Sample records for zealand neogene paleogeography

  1. The evolutionary history of the extinct ratite moa and New Zealand Neogene paleogeography

    Bunce, M; Worthy, T H; Phillips, M J


    of the species of an extinct order. We also present an important new geological/paleogeographical model of late Cenozoic NZ, which suggests that terrestrial biota on the North and South Island landmasses were isolated for most of the past 20-30 Ma. The data reveal that the patterns of genetic diversity within......The ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were a speciose group of massive graviportal avian herbivores that dominated the New Zealand (NZ) ecosystem until their extinction approximately 600 years ago. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of this morphologically diverse order has remained...

  2. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod

    Michał Grabowski


    Full Text Available Background The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1 we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2 the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3 given that G. roeselii thrives both in lakes and rivers, its evolutionary history could be linked to the Balkan Neogene paleolake system; (4 we inspected whether the Pleistocene decline of hydrological networks could have any impact on the diversification of G. roeselii. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from 177 individuals collected from 26 sites all over Balkans. All individuals were amplified for ca. 650 bp long fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI. After defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU based on COI, 50 individuals were amplified for ca. 900 bp long fragment of the nuclear 28S rDNA. Molecular diversity, divergence, differentiation and historical demography based on COI sequences were estimated for each MOTU. The relative frequency, geographic distribution and molecular divergence between COI haplotypes were presented as a median-joining network. COI was used also to reconstruct time-calibrated phylogeny with Bayesian inference. Probabilities of ancestors’ occurrence in riverine or lacustrine habitats, as well their possible geographic locations, were estimated with the Bayesian method. A Neighbour Joining tree was constructed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between 28S rDNA haplotypes. Results We revealed that G. roeselii includes at least

  3. Early Tertiary marine fossils from northern Alaska: implications for Arctic Ocean paleogeography and faunal evolution.

    Marincovich, L.; Brouwers, E.M.; Carter, L.D.


    Marine mollusks and ostracodes indicate a post-Danian Paleocene to early Eocene (Thanetian to Ypresian) age for a fauna from the Prince Creek Formation at Ocean Point, northern Alaska, that also contains genera characteristic of the Cretaceous and Neogene-Quaternary. The life-assocation of heterochronous taxa at Ocean Point resulted from an unusual paleogeographic setting, the nearly complete isolation of the Arctic Ocean from about the end of the Cretaceous until sometime in the Eocene, in which relict Cretaceous taxa survived into Tertiary time while endemic taxa evolved in situ; these later migrated to the northern mid- latitudes. Paleobiogeographic affinities of the Ocean Point assocation with mild temperate faunas of the London Basin (England), Denmark, and northern Germany indicate that a shallow, intermittent Paleocene seaway extended through the Norwegian-Greenland Sea to the North Sea Basin. Early Tertiary Arctic Ocean paleogeography deduced from faunal evidence agrees with that inferred from plate-tectonic reconstructions.-Authors

  4. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)


    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  5. Testing Inheritance of Nuna Paleogeography Into the Supercontinent Rodinia

    Raub, T. M.; Evans, D. A.


    Apparent Polar Wander paths based on high quality paleomagnetic poles are critical tools for evaluating paleogeographic reconstructions of Precambrian supercontinents. Recently such data have presented challenges to various reconstructions for the Neoproterozoic supercontinent, Rodinia. In light of these challenges it has become increasingly important to refine our understanding of the positions of two of the largest landmasses making up Rodinia, Laurentia and Australia. Laurentia and Australia, connected in various reconstructions of Rodinia without an intervening Grenville-aged orogenic belt, should have inherited such a connection from an earlier supercontinent, Nuna. Although existing Paleoproterozoic APWPs for Laurentia and Australia have appeared to support this inherited connection, revised ages for key poles in the North American path and lack of field tests on key poles from Australia warrant a recomparison of these APWPs. New data from the Wharton Group of the Dubawnt Supergroup in the Western Churchill Province, Canada, help contribute to a better understanding of the Laurentian APWP. Results from the ca. 1755-Ma Pitz rhyolites and associated conglomerates lend preliminary support to the recently published pole by Irving et al. from the Cleaver dykes in northwest Canada. Additional data from the Thelon sandstone, overlying the Wharton Group unconformably, can provideconstraints on this pole position and the succeeding APWP segment. Future work from the Lochness formation of the northern Australian Lawn Hill platform should refine the comparison between Laurentian and Australian Paleoproterozoic APWPs, and allow for better understanding of the paleogeography of Nuna and its transition to Rodinia.

  6. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))


    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  7. Sedimentology and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Hoorn, van B.


    The present study deals with the primary lithology, sedimentary structures, depositional history and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the south-central Pyrenees, and presents a brief review of the lithology and depositional environment of surrounding contemporaneous deposits.

  8. Variscan Oroclines and their implications for Pangean Paleogeography

    Johnston, Stephen


    the Iberian and Bohemian oroclines. There is, therefore, no evidence of any Carboniferous continental collision, and hence no evidence for the Carboniferous construction of Pangea. Permian buckling of the Variscan orogen requires 5000 km of relative translation of the ends of the orogenic ribbon toward one another and may, therefore, be a record of the dextral translation of Gondwana relative to Laurussia during the Pangea B to A transition. However, attempts to model orocline formation as a result of the westward translation of Gondwana relative to Laurussia (the B to A transition) have proved difficult, if not impossible. The implication is that the Permo-Carboniferous Pangean paleogeography remains highly speculative.

  9. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.


    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  10. 10Be dating of Neogene halite

    Belmaker, Reuven; Lazar, Boaz; Beer, Jürg; Christl, Marcus; Tepelyakov, Natalya; Stein, Mordechai


    Direct radioactive dating of ancient halite formations is difficult because this mineral typically lacks conventionally datable material. We describe an attempt to date Neogene halite using the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (T1/2 = 1.39 Ma). We dated marine-derived salt deposits from the Sedom and Amora (The Hebrew forms of Sodom and Gomorrah) Formations, Dead Sea basin, Israel. To verify whether Be is incorporated into marine halite we measured the stable isotope 9Be, 7Be (the short lived “cosmogenic brother” of 10Be having T1/2 = 53.3 d), and 10Be in evaporation pans of sea-salt production plants. The data suggest that seawater beryllium is incorporated into the halite with a halite-brine distribution coefficient, (KD) of about unity. A 10Be/9Be decay curve constructed for Sedom Formation halite yielded an age that lies in the range of ∼2-6 Ma. The 10Be decay curve constructed for Sedom Formation halite yielded an age that lies in the range of 3-5 Ma. This age is consistent with previous estimates of the Sedom Formation age. Furthermore, this age lies in the same range of 10Be in situ ages obtained on the lacustrine Erq El Ahmer Formation located in the northern Jordan Valley. This may imply that during the Mid Pliocene the Sedom Lagoon, the water-body that deposited the Sedom Formation, might have been already disconnected from the open sea.

  11. Neogene kinematic history of Nazca-Antarctic-Phoenix slab windows beneath Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Breitsprecher, Katrin; Thorkelson, Derek J.


    The Patagonian slab window is a subsurface tectonic feature resulting from subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic spreading-ridge system (Chile Rise) beneath southern South America. The geometry of the slab window had not been rigorously defined, in part because of the complex nature of the history of ridge subduction in the southeast Pacific region, which includes four interrelated spreading-ridge systems since 20 Ma: first, the Nazca-Phoenix ridge beneath South America, then simultaneous subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic and the northern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge systems beneath South America, and the southern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge system beneath Antarctica. Spreading-ridge paleo-geographies and rotation poles for all relevant plate pairs (Nazca, Phoenix, Antarctic, South America) are available from 20 Ma onward, and form the mathematical basis of our kinematic reconstruction of the geometry of the Patagonia and Antarctic slab windows through Neogene time. At approximately 18 Ma, the Nazca-Phoenix-Antarctic oceanic (ridge-ridge-ridge) triple junction enters the South American trench; we recognize this condition as an unstable quadruple junction. Heat flow at this junction and for some distance beneath the forearc would be considerably higher than is generally recognized in cases of ridge subduction. From 16 Ma onward, the geometry of the Patagonia slab window developed from the subduction of the trailing arms of the former oceanic triple junction. The majority of the slab window's areal extent and geometry is controlled by the highly oblique (near-parallel) subduction angle of the Nazca-Antarctic ridge system, and by the high contrast in relative convergence rates between these two plates relative to South America. The very slow convergence rate of the Antarctic slab is manifested by the shallow levels achieved by the slab edge (< 45 km); thus no point on the Antarctic slab is sufficiently deep to generate "normal" mantle-derived arc-type magmas

  12. Inheritance of Jurassic rifted margin architecture into the Apennines Neogene mountain building: a case history from the Lucretili Mts. (Latium, Central Italy)

    Bollati, Andrea; Corrado, Sveva; Marino, Maurizio


    The western Lucretili Mts. in the central Apennines (Latium, Italy) have been recently re-mapped in great detail and are the subject of combined stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural investigations. In this paper, we present a new stratigraphic interpretation of the Jurassic paleogeography of western Lucretili Mts., where a rift-derived intrabasinal paleo-high of the Alpine Tethys has been identified for the first time by means of facies analysis and biostratigraphic dating. Recognised facies associations, combined with dated stratigraphic sections, allow to define the morphology of the structural paleo-high and to identify the associated gravity-driven deposits (olistoliths) accumulated in the surrounding basin. Furthermore, we investigated the modes of interaction between Jurassic extensional structures and the subsequent contractional patterns developed during the Tertiary mountain building. In detail, the role played during Apennines tectonics by the paleo-escarpments bounding the paleo-high and by the surrounding olistoliths has been analysed. The paleo-escarpments either acted as focussing features for ENE-directed frontal thrust ramp localisation and were offset with small shortening amounts or reactivated as NNE striking high angle transpressional faults or preserved the original geometries as a result of variable orientation of paleo-escarpments with respect to the Neogene compressive stress field (with ENE oriented sigma1). Newly formed ENE striking tear faults connect these either inherited or neo-formed discontinuities. This complex stratigraphic and structural pattern is substantially different from the previous interpretations of this portion of the central Apennines based on a hypothesised layer-cake stratigraphy deformed by neo-formed Neogene thrusts. This contribution strengthens the importance of integrating facies analyses and structural investigations to detect the influence of pre-orogenic structures on compressive structural patterns

  13. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the late Neogene of Crete (Greece)

    Zachariasse, W.J.


    A planktonic foraminiferal zonation is established for the Middle/Upper Miocene - Pliocene interval in Crete. It is based upon the investigation of samples from 29 sections. Eight zones are distinguished. A comparison with samples from other Neogene sections from Italy, Spain, Algeria, and the islan

  14. Large Centrophorus (Chondrichthyes, Squaliformes) of the Belgian Neogene continental shelf

    Schutter, de P.J.; Wijnker, E.


    A number of isolated teeth of gulper sharks (genus Centrophorus Müller & Henle, 1837) have been recovered from Neogene sands in the Antwerp area, marking the first occurrence of the genus Centrophorus in the fossil record of Belgium and the North Sea Basin. The precise stratigraphic origin of th

  15. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.


    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical r

  16. Aragonian : the stage concept versus Neogene mammal zones

    Daams, R.; Freudenthal, M.


    The system of Neogene Mammal Zones, as originally created by Mein (1975), is discussed, and found to be confusing. The Aragonian in the type section and in the surrounding area is discussed, and the evolution of its fauna described in some detail. It appears dubious to apply the MN-zones to the

  17. Aragonian : the stage concept versus Neogene mammal zones

    Daams, R.; Freudenthal, M.


    The system of Neogene Mammal Zones, as originally created by Mein (1975), is discussed, and found to be confusing. The Aragonian in the type section and in the surrounding area is discussed, and the evolution of its fauna described in some detail. It appears dubious to apply the MN-zones to the faun

  18. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    Marincovich, L.


    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  19. Paleogeography of the Berriasian-Barremian ages of the Early Cretaceous

    Zharkov, M.A.; Murdmaa, I.O.; Filatova, N.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology


    Global lithologic-paleogeographic maps were compiled for the Berriasian, Valanginian, Hauterivian, and Barremain ages of the Early Cretaceous. Main features of paleogeography, sedimentation environments in oceans, regularities in distribution of paleogeographic environments in continental margins, spatial position of arid and humid sedimentation settings in continents, and position of latitudinal climate belts of the Neocomian time are considered. Five latitudinal climatic belts of the Neocomian time corresponded to the northern circumpolar humid zone with coal deposits, the northern mid-latitudinal humid zone with coal-bauxite-kaolinite deposits, the inter-subtropical arid zone with evaporites, the southern mid-latitudinal humid zone with coal-kaolinite deposits, and the southern humid zone with coal-bearing sequences.

  20. Predictive Upper Cretaceous to Early Miocene Paleogeography of the San Andreas Fault System

    Burnham, K.


    Paleogeographic reconstruction of the region of the San Andreas fault was hampered for more than twenty years by the apparent incompatibility of authoritative lithologic correlations. These led to disparate estimates of dextral strike-slip offsets, notably 315 km between Pinnacles and Neenach Volcanics (Matthews, 1976), versus 563 km between Anchor Bay and Eagle Rest Peak (Ross et al., 1973). In addition, estimates of total dextral slip on the San Gregorio fault have ranged from 5 km to 185 km. Sixteen upper Cretaceous and Paleogene conglomerates of the California Coast Ranges, from Anchor Bay to Simi Valley, have been included in a multidisciplinary study. Detailed analysis, including microscopic petrography and microprobe geochemistry, verified Seiders and Cox's (1992) and Wentworth's (1996) correlation of the upper Cretaceous Strata of Anchor Bay with an unnamed conglomerate east of Half Moon Bay. Similar detailed study, with the addition of SHRIMP U/Pb zircon dating, verified that the Paleocene or Eocene Point Reyes Conglomerate at Point Reyes is a tectonically displaced segment of the Carmelo Formation of Point Lobos. These studies centered on identification of matching unique clast varieties, rather than on simply counting general clast types, and included analyses of matrices, fossils, paleocurrents, diagenesis, adjacent rocks, and stratigraphy. The work also led to three new correlations: the Point Reyes Conglomerate with granitic source rock at Point Lobos; a magnetic anomaly at Black Point with a magnetic anomaly near San Gregorio; and the Strata of Anchor Bay with previously established source rock, the potassium-poor Logan Gabbro (Ross et al., 1973) at a more recently recognized location (Brabb and Hanna, 1981; McLaughlin et al., 1996) just east of the San Gregorio fault, south of San Gregorio. From these correlations, an upper Cretaceous early Oligocene paleogeography of the San Andreas fault system was constructed that honors both the Anchor Bay

  1. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan


    - and sequence stratigraphy. The dinocyst zonation and the foraminifer zonation of the Danish Miocene (based upon analysis of the same boreholes) were independently calibrated with the established nannoplankton zonation. This correlation revealed a mismatch generally corresponding to one nannoplankton zone...... for the Achomosphaera andalousiensis Zone. Neogene biostratigraphy in the North Sea Basin has been problematic due to the periodically limited connection between the North Sea Basin and the North Atlantic Ocean, especially with respect to stratigraphy based on foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. Many...

  2. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina


    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  3. New Zealand's medical manslaughter.

    Collins, D B


    Doctors in New Zealand may be prosecuted for manslaughter if patients die as a consequence of the doctor's failure to exercise reasonable knowledge, skill and care. The requirement to use reasonable knowledge, skill and care has been held to be breached in New Zealand if a doctor is merely careless. No distinction is made between 'criminal negligence' and the negligence standard applicable in civil law. This article examines New Zealand's law relating to medical manslaughter with particular reference to the case of R v Yogasakaran [1990] 1 NZLR 399 which was the subject of a petition to the Privy Council on 30 January 1991.

  4. New Zealand Split



    The Kiwis worry about Chinese investment The news China Investment Corp.wanted to invest NZ$6 billion($4.8b illion)in New Zealand sent the country’s stock market spiraling into its best day in three years in late May.This fol-lowed an ongoing internal wrangle in New Zealand over whether Shanghai Pengxin Group should be allowed to buy into the defunct Crafar faming empire.

  5. Coccolith Carbonate Burial in the Open Ocean: Neogene Patterns

    Henderiks, J.


    Coccolithophorids, gold-brown algae, are prominent primary producers in the World's oceans. They produce calcite scales (coccoliths) that surround their cell, which represents a potential short-term CO2 source to the environment. The burial of coccoliths into marine sediments acts as a long-term sink of carbon. In fact, sedimentary carbonates are the largest reservoir of carbon on Earth, and hence play a vital role in the global carbon cycle. The contribution by coccolithophorids to this long-term sink can be expressed by accumulation rates of fine fraction carbonate. In more detail, absolute abundances of coccoliths combined with species-specific carbonate weights can resolve which taxa are most effective contributors to deep-sea carbonate. Surprisingly little has been done to link biogenic calcium carbonate budgets in the geological past to the general evolutionary patterns of calcifying plankton. Coccolithophorids have evolved relatively rapidly since their first appearance in the Mesozoic. Their evolutionary patterns are characterized by several periods of increasing species diversity and subsequent decline, as well as changes in their coccolith size and morphology. An overall decrease in the coccolith sizes is recorded during the Neogene, with the disappearance of large coccoliths (>10 micron) since the Middle Miocene. Because larger coccoliths are generally more resistant to dissolution, this observation cannot be due to (selective) carbonate dissolution. Hence, it implies significant variability in the amount of coccolith carbonate effectively buried through time, and potentially drastic changes in coccolithophorid productivity in the open ocean, with consequences for the short-term effects of biocalcification. This study focuses on Neogene proportions and accumulation rates of coccolith carbonate in selected well-preserved DSDP and ODP Sites from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, at a 1-2 M.y. resolution. Ultimately, the aim is to understand the

  6. The Neogene de-greening of Central Asia

    Caves, J. K.; Moragne, D. Y.; Ibarra, D. E.; Bayshashov, B. U.; Gao, Y.; Jones, M. M.; Zhamangara, A.; Arzhannikova, A. V.; Arzhannikov, S. G.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    There remains substantial debate concerning the relative roles of tectonics and of global climate in driving the evolution of climate in Asia. Today, interior Asia—including the Taklimakan, Gobi, and Ordos deserts—is exceptionally arid and is surrounded by distinct rainfall boundaries, such as those generated by the Asian monsoon systems to the east and south and those generated by high topography to the north and west. Determining how and why these hydroclimatic boundaries have varied over the Neogene is hindered by the lack of a single proxy that can be broadly applied through space and time. We construct isoscapes of pedogenic carbonate δ13C over the Neogene in Asia by combining a compilation of 2,236 published measurements with new data from three localities in northern Central Asia. Pedogenic carbonate δ13C records local aridity—excepting localities impacted by C4 grasslands and during large changes in atmospheric pCO2—through variations in soil respiration, depth of carbonate formation, and the effect of water stress on plant δ13C. Together, these effects reflect changes in both primary productivity and mean annual precipitation (MAP). Throughout the Neogene, we find consistent and exceptionally high δ13C in interior Asia with a ring of lower δ13C that demarcates higher precipitation. This persistent ring of lower δ13C corresponds in the south and east with the influence of the Asian monsoon systems; in the west and north, it reflects both orographic rainfall due to uplift of the Tian Shan and to moisture delivery by the mid-latitude westerlies. Finally, δ13C and, hence, aridity increases regionally in the latest Neogene, reflecting the effects of Northern Hemisphere glaciation and cooling. The result is a stark decrease in soil respiration fluxes and primary productivity across much of Central Asia. This widespread "de-greening" would have increased regional albedo, and substantially modified basin-scale water balances, resulting in greater

  7. A calibrated mammal scale for the Neogene of Western Europe. State of the art

    Agustí, Jorge; Cabrera, L.; Garces, M.; Krijgsman, W.; Oms, O.; Pares, J.M.


    A magnetobiostratigraphically calibrated mammal scale for the Neogene of Western Europe is presented in this paper. The Mammal Neogene MN units originally proposed by Mein [Report on activity RCMNS-Working groups] 1975 have been re-defined here on the basis of first appearances of selected small and

  8. Neogene sharks and rays from the Brazilian 'Blue Amazon'.

    Aguilera, Orangel; Luz, Zoneibe; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Kocsis, László; Vennemann, Torsten W; de Toledo, Peter Mann; Nogueira, Afonso; Amorim, Kamilla Borges; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Polck, Marcia Reis; Ruivo, Maria de Lourdes; Linhares, Ana Paula; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano


    The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince. However, the Pirabas Formation has unique features compared to the other localities; being the only Neogene fossil fish assemblage described from the Atlantic coast of Tropical Americas. Phosphate oxygen isotope composition of elasmobranch teeth served as proxies for paleotemperatures and paleoecology. The data are compatible with a predominantly tropical marine setting with recognized inshore and offshore habitats with some probable depth preferences (e.g., Aetomylaeus groups). Paleohabitat of taxa particularly found in the Neogene of the Americas (†Carcharhinus ackermannii, †Aetomylaeus cubensis) are estimated to have been principally coastal and shallow waters. Larger variation among the few analyzed modern selachians reflects a larger range for the isotopic composition of recent seawater compared to the early Miocene. This probably links to an increased influence of the Amazon River in the coastal regions during the Holocene.

  9. Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable gas exploration zones of Qixia and Maokou Fms in the Sichuan Basin

    Jingao Zhou


    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, the Middle Permian marine carbonate rocks are important natural gas pay zones with immense exploration potential, but the facies belts and distribution situations of layered dolomite reservoirs are not clear, which hinders the progress in natural gas exploration. In view of the sedimentary background of the Sichuan Basin, field outcrop section, drilling data and seismic data were comprehensively analyzed with the favorable reservoir intervals in the framework of sequence stratigraphy as the key research units. Research results about its lithofacies paleogeography were obtained as follows. First, a gentle slope SW high and NE low was presented during the sedimentation of the Qixia Fm in the Middle Permian. In the Maokou Fm of the Middle Permian, however, a series of the N–W trending intra-platform rifts were developed in this setting, and eventually a paleogeographic pattern of NE-dipping alternative uplift and depression was evolved. Second, in the Qixia Fm, the transgressive tract was in an open platform environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin beach in the area of Jiange–Ya'an is the favorable reservoir facies belt. And third, in the Maokou Fm, the transgressive tract was in the carbonate shelf environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin reef flat in the area of Jiange–Ya'an and the syneclise margin beach in the area of Yanting–Guang'an are favorable reservoir facies belts. It is concluded that the two grain beach facies belts in the areas of Jiange–Ya'an and Yanting–Guang'an were the favorable zones for the large-scale development of Middle Permian layered dolomite reservoirs and they are the main target of subsequent natural gas exploration.

  10. Dynamic Paleogeography of the Jurassic Andean Basin: pattern of regression and general considerations on main features

    J-C. Vicente


    Full Text Available Following examination of the evolution of the Jurassic Andean retroarc basin at a global scale for the Central Andes, this paper analyses the pattern of the regressive process, and discusses some general features concerning Andean Jurassic Paleogeography. The early Upper Jurassic regression obeys to an exactly reverse pattern as the one evidenced for the Lower Jurassic transgressive process. Sectors with late transgressions become those with early regressions while those with early transgressions show later regressions. This fact may indicate that the Norte Chico Isthmus (29°S to 30°30'S was a precociously emerged zone from the Bajocian. This carries again a split up between the Tarapacá and Aconcagua-Neuquén basins until their complete drying up in the Late Oxfordian following their restricted circulation. This evaporitic late stage presents great analogy with the Mediterranean «Messinian crisis» and gives evidence of a general tectonic and magmatic control on the straits. The local transgressions observed on the cratonic margin of the central part of these shrinking basins were due to shifting of water masses resulting from the regressive process on the northern and southern margins. Comparison between the main stages of transgression and regression allows some quantification concerning velocities of displacement of coastlines, specifically lengthwise. The permanence of paleogeographic and structural features over the time argues for an indisputable tectonic heritage. In the dynamic framework of this typical barred retroarc basin where arc magmatic activity has contributed considerably to variation on sediment supply and changing bathymetry of the seaways connecting with the Pacific Ocean, evidence for an assumed global eustatic cycle remains questionable or very subordinated.

  11. New Zealand Revisited


    <正>New Zealand, composed of two big islands at the southernmost of the Pacific Ocean, is a beautiful country with an area of 270,000 square kilometres and a population of less than 4 million. Having a vast territory, a sparse population,

  12. Neogene Development of the Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Sauli, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Busetti, M.; De Santis, L.; Wardell, N.; Henrys, S. A.; Geletti, R.; Wilson, T. J.; Luyendyk, B. P.


    Terror Rift is a >300 km-long, 50-70 km-wide, 14 km-deep sedimentary basin at the edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountains. It is cut into the broader Victoria Land Basin (VLB). The VLB experienced 100 km of mid-Cenozoic extension associated with larger sea floor spreading farther north. The post-spreading (Neogene) development of Terror Rift is not well understood, in part because of past use of different stratigraphic age models. We use the new Rossmap seismic stratigraphy correlated to Cape Roberts and Andrill cores in the west and to DSDP cores in the distant East. This stratigraphy, and new fault interpretations, was developed using different resolutions of seismic reflection data included those available from the Seismic Data Library System. Depth conversion used a new 3D velocity model. A 29 Ma horizon is as deep as 8 km in the south, and a 19 Ma horizon is >5 km deep there and 4 km-deep 100 km farther north. There is a shallower northern part of Terror Rift misaligned with the southern basin across a 50 km right double bend. It is bounded by steep N-S faults down-dropping towards the basin axis. Between Cape Roberts and Ross Island, the Oligocene section is also progressively-tilted. This Oligocene section is not imaged within northern Terror Rift, but the simplest hypothesis is that some of the Terror Rift-bounding faults were active at least during Oligocene through Quaternary time. Many faults are normal separation, but some are locally vertical or even reverse-separation in the upper couple of km. However, much of the vertical relief of the strata is due to progressive tilting (horizontal axis rotation) and not by shallow faulting. Along the trend of the basin, the relief alternates between tilting and faulting, with a tilting margin facing a faulted margin across the Rift, forming asymmetric basins. Connecting faults across the basin form an accommodation zone similar to other oblique rifts. The Neogene basin is

  13. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas


    During the Neogene Europe's geodynamic history gave rise to several long-lived lakes with conspicuous endemic radiations. However, such lacustrine systems are rare today as well as in the past compared to the enormous numbers of "normal" lakes. Most extant European lakes are mainly results of the Ice Ages and are due to their (geologically) temporary nature largely confined to the Pleistocene-Holocene. As glacial lakes are also geographically restricted to glacial regions (and their catchment areas) their preservation potential is fairly low. Also deposits of streams, springs, and groundwater, which today are inhabited by species-rich gastropod assemblages, are rarely preserved. Thus, the pre-Quaternary lacustrine record is biased towards long-lived systems, such as the Late Miocene Lake Pannon, the Early to Middle Miocene Dinaride Lake System, the Middle Miocene Lake Steinheim and several others. All these systems have been studied for more than 150 years concerning their mollusk inventories and the taxonomic literature is formidable. However, apart from few general overviews precise studies on the γ-diversities of the post-Oligocene European lake systems and the shifting biodiversity in European freshwater systems through space and time are entirely missing. Even for the modern faunas, literature on large-scale freshwater gastropod diversity in extant lakes is scarce and lacks a statistical approach. Our preliminary data suggest fundamental differences between modern and pre-Pleistocene freshwater biogeography in central Europe. A rather homogenous central European Pleistocene and Holocene lake fauna is contrasted by considerable provincialism during the early Middle Miocene. Aside from the ancient Dessaretes lakes of the Balkan Peninsula, Holocene lake faunas are dominated by planorbids and lymnaeids in species numbers. This composition differs considerably from many Miocene and Pliocene lake faunas, which comprise pyrgulid-, hydrobiid-, viviparid-, melanopsid

  14. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa.

    Uno, Kevin T; Polissar, Pratigya J; Jackson, Kevin E; deMenocal, Peter B


    The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa. Carbon isotope ratios from terrestrial plant wax biomarkers deposited in marine sediments indicate constant C3 vegetation from ∼24 Ma to 10 Ma, when C4 grasses first appeared. From this time forward, C4 vegetation increases monotonically to present, with a coherent signal between marine core sites located in the Somali Basin and the Red Sea. The response of mammalian herbivores to the appearance of C4 grasses at 10 Ma is immediate, as evidenced from existing records of mammalian diets from isotopic analyses of tooth enamel. The expansion of C4 vegetation in eastern Africa is broadly mirrored by increasing proportions of C4-based foods in hominin diets, beginning at 3.8 Ma in Australopithecus and, slightly later, Kenyanthropus This continues into the late Pleistocene in Paranthropus, whereas Homo maintains a flexible diet. The biomarker vegetation record suggests the increase in open, C4 grassland ecosystems over the last 10 Ma may have operated as a selection pressure for traits and behaviors in Homo such as bipedalism, flexible diets, and complex social structure.

  15. Evolution of Chinese Neogene Rhinocerotidae and Its Response to Climatic Variations


    Chinese Neogene Rhinocerotidae has quite a complete record and its temporal range is the Early Miocene to Late Pliocene. The samples include 25 species in 4 tribes of 2 subfamilies. They are used as a foundation for the study of the evolution of the family and its relation to climatic changes. Taxonomic diversity, new records and extinctions are estimated for each Chinese Neogene mammal faunal unit (NMU). The diversity of Chinese Rhinocerotidae varies noticeably throughout the Neogene and is recognized within five stages: the Middle Miocene and Late Miocene are stages of high diversity and the Early Miocene, early Late Miocene and Pliocene are stages of low diversity. Rhinocerotid diversity and morphology are closely related to environmental factors and particularly sensitive to changes in ambient temperature and humidity. The interpretation of climatic variation reflected in the evolution of Rhinocerotidae corresponds precisely with the conclusions drawn from other workers and provides new evidence for research on the Neogene terrestrial ecosystem in China.

  16. Effect of the Ordovician paleogeography on the (instability of the climate

    A. Pohl


    Full Text Available The Ordovician Period (485–443 Ma is characterized by abundant evidence for continental-sized ice sheets. Modeling studies published so far require a sharp CO2 drawdown to initiate this glaciation. They mostly used non-dynamic slab mixed-layer ocean models. Here, we use a general circulation model with coupled components for ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice to examine the response of Ordovician climate to changes in CO2 and paleogeography. We conduct experiments for a wide range of CO2 (from 16 to 2 times the preindustrial atmospheric CO2 level (PAL and for two continental configurations (at 470 and at 450 Ma mimicking the Middle and the Late Ordovician conditions. We find that the temperature-CO2 relationship is highly non-linear when ocean dynamics are taken into account. Two climatic modes are simulated as radiative forcing decreases. For high CO2 concentrations (≥ 12 PAL at 470 Ma and ≥ 8 PAL at 450 Ma, a relative hot climate with no sea ice characterizes the warm mode. When CO2 is decreased to 8 PAL and 6 PAL at 470 and 450 Ma, a tipping point is crossed and climate abruptly enters a runaway icehouse leading to a cold mode marked by the extension of the sea ice cover down to the mid-latitudes. At 450 Ma, the transition from the warm to the cold mode is reached for a decrease in atmospheric CO2 from 8 to 6 PAL and induces a ~9 °C global cooling. We show that the tipping point is due to the existence of a 95% oceanic Northern Hemisphere, which in turn induces a minimum in oceanic heat transport located around 40° N. The latter allows sea ice to stabilize at these latitudes, explaining the potential existence of the warm and of the cold climatic modes. This major climatic instability potentially brings a new explanation to the sudden Late Ordovician Hirnantian glacial pulse that does not require any large CO2 drawdown.

  17. Paleogeography and Depositional Systems of Cretaceous-Oligocene Strata: Eastern Precordillera, Argentina

    Reat, Ellen J.; Fosdick, Julie C.


    New data from the Argentine Precordillera in the southern Central Andes document changes in depositional environment and sediment accumulation rates during Upper Cretaceous through Oligocene basin evolution, prior to the onset Miocene foredeep sedimentation. This work presents new sedimentology, detrital geochronology, and geologic mapping from a series of continental strata within this interval to resolve the timing of sedimentation, nature of depositional environments, and basin paleogeography at the nascent phase of Andean orogenic events, prior to the uplift and deformation of the Precordillera to the west. Five stratigraphic sections were measured across both limbs of the Huaco Anticline, detailing sedimentology of the terrestrial siliciclastic upper Patquía, Ciénaga del Río Huaco (CRH), Puesto la Flecha, Vallecito, and lower Cerro Morado formations. Paleocurrent data indicate a flow direction change from predominantly NE-SW in the upper Patquía and the lower CRH to SW-NE directed flow in the upper CRH, consistent with a large meandering river system and a potential rise in topography towards the west. This interpretation is further supported by pebble lag intervals and 1-3 meter scale trough cross-bedding in the CRH. The thinly laminated gypsum deposits and siltstones of the younger Puesto la Flecha Formation indicate an upsection transition into overbank and lacustrine sedimentation during semi-arid climatic conditions, before the onset of aeolian dune formation. New maximum depositional age results from detrital zircon U-Pb analysis indicate that the Puesto la Flecha Formation spans ~57 Myr (~92 to ~35 Ma) across a ~48 m thick interval without evidence for major erosion, indicating very low sedimentation rates. This time interval may represent distal foredeep or forebulge migration resultant from western lithospheric loading due to the onset of Andean deformation at this latitude. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra also indicate shifts in sediment routing

  18. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.


    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  19. Neogene biostratigraphy and paleoenvironments of Enewetak Atoll, equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Cronin, T. M.; Bybell, L.M.; Brouwers, E.M.; Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.; Poore, R.Z.


    Micropaleontologic analyses of Neogene sediments from Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, provide data on the age of lagoonal deposits, stratigraphic disconformities and the paleoenvironmental and subsidence history of the atoll. Benthic foraminifers, planktic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils and ostracodes were studied from six boreholes, the deepest penetrating 1605 feet below the lagoon floor into upper Oligocene strata. The Oligocene-Miocene boundary occurs at about 1200 ft below the lagoon floor. The early and middle Miocene is characterized by brief periods of deposition and numerous hiatuses. Ostracodes and benthic foraminifers indicate a shallow-marine reefal environment with occasional brackish water conditions. Upper Miocene and lower Pliocene deposits placed in calcareous nannofossil Zones NN9-15 and in planktic foraminifer Zones N16-19 contain species-rich benthic microfaunas which indicate alternating reefal and brackish water mangrove environments. The upper Pliocene contains at least two major depositional hiatuses that coincide with a major faunal turnover in benthic foraminiferal and ostracode assemblages. The Quaternary is characterized by benthic microfaunas similar to those of modern atoll lagoons and is punctuated by at least 11 disconformities which signify periods of low sea level. Atoll subsidence rates during the last 10 Ma averaged 30 to 40 m/m.y. ?? 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Palaeohydrological Shift during Neogene East Antarctic Ice Sheet Retreat

    Rees-Owen, R. L.; Newton, R.; Ivanovic, R. F.; Francis, J.; Tindall, J. C.; Riding, J. B.


    The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is an important driver of global climate, playing a particular role in governing albedo and atmospheric circulation (eg. Singh et al., 2013). Recent evidence from marine sediment and terrestrial glaciovolcanic sequences suggests that the EAIS underwent periodic retreat and collapse in response to warmer climates during the late Neogene (14 to 3 million years ago). Mummified prostrate trees recovered from palaeosols at Oliver Bluffs in the Beardmore Glacier region, Transantarctic Mountains (85° S), represent a rare insight into the terrestrial palaeoclimate during one of these periods of retreat. Prostrate trees are an understudied but useful tool for interrogating endmember (e.g. periglacial) environments at high altitudes and latitudes. We present exciting new palaeoclimate data from the sequence at Oliver Bluffs. δ18O analysis of tree ring cellulose suggests that Antarctic summer palaeoprecipitation was enriched relative to today (-25 to -5‰ for ancient, -35 to -20‰ for modern); consistent with our isotope-enabled general circulation model simulations. The MBT/CBT palaeothermometer gives a summer temperature of 3-6ºC, consistent with other palaeobotanical climate indices. These geological and model data have wide-ranging implications for our understanding of the hydrological cycle during this time period. We present data suggesting that changes in moisture recycling and source region indicate a markedly different hydrological cycle.

  1. CPAFFC Delegation Visits New Zealand

    Xu; Fenghua


    In early December 2015,a CPAFFC delegation,with representatives from six departments,visited New Zealand at the host’s invitation.Members conducted work exchanges with the New Zealand-China Maori Friendship Trust and held talks with the

  2. Management Development in New Zealand

    Ruth, Damian


    Purpose: To give an overview of prevalent views on and practices in management development in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Employs a questionnaire, mainly Likert-scale, to interview human resource managers and line managers in 86 companies in New Zealand. The research model and instrumentation is based on existing research on…

  3. The New Zealand Geological Timescale

    Felix M. Gradstein


    @@ The editor and coordinator of this new 284 pages study on the New Zealand Geological Timescale, Roger A. Cooper, and his team of 22 New Zealand and foreign experts are to be complimented for their achievement in creating this comprehensive regional time scale monograph.

  4. Himalaya evolution at Paleogene-Neogene boundary unraveled by zircon age spectrum from Arabian Sea Sediments

    Feng, Han; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi


    Although virtually all the intensive orogenic activities of Himalaya occurred in Neogene, the tectonic evolution of this high mountain range in Paleogene is poorly understood. Investigations of tectonic change pattern at Paleogene-Neogene boundary are important to better understand the interaction between mountain building and climate evolution. Here we present new U-Pb ages of zircon grains from Indus Fan sediments to constrain the orogenic history of Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary. 11 samples between late Oligocene and early Miocene from ODP 117 cores are dated by the zircon U-Pb technique. We calculate relative contributions of potential sources by counting zircon grains for each sample, and the quantized results indicate Himalaya contributed sediments to the coring site, and an extremely high input from Great and Tethyan Himalaya during late Oligocene-early Miocene. Four samples in Pleistocene are also dated for comparison, which indicates that high proportion of Lesser Himalaya has contributed to the sediment in Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the high contribution of Great and Tethyan Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary might correlate with the beginning of activity of MCT and extension of STD with leucogranite intrusion along Himalaya, which give rise to the extensive Great Himalaya exhumation. Our study demonstrates that zircon U-Pb dating technique is a good tool to reconstruct erosional history of mountain building on a tectonic timescale. Key words: ODP, Himalaya, Indus Fan, zircon U-Pb dating, Paleogene-Neogene boundary

  5. Stratigraphic records of paleogeography and global change from two late Proterozoic basins

    Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.

    As sediments and volcanic deposits accumulate on Earth's surface, they record information about Earth's climate, the motion of continents, and the evolution of the biosphere. Through the study of ancient stratigraphic sequences, we can gain a window into our planet's varied, and sometimes tumultuous, past. In this dissertation, I employ a combination of field observations, magnetic data, and chemostratigraphic data in the Keweenawan Mid-continent Rift of North America and the Amadeus Basin of Central Australia to study the paleogeography and paleoclimate during and after the transition between the Mesoproterozoic (1.7 to 1.0 billion-years ago) and Neoproterozoic Eras (1.0 to 0.54 billion-years ago). The supercontinent Rodinia formed at the boundary between the Eras and broke apart throughout the Neoproterozoic. Basins that developed as Rodinia rifted apart record large changes in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulfur, the waxing and waning of low-latitude ice sheets, and the progressive oxygenation of the atmosphere that facilitated the evolution of animals. I report high-resolution paleomagnetic data in stratigraphic context from Mamainse Point, Ontario---the most complete succession in the 1.1 billion-year-old Mid-continent Rift. The results demonstrate that previous suggestions of large non-dipolar geomagnetic field components at the time stemmed from low temporal resolution across geomagnetic reversals during a period of rapid plate motion. This result strengthens the framework for evaluating records of tectonics and climate across the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic boundary. Rock magnetic experiments on Mamainse Point lavas, paired with electron microscopy, demonstrate that a component of the magnetization in oxidized flows that is antiparallel to the characteristic remanence is a result of martite self-reversal. This component is the best resolved natural example of the experimentally observed self-reversal that accompanies the maghemite to hematite

  6. 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Island, New Zealand earthquake occurred as part of the aftershock sequence of the M 7.0 September 3, 2010 Darfield, NZ earthquake. It involved...

  7. Andean uplift and Neogene climate change in the Atacama Desert

    Rech, J. A.; Currie, B. S.; Jordan, T. E.


    Today the Andean Cordillera and Altiplano provide a major obstacle to atmospheric circulation over South America. The Altiplano Plateau prevents moist air masses from the Amazon Basin from reaching the Atacama Desert, causing the Atacama to be one of the driest places on Earth. Although Neogene sedimentary records from the western flank of the Andes should record the dramatic shift to hyperaridity that resulted from the growth of the Altiplano Plateau, the climatic implications of many sedimentary sequences have been difficult to decipher. The causes of the difficulties are complex, such as the relative influences of tectonics and active volcanism versus climate, and the roles of local as well as regional precipitation on groundwater and on the deposition of paludal sediments in basin centers. Over the last few years our research group has focused on using paleosols and the isotopic composition of palustrine carbonates in the Calama Basin (22°S) to try to identify a local precipitation signal and determine the onset of extreme hyperaridity as a consequence of the growth of the Altiplano. We have determined the soil morphological characteristics, salt chemistry, and mass independent fractionation anomalies (Δ17O values) in dated paleosols to reconstruct a Middle Miocene climatic transition from semi-aridity to extreme hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert. Paleosols along the southeastern margin of the Calama Basin change from calcic Vertisols with root traces, slickensides, and gleyed horizons to an extremely mature salic Gypsisol with pedogenic nitrate. We interpret this transition, which occurred between 19 and 13 Ma, to represent a change in precipitation from >200 mm/yr to Calama Basin also show a marked change during this time period. δ13C values of palustrine carbonates increase from -7 to +7? VPDB and δ18O values increases from -7 to +1? VPDB over the late to Middle Miocene time. This major trend towards more positive values is likely the result of several

  8. Post-Neogene tectonism along the Aravalli Range, Rajasthan, India

    Sen, Deepawati; Sen, Saurindranath


    The Aravalli Range runs southwest from Delhi for a distance of about 700 km. Its western margin is well defined, but the eastern margin is diffuse. Five geomorphic provinces are recognized in the study area: the western piedmont plains; the ridge and valley province which in the Central Aravallis occurs at two different heights separated by a fault scarp; the plateau province demarcated from the former by a fault scarp, confined to the Southern Aravallis, and occurring for a short stretch at two heights across another fault scarp; the BGC rolling plains east of the Range; and the BGC uplands south of the above. The scarps coincide with Precambrian faults. A series of rapids and water-falls, together with deeply entrenched river courses across the scarps and the youthful aspects of the escarpments with no projecting spurs, or straight river courses along their feet, all point unmistakably to a recent or post-Neogene vertical uplift along pre-existing faults. Presence of knickpoints at a constant distance from the Range in all west-flowing rivers, the ubiquitous terraces, and river courses entrenched within their own flood-plain deposits of thick gritty to conglomeratic sand, are indicative of a constant disturbance with a gradual rise of the Range east of the knickpoint, wherefrom the coarse materials were carried by the fast west-flowing streams. There is a differential uplift across the plateau scarp together with a right-lateral offset. This epeirogenic tectonism is ascribed to the collision of the Eurasian and the subducting Indian plates and to a locking of their continental crusts. By early Pleistocene, with the MBT gradually dying off, continued plate movement caused a flexural bending of the plate by a moment generated at the back, and a possible delinking of the continental crust along the zone of subduction. The felexural bending ripped open the Precambrian regional faults. The differential uplift and the difference in the distances of the nodes on two

  9. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise


    Ne is ubiquitous. The data require minimum average pebble transport times of 150 kyr. A similar distribution of cosmogenic Ne concentrations is present in quartzite pebbles from gravels from the Pliocene Broadwater Formation and Miocene Ogallala Formation gravels indicates that the rates of transport and pebble recycling on flood plain have not changed over the Neogene. [1] Margerison et al. (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 230, 163-175. [2] Codilean et al. (2008) Geology 36, 159-162.

  10. Permo-Carboniferous coal measures in the Qinshui basin: Lithofacies paleogeography and its control on coal accumulation

    SHAO Longyi; XIAO Zhenghui; LU Jing; HE Zhiping; WANG Hao; ZHANG Pengfei


    The Qinshui basin in southeastern Shanxi Province is an important base for coalbed methane explora-tion and production in China. The methane reservoirs in this basin are the Carboniferous and Permian coals. Their thick-ness is strongly controlled by the depositional environments and the paleogeography. In this paper, sedimentological research was undertaken on the outcrop and borehole sections of the Taiyuan and Shanxi formations in the Qinshui basin and the basin-wide lithofacies paleogeography maps for these two formations have been reconstructed. The Taiyuan Forma-tion is composed of limestones, alttrninous mudstones, silt-stones, silty mudstones, sandstones, and mineable coal seams,with a total thickness varying from 44.9 m to 193.48 m. The coal seams have a thickness ranging between 0.10 and 16.89 m, averaging 7.19 m. During the deposition of the Taiyuan Formation, the northern part of the basin was domi-nated by a lower deltaic depositional system, the central and southern parts were dominated by a lagoon environment, and the southeastern comer was occupied by a carbonate platform setting. Coal is relatively thick in the northern part and the southeastern corner. The Shanxi Formation consists of sand-stones, siltstones, mudstones, and coals, with the limestones being locally developed. The thickness of the Shanxi Forma-tion is from 18.6 m to 213.25 m, with the thickness of coal seams from 0.10 to 10 m and averaging 4.2 m. During the deposition of the Shanxi Formation, the northern part of the Qinshui basin was mainly dominated by a lower deltaic plain distributary channel environment, the central and southern parts were mainly an interdistributary bay environment, and the southeastern part was occupied by a delta front mouth bar environment. The thick coals are distributed in the central and southern parts where an interdistributary bay dominates. It is evident that the thick coal zones of the Taiyuan Formation are consistent with the sandstone-rich belts

  11. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.


    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed ta

  12. Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)

    Wijnker, E.; Bor, T.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Munsterman, D.K.; Brinkhuis, H.; Burger, A.W.; Vonhof, H.B.; Post, K.; Hoedemakers, K.; Janse, A.C.; Taverne, N.


    The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly understo

  13. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.


    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  14. The Late Neogene elephantoid-bearing faunas of Indonesia and their palaeozoogeographic implications

    Bergh, van den G.D.


    The stratigraphic framework of the Neogene fossil vertebrate bearing formations of the Indonesianislands Sulawesi and Flores is established and the sediments are dated by means of marinemicropalaeontological and/or palaeomagnetic methods. The results allow comparison of the faunaevolution on these i

  15. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Akhtar M.; Friis, Henrik

    Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene...

  16. Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Bor, T.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Munsterman, D.K.; Brinkhuis, H.; Burger, A.W.; Vonhof, H.B.; Post, K.; Hoedemakers, K.; Janse, A.C.; Taverne, N.


    The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly

  17. Extended stratigraphy, palynology and depositional environments record the initiation of the Himalayan Gyirong Basin (Neogene China)

    Xu, Y.; Zhang, K.; Wang, G.; Jiang, S.; Chen, F.; Xiang, S.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Hoorn, C.


    Here we report new sedimentological and paleontological data from a 603.5 m thick Neogene sequence (Woma section) in the Gyirong Basin, a basin induced by east-west extension in the Himalayas of southern Tibet. We document the conglomeratic Danzengzhukang Formation, at the base of the section, and

  18. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments of SW Uruguay

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Orgeira, M. J.; Sanchez, G.; Bertoni-Machado, C.; Farina, R.


    Preliminary results on the magnetostratigraphy of three Neogene formations from SW Uruguay are presented: Camacho, Raigón and Libertad, and a relative age from the record of reversions in the Earth's magnetic field polarity is proposed. The sediments outcrop in the SW region of Uruguay,and have been received attention due to their fossil contents. The oldest is the late Miocene-Pliocene Camacho Fm, of Huayquerian to Montehermosan affinities. A Pliocene-early Pleistocene age has been assigned to Raigón Fm, of Chapadmalalan affinities. The overlying Libertad Fm has been considered early-middle Pleistocene in age, and to have Marplatan-Ensenadan affinities. The lithology of this facies of Camacho Fm is identified by the presence of fine to very fine sandstones and is composed of silty-sandy and bioturbed silty deposits. The marine facies of this formation is rich in fossil content, as several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa are found. The upper Raigón Fm is formed by sandstones of varied grain size and includes lenses and levels of claystones and conglomerates. It shows the sedimentological features of a deep, pebble-rich braided fluvial system. The 383 vertebrate specimens found in the sandy facies and studied in a taphonomically-oriented study belong to 19 genera and 13 higher taxa. The bones are disarticulated, with smooth fractures and little weathered or abraded, which is congruent with a short time of contact, as observed in strong and sudden flows. The elements belong to the three Voorhies groups and fractured specimens are found along with well preserved materials, implying different taphonomical histories and reworking. The consequent inferred time averaging urges caution at using these remains for defining precise ages. The Libertad Fm, top of the sequence, is conformed by greenish clays, clayey fine sandstones, medium sized sandstones and conglomeratic levels, corresponding to deposits of continental origin under a semiarid climate, which allowed the

  19. Deepwater Ventilation and Stratification in the Neogene South China Sea


    cap buildup on northern high latitudes, a deepening sea basin due to stronger subduction eastward may also have triggered the influx of more corrosive waters from the deep western Pacific. Since 3 Ma, the evolution of the SCS deep water entered a modern phase, as characterized by relative stable 10% CaCO3 difference between the two sites and increase in infaunal benthic species which prefer a low oxygenated environment. The subsequent reduction of PBW and PDW marker species at about 1.2 Ma and 0.9 Ma and another significant negative excursion of benthic δ13C to a Neogene minimum at ~0.9 Ma together convey a clear message that the PBW largely disappeared and the PDW considerably weakened in the Mid-Pleistocene SCS. Therefore, the true modern mode SCS deep water started to form only during the "Mid-Pleistocene climatic transition" probably due to the rise of sill depths under the Bashi Strait.

  20. in New Zealand?

    Rhiannon Braund


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood poisoning is a significant international health concern. Very little is known about trends in exposures within schools and preschools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the data recorded by the New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NPC on these types of exposures over a 21 year period (1989 to 2009 and to determine trends and propose strategies to reduce the exposures. Methods: Call information regarding human poison exposure at preschools and schools from Jan1st 1989 to Dec 31st 2009 were extracted from the dataset held by the NPC. The number of calls received by the NPC relating to the exposures was plotted against year as totals and then categorized according to gender. The number of calls related to each substance type for each year, and the number of calls related to each age group for each year were quantified. Results: There were 3632 calls over this period. In every year studied, there were more calls relating to males than females. Household items were responsible for 31% of exposures, followed by plants (20%, industrial items (14% and therapeutic agents (14%. Almost one quarter of all exposures occurred in the 13 year old age group. Further investigation of this group, showed that the causes of exposures included “splash” incidents (27%, “pengestion” (pen breaking in mouth and releasing contents (16%, “exploratory” (5% and “prank” (4%. Conclusion: Identification of these areas allows recommendations to be made including feedback to teachers about exposure risks, storage and access of science, cleaning and art supplies.    

  1. Suicide in New Zealand

    Said Shahtahmasebi


    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  2. Reply to the comments on: ;From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis; [journal of South American earth sciences 70 (2016) 368-382] by Vesely & Schemiko

    Alessandretti, Luciano; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Assine, Mario Luis; Machado, Rômulo; Lana, Cristiano


    The publication of the comments by Vesely & Schemiko (Comment on ;From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis; by L. Alessandretti, R. Machado, L.V. Warren, M.L. Assine and C. Lana [Journal of South American Earth Sciences 70 (2016) 368-382], Journal of South American Earth Sciences, this issue) on our paper entitled ;From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis; (L. Alessandretti, R. Machado, L.V. Warren, M.L. Assine and C. Lana (Journal of South American Earth Sciences 70 (2016) 368-382) provides a worthy opportunity to further clarify our observations and interpretations regarding the provenance of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation and its implications on SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion.

  3. Predictive model of San Andreas fault system paleogeography, Late Cretaceous to early Miocene, derived from detailed multidisciplinary conglomerate correlations

    Burnham, Kathleen


    Paleogeographic reconstruction of the region of the San Andreas fault system in western California, USA, was hampered for more than two decades by the apparent incompatibility of authoritative lithologic correlations. These led to disparate estimates of dextral strike-slip offsets across the San Andreas fault, notably 315 km between Pinnacles and Neenach Volcanics, versus 563 km offset between Anchor Bay and Eagle Rest peak. Furthermore, one section of the San Andreas fault between Pinnacles and Point Reyes had been reported to have six pairs of features showing only ~ 30 km offset, while several younger features in that same area were reported consistent with ~ 315 km offset. Estimates of total dextral slip on the adjoining San Gregorio fault have ranged from 5 km to 185 km. Sixteen Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene conglomerates of the California Coast Ranges, from Anchor Bay to Simi Valley, were included in a multidisciplinary study centered on identification of matching unique clast varieties, rather than on simply counting general clast types. Detailed analysis verified the prior correlation of the Upper Cretaceous strata of Anchor Bay at Anchor Bay with a then-unnamed conglomerate at Highway 92 and Skyline Road (south of San Francisco); and verified that the Paleocene or Eocene Point Reyes Conglomerate at Point Reyes is a tectonically displaced segment of the Carmelo Formation of Point Lobos (near Monterey). The work also led to three new correlations: Point Reyes Conglomerate with granitic source rock at Point Lobos; a magnetic anomaly at Black Point (near Sea Ranch) with a magnetic anomaly near San Gregorio; and strata of Anchor Bay with previously established source rock, the potassium-poor Logan Gabbro of Eagle Rest peak, at a more recently recognized subsurface location just east of the San Gregorio fault, south of San Gregorio. From these correlations, a Late Cretaceous to early Oligocene paleogeography was constructed which was unique in utilizing modern

  4. New Zealand's first general anaesthetic.

    Newson, A J


    The administration of New Zealand's first general anaesthetic took place at the Colonial Gaol, Wellington, on the morning of Monday, September 27th, 1847. The agent used was sulphuric ether which was administered by Mr. Marriot, the manufacturer of the Herapath-type inhaler used on this occasion. The operation, a dental extraction, was performed by the Colonial Surgeon, Dr. J. P. Fitzgerald.

  5. Detrital zircon provenance and paleogeography implications for Furnas Formation in the northwest of Paraná Basin

    Thais Borba Santos


    Full Text Available In the northwest of the Paraná Basin, between the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás, there are exposures of the Furnas Formation, where the Transbrasiliano Lineament is also recognized. From the analysis of magnetic maps, the geological and geophysical framework of the study area was defined, with six main domains separated by 5 lineaments. The contact between Paraguay Belt and the Goiás Magmatic Arc is marked by the main direction of the Transbrasiliano Lineament in the study area. Other lineaments that occur associated with the deformation direction of the Paraguay Belt have been identified as a minor component of Transbrasiliano Lineament. The description of outcrops along the northwest border of the Paraná Basin allowed the recognition of units I, II and III of the Furnas Formation. The U-Pb data from detrital zircon from the Furnas Formation showed predominance of grain with Neoproterozoic ages (560 - 800 Ma, with a minimum age of 526 Ma, and the occurrence of grain with Paleoproterozoic (≈1750/2100 Ma and Archean (≈2700/2800/3100 Ma ages. The study of detrital zircons provenance of the Furnas Formation using U-Pb age determination, associated with the structural framework of the foundation of the basin, and the comparison with paleoenvironmental data were the basis for assessing the paleogeography of the northwestern portion of the Paraná Basin during the aggradation of the Furnas Formation. Ages indicate an important Neoproterozoic contribution similar to the ages of the rocks found in the Goias Magmatic Arc, which associated with data of paleocurrents towards northwest allow us to infer that the arc rocks constituted high terrain, oriented in the NE-SW direction.

  6. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R


    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Late Paleogene and Neogene rocks of the Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides: Tectonic implications

    Marović Milun


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on results of the paleomagnetic research conducted in the territory of Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides, within the following basinal domains: Babušnica-Koritnik (the Oligocene deposits, Žagubica (the upper part of the Lower Miocene and the lower part of the Middle Miocene deposits and Dacian (the Pontian deposits. The clockwise rotations are established for each basinal region: Babušnica-Koritnik 10°, Žagubica 5-10° and Dacia 5-20°. On the basis of these results and the available data on rotations in the Romanian Southern Carpathians, new tectonic implications are discussed as a contribution to understanding the genesis of the Paleogene-Neogene and Neogene fabric of the Carpatho-Balkanides in Serbia. It is shown that this region has been subjected not only to vertical, but also to horizontal mobility during the latest stage of its geological development.

  8. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America


    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The result...

  9. Neogene stratigraphy, foraminifera, diatoms, and depositional history of Maria Madre Island, Mexico: Evidence of early Neogene marine conditions in the southern Gulf of California

    McCloy, C.; Ingle, J.C.; Barron, J.A.


    Foraminifera and diatoms have been analyzed from an upper Miocene through Pleistocene(?) sequence of marine sediments exposed on Maria Madre Island, largest of the Tre??s Marias Islands off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The Neogene stratigraphic sequence exposed on Maria Madre Island includes a mid-Miocene(?) non-marine and/or shallow marine sandstone unconformably overlain by a lower upper Miocene to uppermost Miocene upper to middle bathyal laminated and massive diatomite, mudstone, and siltstone unit. This unit is unconformably overlain by lower Pliocene middle to lower bathyal sandstones and siltstones which, in turn, are unconformably overlain by upper Pliocene through Pleistocene(?) upper bathyal to upper middle bathyal foraminiferal limestones and siltstones. These beds are unconformably capped by Pleistocene terrace deposits. Basement rocks on the island include Cretaceous granite and granodiorite, and Tertiary(?) andesites and rhyolites. The upper Miocene diatomaceous unit contains a low diversity foraminiferal fauna dominated by species of Bolivina indicating low oxygen conditions in the proto-Gulf Maria Madre basin. The diatomaceous unit grades into a mudstone that contains a latest Miocene upper to middle bathyal biofacies characterized by Baggina californica and Uvigerina hootsi along with displaced neritic taxa. An angular unconformity separates the upper Miocene middle bathyal sediments from overlying lower Pliocene siltstones and mudstones that contain a middle to lower bathyal biofacies and abundant planktonic species including Neogloboquadrina acostaensis and Pulleniatina primalis indicating an early Pliocene age. Significantly, this Pliocene unit contains common occurrences of benthic species restricted to Miocene sediments in California including Bulimina uvigerinaformis. Pliocene to Pleistocene(?) foraminiferal limestones and siltstones characterize submarine bank accumulations formed during uplift of the Tre??s Marias Island area, and include

  10. The Baja California Borderland and the Neogene Evolution of the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary

    Fletcher, J. M.; Eakins, B. W.


    New observational data on Neogene faulting in the borderland of Baja California places important constraints on tectonic models for the evolution of the Pacific-North American (P-NA) plate boundary and rifting in the Gulf of California. Neogene faults in the borderland range from strike slip to normal slip and accommodate integrated transtension. Most have east-facing escarpments and likely reactivate the former east-dipping accretionary complex. Numerous lines of evidence indicate that Neogene faults are still active and accomplish a significant component ( ~1-5 mm/yr) of Pacific-North American shearing. Quaternary volcanoes are found offshore and along the Pacific coastal margin, Quaternary marine terraces are warped and uplifted as high as 200 masl. Many of the offshore faults have fresh escarpments and cut Holocene sediments. Extensive arrays of Quaternary fault scarps are found throughout the coastal region and in Bahia Magdalena they are clearly associated with major faults that bound recently uplifted islands. A prominent band of seismicity follows the coast and eight earthquakes (Ms>5.0) were teleseismically recorded between 1973 and 1998. This evidence for active shearing indicates that the Baja microplate has not yet been completely transferred to the Pacific plate. The best lithologic correlation that can be used to define the total Neogene slip across the borderland faults is the offset between the Magdalena submarine fan and its Baja source terrane. The distal facies of the fan drilled during DSDP leg 63 is dominated by mudstone and siltstone that contain reworked Paleogene cocoliths derived from strata correlative with the Tepetate formation found throughout the borderland and fine-grained sandstone derived from a source terrane of granitoid basement. The Middle Miocene La Calera formation of the Cabo trough is one of many granitoid-clast syn-rift alluvial deposits that could form the continental counterpart of the submarine fan near the mouth of the

  11. Timing and sources of neogene and quaternary volcanism in South-Central Guatemala

    Reynolds, James H.


    Five new and six existing radiometric age dates place constraints on the timing of volcanic episodes in a 1400-km 2 area east of Guatemala City. The source of the voluminous Miocene rhyolitic welded tuffs was the newly discovered Santa Rosa de Lima caldera, in the northern part of the area, not fissure eruptions as was previously believed. Resurgence during the Pliocene included the eruption of more silicic tuffs, followed by post-collapse volcanism around the perimeter. Volcanism in the southern part of the area occurred along the Neogene volcanic front. The sources for these Late Miocene and Pliocene andesitic lavas were not fissure eruptions, as was once believed, but were four large volcanic centers, Cerro Pinula, Ixhuatán, Teanzul, and Cerro La Gabia. The Santa Rosa de Lima caldera structure deflects the Jalpatagua Fault forming tensional fractures along which eruptions in the Quaternary Cuilapa-Barbarena cinder cone field took place. Pleistocene ash flows were erupted from Ixhuatán and Tecuamburro volcanoes in the southern part of the area. Tephras from Ayarza, Amatitlán, and Atitlán blanket the northern and central portions. Present-day activity is restricted to hot springs around the northern and eastern base of Tecuamburro volcano. Based on the work in this area it is proposed that rocks of the Miocene Chalatenango Formation throughout northern Central America were erupted from calderas behind the Neogene volcanic front. Rocks of the Mio-Pliocene Bálsamo Formation in Guatemala and El Salvador were erupted from discrete volcanic centers along the Neogene volcanic front. Pliocene rocks of the Cuscatlán Formation probably represent post-collapse volcanism around earlier caldera structures.

  12. Paleoatmospheric signatures in Neogene fossil leaves; Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Lab. of Paleobotany and Palynology

    Burgh, J. van der; Visscher, H.; Dilcher, D.L.; Kuerschner, W.M.


    An increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) concentration results in a decrease in the number of leaf stomata. This relation is known both from historical observations of vegetation over the past 200 years and from experimental manipulations of microenvironments. Evidence from stomatal frequencies of fossil [ital Quercus petraea] leaves indicates that this relation can be applied as a bioindicator for changes in paleoatmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations during the last 10 million years. The data suggest that late Neogene CO[sub 2] concentrations fluctuated between about 280 and 370 parts per million by volume. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A


    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  14. Late Permian topography at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin: Paleogeography inferred from 3D seismic analysis

    Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Rasmussen, Jens A.


    , the dipping of the strata which are exposed in the hills, and the similar seismic signature of the strata exposed in the hills indicate that the hills are remnants of a footwall high which is progressively eroded from the north. The ridges are associated with minor faults offsetting the TPZ surface, but more importantly the internal reflections within the ridges resemble those of Zechstein carbonate reefs observed in the southern Permian Basin. The lateral distribution of the Zechstein facies and the adjacent land topography show that the topography at the TPZ surface was generated before and during the Zechstein due to faulting and relative uplift of footwalls. The footwall crests of minor faults constituted when flooded, areas with lesser water depth and consequently display different sediment facies. The study thus demonstrates a unique and detailed insight into the TPZ paleogeography which has significant implications for the understanding of the geological development in the eastern North Sea Basin, and may be of importance during the evaluation of the future hydrocarbon potential of the eastern North Sea Basin.

  15. Rainfall erosivity in New Zealand

    Klik, Andreas; Haas, Kathrin; Dvorackova, Anna; Fuller, Ian


    Rainfall and its kinetic energy expressed by the rainfall erosivity is the main driver of soil erosion processes by water. The Rainfall-Runoff Erosivity Factor (R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation is one oft he most widely used parameters describing rainfall erosivity. This factor includes the cumulative effects of the many moderate-sized storms as well as the effects oft he occasional severe ones: R quantifies the effect of raindrop impact and reflects the amopunt and rate of runoff associated with the rain. New Zealand is geologically young and not comparable with any other country in the world. Inordinately high rainfall and strong prevailing winds are New Zealand's dominant climatic features. Annual rainfall up to 15000 mm, steep slopes, small catchments and earthquakes are the perfect basis for a high rate of natural and accelerated erosion. Due to the multifacted landscape of New Zealand its location as island between the Pacific and the Tasmanian Sea there is a high gradient in precipitation between North and South Island as well as between West and East Coast. The objective of this study was to determine the R-factor for the different climatic regions in New Zealand, in order to create a rainfall erosivity map. We used rainfall data (breakpoint data in 10-min intervals) from 34 gauging stations for the calcuation of the rainfall erosivity. 15 stations were located on the North Island and 19 stations on the South Island. From these stations, a total of 397 station years with 12710 rainstorms were analyzed. The kinetic energy for each rainfall event was calculated based on the equation by Brown and Foster (1987), using the breakpoint precipitation data for each storm. On average, a mean annual precipitation of 1357 mm was obtained from the 15 observed stations on the North Island. Rainfall distribution throughout the year is relatively even with 22-24% of annual rainfall occurring in spring , fall and winter and 31% in summer. On the South Island

  16. Seismic reflection survey at Llancanelo region (Mendoza, Argentina) and preliminary interpretation of Neogene stratigraphic features

    Osella, A.; Onnis, L.; de la Vega, M.; Tassone, A.; Violante, R. A.; Lippai, H.; López, E.; Rovere, E. I.


    A shallow multichannel seismic survey reaching depths of 700/800 m was performed for the first time in the Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza Province, Argentina), in order to depict the major Neogene sedimentary-volcanic sequences that form the final infilling of the tectonic-volcanic basin where the lake is located. The seismic survey advances on the results of previous geoelectric and electromagnetic surveys carried out at early stages of the research that reached the uppermost 80-100 m of the sequences (Quaternary), and therefore they go deeper in the subsoil. All the surveys were supported by surface and subsoil geological observations. After explaining the details of the performed seismic methodology, the obtained results are discussed, which indicate the presence of three major sedimentary units with increasing volcanic (basaltic layers) intercalations with depth, that accommodate to the geometry of the depocenter. The entire sequence encompasses most of the Neogene. This research sets the methodological basis for future, more detailed shallow seismic surveys in the region.

  17. High-resolution sedimentological and subsidence analysis of the Late Neogene, Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Juhasz, E.; Muller, P.; Toth-Makk, A.; Hamor, T.; Farkas-Bulla, J.; Suto-Szentai, M.; Phillips, R.L.; Ricketts, B.


    Detailed sedimentological and paleontological analyses were carried out on more than 13,000 m of core from ten boreholes in the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. These data provide the basis for determining the character of high-order depositional cycles and their stacking patterns. In the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin there are two third-order sequences: the Late Miocene and the Pliocene ones. The Miocene sequence shows a regressive, upward-coarsening trend. There are four distinguishable sedimentary units in this sequence: the basal transgressive, the lower aggradational, the progradational and the upper aggradational units. The Pliocene sequence is also of aggradational character. The progradation does not coincide in time in the wells within the basin. The character of the relative water-level curves is similar throughout the basin but shows only very faint similarity to the sea-level curve. Therefore, it is unlikely that eustasy played any significant role in the pattern of basin filling. Rather, the dominant controls were the rapidly changing basin subsidence and high sedimentation rates, together with possible climatic factors.

  18. Record of C4 Photosynthesis Through the Late Neogene and Pleistocene

    Cerling, T. E.


    C4 photosynthesis is an adaptation to the low atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations experienced in the Neogene; it is found principally in tropical to sub-tropical/temperate regions where temperatures are high in the growing season. Although C4 photosynthesis makes up about 50% of Net Primary Productivity in tropical regions, its macroscopic fossil record is extremely sparse. Therefore, inferences to its significance in local ecosystems are based primarily on stable isotopes, with phytoliths become more important as phytolith morphology becomes better associated with plant structure and classification. Stable isotopes have been the principal recorder for understanding the history of C4 photosynthesis; however, different materials record different aspects of the C4 contribution to ecosystem structure and thus are telling different parts of the same story. With the fossil record so poorly known, we often assume similar ecosystem structures and functions as we observe in modern analogues. It is likely that large evolutionary changes have taken place within C4 plants as they went from 50% tropical NPP in the late Neogene.


    Gabrijela Pecimotika


    Full Text Available By applying a palynological analysis of the Late Neogene sediments from one exploration well in the area of Eastern Slavonia, three vegetation zones (Z1, Z2, Z3 as conditioned by climate sensitivity were set. On the basis of mutual percentage relations of the occurrence of individual form-species and grouping them according to the results of cluster analysis, these zones reflect the changes of warm-cold and variable humidity periods. The age of zones has been determined: zone Z1 is Pontian, zone Z2 is Pliocene and zone Z3 is Pleistocene-Holocene. In the Pontian, 13 form-species of spores were determined that do not cross the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. In the Pliocene, 4 index form-species of spores were determined that were not found in the Quaternary in the study area. In the youngest sediments of the study area, i.e. Pleistocene and Holocene, 7 index form-species of spores were determined. Together with well logging (gamma ray and specific resistivity logs of the formation, a model was constructed for the local routine provision of age in the study area. The results are generally consistent with other results obtained from Early Neogene sediments in adjacent areas in the central part of Paratethys, and may serve as a model for the correlation of contemporaneous sediments in other areas of Croatia, e.g. Sava and Drava Depressions , which in effect may contribute to the more efficient investigation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  20. Uplift and volcanism of the SE Colombian Andes in relation to Neogene sedimentation in the Upper Magdalena Valley.

    Wiel, van der A.M.


    The present study deals with the relation between Neogene uplift and volcanism of the SE Colombian Andes and sedimentation processes in the Upper Magdalena Valley. The southernmost part of the Upper Magdalena Valley, the S. Neiva Basin, is located between latitudes 2°08'-2°31 N and longitudes 75°22'

  1. Contrasting neogene denudation histories of different structural regions in the transantarctic mountains rift flank constrained by cosmogenic isotope measurements

    Wateren, F.M. van der; Dunai, T.J.; Balen, R.T. van; Klas, W.; Verbers, A.L.L.M.; Passchier, S.; Herpers, U.


    Separate regions within the Transantarctic Mountains, the uplifted flank of the West Antarctic rift system, appear to have distinct Neogene histories of glaciation and valley downcutting. Incision of deep glacial outlet valleys occurred at different times throughout central and northern Victoria Lan

  2. Fault-gouge dating in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Ring, Uwe; Uysal, I. Tonguc; Glodny, Johannes; Cox, Simon C.; Little, Tim; Thomson, Stuart N.; Stübner, Konstanze; Bozkaya, Ömer


    We report two 40Ar/39Ar illite ages from fault gouge directly above the current trace of the Alpine Fault in New Zealand at Gaunt Creek (1.36 ± 0.27 Ma) and Harold Creek (1.18 ± 0.47 Ma), and one 40Ar/39Ar illite age from fault gouge from the Two Thumbs Fault on the east side of the Southern Alps. Metamorphic muscovite clasts inherited into the Alpine Fault gouge yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 2.04 ± 0.3 Ma at Gaunt Creek and 11.46 ± 0.47 Ma at Harold Creek. We also report Rb-Sr muscovite-based multimineral ages of Alpine Schist mylonite adjacent to the dated fault gouge at Harold Creek (13.1 ± 4.3 Ma) and Gaunt Creek (8.9 ± 3.2 Ma). 40Ar/39Ar muscovite ages from the Gaunt Creek mylonite yielded plateau ages of 1.47 ± 0.08 Ma and 1.57 ± 0.15 Ma. Finally, we report zircon fission track (0.79 ± 0.11 and 0.81 ± 0.17 Ma) and zircon (U-Th)/He ages (0.35 ± 0.03 and 0.4 ± 0.06 Ma) from Harold Creek. We interpret the fault gouge ages to date growth of newly formed illite during gouge formation at temperatures of 300-350 °C towards the base of the seismogenic zone. Simple backcalculation using current uplift/exhumation and convergence rates, and dip angles of 45-60° at the Alpine Fault support that interpretation. We infer that the fault gouge ages record faulting and gouge formation as the rocks passed very rapidly through the brittle-ductile transition zone on their way to the surface. Rb-Sr and 40Ar/39Ar ages on muscovite from Alpine Schist mylonite date muscovite growth at 11 Ma together with a younger phase of cooling/shearing at 1.5-2 Ma. Our ages from the Alpine Schist indicate extremely rapid cooling exceeding 200 °C/Ma. The fault gouge age from the Two Thumbs Fault is significantly too old to have formed as part of the late Neogene/Quaternary Southern Alps evolution.

  3. Notified viral hepatitis in New Zealand.

    McGlashan, N


    Statistical analysis of notified cases of viral hepatits in New Zealand for an 18-month period is used first to demonstrate and then to consider a geographical gradient across the country with implications warranting further epidemiologic enquiry.

  4. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Farmer, R S


    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  5. Maori and English: New Zealand's Bilingual Problem.

    Adcock, C. John


    Attempts to consider all of the relevant aspects of the role of the Maori culture and language in developing New Zealand's language policy. Those aspects considered include national identity, cultural bias, and international communication needs. (Author/CB)

  6. Variations in sea surface temperature reconstructed by algal biomarker thermometry in the Neogene equatorial Pacific sediments

    Sawada, K.; Nakamura, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, M.


    The eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean today sustains significant amounts of global marine productivity, and the region is one of the largest marine sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, geological time-scale variations of marine environment and ecological / biogeochemical systems in the equatorial Pacific have been still unclear. In this study, we reconstruct the variations of sea surface temperature (SST) by long chain alkenone and the newest long-chain diol thermometers from the equatorial Pacific sediments, and discuss fluctuations in paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic systems in this region during the Neogene. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 320/321 (Pacific Equatorial Age Transect; PEAT) recovered a Cenozoic sediment record from the equatorial Pacific by coring above the palaeoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. We used a core U1337 in the present study. We identify C37 - C38 alkenones as well as saturated C28 and C30 1,13-diols, C28 and C30 1,14-diols, and C30 1,15-diol from almost all the Neogene sediments (23 - 0.23 Ma) in a core U1337. This indicates that diatom, haptophyte and eustigmatophyte algal productions were consistently significant in the equatorial Pacific throughout the Neogene. The UK'37 values were converted to temperatures by using the calibrations reported by Prahl et al. (1988) and Kienast et al. (2012). The alkenone-based SSTs in a core U1337 were nearly constant over the past 25 Ma, ranging from 26 to 28 C, although there were two much lower spikes of 15 - 20 C in 13.2 - 12.5 Ma and 6 Ma. The Long chain Diol Index (LDI; Rampen et al., 2012) values were converted to SSTs by using the calibrations reported by Rampen et al. (2012) and Sawada et al. (unpublished data). The LDI values were estimated to be 7 - 30 C and 12 - 27 C by the Rampen et al. and Sawada et al. calibrations, respectively. The decreasing spikes of SSTs in U1337 core are observed in the horizons of 12.5Ma, 11Ma

  7. New finds of lacertids (Sauria, Lacertidae from the Neogene of Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Peter Joniak


    Full Text Available In the present paper, first finds of fossil lacertids from the Neogene of Slovakia and new finds from Czech Republic are described. The material comes from three localities: Merkur - North (Czech Republic, Early Miocene, Borský Svätý Jur (Slovakia, Late Miocene and Ivanovce (Slovakia, Early Pliocene, and consists of several isolated dentaries, maxillae and one vertebra. According to the morphology, the find of dentary from the Ivanovce locality can be attributed to Lacerta cf. agilis. Except one vertebra, the rest of the material can be assigned to Lacerta sp. The fragment of the anterior portion of the dentary from the Upper Miocene sediments of Borský Svätý Jur represents the oldest known occurrence of this taxon in Slovakia. Thus, the material enhances our rather poor knowledge of the paleoherpetofauna from the Slovakian territory.

  8. ESR dating of quartz extracted from quaternary and neogene sediments: method, potential and actual limits

    Laurent, M.; Falguères, C.; Bahain, J. J.; Rousseau, L.; Van Vliet Lanoé, B.

    ESR dating of fluvial, fluvio-marine and beach sediment has been tested using the Al centre in quartz grains from a basin and fossil beaches located around the Manche Channel. Dating was performed in conjunction with sedimentological, stratigraphical and neotectonical studies. The technical basis of the method is presented in the light of the study made on recent and fossil sediment in order to establish a procedure for the determination of the palaeodose. The application on a Neogene Basin samples allows to push back the dating ESR limits. Results show that ESR dating of sediment can provide chronozons which are necessary to the uderstanding of the history of a basin where classical chronological markers do not exist.

  9. A Neogene structural dome in the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    Mortimer, N.; Coleman, R. G.


    Regional structural doming of Neogene age has affected rocks of the Klamath and Cascade mountains near the California-Oregon border. Evidence for this is seen in (1) subannular outcrop patterns of pre-Cretaceous lithotectonic units, (2) a crude pattern of radially oriented high-angle faults, (3) tilted Jurassic plutons, (4) tilted Cretaceous to Miocene strata, and (5) various geomorphological features. The age of doming is constrained by a major middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene angular unconformity within the Cascade Mountains and uplifted upper Miocene marine beds on the western edge of the Klamath Mountains. Uplift and doming may be the result of shortening in the Cascade fore-arc region or, more speculatively, the recent accretion of subducted material to the North American plate beneath the Klamath Mountains. *Present addresses: Mortimer, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada; Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025

  10. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  11. A closer look at the Neogene erosion and accumulation rate increase

    Willenbring, J.; von Blanckenburg, F.


    Glacial erosion and Quaternary cold-stage warm-stage climate cycling have been cited as mechanisms to explain observations of increased Neogene marine sedimentation rates. Quantification of long-term glacial erosion rates from cosmogenic radionuclides from large areas mostly covered by cold-based ice during the Quaternary show very low erosion rates over several glacial cycles. In addition, isotope ratio proxies of dissolved metals in seawater, measured in chemical ocean sediments, lack clear evidence for an increase in terrigenous denudation. In particular, the stable isotope 9Be, derived from continental erosion, shows no change in its ratio to meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, derived from rain over the past 10 My. Radiogenic Pb and Nd isotopes, mainly show a change in the style of denudation from more chemical to more physical processes in the Quaternary. These data are at odds with a suggested increase in marine sedimentation rates during the late Cenozoic. In order to resolve this contradiction we have scrutinized these sedimentation rate calculations from ocean cores to identify whether they might show only apparent increases in the Neogene sections. Potential explanations are that in some cases, measured sediment thicknesses for different time intervals lack corrections for sediment compaction. Compaction of the lower portions of the cores drastically increases the apparent thickness of the more recent (Quaternary) sediment. In addition, sedimentation rates often only appear higher for recent sections in cores due to an artifact of an averaging timescale that decreases up-core. Such an averaging time scale decrease arises from better chronological resolution in recent times (Sadler et al., 1999). Cannibalization of older sediment might add to this effect. Together, these data question a clear, global-scale Quaternary climate-erosion connection that would be unique in Earth's history.

  12. Linked basin sedimentation and orogenic uplift: The Neogene Barinas basin sediments derived from the Venezuelan Andes

    Erikson, Johan P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Osmolovsky, Peter; Verosub, Kenneth L.


    The Venezuelan Andes are an asymmetric, doubly vergent orogen that is flanked on its southeastern side by the Barinas basin. Analyses of sedimentary facies, sandstone petrography, apatite fission-tracks, and magnetostratigraphy were completed on a 1750-m section of the syn-orogenic Neogene Parángula and Río Yuca formations in the Barinas side foothills of the Venezuelan Andes. Our sedimentary facies analyses record a progression of sedimentary environments from floodplain and floodplain channel deposits through the 560-m thick Parángula Formation transitioning to distal alluvial fan deposits in the lower Río Yuca Formation and finally to an alternation of distal alluvial fan and two, ˜100-m thick organic-rich lacustrine deposits in the upper third of the section. Major- and minor-mineral petrographic analysis reveals unroofing of the Venezuelan Andes, with quartz arenite composition low in the section succeeded by metamorphic and igneous clasts and potassium feldspar appearing near the base of the Río Yuca Formation. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of sandstones and pebbles generated ages of 11.2 ± 1.3 - 13.8 ± 2.0 Ma over ˜1100 m of stratigraphic section. Thermal modeling of the detrital AFT and vitrinite data from the lower Río Yuca Formation indicates exhumation of the source area was occurring by 12-13 Ma, surface exposure at 10-9 Ma, maximum burial by 4-2 Ma and exhumation of the sedimentary package starting 3-2 Ma. Accumulation of the Río Yuca Formation is contemporaneous with a basinward migration of the deformation front. Regional considerations indicate that the Venezuelan Andes evolved from a primarily singly vergent orogen to its current double vergence over the interval of Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation.

  13. Rheumatic fever in New Zealand.

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, Nigel


    Acute rheumatic fever and its sequel rheumatic heart disease remain major unsolved problems in New Zealand, causing significant morbidity and premature death. The disease burden affects predominantly indigenous Māori and Pacific Island children and young adults. In the past decade these ethnic disparities are even widening. Secondary prophylaxis using 28-day intramuscular penicillin has been the mainstay of disease control. In the greater Auckland region, audit shows community nurse-led penicillin delivery rates of 95% and recurrence rates of less than 5%. The true penicillin failure rate of 0.07 per 100 patient years supports 4 weekly penicillin rather than more frequent dose regimens. Landmark primary prevention research has been undertaken supporting sore throat primary prevention programmes in regions with very high rheumatic fever rates. Echocardiographic screening found 2.4% previously undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease in socially disadvantaged children. Combined with secondary prevention, echocardiography screening has the potential to reduce the prevalence of severe rheumatic heart disease.

  14. New Zealand's drug development industry.

    Lockhart, Michelle Marie; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Carswell, Christopher; Garg, Sanjay


    The pharmaceutical industry's profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ) from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ's clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ's clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  15. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence

  16. Business Cycle Synchronization Between Australia and New Zealand

    Jie Wei; Minsoo Lee; Christopher Gan


    .... By analyzing the shock-transmission channels via trade, monetary policy, and exchange rates between Australia and New Zealand we can infer that if Australia and New Zealand trade less, have more...

  17. Development Education Revisited: The New Zealand Experience

    Small, David


    Until the mid-1980s, New Zealanders were progressing in their understanding of the causes of and strategies for overcoming world poverty and injustice. However, the arrival of more multinational aid agencies and the increased competition for the donor dollar have given rise to a new conservatism in the development debate. This has coincided with the imposition of structural adjustment policies in New Zealand which provides an opportunity to demonstrate connections between poverty and powerlessness, and parallels between the growth of poverty and inequality at home and in "underdeveloped" countries. The government, the media and the wealthy agencies conceal these parallels and promote aid responses based on charity. This excludes from the development debate the increasingly marginalised sectors of New Zealand society and undermines the international solidarity essential for building strategies for change.

  18. Reliability of the nanopheres-DNA immunization technology to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against human neogenic proteins.

    Arnaoty, Ahmed; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Casteret, Sophie; Pitard, Bruno; Bigot, Yves; Lecomte, Thierry


    The molecular domestication of several DNA transposons that occurred during the evolution of the mammalian lineage, has led to the emergence of at least 43 genes, known as neogenes. To date, the limited availability of efficient commercial antibodies directed against most of their protein isoforms hampers investigation of their expression in vitro and in situ. Since immunization protocols using peptides or recombinant proteins have revealed that it is difficult to recover antibodies, we planned to produce antisera in mice using a new technique of nanopheres/DNA immunization, the ICANtibodies™ technology. Here, we investigate the possibilities of obtaining polyclonal antibodies for 24 proteins or protein domains using this immunization strategy. We successfully obtained 13 antisera that were able to detect neogenic proteins by Western blotting and ELISA in protein extracts of transiently-transfected cells and various cancer cell lines, plus another two that only detected the in ELISA and in in situ hybridizations. The features required for the production of these antibodies are analyzed and discussed, and examples are given of the advantages they offer for the study of neogenic proteins.

  19. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina


    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  20. Carbonatite metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from southern Patagonia: implications for lithospheric processes and Neogene plateau magmatism

    Gorring, Matthew L.; Kay, Suzanne M.

    The mineral chemistry, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of Cr-diopside, spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Estancia Lote 17 locality in southern Patagonia document a strong carbonatitic metasomatism of the backarc continental lithosphere. The Lote 17 peridotite xenolith suite consists of hydrous spinel lherzolite, wehrlite, and olivine websterite, and anhydrous harzburgite and lherzolite. Two-pyroxene thermometry indicates equilibration temperatures ranging from 870 to 1015°C and the lack of plagioclase or garnet suggests the xenoliths originated from between 40 and 60km depth. All of the xenoliths are LILE- and LREE-enriched, but have relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70294 to 0.70342) and high ɛNd (+3.0 to +6.6), indicating recent trace element enrichment ( 25Ma, based on the low 87Sr/86Sr and high Rb concentrations of phlogopite separates) in the long-term, melt-depleted Patagonian lithosphere. Lote 17 peridotite xenoliths are divided into two basic groups. Group 1 xenoliths consist of fertile peridotites that contain hydrous phases (amphibole+/-phlogopite+/-apatite). Group 1 xenoliths are further subdivided into three groups (a, b, and c) based on distinctive textures and whole-rock chemistry. Group 1 xenolith mineralogy and chemistry are consistent with a complex metasomatic history involving variable extents of recent carbonatite metasomatism (high Ca/Al, Nb/La, Zr/Hf, low Ti/Eu) that has overprinted earlier metasomatic events. Group 2 xenoliths consist of infertile, anhydrous harzburgites and record cryptic metasomatism that is attributed to CO2-rich fluids liberated from Group 1 carbonatite metasomatic reactions. Extremely variable incompatible trace element ratios and depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of Lote 17 peridotite xenoliths indicate that the continental lithosphere was neither the primary source nor an enriched lithospheric contaminant for Neogene Patagonian plateau lavas. Neogene plateau magmatism associated with formation

  1. Cryptic diversity of African tigerfish (genus Hydrocynus reveals palaeogeographic signatures of linked neogene geotectonic events.

    Sarah A M Goodier

    tectonic events modified Africa's Neogene drainage. Haplotypes shared amongst extant Hydrocynus populations across northern Africa testify to recent dispersals that were facilitated by late Neogene connections across the Nilo-Sahelian drainage. These events in tigerfish evolution concur broadly with available geological evidence and reveal prominent control by the African Rift System, evident in the formative events archived in phylogeographic records of tigerfish.

  2. Late Neogene sedimentary facies and sequences in the Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Juhasz, E.; Phillips, L.; Muller, P.; Ricketts, B.; Toth-Makk, A.; Lantos, M.; Kovacs, L.O.


    This paper is part of the special publication No.156, The Mediterranean basins: Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. (eds B.Durand, L. Jolivet, F.Horvath and M.Seranne). Detailed sedimentological, facies and numerical cycle analysis, combined with magnetostratigraphy, have been made in a number of boreholes in the Pannonian Basin, in order to study the causes of relative water-level changes and the history of the basin subsidence. Subsidence and infilling of the Pannonian Basin, which was an isolated lake at that time occurred mainly during the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The subsidence history was remarkably different in the individual sub-basins: early thermal subsidence was interrupted in the southern part of the basin, while high sedimentation rate and continuous subsidence was detected in the northeastern sub-basin. Three regional unconformities were detected in the Late Neogene Pannonian Basin fill, which represent 0.5 and 7.5 Ma time spans corresponding to single and composite unconformities. Consequently two main sequences build up the Late Neogene Pannonian Basin fill: a Late Miocene and a Pliocene one. Within the Late Miocene sequence there are smaller sedimentary cycles most probably corresponding to climatically driven relative lake-level changes in the Milankovitch frequency band. Considering the periods, the estimated values for precession and eccentricity in this study (19 and 370 ka) are close to the usually cited ones. In the case of obliquity the calculated period (71 ka) slightly deviates from the generally accepted number. Based on the relative amplitudes of oscillations, precession (sixth order) and obliquity (fifth order) cycles had the most significant impact on the sedimentation. Eccentricity caused cycles (fourth order) are poorly detectable in the sediments. The longer term (third order) cycles had very slight influence on the sedimentation pattern. Progradation, recorded in the Late Miocene sequence, correlates poorly in time

  3. Attitudes of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the use of Maori in New Zealand English

    De Bres, Julia


    As majority language speakers have an important impact on minority languages, the the attitudes and behaviours of non-Māori New Zealanders towards the Māori language are likely to have an influence on Māori language regeneration (de Bres 2008). Moreover, as the presence of Māori words is arguably the most distinctive feature of New Zealand English (Deverson 1991, Macalister 2005), these attitudes and behaviours are also likely to influence aspects of New Zealand English. Although there is now...

  4. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied


    H. L. Maranhão


    Full Text Available New Zealand is unique when it comes to landscapes and biodiversity, being one of the countries which has the highest numbers of endemism. With such vast diversity, wetlands play a key role maintaining many of these species and also providing essential ecosystem services for the local communities. However, New Zealand has been largely degraded on wetland areas in the last two hundred years, remaining only 10% of the original composition which brings a special attention to the country. In this case, this review provides an overview of New Zealand’s wetlands highlighting aspects such as definitions, uses, values, threats and management.

  6. Celebrating Islam and Multiculturalism in New Zealand

    Ismatu Ropi


    Full Text Available Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN Jakarta in collaboration with the Embassy of New Zealand in Jakarta, the Asia New Zealand Foundation and the International Office of UIN Jakarta on 20 to 24 May 2013 held a photographic exhibition documenting the stories of Asian Muslims in the Kiwi Island, and a half-day discussion of a book by Adrienne Jansen and Ans Westra entitled “The Crescent Moon: The Asian Face of Islam in New Zealand”.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i2.392 

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  8. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Maori Community in New Zealand


    <正>At the invitation of the New Zealand Maori China Friendship Association (NZMCFA), a CPAFFC delegation paid a visit to New Zealand from February 28 to March 9. They had a close contact with the Maoris in New Zealand. They stayed at their homes, and

  9. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    Furbish, Dale


    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  10. Inclusive Education Policy in New Zealand: Reality or Ruse?

    Kearney, Alison; Kane, Ruth


    New Zealand, like many countries, is beginning the journey towards a more inclusive education system. This paper examines inclusive education in New Zealand, and in particular policy related to inclusive education. New Zealand has the chance to make inclusion a reality, but as Skrtic (1991) points out this will require a different way of thinking…

  11. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    Furbish, Dale


    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  12. Post-Neogene Structural Evolution:An Important Geological Stage in the Formation of Gas Reservoirs in China

    WANG Tingbin


    Tectonic movements since the Neogene have been the major developmental and evolutional stages of the latest global crustal deformation and orogenic movements. China is located in a triangular area bounded by the Indian landmass, the West Siberian landmass and the Pacific Plate, characterized by relatively active tectonic movements since the Neogene, and in this region, natural gas would have been very easy to dissipate, or difficult to preserve. Therefore, the characteristics of post-Neogene tectonic movements offer important geological factors in researching the formation and preservation of gas reservoirs in China. Summarizing the reservoiring history of gas fields in China, although there are some differences between various basins, they are all affected by the tectonic movements since the Neogene. These movements have certainly caused destruction to the reservoiring and distribution of natural gas in China, which has resulted in a certain dissipation of natural gas in some basins. As a whole, however, they have mainly promoted the reservoiring and accumulation of natural gas: (1) a series of China-type foreland basins have been formed between basins and ridges in western China, which provide favorable conditions for the formation of large and medium gas fields, as well as controlling the finalization of gas reservoirs in the basins; (2) rows and belts of anticlines have been formed in the Sichuan Basin in central China, which have been the major stages of the formation and finalization of gas reservoirs in that basin; the integral and quick rising and lifting, and a further west-dipping in the Ordos Basin have resulted in a further accumulation of natural gas in gas fields from Jingbian to Uxin; (3) in eastem China, the Bohai movement in the late Pliocene has provided favorable geological conditions for lately-formed gas reservoirs in the Bohai Sea area mainly composed of the Bozhong depression; and it also resulted in secondary hydrocarbon generation and

  13. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    H. Jiang


    Full Text Available Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13–11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8–7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13–11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  14. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Jiang, H.; Deng, T.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.


    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13-11, 8-7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13-11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8-7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13-11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  15. Lithostratigraphy of the Palaeogene – Lower Neogene succession of the Danish North Sea

    Rasmussen, Jan A.


    Full Text Available As a result of a lithological, sedimentological and biostratigraphic study of well sections from the Danish sector of the North Sea, including some recently drilled exploration wells on the Ringkøbing–Fyn High, the lithostratigraphic framework for the siliciclastic Palaeogene to Lower Neogene sediments of the Danish sector of the North Sea is revised. The sediment package from the top of the Chalk Group to the base of the Nordland Group is subdivided into seven formations containing eleven new members. The existing Våle, Lista, Sele, Fur, Balder, Horda and Lark Formations of previously published lithostratigraphic schemes are adequate for a subdivision of the Danish sector at formation level. Bor is a new sandstone member of the Våle Formation. The Lista Formation is subdivided into three new mudstone members: Vile, Ve and Bue, and three new sandstone members: Tyr, Idun and Rind. Kolga is a new sandstone member of the Sele Formation. Hefring is a new sandstone member of the Horda Formation. Freja and Dufa are two new sandstone members of the Lark Formation. Danish reference sections are established for the formations, and the descriptions of their lithology, biostratigraphy, age and palaeoenvironmental setting are updated.

  16. Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns

    Böhme, M.


    The migration history of an air-breathing fish group (Channidae; snakehead fishes) is used for reconstructing Neogene Eurasian precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. The study shows that snakeheads are sensitive indicators of summer precipitation maxima in subtropical and temperate regions, and are present regularly if the wettest month exceeds 150 mm precipitation and 20 °C mean temperature. The analysis of 515 fossil freshwater fish deposits of the past 50 m.y. from Africa and Eurasia shows two continental-scale migration events from the snakeheads' center of origin in the south Himalayan region, events that can be related to changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation pattern. The first migration, ca. 17.5 Ma, into western and central Eurasia may have been caused by a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone that brought western Eurasia under the influence of trade winds that produced a zonal and meridional precipitation gradient in Europe. During the second migration, between 8 and 4 Ma, into Africa and East Asia, snakeheads reached their present-day distribution. This migration could have been related to the intensification of the Asian monsoon that brought summer precipitation to their migratory pathways in East Africa Arabia and East Asia.

  17. Neogene Tectonics And Paleomagnetism Of The Western And Eastern Of Palu Bay, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Muin, M. R.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Warmada, I. W.; Suryanto, W.


    Geologic observations and paleo magnetic studies of the western and eastern Palu Bay was undertaken, in order to study the extent of rotated areas and to develop constraints on tectonic models concerning the formation of this bay. Characteristic of remanent magentization (ChRM) results from Palu bay, the western show that; yield a pole at -39.116°N, 119.895°E with R=13.99, α95 =0,42, Dm/Im=61.76/-26.7 and the Eastern Palu bay show that; yield a pole at -81.855°N, 52.913°E, R=8.99, α95=0.29, Dm/Im =67.1/-5.42. The granitic rocks in these areas are dominated by granite and Monzonit-Quartz in composition, with high-K calc-alkaline photasik (KAP) and show metaluminous-peraluminous affinity. This suggests that the rotational motion on both sides of the bay are similar during the Neogen.

  18. The Neogene genus Streptochilus (Brönnimann and Resig, 1971) from the Gulf of California

    Miranda Martínez, A.Y.; Carreño, A.L.; McDougall, Kristin


    Four species of the planktonic foraminiferal genus Streptochilus from key Neogene marine localities are documented in relation to the evolution of the Gulf of California: S. globigerus, S. latus, S. macdougallae sp. nov., and S. inglei sp. nov. Planktonic foraminiferal bioevents and strontium isotopes in the Bouse, Tirabuzón, Carmen and Ojo de Buey lithostratigraphic units constrain the local distribution range between 6 and 5.3 Ma for the last three species, whereas S. globigerus appears locally at 5.5 Ma and disappears between 3.79 and 3.46 Ma in the Imperial and Trinidad Formations. The last occurrence of Streptochilus latus, and the first and last occurrences of S. globigerus in the ancient Gulf of California are correlated with bioevents calibrated in the equatorial Pacific; therefore, they can be used as reliable local biostratigraphic markers. The presence of Streptochilus in the ancient Gulf of California seems to correlate with upwelling, in a pattern similar to that observed in the modern oceans.

  19. Late Neogene Mountain Building of Eastern Kunlun Orogen: Constrained by DEM Analysis

    Wang An; Wang Guocan; Zhang Kexin; Xiang Shuyuan; Li Dewei; Liu Demin


    Topography, as a net result of the dynamic interaction between endogenesis and exogenesis, holds immense information on tectonic uplift, surface erosion and thus mountain building. The eastern Kunlun (昆仑) orogen, which experienced significant Late Neogene tectonic uplift and is located in an arid environment, is advantageous for morphotectonlc analysis based on well-preserved tectonic landforms. The digital elevation model (DEM) analysis was carried out for the central segment of the eastern Kunlun orogen based on shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) data. River longitudinal profile analysis indicates that major rivers across the orogen are characterized by high river gradient indexes and intensive tectonic uplift. Differential uplift was also identified in swath-topography analysis in the studied area, which can be divided into three major tectonic-geomorphic units by orogenicstrike-parallel faults. It is indicated that the most active region is located to the south of the Xidatan (西大滩) fault with significant differential uplift. Another identified fault with differential uplift is the Middle Kuninn fault; however, the timing of which is suggested to be much older than that of the Xidatan fault. These analyses are eoneordantly supported by both field survey and studies of thermochronology, which in turn indicates that the DEM analysis bears great potential in morphotectonic analysis.

  20. Neogene marine isotopic evolution and the erosion of Lesser Himalayan strata: Implications for Cenozoic tectonic history

    Myrow, Paul M.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Derry, Louis A.; Ryan McKenzie, N.; Jiang, Ganqing; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Banerjee, Dhiraj M.; Paulsen, Timothy S.; Singh, Birendra P.


    An extensive, northward deepening blanket of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian sedimentary rocks once extended from the Himalayan margin far onto the Indian craton. Cambrian deposits of this "upper Lesser Himalayan" succession, which include deposits of the "outer" Lesser Himalaya tectonic unit, are enriched in radiogenic 187Os. They make up part of a proximal marine facies belt that extends onto the craton and along strike from India to Pakistan. By contrast, age-equivalent facies in the Tethyan Himalaya are more distal in nature. Neoproterozoic to Cambrian strata of the upper Lesser Himalayan succession are now missing in much of the Lesser Himalaya, with their erosion exposing older Precambrian Lesser Himalayan strata. We suggest that exhumation and weathering of the upper Lesser Himalaya and related strata caused dramatic changes in the 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr Neogene record of seawater starting at ∼ 16 Ma. First-order estimates for the volume of upper Himalayan strata, as well as the volume of all LH rock eroded since this time, and geochemical box modeling, support this idea. Exhumation at 16 Ma is a fundamental event in the evolution of the Himalayan orogeny and the geochemical evolution of the oceans, and will be a critical part of the construction of future models of Himalayan thrust belt evolution.

  1. Neogene sedimentary evolution of Baja California in relation to regional tectonics

    Helenes, J.; Carreño, A. L.


    During the Neogene, the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Baja California Peninsula followed four stages: (1) during the early Miocene (22 Ma), the initiation of transform motion between Pacific and North American plates, caused a rapid subsidence in the Continental Borderland Province and in some adjacent areas.This subsidence coincided in time with with a global rise in sea level. At this time, the eastern and southern parts of the peninsula did not show any evidence of subsidence. (2) During the middle Miocene (12 Ma), normal and strike slip faulting migrated eastward, causing subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf of California, where the oldest Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks were deposited. The areas in central Baja California Sur and the central part of the Gulf itself received abundant volcanic deposits related to continental extension. (3) During the late Miocene (8 Ma), the western margin of the Peninsula changed to a slightly compressive regime, while the northern part of the Gulf contained a marine basin with upper bathyal environments. The central area of the Gulf continued receiving abundant volcanic deposits, while the Los Cabos block received marine sedimentation, correlatable with sedimentary units reported from the continental margins in Nayarit, Jalisco and Michoacán. (4) Beginning in the early Pliocene (5 Ma), the present configuration of the Gulf of California developed through right-lateral strike slip and extension in the Gulf itself. Since Pliocene times, the Gulf presents widespread marine sedimentation with deep basins reaching lower bathyal depths.

  2. Paleomagnetic investigation of late Neogene vertical axis rotation and remagnetization in central coastal California

    Horns, Daniel M.; Verosub, Kenneth L.


    Outcrops of shallow marine sedimentary rocks of the Neogene Purisima Formation and Santa Cruz Mudstone occur throughout the Santa Cruz Mountains and along the coast of Santa Cruz and San Mateo counties in California. Within the Santa Cruz Mountains, the Purisima Formation has been extensively folded and offset by reverse faults. Along the coast, the Purisima Formation and Santa Cruz Mudstone are only gently folded although the Purisima Formation is cut by the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Previous paleomagnetic studies have shown that vertical axis rotation has occurred within some parts of the San Gregorio Fault Zone. As part of a kinematic study of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, this paleomagnetic investigation of the Purisima Formation and Santa Cruz Mudstone was conducted to determine the extent of the vertical axis rotation. The characteristic paleomagnetic directions of the Purisima Formation and Santa Cruz Mudstone, which we interpret as the primary directions, indicate that a clockwise vertical axis rotation of 35 deg to 60 deg has occurred throughout the San Gregorio Zone, whereas no rotation has occurred away from the fault zone. This result suggests that vertical axis rotation is fundamentally related to shear across the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Our work also indicates that while the Purisima Formation and Santa Cruz Mudstone along the coast have retained their primary magnetizations, the Purisima Formation within the Santa Cruz Mountains has been remagnetized after folding.

  3. Neogene oxygen isotopic stratigraphy, ODP Site 1148,northern South China Sea

    ZHAO; Quanhong


    paleoceanography in the southwest Pacific: Relating with East Antarctic ice sheet development, Paleaceanogr., 1995, 10(6): 1095-1112.[21]Pagani, M., Arthus, M. A., Freeman, K. H., Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Paleoceanogr., 1999, 14(3):273-292.[22]Hodell, D. A., Woodruff, F., Variations in the strontium isotopic ratio of seawater during the Miocene: Stratigraphic and geochemical implications, Paleoceanogr., 1994, 9(3): 405-426.[23]Kennen, J. P., Marine Geology, Englewood: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1982, 813. [24]Shackleton, N. J., Opdyke, N. D., Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28-238:Oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 106 year scale, Quat. Res., 1973, 3: 39-55.[25]Elmstrom, K. M., Kennett, P., Late Neogene paleoceanographic evolution of Site 590: Southwest Pacific, in Init Rep.DSDP (eds. Kennett, J. P., yon der Borch, C. C., Baker, P. A. et al.), 1983, 90(Part 2): 1361-1381.[26]Whitman, J. M., Berger, W. H., Pliocene-Pleistocene carbon isotope record, Site 586, Ontong Java Plateau, in Proc. ODP Sci. Res.(eds. Berger, W. H., Kroenke, L. W., Janecek, T. R. et al.), 1993, 130: 333-348.[27]Tiedemann, R., Sarnthein, M., Shackleton, N. J., Astronomic timescale for the Pliocene Atlantic δ 18O and dust flux re cords of Ocean Drilling Program site 659, Paleoceanogr., 1994, 9(4): 619-638.[28]Mix. A. C., Pisias, N. G., Rugh, W. et al., Benthic Foraminifera stable isotope record from Site 849 (0-5 Ma): Local and global climate changes, in Proc. ODP Sci. Res. (eds. Pisias, N. G., Mayer, L. A., Jenecek, T. R. et al.), 1995, 138: 371-412.[29]Tsuchi, R., Neogene events in Japan and the Pacific, in Pacific Neogene Event Studies (ed. Tsuchi, R.), Shizuoka: Kuro fune Printing Co. Ltd., 1987, 102-104.[30]Tsuchi, R., Neogene Events in Japan and Southeast Asia, in Annual Technical Meeting 1989 and IGCP-246, Proceedings,Thailand: Chiang Mai Univ., 1991, 169-177[31]Barron, J. A., Baldauf, J

  4. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    was investigated by using a time-calibrated relaxed molecular clock with fossil calibration points. The results showed, that New Zealand was colonised by Hyperomma at least two times independently, once about 43–68 ma (possibly while still connected to Gondwana) and at least once ca. 28.5–47 ma (most probable...

  5. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach


    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  6. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander


    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  7. Wellbeing in the New Zealand Curriculum

    Soutter, Anne K.; O'Steen, Billy; Gilmore, Alison


    This study examines the usage and contexts of "wellbeing" in New Zealand's curriculum, a formal statement of education policy enacted by a democratically elected government. The analysis is guided by a current model of student wellbeing rooted in seven, interdependent domains: "Having," "Being," "Relating," "Thinking," "Feeling," "Functioning,"…

  8. Rural Medical Education in New Zealand.

    Mayer, Heidi; Renouf, Tia


    Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article.

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.


    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  10. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George


    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  11. New Zealand scientists in firing line


    "Kiwi scientists have a great chance to have their work bombarded with protons and to participate in world-class particle physics research, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) and New Zealand" (1/2 page)

  12. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger


    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  13. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.


    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  14. Chemical and Isotope Compositions of Neogene Hippopotamidae Teeth From Lake Albert (Uganda): Implications for Environmental Change

    Brugmann, G. E.; Brachert, T. C.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.


    The Neogene was a period of long-term global cooling and increasing climatic variability on astronomical time scales. Lake systems strongly depend on rainfall patterns and size or geographical distribution of river networks. To unravel environmental change and watershed dynamics in the western branch of the East African Rift (Lake Albert, Uganda) during the Late Neogene, we use proxy data (trace elements, O, C and Sr isotopes) from Hippopotamidae teeth. Laser ablation ICPMS profiles in enamel measured from the outside rim towards the dentin show an asymmetric trace element distribution in that the concentrations continuously decrease by up to 5 orders of magnitude within a distance of about 1 mm until a minimum is reached (migration pathways and palaeoenvironmental changes. On geological time scales δ13C compositions reflect a transition from pure C3 browsers (-11 per mil PDB) at 5 to 6 Ma towards C4 dominated grazers (0 per mil PDB) at 2.0 to 2.5 Ma. The oxygen stable isotope (δ18O) composition of enamel rises from 26 per mil at 5 to 6 Ma to a maximum of 32 per mil SMOW at 2.3 Ma. Increasing δ18O values suggest enhanced evaporation of the lake due to rising aridity. This is in agreement with a synchronous spread of C4 vegetation in the reach of Hippopotamid populations. The Sr isotopic composition of enamel displays a large variation and 87Sr/86Sr is 0.714 about 5 Ma ago, reaches a maximum of 0.717 at about 2.3 Ma and decreases from there on to about 0.708. Thus, Sr and O isotopic compositions correlate with each other on the geological time scale. This is plausible if the Sr isotopic composition of Hippopotamid enamel dominantly reflects the changes of the water chemistry of the lake, and is therefore a powerful tool for tracing ancient hydrological networks. The large variation of the Sr isotope composition can be explained if the lake is fed by different sources: water draining Cenozoic volcanic terrains have low 87Sr/86Sr (~ 0.704), whereas Proterozoic

  15. Delineating shallow Neogene deformation structures in northeastern Pará State using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Dilce F. Rossetti


    Full Text Available The geological characterization of shallow subsurface Neogene deposits in northeastern Pará State using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR revealed normal and reverse faults, as well as folds, not yet well documented by field studies. The faults are identified mostly by steeply-dipping reflections that sharply cut the nearby reflections causing bed offsets, drags and rollovers. The folds are recognized by reflections that are highly undulating, configuring broad concave and convex-up features that are up to 50 m wide and 80 to 90 ns deep. These deformation structures are mostly developed within deposits of Miocene age, though some of the faults might continue into younger deposits as well. Although the studied GPR sections show several diffractions caused by trees, differential degrees of moisture, and underground artifacts, the structures recorded here can not be explained by any of these ''noises''. The detailed analysis of the GPR sections reveals that they are attributed to bed distortion caused by brittle deformation and folding. The record of faults and folds are not widespread in the Neogene deposits of the Bragantina area. These GPR data are in agreement with structural models, which have proposed a complex evolution including strike-slip motion for this area from the Miocene to present.A caracterização geológica de depósitos neógenos ocorrentes em sub-superfície rasa no nordeste do Estado do Pará, usando Radar de Penetração no Solo (GPR, revelou a presença de falhas normais e reversas, bem como dobras, ainda não documentadas em estudos de campo prévios. As falhas são identificadas por reflexões inclinadas que cortam bruscamente reflexões vizinhas, causando freqüentes deslocamentos de camadas. As dobras são reconhecidas por reflexões fortemente ondulantes, configurando feições côncavas e convexas que medem até 50 m de amplitude e 80 a 90 m de profundidade. Estas estruturas deformacionais desenvolvem-se, principalmente

  16. Seismic architecture and morphology of Neogenic sediment waves and drifts, offshore West Africa

    Baglioni, Luca; Bonamini, Enrico


    The three dimension visualisation softwares of seismic data and the recent development of semi-automatic interpretation tools allow to define the 3D morphology of ancient depositional systems at a resolution never achieved before. This study analyses a Neogenic stratigraphic interval in the deep water of the West African margin. The purpose of the work is the understanding of the sedimentary architectures and the link with the genetic depositional processes. The study is mainly based on the interpretation of seismic geometries and amplitude/isochron maps derived from newly-interpreted seismic horizons. The seismic stratigraphy reveals abrupt changes in depositional styles and sedimentary processes. Transitions between Sediment Drifts (SD), Sediment Waves (SWs) and Mass Transport Complexes (MTCs) are here frequently observed, suggesting that cyclically either bottom-current intensity decreased or gravity-flow input overwhelmed the bottom-current signal. The lower studied interval corresponds to a SD sequence, made up of stacked individual packages and having a maximum thickness of 300 ms. The landward drift morphology is characterized by convex-upward, mounded seismic reflections. Each drift onlaps on a seaward-dipping reflection interpreted as paleo-slope. These contouritic deposits are concentrated near the base of slope, and fade out downdip. The drift appears to be grown from the deeper part of the basin and backstepped up the slope. It is inferred that the deposition of the drifts took place under the influence of a marine current, subparallel to the southern margin of West African coast. The backstepping of the onlapping architecture may have resulted from bottom current acceleration across the ramp. The intermediate studied interval represents a transitional sequence in which SW are alternated with MTDs of minor size (up to 60 ms thick). In this transition interval, onlap relationships and thickness variations suggest that gravity flow deposits preferentially

  17. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia

    van der Hammen, Thomas; Hooghiemstra, Henry


    The neotropical Amazonian and Andean plant diversity developed mainly during the Tertiary. In Amazonia, Miocene floral diversity seems considerably higher than today. During the Neogene, tropical taxa entered newly created montane area, and montane taxa entered the tropical lowlands. The general decrease of temperature during the upper Neogene and especially during the Quaternary glacial periods may have caused considerable extinctions in the lowlands. Representation of pollen of apparently principally montane taxa ( Podocarpus, Hedyosmum) in Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary sediments of Amazonia and surroundings, is still difficult to interpret in terms of temperature decrease at low elevation. Changes in precipitation may have profound impact on the composition of vegetation communities; Ilex and Melastomataceae increase significantly in many glacial pollen records. Increase of Weinmannia in Amazonian pollen records seems the best indicator of downward migration of montane vegetation belts. A temperature lowering at sea-level of 4.5 ±1°C during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) seems reasonable; it may have caused a downslope migration of some 700 m of the lower montane vegetation belt; lower montane arboreal species may have been able to grow in higher elevation areas (>500 m) of Amazonia, increasing background pollen values of montane taxa in the area. Difference between a cool and wet Middle Pleniglacial (60-28 ka BP), and a cold and dry Upper Pleniglacial (28-14 ka BP; thus including the LGM) is evident in Andean and Amazonian records; statements about environmental conditions of the ice-age Amazon should be specified chronologically. The Middle Pleniglacial is a time of accumulation of fluvial sediments. The Upper Pleniglacial is a time of incision of the rivers in their sediments; sedimentation started again in the Lateglacial (since ca. 13 ka BP) and the Holocene, when lake levels rose again. Based on simplified considerations of precipitation changes and

  18. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric


    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  19. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.


    For more than two decades, the paradigm of large-magnitude (~250 km), northwest-directed (~N70°W) Neogene extensional lengthening between the Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nevada at the approximate latitude of Las Vegas has remained largely unchallenged, as has the notion that the strain integrates with coeval strains in adjacent regions and with plate-boundary strain. The paradigm depends on poorly constrained interconnectedness of extreme-case lengthening estimated at scattered localities within the region. Here we evaluate the soundness of the inferred strain interconnectedness over an area reaching 600 km southwest from Beaver, Utah, to Barstow, California, and conclude that lengthening is overestimated in most areas and, even if the estimates are valid, lengthening is not interconnected in a way that allows for published versions of province-wide summations.We summarize Neogene strike slip in 13 areas distributed from central Utah to Lake Mead. In general, left-sense shear and associated structures define a broad zone of translation approximately parallel to the eastern boundary of the Basin and Range against the Colorado Plateau, a zone we refer to as the Hingeline shear zone. Areas of steep-axis rotation (ranging to 2500 km2) record N-S shortening rather than unevenly distributed lengthening. In most cases, the rotational shortening and extension-parallel folds and thrusts are coupled to, or absorb, strike slip, thus providing valuable insight into how the discontinuous strike-slip faults are simply parts of a broad zone of continuous strain. The discontinuous nature of strike slip and the complex mixture of extensional, contractional, and steep-axis rotational structures in the Hingeline shear zone are similar to those in the Walker Lane belt in the west part of the Basin and Range, and, together, the two record southward displacement of the central and northern Basin and Range relative to the adjacent Colorado Plateau. Understanding this province

  20. IODP Expedition 317: Exploring the Record of Sea-Level Change off New Zealand

    Peter Blum


    Full Text Available Expedition 317 investigated the record of global sea-level change (eustasy within continental margin sedimentary sequences and how eustasy interacts with local forcing to produce preserved sedimentary architectures. The Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, was selected to study these complex interactions because of high rates of Neogene sediment supply fromthe uplifting Southern Alps. This sediment input results in a high-frequency (~0.1–0.5 My periods record of depositional cyclicity that is modulated by the presence of strong ocean currents. The expedition recovered sediments as old as Eocene but focused on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to Recent, when global sea-level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. A transect of three sites was drilled on the continental shelf (Sites U1353, U1354, and U1351, plus one on the continental slope (Site U1352. The transectsamples the shallow-water environment most directly affected by relative sea-level change. Lithologic boundaries, provisionally correlative with seismic sequence boundaries, have been identified in cores from each site. Continental slope Site U1352 provides a record of ocean circulation and fronts during the last ~35 My. The early Oligocene (~30 MaMarshall Paraconformity was the deepest target ofExpedition 317 and is hypothesized to represent intensified current erosion or non-deposition associated with the initiation of thermohaline circulation in the region. Expedition 317 involved operational challenges for JOIDES Resolution, including shallow-water, continental-shelf drilling and deep penetrations. Despitethese challenges, Expedition 317 set a number of records for scientific ocean drilling penetration and water-depth.

  1. Neogene sinistral transtension along the Hickman fault zone, southeastern Colorado Plateau, New Mexico

    Chamberlin, R.M. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))


    A north-northeast-trending crustal flaw known as the Hickman fault zone (HFZ) transects the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau from Mangas to Grants, New Mexico, a distance of 140 km. Recent reconnaissance mapping of the eastern half of the Quemado 1:100,000 sheet by the author indicates that the southern half of the HFZ is a Neogene oblique-slip zone that displays a normal-sinistral sense of shear. The vertical slip component is 150--200 m and the apparent horizontal component is as much as 120 m. Basaltic debris flows and fluvial deposits of the Miocene Fence Lake Formation are preferentially preserved on the downthrown western side of the HFZ. West of Pietown, Fence Lake strata define an asymmetric synclinal basin. Older northwest-striking Late Oligocene basaltic dikes are locally concealed where they pass under the shallow (200 m) northeast--trending basin. Within the 5-km-wide HFZ, north-trending segments appear to form releasing bends and east-northeast-trending segments appear to form weakly constraining bends, a pattern that implies distributed sinistral shear. Small alluvial basins (incipient half grabens) in the Mangas Mountains are associated with north-striking bends. An east-northeast-trending bend near Pietown is locally defined by an asymmetric anticline; also the Late Oligocene dike trend here bends westerly (counterclockwise) where it crosses the anticlinal axis. Near Hickman (a.k.a. Lehew), the HFZ shows two sinistral offsets of another Late Oligocene dike; cumulative offset is about 120 m.

  2. Tectonostratigraphic history of the Neogene Maimará basin, Northwest Argentina

    Galli, Claudia I.; Coira, Beatriz L.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Iglesia Llanos, María P.; Prezzi, Claudia B.; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg


    This paper presents the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Maimará Basin and explores the relationship between the clastic sediments and pyroclastic deposits in the basin and the evolution of the adjacent orogeny and magmatic arc. The sedimentary facies in this part of the basin include, in ascending order, an ephemeral fluvial system, a deep braided fluvial system and a medial to distal ephemeral fluvial system. We interpret that Maimará Formation accumulated in a basin that has developed two stages of accumulation. Stage 1 extended from 7 to 6.4 Ma and included accelerated tectonic uplift in the source areas, and it corresponds to the ephemeral fluvial system deposits. Stage 2, which extended from 6.4 to 4.8 Ma, corresponds to a tectonically quiescent period and included the development of the deep braided fluvial system deposits. The contact between the Maimará and Tilcara formations is always characterized by a regional unconformity and, in the study area, also shows pronounced erosion. Rare earth element and other chemical characteristics of the tuff intervals in the Maimará Formation fall into two distinct groups suggesting the tuffs were erupted from two distinct late Miocene source regions. The first and most abundant group has characteristics that best match tuffs erupted from the Guacha, Pacana and Pastos Grandes calderas, which are located 200 and 230 km west of the study area at 22º-23º30‧S latitude. The members the second group are chemically most similar to the Merihuaca Ignimbrite from the Cerro Galán caldera 290 km south-southwest of the studied section. The distinctive geochemical characteristics are excellent tools to reconstruct the stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene Maimará basin from 6.4 to 4.8 Ma.

  3. Paleogene and Early Neogene Lacustrine Reefs in the Western Qaidam Basin, China

    ZHONG Jianhua; WEN Zhifeng; GUO Zeqing; WANG Haiqiao; GAO Jianbo


    Typical reefs in the Paleogene and early Neogene strata of the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, China, reveal their internal structures and sedimentation environments and consist mainly of algal reef, stromatolite reef and thrombolite reef with distinct reef structures, fore-reef, back-reef and reef-plateau. The fore-reef is characterized by a combination of pinnacle reef, thrombolite and algal reef. The back reef is composed of stromatolite reef and algal reef. The pinnacle reefs (micro-atoll), most of which are several tens of centimeters in diameter (whereas some exceptionally big ones are over 200 cm in diameter), and several tens of centimeter to 2 m in height, are situated on the far front-edge of the reef; the pinnacle reef is also often of recumbent form with a gravel-filled circular hole in the center. The algal reef is in the form of dome and irregular beds, and filled with algal detritus, ostracodes, spirorbis fossils, ooid and terrigenous debris, and worm traces;cavities and scour marks are often developed. The algal reef is gray commonly when fresh and weathers to a brown color.The lacustrine thrombolite in the Qaidam Basin is light gray or deep gray when fresh, white-gray or brown when weathered, dense and homogeneous with abundant pores filled by oil and bitumen. Observed under the microscope, the thrombolite consists mainly of brown or brown-black clots with a little algal debris, ooid, pellet, ostracodes, spirorbis fossils and terrigenous debris, in some cases, terrigenous debris, even gravel, is abundant. Many features of the thrombolite suggest that it is formed in a high-energy environment. The stromatolite reefs developed on the lacustrine algal reef in the Qaldam Basin are very complex whether in shape or in internal structure. The simplest ones form laminated layers and the most complex ones have intensely branching structures. The size is also variable.

  4. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony; Cotterill, Fenton P D


    In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma) saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  5. Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sahabi units in the Sirt Basin, northeast Libya

    El-Shawaihdi, M. H.; Mozley, P. S.; Boaz, N. T.; Salloum, F.; Pavlakis, P.; Muftah, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.


    A revision of the nomenclature of lithostratigraphic units of Neogene strata at As Sahabi, northeast Libya, is presented, based on new fieldwork conducted during 2006-2008. The Sahabi units are correlated across the Ajdabya Sheet (NH 34-6) in northeastern Libya. Major conclusions are: (1) Miocene (Langhian through Messinian) strata are predominantly carbonate and should be referred to as formation "M"; (2) A local unconformity of Miocene (early Messinian) age overlies strata of the formation "M"; (3) This unconformity is overlain by Messinian gypsiferous sand and mud (formerly formation "P" and partially member "T"), which are designated as the "lower member" (gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (4) The "lower member" is overlain by sand and mud of late Messinian age (formerly partially member "T" and members "U1", "UD", and "U2") in a generally fining-upwards sequence, and are designated as the "upper member" (non-gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (5) The latest Miocene sand and mud of the "upper member" are capped by an unconformity that is correlated with the regression and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis and with Eosahabi Channel cutting; (6) The unconformity is overlain by Pliocene medium, coarse, and pebbly sands, which are referred to as the Qarat Weddah Formation (formerly Garet Uedda Formation); (7) The Pliocene sands of Qarat Weddah Formation are overlain by carbonate soil (calcrete) of Late Pliocene age, which is referred to as formation "Z" (formerly member "Z"). The major outcome of this study is a revised stratigraphic description and nomenclature of the Sahabi units that helps to provide a formal and unified context for understanding paleontological discoveries in northeastern Libya, which will serve to facilitate a broader correlation of the Sahabi units with their equivalents elsewhere in Africa and in Europe and Asia.

  6. Magnetostratigraphy of the late Neogene purisima formation, Santa Cruz County, California

    Madrid, Victor M.; Stuart, Robert M.; Verosub, Kenneth L.


    The magnetic polarity zonation of a late Neogene sedimentary sequence in Santa Cruz County, California, has provided a chronologic framework for studies of the sedimentologic and tectonic processes involved in an episode of basin formation in the vicinity of the San Andreas fault system in central coastal California. The zonation is based on the analysis of samples from 79 horizons in a 300 m thick section of the Purisima Formation and a portion of the overlying Aromas Formation. Although rock magnetic studies support the hypothesis that the primary carrier of the remanence is magnetite, many samples contain a secondary overprint which cannot be completely removed by alternating field demagnetization. Nevertheless, systematic analysis of the behavior of the samples during demagnetization has led to an unambiguous determination of the polarity of each horizon and to the development of a magnetic polarity zonation containing thirteen magnetozones. These magnetozones can be correlated to the magnetic polarity time scale using biostratigraphic constraints provided by diatoms in the lower portion of the section and invertebrates and vertebrates in the upper portion. The studied section is found to span the interval from the Epoch 5/Epoch 6 boundary (6.07 Mya) to the Matuyama/Gauss boundary (2.47 Mya) with a hiatus corresponding to the upper part of the Gilbert epoch (4.5 Mya to 3.5 Mya). This hiatus does not coincide with major regressions in the global sea-level curve and is interpreted as a period of tectonic uplift. The compression which generated this uplift was probably caused by interplay between the San Andreas fault east of the study area and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault west of it.

  7. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.


    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  8. Neogene reef coral assemblages of the Bocas del Toro region, Panama: the rise of Acropora palmata

    Klaus, J. S.; McNeill, D. F.; Budd, A. F.; Coates, A. G.


    Temporal patterns are evaluated in Neogene reef coral assemblages from the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama in order to understand how reef ecosystems respond to long-term environmental change. Analyses are based on a total of 1,702 zooxanthellate coral specimens collected from six coral-bearing units ranging in age from the earliest Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene: (1) Valiente Formation (12-11 Ma), (2) Fish Hole Member of the Old Bank Formation (5.8-5.6 Ma), (3) La Gruta Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (4) Ground Creek Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (5) Mimitimbi Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma), and (6) Hill Point Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma). Over 100 coral species occur in the six units, with faunal assemblages ranging from less than 10% extant taxa (Valiente Formation) to over 85% extant taxa (Ground Creek Member). The collections provide new temporal constraints on the emergence of modern Caribbean reefs, with the La Gruta Member containing the earliest occurrence of large monospecific stands of the dominant Caribbean reef coral Acropora palmata, and the Urracá Formation containing the last fossil occurrences of 15 regionally extinct taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis of 41 Late Miocene to Recent reef coral assemblages from the Caribbean region suggests changes in community structure coincident with effective oceanic closure of the Central American Seaway (~3.5 Ma). These changes, including increased Acropora dominance, may have contributed to a protracted period of elevated extinction debt prior to the major peak in regional coral extinctions (~2-1 Ma).

  9. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Vera Hoffmann

    Full Text Available In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  10. A Neogene seawater sulfur isotope age curve from calcareous pelagic microfossils

    Burdett, James W.; Arthur, Michael A.; Richardson, Mark


    Until now, our knowledge of the sulfur isotopic composition of seawater through geologic time has depended on stable isotopic analysis of sulfate from evaporites. Owing to the sporadic occurrence of evaporites through time, the secular sulfur isotope age curve contains many gaps with little or no data. In order to fill in some of these gaps, particularly the Neogene, we have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of carbonate-associated sulfate in carbonate tests of planktonic foraminifera. Other investigators have shown that sulfate may occur in biogenic calcites either lattice-bound, as micro-fluid inclusions, in adsorbed phases, or as protein polysaccharides. Whatever the origin, the sulfur isotopic composition of this sulfate appears to be representative of that of the water in which the organism lived, as shown by results on recent calcareous foraminifera and macrofossils. Using this approach for study of Miocene to Recent pelagic marine sediments supplemented by new data for Miocene marine evaporites from the Gulf of Suez, we have found that the δ 34S of seawater has decreased about 2.5‰ over the past 25 m.y. and that most of the decrease has occurred over the past 5 m.y., parallelling a decrease in the δ 13C of dissolved oceanic bicarbonate from the same interval. Sedimentary redox models based on isotope records suggest that organic carbon and sulfide burial have both decreased over the past 5 m.y. Alternatively, an increase in weathering rates over the past 5 m.y. would not require a decrease in organic carbon or sulfide burial as long as the isotopic effect of the increased river input exceeds the isotopic effect of the burial of the reduced species. In either case, the net result would be a decrease in atmospheric p O 2.

  11. Extended stratigraphy, palynology and depositional environments record the initiation of the Himalayan Gyirong Basin (Neogene China)

    Xu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Wang, Guo-Can; Jiang, Shang-Song; Chen, Fen-Ning; Xiang, Shu-Yuan; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Hoorn, Carina


    Here we report new sedimentological and paleontological data from a 603.5 m thick Neogene sequence (Woma section) in the Gyirong Basin, a basin induced by east-west extension in the Himalayas of southern Tibet. We document the conglomeratic Danzengzhukang Formation, at the base of the section, and the overlying finer grained Woma Formation that includes a Hipparion fauna. Based on stratigraphic correlations and earlier thermochronology and magnetostratigraphic results, we bracket the depositional age of this section between 10.8 Ma and 1.7 Ma. Lithology, paleo-current directions and provenance analysis, together with palynological and paleontological data, have revealed three depositional environments for the deposition of the studied section. (1) Alluvial-fan to braided river environments with ESE transport directions (Danzengzhukang Formation, coniferous- and broad-leaved mixed forest. (2) Lacustrine dominated conditions (Lower Woma Formation, ˜7.2 to 3.2 Ma) with WSW transport directions were associated with locally warm and humid environments in the low-lying areas while input from a new source area suggests the presence of a high-altitude, cold and arid deciduous coniferous-leaved forests. (3) A fan delta dominated environment (Upper Woma Formation, 3.2 to >1.7 Ma) with increased denudation and WSW paleo-currents was associated with a deciduous coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest that suggests an increase in climate variability. Our data indicate that the Gyirong Basin was under overall warm and humid conditions throughout most of its history, in agreement with high-resolution oxygen and carbon isotope data collected from the same section (this issue). We interpret our warm climate in the Gyirong Basin to reflect the prevalence of the monsoonal influence and the distal pollen sources to result from orographic effects.

  12. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem


    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  13. Late Neogene-Recent uplift of the Cabo de Gata volcanic province, Almerı´a, SE Spain

    Martín, José M.; Braga, Juan C.; Betzler, Christian


    Cabo de Gata is a Miocene volcanic province in the Betic Cordillera in southeastern Spain. The distribution of coastal deposits in the successive marine sedimentary units overlying the last volcanic episode (about 7.5 Ma old) has been used to reconstruct the post-volcanic palaeogeographic evolution of the region during the Late Neogene. The current elevation of well-dated shoreline marker rocks has been used to estimate uplift amount and rates. Since the late Tortonian, a N45°E-aligned (the strike of the Carboneras fault system) topographic relief was emergent in the Cabo de Gata region. The extension and height of this island increased throughout the late Neogene. Smaller, independent islands were emergent and finally became connected to the main island during the Messinian. The Carboneras and Agua Amarga Pliocene sub-basins were the last two marine basins prior to the final emergence of the region. Since the last volcanic eruption (ca. 7.5 Ma), maximum uplift of sedimentary rocks in Cabo de Gata has taken place on the western margin of the N45°E-aligned palaeorelief. The altitude of the shoreline marker rocks in the successive sedimentary units decreases eastwards to the present-day coast and northwards of the Rambla del Plomo. Uplift rates since deposition remain nearly constant for the successive Messinian rocks and decrease slightly for the lower Pliocene outcrops. Most of the uplift took place before the Pliocene while the main island enlarged. Uplift amounts and rates since deposition of the upper Neogene sedimentary units in the Cabo de Gata area are similar to the ones estimated for laterally equivalent units in the eastern Betic basins (approximately 50 m/Ma). Despite its volcanic nature and the occurrence of the Carboneras fault system, the Cabo de Gata probably became elevated as a consequence of regional uplift in connection with the rest of the Betic Cordillera.

  14. The Progreso Basin Province of Northwestern Peru and Southwestern Ecuador: Neogene and Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum Systems

    Higley, Debra K.


    The Progreso Basin province (6083) in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador consists of the Paleogene Santa Elena block and Peru Bank, and the Neogene Tumbes-Progreso subbasin. The Santa Elena block and Peru Bank are part of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum System (TPS)(608302), which contains the Cretaceous-Paleogene Santa Elena Block Assessment Unit (60830201). The Tumbes- Progreso subbasin includes the Neogene TPS (608301) and associated Neogene Pull-Apart Basin Assessment Unit (60830101). The complex tectonic history of the Progreso Basin province influenced depositional and erosional patterns across the region, and also the location, timing, and types of seals, traps, possible source and reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon generation and migration. Marine shales that are interbedded with and overlie reservoir intervals are the probable hydrocarbon source rocks. Timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration was probably Miocene and younger, following creation of the Tumbes-Progreso subbasin by movement along the Dolores-Guayaquil megashear. More than 220 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 255 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) have been produced from the Progreso Basin province. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL) resources from undiscovered fields in the province are 237 MMBO, 695 BCFG, and 32 MMB NGL, respectively. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and NGL resources from undiscovered onshore fields are 45 MMBO, 113 BCFG, and 5 MMBNGL, and from undiscovered offshore fields are 192 BBO, 582 BCFG, and 27 MMBNGL. These are USGS grown undiscovered resources that were determined by using a minimum field size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent.

  15. New allocyclic dimensions in a prograding carbonate bank: Evidence for eustatic, tectonic, and paleoceanographic control (late Neogene, Bahamas)

    Lidz, B.H.; McNeill, D.F.


    The deep-sea record, examined recently for the first time in a shallow-depocenter setting, has unveiled remarkable evidence for new sedimentary components and allocyclic complexity in a large, well-studied carbonate bank, the western Great Bahama Bank. The evidence is a composite foraminiferal signature - Paleocene to early Miocene (allogenic or reworked) and late Miocene to late Pliocene (host) planktic taxa, and redeposited middle Miocene shallow benthic faunas. Ages of the oldest and youngest planktic groups range from ??? 66 to ??? 2 Ma. The reworked and redeposited taxa are a proxy for significant sediment components that otherwise have no lithofacies or seismic resolution. The composite signature, reinforced by a distinctive distribution of the reworked and redeposited faunas, documents a much more complex late Neogene depositional system than previously known. The system is more than progradational. The source sequences that supplied the constituent bank-margin grains formed at different water depths and over hundreds of kilometers and tens of millions of years apart. New evidence from the literature and from data obtained during Ocean Drilling Program (OOP) Leg 166 in the Santaren Channel (Bahamas) support early interpretations based on the composite fossil record and provide valuable new dimensions to regional allocyclicity. The middle Miocene taxa were confined to the lower part of the section by the latest Miocene-earliest Pliocene(?) lowstand of sea level. An orderly occurrence of the allogenic taxa is unique to the global reworked geologic record and appears to have been controlled by a combination of Paleogene-early Neogene tectonics at the source, eustatic changes, and late Neogene current activity at the source and across the bank. The allogenic taxa expand the spatial and temporal range of information in the northern Bahamas by nearly an order of magnitude. In essence, some of the major processes active in the region during ??? 64 m.y. of the

  16. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    Kuhlmann, G.


    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of th

  17. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    Kuhlmann, Gesa


    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of th

  18. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    Kuhlmann, G.


    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of th

  19. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    Kuhlmann, Gesa


    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of th

  20. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    found, 8 known species re-described after contemporary standards, and a species inventory with keys to those 25 species and the paederine genera occurring in New Zealand was produced. The genus was placed in the phylogenetic context of its subfamily, Paederinae, for which a robust phylogenetic...... was investigated by using a time-calibrated relaxed molecular clock with fossil calibration points. The results showed, that New Zealand was colonised by Hyperomma at least two times independently, once about 43–68 ma (possibly while still connected to Gondwana) and at least once ca. 28.5–47 ma (most probable....... Additionally, the extinct Cretaceous staphylinid genus Apticax was described connected with a short review on fossil Paederinae and closely related fossils....

  1. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    Elder, J.W.


    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  2. Cancer in Pacific people in New Zealand.

    Meredith, Ineke; Sarfati, Diana; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Blakely, Tony


    To describe cancer incidence rates among Pacific people living in New Zealand from 1981 to 2004. Linked census-cancer registration data were used to calculate age-standardized cancer incidence rates for Pacific people. Both trends over time within Pacific people and differences in rates between Pacific and European/Other people in New Zealand were assessed. Pacific rates were higher for cancers of the cervix, endometrium, gallbladder, lip, mouth and pharynx, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid, and lower for colorectal, bladder, and testicular cancers and melanoma. Differences were large, ranging from a 90 % lower rate of melanoma to over seven times higher rate of liver cancer compared to European/Other. Breast and prostate cancers were the commonest malignancies for Pacific women and men, respectively. Important changes for Pacific women over time include a 64 % decrease in cervical cancer incidence (ptrend = 0.02) and a 245 % increase for lung cancer (ptrend = 0.02), while men had a 366 % increase in prostate cancer (ptrend = 0.02). Pacific people in New Zealand have a disproportionate cancer burden related to infectious diseases such as HPV and Hepatitis B. However, with escalating evidence for causal associations between diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity with various cancers, the challenge will be to prevent these cancers from rising in Pacific people who have the highest rates of these conditions in New Zealand. Disparities for tobacco-related cancers support tobacco consumption as another important cause of cancer incidence disparity. Continued efforts are needed to reduce infectious disease and improve screening program uptake among Pacific people.

  3. Equity in statin use in New Zealand

    Norris P


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Preventive medications such as statins are used to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is some evidence to suggest that people of lower socioeconomic position are less likely to be prescribed statins. In New Zealand, Maori have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aimed to investigate statin utilisation by socioeconomic position and ethnicity in a region of New Zealand. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected on all prescriptions dispensed from all pharmacies in one city during 2005/6. Linkage with national datasets provided information on patients' age, gender and ethnicity. Socioeconomic position was identified using the New Zealand Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation 2006. RESULTS: Statin use increased with age until around 75 years. Below age 65 years, those in the most deprived socioeconomic areas were most likely to receive statins. In the 55-64 age group, 22.3% of the most deprived population received a statin prescription (compared with 17.5% of the mid and 18.6% of the least deprived group. At ages up to 75 years, use was higher amongst Maori than non-Maori, particularly in middle age, where Maori have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In the 45-54 age group, 11.6% of Maori received a statin prescription, compared with 8.7% of non-Maori. DISCUSSION: Statin use approximately matched the pattern of need, in contrast to other studies which found under-treatment of people of low socioeconomic position. A PHARMAC campaign to increase statin use may have increased use in high-risk groups in New Zealand.

  4. Recovery in New Zealand: an evolving concept?

    O'Hagan, Mary; Reynolds, Paul; Smith, Cherryl


    Recovery was first officially promoted in New Zealand in 1998 and it became a key concept in mental health service development. Since the mid 2000s however, recovery has been on the wane in New Zealand, but the fundamental concepts within the term live on in two more recently adopted terms: whanau ora and well-being. He Korowai Oranga (Maori Health Strategy) defines whanau ora as families being supported to achieve health and well-being. The extended family is recognized as a source of strength, identity, security and support. Whanau ora is underpinned by Te Whare Tapa Wha, a well-being model that focuses on health being a balance between Taha Wairua (spiritual health), Taha Tinana (physical health), Taha Hinengaro (psychological health) and Taha Whānau (family health). New Zealanders are also using the term well-being, not just for the whole population but for people diagnosed with mental illness. The advantages of placing recovery into the larger well-being agenda are reduced discrimination and segregation of people with a diagnosis into a distinct population group, reduced association with medical and deficits approaches that can counter the recovery approach, and bypassing the dilution of the recovery approach that has occurred in traditional services.

  5. Paleogeographic and Depositional Model for the Neogene fluvial succession, Pishin Belt Northwest Pakistan: the effect of post collisional tectonics on sedimentation in peripheral foreland setting

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad


    channels, lateral accretion surfaces (point bars) and alluvial fans. Neogene sedimentation in the Pishin Belt was mainly controlled by active tectonism and thrusting in response to oblique collision of the Indian Plate with Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate along the Chaman-Nushki Fault. Post Miocene......Detailed facies analysis of the Neogene successions of the Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin) has enabled documentation of successive depositional systems and palaeogeographic settings of the basin formed by the collision of northwestern continental margin of Indian Plate and Afghan Block. During Early...

  6. From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis

    Alessandretti, Luciano; Machado, Rômulo; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Assine, Mario Luis; Lana, Cristiano


    The Late Permian sedimentary succession of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil, provide a valuable source of information about sediment provenance, tectonic processes and, consequently, the paleogeography of the southwestern Gondwana supercontinent. In order to understand the patterns of sedimentary dispersal and reconstruct the Late Permian source-to-sink dynamic, we report a complete series of U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from the Rio do Rasto Formation sandstones allied with detailed paleocurrent and sedimentologic data. Our integrated provenance study reveals a consistent sediment transport from the south to the north and northwest. According to the evaluation of zircon ages and Hf isotopes, it was possible to determine four distinct source areas: (i) a distant Late Paleozoic active magmatic arc located in the southwestern Gondwana margin (i.e. Gondwanides Orogen), corresponding to the North Patagonian Massif; (ii) recycling of orthoquartzites from the uplifted Paleozoic Ventania Fold Belt and immature sandstones from the Claromecó Foreland Basin in central-eastern Argentina and the Silurian-Devonian successions of the southern Paraná Basin (central-northern Uruguay) and North Patagonian Massif; (iii) exhumed areas of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement and Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic mobile belts of the Damara in southwestern Africa and Ribeira Fold Belt in Uruguay and southern Brazil; and (iv) southeastward provenance of Grenvillian (1.2-1.0 Ga) zircons coming from the mafic to intermediate Mesoproterozoic igneous units of the Namaqua-Natal Belt in South Africa and Namibia. These data allow us to argue that sediments deposited in the Paraná Basin during the Late Permian come from both short- and long-distance source areas. In this context, an important population of Permian detrital zircons comes from the Gondwanides Orogen in the south, probably carried by transcontinental alluvial systems. Close to the source area

  7. Geologic tie-points across the Arctic Ocean: Insight into the paleogeography and configuration of the Arctic before the opening of the Amerasia Basin

    Miller, E. L.; Gottlieb, E. S.; Meisling, K. E.; Brumley, K. J.; O'Brien, T.


    Relevant data are compiled and synthesized with the goal of establishing spatial and temporal connections between rifted and displaced continental fragments in order to provide insight into the pre-rift paleogeography of the Arctic and the plate kinematic history that led to its present-day geology. Prior to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, Eurasia, Greenland and Canada formed part of Pangea, characterized by a once continuous paleo-Pacific facing northwestern continental margin. Formation of the Amerasia Basin by a multi-stage and poorly understood history of rifting in the Cretaceous resulted in the displacement of continental fragments towards the paleo-Pacific margin, forming the Amerasia Basin in its wake. Basement rock ages from Chukotka and western Arctic Alaska are Neoproterozoic in age and are overlain by sedimentary successions that have Baltica-affinity sources, based on U-Pb detrital zircon (DZ) geochronology. Younger Triassic and Jurassic strata DZ indicate pre-rift ties between Chukotka and the Taimyr/polar Ural portion of Eurasia while coeval strata of the North Slope Alaska are derived from Laurentia. Two important sediment-source divides provide additional information on geological reconstructions: The lower Paleozoic Caledonide suture between Laurentia and Eurasia remained a source of sediment throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Its rifted remains are inferred to underlie the Chukchi Borderland and likely continue across northern Alaska, but has not been identified with certainty on the ground. In the Triassic, Ural-Taimyr sediment sources were separated from Laurentia/Caledonide sources by topographic highs, one of which has been identified as the Chukchi high that bounds the offshore Hanna trough of Alaska on its western side. The kinematic opening history of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic has eluded us because the basin lacks magnetic anomalies and there are conflicting constraints on its age(s) and direction(s) of rifting

  8. Locating women in the New Zealand computing industry

    Alison Hunter, PhD

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that women are under-represented in computing occupations in many Western countries, but is the situation similar in New Zealand? This article presents a quantitative analysis of gendered employment patterns in New Zealand\\'s computing industry. Findings from analysis of 2001 and 2006 census employment data demonstrate that women are now well represented in some newer computing occupations in New Zealand, but they remain significantly under-represented in traditional computing roles such as programming and systems analysis. Furthermore, New Zealand women in computing do not have pay parity with men. On some occasions during the early days of computing in New Zealand women participated more equally in number but they have always experienced pay discrimination.

  9. Inflation Targeting and Economic Reforms in New Zealand

    Matteo Cacciatore; Fabio Ghironi; Turnovsky, Stephen J.


    We study the consequences of economic reforms in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1990s. Inflation targeting became the monetary policymaking framework of the RBNZ in 1990. In the years that followed, New Zealand implemented labor market reform and became increasingly integrated in world trade. We use a New Keynesian model with rich trade microfoundations and labor market dynamics to study the performance of inflation targeting versus alternative monetary policy rules for New Zealand in...

  10. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.


    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  11. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    Cumming, Jacqueline


    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  12. Midwifery education in New Zealand: Education, practice and autonomy.

    Gilkison, Andrea; Pairman, Sally; McAra-Couper, Judith; Kensington, Mary; James, Liz


    New Zealand's midwifery education model is intertwined with a practice model which is underpinned by autonomy and partnership. The curriculum prepares students for practice across the scope of midwifery on their own responsibility. While students have formal learning opportunities within educational institutions they spend at least half of their programme learning through authentic work experiences alongside midwives and women. Midwifery educators partner with practising midwives to support students to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to practise midwifery in the New Zealand context. This paper provides an overview of New Zealand's midwifery education model and identifies how it is integrated with New Zealand's unique midwifery service.

  13. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of hot springs along the along the Neogene Malawi rift.

    Atekwana, E. A.; Tsokonombwe, G. W.; Elsenbeck, J.; Wanless, V. D.; Atekwana, E. A.


    We measured the concentrations of major ions and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13CDIC), hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) of hot springs along the Neogene Malawi rift. We compared the results with those of streams and a cold spring. We aimed to assess the hot springs for evidence of addition of mantle mass, specifically water and carbon and (2) determine the processes that control the chemical and isotopic evolution of the hot springs. Understanding the source(s) of heat for the springs and if the chemical and isotopic characteristics show evidence of mantle processes is an important goal of the Project for Rift Initiation, Development and Evolution (PRIDE). The temperature of the hot springs ranged from 35 to 80 ºC. High temperature anomalies are observed between latitudes 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 degrees south along the rift axis. The δD and δ18O for the cold spring, hot springs and streams had a similar range, were positively correlated and lie on the trend of the local meteoric water line. We suggest negligible contribution of water from a connate or magmatic source and limited oxygen exchange from water-rock interaction or CO2 exchange from deep sedimentary carbonates. The DIC concentrations of the hot springs are higher (5 to 61 mg C/L) than those of streams (2 to 28 mg C/L) indicating addition of carbon to the DIC pool during the circulation of some springs. The range in the δ13CDIC of the hot springs (-17 to -8‰) is broader and lower compared to streams (-12 to -5‰) due to addition of carbon with a δ13CDIC of -15‰ to the spring water during circulation. Our results indicate that (1) the source of water for the hot springs is meteoric, (2) the hot springs have not experienced extensive water-rock interaction due to fast circulation suggesting highly permeable fault zones, (3) the source of carbon in the DIC of the hot springs is mostly CO2(g) from the soil zone and (4) the springs are heated by normal

  14. Early Neogene unroofing of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta along the Bucaramanga -Santa Marta Fault

    Piraquive Bermúdez, Alejandro; Pinzón, Edna; Bernet, Matthias; Kammer, Andreas; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Sarmiento, Gustavo


    Plate interaction between Caribbean and Nazca plates with Southamerica gave rise to an intricate pattern of tectonic blocks in the Northandean realm. Among these microblocks the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) represents a fault-bounded triangular massif composed of a representative crustal section of the Northandean margin, in which a Precambrian to Late Paleozoic metamorphic belt is overlain by a Triassic to Jurassic magmatic arc and collateral volcanic suites. Its western border fault belongs to the composite Bucaramanga - Santa Marta fault with a combined left lateral-normal displacement. SE of Santa Marta it exposes remnants of an Oligocene marginal basin, which attests to a first Cenoizoic activation of this crustal-scale lineament. The basin fill consists of a sequence of coarse-grained cobble-pebble conglomerates > 1000 m thick that unconformably overlay the Triassic-Jurassic magmatic arc. Its lower sequence is composed of interbedded siltstones; topwards the sequence becomes dominated by coarser fractions. These sedimentary sequences yields valuable information about exhumation and coeval sedimentation processes that affected the massif's western border since the Upper Eocene. In order to analyse uplifting processes associated with tectonics during early Neogene we performed detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, detrital thermochronology of zircon and apatites coupled with the description of a stratigraphic section and its facies composition. We compared samples from the Aracataca basin with analog sequences found at an equivalent basin at the Oca Fault at the northern margin of the SNSM. Our results show that sediments of both basins were sourced from Precambrian gneisses, along with Mesozoic acid to intermediate plutons; sedimentation started in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene according to palynomorphs, subsequently in the Upper Oligocene a completion of Jurassic to Cretaceous sources was followed by an increase of Precambrian input that became the dominant

  15. The Neogene Redbeds of Iceland - a High-Latitude Terrestrial Paleoclimate Monitor Driven by Chemical Weathering

    Riishuus, M. S.; Bird, D. K.


    Chemical weathering of tephra and aeolian dust of basaltic composition produces clays and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals preserved in reddened layers referred to as redbeds, boles or paleosols. We propose that the extent of weathering of Neogene redbeds in Iceland and the isotopic composition of structurally bound water in associated weathering clay preserve records of high-latitude paleoclimatic and hydrologic conditions. In support we present whole-rock geochemistry and smectite D/H compositions of redbed horizons from Iceland for comparative analysis with global paleoclimate trends and local independent proxy data. Smectite δD values of 35 basaltic tephras in Iceland (~15-2 Ma) display a general decrease in δD compositions from -110 to -105 ‰ at ~15-13 Ma to -115 to -118 ‰ at ~3-2 Ma which correlates well with the global cooling trend from the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-15 Ma) to present day. Furthermore, the extent of weathering expressed by the Chemical Index of Weathering increases from 40-50 at 2-3 Ma to 80-90 at 15-16 Ma suggesting enhanced chemical weathering rates during the warmer climate conditions. The weathering extent of modern andosols in Iceland is temperature-dependant and allows construction of a paleo-climate proxy [1]. Application of this proxy suggests that mean annual temperatures (MATs) increased from ~0°C at ~2 Ma to ~9°C at 15-16 Ma in general agreement with independent local proxy data. The δD values of paleo meteoric waters in Iceland, estimated using a smectite-water fractionation factor and model MATs, decrease from -41 ‰ at 15-16 Ma (9°C) to -45 ‰ at 2 Ma (0°C). The paleo meteoric water compositions are increasingly enriched in deuterium relative to present day meteoric water in Iceland (δD ≤ -50 ‰). This is in agreement with global cooling since Middle Miocene toward ice-dominated conditions with greater equator-to-pole temperature contrasts, affecting the distillation process between ocean, atmosphere and

  16. Neogene-Quaternary Volcanic forms in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region: a review

    Lexa, Jaroslav; Seghedi, Ioan; Németh, Karoly; Szakács, Alexandru; Koneĉny, Vlastimil; Pécskay, Zoltan; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Kovacs, Marinel


    Neogene to Quaternary volcanic/magmatic activity in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (CPR) occurred between 21 and 0.1 Ma with a distinct migration in time from west to east. It shows a diverse compositional variation in response to a complex interplay of subduction with rollback, back-arc extension, collision, slab break-off, delamination, strike-slip tectonics and microplate rotations, as well as in response to further evolution of magmas in the crustal environment by processes of differentiation, crustal contamination, anatexis and magma mixing. Since most of the primary volcanic forms have been affected by erosion, especially in areas of post-volcanic uplift, based on the level of erosion we distinguish: (1) areas eroded to the basement level, where paleovolcanic reconstruction is not possible; (2) deeply eroded volcanic forms with secondary morphology and possible paleovolcanic reconstruction; (3) eroded volcanic forms with remnants of original morphology preserved; and (4) the least eroded volcanic forms with original morphology quite well preserved. The large variety of volcanic forms present in the area can be grouped in a) monogenetic volcanoes and b) polygenetic volcanoes and their subsurface/intrusive counterparts that belong to various rock series found in the CPR such as calc-alkaline magmatic rock-types (felsic, intermediate and mafic varieties) and alkalic types including K-alkalic, shoshonitic, ultrapotassic and Na-alkalic. The following volcanic/subvolcanic forms have been identified: (i) domes, shield volcanoes, effusive cones, pyroclastic cones, stratovolcanoes and calderas with associated intrusive bodies for intermediate and basic calclkaline volcanism; (ii) domes, calderas and ignimbrite/ash-flow fields for felsic calc-alkaline volcanism and (iii) dome flows, shield volcanoes, maars, tuffcone/tuff-rings, scoria-cones with or without related lava flow/field and their erosional or subsurface forms (necks/ plugs, dykes, shallow intrusions

  17. Heterogeneous sources of marlstone in a piggy-back basin: the Neogene Lopare basin in Dinarides

    Grba, Nenad; Neubauer, Franz; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Jovančićević, Branimir


    The chemical composition of marlstones is commonly not used to investigate to provenance of the sedimentary basin fill because of variable dilution by authigenic carbonate and the assumed uniformity of the clay fraction. Here, we report geochemical compositions of marlstone from the Neogene Lopare basin in Internal Dinarides, which have an unusual chemical composition reflecting at least two different sources. The Lopare basin formed as a piggy-back basin on top of the growing Dinaric orogenic wedge. Much of its Miocene evolution, this basin represented a partly hypersaline lake in a warm climate likely formed during the Miocene Climatic Optimum during Early Miocene. Several lithofacies of marlstone reflect basin center deposits and the chemical composition could be considered as well mixed from external siliciclastic input (clay fraction) and internal carbonate precipitation. Sandstone layers are very thin and are not considered here. A total of 46 samples from two boreholes POT-3 (depth to 344 m) and POT-1 (depth to 193 m) were selected for geochemical investigation. The contents of major, minor and trace including rare earth elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The qualitative composition of the mineral part was determined by means of X-ray diffractometry. The main chemical features of the Lopare basin marlstone are variable but high contents of most metals like Fe (5.36 ± 1.05 wt%), Cr (215 ± 34 ppm), Ni (183 ± 36 ppm), Pb (173 ± 43 ppm), but also of some alkalies like Li (340 ± 123 ppm). Particularly the heavy metal contents like Cr, Ni, Fe are much higher than for average continental mudstones (e.g., Taylor and McLennan, 1985). These contrasting compositions may result from two geochemically different sources: (1) Ophiolites (oceanic source) occurring in the neighborhood are responsible for high Cr, Ni, Fe contents, while (2) the increased alkali contents (e.g., Li; continental source) likely

  18. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János


    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  19. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.


    In the Southern Red River Delta (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam), a local lens of low saline pore water of high quality has been identified in unconsolidated Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers, which are regionally known to contain brackish and saline pore waters. Since the 1990ies, ongoing overexploitation of the fresh groundwater results in decreasing GW heads up to 0.6 m/a and the development of a regional abstraction cone. The presented study focuses on distribution and genesis of fresh and saline pore waters and reflects the results in frame of the regional hydrogeological context. Observations of the geological structure and groundwater dynamics combined with hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest adjacent Triassic hard rock aquifers as the major source for fresh Pleistocene and Neogene groundwater. Salinization status in the economically most relevant Pleistocene aquifer has been studied based on archive and new hydrochemical and geophysical data. Own hydrochemical field studies as well as laboratory measurements of the specific resistivity of dry sediment samples allow the translation of induction logging data from existing monitoring wells into vertical pore water salinity profiles. This approach suggests the regional occurrence of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments in the working area, as confirmed by pore water studies in Hoan et al. (2010). Interpretation of induction logging and stable isotope data suggest vertical diffusion of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments as a source for high saline pore water in deeper aquifers. Analytical diffusion modeling for a period of 3000 years confirms that vertical diffusion of Holocene paleo-sea water can explain saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers in a stagnant environment. The constant influx of fresh groundwater from adjacent Triassic hard rocks results in flushing of the primary Pleistocene and Neogene pore water and inhibits the infiltration of saline water from marine

  20. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam


    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence bou

  2. Reconsideration of the so-called Oligocene fauna in the asphaltic deposits of Buton (Malay Archipelago) — 2. Young-Neogene Foraminifera and calcareous Algae

    Keyzer, F.G.


    Miopliocene marls from the island of Buton yield a large marine foraminiferal fauna and some calcareous algae. Three-hundred and thirthy-three species have been identified. Two genera, twenty-three species and four varieties are described as new. The existence of mud-volcanoes in young neogene time

  3. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence bou

  4. Kinematics of the Neogene Terror Rift: Constraints from calcite twinning strain in AND-1B core, McMurdo Ice Shelf

    Paulsen, T.; Wilson, T. J.; Demosthenous, C.; Millan, C.; Jarrard, R. D.; Laufer, A.


    Strain analyses of mechanically twinned calcite in veins and faults hosted by Neogene (13.6 Ma to 4.3 Ma) sedimentary and volcanic rocks recovered within the ANDRILL AND-1B drill core from the Terror Rift in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica, yield prolate and oblate ellipsoids with principal shortening and extension strains ranging from 0.1% to 8.5%. The majority of samples show homogeneous coaxial strain predominantly characterized by subvertical shortening, which we attribute to lithostatic loading in an Andersonian normal faulting stress regime during sedimentary and ice sheet burial of the stratigraphic sequence. The overall paucity of a non-coaxial layer-parallel shortening signal in the AND-1B twin populations suggests that horizontal compressive stresses predicted by Neogene transtensional kinematic models for the rift system have been absent or of insufficient magnitude to cause a widespread noncoaxial strain overprint. Limited numbers of oriented samples yield a possible average ESE extension direction for the rift that is subparallel to other indicators of Neogene extension. The lack of horizontal shortening in the twin data suggests the Neogene Terror Rift system either lacks a strong longitudinal strike-slip component, or that spatial partitioning of strain controls the maximum shortening axes seen in rocks of this age.

  5. A hydrological model of New Zealand

    Woods, R. A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Ibbitt, R. P.; Wild, M.; Henderson, R. D.; Turner, R.


    We present initial results from a hydrological model of New Zealand, using Topnet, a variant of TOPMODEL, linked to a kinematic wave channel network routing algorithm. This model run uses daily timesteps for the period 1985-2001, and subdivides the country into approximately 35,000 sub-catchments of 7-10 sq km each. The sub-catchments are linked by 55,000 river reaches, which route sub-catchment runoff. The model subcatchments and reaches are defined automatically by DEM analyses, and initial estimates of model parameters are defined by GIS overlay, coupled with purpose-built model assembly code, and lookup tables for model parameters. A daily simulation for 1 year over New Zealand takes two hours on a standard desktop computer. The model is forced by gridded daily rainfall and temperature data, and it calculates daily water balance for each of the sub-catchments (rain, evaporation, throughfall, infiltration, soil drainage, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, and changes in storage in the canopy, root zone, and saturated storage), as well as daily flows in each river reach. The model as currently implemented does not include snow, glaciers, or deep groundwater flow (i.e. across sub-catchment boundaries). The first applications of the model are for developing an annual water balance of New Zealand for the period 1994-2001, at the regional scale, and for driving a high-spatial resolution, daily time-stepping national erosion model. We are moving to further applications for water resource modeling (e.g. impact of abstraction and/or storage), and for flood forecasting, using hourly rainfall from a mesoscale atmospheric model.

  6. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand



    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  7. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand



    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  8. The principal time balls of New Zealand

    Kinns, Roger


    Accurate time signals in New Zealand were important for navigation in the Pacific. Time balls at Wellington and Lyttelton were noted in the 1880 Admiralty list of time signals, with later addition of Otago. The time ball service at Wellington started in March 1864 using the first official observatory in New Zealand, but there was no Wellington time ball service during a long period of waterfront redevelopment during the 1880s. The time ball service restarted in November 1888 at a different harbour location. The original mechanical apparatus was used with a new ball, but the system was destroyed by fire in March 1909 and was never replaced. Instead, a time light service was inaugurated in 1912. The service at Lyttelton, near Christchurch, began in December 1876 after construction of the signal station there. It used telegraph signals from Wellington to regulate the time ball. By the end of 1909, it was the only official time ball in New Zealand, providing a service that lasted until 1934. The Lyttelton time ball tower was an iconic landmark in New Zealand that had been carefully restored. Tragically, the tower collapsed in the 2011 earthquakes and aftershocks that devastated Christchurch. A daily time ball service at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, started in June 1867, initially using local observatory facilities. The service appears to have been discontinued in October 1877, but was re-established in April 1882 as a weekly service, with control by telegraph from Wellington. The service had been withdrawn altogether by the end of 1909. Auckland never established a reliable time ball service, despite provision of a weekly service for mariners by a public-spirited citizen between August 1864 and June 1866. A time ball was finally installed on the Harbour Board building in 1901, but the signal was unreliable and it ceased in 1902. Complaints from ships' masters led to various proposals to re-establish a service. These concluded with erection of a time ball on the new

  9. Interference Tests at Kawerau, New Zealand

    Burnell, John G.; McGuinness, Mark J.


    Analysis of interference tests at the Kawerau geothermal field in New Zealand has indicated that the reservoir may be viewed on a coarse scale as a two-layer structure. While these layers have high permeabilities, they are in poor hydrological communication with each other. The shallower layer is modelled as a finite cylindrical reservoir. The deeper layer is modelled as a larger cylindrical reservoir with recharge from the sides. The fitted permeabilities and storativities suggest the importance of flow in fractures at Kawerau. 2 tabs., 14 figs., 8 refs.

  10. IA of bio-economic projects in Region Zealand, Denmark

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge; Palsberg, Aske

    Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts.......Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts....

  11. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian


    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  12. Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers.

    O'Hagan, Mary

    This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…

  13. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn


    "The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…

  14. Competition and Reform of the New Zealand Tertiary Education Sector

    Abbott, Malcolm


    The purpose of this paper is to use an historical approach to examine the changing nature, size and diversification of education and training in New Zealand. In particular, attention will be concentrated on the impact of the introduction of competition into the New Zealand tertiary education industry since 1989. It will examine the relationship…

  15. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary


    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  16. Spirituality in Career from a New Zealand Maori Perspective.

    Furbish, Dale S.; Reid, Lynette

    New Zealand Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa, a relatively small nation of 4 million people. The juxtaposition of Maori and European cultures presents an opportunity to contrast the highly spiritual nature of Maori culture with European traditions of linearity and rationality. This contrast can be especially appreciated in…

  17. Small Country, Big Business? New Zealand as Education Exporter

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter


    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…

  18. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.


    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  19. Inversion tectonics in the Neogene basins of Tuscany (Northern Apennines, Italy): Insights from the Pisa-Viareggio basin.

    Argnani, A.; Rogledi, S.


    Several sedimentary basins are located in the internal portion of the Northern Apennines, bordering the eastern side of the Northern Tyrrhenian sea. These basins trend almost parallel to the Apennine range and are filled by Neogene sediments with thickness ranging between few 100's m to few km (Martini et al., 2001). Sediments belonging to these basins crop out extensively in western Tuscany, often appearing heavily deformed. Although classically interpreted as extensional basins (e.g., Martini and Sagri, 1993 and references therein), some papers call for an initial thrust-related origin (Finetti et al., 2001; Bonini and Sani, 2002), and the long-lasting debate about the origin of the Neogene basins of Tuscany is still ongoing (cfr. Brogi 2011 and Sani et al., 2004). This contribution aims at presenting the case of the Pisa-Viareggio basin, which is the northernmost one among the large basins of Tuscany (Pascucci et al., 2007). This basin straddles the coastline and has been investigated through the interpretation of a grid of industrial seismic profiles covering the Pisa plain and tied to exploration wells. In the Pisa-Viareggio basin seismic profiles show a west-dipping listric extensional fault that bounds the basin to the east, supporting an extensional origin. The basin is filled with up to 3 seconds of upper Messinian to Quaternary sediments, and extension mostly occurred during late Messinian-early Pliocene, although continuing with reduced intensity till the Quaternary. The southern part of this basin shows a superimposed contractional deformation (tectonic inversion), that progressively increases to the south, where the basin appears completely overturned and eroded in the Livorno Mountains. The basin-boundary fault trends roughly NNW-SSE and is buried in the Quaternary sediments of the Pisa plain, but it turns rather abruptly to N-S and NNE-SSW in the south, near Livorno. Inspection of detailed geological maps (Lazzarotto et al., 1990) suggests that the

  20. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group of far eastern Himalaya, Kameng section, Arunashal Pradesh, India

    Chirouze, Francois; Huyghe, Pascale; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume


    Foreland basins act as receptacles for synorogenic sediments and store materials eroded off a convergent mountain belt (DeCelles and Giles, 1996, DeCelles and Giles, 1996). Their infill records tectonic, climatic and erosional processes that govern the development of the mountain belt and the foreland basin. Consequently, studying the infill of foreland basins can give clues as to the reconstruction of the orogen tectonic growth and the interaction with global or regional climate (e.g. Molnar & England, 1990). The Himalaya, the highest range in the world, is used as a natural laboratory to test the interactions between these processes, in particular because of the effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on the intensity and variability of the Asian monsoon (Kutzbach et al., 1993; Fluteau et al., 1999). Exhumation, erosion and climate events affecting the Himalaya are recorded in the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin deposits (e.g. DeCelles et al., 1998, 2000; Galy et al., 1999; Huyghe et al., 2001, 2005; Najman, 2005). Dating these deposits is a key element to reconstruct the Himalaya's evolution. Despite a wealth of studies in the central and western Himalayan foreland, very few studies have been carried out in the eastern part (Yin et al., 2006, Cina et al 2009). Understanding the evolution of this eastern part is essential for reconstructing the regional migration of the Himalayan deformation. In addition, the eastern Himalayan foreland potentially records the evolution of processes associated to the eastern syntaxis drainage networks (Singh and France-Lanord, 2002) and the Shillong plateau uplift (Grujic et al., 2006). Therefore, accurate dating of the sediments of the Eastern part of the Siwalik foreland basin using magnetostratigraphy is a crucial initial step for further investigations such as sedimentological and structural field studies, fission tracks, provenance and isotopic stable laboratory analysis. These investigations aim at constraining the exhumation

  1. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.


    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  2. New Zealand needs a Practice Based Research Network.

    Leitch, Sharon


    Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs) are groups of general practices collaborating to produce research. Contemporary New Zealand health information technology systems are ideal for electronic data extraction for PBRN research. Stakeholders have a valuable, but typically underutilised, part to play in research. Development of an e-participation platform will facilitate stakeholder engagement. New Zealand is in a unique position to create an innovative, low cost, stakeholder-engaged PBRN. This type of PBRN would offer unparalleled research opportunities, and would strengthen New Zealand's general practice research capacity. The more research information we have based on our New Zealand population, the more appropriate care we can provide. Establishing a stakeholder-engaged PBRN in New Zealand will promote and support transformational change within our health system.

  3. 二叠纪古板块再造与岩相古地理特征分析%Characteristics of the reconstruction of Permian paleoplate and lithofacies paleogeography

    李维波; 李江海; 王洪浩; 塔斯肯


    Basing on paleomagnetic methods, the authors reconstructed the location of Permian paleoplate, And combination with regional geological information, compiled the Permian global paleoplate map, global lithofacies paleogeography map and distribution map of hydrocarbon source rocks in Permian. Pangea and Panthalassa around were the main continental pattern. Rift systems were well developed, such as the North Sea-North Atlantic rift system in Laurasia and the rift system in African. The continuous development of the rift systems eventually led to the breakup of Pangaea. Meanwhile, Due to the continuous development of glaciation in Permian and the widespread drought environment, global sea levels in the late Permian reached the lowest in Phanerozoic. Shallow seas were wildly spread around Neo- Tethys and Paleo- Tethys. These paleogeographic environments caused the deposition of shallow marine carbonate and clastic sediments in the whole Neo-Tethys periphery and Laurasia. Lacustrine clastic sediments were deposited internally in Gondwana. Source rocks in Permian were not widely developed, the main layer system was Lower Permian shale, which was mainly concentrated in the northern margin of Laurasia, Tethys periphery and interior of Gondwana as well as eastern margin of Australia, dominated by transitional facies depositional environment.%依据古地磁方法,对二叠纪全球古板块进行再造,并在此基础上,结合区域地质资料,编制了二叠系全球古板块再造图、全球岩相及烃源岩分布图和全球古地理图。二叠纪板块格局以泛大陆和泛大洋为主,大陆内部裂谷系(如劳亚板块内部北海—北大西洋裂谷系和非洲大陆内部裂谷系)持续发育,最终导致了泛大陆的裂解。二叠纪冰期持续发育,又由于干旱带广泛发育的古气候条件,造成全球海平面在晚二叠世达到整个显生宙的最低值。浅海广泛发育的古地理环境造成古、新特提斯洋

  4. New Zealand students on tour at CERN


    The three prize-winners Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson in front of the CMS magnet, with their teacher Noema Watene on the left. The "Journey to the End of Science" makes a stop at CERN. Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson, three high-school students from Fairfield College in Hamilton, New Zealand, won first prize in the New Zealand Royal Society's scientific film competition - the trip of a lifetime to Europe. The reward for their excellent documentary on the nuclear physicist and winner of the Nobel prize for Medicine Maurice Wilkins was a trip to Italy and Switzerland, stopping at CERN on the way. Accompanied by one of their teachers and a science journalist, the students were shown around the antiproton decelerator and the CMS experiment by Alick Macpherson, a Kiwi physicist at CERN. Their faithful camera always at the ready, the students filmed every minute of their visits to the various sites - perhaps they were hatching plans for next year's competition...

  5. Reconstructing Vegetation and Hydrological Changes from Biomarkers in Modern Soils and Late Neogene Paleosols, Meade Basin, KS, USA

    Fischer-Femal, B.; Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Feinberg, J. M.; Fox, D. L.; Snell, K. E.; Martin, R.


    Paleoclimate and paleovegetation proxies can help us understand how C4 grasslands have expanded worldwide and responded to climate change during the late Neogene. The Miocene-Holocene deposits of the Meade Basin, southwestern Kansas preserve a record of C4 ecosystem expansion as well as a rich fossil record of small mammals. These records combined provide an excellent opportunity to study the cause(s) of the C4 ecosystem expansion and the consequences for faunal evolution. As part of an interdisciplinary project, we are investigating the organic geochemical record of vegetation and hydrological change in the Meade Basin. Preliminary findings from three modern soil pits suggest n-alkane δ¹³C values have similar trends to n-alkanoic acid δ¹³C values in each soil profile, but the absolute values of these two different types of plant-wax compounds are offset by up to 6.8‰. This result was unexpected because the absolute δ¹³C values of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids are assumed to be very similar in the plants themselves. Moreover, the δ¹³C values of the n-alkanoic acids more accurately reflect the modern vegetation at our sites. Few studies compare carbon isotope data in n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and it is important to constrain how these two types of plant-wax compounds reflect vegetation differently. We will use hydrogen isotope measurements on these same plant-wax samples to evaluate how the modern precipitation isotopic ratios are recorded in biomarkers, which in turn will be used to interpret hydrogen isotope data from paleosol biomarkers. Ongoing work will use plant-wax isotopic records from the modern soil profiles as a framework for interpreting the plant-wax isotopic records from Meade Basin paleosol and fluvial sediments to reconstruct the late Neogene C4 grassland expansion and hydroclimate change in this region.

  6. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Ali Hossein Jalilian


    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  7. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.


    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  8. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic foraminifera at ODP Hole 730A, western Arabian Sea

    Yuvaraja Arumugm; Anil K Gupta; Mruganka K Panigrahi


    Deep-sea benthic foraminifera are an important and widely used marine proxy to understand paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes on regional and global scales, owing to their sensitivity to oceanic and climatic turnovers. Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass properties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass stability. The present study is aimed at analyzing species diversity trends in benthic foraminifera and their linkages with Indian monsoon variability during the Neogene. Species diversity of benthic foraminifera is examined in terms of number of species (S), information function (H), equitability (E) and Sanders’ rarefied values, which were combined with relative abundances of high and low productivity benthic foraminifera at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 730A, Oman margin, western Arabian Sea. The Oman margin offers the best opportunity to understand monsoon-driven changes in benthic diversity since summer monsoon winds have greater impact on the study area. The species diversity was higher during the early Miocene Climatic Optimum (∼17.2–16.4 Ma) followed by a decrease during 16.4–13 Ma coinciding with a major increase in Antarctic ice volume and increased formation of Antarctic Bottom Water. All the diversity parameters show an increase during 13–11.6 Ma, a gradual decrease during 11.6–9 Ma and then an increase with a maximum at 7 Ma. Thereafter the values show little change until 1.2 Ma when all the parameters abruptly decrease. The benthic foraminiferal populations and diversity at Hole 730A were mainly driven by the Indian monsoon, and polar waters might have played a minor or no role since early Neogene period as the Arabian Sea is an enclosed basin.

  9. Late Neogene shift from polythermal to cold polar conditions of the Antarctic ice sheet indicated by glacial stratigraphy and sea-ice history

    Harwood, D.; Hambrey, M.; McKelvey, B.; Webb, P.; Whitehead, J.


    Discussions on the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet center on the age of the switch from a 'dynamic' mode (polythermal) to the modern, 'stable' mode (cold-polar) of Antarctic glaciation. Interpretations derived from landscape evolution, ash deposits and polar desert pavements in the Dry Valley region support a persistent cold-polar climate by middle Miocene time. In contrast, interpretations based on glacigene strata of the Sirius Group in the Transantarctic Mts. and Pagodroma Group of the Prince Charles Mts. support the persistence of a dynamic, polythermal ice sheet until the late Pliocene. Marine sediments on the continental shelf preserve a record of sea-ice history, as indicated by sea-ice diatom assemblages, that bears on the timing of the switch in glacial regime. Through most of the Late Neogene and into the late Pliocene, the sea-ice diatom flora was weakly developed to absent. The reduced influence of sea-ice during the Late Neogene would impact the terrestrial glacial regime by lowered albedo of the ocean surface and higher ocean to atmospheric heat and moisture transfer, both of which would result in prolonged regional warming and polythermal ice. This paper will review the history of Neogene sea-ice and present stratigraphic evidence on characteristics of glacigene deposition in terrestrial and glacimarine environments during the Miocene and Pliocene, which suggest deposition by an ice sheet of quite different character than the present ice sheet, and a glacial regime of significant erosion and deposition. In situ marine fossils of the Pagodroma Group indicate that this warmer than present climate and polythermal character of the East Antarctic ice sheet continued into the Pliocene. The floating ice margin retreated up the Lambert Valley by as much as 300 km south of the present limit, where distal glacimarine facies deposited diatomaceous mud. The grounding zone of the paleo-Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf system fluctuated across a

  10. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  11. Lavender Islands: the New Zealand study.

    Henrickson, Mark; Neville, Stephen; Jordan, Claire; Donaghey, Sara


    Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and sexuality, families of choice, immigration and internal migration, wellbeing, politics, income and spending, education, careers and leisure, community connections, challenges, and spirituality. A four-axis model of sexual identity was also tested; 2,269 responses were received. Of these 83% were from the website; 45% of responses were from women and 54% from men. Responses identified a robust, highly educated, relatively high-income, politically active LGB community. Male and female respondents experienced same-sex relationships and identity in significantly different ways.

  12. Transfers from rural hospitals in New Zealand.

    Lloyd, Trevor; Blattner, Katharina; Nixon, Garry


    To canvass the experience of a group of New Zealand rural hospital doctors of transfers from their hospitals. Ten rural hospital doctors were required to write an assignment on patient transfer as part of their assessment for a postgraduate diploma. The information from the completed assignments was grouped into themes for analysis. The responses from the ten doctors could be grouped into six themes: resources at the rural hospital, clinical conditions, mode of transfer, communication, issues during transfer, and health system issues. The experience of this group of doctors is consistent with the available published information. Transfer of patients is an inevitable part of rural hospital practice. The outcome for patients could be improved through better resourcing of rural hospitals and education for staff, improved communication with transport services and with base hospital specialists, and involvement in the development of regionalised transport protocols.

  13. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    Priestley, Rebecca


    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  14. Return migration of New Zealanders: a profile of 1990 returnees.

    Lidgard, J M


    "In the 1990s the population [of New Zealand] is experiencing higher levels of mobility than at any time in its history. However, with regards to European migration to New Zealand, the settler flows of the past have been overtaken in importance by reverse flows of temporary migrants. Now flows of new settlers come predominantly from Asia and the Pacific....This paper is about return migration--a process that has been largely ignored in the literature on international migration to New Zealand."

  15. Kiwi magic: New Zealand paleomagnetism comes of age

    Turner, Gillian M.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    When the New Zealand Geological Society held its annual meeting in November 1988 in Hamilton, they scheduled a major symposium, Palaeomagnetism and Its Applications in the New Zealand Region. That interest and enthusiasm for paleomagnetic research in New Zealand has reached such a level is a tribute to those who, over the past 30 years, have built expertise and developed our facilities to international standards.In 1957 Colin Bull became the first geophysicist appointed to the physics department at Victoria University, in Wellington. He brought with him from the United Kingdom a magnet assembly that was incorporated into an astatic magnetometer by Jim Gellen [1959] as part of his Master's degree project.

  16. [Smoke-free New Zealand 2025 - utopia or a model?].

    Králíková, Eva


    New Zealand politicians are aware of the devastating economic and health impact of smoking in their country. The prevalence of that dependence is in New Zealand population aged 15 to 64 years about 20%, but only 4% of the population are "happy" smokers. Therefore, the majority of the population, including smokers, should support plan of gradual effective steps, leading in 2025 to "smoke-free" New Zealand with smoking prevalence in the population below 5%. In the same age group, according to the National Institute of Public Health, the Czech smoking prevalence has remained about 30% for almost ten years and no effective tobacco control legislation is in sight.

  17. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    Andkjær, Søren


    The article draws on a doctoral study of young peoples’ participation in organised friluftsliv and outdoor education in Denmark and New Zealand. The research questions concentrate on views of nature, values and general characteristics in friluftsliv and outdoor education. The results are based...... on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...... the empirical studies on outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed and compared to the cultural perspective of friluftsliv in Denmark....

  18. Survival on home dialysis in New Zealand.

    Mark R Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New Zealand (NZ has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD and home haemodialysis (HD relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. METHODS: We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. RESULTS: We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (3 years, with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase.

  19. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Peter de Lange


    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  20. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.


    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  1. 青藏高原上新世构造岩相古地理%Pliocene tectonics and lithofacies paleogeography of the Tibetan Plateau

    季军良; 江尚松; 张克信; 陈奋宁; 王国灿; 杨永锋; 骆满生


    在前人研究成果的基础上,划分出青藏高原及邻区上新世残留盆地共95个,探讨了青藏高原及邻区上新世构造岩相古地理演化.青藏高原上新世总体构造地貌格局主要受控于印度板块与欧亚板块沿雅鲁藏布江缝合带的碰撞及持续挤压,影响着青藏高原广大范围内的构造抬升.东北部昆仑山、祁连山地区是两大构造隆起蚀源区,两大山系夹持的柴达木盆地是高原东北部最大的陆内盆地,祁连山以北和以东地区则以盆山相间的格局接受周围山系的剥蚀物质,直到晚上新世(青藏运动“A”幕)高原东北部进一步强烈隆升,山间盆地抬升成为剥蚀区.新疆塔里木和青藏高原东部羌塘、可可西里地区主体表现为大面积的构造压陷湖盆-冲泛平原沉积区.高原东南部为一系列走滑拉分断裂运动形成的拉分盆地,上新世早期堆积洪冲积相砾岩,中期为湖泊、三角洲沉积,晚期随着山体的进一步抬升,盆地又接受冲洪积扇相砾岩堆积,并被河流侵蚀剥露.高原南部上新世多分布一些近南北向盆地,是响应高原隆升到一定程度垮塌而成的断陷盆地,同东南部拉分盆地类似,上新世沉积相也由早至晚分为3个阶段.恒河地区上新世由于喜马拉雅山的快速抬升,沉积以粗碎屑为主,形成狭长的西瓦利克群堆积.上新世青藏高原总体地势继承了中新世西高东低、南高北低的地貌特征,但地势高差明显较中新世增大.%Based on the data obtained from 1:250 000 geological mapping conducted by China Geological Survey in 1996-2008 and available data concerning the Pliocene strata, the authors recognized 95 remnant basins in the Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent areas. In this study, the Pliocene tectonic evolution and lithofacies paleogeography of Tibetan Plateau has been discussed. The continuous collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate along the Brahmaputra

  2. Petrogenesis and its significance to continental dynamics of the Neogene high-potassium calc-alkaline volcanic rock association from north Qiangtang, Tibetan Plateau

    赖绍聪; 刘池阳; S.Y.O’Reilly


    Detailed studies indicate that the main rock type of the Neogene high-potassium calc-alkaline volcanic rock association from north Qiangtang is andesite, dacite and rhyolite. They belong to typical crust-generation magmatic system and originate from the special thickened crust of the Tibetan Plateau by dehydration melting. This group of rocks exhibits LREE enrichment but no remarkable Eu anomaly that shows their source region should be a thickened deep crust consisting of eclogitic mass group, implying that the crust had been thickened and an eclogitic deep crust had been formed during the Neogene period in Qiangtang area. This understanding is important and significant to making further discussion on the uplift mechanism and continental dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Motivating Information Technology Professionals: The case of New Zealand

    Shoaib Ahmed; Nazim Taskin; DAVID J. PAULEEN; Jane Parker


    IT professionals play a critical role in organizations. Research indicates that they may be unique in their attitudes toward motivation and job satisfaction. In New Zealand, a shortage of skilled professionals may contribute to or impact on motivation. Using a modified model of Herzberg’s two-factor theory by Smerek and Peterson (2007), this research seeks to answer the question: what motivates New Zealand IT professionals? In response, an online questionnaire was distributed to a population ...

  4. The long locum: health propaganda in New Zealand.

    Dow, Derek


    Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.

  5. A dissident voice in New Zealand wartime sex education.

    Gooder, Claire


    Sex education in wartime New Zealand focused primarily on adults and was concerned with community stability in aberrant times. In 1943 Dr. Clara Lee's bold move to ask a group of New Zealand women candidly about their sexual experiences caused her dismissal as lecturer in sex hygiene to military women. This encounter provides an important counter discourse to the dominantly held contemporary sex education framework of marital love and premarital chastity.

  6. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Stockwell Alannah; Carroll Rebecca; Townsend Simon; Yi Jesse; Ah-Yen Damien; Chakrabarti Anannya; Okawa Ken; Smith Tara; Fry Bridget; Gale Jesse; Sievwright Andrea; Dew Kevin; Thomson George


    Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New ...

  7. Nursing Informatics in New Zealand: From History to Strategy

    Michelle L. L. Honey; Westbrooke, Lucy A.


    As technological advances saw computers become more common, nurses in New Zealand were inspired to look for ways to harness the use of computers and other technologies to aid patient care and their practice. This paper traces the history of the development of nursing informatics in New Zealand from the earliest days in the 1980s through to the present, when nurses have leadership roles in informatics and are represented at the highest levels in national decision making, thereby influencing th...

  8. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand


    <正>Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship So-ciety, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantong, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chi

  9. Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex, San Luis, Argentina: An explosive event in a regional transpressive - local transtensive setting in the pampean flat slab

    Ibañes, Oscar Damián; Sruoga, Patricia; Japas, María Silvia; Urbina, y. Nilda Esther


    The Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex (TVC) is located in the Sierras Pampeanas of San Luis, Argentina, at the southeast of the Pampean flat-slab segment. Based on the comprehensive study of lithofacies and structures, the reconstruction of the volcanic architecture has been carried out. The TVC has been modeled in three subsequent stages: 1) initial updoming, 2) ignimbritic eruptive activity and 3) lava dome emplacement. Interplay of magma injection and transtensional tectonic deformation has been invoked to reproduce TVC evolution.

  10. The New Zealand Tsunami Database: historical and modern records

    Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.


    A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.

  11. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.


    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  12. Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in Neogene rivers of the Great Plains reveal the evolution of fluvial storage and recycling

    Sinclair, Hugh; Stuart, Fin; McCann, Louise; Tao, Zui


    The measurement of the duration of near surface residence of sediment grains from the stratigraphic record has the potential to quantitatively reconstruct processes such as stratal condensation, sediment recycling and the exposure histories of unconformities. Geomorphological measurements of dates and rates of surfaces and erosion respectively has enabled significant advances in understanding, however, the radiogenic half life of typical cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be and 26Al means they are not suitable for the stratigraphic record. Instead, we have applied the stable cosmogenic nuclide of 21Ne to quartz-rich sediment to quantify the routing history of the river systems that have drained the southern Rockies of Wyoming and Colorado during Neogene times. The Neogene sediments of Nebraska record fluvial systems of the Great Plains that flow from the Rockies towards the east and into the Mississippi catchment. This succession is climate change. As part of an evaluation of the application of 21Ne to the stratigraphic record, we sampled quartzite pebbles from an Upper Miocene, Pliocene and modern river channel of the North Platte approximately 400 km from their mountainous source. The quartzite is derived from a single exposure of the Medicine Bow quartzites in Wyoming, therefore all three intervals recorded the same travel distance from source. Additionally, we know the erosion rate of the Medicine Bow quartzites from detrital 10Be analyses, and we also sampled shielded bedrock samples from the quartzite to evaluate for any non-cosmogenic 21Ne. This means that the concentrations of 21Ne in detrital pebbles >400 km from their source could be corrected for both inherited non-cosmogenic and erosion induced accumulation at source. Therefore, any additional amounts of 21Ne must record storage and exposure during transport down the river systems. Based on 40 analyses of pebbles from these intervals, we are able to demonstrate that approximately half of the pebbles record

  13. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of simple aphyric basalt groups

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.


    Simple flows (tabular) in the Neogene flood basalt sections of Iceland are described and their mode of emplacement assessed. The flows belong to three aphyric basalt groups: the Kumlafell group, the Hólmatindur group and the Hjálmadalur group. The groups can be traced over 50 km and originate in the Breiðdalur-Thingmuli volcanic zone. The groups have flow fields that display mixed volcanic facies architecture and can be classified after dominating type morphology. The Kumlafell and the Hólmatindur groups have predominantly simple flows of pāhoehoe and rubbly pāhoehoe morphologies with minor compound or lobate pāhoehoe flows. The Hjálmadalur group has simple flows of rubbly pāhoehoe, but also includes minor compound or lobate flows of rubble and 'a'ā. Simple flows are most common in the distal and medial areas from the vents, while more lobate flows in proximal areas. The simple flows are formed by extensive sheet lobes that are several kilometers long with plane-parallel contacts, some reaching thicknesses of ~ 40 m (aspect ratios inflation structures. Their internal structure consists generally of a simple upper vesicular crust, a dense core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The brecciated flow-top is formed by clinker and crustal rubble, the clinker often welded or agglutinated. The simple flows erupted from seemingly short-lived fissures and have the characteristics of cooling-limited flows. We estimate the effusion rates to be ~ 105 m3/s for the simple flows of the Kumlafell and Hólmatindur groups and ~ 104 m3/s for the Hjálmadalur group. The longest flows advanced 15-20 km from the fissures, with lava streams of fast propagating flows inducing tearing and brecciation of the chilled crust. Compound or lobate areas appear to reflect areas of low effusion rates or the interaction of the lava with topographic barriers or wetlands, resulting in chaotic flowage. Slowing lobes with brecciated flow-tops developed into 'a'ā flows. The groups interdigitated

  14. Variations in terrigenous matter transport evaluated by plant terpenoid analysis in the Neogene eastern equatorial Pacific sediment

    Nakamura, H.; Sawada, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, M.


    We analyze land plant biomarkers in sediments recovered during the IODP Expeditions 320/321, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT), to reconstruct variations in terrestrial input in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, as well as to evaluate transport systems of terrigenous matter from land to ocean. We used the Neogene sediments (23-0.23 Ma) recovered from site U1337. We could identify cadalene (sesquiterpenoid), as well as series of aromatic abietane type diterpenoids (e.g. retene) from most samples. These terpenoids are derived from biomolecules that constitute plant resin and supportive tissues. Plant-derived compounds in deep-sea sediments are considered that initially transported via fluvial process, followed by redistribution by gravity flow to the deeper part. Although, the typical pelagic setting of site U1337, even far from land across the mid-ocean-ridge, exclude such pathway. Therefore, the variations in mass accumulation rate (MAR) of plant terpenoids in this site depend eolian transportation and can be used as an indicator of change in atmospheric circulation. The increasing spikes in MAR of plant terpenoids were observed in the horizons of 16 Ma, 14 Ma, 12 Ma, 10 Ma, 9 - 8 Ma, 7 Ma and 2.5 - 1Ma. It is found that some of the spikes, 14 Ma, 7 Ma, 2.5 - 1 Ma correspond to the East Antarctica Ice Sheet event (EAIS), the Biogenic bloom event, and the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG), respectively. Furthermore, the degree of aromatization in diterpenoids, which represented by retene to the sum of abietane type diterpenoids, tends to increase concurrently with the MAR of total plant terpenoids. The aromatization of plant terpenoids take place under thermal maturation after deposition as well as in earlier processes such as biomass burning. In the U1337 sediments, the degree of aromatization of diterpenoids was uncorrelated with the age or depositional depth, suggesting its variations retain potential for paleoclimatic application. For example

  15. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.


    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in New Zealand: differences associated with being a practitioner in New Zealand compared to China.

    Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh


    While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.

  17. Nocturnal haemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand.

    Agar, John W M


    Although early experience in Australia and New Zealand confirmed home haemodialysis to be well tolerated, effective and with lower morbidity and mortality compared with centre-based haemodialysis, the advent of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 'satellite' haemodialysis has led to a steadily declining home haemodialysis population. However, the emergence of nocturnal haemodialysis, as a safe and highly effective therapy, has added to the modality choices now available and offers a new, highly attractive home-based option with many advantages over centre-based dialysis. For the patient, nocturnal haemodialysis means fluid and dietary freedom, less antihypertensive medication, the abolition of phosphate binders, the return of daytime freedom and the capacity for full-time employment. Potential biochemical benefits include normalization of the blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, beta(2) microglobulin, homocysteine and triglyceride levels and other nutritional markers. Improved quality of life and sleep patterns and a resolution of sleep apnoea have been shown. Left ventricular function has also shown marked improvement. For the provider, nocturnal home haemodialysis offers clear cost advantages by avoiding high-cost nursing and infrastructure expenditure. Although consumable and equipment costs are higher, the savings on wage and infrastructure far outweigh this added expenditure. These combined factors make nocturnal haemodialysis an irresistible addition to comprehensive dialysis services, both from a clinical outcome and fiscal perspective.

  18. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D


    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  19. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand


    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Reeder Anthony I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  1. High molecular weight (C35+)n-alkanes of Neogene heavily biodegraded oil in the Qianmiqiao region, North China


    With wax content of 1.62%, heavy oil has been produced from the sandstone reservoirs of Neogene Guantao Formation (Ng1Ⅲ). In the GC and GC-MS RIC profiles of its aliphatic fraction, n-alkanes are totally lost, which shows the result of heavy biodegradedation. However, the remaining trace C13-C36 n-alkanes can be still seen from its m/z 85 mass chromatogram. In addition, a complete series of C35-C73 high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanes was detected by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC). The HMW n-alkane series shows a normal distribution pattern, a major peak at nC43, obvious odd-carbon-number predominance, CPI37-55 and OEP45-49 values up to 1.17 and 1.16-1.20 respectively. The present study not only has conformed the strong resistibility of HMW n-alkanes to biodegradation in crude oils as concluded by previous researchers, but also has provided some significant information on source input and maturity for the heavily biodegraded oil in the Qianmiqiao region.

  2. Geochronology and paleothermometry of Neogene sediments from the Vøring Plateau using Sr, C and O isotopes

    Smalley, P. C.; Nordaa, A.; Råheim, A.


    The Neogene sediments from DSDP site 341 on the Vøring Plateau, Norwegian Sea, contain a thin glauconitic pellet-bearing subunit, which separates underlying pelagic clays from overlying glacial-marine sediments. Oxygen isotope measurements of benthic foraminifera show aδ 18O shift of + 1%. during deposition of this subunit, probably a combined effect of a drop in bottom water temperature and a rise in seawaterδ 18O. The chronology of this sedimentological and O isotope transition is, however, poorly constrained by fossil evidence. Rb sbnd Sr dating of glauconitic pellets indicates that the lower part of the glauconitic subunit was deposited 11.6 ± 0.2 Ma ago. Further geochronological evidence, derived from the Sr and C isotopic compositions of foraminifera compared with known seawater-time variations, indicates that the lower pelagic clays are early to middle Miocene, deposited at a mean rate of ˜ 15 m/Ma. The glauconitic subunit contains part of the middle Miocene and probably all of the late Miocene in a condensed sequence with a very low mean depositional rate (˜ 0.2 m/Ma). The overlying glacial marine sediments are probably Pliocene, with a high mean rate of deposition, ˜ 45 m/Ma. This is the first application of C, O and Sr isotopic stratigraphy combined with Rb sbnd Sr dating of glauconitic minerals, and it illustrates the applications of this integrated approach in geochronology.

  3. Neogene magnetostratigraphy and rock magnetic study of the Kashi Depression, NW China: Implications to neotectonics in the SW Tianshan Mountains

    Qiao, Qingqing; Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.; Deng, Tao; Liu, Chengying


    The southwest Tianshan Mountains of China are bordered by the Tarim foreland and comprise an actively deforming segment of the India-Asia collisional system. We report a detailed magnetostratigraphic study of the Dashankou section in the Kashi Depression of the Tarim Basin to improve the understanding of the history of sedimentation, denudation, and mountain building in this region. The preferred correlation of the succession with the geomagnetic polarity timescale defines a depositional history between 12.4 and 3.0 Ma with a substantial increase in sedimentation rates identified at ~6.7 Ma corresponding to a pulse of rapid uplift in the southwest Tianshan Mountains. Although climatic changes may have modulated the record during Neogene times, they do not appear to have had an important influence on sediment accumulation rates between 7.0 and 2.6 Ma. Magnetic fabrics identify the influence of a regional stress field imparted by ongoing India-Asia collision in the lower part of the succession contrasting with predominantly sedimentary fabrics in the higher part of the succession. A major clastic influx with a maximum age estimate of ~3.6 Ma comprises the Xiyu conglomerates, and integration with other magnetostratigraphic investigations around the Tianshan demonstrates unambiguously that depositional onset of this coarse clastic episode is diachronous. Hence, the Xiyu Formation cannot be considered as a chronostratigraphic marker related to any specific tectonic or climatic event.

  4. Late Miocene breccia of Menorca (Balearic Islands) a basis for the interpretation of a Neogene ramp deposit

    Obrador, A.; Pomar, L.; Taberner, C.


    Neogene (Tortonian) ramp facies associations crop out in the southern sector of Menorca (Balearic island). These are made mainly by sigmoidal and oblique clinoform units comprising rhodoliths, bryozoans, molluscs and foraminifera. These units are interpreted as outer-ramp deposits. A breccia deposit infilling an erosional surface is found at the top of the carbonate ramp sequence. The breccia components (mainly rhodoliths and oolite clasts) may represent erosion of the underlying ramp deposits and inner-ramp counterparts, which do not crop out on the island. The study of components in the breccia deposits confirms the indigenous character of the outer-ramp facies associations, which suggests that the ramp was steepened distally. The breccia deposits correspond laterally to a discontinuity surface locally showing karstic features. Transgressive sediments (including a phosphatic crust) are found above the discontinuity surface. All together these features, and the dolomitisation of the uppermost ramp sediments and breccia deposits, suggest that the breccia originated from erosion of the ramp after a major relative sea-level fall. The breccia and discontinuity surface separate the ramp sequence from an overlying prograding sequence. A correlation of this sequence boundary to other areas in the western Mediterranean is proposed.

  5. Preliminary Investigations of Creep Strain of Neogene Clay from Warsaw in Drained Triaxial Tests Assisted by Computed Microtomography

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz Dominik; Dobak, Paweł Józef; Kiełbasiński, Kamil


    The study concerns soil creep deformation in multistage triaxial stress tests under drained conditions. High resolution X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) was involved in structure recognition before and after triaxial tests. Undisturbed Neogene clay samples, which are widespread in central Poland, were used in this study. XμCT was used to identify representative sample series and informed the detection and rejection of unreliable ones. Maximum deviatoric stress for in situ stress confining condition was equal 95.1 kPa. This result helped in the design of further multistage investigations. The study identified the rheological strain course, which can be broken down into three characterizations: decreasing creep strain rate, transitional constant creep velocity, and accelerating creep deformation. The study found that due to multistage creep loading, the samples were strengthened. Furthermore, there is a visibly "brittle" character of failure, which may be the consequence of the microstructure transformation as a function of time as well as collapse of voids. Due to the glacial tectonic history of the analyzed samples, the reactivation of microcracks might also serve as an explanation. The number of the various sizes of shear planes after failure is confirmed by XμCT overexposure.

  6. Late Neogene stratigraphy and tectonic control on facies evolution in the Laguna Salada Basin, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Martín-Barajas, A.; Vázquez-Hernández, S.; Carreño, A. L.; Helenes, J.; Suárez-Vidal, F.; Alvarez-Rosales, J.


    The Laguna Salada Basin (LSB) in northeastern Baja California records late-Neogene marine incursions in the Salton Trough and progradation of the Colorado River delta. Early subsidence and subsequent tectonic erosion are related to evolution of the Sierra El Mayor detachment fault during late Miocene time (geothermal exploratory well on the eastern margin of LSB. Interfingering fluvial-sandstone deposits and prograding alluvial fanglomerates with coarse debris-flow and rock-avalanche deposits crudely mark the onset of vertical slip along the Laguna Salada fault and rapid uplift of Sierra Cucapa and Sierra El Mayor. Up to 2 km of Quaternary alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits accumulated along the eastern margin of LSB, whereas lower subsidence rates produced a thinner sedimentary wedge over a ramp-like crystalline basement along the western margin. In early Pleistocene time (˜2-1 Ma), the Laguna Salada became progressively isolated from the Colorado River delta complex, and the Salton Trough by activity on the Elsinore and Laguna Salada fault zones.

  7. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Ghosh, Dilip


    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  8. Personal medicines storage in New Zealand

    Hewson C


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Poor storage of medicines can reduce their efficacy, yet little is known about how people store medicines in their homes and elsewhere, why these locations are chosen, and whether the conditions are suitable for medicines storage. AIM: To investigate where medicines are commonly stored in New Zealand households, why, and the typical conditions-temperature and relative humidity-in those places of storage. METHODS: Data from a large qualitative study on the meanings of medicines were analysed to explore where people store medicines in their households, and why. A data logger was used to log temperature and relative humidity in common medicine storage places, such as homes and cars. RESULTS: Kitchens and bathrooms were the most commonly reported storage places, with people influenced by convenience, desire to remember to take medicines, and child safety when deciding where to store medicines. High temperatures and humidity were found in kitchens and bathrooms, extreme temperatures in a car and a backpack, and extremely low temperatures in checked-in luggage on a plane. DISCUSSION: Temperature- and humidity-sensitive medicines should not be stored long-term in common storage locations, such as kitchens and bathrooms. Conditions in these places may not comply with the recommended storage conditions given by the manufacturer. Furthermore, medicines should not be left in backpacks or cars, especially if the vehicle is in the sun. Medicines that may degrade upon freezing and thawing - such as protein-containing medicines, emulsions, suspensions and some solutions - should not be stored in the cargo hold of a plane.

  9. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    H.H. Dijkstra; B.A. Marshall


    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  10. Environmental management frameworks for offshore mining: the New Zealand approach

    Ellis, Joanne


    The New Zealand region contains untapped natural mineral, oil, and gas resources while also supporting globally unique and diverse faunal communities that need to be managed sustainably. In this paper key information from the international literature is reviewed that can underpin an Environmental Mining Management System which includes elements of Environmental Risk Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Planning. This paper focuses on four developing areas of seafloor mining activities presently being undertaken or planned in the New Zealand region: hydrocarbons (oil and gas), minerals, ironsands and phosphorite nodules. A number of issues with the implementation of environmental management systems are identified including the difficulty of assessing new marine activities or technologies and the need for standardised reporting metrics. Finally, the development of ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning is discussed which will be required to enhance environmental mining management frameworks in New Zealand.

  11. New Zealand Advances in Performance-Based Seismic Design

    Andrew King; Roger Shelton


    This paper provides a summary of the objectives and principles which underpin the 2004 edition of the New Zealand earthquake design standard, AS/NZS 1170 Part 5. As with many modern earthquake design standards, the New Zealand earthquake design standard recognizes that earthquake resistant design that only addresses life safety goals without addressing both operational continuity of essential facilities and damage control, falls short of public expectations. Such standards not longer meet societal expectations. The paper outlines how these issues have been addressed within New Zealand, and some of the issues addressed when preparing appendices to the standard to provide guidance for materials standard writers to ensure consistency with the proposed approach. Recognizing the significance of non-structural components and parts of buildings in both damage control and operational continuity has been an important step forward in attaining the performance levels required.

  12. Ten citation classics from the New Zealand Medical Journal.

    Smith, Derek R


    Although their contribution may go unrecognised at the time, if journal citations are indeed the "currency" of science, then citation classics could justifiably be regarded as the "gold bullion". This article examines the 10 most highly-cited articles published by the New Zealand Medical Journal (NZMJ), as of August 2007. By topic, the top cited article described a study of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome among New Zealand infants, while 3 of the remaining 9 articles focused on asthma. Most citation classics from the NZMJ were comparatively recent, with the top cited article being published in 1991, 7 having been published in the 1980s, and 2 in the 1970s. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the international relevance of New Zealand medical researchers, and the significant global impact of their findings for human health.

  13. New Zealand signs up to co-operate with CERN

    Patrice Loïez


    On 4 December 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN and the government of New Zealand was signed in the presence of Peter Hamilton, New Zealand's ambassador to Switzerland. This MoU concerns the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy particle physics between Ernest Rutherford's birthplace and CERN, which now hosts one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).    In anticipation of the MoU, two New Zealand universities (the University of Auckland and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch) have already joined the CMS collaboration to work on pixel detectors, where they can benefit from the expertise of the pixel group at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These detectors are not only valuable in high-energy particle physics, but also serve medical applications.

  14. Bloc tectonic rotations recorded in the Neogene and Quaternary magmatic rocks from Northwestern Algeria: preliminary paleomagnetic results.

    El Messaoud Derder, Mohamed; Robion, Philippe; Maouche, Said; Bayou, Boualem; Amenna, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Missenard, Yves; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bestandji, Rafik; Ayache, Mohamed


    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the strong earthquakes of Zemmouri 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the El Asnam 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since the Oligocene. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression with N-S to NNW-SSE shortening direction, which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. Along the Tellian Atlas (Northern Algeria), active structures define NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults affecting the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. Cheliff and Mitidja Plioquaternary intramontaneous basins, …). The NE-SW reverse active faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria can be explained by a kinematics model of blocks rotation: the transpressive tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocks, which have been subjected to clockwise rotation. In north Algeria, paleomagnetic studies were carried out in the central area, on Neogene sedimentary and magmatic formations (Derder et al, 2009, 2011; 2013). They pointed out tectonic rotation of large blocks, in agreement with the kinematic model. Narrow zones represent important shear zone with strong rotation of smaller blocks (Derder et al., 2013). A new paleomagnetic study was conducted on the recent magmatic rocks outcropping in the Northwestern Algeria, in order to validate this model on a regional scale. The study is still in progress and the preliminary results show presence of systematic clockwise blocks rotation. These results confirm that the Africa-Europe convergence is partly accommodated in northern Africa by blocks rotations. They highlight that rotations are not homogeneous in north Algeria and thus the importance of future works in this

  15. New stratigraphic, chronologic, and magnetic fabric constraints for Neogene and Quaternary ignimbrites in the Central Andes (South Peru)

    De La Rupelle, A.; Thouret, J. C.; Cubukcu, H. E.; Jicha, B.; Bréard, E.; Gerbe, M.-C.; Le Pennec, J.-L.; Diot, H.; Boivin, P.


    Central Andean deformation history in southern Peru is recorded in Neogene volcanic units of Ocoña and Cotahuasi canyons that cut across the western Cordillera. Acceleration (100 km3) Nazca (c.24.6 Ma), Alpabamba (19.4-18.0 Ma), and Huaylillas (14.25-12.7 Ma) ignimbrite sheets preceded the canyon incision, whereas sheets of smaller volume (welded, eutaxitic, crystal-rich facies overlain by a thick, multi-bedded ash-flow tuff and a lithic-rich, indurated flow unit. The Huaylillas ignimbrite sheet comprises a strongly welded, crystal-rich, lithic-poor, columnar lithofacies, with devitrified pumice. The Caraveli ignimbrite sheet has a jointed vitrophyre overlain by a welded, blocky, crystal-rich flow unit. A vacuolar, saccharolytic unit forms the top of the sequence. The Lower Sencca ignimbrite sheet comprises of a basal vitrophyre and a slightly welded, fibrous pumice-rich flow unit, which grades into a welded, vapor-phase unit that contains more crystals than pumice and lithics. The Upper Sencca ignimbrite sheet consists of a black vitrophyre, grading into a strongly welded, crystal-rich, eutaxitic cooling unit. The latter is capped by a slightly welded unit, and an indurated pumice-rich, crystal-poor vapour-phase facies. Quaternary valley-fill termed Las Lomas consists of unwelded, crystal-poor pumice-flow deposits. Eighteen new 40Ar/39Ar analyses have been carried out on feldspar/glass separates from pumice and lavas. Results for the Caraveli ignimbrite (9.35±0.06 Ma), Upper Barroso lavas (2.24±0.45 Ma) and Upper Sencca ignimbrite (2.00-2.06±0.09 Ma) are in good agreement with previous data. New ages for the Lower Barroso lavas (7.32±0.05; 5.36±0.12 Ma) and Lower Sencca ignimbrites (5.13±0.01, 5.09±0.03, 4.65±0.11, 4.36 ± 0.16) extend their temporal history towards older times. Lower Barroso lava flow activity occurred as early as~7.3 and lasted until 5.4 Ma just before the Lower Sencca eruptions. The Lower Sencca ignimbrites spanned at least 1.5 Ma and

  16. Motivating Information Technology Professionals: The case of New Zealand

    Shoaib Ahmed


    Full Text Available IT professionals play a critical role in organizations. Research indicates that they may be unique in their attitudes toward motivation and job satisfaction. In New Zealand, a shortage of skilled professionals may contribute to or impact on motivation. Using a modified model of Herzberg’s two-factor theory by Smerek and Peterson (2007, this research seeks to answer the question: what motivates New Zealand IT professionals? In response, an online questionnaire was distributed to a population of New Zealand IT professionals and the data analysed using Partial Least Squares to understand the relationship between the various dimensions of job satisfaction, the impact of personal and job characteristics, and turnover intention. The findings show that the New Zealand IT professional is primarily motivated by the nature of his or her work, followed by perceptions of responsibility, and how supervisors encourage an environment for such. Satisfaction with salary is a predictor to a lesser degree. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, professional growth opportunities, career advancement, and recognition do not have a statistically-significant positive association with motivation. We conclude that, to motivate their IT workforce, organizations should: 1 focus on the nature of the jobs that IT professionals undertake; 2 train supervisors to provide an empowering environment; 3 offer competitive salaries to retain top talent; 4 not hesitate to employ IT professionals born outside New Zealand; and 5 take account of the singularities of the New Zealand labour market in seeking to attract, recruit and retain IT professionals. Implications for policy, practice and theory are discussed.

  17. Evidence for the development of the Andean rain shadow from a Neogene isotopic record in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Rech, Jason A.; Currie, Brian S.; Shullenberger, Eric D.; Dunagan, Stan P.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, Nicolás; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Rowe, Harry D.; Houston, John


    Varying ages from Triassic to Pliocene have been proposed for the onset of hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert. The exact timing for the initiation of hyperaridity is critical for determining potential causes, which range from regional effects of global cooling to Andean uplift above elevations conducive to extreme rain shadows. Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of lower Miocene-Quaternary (21-0.015 Ma) palustrine and lacustrine carbonates in the Calama Basin reveals extreme changes in their oxygen and carbon isotopic composition during the Miocene. Limestone δ18O values increased by ˜ 5‰ from middle to late Miocene, ranging from - 5.5‰ at 12 Ma to - 1‰ at ˜ 6 Ma. Carbon isotopic values increase by 9‰ over the Neogene, from average values of - 3‰ at 21 Ma to + 3‰ at 12 Ma, and reaching a maximum of + 6‰ at 5 Ma. The increase in oxygen isotopic values occurred over a time span in which the catchment area of the basin experienced significant uplift, causing the δ18O value of precipitation to become more negative. We attribute the shift towards higher δ18O values to enhanced evaporative enrichment both of soil water or snow prior to infiltration, and within shallow lakes or wetlands prior to carbonate precipitation. The large increase in δ13C values was likely caused by a transition from a vegetated landscape influenced primarily by soil-respired CO 2 to a landscape largely devoid of vegetation and influenced by atmospheric and volcanic CO 2. Isotopic values of palustrine carbonates therefore indicate that hyperaridity commenced in the Calama Basin during the middle to late Miocene, in agreement with other paleoclimatic records from the basin. The cause for the onset of this climate change is thought to be due to the development of a strong Andean rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Andes to mean elevations > 2 km.

  18. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A.

    Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.


    Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing

  19. Neogene non-tropical carbonate sedimentation in a warm temperate biogeographic province (Rethymnon Formation, Eastern Crete, Greece)

    Pomoni-Papaioannou, F.; Drinia, H.; Dermitzakis, M. D.


    The Apostoli Basin, in the central-west part of Crete, was formed as a fore-arc type basin related to the convergent plate boundary between the African and the Eurasian plates. Most of the Neogene sediments filling the basin were deposited in a terrestrial to shallow marine environment. The succession is a transgressive cycle, which culminates in the alternation of Rethymnon bioclastic limestones with marls, documenting the important Tortonian marine transgression. The Rethymnon limestones are classified as a typical non-tropical carbonate lithofacies. Two particular lithofacies have been recognized: (a) a rhodalgal-type lithofacies, characterized by predominance of encrusting coralline algae and bryozoans, and (b) an echinofor-type lithofacies, characterized by predominance of echinoderms and/or benthic foraminifera. The coralline algae occur mostly as in situ spheroidal or branched rhodoliths, whereas benthic foraminifera are mainly represented by larger foraminifera. In both lithofacies, typical tropical carbonate elements are lacking. Skeletal elements consisted of low- and high-Mg calcite. Although the observed lithofacies possess many similarities with facies of non-tropical carbonates, the presence of large benthic foraminifera suggests development in a warm temperate biogeographic province. The depositional environment corresponds to a shallow ramp, the sediments being deposited in a nearshore environment and under conditions analogous to those prevailing in the present-day circalittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea. The main carbonate accumulation area is located at the factory area itself (rhodalgal-type sediments), and downslope from the factory area (echinofor-type sediments). In the classic zonation of Mediterranean benthic assemblages of Peres and Picard [Rec. Trav. Stn. Mar. (1964)], the rhodalgal-type sediments of the Rethymnon Fm correspond to the "Facies a Pralines", developed in areas strongly controlled by currents (e.g., tops of plateaus

  20. New insights into late Neogene glacial dynamics, tectonics, and hydrocarbon migrations in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway region.

    Knies, J.; Baranwal, S.; Fabian, K.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Andreassen, K.; Husum, K.; Mattingsdal, R.; Gaina, C.; De Schepper, S.; Vogt, C.; Andersen, N.


    Notwithstanding the recent IODP drilling on the Lomonosov Ridge, the Late Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean still remains elusive. The tectonic processes leading to the development of the only deep-water connection to the Arctic Ocean via the Fram Strait are still poorly understood. Also, the influence of the gateway region on changes in Arctic-Atlantic ocean circulation, uplift/erosion on the adjacent hinterland, as well as glacial initiation and its consequences for the petroleum systems in the regions, remain unclear. By revisiting Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 151, holes 911A and 910C and interpreting new multi-channel seismic data, we have now established a new comprehensive chronological framework for the Yermak Plateau and revealed important paleoenvironmental changes for the Atlantic-Arctic gateway during the late Neogene. The improved chronostratigraphic framework is established through continuous paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data as well as selected intervals with stable ?18O and ?13C data derived from benthic foraminifera Cassidulina teretis. Supported by acoustic profiling, the new data indicate a continuous late Miocene/early Pliocene age (~5-6 Ma) for the base of both holes. The depositional regime north (Yermak Plateau) and south of the Fram Strait (Hovgaard Ridge) was rather shallow during the late Miocene and water mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic was restricted. Ice sheets on the Svalbard Platform evolved during the late Miocene, however did not reach the coastline before 3.3 Ma. Migration of gaseous hydrocarbons occurred prior to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (~2.7 Ma) as indicated by high-amplitude reflections, corroborating the occurrence of greigite mineralization and stable carbon isotope excursions in planktic/benthic foraminifera. The data indicate that Pleistocene erosion and uplift in the Barents Sea region had probably only minor effects on reservoir leakages than previously thought.

  1. A review of Neogene and Quaternary snakes of central and eastern Europe. Part 1: Scolecophidia, Boidae, Colubrinae

    Szyndlar, Z.


    Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary seoleeophidians, boids and «eolubrine» eolubrids, including snakes previously deseribed and those undeseribed yet, eoming fram Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czeehoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are diseussed. The following taxa, including 7 extinet speeies, were reeognized: Seoleeophidia indet.; Boidae: Bransateryx septentrionalis, Bransateryx sp., Albaneryx volynicus, cf., Gongylophis sp., Eryx jaculus, Eryx sp., eL Eryx sp., Eryeinae indet.; Colubridae: Texasophis bohemiacus, Coluber dolnicensis, Coluber planicarinatus, Coluber viridij1avus, cf. Coluber viridiflavus, Coluber caspius, Coluber gemonensis, cf. Coluber gemonensis, Coluber sp., Coronella austriaca, Coronella sp., cf. Coronella sp., Elaphe kohfidischi, cf. Elaphe kohfidischi, Elaphe paralongissima, Elaphe longissima, cf. Elaphe longissima, Elaphe quatuorlineata, cf. Elaphe quatuorlineata, eL Elaphe situla, Elaphe sp., cf. Malpolon sp., Telescopus sp., «Colubrinae» indet.Revisión de las serpientes neógenas y cuaternarias de Europa central y oriental. Parte 1: Scolecophidia, Boidae, Colubrinae. Se estudian restos neógenos y cuaternarios de escolecofidios, boidos y colúbridos «colubrinos», incluyendo tanto formas ya descritas como inéditas, y procedentes de Polonia, Ucrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumanía, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones: Scolecophidia indet.; Boidae: Bransateryx septentrionalis, Bransateryx sp., Albaneryx volynicus, cf. Gongylophis sp., Eryx jaculus, Eryx sp., cf. Eryx sp., Erycinae indet.; Colubridae: Texasophis bohemiacus, Coluber dolnicensis, Coluber planicarinatus, Coluber viridij1avus, cf., Coluber viridiflavus, Coluber caspius, Coluber gemonensis, eL Coluber gemonensis, Coluber sp., Coronella austriaca, Coronella sp., cf. Coronella sp., Elaphe kohfidischi, cf. Elaphe kohfidischi, Elaphe paralongissima, Elaphe longissima, cf. Elaphe

  2. Variation of palaeostress patterns along the Oriente transform wrench corridor, Cuba: significance for Neogene Quaternary tectonics of the Caribbean realm

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Handler, R.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.


    In this study, we address the late Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Wrench Corridor in the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many features of brittle deformation in late Miocene to Pleistocene reef and other shallow water deposits as well as in pre-Neogene, late Cretaceous to Eocene basement rocks. These late Miocene to Quaternary rocks are faulted, fractured, and contain calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal palaeostress vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the south-eastern Cuban margin. Initial N-S extension is correlated with a transtensional regime associated with the fault, later reactivated by sinistral and/or dextral shear, mainly along E-W-oriented strike-slip faults. Sinistral shear predominated and recorded similar kinematics as historical earthquakes in the Santiago region. We correlate palaeostress changes with the kinematic evolution along the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Three different tectonic regimes were distinguished for the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC): compression from late Eocene-Oligocene, transtension from late Oligocene to Miocene (?) (D 1), and transpression from Pliocene to Present (D 2-D 4), when this fault became a transform system. Furthermore, present-day structures vary along strike of the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC) on the south-eastern Cuban coast, with dominantly transpressional/compressional and strike-slip structures in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with the dominant ENE-WSW transpressional structures found on land.

  3. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Togunwa, Olayinka S.; Abdullah, Wan H.


    The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS), high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo) concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  4. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John


    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drawing conclusions: perceptions of the New Zealand agricultural landscape

    Amy West


    Full Text Available When I made the decision to finish my undergraduate education in New Zealand, I was barraged with comments about 'the beautiful natural landscapes', 'Oh you'll love the natural beauty' and 'They have such a diverse wild landscape'. However it was the aversion to comments about the agriculture which interested me. 'There are more sheep than people' is what I heard, yet where was the talk about the land which these sheep occupied? So began my quest, both as a landscape architect and as an artist, to record what there was to the New Zealand agricultural landscapes.

  6. A New Patriotism? Neoliberalism, Citizenship and Tertiary Education in New Zealand

    Roberts, Peter


    This paper argues that a new patriotism has emerged in New Zealand over recent years. This has been promoted in tandem with the notion of advancing New Zealand as a knowledge economy and society. The new patriotism encourages New Zealanders to accept, indeed embrace, a single, shared vision of the future: one structured by a neoliberal ontology…

  7. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi


    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  8. Asia-Born New Zealand-Educated Business Graduates' Transition to Work

    Anderson, Vivienne; McGrath, Terry; Butcher, Andrew


    In 2008 the Asia New Zealand Foundation commissioned a three-year project examining Asia-born New Zealand-educated business graduates' study to work transitions. Data were collected through annual online surveys and in-depth interviews. Graduates were asked to discuss their post-study experiences, reflections on studying in New Zealand, and…

  9. Professional Development for E-Learning: Researching a Strategy for New Zealand's Tertiary Education Sector

    Shephard, Kerry; Mansvelt, Juliana; Stein, Sarah; Suddaby, Gordon; Harris, Irene; O'Hara, Duncan


    This collaborative research project devised a framework to support professional development for e-learning within New Zealand's diverse and integrated tertiary education sector. The research was supported by New Zealand's Ministry of Education. The research included reviews of developments in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and a…

  10. The 1st China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum Opens in Xiamen

    Ye; Zi


    In order to follow up Chinese President Xi Jinping"s visit to New Zealand in 2014,the CPAFFC and the New Zealand Local Government Association held the first China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum with the theme of"innovation and development"in Xiamen on September 7,2015.Chinese People’s Political Con-

  11. Why People Gamble: A Qualitative Study of Four New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    Tse, Samson; Dyall, Lorna; Clarke, Dave; Abbott, Max; Townsend, Sonia; Kingi, Pefi


    In multicultural countries such as New Zealand, it is particularly important that gambling research take into account possible cultural differences. Many New Zealanders come from cultures that do not have a history of gambling, including the Maori (New Zealand indigenous people), Pacific Islanders, and recent migrants. Little research has examined…

  12. Emerging Voices or Linguistic Silence?: Examining a New Zealand Linguistic Landscape

    Macalister, John


    The monolingualism of New Zealand has often been remarked on, but statutory and demographic changes in recent years suggest a shift away from the dominance of the English language. New Zealand now has two official languages, the indigenous Maori language and New Zealand Sign Language, and census data report a decreasing proportion of monolingual…

  13. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.


    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  14. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand



    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  15. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris


    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  16. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.


    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  17. The State of Accounting Education Scholarship in New Zealand

    Adler, Ralph


    This paper examines publishing trends of New Zealand accounting education scholars over the 20-year period 1991-2010. Longitudinal analyses of the annual number of publications, research theme studied, researcher productivity, and institutional productivity, along with cross-sectional analyses of authors' Hirsch "h"-index scores, the…

  18. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.


    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  19. Energy Literacy and Agency of New Zealand Children

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.


    The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…

  20. Children's Rights and Early Childhood Policy: A New Zealand Story

    One, Sarah Te


    This paper begins with a brief historical overview of children's rights in Aotearoa New Zealand and then examines some of the key early childhood education documents since the 1984 Labour Government's reform agenda, the great experiment (Kelsey, 1995), which not only changed the language of education but also revolutionized the sector…

  1. History of Transracial Adoption: A New Zealand Perspective

    Newman, Erica


    This article explores the New Zealand legal history of adoption and the effect it has had on Maori. The status of children within Maori and European societies before and during the early contact periods differed, and it is from here that the author begins this article. These two societies had their own terms in relation to the care of children by…

  2. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide and health in Rotorua, New Zealand

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.


    Rotorua, New Zealand, lies inside a volcanic caldera. Natural steam is extensively used for space and water heating, and electric power generation. This report presents results of a preliminary reconnaissance survey of atmospheric H/sub 2/S levels in the area and attempts to relate these levels to health statistics in the region. 5 refs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

  3. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Stockwell Alannah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  4. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George


    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  5. Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew


    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

  6. Factors Associated with Reports of Wife Assault in New Zealand.

    Fergusson, David M.; And Others


    Examined the frequency of wife assault among New Zealand mothers. Wife assault occurred at a rate of 2 percent to 3 percent per year. Rates of assault were related to length of marriage, type of marriage, planning of pregnancy, parental age, church attendance, and family socioeconomic status. (Author/BL)

  7. Localising Neoliberalism: Indigenist Brokerage in the New Zealand University

    Rata, Elizabeth


    The examination of indigenist interests in the New Zealand university is framed by a theoretical understanding of indigeneity as a strategy in regulating social organisation and resource management in neoliberal global capitalism. Three stages of the brokerage of indigenist interests are identified. These are: the production and representation of…

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review



    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  9. The House Crow (Corvus splendens: A Threat to New Zealand?

    Diane L. Fraser


    Full Text Available The house crow (Corvus splendens, a native of the Indian subcontinent, has shown a rapid expansion of habitat range across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and Asia. It is an adaptable, gregarious commensal bird which is regarded globally as an important pest species due to its impacts on livestock, agricultural and horticultural crops and indigenous fauna and as a fecal contaminator of human environments and water resources. Two Maxent (v3.3.3k models (A with presence data in Australia and (B with simulated entry data locations in New Zealand and a third ArcGIS model (C with environmental and social layers are used to determine an overall suitability index and establish a niche-based model of the potential spatial distribution for C. splendens within New Zealand. The results show that New Zealand, particularly the northern regions of North Island, has suitable environments for the establishment of the house crow. In order of suitability Model B showed highest potential land area suitability (31.84% followed by Model A (13.79% and Model C (10.89%. The potential for further expansion of this bird’s invasive range is high and, if New Zealand is invaded, impacts are likely to be significant.

  10. Shifting Landscapes of Counselling Identities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Rodgers, Neil


    The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…

  11. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume One: Basic Developmental Influences.

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the first of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume deals with home, school, socio-emotional and sexual influences on adolescent development. The following topics are included: the generation gap; sex education in the schools; venereal disease; adolescent hopes and fears;…

  12. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene


    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  13. Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand


    <正>At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  14. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda


    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  15. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene


    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  16. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand



    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  17. School Zoning, Equity and Freedom: The Case of New Zealand.

    McCulloch, Gary


    Discusses implications of major reforms in secondary school zoning in New Zealand, highlighting freedom and equity considerations. Zoning's primary aim has changed from balancing out different schools' declared needs to emphasizing parents' rights. The new zoning provisions involve both a strong role for freedom and a weak role for equity. (72…

  18. Understanding Student Learning in Environmental Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Eames, Chris; Barker, Miles


    This paper seeks to provide a perspective on environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand. To contextualise this perspective, it illustrates how environmental, socio-cultural and political imperatives have shaped the development of environmental education in this land. These imperatives illuminate the natural history of the country, the…

  19. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S


    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  20. Identification of Mathematically Gifted Children in New Zealand.

    Niederer, Kate; Irwin, R. John; Irwin, Kathryn C.; Reilly, Ivan L.


    A study compared the performance of 66 New Zealand children (ages 9-12) on a published problem-solving test and the Progressive Achievement Test (PAT). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that, independent of any chosen percentile, the PAT's accuracy at identifying mathematically gifted children was only 78%. (Contains references.)…

  1. Technology Education in New Zealand: The Connected Curriculum

    O'Sullivan, Gary


    This paper aims to identify what actually takes place when policy directives bring together Technology Education, Enterprise Education, and the wider Community Partnerships. Since the introduction of a national technology curriculum to New Zealand schools in 1999 there has been little critique as to the intentions of the curriculum. In late 2005…

  2. The Reform of New Zealand's University System: "After Neoliberalism"

    Shore, Cris


    This article explores the legacy of three decades of neoliberal reforms on New Zealand's university system. By tracing the different government policies during this period, it seeks to contribute to wider debates about the trajectory of contemporary universities in an age of globalisation. Since Lyotard's influential report on "The Postmodern…

  3. Diversity in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue


    The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…

  4. Skink predation by hedgehogs at Macraes Flat, Otago, New Zealand

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A.; Spitzen, J.; Houston, D.; Stumpel, A.H.P.


    The stomach contents of 158 hedgehogs captured at Macraes Flat, Otago, New Zealand, over two summers in 2000 and 2001 were examined for the occurrence of lizards. The remains of at least 43 skinks (both Oligosoma nigriplantare polychroma and O. maccanni) and one gecko (Hoplodactylus sp.) were found.

  5. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    de Bres, Julia


    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  6. A New Zealand Perspective on Managing Cultural Diversity.

    Mohi, John H.

    This paper describes the work of the New Zealand National Library and its commitment to being a center for diversity so that the collections within it are a reflection of the community it represents. Two acts that have focused attention on managing diversity in the government sector are summarized: the State Sector Act 1998, which requires the…

  7. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.


    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  8. New Zealand's size and isolation can stimulate new science

    Yock, Philip


    It is conventionally thought that New Zealand's distance from the large, northern hemisphere centres of learning, and our relatively small population and wealth, are detrimental to the contribution we can make to the advancement of scientific knowledge. Here the reverse point of view is argued.

  9. Intrapersonal Factors in New Zealand School Leadership Success

    Notman, Ross


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share New Zealand findings from the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP) which relate to intrapersonal dimensions of leadership that promote principals' sustained success over time. Design/methodology/approach: Multi-site case study methods were used to describe the ongoing success…

  10. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris


    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  11. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume Two: Wider Perspectives.

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…

  12. Soil Genesis and Development: Views Held by New Zealand Students.

    Happs, John C.


    To help plan effective teaching strategies, it is important to determine students' existing knowledge about the topic to be taught. Interviews with New Zealand students showed that they hold nonscientific ideas about soil. These student views should be respected by teachers. They should be discussed and compared with scientific viewpoints. (RM)

  13. Attitudes to other ethnicities among New Zealand workers

    Houkamau, C.A.; Boxall, P.


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the “other-group orientation” (OGO) of New Zealand (NZ) workers as a way of measuring their attitudes to the growing ethnic diversity in the contemporary workplace. Design/methodology/approach In all, 500 randomly selected NZ employees were surveyed

  14. Kinship Care of the Abused Child: The New Zealand Experience.

    Worrall, Jill


    Discusses the experiences of caregivers and their kin children under the 1989 New Zealand Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act. Considers the responsibilities and roles of extended family in Maori culture reflected in the Act's provisions, as well as changes and challenges for the caregiving family. Notes the value of this policy and…

  15. Sense or Nonsense?: New Zealand Heritage Leglislation in Perspective

    Greg Vossler


    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current legislative ‘landscape’ that shapes the nature of historic heritage protection and management in New Zealand. It identifies some of the principal laws that impinge on historic heritage and outlines the purpose and principles, administrative processes, protective measures and offences and enforcement provisions associated with each of these statutes.

  16. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    de Bres, Julia


    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  17. Studies on Methane Emissions from Pastoral Farming in New Zealand

    LI Meng-meng; ZHANG Gui-guo; SUN Xue-zhao; DONG Shu-ting; Simone O. Hoskin


    The aim of this paper was to give a basic understanding of studies on methane emissions of New Zealand, as we know the agriculture of New Zealand is pastoral farming, most livestock animals are grazed in pasture, and quantities of methane were released from the digestive tract and animals excreta. In New Zealand some 50% greenhouse gases (GHG) sources are attributed to agriculture and one third is methane from livestock enteric formation. For many years, many researchers have been exploiting the techniques and methods to measure the emission of methane of New Zealand, further more studing the available options to alleviate the methane emissions. Their pioneering work and successful experiences including the determined methods and mitigation strategies are worth learning for scholars around the world. Some of their approaches were not only suitable for New Zealand grazed livestock, but for many other countries, even the animals are intensively bred in pen. The calorimeter/respiration chamber is the most exactly method in present, but it needs expensive equipments and skilled manipulators, so there are still some dififculty in applying this approach extensively in practice. Sulfur hexalfuoride (SF6) trace technique is much adopted for grazed livestock evaluating the methane emission, though its veracity was doubted by some researchers, it is still a good option in present for studying the GHG emissions for grazing animals. By measuring the rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration to estimate the methane emission is a relatively simple approach, it is just only a rough evaluation, and it is unsuitable for exact study, but this method may be used in China for extensively raised ruminant. In present China, the ruminants are fed in an extensively managed state, the diversities of roughage and animals varieties caused dififcult to exactly estimate the methane emission. So exploiting theavailable options is much important for constituting the exhaustive emission

  18. Nurses and the euthanasia debate: reflections from New Zealand.

    Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J


    Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about

  19. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.


    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  20. New Zealand = Maori, New Zealand = Bicultural: Ethnic Group Differences in a National Sample of Maori and Europeans

    Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew


    New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…

  1. Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    Piercey, Tiffany; Akhun, Selin; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Ćifçi, Günay


    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focussed on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we obtained km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic profiles radiating out from the river delta across the basin. Many of the profiles are processed and images of the data are presented. Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the

  2. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas


    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  3. The Neogene-Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the central Calabrian Arc: A case study from the western Catanzaro Trough basin

    Brutto, F.; Muto, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Paola, N. De; Tripodi, V.; Critelli, S.; Facchin, L.


    The Catanzaro Trough is a Neogene-Quaternary basin developed in the central Calabrian Arc, between the Serre and the Sila Massifs, and filled by up to 2000 m of continental to marine deposits. It extends from the Sant'Eufemia Basin (SE Tyrrhenian Sea), offshore, to the Catanzaro Basin, onshore. Here, onshore structural data have been integrated with structural features interpreted using marine geophysical data to infer the main tectonic processes that have controlled the geodynamic evolution of the western portion of the Catanzaro Trough, since Upper Miocene to present. The data show a complex tectonostratigraphic architecture of the basin, which is mainly controlled by the activity of NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems. In particular, during late Miocene, the NW-SE oriented faults system was characterized by left lateral kinematics. The same structural regime produces secondary fault systems represented by E-W and NE-SW oriented faults. The ca. E-W lineaments show extensional kinematics, which may have played an important role during the opening of the WNW-ESE paleo-strait; whereas the NE-SW oriented system represents the conjugate faults of the NW-SE oriented structural system, showing a right lateral component of motion. During the Piacenzian-Lower Pleistocene, structural field and geophysical data show a switch from left-lateral to right-lateral kinematics of the NW-SE oriented faults, due to a change of the stress field. This new structural regime influenced the kinematics of the NE-SW faults system, which registered left lateral movement. Since Middle Pleistocene, the study area experienced an extensional phase, WNW-ESE oriented, controlled mainly by NE-SW and, subordinately, N-S oriented normal faults. This type of faulting splits obliquely the western Catanzaro Trough, producing up-faulted and down-faulted blocks, arranged as graben-type system (i.e Lamezia Basin). The multidisciplinary approach adopted, allowed us to constrain the structural setting of

  4. Stratigraphic architecture and forcing processes of the late Neogene Miradouro da Lua sedimentary prism, Cuanza Basin, Angola

    Cauxeiro, C.; Durand, J.; Lopez, M.


    The Miradouro da Lua cliffs, which are 60 km south of Luanda, record the building and uplift of the late Neogene Palaeo-Cuanza delta. The detailed study of the sedimentary architecture and stacking pattern permitted separation of the pile into five depositional units bounded by erosional surfaces and characterised by separate facies associations (genetic sequences = units in this paper). At the base of the series, aeolian deposits (Unit 1) mark the development of a possible coastal desert during the late Miocene aridification. The major Pliocene sea-level rise (Transgressive Systems Tract) led to the drowning of the continental platform into a discrete shoreface-foreshore sequence (Unit 2), followed by an expanded deltaic sequence (Unit 3) that represents the main outcrop of the area. The sedimentary fabric of this prograding wedge during the Highstand Systems Tract reveals laterally stacked pluri-hectometic mouth bars built by the abrupt switching of a bird-foot delta during the Pliocene highstand. The clinoforms are deeply incised by submarine gullies filled both by periodic river-driven turbidite and tidal currents (Unit 4) during the coeval growing of the delta. The topset of the prograding wedge and associated gullies infill is truncated by an overall erosional unconformity that marks the widespread development of an extensive braid-delta system (Unit 5) during the lower Pleistocene sea-level drop (Lowstand Systems Tract). The last 6 m of the Braid-delta unit is overprinted by a ferallitic profile, forming the surface of the plateau and indicating long-term subaerial exposure and weathering processes consistent with the maximum warming of the middle to late Pleistocene interglacial periods. The successive abrupt shifts of the depositional systems through the sedimentary pile indicate a high-amplitude sea level amplified by major coastal uplifts and the reorganisation of the fluvial network. In this context, the palaeo-Cuanza prograding wedge signals the

  5. Neogene sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Ice Shelf (ANDRILL Program, Antarctica)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Willmott, Veronica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross


    During the austral summers 2006 and 2007 the ANtarctic DRILLing Program (ANDRILL) drilled two cores, each recovering more than 1000m of sediment from below the McMurdo Ice-Shelf (MIS, AND-1B), and sea-ice in Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS, AND-2A), respectively, revealing new information about Neogene Antarctic cryosphere evolution. Core AND-1B was drilled in a more distal location than core AND-2A. With the aim of obtaining important information for the understanding of the history of Antarctic climate and environment during selected interval of the Neogene, we applied novel organic geochemistry proxies such as TEX86 (Tetra Ether IndeX of lipids with 86 carbon atoms) using a new calibration equation specifically developed for polar areas and based on 116 surface sediment samples collected from polar oceans (Kim et al., subm.), and BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether), to derive absolute (sea surface) temperature values and to evaluate the relative contribution of soil organic matter versus marine organic matter, respectively. We will present the state-of-the-art of the methodology applied, discussing its advantages and limitations, and the results so far obtained from the analysis of 60 samples from core AND-2A covering the Miocene Climatic Optimum (and the Mid-late Miocene transition) and of 20 pilot samples from core AND-1B covering the late Pliocene.


    陈冠芳; 张兆群


    Bovidae is one of the most diversified groups of Neogene mammals. The study of Chinese Neogene Bovidae traced back to the beginning of the 20~(th) century (Schlosser, 1903). During the 1920's and 1930's, Neogene bovid fossil collecting and describing reached a peak. From the 1950's on, not only some new bovid taxa have been reported based on the materials obtained from Northern and Southwest China, but also the systematic positions of some bovid genera have been revised by Chinese paleontologists.In this paper, we try to review the taxonomy based on the most recent progress. Till now, 30 genera belonging to 5 subfamilies of Bovidae have been recognized from Chinese Neogene (Table 1). Most of the genera were found from North China. There discovered few taxa from the Late Miocene of Southwest China.Analysis of the geological and geographical distribution of fossil Bovidae from China shows 5 evolutionary phases and 4 turnovers during the Neogene:Phase 1; Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. Fossil Bovidae is only represented by Sinopalaeoceros Chen, 1988 ( Hypsodontinae). It occurred in the Early Miocene of Qinghai and in the Late Oligocene of Xinjiang.Phase 2; Middle Miocene ( Tunggurian) . Bovids are characterized by the presence of Tur-cocerus K(o)hler, 1987 and Kubanotragus Sokolov, 1973. They distributed only in North China.Phase 3 : Late Miocene ( Bahean-Baodean) . Bovids are characterized by the flourishing of Urmiatheriini, and a specialized group belonging to Caprinae. Gazella ( Antilopinae) is also one of the most common genera. Phase 4: Early Pliocene. The dominant elements are Gazella and endemic forms of Caprinae.Phase 5 Late Pliocene. Bovids are characterized by the occurrence of extant genera and species, e. g. Ovis and Gazella subgutturosa.These phases also indicate 4 turnover events of bovid faunas during the Neogene.The first turnover event happened after the first phase, in between the Early and Middle Miocene. Sinopalaeoceros went extinct, and there

  7. Mangrove associated lignite beds of Malvan, Konkan: Evidence for higher sea-level during the Late Tertiary (Neogene) along the west coast of India

    Kumaran, K.P.N.; Shindikar, M.; Limaye, R.B. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India)


    Fossil pneumatophores (breathing roots) of Avicennia are recovered and reported from the lignite beds exposed in Kolamb well-section near Malvan, Konkan area of western Maharashtra. The accrued palynoflora is dominated by mangroves (Avicennia, Aegialitis, Excoecaria, Rhizophora and Sonneratia). The spores of mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum) an estuarine fungus Cirrenalia indicate that these lignites are autochthonous and deposited in a near-shore environment. Presence of foraminiferal linings (= microforaminifera), dinoflagellate cysts, a few calcareous nannofossils and scolecodonts is an irrefutable proof of marine and brackish water influence during the deposition of lignites under intertidal/tidal swampy condition (mangrove influenced) with fair input from freshwater swamps and hinterland. Freshwater-related forms, viz. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Nymphaeaceae, Ctenolophonaceae and hinterland taxa (Cullenia/Durio) of Bombacaceae along with abundance of microthyriaceous fungi in the palynoflora imply a warm humid tropical climate with high precipitation during the depositional period. The presence of Ctenolophon englerianus (= Ctenolophonidites costatus) in Kolamb lignites suggests the Late Neogene (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) age. The occurrence of pneumatophores and associated lignite deposits about 37 m above the present mean sea-level, and much inland, clearly indicates the higher sea-level strand during Late Neogene along the west coast of India.

  8. Late Neogene changes in North America and Antarctica absolute plate motions inferred from the Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges spreading histories

    Iaffaldano, G.; DeMets, C.


    Reconstructions of absolute plate motions underpin our understanding of the plate torque balance, but are challenging due to difficulties in inferring well-dated rates and directions of plate movements from hot spot tracks. Useful information about plate dynamics can be inferred from rapid absolute plate motion changes, as these are linked only to the torque(s) that changed. Here we infer late Neogene changes in the absolute motions of North America and possibly Antarctica from changes in the easier-to-determine relative plate motions recorded along the Arctic, northern Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. We show that Eurasia/North America and Nubia/North America motions changed by the same amount between 8 and 5 Ma, as may have Nubia/Antarctica and Somalia/Antarctica plate motions. By considering additional, independent constraints on Somalia/India plate motion, we argue that a scenario in which North America and Antarctica absolute motions changed is the simplest one that explains the observed changes in relative motions. We speculate that these changes are linked to the late Neogene dynamics of the Pacific plate.

  9. Relative roles of Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change on the historical diversification of bunchgrass lizards (Sceloporus scalaris group) in Mexico.

    Bryson, Robert W; García-Vázquez, Uri Omar; Riddle, Brett R


    Neogene vicariance during the Miocene and Pliocene and Quaternary climate change have synergistically driven diversification in Mexican highland taxa. We investigated the impacts of these processes on genetic diversification in the widely distributed bunchgrass lizards in the Sceloporus scalaris group. We searched for correlations between timing in diversification and timing of (1) a period of marked volcanism across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in central Mexico 3-7.5million years ago (Ma) and (2) a transition to larger glacial-interglacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene. From our phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA we identified two major clades that contained 13 strongly supported lineages. One clade contained lineages from the two northern sierras of Mexico, and the other clade included lineages associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Central Mexican Plateau. Results provided support for Neogene divergences within the S. scalaris group in response to uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, a pattern observed in several co-distributed taxa, and suggested that Quaternary climate change likely had little effect on diversification between lineages. Uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt during specific time periods appears to have strongly impacted diversification in Mexican highland taxa.

  10. Constraints on the history and topography of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada from a Neogene sedimentary basin in the Reno-Verdi area, Western Nevada

    Trexler, James; Cashman, Patricia; Cosca, Michael


    Neogene (Miocene–Pliocene) sedimentary rocks of the northeastern Sierra Nevada were deposited in small basins that formed in response to volcanic and tectonic activity along the eastern margin of the Sierra. These strata record an early phase (ca. 11–10 Ma) of extension and rapid sedimentation of boulder conglomerates and debrites deposited on alluvial fans, followed by fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation and nearby volcanic arc activity but tectonic quiescence, until ~ 2.6 Ma. The fossil record in these rocks documents a warmer, wetter climate featuring large mammals and lacking the Sierran orographic rain shadow that dominates climate today on the eastern edge of the Sierra. This record of a general lack of paleo-relief across the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada is consistent with evidence presented elsewhere that there was not a significant topographic barrier between the Pacific Ocean and the interior of the continent east of the Sierra before ~ 2.6 Ma. However, these sediments do not record an integrated drainage system either to the east into the Great Basin like the modern Truckee River, or to the west across the Sierra like the ancestral Feather and Yuba rivers. The Neogene Reno-Verdi basin was one of several, scattered endorheic (i.e., internally drained) basins occupying this part of the Cascade intra-arc and back-arc area.

  11. Constraints on Neogene deformation in the southern Terror Rift from calcite twinning analyses of veins within the ANDRILL MIS core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    Paulsen, T. S.; Demosthenous, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Millan, C.


    The ANDRILL MIS (McMurdo Ice Shelf) Drilling Project obtained over 1200 meters of Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in 2006/2007. Systematic fracture logging of the AND-1B core identified 1,475 natural fractures, i.e. pre-existing fractures in the rock intersected by coring. The most abundant natural fractures are normal faults and calcite veins; reverse faults, brecciated zones, and sedimentary intrusions are also present. In order to better understand Neogene deformation patterns within the southern Terror Rift, we have been conducting strain analyses on mechanically twinned calcite within healed fractures in the drill core. Twinning strains using all of the data from each sample studied to date range from 2% to 10%. The cleaned data (20% of the largest magnitude deviations removed) typically show ≤30% negative expected values, consistent with a single deformation episode or multiple ~coaxial deformation episodes. The majority of the samples record horizontal extension, similar to strain patterns expected in a normal fault regime and/or vertical sedimentary compaction in a continental rift system. The morphology, width, and intensity of twins in the samples suggest that twinning typically occurred at temperatures <170° C. Twinning intensities suggest differential stress magnitudes that caused the twinning ranged from 216 to 295 MPa.

  12. Pacemaker Use in New Zealand - Data From the New Zealand Implanted Cardiac Device Registry (ANZACS-QI 15).

    Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K


    The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1(st) January 2014 and 1(st) June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Building an Amphibious Capability for New Zealand in the 21st Century: Essential in an Uncertain Security Environment


    assets limit opportunities for joint training. In November 2012, the NZDF conducted Exercise Pae Tata. This exercise provided an opportunity of access 2 Jan 2012. 34 The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force Developing Amphibious Capability” The New Zealand...Plan, 2008 – 2025. Wellington, New Zealand: Royal New Zealand Navy, 2008. The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force

  14. Earthquake-induced Landslidingand Ground Damage In New Zealand

    Hancox, G. T.; Perrin, N. D.; Dellow, G. D.

    A study of landsliding caused by 22 historical earthquakes in New Zealand was completed at the end of 1997 (Hancox et al., 1997). The main aims of that study were to determine: (a) the nature and extent of landsliding and other ground damage (sand boils, subsidence and lateral spreading due to soil liquefaction) caused by historical earthquakes; (b) relationships between landsliding and earthquake magnitude, epicentre, faulting, geology and topography; (c) improved environmental criteria and ground classes for assigning MM intensities and seismic hazard assessments in N.Z. The data and results of the 1997 study have recently been summarised and expanded (Hancox et al., in press), and are described in this paper. Relationships developed from these studies indicate that the minimum magnitude for earthquake-induced landsliding (EIL) in N.Z. is about M 5, with significant landsliding occurring at M 6 or greater. The minimum MM intensity for landsliding is MM6, while the most common intensities for significant landsliding are MM7-8. The intensity threshold for soil liquefaction in New Zealand was found to be MM7 for sand boils, and MM8 for lateral spreading, although such effects may also occur at one intensity level lower in highly susceptible materials. The minimum magnitude for liquefaction phenomena in N.Z. is about M 6, compared to M 5 overseas where highly susceptible soils are probably more widespread. Revised environmental response criteria (landsliding, subsidence, liquefaction-induced sand boils and lateral spreading) have also been established for the New Zealand MM Intensity Scale, and provisional landslide susceptibility Ground Classes developed for assigning MM intensities in areas where there are few buildings. Other new data presented include a size/frequency distribution model for earthquake-induced landslides over the last 150 years and a preliminary EIL Opportunity model for N.Z. The application of EIL data and relationships for seismic hazard

  15. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: WINE: putting the fossil insectivores on record

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Doukas, C.S.; Reumer, J.W.F.


    Introduction In their report of a meeting at Reisensburg, the RCMNS working group on fossil mammals presented ranges of Neogene mammal genera (De Bruijn et al, 1992). However, no erinaceid, talpid or shrew can be found in the tables. The working group concluded (p. 70); "The omission of all the inse

  16. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Greece

    Doukas, C.S.


    Introduction The Neogene insectivores from Greece span an interval from Early Miocene to Biharian but certainly do not represent a continuous succession. The first reference of small mammals in Greece is by Dames (1883), who described Mus [=Parapodemus] gaudryi from the classical locality of Pikermi

  17. Online access and literacy in Maori New Zealanders with diabetes.

    Reti, Shane R; Feldman, Henry J; Safran, Charles


    Online web-based interventions can be effective ancillary tools for managing diabetes. There is a high prevalence of diabetes in New Zealand Maori, and yet this group has generally been a low priority for web-based interventions due to perceptions of low Internet access and Internet literacy. To assess Internet access and literacy in New Zealanders with diabetes, especially high-risk Maori. A telephone survey of all patients with diabetes in an urban general practice. Internet access is assessed by Internet presence in the home, and Internet literacy by the ability to use email and the World Wide Web. One hundred percent response rate with 68 participants, including 38% Maori. Internet access for Maori was 70% and Internet literacy 41%. Internet access and literacy for Maori with diabetes may be higher than previously thought. Health policies may wish to focus effective and cost-efficient web-based interventions on this high diabetes risk group.

  18. Disability profile of multiple sclerosis in New Zealand

    Alla, Sridhar; Pearson, John F.; Taylor, Bruce V.;


    New Zealand is a high risk region for multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate demographic, clinical and temporal factors associated with disability status in the New Zealand National Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence Study (NZNMSPS) cohort. Data were obtained from the 2006...... NZNMSPS with MS diagnosis based on the 2005 McDonald criteria. Disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Disability profiles were generated using multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 2917 persons with MS was identified, of whom disability data were available...... for 2422 (75% females). The overall disability was EDSS 4.4. ±. standard deviation 2.6. Higher disability was associated with older age, longer disease duration, older and younger ages of onset, spinal cord syndromes with motor involvement at onset, and a progressive onset type. Lower disability...

  19. Neoliberalism and criticisms of earthquake insurance arrangements in New Zealand.

    Hay, I


    Global collapse of the Fordist-Keynesian regime of accumulation and an attendant philosophical shift in New Zealand politics to neoliberalism have prompted criticisms of, and changes to, the Earthquake and War Damage Commission. Earthquake insurance arrangements made 50 years ago in an era of collectivist, welfarist political action are now set in an environment in which emphasis is given to competitive relations and individualism. Six specific criticisms of the Commission are identified, each of which is founded in the rhetoric and ideology of a neoliberal political project which has underpinned radical social and economic changes in New Zealand since the early 1980s. On the basis of those criticisms, and in terms of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Commission has been restructured. The new Commission is withdrawing from its primary position as the nation's non-residential property hazards insurer and is restricting its coverage of residential properties.

  20. Art’s histories in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Jonathan Mané Wheoki


    Full Text Available This is the text of an illustrated paper presented at ‘Art History’s History in Australia and New Zealand’; a joint symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Art History in the University of Melbourne and the Australian and New Zealand Association of Art Historians (AAANZ; held on 28 – 29 August 2010. Responding to a set of questions framed around the ‘state of art history in New Zealand’; this paper reviews the ‘invention’ of a nationalist art history and argues that there can be no coherent; integrated history of art in New Zealand that does not encompass the timeframe of the cultural production of New Zealand’s indigenous Maori; or that of the Pacific nations for which the country is a regional hub; or the burgeoning cultural diversity of an emerging Asia-Pacific nation.

  1. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A


    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  2. Commercialisation in the provision of meteorological services in New Zealand

    Steiner, J. Thomas; Martin, John R.; Gordon, Neil D.; Grant, Malcolm A.


    There have been significant reforms in New Zealand of government management in general and of the science and transport sectors in particular. The impact of the reforms on the provision of meteorological services is discussed as an example of the application of the general reform thrust to a specialist technical area. The eventual outcome was the establishment of Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService) as a commercial company, trading in the weather forecasting market but remaining under Crown ownership. At the same time the National Institute of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA) was established. It includes the climatic responsibilities and much of the scientific research component of the former NZMS. It too operates commercially and is Crown owned. Unlike MetService, NIWA is not required to return a dividend to its owners. The procedures leading to the establishment of these new organisations, their mode of operation and their initial successful performance are described.

  3. Evolving National Strategy Driving Nursing Informatics in New Zealand.

    Honey, Michelle; Westbrooke, Lucy


    An update to the New Zealand Health Strategy identifying direction and priorities for health services is underway. Three specific areas have implications for nursing informatics and link to education and practice: best use of technology and information, fostering and spreading innovation and quality improvements, and building leaders and capability for the future. An emphasis on prevention and wellness means nursing needs to focus on health promotion and the role of consumers is changing with access to their on-line information a major focus. As the modes of delivery for services such as telehealth and telenursing changes, nurses are increasingly working independently and utilizing information and communication technologies to collaborate with the health team. New Zealand, and other countries, need strong nursing leadership to sustain the nursing voice in policy and planning and ensure nurses develop the required informatics skills.

  4. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    Andkjær, Søren


      This presentation takes general view of understanding outdoor education in New Zealand.  This is seen from an outsider's perspective and is compared with "friluftsliv" in Denmark and the Nordic countries. Analysing and understanding one's culture is never easy, and the main challenge is to focus...... on and question everyday phenomena which seem natural and that reproduce one's own perspective. Cultural analysis and the analysis of social configurations together with a comparative cultural perspective form the research approach.  . The presentation is based on a comparative and qualitative case study (Ragin......, 1992) of friluftsliv in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Friluftsliv and outdoor education are understood as socio-cultural constructs which develop and differ in time and space. The theoretical framework is based on ethnological cultural analysis (Ehn & Lofgren, 1982, 2008) combined...

  5. New Zealand women traveller writers: from exile to diaspora

    Wilson, Janet M


    The focus of this article is a group of New Zealand women traveller writers of the first half of the twentieth century who left their country of origin, and in the encounter with new worlds overseas, reconstructed themselves as deterritorialised, diasporic subjects with new understandings of home and belonging. Their work can be read as both transitional and transnational, reflecting the ambivalence of multiple cultural affiliations and reinflecting literary conventions. Such encounters and n...

  6. Infective endocarditis in New Zealand children 1994-2012.

    Webb, Rachel; Voss, Lesley; Roberts, Sally; Hornung, Tim; Rumball, Elizabeth; Lennon, Diana


    New Zealand is a developed country with high incidence of bacterial infections and postinfectious sequelae including rheumatic heart disease. We sought to describe the clinical and microbiology features of children with infective endocarditis (IE) between 1994 and 2012. Retrospective review of patients Pacific Island countries, 13 cases were referred. There were 72 children who originated in New Zealand, of whom 52% were either indigenous New Zealand Maori or Pacific migrants. The median age at diagnosis was 7 (0-15) years. Of the 85 cases, 51 (60%) had congenital heart disease 10 children with rheumatic heart disease developed IE. Of the 85 cases, 35 (41%) met our criteria for healthcare-associated IE. 39/85 underwent surgery for IE. As direct result of IE, 4 (4.7%) children died and 9% of survivors had neurologic sequelae. Attributable in-hospital mortality was 4.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism, accounting for 26 episodes (30.6%). Other notable pathogens included Corynebacterium diphtheriae (10 cases, 11.8%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (7 cases, 8.2%). In 6 episodes, the microbiologic diagnosis was made by 16S ribosomal RNA testing of excised cardiac tissue. Congenital heart disease was the major risk factor for IE; however, rheumatic heart disease is also an important risk factor in New Zealand, with implications for local endocarditis prophylaxis recommendations. In addition to a high burden of healthcare-associated and staphylococcal IE, pathogens such as C. diphtheriae and S. pyogenes occurred. 16S ribosomal RNA testing is a useful tool to determine the etiologic agent in culture-negative IE.

  7. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand


    Purpose of the review: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are.Recent findings: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgrad...

  8. Meteors in the Maori Astronomical Traditions of New Zealand

    Britton, Tui R


    We review the literature for perceptions of meteors in the Maori cultures of New Zealand. We examine representations of meteors in religion, story, and ceremony. We find that meteors are sometimes personified as gods or children, or are seen as omens of death and destruction. The stories we found highlight the broad perception of meteors found throughout the Maori culture and demonstrate that some early scholars conflated the terms comet and meteor.

  9. HACCP/RMP Adoption in the New Zealand Meat Industry

    Cao, Kay; Scrimgeour, Frank G.


    In New Zealand, the Animal Products Act 1999 requires that all animal product primary processing businesses must have a risk management programme (RMP) based on the principles of Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). However, due to market access requirements, many primary food exporters have voluntarily adopted HACCP systems for food safety management since the 1990s. This paper studies the process of HACCP/RMP adoption and the transition from voluntary HACCP to mandatory RMP ...

  10. Hangi Magnetism: first Archaeomagnetic Results from New Zealand

    Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.; Alfheid, M.; Ingham, M.


    Holocene secular variation data, particularly palaeointensities, from the New Zealand region are critical to models of the global field and the geodynamo, but to date are few and far between. New Zealand's early Maori settlers did not make pottery - they steamed their food in flax baskets in earth ovens called umu or hangi. These ovens were pits in the ground into which were placed hot stones, covered with baskets of food and layers of fern fronds soaked in water. The whole was covered with soil and left to cook for several hours. Hangi stones were carefully chosen, prized possessions, and were used many times. Andesite boulders from the Central North Island were highly favoured. We have shown that hangi stones have the potential to be reliable recorders of both the intensity and direction of the palaeomagnetic field at the time of their last use. In collaboration with Maori tangata whenua we laid and fired an experimental hangi using traditional methods. We included volcanic and sedimentary rocks from different regions of New Zealand. The rocks reached temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees C and cooled very slowly, with minimal physical disturbance. A sampling method was devised, and on separate subsets of samples, we were able to accurately retrieve both the direction and intensity of the local geomagnetic field, from most lithologies. We are in the early stages of sampling archaeological hangi sites from throughout New Zealand, which span the past 600-700 years. Palaeomagnetic data from these sites will complement directional secular variation records from lake and marine sediments, and will provide crucial absolute palaeointensities.

  11. Performance Anxiety: Audit Culture and the Neoliberal New Zealand University

    Geoff Stahl


    Full Text Available This essay considers the role of audit culture and research output measurement regimes in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It explores the nature of neoliberalism and how it has worked its way into research and publishing, as well as departmental and teaching, contexts. This forms an important part of what Alison Hearn has called the promotional university, complete with bibliometrics and the attendant disciplinary mechanisms that work to produce 'productive' researchers.

  12. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities.

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.


    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  13. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.


    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  14. New Zealand-China Friendship Society Delegation in China


    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC,the delegation of New Zealand-China Friendship Society (NZCFS) led by Trevor Linyard,member of the Executive Committee of the NZCFS,visited Beijing,Xi’an,Chengdu and Shanghai from May 27 to June 5. The delegation is composed of those who have been actively engaged in promoting people-to-people friendship between

  15. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan


    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  16. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Hathaway, S C


    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  17. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica


    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  18. Vitamin D status of newborns in New Zealand.

    Camargo, Carlos A; Ingham, Tristram; Wickens, Kristin; Thadhani, Ravi I; Silvers, Karen M; Epton, Michael J; Town, G Ian; Espinola, Janice A; Crane, Julian


    Recognition of the important non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D has focused attention on the vitamin D status of individuals across the lifespan. To examine the vitamin D status of newborns, we measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the cord blood of 929 apparently healthy newborns in a population-based study in New Zealand, a country at 41 °S latitude, with strong anti-skin cancer (sun avoidance) campaigns and without vitamin D food fortification. Randomly selected midwives in two regions recruited children. The median cord blood level of 25(OH)D was 44 nmol/l (interquartile range, 29-78 nmol/l). Overall, 19 % of newborns had 25(OH)D levels determinants of low vitamin D status were winter month of birth and non-European ethnicity. Other determinants of low cord blood 25(OH)D included longer gestational age, younger maternal age and a parental history of asthma. In summary, low levels of vitamin D are common among apparently healthy New Zealand newborns, and are independently associated with several easily identified factors. Although the optimal timing and dosage of vitamin D supplementation require further study, our findings may assist future efforts to correct low levels of 25(OH)D among New Zealand mothers and their newborn children.

  19. Atherosclerosis induced by diabetogenic diet in New Zealand white rabbits


    To observe the effects of diabetogenic (high fat high sucrose, lacking choleserol) diet on atherogenesis in New Zealand white rabbits. Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits received regular rabbit chow (the normal control), or high fat high sucrose diet for 4 months. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose were investigated, the areas of fatty streak of the aortae were measured after staining with Sodan IV, and the aortic, coronary specimens were observed with light and electron microscopies. The plasma glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were increased significantly by high fat high sucrose feeding. At the end of 4 months, the early charateristics of atherosclerosis were present in the animals' vascular specimens. Our findings suggest that high fat high sucrose feeding can induce hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits, and this could be a potential animal model for studying the mechanisms of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. This study raised a question: What is the mechanism by which high fat high sucrose feeding induces atherosclerosis?. The related hypothesis was given in this article.

  20. The current state of ototoxicity monitoring in New Zealand.

    Steffens, Lotte; Venter, Kinau; O'Beirne, Greg A; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca; Gibbs, David; Bird, Philip


    To explore medical oncologists' and audiologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding ototoxicity monitoring, and to gain an understanding of monitoring currently being implemented at District Health Boards (DHBs) nationwide. We also aimed to identify ways in which audiological outcomes for patients receiving potentially ototoxic treatments could be improved, including examining whether the formulation and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline is necessary. Complementary telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 senior or charge audiologists and seven senior medical oncologists from DHBs across New Zealand, and their responses analysed. Responses indicate a comprehensive understanding of ototoxicity across both disciplines; however there is limited familiarity with ototoxicity monitoring protocols. Patients across New Zealand undergo significantly variable ototoxicity monitoring; local practices range from no routine monitoring to audiological assessment prior to each cycle of chemotherapy. No routine audiological follow up is conducted post completion of treatment at any DHB, in contrast with international guidelines. Twenty-two of 23 participants were in favour of development of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline. There is significant discrepancy in how ototoxicity monitoring is conducted across New Zealand, and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring protocol may improve audiological outcomes for patients receiving ototoxic chemotherapy.

  1. Surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in New Zealand birds

    Daniel Tompkins


    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods: Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693 were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22. In the second season, blood clots (n = 544 were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146 was conducted. Results: Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand.

  2. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G


    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  3. Neogene sedimentary history of the Inner Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    Walsh, Susan; Kurtboǧan, Bahar; Akhun, Selin; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Ćifçi, Günay


    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is focused to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we collected ~2000 km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic reflection profiles radiating out from the present-day mouth of the Göksu River across the basin. The Göksu River delta is located on a narrow shelf at the junction of the Inner and Outer Cilicia Basins. The Inner Cilicia Basin consists of a 40 km-wide shelf linking to the onshore Adana Basin and a slope down to the deeper water (~ 1 km) of the Outer Cilicia Basin. The shelf is built out of a >2.5 km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Quaternary sediment overlying Messinian evaporites or older Miocene sediments. The evaporites have been mobilised to move down slope during the Pliocene-Quaternary so that the shelf is located above an extensional fault fan, complemented by a salt-cored fold/thrust belt in deeper water (see poster by Piercey et al., this meeting). The 2008 seismic reflection profiles show that the western margin of the Inner Cilicia Basin seaward of the mouth of the Göksu River is constructed by numerous vertically stacked and east-prograded delta successions. Detailed mapping in this region revealed that the sediment input from the Göksu River can be readily distinguished from the larger influxes from the coalescing Tarsus, Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers to the north. The bases of major delta packages supplied by the Göksu River are marked by strong reflections, defining shelf-crossing unconformities, which can be correlated across the Inner Cilicia Basin. Industry exploration wells in the

  4. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina


    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  5. A review of neogene and quaternary snakes of Central and Eastern Europe. Part 11: natricinae, elapidae, viperidae

    Szyndlar, Z.


    Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary "natricine" colubrids, elapids and viperids, including snakes previously described and those undescribed yet, coming from Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are discussed. The following taxa, including 11 extinct species, were recognized: "Natricinae": Neonatrix nova, Neonatrix sp., Palaeonatrix silesiaca, Palaeonatrix lehmani, Natrix longivertebrata, Natrix cf. N. longivertebrata, Natrix natrix, Natrix tesselata, Natrix cf. N. tesselata, Natrix sp., "Natricinae" indet.; Elapidae: Naja romani, Naja sp., cf. Naja sp.; Viperidae: Vipera platyspondyla, Vipera sarmatica, Vipera burgenlandica, Vipera gedulyi, Vipera kuchurganica, Vipera antiqua, Vipera cf. V. ammodytes, Vipera berus, Vipera sp ('Oriental vipers' group, Vipera sp. ('aspis' group, Vipera sp. ('berus' group, Vipera sp. . (status unknown. Taxonomic status of two other extinct species, Natrix parva and Laophis crotaloides, is uncertain. Modern species appeared fírst in Central and East Europe in the middle Pliocene (MN 15. Older snakes belonged to extinct species of either extinct or extant genera; taxonomic distinction of most extinct genera is, however, not fully demonstrated. Best recognized oldest snakes from the area (Elapidae, Viperidae, and sorne Colubridae are clearly referable to modern genera and intrageneric subdivisions occurring today are observed in oldest (Iower Miocene remains; closest living relatives of these fossils are presently distributed in the Oriental Realm.Se revisan y estudian los restos neógenos y cuaternarios de colúbridos «natricinos», elápidos y vipéridos, incluyendo tanto serpientes previamente descritas como- otras inéditas. Los materiales analizados proceden de Polonia, Ukrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumania, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones, incluyendo 11 especies extinguidas: Natricinae: Neonatrix nova

  6. Exploring the history of New Zealand astronomy trials, tribulations, telescopes and transits

    Orchiston, Wayne


    Professor Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material.  The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging fie...

  7. A Descriptive Study of the Practice Patterns of Massage New Zealand Massage Therapists

    Smith, Joanna M.; Sullivan, S John; Baxter, G David


    Background: Massage therapy has grown in popularity, yet little is known globally or in New Zealand about massage therapists and their practices. Purpose and Setting: The aims of this study were to describe the practice patterns of trained Massage New Zealand massage therapists in New Zealand private practice, with regard to therapist characteristics; practice modes and settings, and therapy characteristics; referral patterns; and massage therapy as an occupation. Research Design and Particip...

  8. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P


    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  9. Is New Zealand vegetation really 'problematic'? Dansereau's puzzles revisited.

    Wilson, J Bastow; Lee, William G


    Over four decades ago, Pierre Dansereau, the noted North American ecologist, proposed six features of New Zealand vegetation as being problematic or unusual in a global context. We examine his propositions in the light of current ecological knowledge to determine whether or not these can still be considered unusual characteristics of New Zealand vegetation. (1) 'Climatic change is still progressing' resulting in disequilibrium between species' distributions and the present climate. New data and methods of analysis now available have removed the impression that Dansereau gained of imprecise zonation, unclear vegetation/climate relations and missing vegetation types. Communities cited as having regeneration failure can now be seen as even-aged stands that developed after major disturbance, although there are other, also non-climatic, explanations. However, the cause of the Westland 'Nothofagus gap' has become more, rather than less, controversial. (2) 'Continuity of community composition defies classification' and 'Very few New Zealand associations have faithful species' are correct observations, but perhaps equally true of vegetation elsewhere. Dansereau's assertion of low species richness in New Zealand is not supported by the comparative data available. (3) 'Lack of intolerant [i.e. mid-seral] trees …' is not evident with newer information. The order of species in succession, seen as unclear by Dansereau, has been determined by a range of approaches, largely confirming each other. (4) 'Discrepancies of form and function …' in divaricate shrubs and widespread heteroblasty are still controversial, with many more explanations. Several abiotic explanations have failed to stand up to investigation. Explanations in terms of herbivory have been well supported, although the extinction of the large avian herbivores makes certainty impossible. (5) 'Incidence of hybridization …' remains problematic. We do not know whether the incidence is unusually high, as Dansereau

  10. The impact of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand programme on hand hygiene practices in New Zealand's public hospitals.

    Freeman, Joshua; Dawson, Louise; Jowitt, Deborah; White, Margo; Callard, Hayley; Sieczkowski, Christine; Kuriyan, Ron; Roberts, Sally


    To detail the progress made by Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) since 2011 and also describe the challenges experienced along the way and the factors required for delivery of a successful hand hygiene programme at a national level. HHNZ is a multimodal culture-change programme based on the WHO '5 moments for hand hygiene' approach. The key components of the programme include clinical leadership, auditing of hand hygiene compliance with thrice yearly reporting of improvement in hand hygiene practice, biannual reporting of the outcome marker, healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB), effective communication with key stakeholders and the use of the front-line ownership (FLO) principles for quality improvement. The nationally aggregated hand hygiene compliance has increased from 62% in June 2012 to 81% in March 2016. There has been improvement across all 'moments', all healthcare worker groups and a range of different clinical specialties. The rate of HA-SAB has remained stable. The HHNZ programme has led to significant improvements in hand hygiene practice in DHBs throughout New Zealand. The principles of FLO are now widely used to drive hand hygiene improvement in New Zealand DHBs.

  11. Mud volcanism and authigenic carbonates related to methane-rich fluids migration in the late Neogene marls of S.E. Spain

    Pierre, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.; Rouchy, J. M.


    Methane-rich fluids that are generated at depth in organic-rich deposits migrate within the sediments to the seafloor where they are expelled to form mud volcanoes or pockmarks. Moreover, these migrating fluids are involved in diagenetic processes as authigenic carbonate formation and they may participate to gas hydrate formation. These features are well-known in the present-day continental margins but their fossil records are relatively scarce. The outcropping Tortonian and Messinian marls in S.E. Spain basins (Lorca, Fortuna, Columbares, Huercal Overa) contain abundant authigenic dolomite nodules. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of these dolomites exhibit wide ranges (-1.4 migration in the marly deposits of the western Mediterranean basins during the late Neogene, which was the time of major paleoenvironmental changes in the Mediterranean sea climaxing during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  12. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba;


    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2) and morpholog......New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...... was also detected and its conservation implications are discussed....

  13. A survey of New Zealand academic reference librarians: Current and future skills and competencies

    Brenda Chawner; Gillian Oliver


    .... The results from New Zealand show that, serving academic library customers requires not only traditional 'reference' skills, but also skills in customer service, technology support, and training...

  14. Toxicity of elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide to invasive New Zealand mudsnails

    Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.


    The authors tested the efficacy of elevated partial pressures of CO2 to kill invasive New Zealand mudsnails. The New Zealand mudsnails were exposed to 100 kPa at three water temperatures, and the survival was modeled versus dose as cumulative °C-h. We estimated an LD50 of 59.4°C-h for adult and juvenile New Zealand mudsnails. The results suggest that CO2 may be an effective and inexpensive lethal tool to treat substrates, tanks, or materials infested with New Zealand mudsnails.

  15. Close evolutionary affinities between freshwater corbulid bivalves from the Neogene of western Amazonia and Paleogene of the northern Great Plains, USA

    Anderson, Laurie C.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Wesselingh, Frank


    Freshwater corbulid bivalves found in Miocene deposits of western Amazonia have been considered products of an endemic radiation of a marine clade within the large lacustrine system occupying the region at that time. Our reexamination of Paleocene freshwater corbulids of the Tongue River Formation of western North Dakota and eastern Montana, however, extends the stratigraphic and geographic range of three Amazonian taxa— Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula—to the Paleocene of the northern Great Plains of the United States. Both Paleocene and Miocene freshwater corbulid taxa occur in large freshwater systems with an intermittent marine connection. To test the phylogenetic relationships of one particularly widespread Paleocene species ( Pachydon mactriformis), we conducted cladistic analyses using maximum parsimony and heuristic searches of matrices of conchologic characters. Seven species of Pachydon and Pebasia dispar from the western Amazonian Neogene, Pachydon mactriformis from the Paleocene of North Dakota, representative species of eight neotropical marine corbulid genera, and three additional corbulid taxa were included. Corbula was the outgroup. All analyses produced similar regions of stability within trees. One such area is a Pachydon crown group that includes P. mactriformis, indicating that Paleocene and Miocene Pachydon are not convergent. Our results also indicate that Pachydon does not represent a separate basal radiation within the family. However, we have not resolved a robust sister clade relationship for the Pachydon crown group. Two Amazonian Neogene taxa do not fall within the Pachydon crown group, and their phylogenetic position is not resolved. At this time, we do not have sufficient evidence to refine the definitions of Pachydon and Pachydontinae as monophyletic clades. Although we have evidence that three genera of corbulid bivalves ( Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula) in the Pebas Formation are not endemic and have long geologic

  16. Neogene basin development around Söke-Kuşadası (western Anatolia) and its bearing on tectonic development of the Aegean region

    Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Kamil; Yılmaz, Yücel

    There is a N-S lying narrow strip of Neogene outcrop between the towns of Kuşadası and Söke in western Anatolia. It contains remnants of successive Neogene graben basins. The first graben began to form under the control of a N40-70°E-trending oblique fault system during the Early Miocene. At the initial phase of the opening coarse clastic rocks were deposited in front of the fault-elevated blocks as scree deposits and fanglomerates. Later the graben advanced into a large lake basin. Towards the end of the Middle Miocene the lacustrine sediments of the Early-Middle Miocene age underwent an approximately N-S compressional deformation and elevated above the lake level, and were partly eroded. During the Late Miocene a new graben basin began to form as a consequence of the development of E-W-trending normal faults, formed under the N-S extensional regime. This graben also turned later into a lake environment. The lake extended far beyond the limits of the fault zones, and covered the entire regions stretching from the south of Bafa Lake in the south to Kuşadası and beyond in the north. Micritic clayey limestones were predominantly deposited in the lake. A severe erosional phase followed the termination of the lake basin. This corresponds to the cessation of the N-S extension. When the N-S extension regenerated during the Pliocene(?)-Pleistocene, the Büyük Menderes graben system began to form. In the western part of the graben, a conjugated pair of oblique faults, the Priene-Sazlı fault and the Kuşadası fault, have formed. The faults having important strike-slip components, bounded a tectonic wedge, which began to move westward into the Aegean Sea region. Major morphological features of the region were formed under the effective control of these fault zones.

  17. New insight on the recent tectonic evolution and uplift of the southern Ecuadorian Andes from gravity and structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary intramontane basins

    Tamay, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Ruano, P.; Soto, J.; Lamas, F.; Azañón, J. M.


    The sedimentary basins of Loja, Malacatos-Vilcabamba and Catamayo belong to the Neogene-Quaternary synorogenic intramontane basins of South Ecuador. They were formed during uplift of the Andes since Middle-Late Miocene as a result of the Nazca plate subduction beneath the South American continental margin. This E-W compressional tectonic event allowed for the development of NNE-SSW oriented folds and faults, determining the pattern and thickness of sedimentary infill. New gravity measurements in the sedimentary basins indicate negative Bouguer anomalies reaching up to -292 mGal related to thick continental crust and sedimentary infill. 2D gravity models along profiles orthogonal to N-S elongated basins determine their deep structure. Loja Basin is asymmetrical, with a thickness of sedimentary infill reaching more than 1200 m in the eastern part, which coincides with a zone of most intense compressive deformation. The tectonic structures include N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW oriented folds and associated east-facing reverse faults. The presence of liquefaction structures strongly suggests the occurrence of large earthquakes just after the sedimentation. The basin of Malacatos-Vilcabamba has some folds with N-S orientation. However, both Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba basins are essentially dominated by N-S to NW-SE normal faults, producing a strong asymmetry in the Catamayo Basin area. The initial stages of compression developed folds, reverse faults and the relief uplift determining the high altitude of the Loja Basin. As a consequence of the crustal thickening and in association with the dismantling of the top of the Andes Cordillera, extensional events favored the development of normal faults that mainly affect the basins of Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Gravity research helps to constrain the geometry of the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary infill, shedding some light on its relationship with tectonic events and geodynamic processes during intramontane basin

  18. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.

    Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M


    Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7 kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13 kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas.

  19. CAS – A Journey Has Begun in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Derek Smith


    Full Text Available This paper explores a journey through hand-held technology changes in mathematics teaching and learning and raises questions we as mathematics educators should be considering in the shorter and longer term. New Zealand is embarking on a Computer Algebraic Systems (CAS Pilot Programme in secondary school mathematics. The Ministry of Education and the New Zealand Qualifications Authority have selected secondary schools to be part of a pilot programme in the use of CAS technology in mathematics classes. The aim of the pilot programme is to improve teaching and learning of mathematics through the use of this technology. Six schools in 2005 used CAS technology with Year 9 (13-14 year olds students and, an additional 16 schools joined the programme in 2006. The pilot is planned to continue with an increasing number of schools in subsequent years. By the time students in the pilot schools reach Years 11, 12 and 13, alternative external assessments using the CAS technology will be available. Professional development support and assistance in obtaining and using the technology will be provided to the pilot schools. The project's emphasis in 2005 was on the Geometry and Algebra strands; the Statistics strand was added in 2006. By 2010 the first cohort of project programme students will have been through their secondary mathematics education via a CAS environment. New Zealand teachers have only a finite time to get into CAS technology and integrate it into their teaching practice. This paper discusses a research project based on a mathematics department professional development that is linked to the pilot.

  20. Control of clinical paratuberculosis in New Zealand pastoral livestock.

    Gautam, M; Ridler, A; Wilson, P R; Heuer, C


    This review summarises current control measures for clinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease; JD) in New Zealand pastoral livestock. Most New Zealand sheep, deer, beef and dairy cattle herds and flocks are infected by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Dairy cattle and deer are mostly infected with bovine (Type II), and sheep and beef cattle with ovine (Type I) strains. Control in all industries is voluntary. While control in sheep and beef cattle is ad hoc, the dairy and deer industries have developed resources to assist development of farm-specific programmes. The primary target for all livestock is reduction of the incidence rate of clinical disease rather than bacterial eradication per se. For dairy farms, a nationally instituted JD-specific programme provides guidelines for risk management, monitoring and testing clinically suspect animals. While there is no formal programme for sheep farms, for those with annual prevalences of clinical disease >2%, especially fine wool breeds, vaccination may be a cost effective control option. The deer industry proactively monitors infection by a national abattoir surveillance programme and farmers with an apparent high disease incidence are encouraged to engage with a national network of trained consultants for management and control advice. Evaluation of the biological and economic effectiveness of control in all industries remains to be undertaken. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for farmers who perceive significant JD problems in their herds/flocks to participate in systematic best-practice activities that are likely to reduce the number of clinical infections with Map on their farms and therefore the overall prevalence of JD in New Zealand's farming industries.

  1. Evaluating Defect Reporting in New Residential Buildings in New Zealand

    Funmilayo Ebun Rotimi


    Full Text Available The need for defect reporting is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore at handover of new residential buildings. A general review in defect studies has consistently shown that newly built properties can be found to have a significant number of defects. Very often the responsibility for rectifying these common defects is borne by the new homeowner even though house developers are liable. In the current study, survey data is obtained from 216 recent home purchasers/owners across New Zealand urban cities. The intent of the investigation is to show that opportunities exist for defect reporting that will act as a mechanism to measure performance and thus improve the quality of finished construction products in New Zealand. The study found that a significant number (81% of the participants were involved in the construction of their homes and could influence quality performance if they were proactive enough. The results show that (64.7% did not engage the service of independent building inspectors for defect reporting on their new homes. Seventy-four percent now agree that independent building inspection was important in hindsight. The study findings are in line with literature on defects and the poor use of defect reporting in new residential buildings. The current challenge for defect rectification by house developers after handover is real and this could increase the confidence that new home owners can have in their developers. Defect reporting could confer benefits to new residential building quality in New Zealand and should be embraced as part of a wider best practice.

  2. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.


    We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will

  3. Status assessment of New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems.

    Holdaway, Robert J; Wiser, Susan K; Williams, Peter A


    Globally, ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressure; thus, many are at risk of elimination. This situation has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to propose a quantitative approach to ecosystem-risk assessment. However, there is a need for their proposed criteria to be evaluated through practical examples spanning a diverse range of ecosystems and scales. We applied the IUCN's ecosystem red-list criteria, which are based on changes in extent of ecosystems and reductions in ecosystem processes, to New Zealand's 72 naturally uncommon ecosystems. We aimed to test the applicability of the proposed criteria to ecosystems that are naturally uncommon (i.e., those that would naturally occur over a small area in the absence of human activity) and to provide information on the probability of ecosystem elimination so that conservation priorities might be set. We also tested the hypothesis that naturally uncommon ecosystems classified as threatened on the basis of IUCN Red List criteria contain more threatened plant species than those classified as nonthreatened. We identified 18 critically endangered, 17 endangered, and 10 vulnerable ecosystems. We estimated that naturally uncommon ecosystems contained 145 (85%) of mainland New Zealand's taxonomically distinct nationally critical, nationally endangered, and nationally vulnerable plant species, 66 (46%) of which were endemic to naturally uncommon ecosystems. We estimated there was a greater number of threatened plant species (per unit area) in critically endangered ecosystems than in ecosystems classified as nonthreatened. With their high levels of endemism and rapid and relatively well-documented history of anthropogenic change, New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems provide an excellent case-study for the ongoing development of international criteria for threatened ecosystems. We suggest that interactions and synergies among decline in area, decline in function, and the scale of

  4. Sub-aqueous sulfur volcanos at Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Grimes, S.; Rickard, D. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Browne, P.; Simmons, S. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Institute and Geology Dept.; Jull, T. [University of Arizona, Tucson (United States). AMS Facility


    Exhumed, sub-aqueous sulfur mounds occur in the Waiotapu geothermal area, New Zealand. The extinct mounds are < 2 m high and composed of small (< 0.5 cm) hollow spheres, and occasional teardrop-shaped globules. They are located within a drained valley that until recently was connected to Lake Whangioterangi. They were formed a maximum of 820 {+-} 80 years BP as a result of the rapid sub-aqueous deposition of sulfur globules, formed when fumarolic gases discharged through molten sulfur pools. Similar globules are now being formed by the discharge of fumarolic gases through a sub-aqueous molten sulfur pool in Lake Whangioterangi. (author)

  5. Management Matters in New Zealand: How Does Manufacturing Measure Up?

    Green, Roy; Agarwal, Renu


    This paper benchmarks management practices in New Zealand manufacturing firms against the global best. The project was undertaken by a research team from the University of Technology Sydney and is part of a world-wide study led by the London School of Economics and McKinsey & Co. The findings suggest that while some of New Zealand’s firms are as good as any in the world, there is a substantial ‘tail’ of firms that are mediocre, especially in their approach to people management. This is a key ...

  6. Plant macrofossils of the upper Cretaceous Kaitangata coalfield, New Zealand

    Pole, M.; Douglas, B. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Botany


    Uppermost Cretaceous sediments from the Cretaceous Kaitangata Coal Mine and the Wangaloa coast (south of Dunedin, New Zealand) were investigated for dispersed plant macrofossils. The gymnosperms include two cycads (Macrozamia sp. and Pterostoma sp.), Ginkgo sp., three further possible ginkgophyte taxa, and ten conifer taxa. The conifers include two new conifer genera and species, Maikuku stephaniae and Ware riderensis, which are placed in the Taxodiaceae s.l. There are also 13 types of angiosperm cuticle. Sample heterogeneity as regards taxa present and their abundance suggests taxonomic heterogeneity in the original vegetation.

  7. Older Consumers' Readiness for e-Health in New Zealand.

    Honey, Michelle; Waterworth, Susan; Aung, Htein


    The increase in numbers of older people in the population and their incidence of long term conditions means their readiness for e-health is imperative. This cross sectional survey set in primary health care in New Zealand sought to understand how older people are accessing health information. A convenience sample (n = 263) found one third had been on-line and this was more likely to be those with poorer health. Free telephone services and receiving health information in person were preferred, with little use of email or text messaging found. Information found on-line was considered useful to understand their health conditions, treatment options and for decision-making.

  8. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita


    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime‐time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scen...

  9. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.


    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  10. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita


    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime‐time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scen...

  11. Reflective Engagement in Cultural History: A Lacanian Perspective on Pasifika Teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Brown, Tony; Devine, Nesta; Leslie, Elsie; Paiti, Margaret; Sila'ila'i, Emilie; Umaki, Sandra; Williams, Jay


    How do we understand our own cultural histories and how do these understandings impact on our senses of self? This paper addresses the case of Pacific islander migration into New Zealand. It is based on a study fuelled by a group of Pacific island teachers exploring their own experiences of becoming teachers in New Zealand schools. The paper…

  12. Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand

    Trampusch, Christine


    This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

  13. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary


    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation…

  14. Schools "as" Communities and "for" Communities: Learning from the 2010-2011 New Zealand Earthquakes

    Mutch, Carol


    The author followed five primary (elementary) schools over three years as they responded to and began to recover from the 2010-2011 earthquakes in and around the city of Christchurch in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. The purpose was to capture the stories for the schools themselves, their communities, and for New Zealand's historical…

  15. Promoting the Maori Language to Non-Maori: Evaluating the New Zealand Government's Approach

    de Bres, Julia


    New Zealand's two main government Maori language planning agencies, the Maori Language Commission and the Ministry of Maori Development, have engaged for some time in language planning targeting the attitudes and behaviours of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the Maori language. This activity is undertaken on the basis that the attitudes and…

  16. Text-Bullying: Associations with Traditional Bullying and Depression among New Zealand Adolescents

    Raskauskas, Juliana


    Bullying via mobile phone text messages (text-bullying) is a growing problem in New Zealand. Little research exists on this important issue. This study examined the nature and prevalence of text-bullying among adolescents. A total of 1,530 students ages 11-18 from three schools in New Zealand participated in this research. Students completed…

  17. Women in Education, Science and Leadership in New Zealand: A Personal Reflection

    Austin, Margaret


    In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…

  18. Development of a New Zealand database of plant virus and virus-like organisms

    Fletcher, J.D.; Lister, R.A.; Clover, G.R.G.; Horner, M.B.; Thomas, J.E.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; MacDiarmid, R.M.


    The recent 8th Australasian plant virology workshop in Rotorua, New Zealand, discussed the development of a New Zealand database of plant virus and virus-like organisms. Key points of discussion included: (i) the purpose of such a database; (ii) who would benefit from the information in a database;

  19. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe


    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  20. The isoflavone content of commercially-available feline diets in New Zealand

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.


    To identify and quantify concentrations of the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin in commercially-prepared feline diets sold in New Zealand. METHODS: Feline diets (n=138) were collected from supermarkets, pet stores and veterinary clinics in New Zealand. Diets were classif

  1. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben


    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their waterways.…

  2. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben


    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their waterways.…

  3. Reply to O'Neill: The Privatisation of Public Schooling in New Zealand

    Strathdee, Rob


    In a recent contribution to this journal, John O'Neill (2011) argues that recent privatisation practices in New Zealand public schooling are evidence of a small, but growing, influence of neo-liberalism on New Zealand's public education. The focus in his paper is on the active enablement of non-government provision of public education through, for…

  4. Artists in Schools: "Kick Starting" or "Kicking Out" Dance from New Zealand Classrooms

    Snook, Barbara; Buck, Ralph


    New Zealand primary school teachers have access to a comprehensive arts curriculum that includes dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This research focused on several teachers' reality of implementing the dance curriculum in New Zealand primary schools, drawing on Snook's (2012) study in this field. Our research valued the voices of teachers,…

  5. Towards a Pre-Service Technology Teacher Education Resource for New Zealand

    Forret, Michael; Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Granshaw, Bruce; Harwood, Cliff; Miller, Angela; O'Sullivan, Gary; Patterson, Moira


    The Pre-service Technology Teacher Education Resource (PTTER) was developed as a cross-institutional resource to support the development of initial technology teacher education programmes in New Zealand. The PTTER was developed through collaboration involving representatives from each of the six New Zealand university teacher education providers,…

  6. Tertiary Teachers' Perspectives on Their Role in Student Engagement: A Snapshot from Aotearoa New Zealand

    Leach, Linda; Zepke, Nick; Butler, Philippa


    This article is based on data from a large mixed method research project funded by the Teaching and Learning Research Initiative (TLRI) in Aotearoa New Zealand. The article addresses the question: how do tertiary teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand perceive their role in student engagement? Quantitative data revealed both similarities and differences…

  7. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary


    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation Corporation…

  8. Early Learnings from the National Library of New Zealand's National Digital Heritage Archive Project

    Knight, Steve


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the digital preservation programme at the National Library of New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of the legislative and strategic context for digital preservation in New Zealand, details are provided of the system for the National Digital…

  9. Competition and Efficiency: Overseas Students and Technical Efficiency in Australian and New Zealand Universities

    Abbott, Malcolm; Doucouliagos, Chris


    Economic theory suggests that competitive pressures will impact on organisational efficiency. In recent years, universities in Australia and New Zealand have faced increased competition for students. The aim of this paper is to explore the efficiency of Australian and New Zealand public universities and to investigate the impact of competition for…

  10. Educational Middle Change Leadership in New Zealand: The Meat in the Sandwich

    Marshall, Steven Gregory


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a larger study into the role of middle leaders of change in New Zealand higher education. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten middle leaders from the New Zealand higher education sector took part in a recent research project which examined successful change leadership in higher…

  11. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis


    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  12. Artists in Schools: "Kick Starting" or "Kicking Out" Dance from New Zealand Classrooms

    Snook, Barbara; Buck, Ralph


    New Zealand primary school teachers have access to a comprehensive arts curriculum that includes dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This research focused on several teachers' reality of implementing the dance curriculum in New Zealand primary schools, drawing on Snook's (2012) study in this field. Our research valued the voices of teachers,…

  13. Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)

    Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian


    This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

  14. Building a Future-Oriented Science Education System in New Zealand: How Are We Doing?

    Gilbert, Jane; Bull, Ally


    This paper makes the case for deep and radical change to New Zealand's approach to science education. It discusses the implications of recent science education research and policy work, and argues New Zealand still has a long way to go to developing a future-oriented science education system. It explores what needs to change and contains…

  15. Pride and Prejudice... and Other Barriers to Teaching for Asian New Zealanders

    Howard, Jocelyn


    As New Zealand has become increasingly pluralistic, the teaching profession has become progressively less reflective of the wider population. This paper reviews the literature on impediments to teaching for minority students, and reports on a case study exploring factors that deter Asian New Zealanders from pursuing teaching as a career. The…

  16. CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin Leads Delegation to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Vanuatu


    <正>At the invitation of the China-PNG Friendship Association Incorporation (CPNGFA), the New Zealand-China Friendship Society (NZCFS) and Vanuatuan Ambassador to China, a CPAFFC delegation led by its vice president Li Xiaolin visited Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Vanuatu from May

  17. Influences on Children's Environmental Cognition: A Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and Mexico

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, Ikerne; Freeman, Claire; Vass, Eva


    This paper investigates Mexican and New Zealand children's conception of the environment and their understandings of environmental issues, focusing on how personal experiences, culture and school-based environmental education (EE) programmes influence their perspectives. Sixty Year 5 children (age 9-11) from three schools in Dunedin (New Zealand)…

  18. Synopsis of Grimmia Hedw. in New Zealand, including Grimmia wilsonii sp. nov

    Greven, H.C.


    The New Zealand Grimmia Hedw. specimens from AK, AKU, BM, CHR, OTA and WELT have been revised and a bryological field trip to the New Zealand Southern Alps was made to study specimens in their natural habitats. As a result of the revision and the field trip, G. anodon, G. austrofunalis, G. orbicular

  19. Takina te Kawa: Laying the Foundation, a Research Engagement Methodology in Aotearoa (New Zealand)

    Taiwhati, Marama; Toia, Rawiri; Te Maro, Pania; McRae, Hiria; McKenzie, Tabitha


    In the bi-cultural context of Aotearoa (New Zealand), engagement with stakeholders that is transparent and culturally responsive is a priority for educational research. More common research approaches in New Zealand have followed a Western euro-centric model of engagement with research participants resulting in interventions and initiatives that…

  20. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba


    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  1. Involutina farinacciae Bronnimann & Koehn-Zaninetti 1969, a marker for the Middle Liassic in basinal and some platform facies of Mediterranean and near east areas: The discussion concerning the paleogeography of Montenegro-Albania border region (the Scutari-Peć lineament

    Radoičić Rajka


    Full Text Available Foraminiferal species Involutina farinacciae BRONNIMANN & KOEHN-ZANINETTI, is a marker of Middle Liassic basinal and transitional platform bassin facies widely distributed in Mediterranean area (Umbria-Marche, Pindos, Budva, Sicilia and the Inner Dinarides basin, also in Iraqi Kurdistan (“Avroman” Basin. In the Dinaric Carbonate Platform (DCP it indicates intramarginal and intraplatform depressions. Paleogeography of the Montenegro-Albania border area formed by the inherited prealpine paleogeographic scenario that resulted in a different arrangement of the paleogeographic units westward and eastward of the paleostructure (Scutari-Peć Lineament which controlled the geological history of the region. This transverse paleostructure was a coincident with the paleogeographic front of the DCP, and b the westward limit of the overtrusted Mirdita Zone. The difference in the paleogeographic features in the prolongation from the DCP througout Albania, controlled by paleostructure, are the source of seizmicity, rotation and deviation (SE to NW, into NE of the Complex Mirdita Zone.

  2. Moving backwards, moving forward: the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to life in New Zealand.

    Montayre, Jed; Neville, Stephen; Holroyd, Eleanor


    To explore the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to living permanently in New Zealand. The qualitative descriptive approach taken in this study involved 17 individual face-to-face interviews of older Filipino migrants in New Zealand. Three main themes emerged from the data. The first theme was "moving backwards and moving forward", which described how these older Filipino migrants adjusted to challenges they experienced with migration. The second theme was "engaging with health services" and presented challenges relating to the New Zealand healthcare system, including a lack of knowledge of the nature of health services, language barriers, and differences in cultural views. The third theme, "new-found home", highlighted establishing a Filipino identity in New Zealand and adjusting to the challenges of relocation. Adjustment to life in New Zealand for these older Filipino migrants meant starting over again by building new values through learning the basics and then moving forward from there.

  3. Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges.

    Callister, Paul; Badkar, Juthika; Didham, Robert


    Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zealand stands out among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of the high level of movements in and out of the country of skilled professionals, including nurses. In New Zealand, much attention has been given to increasing the number of Māori and Pacific nurses as one mechanism for improving Māori and Pacific health. Against a backdrop of the changing characteristics of the New Zealand nursing workforce, this study demonstrates that the globalisation of the nursing workforce is increasing at a faster rate than its localisation (as measured by the growth of the Māori and New Zealand-born Pacific workforces in New Zealand). This challenges the implementation of culturally appropriate nursing programmes based on the matching of nurse and client ethnicities.

  4. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    Powell, Denise


    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  5. The last deglaciation in New Zealand ; revisiting the Misery moraines at Arthur's Pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Fink, David; Rother, Henrik; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James; Wilcken, Klaus


    Recent debate on mid-latitude New Zealand glaciation has focused on reconstructing paleo-climate conditions leading into the (global) Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation dynamics during the last termination. Paleo-environmental evidence coupled with reliable glacial chronologies supporting a Southern Hemisphere glacial readvance commensurate with Younger Dryas timing ( 11.5-12.5 ka) showing similar cooling as observed in the Northern Hemisphere has also been hotly debated. Many New Zealand lake and pollen records suggest a minor cooling or hiatus in warming during the period from 14.5 - 12.0 ka which pre-dates YD onset and is more commonly associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) (14.7 - 13.0 ka). Achieving the required sub-millennial temporal differentiation using in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating comes with numerous difficulties. The Arthur's Pass Moraine complex, deposited by an alpine glacier advancing out of the Otira Gorge splaying east and westward over the divide of the Southern Alps in New Zealand ( 950 masl), exhibits a full post-LGM glacial chronology. The moraines consist of multiple cross-valley terminal, lobate and discontinuous latero-terminal moraines up to 3 kilometres down valley from the proximal Misery moraines at the outlet of Otira Gorge. Within the gorge towards the headwall only 1 km up-valley from the Misery sequence, no other moraines are evident. We have determined paired 10-Be and 26-Al exposure ages from 58 greywacke samples taken from all major moraines, including repeat sampling from the Misery moraines. The new exposure ages show that the Arthur's Pass moraine system spans a period of 19.5 ka to 12.0 ka (Putnam local NZ production rate) with mean recessional moraine ages in chrono-stratigraphic sequence. The overall timing of deglaciation after peak LGM conditions is similar to that observed at down-valley terminal positions of the larger outlet river systems of the Rakaia, Waimakariri and Rangitata Valleys

  6. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    James L Croft

    Full Text Available i to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand.Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors.Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61% and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving. Older men (aged +55 years old had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74 and when involved in different activities.Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.


    Nicola Naismith


    Full Text Available There is a wealth of knowledge concerning conflict management and its resolution in the workplace, however there is a dearth of information relating to conflict management and its resolution in engineering project management. This paper set out to examine the reality of conflict management in engineering project management in New Zealand. This was achieved through a review of credible literature sources and the completion of a pilot study to gain subject matter expert perspectives. The research suggests that conflicts can be destructive, resulting in anxiety and strong emotional responses leading to reflexive reactions including avoidance, aggression, fight, hostility and a breakdown in communications and relationships. Findings indicate that managing a project structure is synonymous with handling conflict and these disagreements can be detrimental to the success of a project. The initial results suggest that a number of factors act as drivers of conflict in engineering projects in New Zealand. These drivers are: power, personality, group dynamics and organisation culture. The conflict resolution tools cited as being widely used for engineering projects are collaboration and negotiation. The paper also offers recommendations for future research.

  8. Rapid biological speciation driven by tectonic evolution in New Zealand

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Burridge, Christopher P.; Wallis, Graham P.; Waters, Jonathan M.


    Collisions between tectonic plates lead to the rise of new mountain ranges that can separate biological populations and ultimately result in new species. However, the identification of links between tectonic mountain-building and biological speciation is confounded by environmental and ecological factors. Thus, there are surprisingly few well-documented examples of direct tectonic controls on terrestrial biological speciation. Here we present examples from New Zealand, where the rapid evolution of 18 species of freshwater fishes has resulted from parallel tectonic landscape evolution. We use numerical models to reconstruct changes in the deep crustal structure and surface drainage catchments of the southern island of New Zealand over the past 25 million years. We show that the island and mountain topography evolved in six principal tectonic zones, which have distinct drainage catchments that separated fish populations. We use new and existing phylogenetic analyses of freshwater fish populations, based on over 1,000 specimens from more than 400 localities, to show that fish genomes can retain evidence of this tectonic landscape development, with a clear correlation between geologic age and extent of DNA sequence divergence. We conclude that landscape evolution has controlled on-going biological diversification over the past 25 million years.

  9. Training generalist doctors for rural practice in New Zealand.

    Nixon, Garry; Blattner, Katharina; Williamson, Martyn; McHugh, Patrick; Reid, James


    Targeted postgraduate training increases the likelihood young doctors will take up careers in rural generalist medicine. This article describes the postgraduate pathways that have evolved for these doctors in New Zealand. The Cairns consensus statement 2014 defined rural medical generalism as a scope of practice that encompasses primary care, hospital or secondary care, emergency care, advanced skill sets and a population-based approach to the health needs of rural communities. Even as work goes on to define this role different jurisdictions have developed their own training pathways for these important members of the rural healthcare workforce. In 2002 the University of Otago developed a distance-taught postgraduate diploma aimed at the extended practice of rural general practitioners (GPs) and rural hospital medical officers. This qualification has evolved into a 4-year vocational training program in rural hospital medicine, with the university diploma retained as the academic component. The intentionally flexible and modular nature of the rural hospital training program and university diploma allow for a range of training options. The majority of trainees are taking advantage of this by combining general practice and rural hospital training. Although structured quite differently the components of this combined pathway looks similar to the Australian rural generalist pathways. There is evidence that the program has had a positive impact on the New Zealand rural hospital medical workforce.

  10. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    Yielder, Jill, E-mail: [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen [University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)


    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  11. Traits influencing range contraction in New Zealand's endemic forest birds.

    Parlato, Elizabeth H; Armstrong, Doug P; Innes, John G


    Understanding vulnerability of endemic taxa to predation is clearly important for conservation management. In New Zealand, predation by introduced mammals such as rats and mustelids is widely recognized as the primary factor responsible for declines of indigenous fauna. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vulnerability of New Zealand's surviving endemic forest bird species to impacts of introduced mammalian predators, and identify key life history attributes underlying this vulnerability. We measured range contraction following the introduction of exotic mammalian predators for 23 endemic forest bird species using information on both pre-human and current distributions. We used Bayesian modeling techniques to analyze whether variation in range contraction was associated with life history traits potentially influencing species' predation vulnerability, while accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our results showed that the extent of range contraction varied greatly among species, with some species remaining in available forest habitat throughout most of their pre-human range, and others having disappeared completely from the main islands. Cavity nesting was the key trait associated with more extensive range decline, suggesting that cavity-nesting species are more vulnerable to predation than species that nest in more open sites.

  12. Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.


    A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

  13. Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Dickson, Sandra; Willis, Gwenda M


    The extensive and sometimes profoundly damaging effects of sexual violence and large numbers of victims necessitate dedicated attention to primary prevention efforts. Few studies have examined the scope of current prevention activities or their fit with empirical research into effective prevention strategies. The current article presents findings from a survey of primary prevention activities in non-Māori and bicultural communities within Aotearoa New Zealand. Forty-four respondents representing 42 agencies responded to a comprehensive survey that canvased types of sexual violence primary prevention activities undertaken, sexual violence primary prevention programs, and barriers and supports to sexual violence prevention work. Consistent with findings from previous international surveys, the focus of primary prevention work in New Zealand was on sexual violence education and increasing awareness. Findings are discussed in the context of the sexual violence prevention literature and what works in prevention more broadly to help identify promising initiatives as well as gaps in current practices. Recommendations for advancing sexual violence primary prevention research are also provided.

  14. New Zealand's mental health legislation needs reform to avoid discrimination.

    Gordon, Sarah E; O'Brien, Anthony


    New Zealand's Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act (the Act) is now over 20 years old. As has occurred historically our conceptualisation of humane treatment of people with mental illness has altered significantly over the period in which the Act has been in force. The emergence of the philosophy of recovery, and its subsequent policy endorsement, has seen a significant shift in mental health service delivery towards a greater emphasis on autonomy. Human rights developments such as New Zealand's ratification of the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have resulted in compulsory treatment, where it is justified in whole or part by a person's mental illness, now being considered antithetical to best practice, and discriminatory. However the number of people subject to the Act is increasing, especially in community settings, and it is questionable how effective the mechanisms for challenging compulsion are in practice. Moreover, monitoring of the situation at the systemic level lacks critical analysis. Complacency, including no indication that review and reform of this now antiquated legislation is nigh, continues a pattern of old where the situation of people with experience of mental illness is largely ignored and neglected.

  15. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A.; Weber, Janet L.; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S.; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C.


    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%–55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand. PMID:28282932

  16. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand.

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen


    IntroductionThis article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). MethodsThe study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. ResultsFindings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. ConclusionsThe authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  17. Highly informative ancient DNA 'snippets' for New Zealand moa.

    Jonathan McCallum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of ancient DNA has provided invaluable information on past ecologies, ancient populations, and extinct species. We used a short snippet of highly variable mitochondrial control region sequence from New Zealand's moa to characterise a large number of bones previously intractable to DNA analysis as well as bone fragments from swamps to gain information about the haplotype diversity and phylogeography that existed in five moa species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By targeting such 'snippets', we show that moa populations differed substantially in geographic structure that is likely to be related to population mobility and history. We show that populations of Pachyornis geranoides, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Dinornis robustus were highly structured and some appear to have occupied the same geographic location for hundreds of thousands of years. In contrast, populations of the moa Anomalopteryx didiformis and Euryapteryx curtus were widespread, with specific populations of the latter occupying both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. We further show that for a specific area, in this case a North Island swamp, complete haplotype diversity and even sex can be recovered from collections of small, often discarded, bone fragments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short highly variable mitochondrial 'snippets' allow successful typing of environmentally damaged and fragmented skeletal material, and can provide useful information about ancient population diversity and structure without the need to sample valuable, whole bones often held by museums.

  18. Absence of mammals and the evolution of New Zealand grasses.

    Antonelli, Alexandre; Humphreys, Aelys M; Lee, William G; Linder, H Peter


    Anthropogenic alteration of biotic distributions and disturbance regimes has dramatically changed the evolutionary context for the differentiation of species traits. Some of the most striking examples in recent centuries have been on islands where flightless birds, which evolved in the absence of mammalian carnivores, have been decimated following the widespread introduction of exotic predators. Until now, no equivalent case has been reported for plants. Here, we make use of robust analytical tools and an exceptionally well-sampled molecular phylogeny to show that a majority of New Zealand danthonioid grasses (Poaceae) may have adapted to the relaxed vertebrate herbivore pressure during the late Cenozoic through the development of a distinctive and unusual habit: abscission of old leaves. This feature occurs in only about 3 per cent of the world's roughly 11,000 grass species and has been empirically shown to increase plant productivity but to reduce protection against mammal grazing. This result suggests that release from a selective pressure can lead to species radiations. This seemingly anachronistic adaptation may represent an overlooked factor contributing to the severe decline in the geographical extent and species diversity of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands following the introduction of herbivorous terrestrial mammals in the 19th century.

  19. Geologic history of the Neogene “Qena Lake” developed during the evolution of the Nile Valley: A sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical approach

    Philobbos, Emad R.; Essa, Mahmoud A.; Ismail, Mustafa M.


    Siliciclastic and carbonate sediments were laid down in southern Wadi Qena and around the Qena Nile bend (Middle Egypt) in a lacustrine-alluvial environment which dominated a relatively wide lake, the "Qena Lake" that interrupted the Nile course during the Neogene time. These sediments are represented mainly by the oldest dominantly lacustrine chocolate brown mudstones of the Khuzam Formation that accumulated nearer to the center of that lake (now forming a 185 m terrace above sea level), overlain by the dominantly lacustrine carbonates and marls of the Durri Formation which accumulated during semi-arid conditions, mainly nearer to the periphery of the lake (now forming 170, 180 and 185 m terraces a.s.l. in the studied sections). The water level of the "Qena Lake" reached 240 m. above sea level, as indicated by the maximum carbonate elevation reached in the region. Finally fanglomerates of the Higaza Formation with its chert and limestone conglomerates accumulated during torrential periods at higher elevations (forming 240, 300 and 400 m terraces a.s.l.). These three formations accumulated in this particular area before and during the unroofing of the basement rocks of the Eastern Desert, west of the watershed. According to the known Early Miocene initial development of the Nile Valley, beside the occurrence of similar deposits of Oligocene age along the eastern side of the basement range, the earlier known Pliocene age given for these sediments in the Qena area is here questioned. It might belong to earlier Miocene?-Pliocene times. As the basement rocks of the Eastern Desert were still covered by Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary rocks while the Khuzam, Durri and Higaza Formations were accumulating in the Qena Lake region, it is believed, contrary to the belief of some authors, that the basement rocks of the Eastern Desert were not the source of these sediments. The carbonate petrographic study, beside the X-ray, and the11 major oxides and 22 trace elements

  20. Paleogeography of the mid-Cretaceous period

    Zharkov, M.A.; Murdmaa, I.O.; Filatova, N.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Global lithologic-paleogeographic maps for the Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian, and Turonian stages of the Cretaceous were compiled for the first time using common methods and taking into consideration the paleogeographic environment of continents and oceans. Particular features of the global distribution of arid and humid environments on continents were analyzed to distinguish belts and zones of evaporite and red-bed sedimentation, coal accumulation, and bauxite and kaolin formation. It is shown that climatic zonality and the location of arid and humid environments on continents were dependent on the arrangement of continents and oceans on the surface of the Earth.

  1. Lithology and palynology of Neogene sediments on the narrow edge of the Kitakami Massif (basement rocks), northeast Japan: significant change for depositional environments as a result of plate tectonics

    Koji Yagishita; Akiko Obuse; Hiroshi Kurita [Iwate University, Morioka-City (Japan). Department of Geology, Faculty of Education


    A controversial stratigraphic section, the Taneichi Formation, is exposed along the Pacific Coast of northeastern Honshu, the main island of the Japanese Archipelago. Although most sediments of the formation have long been dated as late Cretaceous, the northern section of it has been assigned to (I) the Upper Cretaceous; (ii) the Paleogene; or (iii) the Neogene. In the present report, we present the data of palynological and sedimentological studies, showing that the northern section should be assigned to the Neogene. A more important point in the present study is that we invoke some basic principles of fluvial sedimentology to resolve this stratigraphic subject. The lignite layers full of PaleogeneMiocene dinoflagellate cysts and pollen assemblages drape over the boulder-sized ({gt}40 cm in diameter) clasts in the northern section. However, the layers totally consist of aggregates of small lignite chips, indicating that the lignites are allochthonous materials. The mega-clasts with derived microfossils in the lignites are thought to have been deposited as Neogene fluvial (flood) sediments in the newly formed Japanese Archipelago. Prior to the Miocene, the northern Honshu was part of the Eurasian Plate, thus the boulder-sized clasts cannot be envisaged as long river flood deposits along the continental Paleogene Pacific Coast. Instead, the mega-clasts with the draping lignites were probably derived from nearby Miocene highlands in the newly born island arc.

  2. The Amazon at sea: Onset and stages of the Amazon River from a marine record, with special reference to Neogene plant turnover in the drainage basin

    Hoorn, Carina; Bogotá-A, Giovanni R.; Romero-Baez, Millerlandy; Lammertsma, Emmy I.; Flantua, Suzette G. A.; Dantas, Elton L.; Dino, Rodolfo; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; Chemale, Farid


    The Amazon submarine fan is a large sediment apron situated offshore Pará (Brazil) and represents the most distal extent of the Amazon River. The age of onset of this transcontinental river remains debated, yet is of great importance for understanding biotic evolutionary processes on land and at sea. Here we present new geochemical and palynological data from a borehole drilled at the continental slope and dated based on nannofossil biostratigraphy. We found that sediments of mixed source (craton and adjacent) occur at least from the late Oligocene (NP25) to late Miocene (NN9), and that the earliest Andes-derived sediments occur in NN10 (late Miocene). Our geochemical record indicates an onset of the transcontinental Amazon River between 9.4 and 9 Ma, which postdates the regional unconformity by 1 to 1.5 My. The shift in sediment geochemistry is more gradually replicated in the palynological record by a change from coastal plain and tropical lowland taxa to a mixture of tropical lowland, and montane forest to open Andean taxa. In particular, the appearance of taxa such as Jamesonia and Huperzia, followed by Valeriana, Polylepis-Acaena, Lysipomia and Plantago (with a current altitudinal range from 3200 to 4000 m) suggests the development of open, treeless, vegetation between 9.5 and 5.4 Ma, and highlight the presence of a high Andes in the late Miocene hinterland. Poaceae progressively increased from 9 Ma, with a notable rise from 4 Ma onwards, and percentages well above post-glacial and modern values, particularly between 2.6 and 0.8 Ma. We hypothesize that the rise of the grasses is a basin-wide phenomenon, but that the Plio-Pleistocene expansion of open, treeless vegetation on the Andean slopes and foothills are the main contributor. This rise in grasses was likely caused by climatic fluctuations, and subsequent changes in relief and erosion rates. We conclude that the onset of the Amazon River is coupled with Neogene Andean tectonism and that subsequent

  3. Neogene-quaternary Ostracoda and paleoenvironments, of the Limón basin, Costa Rica, and Bocas del Toro basin, Panama

    Borne, P.F.; Cronin, T. M.; Hazel, J.E.


    Tropical marine ostracodes from Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the Central American Caribbean region have been the subject of biostratigraphic, ecological, taxonomic, and evolutionary studies. As part of the Panama Paleontology Project (PPP), Neogene and Quaternary ostracodes are being studied from the Central American region. The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the impact of the emergence of the Central American Isthmus as a land barrier between the Caribbean/tropical Atlantic and the Pacific oceans on marine ostracode biodiversity and the oceanic environments in which extant ostracodes evolved. Due to the ecological specificity of many living tropical ostracode species, they are ideally suited for reconstructing paleoenvironments on the basis of their occurrence in fossil assemblages, which in turn can lead to a better understanding of the tropical climatic and tectonic history of Central America. The principal aims of this chapter are: (a) to document the composition of the ostracode assemblages from the Limón Basin of Costa Rica and the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama, two areas yielding extensive ma rine ostracode assemblages; (b) to describe the environments of deposition within these basins; and (c) to document the stratigraphic distribution of potentially agediagnostic ostracode species in the Limón and Bocas del Toro basins in order to enhance their use in Central American biostratigraphy. A secondary, but none-the-less important goal is to assemble a database on the distribution of modem ostracode species in the Caribbean and adjacent areas as a basis for comparison with fossil assemblages. Although the ecological, biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental conclusions presented here will improve as additional material is studied, these fossil and modem ostracode databases constitute the foundation for future evolutionary and geochernical studies of tropical Caribbean and eastern Pacific Ocean ostracodes. Moreover, we present here evidence

  4. Stable isotope variation in tooth enamel from Neogene hippopotamids: monitor of meso and global climate and rift dynamics on the Albertine Rift, Uganda

    Brachert, Thomas Christian; Brügmann, Gerhard B.; Mertz, Dieter F.; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schrenk, Friedemann; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Ssemmanda, Immaculate; Taubald, Heinrich


    The Neogene was a period of long-term global cooling and increasing climatic variability. Variations in African-Asian monsoon intensity over the last 7 Ma have been deduced from patterns of eolian dust export into the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea as well as from lake level records in the East African Rift System (EARS). However, lake systems not only depend on rainfall patterns, but also on the size and physiography of river catchment areas. This study is based on stable isotope proxy data (18O/16O, 13C/12C) from tooth enamel of hippopotamids (Mammalia) and aims in unravelling long-term climate and watershed dynamics that control the evolution of palaeolake systems in the western branch of the EARS (Lake Albert, Uganda) during the Late Neogene (7.5 Ma to recent). Having no dietary preferences with respect to wooded (C3) versus grassland (C4) vegetation, these territorial, water-dependant mammals are particularly useful for palaeoclimate analyses. As inhabitants of lakes and rivers, hippopotamid tooth enamel isotope data document mesoclimates of topographic depressions, such as the rift valleys and, therefore, changes in relative valley depth instead of exclusively global climate changes. Consequently, we ascribe a synchronous maximum in 18O/16O and 13C/12C composition of hippopotamid enamel centred around 1.5-2.5 Ma to maximum aridity and/or maximum hydrological isolation of the rift floor from rift-external river catchment areas in response to the combined effects of rift shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift valley floor. Structural rearrangements by ~2.5 Ma within the northern segment of the Albertine Rift are well constrained by reversals in river flow, cannibalisation of catchments, biogeographic turnover and uplift of the Rwenzori horst. However, a growing rain shadow is not obvious in 18O/16O signatures of the hippopotamid teeth of the Albertine Rift. According to our interpretation, this is the result of the overriding effect of evaporation on 18

  5. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.


    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.7±1.4 and 81.3±6.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.34±6.08mT, from an

  6. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand.

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J


    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the ACPSEM, are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organization). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists (168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program. The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach

  7. Measuring the 'obesogenic' food environment in New Zealand primary schools.

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd


    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed.

  8. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah


    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  9. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE.

    Darren Ward

    Full Text Available Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE. Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae. However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286, and major differences include: i the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe; and ii the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%. The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36% have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60% compared to Europe (~30%, and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950. Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  10. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    Lieshout, P. van [DesignPower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)


    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  11. Evidence for pre-Cretaceous history and partial Neogene (19-9 Ma) reequilibration in the Karakorum (NW Himalayan Syntaxis) from 40Ar- 39Ar amphibole dating

    Rolland, Yann; Villa, Igor M.; Guillot, Stéphane; Mahéo, Gweltaz; Pêcher, Arnaud


    Amphiboles and a biotite from amphibolites and amphibolitic gneisses of the Karakorum Metamorphic Complex (KMC, NW Himalaya), were dated using the 40Ar/ 39Ar method. Isotope correlations were compared to electron-microprobe analyses. Both Al IV and Al VI contents of amphibole increase from the south near the Shyok Suture Zone to the Dassu-Askole Area in the north, with an increase in metamorphic grade (from anchizone to upper amphibolite facies). In the lower metamorphic zone, discordant age spectra were obtained. They are related to epidote-amphibolite overgrowth of amphibole rims on older (Precambrian to Mesozoic) magmatic cores. In the Shyok Suture Zone Ar/Ar ages of 38-62 Ma are contemporaneous with the emplacement of the Ladakh Batholith granodiorites, while middle Cretaceous magmatic Ar/Ar ages (˜ 120 Ma) are locally preserved in tschermakite relics. In the Southern Karakorum basement, a minimum Ar/Ar age of 651 Ma was preserved, while an age of 208.5±2 Ma was preserved in Panjal Trap-like diorites. At the margin of the domes zone, more recent metamorphism resulted in mineral growth at 20-5 Ma. In the domes zone, amphibole Ar/Ar ages of 17 Ma (Askole) and bimodal age spectra of 15-17 and 9-13 Ma (Dassu) extend towards the east the zone of Neogene amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism known in the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis.

  12. Relationship Between Faults Oriented Parallel and Oblique to Bedding in Neogene Massive Siliceous Mudstones at The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    Hayano, Akira; Ishii, Eiichi


    This study investigates the mechanical relationship between bedding-parallel and bedding-oblique faults in a Neogene massive siliceous mudstone at the site of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Hokkaido, Japan, on the basis of observations of drill-core recovered from pilot boreholes and fracture mapping on shaft and gallery walls. Four bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge, named respectively the MM Fault, the Last MM Fault, the S1 Fault, and the S2 Fault (stratigraphically, from the highest to the lowest), were observed in two pilot boreholes (PB-V01 and SAB-1). The distribution of the bedding-parallel faults at 350 m depth in the Horonobe URL indicates that these faults are spread over at least several tens of meters in parallel along a bedding plane. The observation that the bedding-oblique fault displaces the Last MM fault is consistent with the previous interpretation that the bedding- oblique faults formed after the bedding-parallel faults. In addition, the bedding-parallel faults terminate near the MM and S1 faults, indicating that the bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge act to terminate the propagation of younger bedding-oblique faults. In particular, the MM and S1 faults, which have a relatively thick fault gouge, appear to have had a stronger control on the propagation of bedding-oblique faults than did the Last MM fault, which has a relatively thin fault gouge.

  13. Provenance of the Late Neogene Siwalik sandstone, Kumaun Himalayan Foreland Basin: Constraints from the metamorphic rank and index of detrital rock fragments

    Poonam Jalal; Sumit K Ghosh


    An understanding about lithology, tectonics and unroofing history of provenance is mostly drawn from the compositional and textural parameters of the detrital fragments. We here use different metamorphic ranks (Rm) and metamorphic index (MI) values of rock fragments present in Late Neogene Siwalik sandstone of the Ramganga sub-basin to infer the provenance history. The study indicates maximum contribution from metamorphic ranks 1 and 2 (Rm1 and Rm2; meta-sedimentary and very low grade metamorphic rocks) and minimum from metamorphic rank 4 (Rm4; high metamorphic grade rocks). The metamorphic index (MI) values range from 118 to 224, with an average of 186. The meta-sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rock fragments are derived from the Lesser Himalayan domain. The medium-to-high grade metamorphic fragments are derived from the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline bodies. The abundance of Rm2 and Rm3 detrital modes suggest the exhumation of crystalline bodies of the Ramgarh and Almora most likely occurred prior to 7 Ma and subsequently the source area shifted and resulted abundant supply of Rm1 fragments due to the upliftment along Main Boundary Thrust around 5.55 Ma.

  14. Zeolitisation of Neogene sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks exposed in Paipa (Boyacá, in the Colombian Andes: simulating their natural formation conditions

    Quintero Ortíz Fredy Alberto


    Full Text Available The present study concerns the synthesis of zeolites from Neogene sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks exposed around the Sochagota Lake, Paipa (Boyacá. Two synthesis methods were used: conventional hydrothermal treatment and alkaline fusion followed by hydrothermal reaction. Both raw materials and synthesised zeolytic products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Several zeolytic phases were synthesised, including faujasite (FAU, phillipsite(PHI and sodalite (SOD. The results showed that the alkaline fusion approach was more efficient regarding hydrothermal conversion of the raw materials than conventional hydrothermal treatment, taking into accountthat zeolytic products having a higher degree of crystallinity and few impurities were obtained in this way. This study was aimed at applying experimental mineralogy to a laboratory simulation of the geological conditions in which zeolites can occur as the basis for defining criteria for exploring natural zeolites in Colombia, with prospects for the profitable exploitation of these mineral resources in different parts of Colombia

  15. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  16. Persist and cope: New Zealand women in computing

    Alison Hunter

    Full Text Available New Zealand has a thriving computing industry but further growth is hampered by a skills shortage. A lack of women in the industry exacerbates this problem. Women are under-represented in the industry, and those who do take up computing careers experience conditions of discrimination and marginalisation. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the strategies used by women to cope with their marginalisation. Using multi-sited ethnographic methodology, data were collected using semi-structured interviews with twenty-nine computing professionals. Despite some women denying any marginalisation, all were found to employ some form of coping strategy. Seven different strategies were identified. The women interviewed were more inclined to join organisations directly relating to their roles rather than support initiatives which might improve conditions for women.

  17. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand

    Simon A. Reid


    Full Text Available Purpose of the review: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ. The review sought to determine 1 how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2 how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3 how collaborative and integrated they are. Recent findings: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD. Of the broad range of One Health research performed in ANZ, the majority is performed by teams with limited disciplinary diversity, although diversity is improving. Summary: Progress has been made in building collaboration between human, animal, and environmental health professions. However, the lack of clearly defined competencies and agreed purpose for One Health may be impeding collaboration.

  18. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand

    Reid, Simon A.; McKenzie, Joanna; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.


    Purpose of the review This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are. Recent findings There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD). Of the broad range of One Health research performed in ANZ, the majority is performed by teams with limited disciplinary diversity, although diversity is improving. Summary Progress has been made in building collaboration between human, animal, and environmental health professions. However, the lack of clearly defined competencies and agreed purpose for One Health may be impeding collaboration. PMID:27906122

  19. Native title and the New Zealand mining experience

    Ingram, J.


    Discusses legislation affecting mining in New Zealand. All legislation for the management of land, air, water, mineral and energy resources is now embodied in the Resource Management Act and the Crown Minerals Act. This new legislation came into force in October 1991. The aim of the Resource Management Act is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources. As minerals cannot be mined sustainably, legislation concerning minerals was placed in a separate Bill, the Crown Minerals Bill. This Bill ensures that the value of each mineral to the Crown is maximized. The paper discusses the application of mining legislation to Maori land. The establishment of a steel industry at Glenbrook, 45 km south of Auckland is described as a case study.

  20. Toponymy: positionality and containment on New Zealand high country stations

    Michele Dominy


    Full Text Available I examine the discursive practice of naming and its use as a way of dividing up the landscape to designate location and create meaningful spaces, as well as to understand high country people"s conception and construction of place. In this analysis, an array of materials is used, including geological maps, resource surveys, and high country inhabitants" vernacular categories. The semiotic qualities of narratives are elicited by transforming boundary talk into cognitive components. In the high country of the South Island of New Zealand, social cartography is measured from the homestead; directionality is more important than altitude. Ways of talking about place specify not only location, but also use and belonging.I catalogue these names and map the place to hold them still. Maurice Gee (Sole Survivor 1983, cited in McNaughton 1986, p.277

  1. Transgender Health: New Zealand's Innovative Statistical Standard for Gender Identity.

    Pega, Frank; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L; Veale, Jaimie F


    The implementation of the New Zealand government's recently developed statistical standard for gender identity has led to, and will stimulate further, collection of gender identity data in administrative records, population surveys, and perhaps the census. This will provide important information about the demographics, health service use, and health outcomes of transgender populations to allow evidence-based policy development and service planning. However, the standard does not promote the two-question method, risking misclassification and undercounts; does promote the use of the ambiguous response category "gender diverse" in standard questions; and is not intersex inclusive. Nevertheless, the statistical standard provides a first model for other countries and international organizations, including United Nations agencies, interested in policy tools for improving transgender people's health.

  2. Proximate analysis of New Zealand and Australian coals by thermogravimetry

    Beamish, B.B. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology


    A technique has been developed at The University of Auckland for proximate analysis of coals by thermogravimetry using sample weights of {lt}20 mg. Samples from three New Zealand coalfields and the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, have been analysed. Coals tested range in rank from subbituminous to semianthracite, and have ash contents from 3.1 to 21.4% on a dry basis. Results obtained using the technique are within acceptable precision limits of the standard procedure. Volatile matter content of the coal shows a logarithmic increase with decreasing sample weight. To minimise this effect on repeatability, and to optimise the equipment capabilities, sample weights of 15.5 +/- 0.5 mg should be used. The technique is ideally suited to (1) analysing samples where insufficient material is available for standard proximate analysis, and (2) correlation with microstudies of coal.

  3. Does Board Independence Matter? Evidence from New Zealand

    Hardjo Koerniadi


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the presence of independent directors on firm value using both market-based performance measures (Tobin’s Q ratio and EVA and accounting-based ratios (ROA and ROE. We find that, instead of adding value, independent directors in NewZealand negatively affect firm value. We also find that, consistent with stewardship theory,independent directors have a positive effect on firm value only when they are in the minority.These findings are important given the increasing trend toward independence in corporate boards around the globe and suggest that board independence may not generally be suitable for countries where managers are considered as active partners along with other stakeholders in companies.

  4. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham


    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  5. On the Waterfront: The Historic Waterfront Precinct, Dunedin, New Zealand

    Alexander Trapeznik


    Full Text Available This article examines the industrial and mercantile built heritage of New Zealand by considering a remarkable precinct in Dunedin of surviving commercial buildings from the second half of the nineteenth century. The city was then the country’s financial, commercial and industrial centre, having undergone a gold rush boom in the 1860s. A large industrial and commercial precinct was rapidly created on reclaimed land in the central city over the following three decades. This study seeks to emphasise the importance of the agricultural economy and the stock and station agency business in particular to urban growth; this urban-rural interdependency that shaped nineteenth-century Dunedin. This contradicts the common emphasis on the gold rush boom and its architectural legacy. This study adopts a landscapes approach, offering a holistic framework which recognises the inter-relationship of

  6. The indigenous and the imported: The New Zealand school system

    Snook, Ivan


    New Zealand (Aotearoa) was colonized from Britain and the colonizers imposed on the indigenous Maori people a foreign view of education. From then on tradition has vied with local adaptations to produce a school system with substantial traces of the `Old Country' but with many local features. The curriculum for boys continued to dominate, with that for girls struggling to make itself felt. There has been constant debate about `basics' and `frills' though these terms have not been clearly defined. More recently there has been more serious consideration of the curriculum but this has been overtaken by a `market forces' view of schooling. A new administration system comes into operation on 1st October 1989. The future is unclear but it is reasonable to hope that there will continue a dialectic which may one day produce a genuine synthesis suited to the multicultural nature of Aotearoa.

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: New Zealand 2010 update



    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  8. Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Rupert Sutherland


    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, constitutes a globally significant natural laboratory for research into how active plate-bounding continental faults work and, in particular, how rocks exposed at the surface today relate to deep-seated processes of tectonic deformation, seismogenesis, and mineralization. The along-strike homogeneity of the hanging wall, rapid rate of dextral-reverse slip on an inclined fault plane, and relatively shallow depths to mechanical and chemical transitions make the Alpine Fault and the broader South Island plate boundary an important international site for multi-disciplinary research and a realistic target for an ambitious long-term program of scientific drilling investigations.

  9. (Non)regulation of marketing of unhealthy food to children in New Zealand.

    Shaw, Caroline


    Three and a half years ago an editorial in the NZMJ called for restrictions on marketing of unhealthy food to New Zealand children. This paper discusses progress since then. There has been a seemingly relentless documentation of adverse health consequences of the obesity epidemic in the intervening years, increasing evidence that marketing of unhealthy food contributes to the epidemic, growing knowledge about New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy food, and evidence of public support to decrease children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy food. Yet there is still a lack of substantive action on the restriction of marketing of unhealthy food to children in New Zealand.

  10. Launching Ceremony of China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum Held in Auckland

    Xu; Fenghua


    The Launching Ceremony of the China-New Zealand Mayoral Forumjointlyorgani zedby the CPAFF Cand Local Government New Zealand(LGNZ)was held in Auckland on November 21,2014.Chinese President Xi Jinping who was on a state visit to New Zealand and his host Prime Minister John Key attended and gave speeches.Wang Huning,Li Zhanshu,Yang Jiechi and other Party and State leaders of China were among the 100 people attending the event.In his speech,President Xi said the timely launching of the China-

  11. A Comparison of the Geochemical Features of Some Loess Sections in New Zealand and China

    文启忠; DENNISN.EDEN; 等


    A comparison of the geochemical features of loesses of New Zealand and China indicates that the distributions of the elements and their variations reflect the fluctuations of climate which can be compared with the oxygen isotope stages and glacial periods.New Zialand loess is different in source from Chinese loess.Therefore ,some differences are also noticed in their chemical compositions .Loess accumulation in New Zealand is later than that in China.Because of more rainfall in New Zealand and different distributions of loess the elements in loess have suffered stronger leaching than in China.

  12. International Perspectives of Ethical Approval: The New Zealand scene

    Antoinette McCallin Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The paper “Navigating the process of ethical approval” (Carey, 2010 raises many issues about the influence Institutional Ethics Committees have on research methodology and what can or cannot take place in research. Carey draws attention to the ethical challenges classic grounded theory researchers face when an ethical proposal that follows the principles of the methodology is presented to an Ethics Committee, whose main responsibility is the protection of participants. Ethics committees not only guide researchers on acceptable ethical practice, but are charged with monitoring ethical standards and ensuring researchers act in accordance with professional expectations for researchers within the jurisdiction. These committees aim to ensure consistency of ethical practice in research. While there is generally some flexibility in the review process researchers often find ethical requirements constraining, as guidelines are primarily prescriptive and are designed to ensure consistency in the application of universal ethical principles in research. In New Zealand, consistency includes paying attention to broader socio-cultural responsibilities to society that includes promoting awareness of the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights 1996, the Health Information Privacy Code 1994, and promoting ethical practices which involve Maori (the local indigenous people in research proposals as much as possible (Ministry of Health, 2006. So while researchers in training assume that their prime interest concerns the management of a research topic and methodology, they quickly find out that ethical guidelines influence research design. Even though there is an international code of ethics (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2005 that defines ethical standards for researchers around the world, each country has its own specific requirements depending on the context. In this paper, ethical drivers in the New Zealand context are outlined and

  13. Sleep disorders among high school students in New Zealand

    Fernando AT


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. RESULTS: A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23 and females represented 43.5% (n=604 of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, p<0.01, and sleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, p<0.01. Problem alcohol use and other substance use were more common in students with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively. No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.

  14. Arsenic speciation of geothermal waters in New Zealand.

    Lord, Gillian; Kim, Nick; Ward, Neil I


    Total arsenic and four arsenic species; arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), are reported in 28 geothermal features from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Waikato region of New Zealand. Samples were collected for arsenic speciation analysis via a solid phase extraction (SPE) kit allowing the separation, stabilisation and pre-concentration of the species at the time of sample collection in the field. This is the first research to present data for arsenic species collected by this technique in geothermal waters from New Zealand. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 0.008 to 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As. The highest levels were discovered in three features in Tokaanu (Taumatapuhipuhi, Takarea #5 and #6), with arsenic concentrations of 8.59, 8.70 and 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As, respectively. Inorganic arsenic species were predominant in the geothermal waters, with arsenite contributing to more than 70% of the total arsenic in the majority of samples. Organic species were also determined in all samples, indicating the presence of microbial activity. A potential risk to human health was highlighted due to the high levels of arsenic, mainly as arsenite, in geothermal features linked to bathing pools. Further research is needed into dermal absorption as a potential route of arsenic exposure whilst bathing in these hot pools, as it may contribute to an occurrence of acute arsenic-related health problems.

  15. Gallstones in New Zealand: composition, risk factors and ethnic differences.

    Stringer, Mark D; Fraser, Sara; Gordon, Keith C; Sharples, Katrina; Windsor, John A


    Gallstone disease is a worldwide problem causing morbidity, mortality and a drain on health-care resources. This prospective study aimed to investigate the spectrum of gallstone types in New Zealand and relate these to known risk factors. Gallstone samples were collected from 107 patients undergoing surgery for gallstone disease at Auckland City Hospital between June 2009 and June 2010. Detailed chemical analyses were performed using Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. The relationship between gallstone type and age, gender, ethnicity, obesity and positive family history were analysed. Median age was 51 years (range 19-88), 75 (70%) were female, one third were obese (body mass index ≥ 30) and 41% had a positive family history. Major ethnic groups were European (51%), Asian (23%) and Māori/Pacific (18%). Gallstone types included pure or mixed cholesterol stones (74%), black pigment stones (20%) and brown pigment stones (5%). Asians had a higher proportion of black pigment stones and NZ Europeans had more cholesterol and mixed cholesterol stones (odds ratio 3.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 11.5)). The frequency of cholesterol/mixed cholesterol stones was not significantly different between NZ Europeans and Māori/Pacific groups (P = 0.7). Black pigment stones were more common in older patients (mean 68.0 years compared with 47.6 for cholesterol/mixed cholesterol stones) (P = 0.0001). There was no significant relationship between stone type and family history (P = 0.16) or gender (P = 0.17). This novel prospective study highlights risk factors and ethnic differences in gallstone composition in New Zealand. These may be important when considering gallstone prevention strategies. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Tapering Practices of New Zealand's Elite Raw Powerlifters.

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Tod, David A; Barnes, Matthew J; Keogh, Justin W; McGuigan, Michael R


    Pritchard, HJ, Tod, DA, Barnes, MJ, Keogh, JW, and McGuigan, MR. Tapering practices of New Zealand's elite raw powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1796-1804, 2016-The major aim of this study was to determine tapering strategies of elite powerlifters. Eleven New Zealand powerlifters (28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score of 431.9 ± 43.9 points) classified as elite were interviewed, using semistructured interviews, about their tapering strategies. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Total training volume peaked 5.2 ± 1.7 weeks from competition while average training intensity (of 1 repetition maximum) peaked 1.9 ± 0.8 weeks from competition. During tapering, volume was reduced by 58.9 ± 8.4% while intensity was maintained (or slightly reduced) and the final weight training session was performed 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Participants generally stated that tapering was performed to achieve full recovery; that accessory work was removed around 2 weeks out from competition; and deadlifting takes longer to recover from than other lifts. Typically participants stated that trial and error, and changes based on "feel" were the sources of tapering strategies; equipment used and movements performed during tapering are the same as in competition; nutrition was manipulated during the taper (for weight cutting or performance aims); and poor tapering occurred when too long (1 week or more) was taken off training. These results suggest that athletes may benefit from continuing to strength train before important events with reduced volume and maintained intensity. Only exercises that directly assist sports performance should remain in the strength program during tapering, to assist with reductions in fatigue while maintaining/improving strength expression and performance.

  17. Contemporary tectonic stress pattern of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Rajabi, Mojtaba; Ziegler, Moritz; Tingay, Mark; Heidbach, Oliver; Reynolds, Scott


    The present-day stress state is a key parameter in numerous geoscientific research fields including geodynamics, seismic hazard assessment, and geomechanics of georeservoirs. The Taranaki Basin of New Zealand is located on the Australian Plate and forms the western boundary of tectonic deformation due to Pacific Plate subduction along the Hikurangi margin. This paper presents the first comprehensive wellbore-derived basin-scale in situ stress analysis in New Zealand. We analyze borehole image and oriented caliper data from 129 petroleum wells in the Taranaki Basin to interpret the shape of boreholes and determine the orientation of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax). We combine these data (151 SHmax data records) with 40 stress data records derived from individual earthquake focal mechanism solutions, 6 from stress inversions of focal mechanisms, and 1 data record using the average of several focal mechanism solutions. The resulting data set has 198 data records for the Taranaki Basin and suggests a regional SHmax orientation of N068°E (±22°), which is in agreement with NW-SE extension suggested by geological data. Furthermore, this ENE-WSW average SHmax orientation is subparallel to the subduction trench and strike of the subducting slab (N50°E) beneath the central western North Island. Hence, we suggest that the slab geometry and the associated forces due to slab rollback are the key control of crustal stress in the Taranaki Basin. In addition, we find stress perturbations with depth in the vicinity of faults in some of the studied wells, which highlight the impact of local stress sources on the present-day stress rotation.

  18. Coniform stromatolites from geothermal systems, North Island, New Zealand

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, Michael R.; Ansdell, K.M.


    Coniform stromatolites are found in several sites in the Tokaanu and Whakarewarewa geothermal areas of North Island, New Zealand. At Tokaanu, silicification of these stromatolites is taking place in Kirihoro, a shallow hot springfed pool. At Whakarewarewa, subfossil silicified coniform stromatolites are found on the floor of "Waikite Pool" on the discharge apron below Waikite Geyser, and in an old sinter succession at Te Anarata. The microbes in the coniform stromatolites from Tokaanu, Waikite Pool, and Te Anarata have been well preserved through rapid silicification. Nevertheless, subtle differences in the silicification style induced morphological variations that commonly mask or alter morphological features needed for identification of the microbes in terms of extant taxa. The coniform stromatolites in the New Zealand hotspring pools are distinctive because (1) they are formed of upward tapering (i.e., conical) columns, (2) neighboring columns commonly are linked by vertical sheets or bridges, (3) internally, they are formed of alternating high- and low-porosity laminae that have a conical vertical profile, and (4) Phormidium form more than 90% of the biota. As such, they are comparable to modern coniform mats and stromatolites found in the geothermal systems of Yellowstone National Park and ice-covered lakes in Antarctica. Formation of the coniform stromatolites is restricted to pools that are characterized by low current energy and a microflora that is dominated by Phormidium. These delicate and intricate stromatolites could not form in areas characterized by fast flowing water or a diverse microflora. Thus, it appears that the distribution of these distinctive stromatolites is controlled by biological constraints that are superimposed on environmental needs.

  19. An Assessment of the Influence of Orbital Forcing on Late Pliocene Global Sea-Level Using a Shallow-Marine Sedimentary Record from the Wanganui Basin, New Zealand.

    Sefton, J.; Naish, T.; Mckay, R. M.; Turner, G. M.; Morgans, H. E. G.; Seward, D.; Alloway, B.


    Classical Milankovitch Theory suggests variance in the orbital cycles of precession (21 kyr) and obliquity (41 kyr) should have a profound influence on insolation and ice volume. However, the globally-integrated ice volume proxy record (benthic δ18O) during the Late Pliocene (3.0-2.6 Ma) is dominated by obliquity-paced cycles, and lacks a significant precession component. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but paleoclimate records independent of the benthic δ18O record are required to test these. The Wanganui Basin, New Zealand, contains a shallow-marine Neogene sedimentary succession that is widely recognised as an important site for examining sea-level/ice volume changes at orbital frequencies. Here, we present a record of paleobathymetric changes at an orbital resolution from the Late Pliocene Mangaweka Mudstone outcrop succession. Modern analogue-calibrated water-depth proxies of grainsize and benthic foraminifera census data were used to evaluate paleobathymetric changes. An integrated magneto-, bio- and tephrostratigraphy was developed that constrains the outcrop succession to between ~3.0 Ma and 2.58 Ma. Nine distinct cycles spanning ~400,000 years are identified in the grainsize and benthic foraminifera assemblages. Within the uncertainty of the age model, the Mangaweka Mudstone grainsize cycles can be matched one-for-one to the δ18O cycles, as they display a similar pattern of frequency and amplitude. The frequency of these cycles (and the corresponding interval in the δ18O record) are dominated by the 41 kyr year obliquity cycle, but with a subordinate eccentricity component. Therefore, the fluctuations in the grainsize and benthic foraminifera proxies likely represent an indirect response to global sea-level fluctuations via their effect on continental shelf sediment transport mechanisms. The implications for the orbital theory of the ice ages are that during the Late Pliocene, global ice volume changes responded

  20. Time-capsule: Explorations of Concepts of Time and Law in Colonial New Zealand

    Jonathan Barrett


    Full Text Available Postcolonial legal culture in New Zealand (Aotearoa has sought to revise the past by reinterpreting Victorian legal contexts in the light of contemporary understandings of inter-cultural differences. This article develops an argument that demonstrates the relationship between cultural and legal notions of time during nineteenth century New Zealand. It examines the way in which Victorian attitudes were expressed in the expansion of colonial empire and the discursive ideologies which may have informed them. It explores the notion of time as expressed in lawmaking in colonial New Zealand through an examination of legal and philosophical commentary derived from contemporary jurisprudence and para-legal literature. The article is concerned with presenting an argument for the way in which colonial law and lawmakers manipulated the symbolic notion of time to the possible occlusion of indigenous interests in colonial New Zealand.

  1. Geologic Provinces of Australia and New Zealand, 2000 (prv3cl)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Australia and New Zealand area...

  2. Fred Tschopp (1905-1980, Landscape Architecture: New Zealands Forst Modern Practitioner

    John Adam


    Full Text Available Ad Astera Per Aspera With its naturally beautiful and varied topography the Domain calls for nothing less than 'landscape architecture'. This is something more comprehensive than 'landscape gardening'. Fred Tschopp, 1931 (New Zealand Herald

  3. Friendship Activities in Brief——Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand



    At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  4. Socio-economic drivers of freshwater fish declines in a changing climate: a New Zealand perspective.

    Ling, N


    New Zealand has a freshwater fish fauna characterized by high levels of national and local endemism and which is threatened by anthropogenic stressors including habitat destruction or deterioration, commercial harvest, pollution and interactions with invasive exotic species. Significant expansion of New Zealand's dairy production has recently created further deterioration of lowland water quality and greater pressure for water allocation in drier eastern regions of the South Island. New Zealand has large freshwater resources and its climate is predicted to experience less dramatic changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation than many other regions of the world as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Predicted changes in regional climate and further expansion of the dairy industry, however, will impose similar pressures on freshwater resources in northern New Zealand to those already acting to threaten freshwater biodiversity in the eastern South Island.

  5. The New Zealand Labour Movement and Migration: A Short Historical Survey.

    Roth, Herbert


    The labor movement in New Zealand was heavily influenced by British unions and migration policies. Other factors were union opposition to further immigration and the treatment of the Maori people. (SK)

  6. An evaluation of new circle system of anesthesia. Quantitative anesthesia with isoflurane in new zealand rabbits

    Fonseca,Neuber M.; Saul Goldenberg; Duvaldo Eurides; Novo, Neil F; Cirilo A. P. Lima


    A small circuit system of anesthesia was developed by Fonseca and Goldenberg in 1993. The authors used in this study New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits under closed system anesthetic regiment by insoflurane. Twenty male adult New Zealand rabbits were distributed in two groups of ten animals. No premedicant drugs were given. Endotraqueal intubation was made after intravenous administration of propofol (10mg/kg). Insoflurane was used to anesthesia management, administred by lowflow closed system t...

  7. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) and human factors training: What Air New Zealand is doing about it

    Scott-Milligan, Fionna; Wyness, Bryan


    The authors have played an integral role in Air New Zealand's evaluation of CRM and Human Factors training options available to date. As the final decision as to which course is best suited to Air New Zealand's needs has yet to be made, briefly outlined are: (1) why this form of training was considered necessary; (2) the approach taken to evaluating the options available; (3) some of the problems encountered on the way; and (4) some plans for the future.

  8. Transformational Leadership and the New Zealand Defence Force: Supporting Effective Organizational Change


    Force, 2012), 14. 20 This assertion was supported by the Controller and Auditor - General in their report on the civilianization process. 21 New Zealand...Defence Force, Annual Report , 15. 22 Controller and Auditor - General , The Civilianisation Process, 15. 23 New Zealand Defence Force, NZDF Ongoing...Army Command and General Staff College ATTN: ATZL-SWD-GD Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2301 8. PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  9. Three new species of the genus Austrophthiracarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae).

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang


    Three new species of Austrophthiracarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) from New Zealand are described: Austrophthiracarus matuku sp. nov. from the Bethells Matuku Reserve, Auckland, Austrophthiracarus notoporosus sp. nov. from the Tutoko Bench, Fiordland and Austrophthiracarus karioi sp. nov. from the Mt. Karioi, Waikato. Holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research and paratypes are deposited in the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Perception of Workplace Discrimination among Immigrants and Native Born New Zealanders

    Daldy, Bridget M.; Poot, Jacques; Roskruge, Matthew


    Despite considerable research on differences in labour market outcomes between native born New Zealanders and immigrants, the extent of discrimination experienced by the foreign born in the workplace remains relatively unexplored. We use micro data from the Confidentialised Unit Record File of the 2008 New Zealand General Social Survey (n = 8,721) to examine the determinants of self-reported discrimination in the workplace. We find that immigrants are significantly more likely than New Zealan...

  11. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study.

    Eberhart-Phillips, J.; Walker, N; Garrett, N.; Bell, D; Sinclair, D; Rainger, W; Bates, M


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the contributions of major risk factors for campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. DESIGN: Case-control study. Home interviews were conducted over nine months using a standardised questionnaire to assess recent food consumption and other exposures. SETTING: Four centres in New Zealand with high notification rates of campylobacter infections--Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. PARTICIPANTS: Case patients were 621 people notified between 1 June...

  12. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand

    Nelson, Wendy A.


    Abstract A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast. PMID:23794933

  13. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Through Secondary School Physical Education: the New Zealand Experience

    Gordon, Barrie


    New Zealand physical education has a strong historical association with the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model. This paper looks at this history, the relationship of the model with the New Zealand Curriculum, and reports on the experiences of one secondary school physical education teacher who has been teaching personal and social responsibility through physical education for many years Históricamente, la educación física en Nueva Zelanda ha estado muy asociada al mod...

  14. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    Philip Gendall; Janet Hoek; Richard Edwards; Stanton Glantz


    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young ...

  15. Environmental controls on stable isotope ratios in New Zealand Podocarpaceae : implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction.

    Brett, M.J.; Baldini, J. U. L.; Gröcke, D. R.


    Stable isotope ratios of various proxies are widely used for palaeoclimate reconstruction, and it is often assumed that isotope ratios reflect vegetation abundance or type. However, very little research exists on the isotopic equilibration of extant biomes under variable environmental conditions. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from leaves of various Podocarpaceae genera, endemic to New Zealand, are linked to environmental parameters from the Land Environments New Zealand mode...

  16. New Zealand pathway towards Asia-Pacific and global e-VLBI research and development

    Gulyaev, Sergei; Weston, Stuart; Thomasson, Peter


    Over the past 3 years, Auckland University of Technology has established the first radio astronomical observatory in New Zealand, which, because of its remote geographic location, has quickly become a member of a number of international VLBI networks, in particular the IVS and the LBA. Not only has this added significantly to the observational power in the Pacific and Oceania, but by utilising new fibre connections within New Zealand, and across the Pacific and the Tasman Sea, the New Zealand radio telescopes have now been linked to many in Australia, Asia and the Pacific. Recent astronomical results are presented and plans for widening New Zealand participation in Australasian, Asia-Pacific and global VLBI research and development are outlined. Real-time e-VLBI is a vital part of New Zealand's capability development towards the SKA. The rapid and challenging establishment of New Zealand radio astronomy can serve as a model for the engagement in mega-Science and e-Science by resource-limited institutions and ...

  17. Phage sensitivity and prophage carriage in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods in Spain and New Zealand.

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; García, Pilar; Billington, Craig; Premarante, Aruni; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz


    Bacteriophages (phages) are a promising tool for the biocontrol of pathogenic bacteria, including those contaminating food products and causing infectious diseases. However, the success of phage preparations is limited by the host ranges of their constituent phages. The phage resistance/sensitivity profile of eighty seven Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Spain and New Zealand from dairy, meat and seafood sources was determined for six phages (Φ11, K, ΦH5, ΦA72, CAPSa1 and CAPSa3). Most of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to phage K (Myoviridae) and CAPSa1 (Siphoviridae) regardless of their origin. There was a higher sensitivity of New Zealand S. aureus strains to phages isolated from both Spain (ΦH5 and ΦA72) and New Zealand (CAPSa1 and CAPSa3). Spanish phages had a higher infectivity on S. aureus strains of Spanish dairy origin, while Spanish strains isolated from other environments were more sensitive to New Zealand phages. Lysogeny was more prevalent in Spanish S. aureus compared to New Zealand strains. A multiplex PCR reaction, which detected ΦH5 and ΦA72 sequences, indicated a high prevalence of these prophages in Spanish S. aureus strains, but were infrequently detected in New Zealand strains. Overall, the correlation between phage resistance and lysogeny in S. aureus strains was found to be weak.

  18. Collaboration, vision and reality: water fluoridation in New Zealand (1952-1968).

    Akers, H F


    In comparison with that of other nations in the British Commonwealth, New Zealand's early and comparatively high adoption of water fluoridation was a distinctive health policy. National concerns about the caries epidemic and the legacies of TR Hunter, F Truby King, HP Pickerill and JP Walsh engendered a spirit of cooperation between the Department of Health, the New Zealand School Dental Service, the Medical Research Council (of New Zealand), the New Zealand Dental Association and the University of Otago's dental and medical schools. The consequence was a contagious culture of multidisciplinary research and institutional liaisons that produced exceptional dental epidemiology. The government's involvement in children's public dentistry harmonised with fluoride advocates' radical vision of community caries reduction. New Zealand assumed not only a leading international role in immediate post-World War cariology, but also the dominant position in the fluoride politics of the British Commonwealth. The incomplete fulfilment of Fuller's "Dreams Pursued" presents a case study that confirms the roles of both scientific evidence and centralised political authority in public health administration. Paradoxically, political scientists have largely ignored New Zealand's early adoption of water fluoridation. This paper addresses this deficiency.

  19. Cultural democracy: the way forward for primary care of hard to reach New Zealanders.

    Finau, Sitaleki A; Finau, Eseta


    The use of cultural democracy, the freedom to practice one's culture without fear, as a framework for primary care service provision is essential for improved health service in a multi cultural society like New Zealand. It is an effective approach to attaining health equity for all. Many successful health ventures are ethnic specific and have gone past cultural competency to the practice of cultural democracy. That is, the services are freely taking on the realities of clients without and malice from those of other ethnicities. In New Zealand the scientific health service to improve the health of a multi cultural society are available but there is a need to improve access and utilization by hard to reach New Zealanders. This paper discusses cultural democracy and provide example of how successful health ventures that had embraced cultural democracy were implemented. It suggests that cultural democracy will provide the intellectual impetus and robust philosophy for moving from equality to equity in health service access and utilization. This paper would provide a way forward to improved primary care utilization, efficiency, effectiveness and equitable access especially for the hard to reach populations. use the realities of Pacificans in New Zealand illustrate the use of cultural democracy, and thus equity to address the "inverse care law" of New Zealand. The desire is for primary care providers to take cognizance and use cultural democracy and equity as the basis for the design and practice of primary health care for the hard to reach New Zealanders.

  20. Mind the gap: An analysis of foregone health gains from unfunded cancer medicines in New Zealand.

    Evans, Jackie; Laking, George; Strother, Matthew; Wang, Tony; Metcalfe, Scott; Blick, Gary; Pauls, Reinhard; Crausaz, Steffan


    Publicly funded cancer medicines listed on the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Schedule were compared with those listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. To quantify the health gains offered by the cancer medicines funded in Australia but not in New Zealand, clinical trial data reporting median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were sought. The differences in the median PFS and OS for the unfunded medicines, relative to the comparator medicine funded in NZ, were then assessed against the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Research Committee (ASCO-CRC) recommended targets for clinically meaningful health gains. Our analysis confirms that, whilst New Zealand funds fewer cancer medicines than Australia, most of the additional medicines funded in Australia do not deliver clinically meaningful health gains as defined by the ASCO-CRC guidance. This suggests that New Zealand is not missing substantive opportunities for improvements to New Zealand's cancer survival rates through additional medicines funding. A policy of funding more new cancer medicines in order to achieve numerical parity with Australia or other countries would not result in substantive health improvement and would cost significantly more, and investing the millions of dollars needed to achieve funding parity with other countries would not represent good value for money in terms of delivering the best health outcomes for all New Zealanders, rather selective funding of new medicines that demonstrate clear clinical benefit and that are cost-effective and affordable is the sensible approach.