frames and the SCs were assembled in a pouch cell design. With this approach, we achieved a material cost reduction of greater than 90% while maintaining approximately one-half of the specific capacitance of a commercial unit, thus demonstrating that the proposed SC can be an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to conventional SCs.

  17. Low-cost formation of bulk and localized polymer-derived carbon nanodomains from polydimethylsiloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Juan Carlos Castro; Cerda Zorrilla, Mariana; Cabriales, Lucia; Rossano, Luis Manuel León; Hautefeuille, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    We present two simple alternative methods to form polymer-derived carbon nanodomains in a controlled fashion and at low cost, using custom-made chemical vapour deposition and selective laser ablation with a commercial CD-DVD platform. Both processes presented shiny and dark residual materials after the polymer combustion and according to micro-Raman spectroscopy of the domains, graphitic nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes have successfully been produced by the combustion of polydimethylsiloxane layers. The fabrication processes and characterization of the byproduct materials are reported. We demonstrate that CVD led to bulk production of graphitic nanocrystals and single-walled carbon nanotubes while direct laser ablation may be employed for the formation of localized fluorescent nanodots. In the latter case, graphitic nanodomains and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are left inside microchannels and preliminary results seem to indicate that laser ablation could offer a tuning control of the nature and optical properties of the nanodomains that are left inside micropatterns with on-demand geometries. These low-cost methods look particularly promising for the formation of carbon nanoresidues with controlled properties and in applications where high integration is desired.

  18. Fast and low-cost method for VBES bathymetry generation in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Aceña, S.; Rodríguez-Pérez, D.; Couñago, E.; Fraile, P.; Freire, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sea floor topography is key information in coastal area management. Nowadays, LiDAR and multibeam technologies provide accurate bathymetries in those areas; however these methodologies are yet too expensive for small customers (fishermen associations, small research groups) willing to keep a periodic surveillance of environmental resources. In this paper, we analyse a simple methodology for vertical beam echosounder (VBES) bathymetric data acquisition and postprocessing, using low-cost means and free customizable tools such as ECOSONS and gvSIG (that is compared with industry standard ArcGIS). Echosounder data was filtered, resampled and, interpolated (using kriging or radial basis functions). Moreover, the presented methodology includes two data correction processes: Monte Carlo simulation, used to reduce GPS errors, and manually applied bathymetric line transformations, both improving the obtained results. As an example, we present the bathymetry of the Ría de Cedeira (Galicia, NW Spain), a good testbed area for coastal bathymetry methodologies given its extension and rich topography. The statistical analysis, performed by direct ground-truthing, rendered an upper bound of 1.7 m error, at 95% confidence level, and 0.7 m r.m.s. (cross-validation provided 30 cm and 25 cm, respectively). The methodology presented is fast and easy to implement, accurate outside transects (accuracy can be estimated), and can be used as a low-cost periodical monitoring method.

  19. Chromatic aberration correction: an enhancement to the calibration of low-cost digital dermoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighton, Paul; Lee, Tim K; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David; Atkins, M Stella

    2011-08-01

    We present a method for calibrating low-cost digital dermoscopes that corrects for color and inconsistent lighting and also corrects for chromatic aberration. Chromatic aberration is a form of radial distortion that often occurs in inexpensive digital dermoscopes and creates red and blue halo-like effects on edges. Being radial in nature, distortions due to chromatic aberration are not constant across the image, but rather vary in both magnitude and direction. As a result, distortions are not only visually distracting but could also mislead automated characterization techniques. Two low-cost dermoscopes, based on different consumer-grade cameras, were tested. Color is corrected by imaging a reference and applying singular value decomposition to determine the transformation required to ensure accurate color reproduction. Lighting is corrected by imaging a uniform surface and creating lighting correction maps. Chromatic aberration is corrected using a second-order radial distortion model. Our results for color and lighting calibration are consistent with previously published results, while distortions due to chromatic aberration can be reduced by 42-47% in the two systems considered. The disadvantages of inexpensive dermoscopy can be quickly substantially mitigated with a suitable calibration procedure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. System Considerations and Challendes in 3d Mapping and Modeling Using Low-Cost Uav Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the last few years, low-cost UAV systems have been acknowledged as an affordable technology for geospatial data acquisition that can meet the needs of a variety of traditional and non-traditional mapping applications. In spite of its proven potential, UAV-based mapping is still lacking in terms of what is needed for it to become an acceptable mapping tool. In other words, a well-designed system architecture that considers payload restrictions as well as the specifications of the utilized direct geo-referencing component and the imaging systems in light of the required mapping accuracy and intended application is still required. Moreover, efficient data processing workflows, which are capable of delivering the mapping products with the specified quality while considering the synergistic characteristics of the sensors onboard, the wide range of potential users who might lack deep knowledge in mapping activities, and time constraints of emerging applications, are still needed to be adopted. Therefore, the introduced challenges by having low-cost imaging and georeferencing sensors onboard UAVs with limited payload capability, the necessity of efficient data processing techniques for delivering required products for intended applications, and the diversity of potential users with insufficient mapping-related expertise needs to be fully investigated and addressed by UAV-based mapping research efforts. This paper addresses these challenges and reviews system considerations, adaptive processing techniques, and quality assurance/quality control procedures for achievement of accurate mapping products from these systems.

  1. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Mahmood, Qaisar; Nasreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2009-08-30

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Pakistan is about to exhaust its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water deficit country. Water pollution is a serious menace in Pakistan, as almost 70% of its surface waters as well as its groundwater reserves have contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. In some areas of Pakistan, a number of shallow aquifers and tube wells are contaminated with arsenic at levels which are above the recommended USEPA arsenic level of 10 ppb (10 microg L(-1)). Adverse health effects including human mortality from drinking water are well documented and can be attributed to arsenic contamination. The present paper reviews appropriate and low cost methods for the elimination of arsenic from drinking waters. It is recommended that a combination of low cost chemical treatment like ion exchange, filtration and adsorption along with bioremediation may be useful option for arsenic removal from drinking water.

  2. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  3. Integration of Kinect and Low-Cost Gnss for Outdoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaria, D.; Pinto, L.; Reguzzoni, M.; Rossi, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since its launch on the market, Microsoft Kinect sensor has represented a great revolution in the field of low cost navigation, especially for indoor robotic applications. In fact, this system is endowed with a depth camera, as well as a visual RGB camera, at a cost of about 200. The characteristics and the potentiality of the Kinect sensor have been widely studied for indoor applications. The second generation of this sensor has been announced to be capable of acquiring data even outdoors, under direct sunlight. The task of navigating passing from an indoor to an outdoor environment (and vice versa) is very demanding because the sensors that work properly in one environment are typically unsuitable in the other one. In this sense the Kinect could represent an interesting device allowing bridging the navigation solution between outdoor and indoor. In this work the accuracy and the field of application of the new generation of Kinect sensor have been tested outdoor, considering different lighting conditions and the reflective properties of the emitted ray on different materials. Moreover, an integrated system with a low cost GNSS receiver has been studied, with the aim of taking advantage of the GNSS positioning when the satellite visibility conditions are good enough. A kinematic test has been performed outdoor by using a Kinect sensor and a GNSS receiver and it is here presented.

  4. Assessment of radiotherapy photon beams: A practical and low cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, C.Q.M.; Nicolucci, P.

    2017-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of radiation beams used in radiotherapy are directly related to the energy spectrum produced by the treatment unit. Therefore, the development of methodologies to evaluate in a simple and accurate way the spectra of clinical beams can help establishing the quality control of the treatment. The purpose of this study is to present a practical and low cost methodology for determining primary spectra of radiotherapy photon beams from transmission measurements in attenuators of aluminum and using the method of the inverse Laplace transform. Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE code was used in order to evaluate and validate the reconstructed spectra by the calculation of dosimetric parameters that characterize the beam. Percentage depth dose values simulated with a 6 MV reconstructed spectrum shows maximum difference of 4.4% when compared to values measured at the corresponding clinical beam. For a 10 MV beam that difference was around 4.2%. Results obtained in this study confirm the adequacy of the proposed methodology for assessing primary photon beams produced by clinical accelerators. - Highlights: • Primary spectra of radiotherapy photon beams are determined from transmission measurements. • Monte Carlo calculations are used to evaluate the method of the inverse Laplace transform. • The proposed methodology is practical and of low cost for clinical purposes. • Results are in fair agreement with literature and clinical data.

  5. Low-Cost High-Speed In-Plane Stroboscopic Micro-Motion Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank S. Pandey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentation for high-speed imaging and laser vibrometry is essential for the understanding and analysis of microstructure dynamics, but commercial instruments are largely unaffordable for most microelectromechanical systems (MEMS laboratories. We present the implementation of a very low cost in-plane micro motion stroboscopic analyzer that can be directly attached to a conventional probe station. The low-cost analyzer has been used to characterize the harmonic motion of 52.1 kHz resonating comb drive microactuators using ~50 ns pulsed light-emitting diode (LED stroboscope exposure times, producing sharp and high resolution (~0.5 μm device images at resonance, which rivals those of several orders of magnitude more expensive systems. This paper details the development of the high-speed stroboscopic imaging system and presents experimental results of motion analysis of example microstructures and a discussion of its operating limits. The system is shown to produce stable stroboscopic LED illumination to freeze device images up to 11 MHz.

  6. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  7. Feasibility of a low-cost sounding rockoon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam; Raurell, Daniel Sors; Mitre, Alberto Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses and simulations for the design of a small sounding platform, dedicated to conducting scientific atmospheric research and capable of reaching the von Kármán line by means of a rocket launched from it. While recent private initiatives have opted for the air launch concept to send small payloads to Low Earth Orbit, several historical projects considered the use of balloons as the first stage of orbital and suborbital platforms, known as rockoons. Both of these approaches enable the minimization of drag losses. This paper addresses the issue of utilizing stratospheric balloons as launch platforms to conduct sub-orbital rocket flights. Research and simulations have been conducted to demonstrate these capabilities and feasibility. A small sounding solid propulsion rocket using commercially-off-the-shelf hardware is proposed. Its configuration and design are analyzed with special attention given to the propulsion system and its possible mission-orientated optimization. The cost effectiveness of this approach is discussed. Performance calculation outcomes are shown. Additionally, sensitivity study results for different design parameters are given. Minimum mass rocket configurations for various payload requirements are presented. The ultimate aim is to enhance low-cost experimentation maintaining high mobility of the system and simplicity of operations. An easier and more affordable access to a space-like environment can be achieved with this system, thus allowing for widespread outreach of space science and technology knowledge. This project is based on earlier experience of the authors in LEEM Association of the Technical University of Madrid and the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program developed at the Institute of Aviation and Warsaw University of Technology in Poland.

  8. Parameters affecting the performance of a low cost solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.; Imteaz, M.; Thomas, U.A.; Azmi, M.; Rahman, A.; Nik Daud, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The triangular solar still is designed using cheap and durable materials. • The initial water depth has an inverse relationship with the production. • The water productivity is nearly proportional to the solar radiation. • The water quality parameters are within the accepted ranges of drinking water. - Abstract: This study aims at developing a low cost technique to be used in rural and coastal areas for converting saline water into potable water using solar energy. A triangular solar still (TrSS) was, therefore, designed and developed with cheap, lightweight, local and available materials. A number of field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of solar radiation intensity, ambient air temperature and the initial water depth on the daily water production of the TrSS. A time lag of about and hour between the hourly peaks of solar radiation and water production is observed. Finally, a few essential relationships were attained, e.g. between the daily production and the initial water depth, between the daily production and daily solar radiation, and between the daily production and the average ambient temperature. The effect of the initial water depth in the basin on the daily water productivity was evaluated by varying the water depths (1.5, 2.5 and 5 cm) with the climatic condition of Malaysia and an inverse proportional relationship was revealed between them. However, the daily water productivity is nearly proportional to the daily solar radiation. In addition, some important water quality parameters were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the distillate quality and were then compared with the drinking water standards

  9. Removal of arsenic from groundwater with low cost multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, A.; Rahman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 +- 4.2 micro g/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk's ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper) of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III) under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 micro g/L), sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk's ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper), particle size (<355 micro m), treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min), optimum volume (100 mL) and pH (5.0). Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 +- 1.2% - 82 +- 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 +- 0.4 micro g/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe) in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water. (author)

  10. Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater with Low Cost Multilayer Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Samad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 ± 4.2 µg/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk’s ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 µg/L, sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk’s ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper, particle size (<355 µm, treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min, optimum volume (100 mL and pH (5.0. Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 ± 1.2% - 82 ± 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 ± 0.4 µg/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water.

  11. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  12. A low cost tele-imaging platform for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou eADAMBOUNOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To design a low cost tele-imaging method allowing real time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centres and university hospital centres (expert centre.Materials and Methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centres, allows a real time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g. midwife, nurse, technician. The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography and computer tomography for example. The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40km from Lomé-Togo and 4500km from Tours-France and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours.Results: A real time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 seconds with an internet bandwidth of around 1Mbps (IP Camera and 512kbps (remote access software. A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient centre to the expert centre was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.

  13. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  14. A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.

    1997-12-01

    We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.

  15. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  16. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    are able to produce accurate and low-cost 3D-models of gullies.

  17. How to Mobilize your Library at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Abarca Villoldo

    2012-09-01

    tools are available free of charge. In other words, these are low-cost tools that offer high returns to the user.

  18. Pointo - a Low Cost Solution to Point Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Winkler, S.

    2017-11-01

    With advance in technology access to data especially 3D point cloud data becomes more and more an everyday task. 3D point clouds are usually captured with very expensive tools such as 3D laser scanners or very time consuming methods such as photogrammetry. Most of the available softwares for 3D point cloud processing are designed for experts and specialists in this field and are usually very large software packages containing variety of methods and tools. This results in softwares that are usually very expensive to acquire and also very difficult to use. Difficulty of use is caused by complicated user interfaces that is required to accommodate a large list of features. The aim of these complex softwares is to provide a powerful tool for a specific group of specialist. However they are not necessary required by the majority of the up coming average users of point clouds. In addition to complexity and high costs of these softwares they generally rely on expensive and modern hardware and only compatible with one specific operating system. Many point cloud customers are not point cloud processing experts or willing to spend the high acquisition costs of these expensive softwares and hardwares. In this paper we introduce a solution for low cost point cloud processing. Our approach is designed to accommodate the needs of the average point cloud user. To reduce the cost and complexity of software our approach focuses on one functionality at a time in contrast with most available softwares and tools that aim to solve as many problems as possible at the same time. Our simple and user oriented design improve the user experience and empower us to optimize our methods for creation of an efficient software. In this paper we introduce Pointo family as a series of connected softwares to provide easy to use tools with simple design for different point cloud processing requirements. PointoVIEWER and PointoCAD are introduced as the first components of the Pointo family to provide a

  19. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  20. Trifluoromethanesulfonic Anhydride as a Low-Cost and Versatile Trifluoromethylation Reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yao; Xu, Xiu-Hua; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2018-04-19

    A large number of reagents have been developed for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated compounds. However, an ongoing challenge in trifluoromethylation reaction is the use of less expensive and practical trifluoromethyl sources. We report herein the unprecedented direct trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes using trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride as a radical trifluoromethylation reagent by merging photoredox catalysis and pyridine activation. Furthermore, introduction of both the CF 3 and OTf groups of the trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride into internal alkynes to access tetrasubstituted trifluoromethylated alkenes was achieved. Since trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride is a low-cost and abundant chemical, this method provides a cost-efficient and practical route to trifluoromethylated compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  2. Vehicle Tracking for an Evasive Manoeuvres Assistant Using Low-Cost Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many driver assistance systems require knowledge of the vehicle environment. As these systems are increasing in complexity and performance, this knowledge of the environment needs to be more complete and reliable, so sensor fusion combining long, medium and short range sensors is now being used. This paper analyzes the feasibility of using ultrasonic sensors for low cost vehicle-positioning and tracking in the lane adjacent to the host vehicle in order to identify free areas around the vehicle and provide information to an automatic avoidance collision system that can perform autonomous braking and lane change manoeuvres. A laser scanner is used for the early detection of obstacles in the direction of travel while two ultrasonic sensors monitor the blind spot of the host vehicle. The results of tests on a test track demonstrate the ability of these sensors to accurately determine the kinematic variables of the obstacles encountered, despite a clear limitation in range.

  3. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.

  4. Vehicle tracking for an evasive manoeuvres assistant using low-cost ultrasonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, José E; Gómez, Oscar; Anaya, José J

    2014-11-28

    Many driver assistance systems require knowledge of the vehicle environment. As these systems are increasing in complexity and performance, this knowledge of the environment needs to be more complete and reliable, so sensor fusion combining long, medium and short range sensors is now being used. This paper analyzes the feasibility of using ultrasonic sensors for low cost vehicle-positioning and tracking in the lane adjacent to the host vehicle in order to identify free areas around the vehicle and provide information to an automatic avoidance collision system that can perform autonomous braking and lane change manoeuvres. A laser scanner is used for the early detection of obstacles in the direction of travel while two ultrasonic sensors monitor the blind spot of the host vehicle. The results of tests on a test track demonstrate the ability of these sensors to accurately determine the kinematic variables of the obstacles encountered, despite a clear limitation in range.

  5. A low-cost, Nist-traceable, high performance dielectric resonator Master Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.; Hovater, C.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Wiseman, W.

    1999-01-01

    The current CEBAF Master Oscillator (MO) uses a quartz-based 10 MHz reference to synthesize 70 MHz and 499 MHz, which are then distributed to each of the klystron galleries on site. Due to the specialized nature of CEBAF's MO requirements, it has been determined that an in-house design and fabrication would provide a cost-effective alternative to purchasing or modifying vendor equipment. A Global Positioning System (GPS) disciplined, Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) based MO is proposed which incorporates low-cost consumer RF components, designed for cellular communications. A 499 MHz Dielectric Resonant Oscillator (DRO) Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is phase-locked to a GPS-disciplined 10 MHz reference, and micro-tuned via a DDS, in an effort to achieve the lowest phase noise possible

  6. Low Cost and Pipe Conformable Microwave-Based Water-Cut Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-08-11

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil. This paper presents a novel planar microwave sensor for entirely non-intrusive in situ water cut (WC) sensing over the full range of operation, i.e., 0%-100%. A planar configuration has enabled the direct implementation of WC sensor on the pipe surface using low cost method, i.e., screen printing using 3D printed mask. Modified ground plane-based T-resonator design makes this WC sensor usable for the wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The viability of this sensor has been confirmed through electromagnetic simulations as well as through a prototype characterization. Two cases of oil and water mixtures, namely, separate phases and homogeneous mix, have been studied. Measurements performed over two independently built prototypes show the root mean square variation in results of only 0.1%.

  7. Low-cost electron-gun pulser for table-top maser experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, V.; Jerby, E.; Shahadi, A.

    1995-04-01

    A simple 10 kV electron-gun pulser for small-scale maser experiments is presented. This low-cost pulser has operated successfully in various table-top cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) and free-electron maser (FEM) experiments. It consists of a low-voltage capacitor bank, an SCR control circuit and a transformer bank (car ignition coils) connected directly to the e-gun. The pulser produces a current of 3 A at 10 kV voltage in a Gaussian like shape of 1 ms pulse width. The voltage sweep during the pulse provides a useful tool to locate resonances of CRM and FEM interactions. Analytical expressions for the pulser design and experimental measurements are presented.

  8. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbé, Jérémy, E-mail: jeremy.barbe@kaust.edu.sa; Eid, Jessica [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Ahlswede, Erik; Spiering, Stefanie; Powalla, Michael [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) (Germany); Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University, School of Chemical Engineering (United States); Del Gobbo, Silvano, E-mail: silvano.delgobbo@gmail.com [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-15

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning method which can be used for deposition of solution-based or nanoparticle-based CIGS films with high throughput. XRD and Raman spectra indicate that no secondary phase is formed in the as-deposited CIGS film since quaternary chalcopyrite nanoparticles are used as the base solution for printing. Besides, CIGSe films with various Cu/(In + Ga) ratios could be obtained by finely tuning the composition of CIGS nanoparticles contained in the ink, which was found to strongly influence the devices performance and film morphology. To date, this is the first successful fabrication of a solar device by inkjet printing of CIGS nanoparticles.

  9. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy

    2016-12-13

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning method which can be used for deposition of solution-based or nanoparticle-based CIGS films with high throughput. XRD and Raman spectra indicate that no secondary phase is formed in the as-deposited CIGS film since quaternary chalcopyrite nanoparticles are used as the base solution for printing. Besides, CIGSe films with various Cu/(In + Ga) ratios could be obtained by finely tuning the composition of CIGS nanoparticles contained in the ink, which was found to strongly influence the devices performance and film morphology. To date, this is the first successful fabrication of a solar device by inkjet printing of CIGS nanoparticles.

  10. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie071063@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 100049 (China); Zhou, Dongming [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China)

    2015-01-21

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage.

  11. An Open-source Low-cost Portable Apparatus for Soil Fauna Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Wagner, Karl; Grillakis, Manolis; Apostolakis, Antonios; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for the extraction of living soil animals from soil or litter samples is presented. The main unit consists of a modular bank system with three horizontal shelves designed to accommodate lamps and soil samples over funnel and jar systems for animal collection, thus serving as a practical and standardized modification of the well-documented Berlese-Tullgren funnel. Shelves are vertically adjustable, sliding on 5 mm threaded rods and securing with wing nuts for easy assembly/disassembly and stability. Shelf material is 4 mm plywood (or similar), laser-cut (or similar) to accommodate lamp sockets, tubes and funnels at respective levels. Soil samples are inserted in 10 cm tubes from standard Ø50 mm PVC piping that can also function as direct collection corers for softer soils. Tubes are fitted in the tube bank shelf, each directly under a 25 W reflector lamp and over a funnel and jar system. Lamps are located 25 mm over the tubes' top creating a relatively constant 10 oC temperature gradient that drives soil animals away from heat and light, and towards the bottom end of the tube which is fitted with a suitable fabric mesh. Standard 106 ml panelled jars, filled with a safe-to-handle preservative (e.g. propylene glycol) to the lower end of the funnel fitted in them, trap and preserve soil organisms until identification. The apparatus offers flat-pack portability and scalability using low-cost standard material. Design specifications and Drawing eXchange Format (dxf) files for apparatus reproduction are provided.

  12. A Low-Cost, Real-Time Network for Radiological Monitoring Around Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldo, N A

    2004-01-01

    A low-cost, real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response has been developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the site perimeter to continuously monitor radiological conditions as part of LLNL's comprehensive environment/safety/health protection program. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors transmit measurement data back to a central command center (CCC) computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio- and computer- based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. This system provides a low-cost real-time radiation monitoring solution that is easily converted to incorporate both a hard-wired interior perimeter with strategically positioned wireless secondary and tertiary concentric remote locations. These wireless stations would be configured with solar voltaic panels that provide current to recharge batteries and power the sensors and radio transceivers. These platforms would supply data transmission at a range of up to 95 km from a single transceiver location. As necessary, using radio transceivers in repeater mode can extend the transmission range. The RTRAM network as it is presently configured at LLNL has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions. With the proposed

  13. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage

  14. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  15. Low-cost thermo-electric infrared FPAs and their automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Ohta, Yoshimi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes three low-cost infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 elements and experimental vehicle systems. They have a low-cost potential because each element consists of p-n polysilicon thermocouples, which allows the use of low-cost ultra-fine microfabrication technology commonly employed in the conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes. To increase the responsivity of FPA, we have developed a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that has high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%. The FPA having a 2,304 elements achieved high resposivity of 4,300 V/W. In order to reduce package cost, we developed a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a molded ZnS lens. The camera aiming the temperature measurement of a passenger cabin is compact and light weight devices that measures 45 x 45 x 30 mm and weighs 190 g. The camera achieves a noise equivalent temperature deviation (NETD) of less than 0.7°C from 0 to 40°C. In this paper, we also present a several experimental systems that use infrared cameras. One experimental system is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared cameras. It can detect the infrared radiation emitted from a human body and alerts the driver when a pedestrian is in a blind spot. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. Another system uses a visible-light camera and infrared sensors to detect the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot and alerts the driver. The third system is a new type of human-machine interface system that enables the driver to control the car's audio system without letting go of the steering wheel. Uncooled infrared cameras are still costly, which limits their automotive use to high-end luxury cars at present. To promote widespread use of IR imaging sensors on vehicles, we need to reduce their cost further.

  16. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  17. MONITORING HIGH-FREQUENCY OCEAN SIGNALS USING LOW-COST GNSS/IMU BUOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In oceans there are different ocean signals covering the multi-frequencies including tsunami, meteotsunami, storm surge, as sea level change, and currents. These signals have the direct and significant impact on the economy and life of human-beings. Therefore, measuring ocean signals accurately becomes more and more important and necessary. Nowadays, there are many techniques and methods commonly used for monitoring oceans, but each has its limitation. For example, tide gauges only measure sea level relative to benchmarks and are disturbed unevenly, and satellite altimeter measurements are not continuous and inaccurate near coastal oceans. In addition, high-frequency ocean signals such as tsunami and meteotsunami cannot be sufficiently detected by 6-minutes tide gauge measurements or 10-day sampled altimetry data. Moreover, traditional accelerometer buoy is heavy, expensive and the low-frequency noise caused by the instrument is unavoidable. In this study, a small, low-cost and self-assembly autonomous Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU that independently collects continuous acceleration and angular velocity data is mounted on a GNSS buoy to provide the positions and tilts of the moving buoy. The main idea is to integrate the Differential GNSS (DGNSS or Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with IMU data, and then evaluate the performance by comparing with in situ tide gauges. The validation experiments conducted in the NCKU Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory showed that GNSS and IMU both can detect the simulated regular wave frequency and height, and the field experiments in the Anping Harbor, Tainan, Taiwan showed that the low-cost GNSS buoy has an excellent ability to observe significant wave heights in amplitude and frequency.

  18. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  19. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  20. Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Taylor; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William; Hartenstine, John; Stern, Theodore; Walmsley, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kW(sub e) range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kW(sub e) non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water. By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POC(TradeMark) foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. A two-heat pipe radiator prototype, based on the single facesheet direct-bond concept, was fabricated and tested to verify the ability of the direct-bond joint to withstand coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) induced stresses during thermal cycling. The thermal gradients along the bonds were measured before and after thermal cycle tests to determine if the performance degraded. Overall, the results indicated that the initial uniformity of the adhesive was poor along one of the heat pipes. However, both direct bond joints showed no measureable amount of degradation after being thermally cycled at both moderate and aggressive conditions.

  1. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  2. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  3. Design of a low-cost hybrid powertrain with large fuel savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Romers, L.H.J.; Vroemen, B.G.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of a low-cost hybrid powertrain with large fuel savings. The hybrid powertrain contains only low-cost mechanical components, such as a flywheel module and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Noelectrical motor/generator or battery is used. Based on

  4. Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) Headset Design for Widespread Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    therefore did not implement or test actual sensors or electronic components (analog-to-digital conversion, power , and the wireless transmission ...ARL-TR-7703 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless Electroencephalography...originator. ARL-TR-7703 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless

  5. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources. PMID:29382039

  6. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...

  7. A low cost rapid prototype platform for a three phase PFC rectifier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a low cost rapid prototype platform for a Three Phase PFC rectifier application is presented. The active rectifier consists of a SiC-MOSFET based PWM converter and a low cost rapid prototype platform for simulating and implementing the digital control...

  8. BOU: Development of a low-cost tethered balloon sensing system for monitoring the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Rodrigo; Lopez-Grifol, Alvaro; Martinez-Villagrassa, Daniel; Simó, Gemma; Wenger, Burkhard; Dünnermann, Jens; Jiménez, Maria Antonia; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-04-01

    also provides a reading of the temperature (less accurate than the HYT 271 but useful as a complement). Wind speed is measured using a low-cost hot-wire sensor, bought from a commercial source (Wind Sensor Rev. P, from Modern Device), that has also been calibrated against a WindSonic. This sensor also provides a reading of the temperature, with the same characteristics than the BMP080. Finally, the magnetometer and the accelerometer are used as a mean of tracking the position of the balloon, allowing us to additionally estimate the wind direction from the lateral acceleration. This system has been used successfully in different campaigns, comparing favorably the obtained values against data obtained using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a WindRass. Possible additions to the system are a GPS tracker, a RF link to the base station, and different kinds of sensors. The current configuration of the system includes RS232, I2C, and purely analog input ports, giving it a wide flexibility to add different sensors.

  9. Development of a low cost pupillometer-eyetracker and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchetti, Arturo; Perez, Liliana I.; Comastri, Silvia A.

    2013-11-01

    The determination of ocular pupil diameter and gaze direction is important in various psychophysical and cognitive tests and can be accomplished using commercial, academic or open-source devices. In this work we develop a table-top pupillometer eyetracker termed Blick, the hardware costs 50 dollars and the software is open source (https://github.com/abianchetti/blick). The hardware is mounted in a portable holder and comprises an illumination system (two infrared LEDs generating 0.13 W/m2 at 22 cm) and a detection system (containing an USB camera, an infrared filter and a 16mm lens system) The software, programmed in C++ using OpenCV and cvblob libraries, processes eye images in real time and supplies plots and tables of pupil diameter and gaze direction and a video of the eye. As applications, capturing the right eye of six young emmetropes and after performing the pixel-mm and homographic calibrations (required to determine diameter in mm and gaze direction), we conduct three tests. The corresponding tasks are to detect mistakes in three series of four poker cards, to recognize letters F between distractors and to write a sentence via eye movements using Blick as eye tracker and the tool Dasher (MacKayśs Cambridge Group). We obtain that Blicḱs performance is satisfactory (errors being 0.05 mm in pupil diameter and 1 degree in gaze direction); that there are slight pupil dilations when subjects used to playing cards find mistakes and when some subjects find targets and, finally, that Blick can be employed as eyetracker to allow communication of disabled persons.

  10. Design of Low-Cost Impact Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of skin, and the skin flap was held closed. Impacts were simulated by striking the dummy with a plastic head hammer. The resulting electrical...verified by inserting the sensor into the dummy and striking it several times with a plastic head hammer. The oscilloscope screen capture of a...upper layer of foam disintegrated , and the final 40 strikes were applied directly to the PVC shell, which had been driven into the lower foam block

  11. Will Australia's low cost uranium be internationally competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    1978-01-01

    Australian uranium deposits are of a high grade, and direct mining costs should be low. However, other factors may play the determining role in the price of Australia's uranium. Some are peculiarly Australian such as the geographical isolation of the deposits, aboriginals' land rights, and the final marketing arrangements. Other factors stem from the position of uranium in the international marketplace, and are both political and economic in nature. (author)

  12. Low Cost Video Animation of People using a RGBD Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Cathrine Juel; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Jensen, Troels Høg Peter

    2017-01-01

    in the depth frame using the skeleton information, and then train a plane of the floor and exclude points close to it. Transitioning between motions were based on minimizing the Euclidean distance between all feasible transitioning frames, where a source and target frame would be found. Intermediate frames...... were made to create seamless transitions, where new poses were found by moving pixels in the direction of the optical flow between the transitioning frames. The realism of the proposed animation was verified through a user study to have a higher rate of preference and perceived realism compared...... to no animation and animation using alpha blending....

  13. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  14. CDL, a Precise, Low-Cost Coincidence Detector Latch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Joost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic detection of the coincidence of two events is still a key ingredient for high-performance applications, such as Positron Emission Tomography and Quantum Optics. Such applications are demanding, since the precision of their calculations and thus their conclusions directly depend on the duration of the interval in which two events are considered coincidental. This paper proposes a new circuitry, called coincidence detector latch (CDL, which is derived from standard RS latches. The CDL has the following advantages: low complexity, fully synthesizable, and high scalability. Even in its simple implementation, it achieves a coincidence window width as short as 115 ps, which is more than 10 times better than that reported by recent research.

  15. Low cost spacecraft computers: Oxymoron or future trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last few decades, application of current terrestrial computer technology in embedded spacecraft control systems has been expensive and wrought with many technical challenges. These challenges have centered on overcoming the extreme environmental constraints (protons, neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic rays, temperature, vibration, etc.) that often preclude direct use of commercial off-the-shelf computer technology. Reliability, fault tolerance and power have also greatly constrained the selection of spacecraft control system computers. More recently, new constraints are being felt, cost and mass in particular, that have again narrowed the degrees of freedom spacecraft designers once enjoyed. This paper discusses these challenges, how they were previously overcome, how future trends in commercial computer technology will simplify (or hinder) selection of computer technology for spacecraft control applications, and what spacecraft electronic system designers can do now to circumvent them.

  16. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  17. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  18. A Graphical User Interface for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-16

    the same tasks. These shipboard tasks, which include contact management , moving geometry calculations, intelligence compila- tion, area plotting and...Display Defaults Analysis This category covers a wide range of required data input and system configuration issues. To keep the screen display manageable ...parts or dialog boxes. The implementation of an Ada application using STARS is quite straightforward, although knowlede of X Protocol primitives is

  19. A LOW-COST GPR GAS PIPE & LEAK DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Cist; Alan Schutz

    2005-03-30

    A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

  20. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  1. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  2. Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Deng, Lei; Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    -shift keying (QPSK)/16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) with direct detection, over SMF (100m and 5km) and MMF (100m and 1km) short-range links, for their potential application in low-cost rack-to-rack optical interconnects. Moreover, we assess the performance of quaternary-pulse amplitude...

  3. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The high cost of acquiring geodetic data from the sea floor has limited the observations available to help us understand and model the behavior of seafloor geodetic processes. To address this problem, the Pacific GPS Facility at the University of Hawaii is developing a cost effective approach for accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure without the requirement for costly ship time. There is a recognized need to vastly increase our underwater geodetic observing capacity. Most of the largest recorded earthquakes and most devastating tsunamis are generated at subduction zones underwater. Similarly, many volcanoes are partly (e.g. Santorini) or completely (e.g. Loihi) submerged, and are not well observed and understood. Furthermore, landslide features ring many ocean basins, and huge debris deposits surround many volcanic oceanic islands. Our approach will lower the cost of collecting sea-floor geodetic data, reducing the barriers preventing us from acquiring the information we need to observe and understand these types of structures and provide a direct societal benefit in improving hazard assessment. The capability is being developed by equipping one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders with an integrated acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, processing unit, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the sea floor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data, but seafloor pressure data includes contribution from a variety of sources and on its own may not provide the accuracy required for geodetic investigations. Independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height can be used to remove these contributions from the observed sea floor pressure timeseries. We will integrate our seafloor pressure measurements with air

  4. Cyborg beast: a low-cost 3d-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Jorge; Katsavelis, Dimitrios; Peck, Jean; Stollberg, John; Petrykowski, Marc; Carson, Adam; Fernandez, Cristina

    2015-01-20

    There is an increasing number of children with traumatic and congenital hand amputations or reductions. Children's prosthetic needs are complex due to their small size, constant growth, and psychosocial development. Families' financial resources play a crucial role in the prescription of prostheses for their children, especially when private insurance and public funding are insufficient. Electric-powered (i.e., myoelectric) and body-powered (i.e., mechanical) devices have been developed to accommodate children's needs, but the cost of maintenance and replacement represents an obstacle for many families. Due to the complexity and high cost of these prosthetic hands, they are not accessible to children from low-income, uninsured families or to children from developing countries. Advancements in computer-aided design (CAD) programs, additive manufacturing, and image editing software offer the possibility of designing, printing, and fitting prosthetic hands devices at a distance and at very low cost. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to describe a low-cost three-dimensional (3D)-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb reductions and to propose a prosthesis fitting methodology that can be performed at a distance. No significant mean differences were found between the anthropometric and range of motion measurements taken directly from the upper limbs of subjects versus those extracted from photographs. The Bland and Altman plots show no major bias and narrow limits of agreements for lengths and widths and small bias and wider limits of agreements for the range of motion measurements. The main finding of the survey was that our prosthetic device may have a significant potential to positively impact quality of life and daily usage, and can be incorporated in several activities at home and in school. This investigation describes a low-cost 3D-printed prosthetic hand for children and proposes a distance fitting procedure. The Cyborg Beast

  5. Construction and Test of Low Cost X-Ray Tomography Scanner for Physical-Chemical Analysis and Nondestructive Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Martins Jr. de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe the development of a low cost micro-CT X-ray scanner that is being developed for nondestructive testing. This tomograph operates using a microfocus X-ray source and contains a silicon photodiode as detectors. The performance of the system, by its spatial resolution, has been estimated through its Modulation Transfer Function-MTF and the obtained value at 10% of MTF is 661 μm. It was built as a general purpose nondestructive testing device.

  6. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective

  7. A low-cost Raman spectrometer design used to study Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The paper discusses the design of a low cost Raman spectrometer. ... system. We observe both the radial-breathing mode (RBM) and the tangential mode ... broadened due to the inherent tube diameter distribution present in the material.

  8. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  9. Measuring In-Flight Angular Motion With a Low-Cost Magnetometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harkins, Thomas E; Wilson, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    A technique for obtaining pitch, yaw, and roll rates of a projectile from a single, low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf magnetometer has been developed at the Advanced Munitions Concepts Branch of the U.S...

  10. Low-Cost Planar PTF Sensors for the Identity Verification of Smartcard Holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The properties of mechanical flexibility, low-cost and planar geometry make polymer thick film (PTF) sensors attractive for embedded smartcard biometrics. PTF piezoelectric and piezoresistive pressure sensors are investigated for their potential to capture spatial human characteristics. However, it

  11. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  12. Innovative Applications of DoD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  13. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers for Air/Water Purification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian

    1999-01-01

    .... proposes a novel activated carbon fiber (ACF) that will combine the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical weapons...

  14. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Mulle, Matthieu; Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube

  15. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  16. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  17. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost, high vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at...

  18. A Low Cost Light Weight Polymer Derived Ceramic Telescope Mirror, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  19. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  20. Passive low-cost inkjet-printed smart skin sensor for structural health monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen; Shamim, Atif; Tentzeris, Manos

    2012-01-01

    presents a step towards fully integrated, low-cost, conformal and environmentally friendly smart skins for real-time monitoring of large structures. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.

  1. A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a...

  2. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  3. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  4. A low-cost vaporization-atomization system for atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn F, C.G.; Ambiado V, F.; Woerner V, R.

    1990-01-01

    A low-cost vaporization-atomization system for atomic absorption spectrometry is developed as an alternative to the use of a graphite furnace in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. (Author)

  5. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-27

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in <80 Hz data acquisition in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  6. An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control using Excel. ... in both economic and economic statistical designs of the X-control chart. ... in this paper and the numerical examples illustrated are executed on this program.

  7. Tunable Laser for High-Performance, Low-Cost Distributed Sensing Platform, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will establish technical feasibility of an approach to optimizing a low-cost, fast-sweeping tunable laser for distributed sensing. Multiple...

  8. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Aakash C.; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to ...

  9. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  10. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  11. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  12. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  13. A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingchao; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua

    2009-01-01

    A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. The transceiver contains an OOK modulator and a power amplifier in the transmitter chain, an IQ direct-down converter, variable-gain amplifiers, channel-select filters and a 10-bit ADC in the receiver chain. The measured output P 1DB power of the transmitter is 17.6 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -70 dBm. The on-chip integer N synthesizer achieves a frequency resolution of 200 kHz with a phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz frequency offset and -120.83 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The transmitter, the receiver and the frequency synthesizer consume 201.34, 25.3 and 54 mW, respectively. The chip has a die area of 4 x 2.5 mm 2 including pads.

  14. Low Cost Multisensor Kinematic Positioning and Navigation System with Linux/RTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxin Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, the development of an embedded real-time multisensor kinematic positioning and navigation system discourages many researchers and developers due to its complicated hardware environment setup and time consuming device driver development. To address these issues, this paper proposed a multisensor kinematic positioning and navigation system built on Linux with Real Time Application Interface (RTAI, which can be constructed in a fast and economical manner upon popular hardware platforms. The authors designed, developed, evaluated and validated the application of Linux/RTAI in the proposed system for the integration of the low cost MEMS IMU and OEM GPS sensors. The developed system with Linux/RTAI as the core of a direct geo-referencing system provides not only an excellent hard real-time performance but also the conveniences for sensor hardware integration and real-time software development. A software framework is proposed in this paper for a universal kinematic positioning and navigation system with loosely-coupled integration architecture. In addition, general strategies of sensor time synchronization in a multisensor system are also discussed. The success of the loosely-coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation Kalman filter is represented via post-processed solutions from road tests.

  15. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Noise Source Visualization Using a Digital Voice Recorder and Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Thung Cho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate sound visualization of noise sources is required for optimal noise control. Typically, noise measurement systems require microphones, an analog-digital converter, cables, a data acquisition system, etc., which may not be affordable for potential users. Also, many such systems are not highly portable and may not be convenient for travel. Handheld personal electronic devices such as smartphones and digital voice recorders with relatively lower costs and higher performance have become widely available recently. Even though such devices are highly portable, directly implementing them for noise measurement may lead to erroneous results since such equipment was originally designed for voice recording. In this study, external microphones were connected to a digital voice recorder to conduct measurements and the input received was processed for noise visualization. In this way, a low cost, compact sound visualization system was designed and introduced to visualize two actual noise sources for verification with different characteristics: an enclosed loud speaker and a small air compressor. Reasonable accuracy of noise visualization for these two sources was shown over a relatively wide frequency range. This very affordable and compact sound visualization system can be used for many actual noise visualization applications in addition to educational purposes.

  17. Noise Source Visualization Using a Digital Voice Recorder and Low-Cost Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Thung

    2018-04-03

    Accurate sound visualization of noise sources is required for optimal noise control. Typically, noise measurement systems require microphones, an analog-digital converter, cables, a data acquisition system, etc., which may not be affordable for potential users. Also, many such systems are not highly portable and may not be convenient for travel. Handheld personal electronic devices such as smartphones and digital voice recorders with relatively lower costs and higher performance have become widely available recently. Even though such devices are highly portable, directly implementing them for noise measurement may lead to erroneous results since such equipment was originally designed for voice recording. In this study, external microphones were connected to a digital voice recorder to conduct measurements and the input received was processed for noise visualization. In this way, a low cost, compact sound visualization system was designed and introduced to visualize two actual noise sources for verification with different characteristics: an enclosed loud speaker and a small air compressor. Reasonable accuracy of noise visualization for these two sources was shown over a relatively wide frequency range. This very affordable and compact sound visualization system can be used for many actual noise visualization applications in addition to educational purposes.

  18. Development of low cost and accurate homemade sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, F. D.; Supardianningsih; Arifin, M.; Abraha, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we developed homemade and computerized sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The developed systems consist of mechanical system instrument, laser power sensor, and user interface. The mechanical system development that uses anti-backlash gear design was successfully able to enhance the angular resolution angle of incidence laser up to 0.01°. In this system, the laser detector acquisition system and stepper motor controller utilizing Arduino Uno which is easy to program, flexible, and low cost, was used. Furthermore, we employed LabView’s user interface as the virtual instrument for facilitating the sample measurement and for transforming the data recording directly into the digital form. The test results using gold-deposited half-cylinder prism showed the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) angle of 41,34°± 0,01° and SPR angle of 44,20°± 0,01°, respectively. The result demonstrated that the developed system managed to reduce the measurement duration and data recording errors caused by human error. Also, the test results also concluded that the system’s measurement is repeatable and accurate.

  19. A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingchao; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua, E-mail: wangjc@gmail.co [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications is implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process. The transceiver contains an OOK modulator and a power amplifier in the transmitter chain, an IQ direct-down converter, variable-gain amplifiers, channel-select filters and a 10-bit ADC in the receiver chain. The measured output P{sub 1DB} power of the transmitter is 17.6 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -70 dBm. The on-chip integer N synthesizer achieves a frequency resolution of 200 kHz with a phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz frequency offset and -120.83 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The transmitter, the receiver and the frequency synthesizer consume 201.34, 25.3 and 54 mW, respectively. The chip has a die area of 4 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} including pads.

  20. Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1985-10-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  1. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  2. A low cost and pipe conformable microwave-based water-cut sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-08-15

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut [WC]) which is extracted during oil production as a by-product. Traditional laboratory water fraction measurements are precise but incapable of providing real-time information, while recently reported inline WC measurements are either incapable of sensing the full WC range (0-100%), restricted to a limited selection of pipe sizes, bulky, intrusive or extremely expensive. This work presents a novel planar microwave sensor for entirely non-intrusive in situ WC sensing over the full range of operation. Its planar configuration has enabled the direct implementation of this sensor on the pipe surface using two low cost methods i.e. copper tape and 3D printed mask. The innovative ground plane design makes this WC sensor usable for the wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The viability of this sensor has been confirmed through EM simulations as well as through characterization of two types of prototype. The proposed design offers very fine resolution due to its wide sensing range (>110%) in the frequency band of 90-190MHz and repeatability of 0.1%.

  3. Dynamic Characterization of a Low Cost Microwave Water-Cut Sensor in a Flow Loop

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-03-31

    Inline precise measurement of water fraction in oil (i.e. water-cut [WC]) finds numerous applications in oil and gas industry. This paper presents the characterization of an extremely low cost, completely non-intrusive and full range microwave water-cut sensor based upon pipe conformable microwave T-resonator. A 10″ microwave stub based T-resonator has been implemented directly on the pipe surface whose resonance frequency changes in the frequency band of 90MHz–190MHz (111%) with changing water fraction in oil. The designed sensor is capable of detecting even small changes in WC with a resolution of 0.07% at low WC and 0.5% WC at high WC. The performance of the microwave WC sensor has been tested in an in-house flow loop. The proposed WC sensor has been characterized over full water-cut range (0%–100%) not only in vertical but also in horizontal orientation. The sensor has shown predictable response in both orientations with huge frequency shift. Moreover, flow rate effect has also been investigated on the proposed WC sensor’s performance and it has been found that the sensor’s repeatability is within 2.5% WC for variable flow rates.

  4. An Effective Terrain Aided Navigation for Low-Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian; Dai, Chenxi; Fu, Jinbo

    2017-03-25

    Terrain-aided navigation is a potentially powerful solution for obtaining submerged position fixes for autonomous underwater vehicles. The application of terrain-aided navigation with high-accuracy inertial navigation systems has demonstrated meter-level navigation accuracy in sea trials. However, available sensors may be limited depending on the type of the mission. Such limitations, especially for low-grade navigation sensors, not only degrade the accuracy of traditional navigation systems, but further impact the ability to successfully employ terrain-aided navigation. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled navigation is presented to successfully estimate the critical sensor errors by incorporating raw sensor data directly into an augmented navigation system. Furthermore, three-dimensional distance errors are calculated, providing measurement updates through the particle filter for absolute and bounded position error. The development of the terrain aided navigation system is elaborated for a vehicle equipped with a non-inertial-grade strapdown inertial navigation system, a 4-beam Doppler Velocity Log range sensor and a sonar altimeter. Using experimental data for navigation performance evaluation in areas with different terrain characteristics, the experiment results further show that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the low-cost AUVs and significantly improves navigation performance.

  5. Solution-deposited CIGS thin films for ultra-low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Hersh, Peter; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the production of photovoltaic modules with high-quality large-grain copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films obtained with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based precursors and a reactive transfer printing method. The proprietary metal-organic inks contain a variety of soluble Cu-, In- and Ga- multinary selenide materials; they are called metal-organic decomposition (MOD) precursors, as they are designed to decompose into the desired precursors. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process that produces CIGS through the chemical reaction between two separate precursor films, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are rapidly reacted together under pressure in the presence of heat. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. In a few minutes, the process produces high quality CIGS films, with large grains on the order of several microns, and preferred crystallographic orientation, as confirmed by compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% were achieved using this method. The atmospheric deposition processes include slot die extrusion coating, ultrasonic atomization spraying, pneumatic atomization spraying, inkjet printing, direct writing, and screen printing, and provide low capital equipment cost, low thermal budget, and high throughput.

  6. A Low-Cost System Based on Image Analysis for Monitoring the Crystal Growth Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Fabrício; Rosário, Francisca F do; Cajaiba, João

    2017-05-31

    Many techniques are used to monitor one or more of the phenomena involved in the crystallization process. One of the challenges in crystal growth monitoring is finding techniques that allow direct interpretation of the data. The present study used a low-cost system, composed of a commercial webcam and a simple white LED (Light Emitting Diode) illuminator, to follow the calcium carbonate crystal growth process. The experiments were followed with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), a common technique for obtaining information about the formation and growth of crystals. The images obtained in real time were treated with the red, blue, and green (RGB) system. The results showed a qualitative response of the system to crystal formation and growth processes, as there was an observed decrease in the signal as the growth process occurred. Control of the crystal growth was managed by increasing the viscosity of the test solution with the addition of monoethylene glycol (MEG) at 30% and 70% in a mass to mass relationship, providing different profiles of the RGB average curves. The decrease in the average RGB value became slower as the concentration of MEG was increased; this reflected a lag in the growth process that was proven by the FBRM.

  7. Evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound system for immersive virtual reality training systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Rademacher, Holger; Huesgen, Silke; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Since Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, tracking systems, and powerful computer graphics resources are nowadays in an affordable price range, the usage of PC-based "Virtual Training Systems" becomes very attractive. However, due to the limited field of view of HMD devices, additional modalities have to be provided to benefit from 3D environments. A 3D sound simulation can improve the capabilities of VR systems dramatically. Unfortunately, realistic 3D sound simulations are expensive and demand a tremendous amount of computational power to calculate reverberation, occlusion, and obstruction effects. To use 3D sound in a PC-based training system as a way to direct and guide trainees to observe specific events in 3D space, a cheaper alternative has to be provided, so that a broader range of applications can take advantage of this modality. To address this issue, we focus in this paper on the evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound simulation that is capable of providing traceable 3D sound events. We describe our experimental system setup using conventional stereo headsets in combination with a tracked HMD device and present our results with regard to precision, speed, and used signal types for localizing simulated sound events in a virtual training environment.

  8. A low-cost AFM setup with an interferometer for undergraduates and secondary-school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Antje; Feigl, Daniela; Kuhn, David; Schaupp, Manuel; Quast, Günter; Busch, Kurt; Eichner, Ludwig; Schumacher, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an important tool in nanotechnology. This method makes it possible to observe nanoscopic surfaces beyond the resolution of light microscopy. In order to provide undergraduate and secondary-school students with insights into this world, we have developed a very robust low-cost AFM setup with a Fabry–Perot interferometer as a detecting device. This setup is designed to be operated almost completely manually and its simplicity gives access to a profound understanding of the working principle. Our AFM is operated in a constant height mode, i.e. the topography of the sample surface is represented directly by the deflection of the cantilever. Thus, the measuring procedure can be understood even by secondary-school students; furthermore, it is the method with the lowest cost, totalling not more than 10–15 k Euros. Nevertheless, we are able to examine a large variety of sample topographies such as CD and DVD surfaces, IC structures, blood cells, butterfly wings or moth eyes. Furthermore, force–distance curves can be recorded and the tensile moduli of some materials can be evaluated. We present our setup in detail and describe its working principles. In addition, we show various experiments which have already been performed by students. (paper)

  9. Low-Cost Voltage Zero-Crossing Detector for AC-Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyov Maxim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are becoming more popular. Some of them like small hydropower turbines, wind turbines and diesel generators produce AC voltage with different frequency and voltage than the main grid. For them power electronics converters are necessary. Power electronics converters presented in industry use two or three level energy conversion, although direct AC to AC converters exist, but one of the main problems is the switch commutation when current or voltage is crossing the zero point. Zero crossing sensors are used to solve this problem. They consist of current or voltage measurement unit and zero crossing detector. Different approaches are used for zero crossing: hardware or software. Hardware approach is simple but it has low precision. Software approach has high precision but it is complicated and expensive. In this paper a simple low cost high precision approach is presented. It takes all advantages from both approaches. While tested with two types of microcontrollers the precision of experimental measurement is 25 μs - 40 μs.

  10. An Instantaneous Low-Cost Point-of-Care Anemia Detection Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Punter-Villagrasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a small, compact and portable device for point-of-care instantaneous early detection of anemia. The method used is based on direct hematocrit measurement from whole blood samples by means of impedance analysis. This device consists of a custom electronic instrumentation and a plug-and-play disposable sensor. The designed electronics rely on straightforward standards for low power consumption, resulting in a robust and low consumption device making it completely mobile with a long battery life. Another approach could be powering the system based on other solutions like indoor solar cells, or applying energy-harvesting solutions in order to remove the batteries. The sensing system is based on a disposable low-cost label-free three gold electrode commercial sensor for 50 µL blood samples. The device capability for anemia detection has been validated through 24 blood samples, obtained from four hospitalized patients at Hospital Clínic. As a result, the response, effectiveness and robustness of the portable point-of-care device to detect anemia has been proved with an accuracy error of 2.83% and a mean coefficient of variation of 2.57% without any particular case above 5%.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Low-Cost Wearable Sensors for Measuring Head Impacts in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Abigail M; Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven

    2018-04-03

    Advances in low-cost wearable head impact sensor technology provide potential benefits regarding sports safety for both consumers and researchers. However, previous laboratory evaluations are not directly comparable and don't incorporate test conditions representative of unhelmeted impacts. This study addresses those limitations. The xPatch by X2 Biosystems and the SIM-G by Triax Technologies were placed on a NOCSAE headform with a Hybrid III neck which underwent impacts tests using a pendulum. Impact conditions included helmeted, padded impactor to bare head, and rigid impactor to bare head to represent long and short-duration impacts seen in helmeted and unhelmeted sports. The wearable sensors were evaluated on their kinematic accuracy by comparing results to reference sensors located at the headform center of gravity. Statistical tests for equivalence were performed on the slope of the linear regression between wearable sensors and reference. The xPatch gave equivalent measurements to the reference in select longer-duration impacts whereas the SIM-G had large variance leading to no equivalence. For the short-duration impacts, both wearable sensors underpredicted the reference. This error can be improved with increases in sampling rate from 1 to 1.5 kHz. Follow-up evaluations should be performed on the field to identify error in vivo. (197/200).

  12. A Low Cost Approach to the Design of Autopilot for Hypersonic Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wang; Weihua, Zhang; Ke, Peng; Donghui, Wang

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated guidance and control (IGC) approach to improve the autopilot design with low cost for hypersonic glider in dive and pull-up phase. The main objective is robust and adaptive tracking of flight path angle (FPA) under severe flight scenarios. Firstly, the nonlinear IGC model is developed with a second order actuator dynamics. Then the adaptive command filtered back-stepping control is implemented to deal with the large aerodynamics coefficient uncertainties, control surface uncertainties and unmatched time-varying disturbances. For the autopilot, a back-stepping sliding mode control is designed to track the control surface deflection, and a nonlinear differentiator is used to avoid direct differentiating the control input. Through a series of 6-DOF numerical simulations, it’s shown that the proposed scheme successfully cancels out the large uncertainties and disturbances in tracking different kinds of FPA trajectory. The contribution of this paper lies in the application and determination of nonlinear integrated design of guidance and control system for hypersonic glider.

  13. A low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. Commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  14. Performance analysis of a compact and low-cost mapping-grade mobile laser scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julge, Kalev; Vajakas, Toivo; Ellmann, Artu

    2017-10-01

    The performance of a low-cost, self-contained, compact, and easy to deploy mapping-grade mobile laser scanning (MLS) system, which is composed of a light detection and ranging sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna global navigation satellite system/inertial navigation system SBG Systems Ellipse-D, is analyzed. The field tests were carried out in car-mounted and backpack modes for surveying road engineering structures (such as roads, parking lots, underpasses, and tunnels) and coastal erosion zones, respectively. The impact of applied calculation principles on trajectory postprocessing, direct georeferencing, and the theoretical accuracy of the system is analyzed. A calibration method, based on Bound Optimization BY Quadratic Approximation, for finding the boresight angles of an MLS system is proposed. The resulting MLS point clouds are compared with high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data and survey-grade MLS data from a commercially manufactured MLS system. The vertical, horizontal, and relative accuracy are assessed-the root-mean-square error (RMSE) values were determined to be 8, 15, and 3 cm, respectively. Thus, the achieved mapping-grade accuracy demonstrates that this relatively compact and inexpensive self-assembled MLS can be successfully used for surveying the geometry and deformations of terrain, buildings, road, and other engineering structures.

  15. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF A LOW-COST PLATFORM FOR POSITIONING AND NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hofmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an accuracy analysis of a platform based on low-cost components for landmark-based navigation intended for research and teaching purposes. The proposed platform includes a LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT 2.0 kit, an Android-based Smartphone as well as a compact laser scanner Hokuyo URG-04LX. The robot is used in a small indoor environment, where GNSS is not available. Therefore, a landmark map was produced in advance, with the landmark positions provided to the robot. All steps of procedure to set up the platform are shown. The main focus of this paper is the reachable positioning accuracy, which was analyzed in this type of scenario depending on the accuracy of the reference landmarks and the directional and distance measuring accuracy of the laser scanner. Several experiments were carried out, demonstrating the practically achievable positioning accuracy. To evaluate the accuracy, ground truth was acquired using a total station. These results are compared to the theoretically achievable accuracies and the laser scanner’s characteristics.

  16. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  17. A High Density Low Cost Digital Signal Processing Module for Large Scale Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson T.; Grudberg, Peter M.; Warburton, William K.

    2013-06-01

    A 32-channel digital spectrometer PIXIE-32 is being developed for nuclear physics or other radiation detection applications requiring digital signal processing with large number of channels at relatively low cost. A single PIXIE-32 provides spectrometry and waveform acquisition for 32 input signals per module whereas multiple modules can be combined into larger systems. It is based on the PCI Express standard which allows data transfer rates to the host computer of up to 800 MB/s. Each of the 32 channels in a PIXIE-32 module accepts signals directly from a detector preamplifier or photomultiplier. Digitally controlled offsets can be individually adjusted for each channel. Signals are digitized in 12-bit, 50 MHz multi-channel ADCs. Triggering, pile-up inspection and filtering of the data stream are performed in real time, and pulse heights and other event data are calculated on an event-by event basis. The hardware architecture, internal and external triggering features, and the spectrometry and waveform acquisition capability of the PIXIE- 32 as well as its capability to distribute clock and triggers among multiple modules, are presented. (authors)

  18. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD 5 removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD 5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%

  19. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R., E-mail: scrs@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD{sub 5} removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD{sub 5} removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%.

  20. Detecting single-electron events in TEM using low-cost electronics and a silicon strip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, Lionel C; Moldovan, Grigore; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo; Lin, Chao; Kirkland, Angus I

    2014-04-01

    There is great interest in developing novel position-sensitive direct detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that do not rely in the conversion of electrons into photons. Direct imaging improves contrast and efficiency and allows the operation of the microscope at lower energies and at lower doses without loss in resolution, which is especially important for studying soft materials and biological samples. We investigate the feasibility of employing a silicon strip detector as an imaging detector for TEM. This device, routinely used in high-energy particle physics, can detect small variations in electric current associated with the impact of a single charged particle. The main advantages of using this type of sensor for direct imaging in TEM are its intrinsic radiation hardness and large detection area. Here, we detail design, simulation, fabrication and tests in a TEM of the front-end electronics developed using low-cost discrete components and discuss the limitations and applications of this technology for TEM.

  1. Design of Low-Cost Vehicle Roll Angle Estimator Based on Kalman Filters and an Iot Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Guzman, Javier; Prieto Gonzalez, Lisardo; Pajares Redondo, Jonatan; Sanz Sanchez, Susana; Boada, Beatriz L

    2018-06-03

    In recent years, there have been many advances in vehicle technologies based on the efficient use of real-time data provided by embedded sensors. Some of these technologies can help you avoid or reduce the severity of a crash such as the Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems for commercial vehicles. In RSC, several critical variables to consider such as sideslip or roll angle can only be directly measured using expensive equipment. These kind of devices would increase the price of commercial vehicles. Nevertheless, sideslip or roll angle or values can be estimated using MEMS sensors in combination with data fusion algorithms. The objectives stated for this research work consist of integrating roll angle estimators based on Linear and Unscented Kalman filters to evaluate the precision of the results obtained and determining the fulfillment of the hard real-time processing constraints to embed this kind of estimators in IoT architectures based on low-cost equipment able to be deployed in commercial vehicles. An experimental testbed composed of a van with two sets of low-cost kits was set up, the first one including a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, and the other having an Intel Edison System on Chip. This experimental environment was tested under different conditions for comparison. The results obtained from low-cost experimental kits, based on IoT architectures and including estimators based on Kalman filters, provide accurate roll angle estimation. Also, these results show that the processing time to get the data and execute the estimations based on Kalman Filters fulfill hard real time constraints.

  2. The BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network: field calibration and evaluation of low-cost air quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsol; Shusterman, Alexis A.; Lieschke, Kaitlyn J.; Newman, Catherine; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2018-04-01

    The newest generation of air quality sensors is small, low cost, and easy to deploy. These sensors are an attractive option for developing dense observation networks in support of regulatory activities and scientific research. They are also of interest for use by individuals to characterize their home environment and for citizen science. However, these sensors are difficult to interpret. Although some have an approximately linear response to the target analyte, that response may vary with time, temperature, and/or humidity, and the cross-sensitivity to non-target analytes can be large enough to be confounding. Standard approaches to calibration that are sufficient to account for these variations require a quantity of equipment and labor that negates the attractiveness of the sensors' low cost. Here we describe a novel calibration strategy for a set of sensors, including CO, NO, NO2, and O3, that makes use of (1) multiple co-located sensors, (2) a priori knowledge about the chemistry of NO, NO2, and O3, (3) an estimate of mean emission factors for CO, and (4) the global background of CO. The strategy requires one or more well calibrated anchor points within the network domain, but it does not require direct calibration of any of the individual low-cost sensors. The procedure nonetheless accounts for temperature and drift, in both the sensitivity and zero offset. We demonstrate this calibration on a subset of the sensors comprising BEACO2N, a distributed network of approximately 50 sensor nodes, each measuring CO2, CO, NO, NO2, O3 and particulate matter at 10 s time resolution and approximately 2 km spacing within the San Francisco Bay Area.

  3. Analysis on Occupants’ Satisfaction for Safety Performance Assessment in Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Husrul Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery performance of the low cost housing is questioned since the occupants are prone towards safety hazards in the housing complex, such as structural instability and falling building fragments. Without defining the occupants’ requirements for the development of low cost housing, the prevailing safety factors are hard to be determined. This paper explores the rationale of safety performance assessment in the low cost housing by considering the occupants’ participation to achieve a better safety provision during occupancy period. Questionnaire survey was distributed to 380 occupants of the low cost housing in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. The result shows that 80.8% of the respondents had expressed their dissatisfaction with the safety performance of the lift. By referring to the mode of ranking level, the most significant aspect rated by the respondents is Building Safety Features, with 51.6% respondents. The attained aspects can be fundamental parameters which can be considered in the future development of low cost housing.

  4. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  5. Suppression of Noise to Obtain a High-Performance Low-Cost Optical Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, commercial encoders endowed with high precision are expensive sensors, and optical low-cost designs to measure the positioning angle have undesirable levels of system noise which reduce the good performance of devices. This research is devoted to the designing of mathematical filters to suppress noise in polarized transducers, in order to obtain high accuracy, precision, and resolution, along with an adaptive maximum response speed for low-cost optical encoders. This design was proved through a prototype inside a research platform, and experimental results show an accuracy of 3.9, a precision of 26, and a resolution of 17 [arc seconds], at least for the specified working conditions, for the sensing of the angular position of a rotary polarizer. From this work has been obtained a high-performance low-cost polyphase optical encoder, which uses filtering mathematical principles potentially generalizable to other inventions.

  6. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING OF LOW COST UAV PLATFORM FOR ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brucas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments. Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs – orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  7. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A; Deen, M J; Marsal, L F

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine. (topical review)

  8. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  9. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.

    2013-08-01

    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  10. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  11. A low-cost and portable realization on fringe projection three-dimensional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Fringe projection three-dimensional measurement is widely applied in a wide range of industrial application. The traditional fringe projection system has the disadvantages of high expense, big size, and complicated calibration requirements. In this paper we introduce a low-cost and portable realization on three-dimensional measurement with Pico projector. It has the advantages of low cost, compact physical size, and flexible configuration. For the proposed fringe projection system, there is no restriction to camera and projector's relative alignment on parallelism and perpendicularity for installation. Moreover, plane-based calibration method is adopted in this paper that avoids critical requirements on calibration system such as additional gauge block or precise linear z stage. What is more, error sources existing in the proposed system are introduced in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed low cost and portable fringe projection system.

  12. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Deen, M. J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine.

  13. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  14. Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K; Ajibola, Taiye B; Salako, Abdulbashir F; Ademola, Sunmola K

    2014-05-01

    This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to

  15. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Lynch

    Full Text Available Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×. In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates, 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates, were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  16. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  17. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722

  18. A Low-Cost Production Method of FeSi2 Power Generation Thermoelectric Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takahide; Kato, Masahiko; Yoneda, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    A method is proposed to reduce the production cost of power generation thermoelectric modules. FeSi2 is employed as the thermoelectric material because of its low cost, low environmental load, and oxidation resistance. The raw materials were prepared in the composition of Fe0.96Si2.1Co0.04 for n-type and Fe0.92Si2.1Mn0.08 for p-type, which were added with 0.5 wt.% Cu as the starting materials. They were sintered without pressure at 1446 K to be formed into elements. The Seebeck coefficient and resistivity at room temperature were determined to be -182 μV/K and 0.13 mΩm for n-type, and 338 μV/K and 1.13 mΩm for p-type, respectively. The brazing conditions of the direct joining between the element and the solder were examined. Pastes of BNi-6, BNi-7 or TB-608T were tried as the solder. TB-608T was useable for metallizing of insulation substrates and joining of thermoelectric elements in order to manufacture thermoelectric modules. The joining strength was determined to be 50 MPa between the alumina plate and the elements. No mechanical failure was observed in the modules after repetition of 10 or more exposures to a heat source of 670 K. No change was found in the internal resistance. The present production method will provide modules with high durability and low production cost, which will enable high-power multi-stage cascade modules at a reasonable cost.

  19. The Photogrammetric Survey Methodologies Applied to Low Cost 3d Virtual Exploration in Multidisciplinary Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestini, C.; Basso, A.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, an increase in international investment in hardware and software technology to support programs that adopt algorithms for photomodeling or data management from laser scanners significantly reduced the costs of operations in support of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, designed to generate real-time explorable digital environments integrated to virtual stereoscopic headset. The research analyzes transversal methodologies related to the acquisition of these technologies in order to intervene directly on the phenomenon of acquiring the current VR tools within a specific workflow, in light of any issues related to the intensive use of such devices , outlining a quick overview of the possible "virtual migration" phenomenon, assuming a possible integration with the new internet hyper-speed systems, capable of triggering a massive cyberspace colonization process that paradoxically would also affect the everyday life and more in general, on human space perception. The contribution aims at analyzing the application systems used for low cost 3d photogrammetry by means of a precise pipeline, clarifying how a 3d model is generated, automatically retopologized, textured by color painting or photo-cloning techniques, and optimized for parametric insertion on virtual exploration platforms. Workflow analysis will follow some case studies related to photomodeling, digital retopology and "virtual 3d transfer" of some small archaeological artifacts and an architectural compartment corresponding to the pronaus of Aurum, a building designed in the 1940s by Michelucci. All operations will be conducted on cheap or free licensed software that today offer almost the same performance as their paid counterparts, progressively improving in the data processing speed and management.

  20. One-pot integrated biofuel production using low-cost biocompatible protic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jian; Konda, Murthy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Dutta, Tanmoy; Valiev, Marat; Xu, Feng; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2017-01-01

    The transformation of biomass into liquid fuels is of great importance. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of specific ionic liquids (ILs), such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)C(1)Im][OAc]) and cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]), to be effective biomass pretreatment solvents. Using these ILs for an integrated biomass-to-biofuel configuration is still challenging due to a significant water-wash related to the high toxicity of [C(2)C(1)Im][OAc] and pH adjustment prior to saccharification for the highly basic [Ch][Lys]. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that a one-pot integrated biofuel production is enabled by a low cost (similar to$1 per kg) and biocompatible protic IL (PIL), ethanolamine acetate, without pH adjustments, water-wash and solid-liquid separations. After pretreatment, the whole slurry is directly used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with commercial enzyme cocktails and wild type yeast strains, generating 70% of the theoretical ethanol yield (based on switchgrass). The structure-performance relationships of PILs in terms of lignin removal, net basicity, and pH value are systematically studied. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) revealed that an integrated biorefinery concept based on this PIL process could potentially reduce the minimum ethanol selling price by more than 40% compared to scenarios that require pH adjustment prior to SSF. Improvement of the economic performance will be made by reducing the dilution and enzyme loading during SSF as identified by TEA. This study demonstrates the impact of a biocompatible IL in terms of process optimization and conversion efficiency, and opens up avenues for realizing an IL based efficiently integrated biomass conversion technology.

  1. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  2. Minim typing--a rapid and low cost MLST based typing tool for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y C; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Giffard, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based genotyping method for Klebsiella pneumoniae utilising high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of fragments within the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) loci. The approach is termed mini-MLST or Minim typing and it has previously been applied to Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. Six SNPs were derived from concatenated MLST sequences on the basis of maximisation of the Simpsons Index of Diversity (D). DNA fragments incorporating these SNPs and predicted to be suitable for HRM analysis were designed. Using the assumption that HRM alleles are defined by G+C content, Minim typing using six fragments was predicted to provide a D = 0.979 against known STs. The method was tested against 202 K. pneumoniae using a blinded approach in which the MLST analyses were performed after the HRM analyses. The HRM-based alleles were indeed in accordance with G+C content, and the Minim typing identified known STs and flagged new STs. The tonB MLST locus was determined to be very diverse, and the two Minim fragments located herein contribute greatly to the resolving power. However these fragments are refractory to amplification in a minority of isolates. Therefore, we assessed the performance of two additional formats: one using only the four fragments located outside the tonB gene (D = 0.929), and the other using HRM data from these four fragments in conjunction with sequencing of the tonB MLST fragment (D = 0.995). The HRM assays were developed on the Rotorgene 6000, and the method was shown to also be robust on the LightCycler 480, allowing a 384-well high through-put format. The assay provides rapid, robust and low-cost typing with fully portable results that can directly be related to current MLST data. Minim typing in combination with molecular screening for antibiotic resistance markers can be a powerful surveillance tool kit.

  3. Minim typing--a rapid and low cost MLST based typing tool for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patiyan Andersson

    Full Text Available Here we report a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based genotyping method for Klebsiella pneumoniae utilising high-resolution melting (HRM analysis of fragments within the multilocus sequence typing (MLST loci. The approach is termed mini-MLST or Minim typing and it has previously been applied to Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. Six SNPs were derived from concatenated MLST sequences on the basis of maximisation of the Simpsons Index of Diversity (D. DNA fragments incorporating these SNPs and predicted to be suitable for HRM analysis were designed. Using the assumption that HRM alleles are defined by G+C content, Minim typing using six fragments was predicted to provide a D = 0.979 against known STs. The method was tested against 202 K. pneumoniae using a blinded approach in which the MLST analyses were performed after the HRM analyses. The HRM-based alleles were indeed in accordance with G+C content, and the Minim typing identified known STs and flagged new STs. The tonB MLST locus was determined to be very diverse, and the two Minim fragments located herein contribute greatly to the resolving power. However these fragments are refractory to amplification in a minority of isolates. Therefore, we assessed the performance of two additional formats: one using only the four fragments located outside the tonB gene (D = 0.929, and the other using HRM data from these four fragments in conjunction with sequencing of the tonB MLST fragment (D = 0.995. The HRM assays were developed on the Rotorgene 6000, and the method was shown to also be robust on the LightCycler 480, allowing a 384-well high through-put format. The assay provides rapid, robust and low-cost typing with fully portable results that can directly be related to current MLST data. Minim typing in combination with molecular screening for antibiotic resistance markers can be a powerful surveillance tool kit.

  4. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  5. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-12-31

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to alarming consequences such as reporting acceptable air pollutant levels when they are above the limits deemed safe for human health. This article provides scientific guidance to the end-users for effectively deploying low-cost sensors for monitoring air pollution and people's exposure, while ensuring reasonable data quality. We review the performance characteristics of several low-cost particle and gas monitoring sensors and provide recommendations to end-users for making proper sensor selection by summarizing the capabilities and limitations of such sensors. The challenges, best practices, and future outlook for effectively deploying low-cost sensors, and maintaining data quality are also discussed. For data quality assurance, a two-stage sensor calibration process is recommended, which includes laboratory calibration under controlled conditions by the manufacturer supplemented with routine calibration checks performed by the end-user under final deployment conditions. For large sensor networks where routine calibration checks are impractical, statistical techniques for data quality assurance should be utilised. Further advancements and adoption of sophisticated mathematical and statistical techniques for sensor calibration, fault detection, and data quality assurance can indeed help to realise the promised benefits of a low-cost air pollution sensor network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PENGARUH LAYANAN LOW COST CARRIER (LCC) TERHADAP KEPUASAN WISATAWAN DOMESTIK DI PT. INDONESIA AIRASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Tresia Silalahi; I Wayan Suardana; Ni Gusti Ayu Susrami Dewi

    2017-01-01

    AirAsia airline crash incident in December 2014 raises a big question to the satisfaction of the user rating AirAsia. Therefore, this study aims to determine: (1) the effect of partially Low Cost Carrier services to tourist satisfaction PT. Indonesia AirAsia; (2 effect of simultaneous service Low Cost Carrier to tourist satisfaction PT. Indonesia AirAsia. The samples in this study with a total sample of 110 respondents. The analysis used T-test & F-test. The results showed that parti...

  7. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  8. The High Rise Low Cost Housing : Sustainable Neighbourhood Elements (Green Elements) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Noraziah; Mohamad, Ismail; Mohamad Zin, Rosli; Munikanan, Vikneswaran; Junaini, Syahrizan

    2018-03-01

    The sustainable development is a vital measure to alleviate the greenhouse gas effect, global warming and any other environment issues. The sustainable neighbourhood concept is not new in Malaysia, However, the concept still needs attention and awareness from the stakeholders. This paper discusses on the sustainable neighbourhood elements specifically green elements application on the high rise low cost housing in Malaysia. Malaysia should have focused sustainable neighbourhood planning and design especially on the high rise low cost housing therefore the future generation can be benefited from this type development.

  9. A simple and low-cost recirculating aquaculture system for the production of arapaima juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Andrew Mark; Moncayo Calderero, Edwin; Burgos Moran, Ricardo Ernesto; Anastacio Sánchez, Rogelio Lumbes; Avendaño Villamar, Ulises Tiberio; Ortega Torres, Nelson Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    A simple and low-cost recirculating system (RAS) for production of arapaima  (Arapaima gigas) juveniles is described. Twenty arapaima fry (mean 13.0 cm, 12.0 g) were housed in three production tanks and fed a high HUFA diet resulting in 90% of fry successfully progressing to juveniles (mean 17.4 cm long; 40.2 g). The fish were then reared for a further 72 days fed on commercial extruded pellet feed achieving a mean length of 42.6 cm and 656.6 g. The simple and low-cost RAS holds good potentia...

  10. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Z [UNIV OF MANCHESTER; Jaworski, A J [UNIV OF MANCHESTER

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  11. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...

  12. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...

  13. Návrh marketingové strategie low cost letecké společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Khomutova, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    My Master thesis focuses on the design of the marketing strategy of a low-cost airline SparrowJet. The first chapter of the theoretical parts contains the required basics of theoretical information necessary to develop a marketing plan. In the second chapter is an analysis of the air transportation market with an emphasis on the low-cost segment. The final chapter of the theoretical part is dedicated to the marketing mix in the transportation. The practical part of my thesis begins with the s...

  14. All solution-processed micro-structured flexible electrodes for low-cost light-emitting pressure sensors fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Rie; Takumi, Takahiro; Vohra, Varun

    2017-07-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the advantage of developing pressure-sensitive devices with light-emitting properties for direct visualization of pressure distribution, potential application to next generation touch panels and human-machine interfaces. To ensure that this technology is available to everyone, its production cost should be kept as low as possible. Here, simple device concepts, namely, pressure sensitive flexible hybrid electrodes and OLED architecture, are used to produce low-cost resistive or light-emitting pressure sensors. Additionally, integrating solution-processed self-assembled micro-structures into the flexible hybrid electrodes composed of an elastomer and conductive materials results in enhanced device performances either in terms of pressure or spatial distribution sensitivity. For instance, based on the pressure applied, the measured values for the resistances of pressure sensors range from a few MΩ down to 500 Ω. On the other hand, unlike their evaporated equivalents, the combination of solution-processed flexible electrodes with an inverted OLED architectures display bright green emission when a pressure over 200 kPa is applied. At a bias of 3 V, their luminance can be tuned by applying a higher pressure of 500 kPa. Consequently, features such as fingernails and fingertips can be clearly distinguished from one another in these long-lasting low-cost devices.

  15. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-Cost Carriers, Local Economy and Tourism Development at Four Portuguese Airports. A Model of Cost–Benefit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of air transport created a new era in the sector. The entry of low-cost carriers triggered dynamism and consequently changed the behaviours of the demand and supply of air transport services. The volume of traffic at Portuguese airports increased from 17 million passengers in 2002 to more than 30 million in 2012, representing cumulative growth of 75%. The commitment to low-cost carriers (LCCs was a determining factor for this growth in that, in 2012, these carriers recorded a market share of 33%. This study aims to analyse the evolution of LCC air traffic in Portugal and its impact on regional economic development. Through a model of cost–benefit analysis, we determine the costs, benefits and net welfare in the developmet of the region driven by the LCC routes of 4 Portuguese airports, Faro, Lisbon, Funchal and Porto, between 2005 and 2012. The methodology proves the existence of a positive net impact driven by LCCs on the local economy, directly through job creation and increased consumption in the tourism sector and indirectly by the increased demand from other sectors.

  17. Towards a personalized environmental health information service using low-cost sensors and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Liu, Hai-Ying; Schneider, Philipp; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    Most European cities exceed the air quality guidelines established by the WHO to protect human health. As such, citizens are exposed to potentially harmful pollutant levels. Some cities have services (e.g., web pages, mobile apps, etc.) which provide timely air quality information to the public. However, air quality data at individual level is currently scarce or non-existent. Making this information directly useful to individuals poses a challenge. For instance, if a user is informed that the air quality is "poor", what does that mean for him/her, and how can this information be acted upon? Despite individuals having a unique relationship with their environment, the information on the state of atmospheric components and related hazards is currently mostly generic, and seldom personally relevant. This undermines citizens' interest in their environment, and consequently limits their ability to recognize and change both their contribution and their exposure to air pollution. In Oslo, two EU founded projects, CITI-SENSE (Engelken-Jorge et al., 2014) and Citi-Sense-MOB (Castell et al., 2014), are trying to establish a dialogue with citizens by providing them with the possibility of getting personalized air quality information on their smartphones. The users are able to check the air quality in their immediate surroundings and track their individual exposure while moving through the urban environment (Castell et al., 2014). In this way, they may be able to reduce their exposure such as by changing transport modes or routes, for example by selecting less polluted streets to walk or cycle through. Using a smartphone application, citizens are engaged in collecting and sharing environmental data generated by low-cost air quality sensors, and in reporting their individual perception (turning citizens into sensors themselves). The highly spatially resolved data on air quality and perception is geo-located. This allows for simultaneous visualization of both kinds of the sensor

  18. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-08-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise, but are incapable of providing real-time information, while recently reported in-line WC sensors (both in research and industry) are usually incapable of sensing the full WC range (0 – 100 %), are bulky, expensive and non-scalable for the variety of pipe sizes used in the oil industry. This work presents a novel implementation of a planar microwave T-resonator for fully non-intrusive in situ WC sensing over the full range of operation, i.e., 0 – 100 %. As opposed to non-planar resonators, the choice of a planar resonator has enabled its direct implementation on the pipe surface using low cost fabrication methods. WC sensors make use of series resonance introduced by a λ/4 open shunt stub placed in the middle of a microstrip line. The detection mechanism is based on the measurement of the T-resonator’s resonance frequency, which varies with the relative percentage of oil and water (due to the difference in their dielectric properties). In order to implement the planar T-resonator based sensor on the curved surface of the pipe, a novel approach of utilizing two ground planes is proposed in this work. The innovative use of dual ground planes makes this sensor scalable to a wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The design and optimization of this sensor was performed in an electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) solver, i.e., High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) and the dielectric properties of oil, water and their emulsions of different WCs used in the simulation model were measured using a SPEAG-dielectric assessment kit (DAK-12). The simulation results were validated through characterization of fabricated prototypes. Initial rapid prototyping was completed using copper tape, after which a

  19. Dynamic Characterization of a Low Cost Microwave Water-Cut Sensor in a Flow Loop

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Inline precise measurement of water fraction in oil (i.e. water-cut [WC]) finds numerous applications in oil and gas industry. This paper presents the characterization of an extremely low cost, completely non-intrusive and full range microwave water

  20. Impairment analysis of WDM-PON based on low-cost tunable lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael H.; Lawin, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    channel must be kept below 15%. Similar values result for the upstream pilot tones. In order to limit crosstalk, such systems require reduced launch power during wavelength tuning and can cover up to 40 km differential reach. These results confirm that WDM-PON based on low-cost lasers is a technically...

  1. Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.

  2. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  3. Performance Analysis of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Receivers in Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsobeiey, M.

    2017-10-01

    The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has issued standards that provide the minimum requirements for different types of hydrographic surveys execution to collect data to be used to compile navigational charts. Such standards are usually updated from time to time to reflect new survey techniques and practices and must be achieved to assure both surface navigation safety and marine environment protection. Hydrographic surveys can be classified to four orders namely, special order, order 1a, order 1b, and order 2. The order of hydrographic surveys to use should be determined in accordance with the importance to the safety of navigation in the surveyed area. Typically, geodetic-grade dual-frequency GPS receivers are utilized for position determination during data collection in hydrographic surveys. However, with the evolution of high-sensitivity low-cost single-frequency receivers, it is very important to evaluate the performance of such receivers. This paper investigates the performance of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers in hydrographic surveying applications. The main objective is to examine whether low-cost single-frequency receivers fulfil the IHO standards for hydrographic surveys. It is shown that the low-cost single-frequency receivers meet the IHO horizontal accuracy for all hydrographic surveys orders at any depth. However, the single-frequency receivers meet only order 2 requirements for vertical accuracy at depth more than or equal 100 m.

  4. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions...

  5. Low cost sensors: Field evaluations and multi-sensor approaches for emissions factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development, and application of low cost sensors to measure both particulate and gas-phase air pollutants is poised to explode over the next several years. The need for the sensors is driven by poor air quality experienced in inhabited regions throughout the world, in both de...

  6. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sens...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Air Pollutants in the South Coast Basin Using Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of small, portable, low-cost air sensors has encouraged a shift from traditional monitoring approaches for air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Air Quality ...

  8. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    -cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...

  9. Hybrid paper-based potentiostat for low-cost point-of-need diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, PH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the manufacturing of a low-cost hybrid paper-based potentiostat. Potentiostats exhibit high sensitivity, and can be used for a variety of applications. The results highlight the functionality of a paper-based potentiostat...

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a biosurfactant produced in low-cost medium as stabilizing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B.B. Farias

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: This process provided a simpler route for nanoparticle synthesis compared to existing systems using whole organisms or partially purified biological extracts, showing that the low-cost biosurfactant can be used for nanoparticle synthesis as a non-toxic and biodegradable stabilizing agent.

  11. Gossip as an effective and low-cost form of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Cheng, Joey T; Willer, Robb

    2012-02-01

    The spreading of reputational information about group members through gossip represents a widespread, efficient, and low-cost form of punishment. Research shows that negative arousal states motivate individuals to gossip about the transgressions of group members. By sharing information in this way groups are better able to promote cooperation and maintain social control and order.

  12. Assessment of Low-Cost Elevators for Near Term Application in Transit Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This study of low-cost elevators for use in existing transit stations was commissioned by the Transportation Systems Center and included a four-day site study of screw column elevators manufactured by the Ebel Company of Brussels, Belgium. The site s...

  13. Low-cost regeneration techniques for mixed-species management – 20 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr

    2012-01-01

    Four variations of the fell-and-burn technique, a low-cost regeneration system developed for pine-hardwood mixtures in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, were tested in the Piedmont of South Carolina. All variations successfully improved the commercial value of low-quality hardwood stands by introducing a pine component. After 20 years, pines were almost as numerous...

  14. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  15. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  16. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  17. A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 1. A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake disc application. V Saravanan P R Thyla S R Balakrishnan. Volume 39 Issue 1 February 2016 pp 299-305 ...

  18. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Tools: From Research to Practice (A Workshop Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In May 2017, a two-day workshop was held in Los Angeles (California, U.S.A. to gather practitioners who work with low-cost sensors used to make air quality measurements. The community of practice included individuals from academia, industry, non-profit groups, community-based organizations, and regulatory agencies. The group gathered to share knowledge developed from a variety of pilot projects in hopes of advancing the collective knowledge about how best to use low-cost air quality sensors. Panel discussion topics included: (1 best practices for deployment and calibration of low-cost sensor systems, (2 data standardization efforts and database design, (3 advances in sensor calibration, data management, and data analysis and visualization, and (4 lessons learned from research/community partnerships to encourage purposeful use of sensors and create change/action. Panel discussions summarized knowledge advances and project successes while also highlighting the questions, unresolved issues, and technological limitations that still remain within the low-cost air quality sensor arena.

  19. A comparative study on indoor air quality in a low cost and a green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is important because people spend most of their time inside houses. IAQ was monitored in two different types of rural houses namely a low cost house and a “green” house built with pyramidal shape of roof in the rural area. Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) concentrations ...

  20. Adsorption Studies of Heavy Metals by Low-Cost Adsorbents | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, removal of toxic metals Cr(VI) from artificially contaminated water has been investigated with the aim of detoxifying industrial effluents before their safe disposal onto land or into the river. Two low-cost natural adsorbents, Palm Kernel fiber and Coconut husks, were used to remove Cr(VI) ion from synthesized ...

  1. Comparisons of Two Commercial and Two Low-cost Interfaces for Virtual Skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present two comparisons of two novel physical interface for interacting with a virtual environment in the form of a skiing game. The interfaces were compared through two separate within-subjects studies. In the first study we compared a wobble board augmented with a low-cost 3D a...

  2. Smartfactory, a modular, low-cost productivity monitoring system to impact SMMEs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of SMMEs, the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step-by-step fashion with little training required in installation, maintenance...

  3. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  4. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an

  5. Construction and Characterization of a Compact, Portable, Low-Cost Colorimeter for the Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippard, Carrie M.; Hughes, William; Chohan, Balwant S.; Sykes, Danny G.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and portable colorimeter was constructed featuring a low-voltage programmable color light sensor-to-frequency converter, a CMOS 8-bit microcontroller, and an LCD display. The instrument has successfully facilitated the introduction and application of spectroscopy to groups of middle school, high school, and undergraduate students. A…

  6. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  7. Keep on Blockin' in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called "Selective RFID Jamming". Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an

  8. Low-cost millimeter-wave transceiver module using SMD packaged MMICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Gauthier, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  9. Low-Cost Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Module using SMD packaged MMICs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  10. An effective and low-cost method for DNA extraction from herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhubarb is an important traditional Chinese herbal drug with high secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA extraction procedures and downstream applications, such as DNA restriction and amplification. An effective and low-cost protocol for isolating genomic DNA from root of Rheum tanguticum is described in this ...

  11. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Centimeter-Level Accuracy OEM GNSS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This report discusses the results of a study to quantify the performance of low-cost, centimeter-level accurate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers that have appeared on the market in the last few years. Centimeter-level accuracy is ...

  12. Lab-on-Blu-ray: Low-cost analyte detection on a disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Burger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present for the first time a centrifugal microfluidic system for the detection of analytes in blood using a low cost (< 10$) blu-ray pickup head for detection. The microfluidic operations are carried out on a disk, while the detection method is based on optical measurements of th...

  13. Investigation of Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source ...

  14. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  15. Low-cost glass ionomer cement as ART sealant in permanent molars: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesse, D.; Bonifácio, C.C.; Guglielmi, C. de Almeida Brandao; da Franca, C.; Mendes, F.M.; Raggio, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials are normally performed with well-known brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC), but the cost of these materials is high for public healthcare in less-affluent communities. Given the need to research cheaper materials, it seems pertinent to investigate the retention rate of a low-cost

  16. Statistical characteristics of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Statistical properties of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers are investigated through a case study. The observations are collected on a zero baseline with a frequency of 1 Hz and processed with a double difference model. The carrier phase residuals from an ambiguity...

  17. Impact of some low-cost interventions on students' performance in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studentsf poor performance in physiology examinations has been worrisome to the university community. Reported preference of peer.tutoring to didactic lectures at the University of Nigeria Medical School has not been investigated. Aim: The aim of this work is to design/implement low.cost interventions to ...

  18. Application of a Low Cost Ceramic Filter for Recycling Sand Filter Backwash Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiquzzaman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the application of a low cost ceramic filter for the treatment of sand filter backwash water (SFBW. The treatment process is comprised of pre-coagulation of SFBW with aluminum sulfate (Alum followed by continuous filtration usinga low cost ceramic filter at different trans-membrane pressures (TMPs. Jar test results showed that 20 mg/L of alum is the optimum dose for maximum removal of turbidity, Fe, and Mn from SFBW. The filter can be operated at a TMP between 0.6 and 3 kPa as well as a corresponding flux of 480–2000 L/m2/d without any flux declination. Significant removal, up to 99%, was observed forturbidity, iron (Fe, and manganese (Mn. The flux started to decline at 4.5 kPa TMP (corresponding flux 3280 L/m2/d, thus indicated fouling of the filter. The complete pore blocking model was found as the most appropriate model to explain the insight mechanism of flux decline. The optimum operating pressure and the permeate flux were found to be 3 kPa and 2000 L/m2/d, respectively. Treated SFBW by a low cost ceramic filter was found to be suitable to recycle back to the water treatment plant. The ceramic filtration process would be a low cost and efficient option to recycle the SFBW.

  19. Low-Cost Radar Sensors for Personnel Detection and Tracking in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-31

    progress on the reserach grant "Low-Cost Radar Sensors for Personnel Detection and Tracking in Urban Areas" during the period 1 May 2005 - 31 December...The limitations of the proposed system resulting from DOA ambiguity of multiple moving targets are studied. 2. METHODOLOGY Our radar receiver

  20. Laboratory Demonstration of Low-Cost Method for Producing Thin Film on Nonconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, A. U.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost procedure for metallizing a silicon p-n junction diode by electroless nickel plating is reported. The procedure demonstrates that expensive salts can be excluded without affecting the results. The experimental procedure, measurement, results, and discussion are included. (Author/KR)

  1. Digital Image Quantitative Evaluations for Low Cost Film Digitizers Height Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin; Ahmad Nasir Yusof; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2016-01-01

    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) technology contributes significant improvement to the quality of industrial products, and the integrity of equipment and plants. Introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on the traditional nuclear based NDT technology. Demand for faster, reliable, low cost, and flexible technology is rapidly increased. With the growing demand for more efficient digital archiving, digital image analysis, and reporting results with a low cost technology, one cannot deny the importance of having another cheaper solution. This project will apply fundamental principle of image digitization to be used in building up a low cost film digitization solution. The height of the film digitization was carefully determined by examining each digital images produced. Three (3) repetitive quantitative evaluations (Modulation Transfer Function [MTF], Characteristic Transfer Curve [CTC], and Contrast to Noise Ratio [CNR]) were performed at different condition to assist with the determination of the low cost film digitizers height. All 3 evaluations were successfully applied and the most appropriate height was successfully determined. (author)

  2. Research and development of a low cost expandable grid-linked inverter system: PG2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakin, R.A.

    2000-07-01

    The overall aim of the project was to research and develop an inverter for use in the conversion of solar energy into mains electricity, which is low-cost in volume manufacture and flexible in terms of expendability to meet different power level needs. (author)

  3. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost flat plate solar energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A low-cost flat plate solar energy collector has been designed and constructed with locally available materials such as mild steel and black paint of absorptance 0.94. On testing, an average daily efficiency of 55.6% was obtained. The methods are simple and illustrate the fact that construction of efficient collectors are ...

  4. Low-cost computer mouse for the elderly or disabled in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-C; Chen, W-L; Chen, B-N; Shih, Y-Y; Lai, J-S; Chen, Y-L

    2014-01-01

    A mouse is an important communication interface between a human and a computer, but it is still difficult to use for the elderly or disabled. To develop a low-cost computer mouse auxiliary tool. The principal structure of the low-cost mouse auxiliary tool is the IR (infrared ray) array module and the Wii icon sensor module, which combine with reflective tape and the SQL Server database. This has several benefits including cheap hardware cost, fluent control, prompt response, adaptive adjustment and portability. Also, it carries the game module with the function of training and evaluation; to the trainee, it is really helpful to upgrade the sensitivity of consciousness/sense and the centralization of attention. The intervention phase/maintenance phase, with regard to clicking accuracy and use of time, p value (p< 0.05) reach the level of significance. The development of the low cost adaptive computer mouse auxiliary tool was completed during the study and was also verified as having the characteristics of low cost, easy operation and the adaptability. To patients with physical disabilities, if they have independent control action parts of their limbs, the mouse auxiliary tool is suitable for them to use, i.e. the user only needs to paste the reflective tape by the independent control action parts of the body to operate the mouse auxiliary tool.

  5. Examining the Effects of a Low-Cost Prompt to Reduce Retail Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Sharlet D.; Boyce, Thomas E.; Williams, W. Larry

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the extent to which a low-cost, antitheft intervention impacted theft and sales in a multiple baseline design across two grocery stores. Previous research has measured the impact on theft of items that have a sign indicating their high theft rate and stickers next to or on the items. In contrast, this study tracked four…

  6. Active and passive component embedding into low-cost plastic substrates aimed at smart system applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauwe, M.; Vandecasteele, B.; Baets, J. de; Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.

    2013-01-01

    The technology development for a low-cost, roll-to-roll compatible chip embedding process is described in this paper. Target applications are intelligent labels and disposable sensor patches. Two generations of the technology are depicted. In the first version of the embedding technology, the chips

  7. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  8. Fourier Analysis of a Vibrating String through a Low-Cost Experimental Setup and a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, C. J.; Osorio, M.; Laguarda, A.; Gau, D. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a simple and low-cost setup to illustrate the dependence of the behaviour of a standing wave in a guitar string with the initial conditions. To do so, we impose two kinds of initial conditions; in the first instance, the initial shape of the string is varied. Secondly, different nodes are imposed on the string. This…

  9. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  10. Partial Discharge Detection Using Low Cost RTL-SDR Model for Wideband Spectrum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, H.; Lazaridis, Pavlos; Upton, D.

    2016-01-01

    an optimal approach for PD signal analysis, and are very costly. In this paper an RTLSDR (Software Defined Radio) based spectrum analyser has been proposed in order to provide a potentially low cost solution for PD detection and monitoring. Initially, a portable spectrum analyser has been used for PD...

  11. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  12. Adaptive UAV Attitude Estimation Employing Unscented Kalman Filter, FOAM and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector; Espinosa, Felipe; Santos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed way,

  13. hPIN/hTAN: Low-Cost e-Banking Secure against Untrusted Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujun; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    We propose hPIN/hTAN, a low-cost token-based e-banking protection scheme when the adversary has full control over the user's computer. Compared with existing hardware-based solutions, hPIN/hTAN depends on neither second trusted channel, nor secure keypad, nor computationally expensive encryption module.

  14. Development of a Low-Cost Attitude Sensor for Agricultural Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. The attitude sensor was composed of three vibratory gyroscopes and two inclinometers. A sensor fusion algorithm was developed to estimate tilt angles (roll and pitch) by least-squares method. In the a...

  15. Low-cost addition-subtraction sequences for the final exponentiation computation in pairings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán-Trampe, Juan E; Cruz-Cortéz, Nareli; Dominguez Perez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding low cost addition–subtraction sequences for situations where a doubling step is significantly cheaper than a non-doubling one. One application of this setting appears in the computation of the final exponentiation step of the reduced Tate pairing d...

  16. A low-cost potentiostat for point-of-need diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, Petrone H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presented details the development of a lowcost potentiostat, with the aim of creating an ink-jet printed hybrid paper-based low-cost sensing system for rapid water quality monitoring. Potentiostats exhibit high sensitivities and can be used...

  17. Towards a low-cost, full-service air quality data archival system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samourkasidis, Argyris; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2014-01-01

    We present our explorations towards a low-cost solution for creating an autonomous environmental data archival system. AiRCHIVE is a software platform for providing open access to sensor data with different ways, that account for machine interoperability. It is built with Raspberry Pi, a

  18. Hybrid” airlines – Generating value between low-cost and traditional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoenescu Cristina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the rise of low-cost airlines has determined significant changes in the airline industry and has shaped the evolution of the existing business models. Low-cost airlines started by offering basic services at very low prices; traditional airlines responded by equally cutting costs and reinventing the services offered, with an orientation towards braking down the fare and implementing add-ons, in order to become cost-efficient. As traditional airlines developed strategies to become competitive in this new environment, low-cost airlines started focusing on new ways of enhancing passenger experience and attracting new market segments. As a result, the fragmentation of the market segments addressed by low cost carriers and traditional airlines became less obvious and the characteristics of both business models started to blend at all levels (airline operation, distribution channels, loyalty programs, fleet selection. Thus, this new competition became the foundation of the development of a new „hybrid” carrier, between the low-cost and the traditional models. This article investigates the characteristics of the newly created business model, both from a theoretical perspective and by analysing several case studies. A particular attention will be granted to the evolution of the Romanian carrier Blue Air towards the “hybrid” model. The article focuses on determining the position of the “hybrid” airline in a market with carriers situated along both sides of this business model: lower cost vs. “better” experience and raises the question on how value can be generated in this context. Another aspect tackled is the understanding of the new segmentation of the market, as a consequence of the development of the new business model. In order to achieve this purpose, a survey has been conducted, aiming to mark out the travel preferences of the passengers travelling through the Henri Coandă International Airport.

  19. Design and characterization of low-cost fabric-based flat pneumatic actuators for soft assistive glove application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Hong Kai; Sebastian, Frederick; Wiedeman, Christopher; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2017-07-01

    We present the design of low-cost fabric-based Hat pneumatic actuators for soft assistive glove application. The soft assistive glove is designed to assist hand impaired patients in performing activities of daily living and rehabilitation. The actuators consist of flexible materials such as fabric and latex bladder. Using zero volume actuation concept, the 2D configuration of the actuators simplifies the manufacturing process and allows the actuators to be more compact. The actuators achieve bi-directional flexion and extension motions. Compared to previously developed inflatable soft actuators, the actuators generate sufficient force and torque to assist in both finger flexion and extension at lower air pressure. Preliminary evaluation results show that the glove is able to provide both active finger flexion and extension assistance for activities of daily living and rehabilitative training.

  20. Compressor motor for air conditioners realizing high efficiency and low cost; Kokoritsu tei cost wo jitsugenshita eakonyo asshukuki motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Imazawa, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The compressor motor accounts for most of the consumption of electric power in an air conditioner. To promote energy-saving, Toshiba has been progressively changing the compressor motors in its air conditioners to high-efficiency brushless DC motors. We have now developed a new compressor motor in order to achieve even greater energy-saving. A concentrated winding system was adopted featuring direct winding on the teeth of the stator core, for the first time in the industry. As a result, it was possible to realize a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight, and low-cost motor. Moreover, by constructing a new system for production, we were able to improve productivity and quality. The newly developed motor is expected to contribute to the further diffusion of energy-saving air conditioners. (author)