WorldWideScience

Sample records for zealand international two-stream

  1. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  2. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jaforullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimate...

  3. The CTBT : New Zealand's involvement in the international monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), to which most countries are now signatories, is seen as a major step towards the curtailment of nuclear weapons production and eventual disarmament. The Treaty can only be effectively implemented, however, if there is a monitoring system in place to verify that weapons testing is not taking place and, if it does occur, to identify the violator. The diesign of the International Monitoring System (IMS) has therefore been a significant part of the Treaty negotiations. This article focuses o New Zealand's involvement in the IMS, in atmospheric radioactivity and infrasound monitoring. Because of its history of involvement in environmental monitoring, National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) has been providing expert input into Treaty negotiations concerning the radionucled component of the IMS. The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) monitors seismic activity at a number of locations in New Zealand and the South Pacific, and has also provided expert input to the design of the global seismic component of the IMS. The New Zealand government has offered the monitoring facilities of NRL and IGNS for inclusion in the global IMS. (author)

  4. International Perspectives of Ethical Approval: The New Zealand scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette McCallin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Navigating the process of ethical approval” (Carey, 2010 raises many issues about the influence Institutional Ethics Committees have on research methodology and what can or cannot take place in research. Carey draws attention to the ethical challenges classic grounded theory researchers face when an ethical proposal that follows the principles of the methodology is presented to an Ethics Committee, whose main responsibility is the protection of participants. Ethics committees not only guide researchers on acceptable ethical practice, but are charged with monitoring ethical standards and ensuring researchers act in accordance with professional expectations for researchers within the jurisdiction. These committees aim to ensure consistency of ethical practice in research. While there is generally some flexibility in the review process researchers often find ethical requirements constraining, as guidelines are primarily prescriptive and are designed to ensure consistency in the application of universal ethical principles in research. In New Zealand, consistency includes paying attention to broader socio-cultural responsibilities to society that includes promoting awareness of the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights 1996, the Health Information Privacy Code 1994, and promoting ethical practices which involve Maori (the local indigenous people in research proposals as much as possible (Ministry of Health, 2006. So while researchers in training assume that their prime interest concerns the management of a research topic and methodology, they quickly find out that ethical guidelines influence research design. Even though there is an international code of ethics (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2005 that defines ethical standards for researchers around the world, each country has its own specific requirements depending on the context. In this paper, ethical drivers in the New Zealand context are outlined and

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Smith, Inga J.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO 2 , calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: → Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. → 7.7 Mt of CO 2 estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. → 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. → The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. → Detailed approach for international transport emissions regional/national assessments described.

  6. Two-stream instability in pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    If the electron-positron plasma flow from the pulsar environment is stationary, the two-stream instability does not have enough time to develop in the pulsar magnetosphere. In that case the outflowing electron-positron plasma gathers into separate clouds. The clouds move along magnetic field lines and disperse as they go farther from the pulsar. At a distance of about 10 to the 8th cm from the pulsar surface, the high-energy particles of a given cloud catch up with the low-energy particles that belong to the cloud going ahead of it. In this region of a pulsar magnetosphere, the energy distribution of plasma particles is two-humped, and a two-stream instability may develop. The growth rate of the instability is quite sufficient for its development. 17 references

  7. A fast, exact code for scattered thermal radiation compared with a two-stream approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogley, A.C.; Pandey, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    A two-stream accuracy study for internally (thermal) driven problems is presented by comparison with a recently developed 'exact' adding/doubling method. The resulting errors in external (or boundary) radiative intensity and flux are usually larger than those for the externally driven problems and vary substantially with the radiative parameters. Error predictions for a specific problem are difficult. An unexpected result is that the exact method is computationally as fast as the two-stream approximation for nonisothermal media

  8. Managing Internal Marketing in a New Zealand Language School: Some Important Lessons for All Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Christopher Allen

    2008-01-01

    In New Zealand, private language schools, although controversial, are popular for international travellers who want to study and travel simultaneously. These alternative schools are run in a business-like fashion and their educational administrators have embraced the use of marketing as part of their everyday educational management practice. Even…

  9. African International Doctoral Students in New Zealand: Englishes, Doctoral Writing and Intercultural Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Stephanie; Manathunga, Catherine; Prinsen, Gerard; Tallon, Rachel; Cornforth, Sue

    2018-01-01

    While the experiences of international doctoral students, especially those from Asian countries, have been well researched, fewer studies have explored the experiences of African students in Southern countries like Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand. This article reports on doctoral writing and student and supervisor perspectives on English…

  10. Two-stream instability in collisionless shocks and foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, M E; Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K; Sircombe, N J; Dendy, R O

    2006-01-01

    Shocks play a key role in plasma thermalization and particle acceleration in the near Earth space plasma, in astrophysical plasma and in laser plasma interactions. An accurate understanding of the physics of plasma shocks is thus of immense importance. We give an overview over some recent developments in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma shocks and foreshock dynamics. We focus on ion reflection by shocks and on the two-stream instabilities these beams can drive, and these are placed in the context of experimental observations, e.g. by the Cluster mission. We discuss how we may expand the insight gained from the observation of proton beam driven instabilities at near Earth plasma shocks to better understand their astrophysical counterparts, such as ion beam instabilities triggered by internal and external shocks in the relativistic jets of gamma ray bursts, shocks in the accretion discs of micro-quasars and supernova remnant shocks. It is discussed how and why the peak energy that can be reached by particles that are accelerated by two-stream instabilities increases from keV energies to GeV energies and beyond, as we increase the streaming speed to relativistic values, and why the particle energy spectrum sometimes resembles power law distributions

  11. Two-stream instability in collisionless shocks and foreshock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV and Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Eliasson, B [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV and Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Shukla, P K [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV and Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Sircombe, N J [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R O [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Shocks play a key role in plasma thermalization and particle acceleration in the near Earth space plasma, in astrophysical plasma and in laser plasma interactions. An accurate understanding of the physics of plasma shocks is thus of immense importance. We give an overview over some recent developments in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma shocks and foreshock dynamics. We focus on ion reflection by shocks and on the two-stream instabilities these beams can drive, and these are placed in the context of experimental observations, e.g. by the Cluster mission. We discuss how we may expand the insight gained from the observation of proton beam driven instabilities at near Earth plasma shocks to better understand their astrophysical counterparts, such as ion beam instabilities triggered by internal and external shocks in the relativistic jets of gamma ray bursts, shocks in the accretion discs of micro-quasars and supernova remnant shocks. It is discussed how and why the peak energy that can be reached by particles that are accelerated by two-stream instabilities increases from keV energies to GeV energies and beyond, as we increase the streaming speed to relativistic values, and why the particle energy spectrum sometimes resembles power law distributions.

  12. Screening for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Auckland International Airport, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael J.; Baker, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Entry screening for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 at Auckland International Airport, New Zealand, detected 4 cases, which were later confirmed, among 456,518 passengers arriving April 27–June 22, 2009. On the basis of national influenza surveillance data, which suggest that ≈69 infected travelers passed through the airport, sensitivity for screening was only 5.8%. PMID:22516105

  13. Dare to Dream: Personal Values, Life Goals, and International Students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili C; Zhang, Abraham

    2017-10-01

    It has been well identified and supported in the literature that values and life goals are associated with one's general well-being. However, there have been few studies on values and life goals among international students in New Zealand. This study addressed this lack of research by focusing on the life goals and personal values among international students in three tertiary institutes in New Zealand. Based on the literature review, the hypothesis of this study is that international students' intrinsic life goals are positively correlated with their spiritual values. In contrast, extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. The Aspirations Index, which was used to assess life goals, and the Schwartz' value survey, which measured the students' personal values, were both distributed to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 24 of the participants were also conducted. Findings revealed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals and that extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. As the research findings showed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals, helping international students to find meaning and purpose in life may promote their well-being, and the learning and growth of international students can be improved by incorporating spiritual values and cultural aspects in college education. The authors also argue that a holistic approach to college education for international students is needed.

  14. Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Revol, Vincent G.N.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2010-05-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO{sub 2} emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or 'bottom-up', model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO{sub 2} per passenger-kilometre (g CO{sub 2} per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO{sub 2} per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the 'hotel' function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO{sub 2} emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained. (author)

  15. Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Revol, Vincent G.N.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO 2 emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or 'bottom-up', model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO 2 per passenger-kilometre (g CO 2 per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO 2 per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the 'hotel' function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO 2 emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained.

  16. A missing piece of the workforce puzzle. The experiences of internationally qualified nurses in New Zealand: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Brittany Lauren; Huntington, Annette

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the literature regarding the context and experiences of internationally qualified registered nurses, particularly Filipino and Indian nurses, who have transitioned to New Zealand. Internationally qualified nurses are a significant proportion of the nursing workforce in many developed countries including New Zealand. This is increasingly important as populations age, escalating demand for nurses. Understanding the internationally qualified nurse experience is required as this could influence migration in a competitive labour market. Examination of peer-reviewed research, policy and discussion documents, and technical reports. A systematic literature search sought articles published between 2001 and 2014 using Google Scholar, CINAHL, and Medline. Articles were critically appraised for relevance, transferability, and methodological rigour. Fifty-one articles met inclusion criteria and demonstrate internationally qualified nurses face significant challenges transitioning into New Zealand. The internationally qualified nurse experience of transitioning into a new country is little researched and requires further investigation.

  17. Quality of life: international and domestic students studying medicine in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian; Moir, Fiona; Doherty, Iain; Hawken, Susan J

    2012-08-01

    International students form a significant proportion of students studying within universities in Western countries. The quality of life perceptions of international medical students in comparison with domestic medical students has not been well documented. There is some evidence to suggest that international medical students may have different educational and social experiences in relation to their domestic peers. This study investigates the levels of quality of life experienced by international and domestic students studying medicine. A total of 548 medical students completed the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. The focus of the analysis was to evaluate differences between international and domestic students in their early clinical years. The responses were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance methods. International medical students are experiencing lower social and environmental quality of life compared with domestic peers. International medical students in New Zealand have expressed quality of life concerns, which likely have an impact on their academic achievement, feelings of wellness, acculturation, and social adaptation. The findings reinforce the need for creating stronger social networks and accessible accommodation, as well as developing systems to ensure safety, peer mentorship and student support.

  18. Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2009-01-01

    International air transport emissions are not subject to liability under the Kyoto Protocol. However, pressure is mounting globally for international aviation to be included in post-Kyoto arrangements. In the absence of international collective action, a number of so-called carbon offsetting schemes have emerged that allow individual travellers and companies to compensate for their international air travel emissions. These schemes offer technological solutions, such as planting sink forests to sequester emissions. To consider the implications of future collective action, this paper presents a case study assessment of the physical feasibility of five schemes for all short duration journeys to and from New Zealand. This is the first comprehensive national-level case study assessment of competing offsetting options for international aviation emissions in the peer-reviewed literature. The CO 2 -e emissions produced by the air travel of international visitors to New Zealand, and for New Zealand residents travelling overseas, is calculated in this paper to be 7893 and 3948 Gg, respectively, in 2005. It is then shown that no single offsetting scheme targeted inside the country appears physically and/or politically realistic. This indicates the sheer size of these emissions, and the challenge that the international community faces for collective action on this matter. (author)

  19. Design methods of Coanda effect nozzle with two streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele TRANCOSSI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues recent research of the authors about the ACHEON Coanda effect two streams nozzle. This nozzle aims to produce an effective deflection of a propulsive jet with a correspondent deviation of the thrust vector in a 2D plane. On the basis of a previously published mathematical model, based on integral equations, it tries to produce an effective design guideline, which can be adopted for design activities of the nozzle for aeronautic propulsion. The presented model allows defining a governing method for this innovative two stream synthetic jet nozzle. The uncertainness level of the model are discussed and novel aircraft architectures based on it are presented. A CFD validation campaign is produced focusing on validating the model and the designs produced.

  20. Social Networking Sites and Educational Adaptation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Chinese International Students in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc. to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences.

  1. Social Networking Sites and Educational Adaptation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Chinese International Students in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Zhang, Tingting

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China) in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc.) to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences. PMID:22666100

  2. Social networking sites and educational adaptation in higher education: a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Zhang, Tingting

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China) in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc.) to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences.

  3. Individual variation in habitat use in two stream fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Resende Manna; Carla Ferreira Rezende

    2015-01-01

    The habitat use is an individual choice that is influenced by physical conditions such as substrate type, food resources availability and adequate depth. However, habitat use is often measured only through interspecific variability because intraspecific variability is supposed to be low. Here, the differences in habitat use by two stream fish assemblages in two different environments (Brazilian rainforest and semiarid) were investigated at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. We perfo...

  4. Multiscale Models for the Two-Stream Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ilon; Dimits, Andris; Banks, Jeffrey; Berger, Richard; Brunner, Stephan; Chapman, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Interpenetrating streams of plasma found in many important scenarios in nature and in the laboratory can develop kinetic two-stream instabilities that exchange momentum and energy between the streams. A quasilinear model for the electrostatic two-stream instability is under development as a component of a multiscale model that couples fluid simulations to kinetic theory. Parameters of the model will be validated with comparison to full kinetic simulations using LOKI and efficient strategies for numerical solution of the quasilinear model and for coupling to the fluid model will be discussed. Extending the kinetic models into the collisional regime requires an efficient treatment of the collision operator. Useful reductions of the collision operator relative to the full multi-species Landau-Fokker-Plank operator are being explored. These are further motivated both by careful consideration of the parameter orderings relevant to two-stream scenarios and by the particular 2D+2V phase space used in the LOKI code. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and LDRD project 17- ERD-081.

  5. H(+) - O(+) two-stream interaction on auroral field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, R.

    1990-01-01

    Upflowing beams of hydrogen, oxygen, and minor ion species, and downward accelerated electrons have been observed above several thousand kilometers altitude on evening auroral field lines. The mechanism for electron and ion acceleration is generally accepted to be the presence of a quasi-static electric field with a component parallel to the earth's magnetic field. The thermal energy of the observed beams is much larger than ionospheric ion temperatures indicating that the beams have been heated as they are accelerated upward. This heating is probably due to a two-stream interaction between beams of different mass ions. The beams gain equal energy in the potential drop and so have different average velocities. Their relative streaming initiates an ion-ion two-stream interaction which then mediates a transfer of energy and momentum between the beams and causes thermalization of each beam. The qualitative evidence that supports this scenario is reviewed. Properties of the two-stream instability are presented in order to demonstrate that a calculation of the evolution of ion beams requires a model that includes field-aligned spatial structure. 26 refs

  6. Two-stream Convolutional Neural Network for Methane Emissions Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; McGuire, M.; Bell, C.; Tchapmi, L. P.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Methane, a key component of natural gas, has a 25x higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide on a 100-year basis. Accurately monitoring and mitigating methane emissions require cost-effective detection and quantification technologies. Optical gas imaging, one of the most commonly used leak detection technology, adopted by Environmental Protection Agency, cannot estimate leak-sizes. In this work, we harness advances in computer science to allow for rapid and automatic leak quantification. Particularly, we utilize two-stream deep Convolutional Networks (ConvNets) to estimate leak-size by capturing complementary spatial information from still plume frames, and temporal information from plume motion between frames. We build large leak datasets for training and evaluating purposes by collecting about 20 videos (i.e. 397,400 frames) of leaks. The videos were recorded at six distances from the source, covering 10 -60 ft. Leak sources included natural gas well-heads, separators, and tanks. All frames were labeled with a true leak size, which has eight levels ranging from 0 to 140 MCFH. Preliminary analysis shows that two-stream ConvNets provides significant accuracy advantage over single steam ConvNets. Spatial stream ConvNet can achieve an accuracy of 65.2%, by extracting important features, including texture, plume area, and pattern. Temporal stream, fed by the results of optical flow analysis, results in an accuracy of 58.3%. The integration of the two-stream ConvNets gives a combined accuracy of 77.6%. For future work, we will split the training and testing datasets in distinct ways in order to test the generalization of the algorithm for different leak sources. Several analytic metrics, including confusion matrix and visualization of key features, will be used to understand accuracy rates and occurrences of false positives. The quantification algorithm can help to find and fix super-emitters, and improve the cost-effectiveness of leak detection and repair

  7. Transverse two-stream instability in a matched plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whlttum, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam magnetically self-focused in a plasma is subject to a transverse two stream or 'hose' instability. Linear evolution is described in terms of a tune distribution characterizing the beam, and an effective transverse impedance determined by the beam and the plasma profiles. This model is compared to cloud-in-cell simulations of three-dimensional transport of a beam with a Bennett profile, through a matched plasma channel. In the limit of large skin-depth this instability appears to be the primary limitation on stable beam transport. (author)

  8. Heat transfer entropy resistance for the analyses of two-stream heat exchangers and two-stream heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, XueTao; Liang, XinGang

    2013-01-01

    The entropy generation minimization method is often used to analyze heat transfer processes from the thermodynamic viewpoint. In this paper, we analyze common heat transfer processes with the concept of entropy generation, and propose the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance. It is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance leads to smaller equivalent thermodynamic force difference with prescribed heat transfer rate and larger heat transfer rate with prescribed equivalent thermodynamic force difference. With the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance, the performance of two-stream heat exchangers (THEs) and two-stream heat exchanger networks (THENs) is analyzed. For the cases discussed in this paper, it is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance always leads to better heat transfer performance for THEs and THENs, while smaller values of the entropy generation, entropy generation numbers and revised entropy generation number do not always. -- Highlights: • The concept of entropy resistance is defined. • The minimum entropy resistance principle is developed. • Smaller entropy resistance leads to better heat transfer

  9. Upper-hybrid solitons and oscillating-two-stream instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    A warm two-fluid theory of soliton formation near the upper-hybrid frequency is developed. Several forms of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation are obtained, depending on whether the electric field is completely perpendicular to the dc magnetic field or whether it has an additional small component parallel to the magnetic field. For the perpendicular case, the character of the soliton depends on its scale length, L, and on β. For low β, when L c/ω/subp//subi/ the super-Alvenic solitons described magnetohydromagnetically by Kaufman and Stenflo are obtained. However, the case E/sub parallel/not-equal0 may be of more interest, since it couples the pump to the excited waves more efficiently. In the limit of linearization about an infinite wavelength pump, the nonlinear Schrodinger equations yield purely growing (oscillating-two-stream) instabilities in both cases

  10. Interaction in Classes at a New Zealand University: Some International Students' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Colleen

    1997-01-01

    Data from 5 Indonesian, 5 Thai, 21 Singaporean, and 85 Malaysian students in a New Zealand college were obtained through interviews, surveys, and observations. Differences in level and style of teacher-student interaction, difficulties learning English, perceptions of local students, lack of a common experience, and acculturation were the issues…

  11. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. II. RADIATIVE TRANSFER VIA THE TWO-STREAM APPROXIMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Mendonça, João M.; Lee, Jae-Min, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: joao.mendonca@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: lee@physik.uzh.ch [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior), and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically underdetermined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We concoct recipes for implementing two-stream radiative transfer in stand-alone numerical calculations and general circulation models. We use our two-stream solutions to construct toy models of the runaway greenhouse effect. We present a new solution for temperature-pressure profiles with a non-constant optical opacity and elucidate the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the optical and infrared. We derive generalized expressions for the spherical and Bond albedos and the photon deposition depth. We demonstrate that the value of the optical depth corresponding to the photosphere is not always 2/3 (Milne's solution) and depends on a combination of stellar irradiation, internal heat, and the properties of scattering in both the optical and infrared. Finally, we derive generalized expressions for the total, net, outgoing, and incoming fluxes in the convective regime.

  12. Individual variation in habitat use in two stream fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Resende Manna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The habitat use is an individual choice that is influenced by physical conditions such as substrate type, food resources availability and adequate depth. However, habitat use is often measured only through interspecific variability because intraspecific variability is supposed to be low. Here, the differences in habitat use by two stream fish assemblages in two different environments (Brazilian rainforest and semiarid were investigated at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. We performed 55 hours of underwater observation in a 200 meters long stretch in each stream and quantified the following habitat descriptors: (i water velocity, (ii distance from the stream bank, (iii substratum, (iv water column depth, (v aquatic cover, and (vi canopy percentage. To compare intra and interspecific variability we summarized the multivariate habitat use databases using Principal Components Analysis (PCA on Euclidean distance. An Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM was performed to test the differences in habitat use by the two assemblages. Besides, in each fish community we did an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA to test within vs between species variability for individual position on each PCA axes. To go further than these univariate tests, the differences among the species and assemblages were tested with Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA. The habitat use between assemblages was significantly different (ANOSIM – R=0.14; p<0.001. PERMANOVA revealed significant differences among species in both assemblages (Rainforest - F=7.25; p<0.001; semiarid - F=4.84; p<0.001. Lower F values in the semiarid assemblage revealed a higher level of intraspecific variability for this assemblage. Our findings showed high intra and interspecific variability in both stream fish assemblages and highlight the importance of measuring individual’s differences for this feature of fish biodiversity. Additionally, the versatility described for tropical

  13. Biosafety assessment protocols for new organisms in New Zealand: Can they apply internationally to emerging technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barratt, B.I.P.; Moeed, A.; Malone, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of established biosafety protocols for release into the environment of exotic plants and biological control agents for weeds and arthropod pests has been carried out to determine whether such protocols can be applied to relatively new and emerging technologies intended for the primary production industries, such as transgenic plants. Example case studies are described to indicate the scope of issues considered by regulators who make decisions on new organism releases. No transgenic plants have been released to date in New Zealand, but two field test approvals are described as examples. An analysis of the biosafety protocols has shown that, while many of the risk criteria considered for decision-making by regulators are similar for all new organisms, a case-by-case examination of risks and potential impacts is required in order to fully assess risk. The value of post-release monitoring and validation of decisions made by regulators is emphasised

  14. STRATEGIC MOTIVATIONS OF AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND MANUFACTURING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Tahir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We empirically investigate how different location-specific variables and strategic motives influenced Australian and New Zealand (ANZ firms' ownership strategy choices in foreign markets between 1998 and 2008. This study is the first to analyse how strategic motives and ownership-specific, location-specific, and internalisation variables have influenced the ownership structure choices of ANZ firms in foreign markets. The results indicate that large market potential and low levels of cultural distance increase the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake wholly owned subsidiary (WOS ownership structures and market-seeking (MS and/or efficiency-seeking (ES foreign direct investment (FDI. Low exchange rate fluctuation increases the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake WOS-type risk reduction-seeking (RRS FDI.

  15. Are Private Providers more Productive and Efficient than Public Providers of International Education? Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal TALUKDER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the productivity growth and efficiency of private and public providers of international education in New Zealand. It has used secondary data to calculate the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index for measuring Total Factor Productivity (TFP-growth and efficiency of both public and private providers of international education during 1999-2010. The study has found that private providers experienced a larger TFP-growth than that of public providers during 1999-2004. However, they experienced a sharp decline in TFP-growth since 2005 through to 2010 and experienced a much smaller TFP-growth than that of public providers during this period. Conversely, public providers experienced a positive TFP-growth during 1999-2004 but they experienced a negative TFP-growth since 2005 through to 2010. Considering efficiency, both private and public providers experienced almost a constant Technical Efficiency Change (TEC having a same level of efficiency of one. Both private and public providers exhibited a constant return to scale during 1999-2010. This study argues that on an average, private providers are more productive than public providers of international education. However, they are not more efficient than public providers as both types of providers exhibited a constant return to scale during 1999-2010. This study also argues that TFP-growth of New Zealand’s international education was determined by Technological Change (TC, not by TEC during this period.

  16. New Zealand; Financial Sector Assessment Program—Detailed Assessments of Observance of Standards and Codes—International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO)—Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the Observance of Standards and Codes on the International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO) Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation for New Zealand. New Zealand equity markets are comparatively small with market capitalization of about 44 percent of GDP. Reflecting a preference for property investment, ownership of New Zealand-listed equities remains mostly in the hands of offshore investors and domestic institutional investors, with only about one...

  17. Matahina Dam : lessons learned from an earthquake-related internal erosion incident at the Matahina Dam, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillon, M. [Damwatch Services Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    This case history discussed internal erosion damage and crest subsidence caused by an earthquake at the Matahina Dam in New Zealand. The study showed that cracking and internal erosion was initiated during the 1967 reservoir filling operation. Located in an area of active volcanism and faulting, the dam is located on a river with extensive erosion through an ignimbrite flow. The dam's core is founded on compact Tertiary age sediments overlain by sand and gravel deposits beneath the shoulders of the dam. The earthquake caused a rupture along an unidentified fault trace 12 km from the dam. The horizontal base acceleration recorded at the dam was 3.25 m/s. Transverse cracking was observed at each abutment, and deformations were observed in the rockfill. An investigation program was conducted to determine the dam's integrity. Piezometer measurements showed widespread fluctuations. It was concluded that the lack of an effective filter was a significant design omission. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Communication of 16 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the communication dated 16 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand, forwarding a Joint Ministerial Declaration released by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa and Sweden in connection with the nuclear disarmament

  19. Communication of 9 October 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On 11 October 1995, the Director General received a communication dated 9 October 1995 from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand transmitting a Statement of 2 October 1995 by the Prime Minister of New Zealand concerning the second nuclear test conducted by France

  20. Communication of 30 November 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    On 18 December 1995, the Director General received a communication of 30 November 1995 from the Resident Representative of New Zealand transmitting a Statement of 22 November 1995 by the Acting Prime Minister of New Zealand about French nuclear testing in the South Pacific

  1. Communication of 14 February 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    On 14 February 1996, the Director General received a communication of 9 February 1996 from the Resident Representative of New Zealand transmitting Statements made by the Prime Minister of New Zealand on 28 January 1996 about the sixth nuclear test by France and on 30 January 1996 after France announced the conclusion of nuclear testing in the South Pacific

  2. Communication of 28 June 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the Statement made on 9 June 1996 by the Prime Minister of New Zealand in respect of the test of a nuclear weapon conducted by China on 8 June 1996. The document was received by the Director General of the IAEA on 3 July 1996 from the Resident Representative of New Zealand

  3. Communication dated 5 July 1994 received from the permanent mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 5 July 1994 from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand, providing information on the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of New Zealand. In the light of the request expressed in the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is attached hereto

  4. Communication of 25 January 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    On 26 January 1996, the Director General received a communication of 25 January 1996 from the Resident Representative of New Zealand transmitting a Statement by the Prime Minister of New Zealand concerning the ''Fifth French Nuclear Test'' in the South Pacific

  5. Communication of 3 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 3 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the IAEA, including statements by the Prime Minister of New Zealand on the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan

  6. Communication of 16 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-22

    The document reproduces the text of the communication dated 16 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand, forwarding a Joint Ministerial Declaration released by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa and Sweden in connection with the nuclear disarmament

  7. Communication of 20 August 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a statement made by the Prime Minister of New Zealand on 29 July 1996 concerning the latest test of a nuclear weapon conducted by China. The document was received by the Director General of the IAEA on 22 August 1996 from the Resident Representative of New Zealand

  8. Communication of 18 September 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On 18 September 1995, the Director General received a communication dated 18 September 1995 from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand transmitting: The text of a statement made by the Prime Minister of New Zealand on 17 August 1995 concerning by the nuclear test carried out by China; The text of a statement made by the Prime Minister of New Zealand on 6 September 1995 concerning the nuclear test carried out by France; the text of a resolution unanimously adopted by the New Zealand Parliament on 20 July 1995 concerning nuclear testing. As requested by the Permanent Mission of New Zealand, the texts of the statements and of the resolution are being circulated for the information of Member States of the Agency

  9. A Study of the Adoption and Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in the Two EU Countries of Denmark and Ireland and New Zealand, a Non EU Country

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Claus; Schøler, Finn; Lønne, Henrik; Maingot, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board has as its mission the development of a singlet set of high quality standards to be applied consistently by companies globally.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation process to integrate IFRS in the smaller and developed countries of Denmark, Ireland and New Zealand.  The paper examines the enablers for successful IFRS implementation, namely, Legislative changes, Accounting profession, Stock exchanges, Enforcement, Early adopt...

  10. The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve and light pollution issues in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss the Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve, recognized by IDA in 2012, and how the reserve is managed and promoted to the public to make them aware of light pollution issues and in order to promote star-gazing and astro-tourism. AMIDSR is the world's largest Dark Sky Reserve recognized by IDA and has gold tier status. We will have a Starlight festival in October to promote the Reserve to the public.

  11. P. Gluckman Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Minister, New Zealand signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations R. Voss. Accompanied by A. Bell throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    P. Gluckman Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Minister, New Zealand signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations R. Voss. Accompanied by A. Bell throughout.

  12. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (NZPAQ: A doubly labelled water validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Anthony

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ. The aim of this study was to validate the IPAQ and NZPAQ against doubly labelled water (DLW. Method: Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE was estimated by subtracting the energy expenditure from resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding from TEE. The IPAQ (long form and NZPAQ (short form were completed at the end of each 7-day period. Activity-related energy expenditure (IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE was calculated from each questionnaire and compared to DLWAEE. Results Thirty six adults aged 18 to 56 years (56% female completed all measurements. Compared to DLWAEE, IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE on average underestimated energy expenditure by 27% and 59%, respectively. There was good agreement between DLWAEE and both IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE at lower levels of physical activity. However there was marked underestimation of questionnaire-derived energy expenditure at higher levels of activity. Conclusion Both the IPAQ and NZPAQ instruments have a demonstrated systematic bias toward underestimation of physical activity-related energy expenditure at higher levels of physical activity compared to DLW. Appropriate calibration factors could be used to correct for measurement error in physical activity questionnaires and hence improve estimation of AEE.

  13. A theory of two-stream instability in two hollow relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Stability properties of two-stream instability of two hollow electron beams are investigated. The equilibrium configuration consists of two intense relativistic hollow electron beams propagating through a grounded conducting cylinder. Analysis of the longitudinal two-stream instability is carried out within the framework of the linearized Vlasov--Maxwell equations for the equilibrium distribution function, in which beam electrons have a Lorentzian distribution in the axial momentum. Dispersion relation of the longitudinal two-stream instability is derived. Stability criteria from this dispersion relation indicate that the normalized velocity difference Δβ between the beams should be within a certain range of value to be unstable. Growth rate of the instability is a substantial fraction of the real frequency, thereby indicating that the longitudinal two-stream instability is an effective means of beam current modulation. Transverse instability of hollow electron beams is also investigated. Dispersion relation of the coupled transverse oscillation of the beams is derived and numerical investigation of this dispersion relation is carried out. Growth rate of the kink instability is a substantial fraction of the diocotron frequency, which may pose a serious threat to the two-stream klystron

  14. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  15. Entropy resistance analyses of a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Heat exchangers are widely used in industry, and analyses and optimizations of the performance of heat exchangers are important topics. In this paper, we define the concept of entropy resistance based on the entropy generation analyses of a one-dimensional heat transfer process. With this concept, a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating is analyzed and discussed. It is found that the minimization of entropy resistance always leads to the maximum heat transfer rate for the discussed two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger, while the minimizations of entropy generation rate, entropy generation numbers, and revised entropy generation number do not always. (general)

  16. Wave mode instabilities in a two-stream free-electron laser with a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadrifard, Shabnam; Maraghechi, B; Mohsenpour, T

    2013-01-01

    A theory is presented for a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a background plasma. A dispersion relation (DR) for the unstable couplings of wave modes is derived using fluid formulation. This DR is solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams as well as the background plasma on the FEL resonance and the two-stream instability is studied. It is shown that their separate as well as combined effects can increase the growth rates. (paper)

  17. Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lon Fern

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed

  18. Anomalous conductivity and electron heating in a plasma unstable to the two-stream instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.H.M.; Hamberger, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment to excite the electron-ion two-stream instability in a cylindrical Q-machine plasma column is described. The mechanism for establishing a large pulsed electron drift velocity in the plasma by applying a potential difference between the end electrodes is discussed. The pulsed current-voltage characteristic of the plasma column and the temporal evolution of the electron density, drift velocity and thermal velocity are measured. In contrast with the behaviour of some computer simulations of the two-stream instability, the plasma exhibits a constant conductivity and the electron thermal velocity increases to values far in excess of the drift velocity. The electrical dissipation is consistent with the increase of the electron thermal energy, both indicating an anomalous conductivity of the same order as an empirical scaling found in earlier experiments on a toroidal discharge. (author)

  19. A model of two-stream non-radial accretion for binary X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipunov, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The general case of non-radial accretion is assumed to occur in real binary systems containing X-ray pulsars. The structure and the stability of the magnetosphere, the interaction between the magnetosphere and accreted matter, as well as evolution of neutron star in close binary system are examined within the framework of the two-stream model of nonradial accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Observable parameters of X-ray pulsars are explained in terms of the model considered. (orig.)

  20. Gamma-Weighted Discrete Ordinate Two-Stream Approximation for Computation of Domain Averaged Solar Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Smith, G. L.; Barker, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the gamma-weighted discrete ordinate two-stream approximation that computes profiles of domain-averaged shortwave irradiances for horizontally inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres. The algorithm assumes that frequency distributions of cloud optical depth at unresolved scales can be represented by a gamma distribution though it neglects net horizontal transport of radiation. This algorithm is an alternative to the one used in earlier studies that adopted the adding method. At present, only overcast cloudy layers are permitted.

  1. Buneman and ion two-stream instabilities in the foot of collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumio Takahara

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic PIC simulations as well as linear analysis have been made for double periodic boundary conditions mimicking the shock foot region of supernova remnants. We found that modes propagating obliquely to the beam direction grow fast enough so that no surfing acceleration occurs. We also found that a new type of instability called ion two-stream instability is excited after the Buneman instability saturated instead of the ion acoustic instability. Implications for electron heating are shortly discussed. (author)

  2. Agreement Between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with New Zealand to Amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Prolilferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The amendments agreed upon in the Exchange of Letters entered into force on 24 February 2014, the date on which the Agency received New Zealand's affirmative reply

  3. Ultrashort electromagnetic clusters formation by two-stream superheterodyne free electron lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulish, Viktor V.; Lysenko, Alexander V.; Volk, Iurii I.

    2016-01-01

    A cubic nonlinear self-consistent theory of multiharmonic two-stream superheterodyne free electron lasers (TSFEL) of a klystron type, intended to form powerful ultrashort clusters of an electromagnetic field is constructed. Plural three-wave parametric resonant interactions of wave harmonics have...... been taken into account. An amplitude, phase and spectral analyses of the processes occurring in such devices have been carried out. The conditions necessary for the forming of the ultrashort clusters of an electromagnetic field have been found out. The possibility of the ultrashort electromagnetic...

  4. Dispersion relation and growth in a two-stream free electron laser with helical wiggler and ion channel guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, Hassan; Abbasi, Negar

    2008-01-01

    A linear theory of two-stream free electron laser (FEL) with helical wiggler and ion channel guiding is presented. The dispersion relation is obtained with the help of fluid theory and the growth rate is analyzed through the numerical solutions. The considerable enhancement of the growth rate is demonstrated due to the two-stream instability and continuous tuning of peak growth rate ratio, two-stream FEL compared to single-stream FEL, in terms of varying the ion channel frequency is illustrated

  5. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics. However, the beam-plasma interaction can result in the development of collective instabilities that may have deleterious effects on ballistic propagation of an ion beam. In the case of fast, light-ion beams, non-linear fields created by instabilities can lead to significant defocusing of the beam. We study an ion beam pulse propagating in a background plasma, which is subjected to two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons, using PIC code LSP. The defocusing effects of the instability on the beam can be much more pronounced in small radius beams. We show through simulations that a beamlet produced from an ion beam passed through an aperture can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability and quantify its defocusing effects. The effect can be observed on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma.

  6. Two-Stream Transformer Networks for Video-based Face Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Lu, Jiwen; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-stream transformer networks (TSTN) approach for video-based face alignment. Unlike conventional image-based face alignment approaches which cannot explicitly model the temporal dependency in videos and motivated by the fact that consistent movements of facial landmarks usually occur across consecutive frames, our TSTN aims to capture the complementary information of both the spatial appearance on still frames and the temporal consistency information across frames. To achieve this, we develop a two-stream architecture, which decomposes the video-based face alignment into spatial and temporal streams accordingly. Specifically, the spatial stream aims to transform the facial image to the landmark positions by preserving the holistic facial shape structure. Accordingly, the temporal stream encodes the video input as active appearance codes, where the temporal consistency information across frames is captured to help shape refinements. Experimental results on the benchmarking video-based face alignment datasets show very competitive performance of our method in comparisons to the state-of-the-arts.

  7. Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here

  8. Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here.

  9. Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Saraf, Rajneeta; Berry, Sarah; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Morton, Susan M B; Grant, Cameron C

    2016-12-08

    The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the home during the first five years of life and provided updated evidence on the links between the home environment and childhood ARI hospitalisation. Pregnant women (n = 6822) were recruited in 2009 and 2010, and their 6853 children created a child cohort that was representative of New Zealand births from 2007-10. Longitudinal data were collected through face-to-face interviews and linkage to routinely collected national datasets. Incidence rates with Poisson distribution confidence intervals were computed and Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed. Living in a rented dwelling (48%), household crowding (22%) or dampness (20%); and, in the child's room, heavy condensation (20%) or mould or mildew on walls or ceilings (13%) were prevalent. In 14% of the households, the mother smoked cigarettes and in 30%, other household members smoked. Electric heaters were commonly used, followed by wood, flued gas and unflued portable gas heaters. The incidence of ARI hospitalisation before age five years was 33/1000 person-years. The risk of ARI hospitalisation was higher for children living in households where there was a gas heater in the child's bedroom: hazard ratio for flued gas heater 1.69 (95% CI: 1.21-2.36); and for unflued gas heater 1.68 (95% CI: 1.12-2.53); and where a gas heater was the sole type of household heating (hazard ratio: 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29-2.09)). The risk was reduced in households that used electric heaters (Hazard ratio: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61-0.89)) or wood burners (hazard ratio: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.93)) as a form of household heating. The associations with other risk

  10. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. IV. Improved Two-stream Radiative Transfer for the Treatment of Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Kevin; Kitzmann, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel generalization of the two-stream method of radiative transfer, which allows for the accurate treatment of radiative transfer in the presence of strong infrared scattering by aerosols. We prove that this generalization involves only a simple modification of the coupling coefficients and transmission functions in the hemispheric two-stream method. This modification originates from allowing the ratio of the first Eddington coefficients to depart from unity. At the heart of the method is the fact that this ratio may be computed once and for all over the entire range of values of the single-scattering albedo and scattering asymmetry factor. We benchmark our improved two-stream method by calculating the fraction of flux reflected by a single atmospheric layer (the reflectivity) and comparing these calculations to those performed using a 32-stream discrete-ordinates method. We further compare our improved two-stream method to the two-stream source function (16 streams) and delta-Eddington methods, demonstrating that it is often more accurate at the order-of-magnitude level. Finally, we illustrate its accuracy using a toy model of the early Martian atmosphere hosting a cloud layer composed of carbon dioxide ice particles. The simplicity of implementation and accuracy of our improved two-stream method renders it suitable for implementation in three-dimensional general circulation models. In other words, our improved two-stream method has the ease of implementation of a standard two-stream method, but the accuracy of a 32-stream method.

  11. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. IV. Improved Two-stream Radiative Transfer for the Treatment of Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Kitzmann, Daniel, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: daniel.kitzmann@csh.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel generalization of the two-stream method of radiative transfer, which allows for the accurate treatment of radiative transfer in the presence of strong infrared scattering by aerosols. We prove that this generalization involves only a simple modification of the coupling coefficients and transmission functions in the hemispheric two-stream method. This modification originates from allowing the ratio of the first Eddington coefficients to depart from unity. At the heart of the method is the fact that this ratio may be computed once and for all over the entire range of values of the single-scattering albedo and scattering asymmetry factor. We benchmark our improved two-stream method by calculating the fraction of flux reflected by a single atmospheric layer (the reflectivity) and comparing these calculations to those performed using a 32-stream discrete-ordinates method. We further compare our improved two-stream method to the two-stream source function (16 streams) and delta-Eddington methods, demonstrating that it is often more accurate at the order-of-magnitude level. Finally, we illustrate its accuracy using a toy model of the early Martian atmosphere hosting a cloud layer composed of carbon dioxide ice particles. The simplicity of implementation and accuracy of our improved two-stream method renders it suitable for implementation in three-dimensional general circulation models. In other words, our improved two-stream method has the ease of implementation of a standard two-stream method, but the accuracy of a 32-stream method.

  12. Particle-in-cell plasma simulations of the modified two-stream instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schlegel

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available We model the modified two-stream plasma instability occurring in the ionospheric E-region using a 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Compared to previous similar work we concentrate on simulated quantities that can easily be measured in the real ionosphere by coherent radars or rockets, such as the Doppler velocity, the backscattered power, backscattered spectra, aspect angle behaviour and electron temperature enhancement. Despite using a relatively small simulation model, we obtain remarkably good agreement between actual observed and simulated plasma parameters. The advantage of such a small system is that we were able to perform (other than in previous related work many simulation runs with different sets of input parameters, thus studying the unstable plasma under various conditions.

  13. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.

    2007-09-01

    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  14. A two stream radiative transfer model for scaling solar induced fluorescence from leaf to canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaife, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Solar induced fluorescence (SIF) is becoming widely used as a proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP), in particular with the advent of its measurement by Earth Observation satellites such as OCO and GOSAT. A major attraction of SIF is that it is independent of the assumptions embedded in light use efficiency based GPP products derived from satellite missions such as MODIS. The assumptions in such products are likely not compatible with any given land surface model and hence comparing the two is problematic. On the other hand to compare land surface model predictions of GPP to satellite based SIF data requires either (a) translation of SIF into estimates of GPP, or (b) direct predictions of SIF from the land surface model itself. The former typically relies on empirical relationships, whereas the latter can make direct use of our physiological understanding of the link between photosynthesis and fluorescence at the leaf scale and is therefore preferable. Here I derive a two stream model for fluorescence that is capable of translating between leaf scale models of SIF and the canopy leaving radiance taking into account all levels of photon scattering. Other such models have been developed previously but the model described here is physically consistent with the Sellers' two stream radiative transfer scheme which is widely used in modern land surface models. Consequently any model that already employs the Sellers's scheme can use the new model without requiring modification. This includes, for example, JULES, the land surface model of the new UK Earth System Model (UKESM) and CLM, the US Community Land Model (part of the NCAR Earth System Model). The new canopy SIF model is extremely computationally efficient and can be applied to vertically inhomogeneous canopies.

  15. Shifting Sands, Firm Foundations: Proceedings of the 2009 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Auckland, New Zealand, November 18-20, 2009). Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Vanessa, Ed.; Sevillano, Lilia, Ed.; George, Lily, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The 15 articles in this volume comprise the refereed proceedings of the 2009 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. The first three chapters focus on collaborative work. In Chapter 1, Ann Pocock shares her experiences of working with other university support services. In Chapter 2, Berni Cooper and…

  16. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  17. Dialogic action in climate change discussions: An international study of high school students in China, New Zealand, Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J. Arya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014. This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141. Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999, we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.

  18. Electron–hole two-stream instability in a quantum semiconductor plasma with exchange-correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeba, I.; Yahia, M.E.; Shukla, P.K.; Moslem, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The electron–hole two-stream instability in a quantum semiconductor plasma has been studied including electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures of the plasma species. Typical values of GaAs and GaSb semiconductors are used to estimate the growth rate of the two-stream instability. The effects of electron– and hole–phonon collision, quantum recoil effects, the streaming velocities, and the corresponding threshold on the growth rate are investigated numerically. Considering the phonon susceptibility allows the acoustic mode to exist and the collisional instability arises in combination with drift of the holes. -- Highlights: ► Electron–hole two stream instability in quantum plasmas is presented. ► Typical values of GaAs and GaSb semiconductors are used to estimate the growth rate. ► The streaming velocities and the corresponding threshold on the growth rate are investigated numerically.

  19. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.

    2016-05-01

    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  20. Two-stream sausage and hollowing instabilities in high-intensity particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Axisymmetric two-stream instabilities in high-intensity particle beams are investigated analytically by making use of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the smooth-focusing approximation. The eigenfunctions for the axisymmetric radial modes are calculated self-consistently in order to determine the dispersion relation describing collective stability properties. Stability properties for the sausage and hollowing modes, characterized by radial mode numbers n=1 and n=2, respectively, are investigated, and the dispersion relations are obtained for the complex eigenfrequency ω in terms of the axial wavenumber k and other system parameters. The eigenfunctions obtained self-consistently for the sausage and hollowing modes indicate that the perturbations exist only inside the beam. Therefore, the location of the conducting wall does not have an effect on stability behavior. The growth rates of the sausage and hollowing modes are of the same order of magnitude as that of the hose (dipole-mode) instability. Therefore, it is concluded that the axisymmetric sausage and hollowing instabilities may also be deleterious to intense ion beam propagation when a background component of electrons is presented

  1. A Two-Stream Deep Fusion Framework for High-Resolution Aerial Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively. Second, two feature fusion strategies are adopted to fuse the two different types of deep convolutional features extracted by the original RGB stream and the saliency stream. Finally, we use the extreme learning machine (ELM classifier for final classification with the fused features. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is tested on four challenging datasets: UC-Merced dataset with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS dataset with 19 scene categories, AID dataset with 30 scene categories, and NWPU-RESISC45 dataset with 45 challenging scene categories. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.

  2. Modeling of a Compact Terahertz Source based on the Two-Stream Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svimonishvili, Tengiz [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    THz radiation straddles the microwave and infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus combining the penetrating power of lower-frequency waves and imaging capabilities of higher-energy infrared radiation. THz radiation is employed in various elds such as cancer research, biology, agriculture, homeland security, and environmental monitoring. Conventional vacuum electronic sources of THz radiation (e.g., fast- and slow-wave devices) either require very small structures or are bulky and expensive to operate. Optical sources necessitate cryogenic cooling and are presently capable of producing milliwatt levels of power at THz frequencies. We propose a millimeter and sub-millimeter wave source based on a well-known phenomenon called the two-stream instability. The two-beam source relies on lowenergy and low-current electron beams for operation. Also, it is compact, simple in design, and does not contain expensive parts that require complex machining and precise alignment. In this dissertation, we perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the interaction region of the two-beam source. The interaction region consists of a beam pipe of radius ra and two electron beams of radius rb co-propagating and interacting inside the pipe. The simulations involve the interaction of unmodulated (no initial energy modulation) and modulated (energy-modulated, seeded at a given frequency) electron beams. In addition, both cold (monoenergetic) and warm (Gaussian) beams are treated.

  3. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  4. Effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function on two-stream instability in low-pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from discharge chamber walls is important for plasma maintenance in many low-pressure discharges. The electrons emitted from the walls are accelerated by the sheath electric field and are injected into the plasma as an electron beam. Penetration of this beam through the plasma is subject to the two-stream instability, which tends to slow down the beam electrons and heat the plasma electrons. In the present paper, a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to simulate these effects both in a collisionless plasma slab with immobile ions and in a cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster. The two-stream instability occurs if the total electron velocity distribution function of the plasma-beam system is a nonmonotonic function of electron speed. Low-pressure plasmas can be depleted of electrons with energy above the plasma potential. This study reveals that under such conditions the two-stream instability depends crucially on the velocity distribution function of electron emission. It is shown that propagation of the secondary electron beams in Hall thrusters may be free of the two-stream instability if the velocity distribution of secondary electron emission is a monotonically decaying function of speed. In this case, the beams propagate between the walls with minimal loss of the beam current and the secondary electron emission does not affect the thruster plasma properties

  5. The socio-cultural value of New Zealand wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Wray

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand's wilderness resource has become iconic on both a national and international scale, and provides an important source of cultural identity for many Kiwis (a colloquial term for a New Zealander). Now, in the early 21st Century, however, social changes such as urbanization, globalization, increasing consumerism, and growing international tourism may be...

  6. Asian Students' Voices: An Empirical Study of Asian Students' Learning Experiences at a New Zealand University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…

  7. An International Perspective on Developing Skills through Geography Programmes for Employability and Life: Narratives from New Zealand and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Richard Le; Hathaway, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that one dimension of quality improvement in geography education is closing the gap between perceived social usefulness and the realities of what geography offers as a preparation for the workplace. Provides reflections on the nature of communication strategies in geography organizations within New Zealand and the United States. (CMK)

  8. A Study of the Adoption and Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in the Two EU Countries of Denmark and Ireland and New Zealand, a Non EU Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schøler, Finn; Lønne, Henrik

    of Denmark, Ireland and New Zealand.  The paper examines the enablers for successful IFRS implementation, namely, Legislative changes, Accounting profession, Stock exchanges, Enforcement, Early adopters in 2004, and Adopters in 2005.  An examination of the top 30 companies' annual reports for the three...

  9. Influence of two-stream relativistic electron beam parameters on the space-charge wave with broad frequency spectrum formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, LYSENKO; Iurii, VOLK

    2018-03-01

    We developed a cubic non-linear theory describing the dynamics of the multiharmonic space-charge wave (SCW), with harmonics frequencies smaller than the two-stream instability critical frequency, with different relativistic electron beam (REB) parameters. The self-consistent differential equation system for multiharmonic SCW harmonic amplitudes was elaborated in a cubic non-linear approximation. This system considers plural three-wave parametric resonant interactions between wave harmonics and the two-stream instability effect. Different REB parameters such as the input angle with respect to focusing magnetic field, the average relativistic factor value, difference of partial relativistic factors, and plasma frequency of partial beams were investigated regarding their influence on the frequency spectrum width and multiharmonic SCW saturation levels. We suggested ways in which the multiharmonic SCW frequency spectrum widths could be increased in order to use them in multiharmonic two-stream superheterodyne free-electron lasers, with the main purpose of forming a powerful multiharmonic electromagnetic wave.

  10. [Current situation of acupuncture in New Zealand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping

    2017-04-12

    The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.

  11. Two-stream cyclotron radiative instabilities due to the marginally mirror-trapped fraction for fustion alphas in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-07-01

    It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c{alpha}}. This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies {omega} {approx} m{omega}{sub c{alpha}}.

  12. Two-stream cyclotron radiative instabilities due to the marginally mirror-trapped fraction for fustion alphas in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-07-01

    It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency ω cα . This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies ω ∼ mω cα

  13. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  14. Two-stream Stability Properties of the Return-Current Layer for Intense Ion Beam Propagation Through Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    When an ion beam with sharp edge propagates through a background plasma, its current is neutralized by the plasma return current everywhere except at the beam edge over a characteristic transverse distance Δx perpendicular ∼ (delta) pe , where (delta) pe = c/ω pe is the collisionless skin depth, and ω pe is the electron plasma frequency. Because the background plasma electrons neutralizing the ion beam current inside the beam are streaming relative to the background plasma electrons outside the beam, the background plasma can support a two-stream surface-mode excitation. Such surface modes have been studied previously assuming complete charge and current neutralization, and have been shown to be strongly unstable. In this paper we study the detailed stability properties of this two-stream surface mode for an electron flow velocity profile self-consistently driven by the ion beam. In particular, it is shown that the self-magnetic field generated inside the unneutralized current layer, which has not been taken into account previously, completely eliminates the instability

  15. POPs monitoring in Australia and New Zealand using plastic resin pellets, and International Pellet Watch as a tool for education and raising public awareness on plastic debris and POPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Taylor, Heidi; Ito, Maki; Hosoda, Junki; Allinson, Mayumi; Connell, Sharnie; Greaves, Laura; McGrath, John

    2015-12-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (i.e. PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs) were analyzed along Australia and New Zealand North Island coastlines. PCB concentrations were high in urban areas (107-294 ng/g-pellet), with Sydney Harbour the most polluted. Hepta-chlorinated PCB was abundant, with ~30% in urban areas suggesting legacy pollution. DDT concentrations showed similar pattern except in rural agricultural sites, Taupo Bay and Ahipara, New Zealand (23 and 47 ng/g-pellet). p,p'-DDE predominance at these 2 sites suggested historical input; they also had high HCH concentrations (17 and 29 ng/g-pellet). The role of International Pellet Watch (IPW) in science communication was studied through feedbacks from IPW volunteers, case studies and examples. IPW data were categorized into understandable terms and tailored reports based on volunteers' backgrounds complemented with pollution maps. The effectiveness of IPW science communication has led to its use in awareness and education activities focusing on both POPs and plastic debris issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 22 December 1994 from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of New Zealand

  17. Environmental management frameworks for offshore mining: the New Zealand approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Clark, M.R.; Rouse, H.L.; Lamarche, G.

    2017-01-01

    The New Zealand region contains untapped natural mineral, oil, and gas resources while also supporting globally unique and diverse faunal communities that need to be managed sustainably. In this paper key information from the international

  18. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  19. Long-term response in episodic acidification to declining SO42– deposition in two streams in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with extended winter snow melt/rain episodes between 1983 and 1998 were investigated for two streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. The anthropogenic contribution to Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC was analysed using the Boreal Dilution Model (Bishop et al., 2000 modified by applying a sea-salt correction to all input hydrochemistry. The anthropogenic contribution to episodic ANC decline was statistically significant and strongly correlated with the decline in acid deposition, which decreased by approximately 50% during the period of record. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the BDM can be applied to surface waters with sea-salt contributions although the correction increases model uncertainty. Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of reduced emissions in North America in the last decades in decreasing the severity of episodic acidification in the Atlantic region of Canada. Keywords: episodic acidification, acidification recovery, Nova Scotia, snowmelt, winter

  20. Nonlinear two-stream interaction between a cold, relativistic electron beam and a collisional plasma-Astron experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberger, B.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1979-05-01

    Experiments on the two-stream instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a neutral gas, carried out with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Astron beam, have been analyzed using a nonlinear saturation model for a cold beam. The behavior of the observed microwave emission due to the instability is in good agreement with that of the beam energy loss. Collisions on the plasma electrons weaken the nonlinear state of the instability but do not stabilize the mode. The beam essentially acts as if it were cold, a result substantiated by linear theory for waves propagating along the beam. In order to predict the effect of both beam momentum scatter and plasma electron collisions on the stability of the mode in future experiments a full two-dimensional linear theory must be developed

  1. Trampolines in New Zealand: a decade of injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, D J; Hume, P A; Wilson, B D

    1994-01-01

    Despite international concern about the safety of trampolines, they have become increasingly popular in New Zealand. While internationally attention has centred on a relatively few cases of catastrophic cervical spine injury, little research effort has been directed at placing these incidents in a wider context. To redress this, a descriptive epidemiological study of trampoline-related injury in New Zealand was undertaken. National hospitalization and mortality data for a 10-year period revea...

  2. Suicide in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  3. Occurrence of the internal parasite Portunion sp. (Isopoda: Entoniscidae) and its effect on reproduction in intertidal crabs (Decapoda: Grapsidae) from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, A M

    2004-12-01

    The parasite fauna of 4 intertidal grapsid crabs from New Zealand was studied between 1998 and 2000. The occurrence of an undescribed entoniscid species, Portunion sp. (Isopoda: Epicaridea), is presented. Portunion sp. was found in Cyclograpsus lavauxi (34.1%, n = 1650), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (19.0%, n = 2300), and Helice crassa (11.6%, n = 825) but was absent from Hemigrapsus sexdentatus (n = 636). Parasitized hosts contained mostly 1 female Portunion sp. but occasionally up to 7 females were found. One to 3 dwarf males typically occurred on each mature female Portunion sp. Most developmental stages of female Portunion sp. were found throughout the year, demonstrating that reproduction and infection occurred continuously. Portunion sp. differentially affected male and female hosts. Prevalence was generally higher in male hosts than in female hosts and increased significantly with host size. Female hosts were castrated, whereas males were not. Portunion sp., therefore, influenced the operational sex ratio in its host species, causing a more male-biased ratio.

  4. Strategic perspective: Nuclear issues in the New Zealand media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy drew international attention and threw the nation into a foreign policy crisis with the United States over the trilateral mutual security pact ANZUS. After more than a year of diminished intelligence and military cooperation, New Zealand was expelled from the alliance. This study involved a content analysis of coverage of these events and other nuclear issues in selected newspapers of New Zealand and the United States. Research points to the roles of the media as a critical one in the overall relations among countries. Through their frequent use of official government sources, the media tend to uphold the government line or status quo with regard to foreign affairs. This study sought to identify the nuclear issues covered in the New Zealand and US media, the characteristics of that coverage, the sources of that coverage and how coverage varied during changing US-New Zealand relations. The official frame prevailed in coverage of nuclear issues. In the New Zealand and US newspapers under study, most sources of nuclear issue news were government officials. This research also found that most coverage of nuclear issues in the New Zealand media was related to some aspect of US interests, and that coverage of New Zealand's policy in the US media was covered most often when related to the United States. Nuclear issue coverage was most often not crisis-oriented in New Zealand and US newspapers, but coverage of all nuclear issues increased dramatically during the period of the ANZUS policy crisis. This study found a number of changes in nuclear issue coverage in the New Zealand media after the policy crisis was resolved. Among those changes were a tendency to focus less on economic and trade effects of the anti-nuclear policy, a tendency to focus more on ties with other South Pacific nations, use more sources from those countries, and a tendency to focus less on the moral and ethical position of the country

  5. Plural three-wave resonances of space charge wave harmonics in transit section of klystron-type two-stream FEL with helical electron beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Alexander; Volk, Iurii; Serozhko, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out the research of plural three-wave resonances of space charge wave (SCW) harmonics in the transit section of the klystron type two-stream superheterodyne free-electron laser (TSFEL) with helical electron beam in cubic non-linear approximation. We have found out that two...

  6. New Zealand's boiling kettles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkowski, H

    1955-04-01

    The Wairakei Valley is covered with mud pots, geysers, and steam vents. Aggressive exploitation of the geothermal resources in this area is underway. The geothermal development experience gained in Italy, where the soil is cold and compact, cannot be applied in New Zealand, as the soil is hot and the rock is porous. Drilling in New Zealand must be accompanied by a constant input of cooling emulsion. Special techniques have been developed for cementing the high-temperature boreholes. Test drillings have been made as deep as 1000 m and pressures on the order of 30 kg/cm/sup 2/ have been encountered. As even higher pressures are expected, valves have been designed to support up to 70 kg/cm/sup 2/. A 70 MW pilot-plant, supplied by 27 wells, was expected to be on-line in 1955.

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of the ichthyofauna in two streams of the upper Rio Paraná basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Simone Pavanelli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial distribution of the ichthyofauna was assessed in two streams, Caracu and São Pedro, affluents of the Rio Paraná, from March 1991 through February 1992. Samples were taken along the streams, using sieves (three sites on the Caracu and two on the São Pedro, and gill nets (two sites on the São Pedro. A total of 6,664 specimens belonging to 71 species were captured. CPE was calculated for each fishing gear. The data for cumulative frequency indicated that only the mouths of streams did not reach an asymptote. Constancy analysis showed that occasional and accessory species predominated. The spectrum of spatial diversity indicated that diversity increased toward the mouth of streams and temporal diversity increased in the high water season. The results of correspondence analysis for sieved fishes and Sørensen similarity for netted ones showed that the sites located at the same position on the streams were more similar than between adjacent sites in the same stream.A distribuição temporal e espacial da ictiofauna foi estudada em dois riachos, Caracu e São Pedro, afluentes do rio Paraná, de março de 1991 a fevereiro de 1992. Foram realizadas coletas em seis locais ao longo destes, sendo utilizadas peneiras em cinco (três no Caracu e dois no São Pedro, e redes em dois pontos do São Pedro. Um total de 6.664 exemplares pertencentes a 71 espécies foi capturado. Foi calculada a CPUE (captura por unidade de esforço para cada aparelho de pesca. Dados de freqüência acumulada das espécies indicaram que apenas as bocas dos riachos não alcançaram uma assíntota. A análise da constância mostrou que espécies acessórias e acidentais predominaram. O espectro de diversidade espacial indicou que a diversidade aumentou da cabeceira para a foz dos riachos, enquanto que a diversidade temporal aumentou na estação de cheia. A análise de correspondência para os peixes coletados com peneiras e de similaridade de S

  8. A comparative study of plasma heating by ion acoustic and modified two-stream instabilities at subcritical quasi-perpendicular shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Giacalone, J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Mellott, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma heating due to the ion instability and the modified two-stream instability is examined for quasi-perpendicular subcritical shocks. Electron and ion heating is investigated as a function of upstream electron to ion temperature ratio and plasma beta using second-order heating rates. A simple shock model is employed in which the cross-field electron-ion drift speed is adjusted until the total (adiabatic plus anomalous) heating matches that required by the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Quantities such as the width of the shock and the maximum electric field fluctuations are also calculated, and the results are compared with the ISEE data set of subcritical box shock crossings. The observed width of the shock, the amount of plasma heating, and the low-frequency electric field intensity are in reasonably good agreement with the calculations for the modified two-stream instability. On the other hand, the wave intensities at higher frequency are about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than those predicted for the ion acoustic instability at saturation, consistent with the fact that the measured shock widths imply cross-field drift speeds that are below threshold for this instability. It is therefore concluded that the dissipation at these shocks is most likely due to the lower frequency, modified two-stream instability

  9. Exploring the history of New Zealand astronomy trials, tribulations, telescopes and transits

    CERN Document Server

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Professor Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material.  The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging fie...

  10. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrapersonal Factors in New Zealand School Leadership Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notman, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share New Zealand findings from the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP) which relate to intrapersonal dimensions of leadership that promote principals' sustained success over time. Design/methodology/approach: Multi-site case study methods were used to describe the ongoing success…

  12. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  13. Different roles of electron beam in two stream instability in an elliptical waveguide for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, S.; Jazi, B., E-mail: jaziada@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbakht, S. [Department of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Electrical And Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, two stream instability in a metallic waveguide with elliptical cross-section and with a hollow annular dielectric layer is studied for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves. Dispersion relation of waves and their dependents to geometric dimensions and characteristics of the electron beam are analyzed. In continuation, the diagrams of growth rate for some operating frequencies are presented, so that effective factors on the growth rates, such as geometrical dimensions, dielectric constant of dielectric layer, accelerating voltage, and applied current intensity are analyzed. It is shown that while an electron beam is responsible for instability, another electron beam plays a stabilizing role.

  14. Environmental management frameworks for offshore mining: the New Zealand approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-07-27

    The New Zealand region contains untapped natural mineral, oil, and gas resources while also supporting globally unique and diverse faunal communities that need to be managed sustainably. In this paper key information from the international literature is reviewed that can underpin an Environmental Mining Management System which includes elements of Environmental Risk Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Planning. This paper focuses on four developing areas of seafloor mining activities presently being undertaken or planned in the New Zealand region: hydrocarbons (oil and gas), minerals, ironsands and phosphorite nodules. A number of issues with the implementation of environmental management systems are identified including the difficulty of assessing new marine activities or technologies and the need for standardised reporting metrics. Finally, the development of ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning is discussed which will be required to enhance environmental mining management frameworks in New Zealand.

  15. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, Sueann

    The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in the school curriculum. This paper investigates the requirements for teaching attitudes, values and ethics in the curriculum statements for Science, Biology and Technology. The question is raised whether the teaching of skills for resolving moral and ethical dilemmas are required by the official education standards in New Zealand, and internationally. The paper reports on a survey done on pre-service teacher trainees of their understanding of these requirements. Implications for courses that might need to be provided in future pre-service teacher education programmes are briefly discussed.

  16. On the structure of the two-stream instability–complex G-Hamiltonian structure and Krein collisions between positive- and negative-action modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruili; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jianyuan [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin, Hong, E-mail: hongqin@princeton.edu [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Davidson, Ronald C. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The two-stream instability is probably the most important elementary example of collective instabilities in plasma physics and beam-plasma systems. For a warm plasma with two charged particle species, the instability diagram of the two-stream instability based on a 1D warm-fluid model exhibits an interesting band structure that has not been explained. We show that the band structure for this instability is the consequence of the Hamiltonian nature of the warm two-fluid system. Interestingly, the Hamiltonian nature manifests as a complex G-Hamiltonian structure in wave-number space, which directly determines the instability diagram. Specifically, it is shown that the boundaries between the stable and unstable regions are locations for Krein collisions between eigenmodes with different Krein signatures. In terms of physics, this rigorously implies that the system is destabilized when a positive-action mode resonates with a negative-action mode, and that this is the only mechanism by which the system can be destabilized. It is anticipated that this physical mechanism of destabilization is valid for other collective instabilities in conservative systems in plasma physics, accelerator physics, and fluid dynamics systems, which admit infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian structures.

  17. A review of the theoretical and numerical approaches to modeling skyglow: Iterative approach to RTE, MSOS, and two-stream approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modeling in different environments. - Highlights: • Three methods for modeling nightsky radiance are reviewed. • The two-stream approximation allows for rapid calculation of radiative fluxes. • The above approach is convenient for modeling large uniformly emitting areas. • SOS is applicable to heterogeneous deployment of well-separated cities or towns. • MSOS is generally CPU less-intensive than traditional 3D RTE.

  18. Amplification due to two-stream instability of self-electric and magnetic fields of an ion beam propagating in background plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Carlsson, Johan A.; Hara, Kentaro; Startsev, Edward A.

    2018-05-01

    Propagation of charged particle beams in background plasma as a method of space charge neutralization has been shown to achieve a high degree of charge and current neutralization and therefore enables nearly ballistic propagation and focusing of charged particle beams. Correspondingly, the use of plasmas for propagation of charged particle beams has important applications for transport and focusing of intense particle beams in inertial fusion and high energy density laboratory plasma physics. However, the streaming of beam ions through a background plasma can lead to the development of two-stream instability between the beam ions and the plasma electrons. The beam electric and magnetic fields enhanced by the two-stream instability can lead to defocusing of the ion beam. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study the scaling of the instability-driven self-electromagnetic fields and consequent defocusing forces with the background plasma density and beam ion mass. We identify plasma parameters where the defocusing forces can be reduced.

  19. Effects of self-fields on electron trajectory and gain in two-stream electromagnetically pumped free-electron laser with ion channel guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviz, S.; Ghorannevis, M.; Aghamir, Farzin M.; Mehdian, H.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for the two-stream free-electron laser with an electromagnetic wiggler (EMW) and an ion channel guiding is developed. In the analysis, the effects of self-fields have been taken into account. The electron trajectories and the small signal gain are derived. The stability of the trajectories, the characteristics of the linear gain and the normalized maximum gain are studied numerically. The dependence of the normalized frequency ω-circumflex corresponding to the maximum gain on the ion-channel frequency is presented. The results show that there are seven groups of orbits in the presence of the self-fields, which are similar to those reported in the absence of the self-fields. It is also shown that the normalized gains of 2 groups decrease while the rest increase with the increasing normalized ion-channel frequency. Furthermore, it is found that the two-stream instability and the self-field lead to a decrease in the maximum gain except for group 4. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Establishing radiation therapy advanced practice in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Karen; Jasperse, Marieke; Herst, Patries; Yielder, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Advanced practice (AP) is of increasing interest to many radiation therapists (RTs) both nationally and internationally. In New Zealand, initial research (2005–2008) showed strong support for the development of an AP role for medical radiation technologists (MRTs). Here, we report on a nationwide survey in which RTs validated and prioritised nine AP profiles for future development. Methods: All registered RTs in New Zealand (n = 260) were invited to take part in a survey in December 2011; 73 of whom returned a complete response. Results: RTs supported the implementation of AP roles in New Zealand and the requirement of a Master's degree qualification to underpin clinical knowledge. Most RTs endorsed the criteria attributed to each of the nine proposed AP profiles. The study identified that activities may qualify as either advanced practice or standard practice depending on the department. All participants agreed that an advanced practitioner should be a leader in the field, able to initiate and facilitate future developments within as well as outside this specific role. Acceptance of the AP roles by RTs and other health professionals as well as the availability of resources for successful implementation, were concerns expressed by some RTs. Conclusion: The authors recommend (1) the development of one scope of practice titled ‘advanced practitioner’ with generic and specialist criteria for each profile as the future career pathway, (2) promotion and support for the AP pathway by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology and the New Zealand Medical Radiation Technologists Board

  1. Establishing radiation therapy advanced practice in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Karen; Jasperse, Marieke; Herst, Patries [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand); Yielder, Jill [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Advanced practice (AP) is of increasing interest to many radiation therapists (RTs) both nationally and internationally. In New Zealand, initial research (2005–2008) showed strong support for the development of an AP role for medical radiation technologists (MRTs). Here, we report on a nationwide survey in which RTs validated and prioritised nine AP profiles for future development. Methods: All registered RTs in New Zealand (n = 260) were invited to take part in a survey in December 2011; 73 of whom returned a complete response. Results: RTs supported the implementation of AP roles in New Zealand and the requirement of a Master's degree qualification to underpin clinical knowledge. Most RTs endorsed the criteria attributed to each of the nine proposed AP profiles. The study identified that activities may qualify as either advanced practice or standard practice depending on the department. All participants agreed that an advanced practitioner should be a leader in the field, able to initiate and facilitate future developments within as well as outside this specific role. Acceptance of the AP roles by RTs and other health professionals as well as the availability of resources for successful implementation, were concerns expressed by some RTs. Conclusion: The authors recommend (1) the development of one scope of practice titled ‘advanced practitioner’ with generic and specialist criteria for each profile as the future career pathway, (2) promotion and support for the AP pathway by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology and the New Zealand Medical Radiation Technologists Board.

  2. Microbial biopesticides for control of invertebrates: Progress from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Travis R; O'Callaghan, Maureen

    2017-11-28

    Biopesticides are needed for control of endemic and invasive pests impacting New Zealand's primary sectors including pests that are emerging as a result of climate change and farming intensification. Products developed in New Zealand are usually based on endemic strains of microorganisms, including new species/strains with novel modes of action. For example, Invade and BioShield were developed using endemic strains of the bacterium Serratia entomophila, for use in New Zealand only. To date, most of these home-grown products have either struggled for market share or have remained in small niche markets. However, the number of products registered for use has been steadily increasing in response to consumer demand. Factors limiting past use of biopesticides in New Zealand include market size, registration costs and limited efficacy over a range of climatic zones. Many promising new agents are currently under development as biopesticides with international applications and the launch of several new start-up companies suggests a brighter future for biopesticide use in New Zealand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protocol Additional to the agreement between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/185) concluded between New Zealand and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 24 September 1998, and it entered into force on the same date

  4. Protocol Additional to the agreement between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-25

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/185) concluded between New Zealand and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 24 September 1998, and it entered into force on the same date

  5. Exploiting the MODIS albedos with the Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP): 2. Fractions of transmitted and absorbed fluxes in the vegetation and soil layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinty, B.; Clerici, M.; Andredakis, I.; Kaminski, T.; Taberner, M.; Verstraete, M. M.; Gobron, N.; Plummer, S.; Widlowski, J.-L.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stream model parameters and associated uncertainties retrieved by inversion against MODIS broadband visible and near-infrared white sky surface albedos were discussed in a companion paper. The present paper concentrates on the partitioning of the solar radiation fluxes delivered by the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP). The estimation of the various flux fractions related to the vegetation and the background layers separately capitalizes on the probability density functions of the model parameters discussed in the companion paper. The propagation of uncertainties from the observations to the model parameters is achieved via the Hessian of the cost function and yields a covariance matrix of posterior parameter uncertainties. This matrix is propagated to the radiation fluxes via the model's Jacobian matrix of first derivatives. Results exhibit a rather good spatiotemporal consistency given that the prior values on the model parameters are not specified as a function of land cover type and/or vegetation phenological states. A specific investigation based on a scenario imposing stringent conditions of leaf absorbing and scattering properties highlights the impact of such constraints that are, as a matter of fact, currently adopted in vegetation index approaches. Special attention is also given to snow-covered and snow-contaminated areas since these regions encompass significant reflectance changes that strongly affect land surface processes. A definite asset of the JRC-TIP lies in its capability to control and ultimately relax a number of assumptions that are often implicit in traditional approaches. These features greatly help us understand the discrepancies between the different data sets of land surface properties and fluxes that are currently available. Through a series of selected examples, the inverse procedure implemented in the JRC-TIP is shown to be robust, reliable, and compliant with large-scale processing requirements

  6. Using Participatory Action Research to Study the Implementation of Career Development Benchmarks at a New Zealand University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.; Bailey, Robyn; Trought, David

    2016-01-01

    Benchmarks for career development services at tertiary institutions have been developed by Careers New Zealand. The benchmarks are intended to provide standards derived from international best practices to guide career development services. A new career development service was initiated at a large New Zealand university just after the benchmarks…

  7. A revised radiation package of G-packed McICA and two-stream approximation: Performance evaluation in a global weather forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sunghye

    2017-07-01

    For more efficient and accurate computation of radiative flux, improvements have been achieved in two aspects, integration of the radiative transfer equation over space and angle. First, the treatment of the Monte Carlo-independent column approximation (MCICA) is modified focusing on efficiency using a reduced number of random samples ("G-packed") within a reconstructed and unified radiation package. The original McICA takes 20% of CPU time of radiation in the Global/Regional Integrated Model systems (GRIMs). The CPU time consumption of McICA is reduced by 70% without compromising accuracy. Second, parameterizations of shortwave two-stream approximations are revised to reduce errors with respect to the 16-stream discrete ordinate method. Delta-scaled two-stream approximation (TSA) is almost unanimously used in Global Circulation Model (GCM) but contains systematic errors which overestimate forward peak scattering as solar elevation decreases. These errors are alleviated by adjusting the parameterizations of each scattering element—aerosol, liquid, ice and snow cloud particles. Parameterizations are determined with 20,129 atmospheric columns of the GRIMs data and tested with 13,422 independent data columns. The result shows that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) over the all atmospheric layers is decreased by 39% on average without significant increase in computational time. Revised TSA developed and validated with a separate one-dimensional model is mounted on GRIMs for mid-term numerical weather forecasting. Monthly averaged global forecast skill scores are unchanged with revised TSA but the temperature at lower levels of the atmosphere (pressure ≥ 700 hPa) is slightly increased (< 0.5 K) with corrected atmospheric absorption.

  8. Energy scenarios for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. S.; Ellis, M. J.; Scott, G. C.; Wood, J. R.

    1977-10-15

    Three energy scenarios have been formulated for New Zealand. They concentrate on those aspects of society which have a direct bearing on energy, emphasizing three important issues: major shifts in society's values in relation to material wealth, pollution, and resources. The scenarios make assumptions that certain overall social conditions would prevail so that all decisions of government, the private sector, and individuals would be governed by the requirement to conform to the scenario theme in a way not possible under existing social and political conditions. The 3 scenarios are known as Continuation, Low New Zealand Pollution, and Limited Growth.

  9. Performing Manaaki and New Zealand Refugee Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, and in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, there were widespread calls in New Zealand urging the Government to raise its annual Refugee Quota. Maori Party co-leader Marama Fox argued that New Zealand could afford to take on more refugees as part of its global citizenship and suggested that New Zealand's policy might be shaped…

  10. Nurses and the euthanasia debate: reflections from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J

    2015-03-01

    Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about

  11. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods: The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public‐funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results: There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full‐time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post‐graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post‐graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion: Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non‐cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion: This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time. PMID:28191178

  12. Private Returns to Tertiary Education - How Does New Zealand Compare to the OECD?

    OpenAIRE

    James Zuccollo; Sholeh Maani; Bill Kaye-Blake; Lulu Zeng

    2013-01-01

    How do private returns to tertiary education in New Zealand compare internationally? According to the latest OECD measures, the private rate of return for New Zealand is 8.9%, compared to an OECD average of 12.4%, placing New Zealand toward the bottom of the OECD ranking. The aim of this study is to better understand the reasons for that gap and determine whether the low returns could be considered as problems amenable to policy interventions. We identify a number of measurement issues with t...

  13. Liability for medical malpractice--recent New Zealand developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, Nicola; Graydon, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Over the last 30 years in New Zealand, civil liability for personal injury including "medical malpractice" has been most notable for its absence. The system of accident compensation and the corresponding bar on personal injury claims has been an interesting contrast to the development of tort law claims for personal injury in other jurisdictions. The Health and Disability Commissioner was appointed in 1994 to protect and promote the rights of health and disability consumers as set out in the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights. An important right in the Code, in terms of an equivalent to the common law duty to take reasonable care, is that patients have the right to services of an appropriate standard. Several case studies from the Commissioner's Office are used to illustrate New Zealand's unique medico-legal system and demonstrate how the traditional common law obligation of reasonable care and skill is applied. From an international perspective, the most interesting aspect of liability for medical malpractice in New Zealand is its relative absence - in a tortious sense anyway. This paper will give some general background on the New Zealand legal landscape and discuss recent case studies of interest.

  14. Pacemaker Use in New Zealand - Data From the New Zealand Implanted Cardiac Device Registry (ANZACS-QI 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K

    2017-03-01

    The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1 st January 2014 and 1 st June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New Zealand Defense into 2035 -- Future 35 Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    docs/2012/ bim /bimbackgroudinfo.pdf (accessed 9 October 2012), 19. 48 Defence Force appropriation are the governmental capital charges for use of...important. New Zealand has an active interest in ensuring a secure and stable Asia, allowing international trade to occur in a market in which a third of...Defence (Background Information). Publicly released 2 February 2012. http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/downloads/pdf/public-docs/2012/ bim / bimbackgroudinfo.pdf

  16. Hydrochemistry of New Zealand's aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry on a national scale has never been studied in New Zealand apart from a few studies on nitrate concentrations and pesticides. These studies are covered in Chapter 8 of this book. However general studies of groundwater chemistry, groundwater-rock interaction and regional characteristics of water quality have not been previously addressed in much detail. This is partly because New Zealand aquifers are relatively small on a world scale and are geologically and tectonically diverse (see Chapter 3). But New Zealand has also recently lacked a centralised agency responsible for groundwater quality, and therefore, no national assessments have been undertaken. In recent years, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences has managed a programme of collecting and analysing the groundwater chemistry of key New Zealand aquifers. This programme is called the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) and is funded by the New Zealand Public Good Science Fund. The programme started in 1990 using only 22 wells, with four regional authorities of the country participating. The NGMP now includes all 15 regional and unitary authorities that use groundwater and over 100 monitoring sites. The NGMP is considered a nationally significant database by the New Zealand Foundation for Research Science and Technology. The NGMP allows a national comparison of aquifer chemistries because the samples are all analysed at one laboratory in a consistent manner and undergo stringent quality control checks. Poor quality analyses are thus minimised. In addition, samples are collected quarterly so that long-term seasonal trends in water quality can be analysed, and the effects of changes in land use and the vulnerability of aquifers to contaminant leaching can be assessed. This chapter summarises the water quality data collected for the NGMP over the past 10 years. Some records are much shorter than others, but most are greater than three years. Additional information is

  17. Developing an Undergraduate International Business Program: Context, Rationale, Process and Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jim; Gray, Brendan; McNaughton, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent development of a new undergraduate international business program at the University of Otago in New Zealand. Firstly, it describes the context of the initiative in terms of the New Zealand business environment, the university sector in New Zealand and recent global trends in international business education.…

  18. Seismic isolation in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.I.; Robinson, W.H.; McVerry, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bridges, buildings, and industrial equipment can be given increased protection from earthquake damage by limiting the earthquake attack through seismic isolation. A broad summary of the seismic responses of base-isolated structures is of considerable assistance for their preliminary design. Seismic isolation as already used in New Zealand consists of a flexible base or support combined with some form of energy-dissipating device, usually involving the hysteretic working of steel or lead. This paper presents examples of the New Zealand experience, where seismic isolation has been used for 42 bridges, 3 buildings, a tall chimney, and high-voltage capacitor banks. Additional seismic response factors, which may be important for nuclear power plants, are also discussed briefly

  19. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced ''Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics

  20. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  1. New Zealand faces energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New Zealand's known reserves of petroleum are rapidly depleting and yet, with an expanding economy, overall energy demand is expected to grow by 1.4 per cent per annum over the next 30 years. The difficulties centre on New Zealand's dependence on natural gas. Built up over the last 15-20 years, gas has become a key component in electricity generation, transport fuels (both as compressed natural gas and the synthesis of gasoline), and in the manufacture of petrochemicals as well as its use as a domestic and industrial fuel. But known reserves are limited. Latest assessments of economically recoverable reserves, albeit conservative, suggest that indigenous gas supply will last until about 2016. Competition among the major users is expected to begin to push up market prices by 2005, and at higher prices some of the current applications will simply stop. It is suggested, for instance, that the synfuels and petrochemical plants are unlikely to operate after 2008. Other gas customers will continue by becoming more energy efficient and some, depending on environmental pressures, will shift to coal, fuel oil and alternative sources like geothermal power. But perhaps the most interesting outcome -particularly for gas rich countries like Australia - is the possibility of New Zealand importing natural gas during the first decades of the new century in the form of liquefied natural gas. (author)

  2. The Development of Astronomy and Emergence of Astrophysics in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John; Orchiston, Wayne

    The development of astronomy and astrophysics in New Zealand from the earliest European exploration and settlement to the present day is discussed. The major contributions to astronomy by amateur astronomers are covered, as is the later development of astronomy and astrophysics in New Zealand's universities. The account includes the founding of professional observatories for optical astronomy at Mt. John (belonging to the University of Canterbury) and for radio astronomy at Warkworth (belonging to the Auckland University of Technology). Several major international collaborations in which New Zealand is participating (or has participated) are described, including SALT, MOA, IceCube and SKA. The founding and history of the Carter Observatory in Wellington, of the Stardome Observatory in Auckland (both engaged in astronomical education and outreach) and of the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand are briefly covered.

  3. In defiance of nuclear deterrence: anti-nuclear New Zealand after two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels were banned from New Zealand to express the country's rejection of the nuclear deterrence concept. This led to a disagreement with the United States. Today, the ban on nuclear-powered ships is the only element of the nuclear-free legislation that still strains US-New Zealand relations. This article presents the reasons for the ban on nuclear-powered ships, which include scientific safety concerns, a symbolic rejection of the nuclear deterrence posture, and patriotic factors such as a nuclear-free national identity. The military and economic consequences of the ban are also examined. Since the ban on nuclear-powered vessels appears to be neither widely known abroad nor commonly recognised as a supportive disarmament measure outside New Zealand, it is concluded that whatever the future of this ban will be, New Zealand's anti-nuclear image will remain known internationally through the ban on nuclear arms.

  4. Intra-Wellbore Head Losses in a Horizontal Well with both Kinematic and Frictional Effects in an Anisotropic Confined Aquifer between Two Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Zhan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Horizontal drilling becomes an appealing technology for water exploration or aquifer remediation in recent decades, due to the decreasing operational cost and many technical advantages over the vertical wells. However, many previous studies on the flow into horizontal wells were based on the uniform flux boundary condition (UFBC) for treating horizontal wells, which could not reflect the physical processes of flow inside the well accurately. In this study, we investigated transient flow into a horizontal well in an anisotropic confined aquifer between two streams for three types of boundary conditions of treating the horizontal well, including UFBC, uniform head boundary condition (UHBC), and mixed-type boundary condition (MTBC). The MTBC model considered both kinematic and frictional effects inside the horizontal well, in which the kinematic effect referred to the accelerational and fluid inflow effects. The new solution of UFBC was derived by superimposing the point sink/source solutions along the axis of the horizontal well with a uniform strength. The solutions of UHBC and MTBC were obtained by a hybrid analytical-numerical method, and an iterative method was proposed to determine the minimum well segment number required to yield sufficiently accurate answer. The results showed that the differences among the UFBC, UHBC, MTBCFriction and MTBC solutions were obvious, in which MTBCFriction represented the solutions considering the frictional effect but ignoring the kinematic effect. The MTBCFriction and MTBC solutions were sensitive to the flow rate, and the difference of these two solutions increases with the flow rate, suggesting that the kinematic effect could not be ignored for studying flow to a horizontal well, especially when the flow rate is great. The well specific inflow (WSI) (which is the inflow per unit screen length at a specified location of the horizontal well) increased with the distance along the wellbore for the MTBC model at early stage, while

  5. Two-stream instabilities from the lower-hybrid frequency to the electron cyclotron frequency: application to the front of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muschietti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-perpendicular supercritical shocks are characterized by the presence of a magnetic foot due to the accumulation of a fraction of the incoming ions that is reflected by the shock front. There, three different plasma populations coexist (incoming ion core, reflected ion beam, electrons and can excite various two-stream instabilities (TSIs owing to their relative drifts. These instabilities represent local sources of turbulence with a wide frequency range extending from the lower hybrid to the electron cyclotron. Their linear features are analyzed by means of both a dispersion study and numerical PIC simulations. Three main types of TSI and correspondingly excited waves are identified: i. Oblique whistlers due to the (so-called fast relative drift between reflected ions/electrons; the waves propagate toward upstream away from the shock front at a strongly oblique angle (θ ∼ 50° to the ambient magnetic field Bo, have frequencies a few times the lower hybrid, and have wavelengths a fraction of the ion inertia length c∕ωpi. ii. Quasi-perpendicular whistlers due to the (so-called slow relative drift between incoming ions/electrons; the waves propagate toward the shock ramp at an angle θ a few degrees off 90°, have frequencies around the lower hybrid, and have wavelengths several times the electron inertia length c∕ωpe. iii. Extended Bernstein waves which also propagate in the quasi-perpendicular domain, yet are due to the (so-called fast relative drift between reflected ions/electrons; the instability is an extension of the electron cyclotron drift instability (normally strictly perpendicular and electrostatic and produces waves with a magnetic component which have frequencies close to the electron cyclotron as well as wavelengths close to the electron gyroradius and which propagate toward upstream. Present results are compared with previous works in order to stress some features not previously analyzed and to define a more

  6. New Zealand's Clyde power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, J W; Black, J C; Foster, P F

    1987-12-01

    A 100 m-high mass concrete gravity dam, for the generation of 432 MW of power, is under construction at Clyde on the Clutha River in the South Island of New Zealand. A feature of the dam is the provision of a slip joint to allow up to 2 m of movement on the plane of a fault passing through the dam foundation. Details of the dam foundations, seismic design, river channel fault and slip joint, mass concrete, spillway and sluice, powerhouse, and landslide hazard at the site are given. 3 refs.

  7. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  8. Are Feed-in Tariffs suitable for promoting solar PV in New Zealand cities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lee V.; Lloyd, Bob; Wakes, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) implemented by city councils in the USA have proven an effective means of stimulating installation of renewable-electricity generation capacity at a local level, and may also be effective for New Zealand cities. Though New Zealand has a high proportion of electricity generated renewably, this is mostly from centralized hydroelectricity plants. The suitability of city-level FITs for promoting solar photovoltaic panels in New Zealand is examined. Findings suggest that FITs, with rates obtained using the cost-of-generation method, could be implemented in New Zealand cities at rates comparable to those in successful FIT schemes internationally. The unique structure of New Zealand's liberalized electricity market, however, is likely to make financing FIT schemes at city-level more complex than the equivalent situation in the USA. Benefits of introducing such schemes will include the possibility for purchasers of solar PV systems to calculate returns on investment over the long term, and the streamlining of the grid connection process by reducing the number of authorities involved. - Highlights: • Results pertain to New Zealand city councils implementing FITs. • FIT rates similar to those in other countries provide sufficient investor incentive. • FITs could greatly increase investor security and ease grid connection. • Electricity market structure precludes financing through burden-sharing

  9. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  10. ETHNICITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ASIAN INDIAN MIGRANTS IN AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowitt Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to present ethnic differences in body size and body composition in Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand, associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, through the comparison with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. About 74 studies out of 128 publications were selected to ensure relevance to the topic of the review. Seven research projects were presented for the body size and body composition of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes of 8.6% in Asian Indians in New Zealand is still higher than in their homeland, owing to their ethnicity, genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle and altered nutrition, and other psychosocial factors related to migration and living conditions like stress at work and depression. For the same body mass index, in comparison with people of other ethnic groups in New Zealand Asian Indians had more total body fat, higher percent body fat, more central fat, less lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Central obesity was associated with insulin resistance and low grade systemic inflammation. Considering the evidence that type 2 diabetes develops ten years earlier in Asian Indians than in other populations, further studies are warranted to shed some light on the still incompletely understood metabolic syndrome and “thin-fat” Indian phenotype.

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...... Designing a database Designing and testing a dashboard to present indicators in a balanced way Messages for others Auditing patients with a common disease as CAP is useful to identify areas for improvement for a large group of patients. The baseline audit can serve as a basis for a monitoring system......Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...

  13. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    In this project a classical taxonomical revision of the New Zealand species of Hyperomma was conducted, as well as a broader molecular phylogenetic study revolving around this flightless genus, which occurs in Australia and New Zealand only. Seventeen new species were described, two new synonymies....... Additionally, the extinct Cretaceous staphylinid genus Apticax was described connected with a short review on fossil Paederinae and closely related fossils....... found, 8 known species re-described after contemporary standards, and a species inventory with keys to those 25 species and the paederine genera occurring in New Zealand was produced. The genus was placed in the phylogenetic context of its subfamily, Paederinae, for which a robust phylogenetic...

  14. What motivates doctors to leave the UK NHS for a "life in the sun" in New Zealand; and, once there, why don't they stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon

    2015-09-08

    At 44%, New Zealand has the highest proportion of international medical graduates (IMGs) in its workforce amongst OECD member countries. Around half of New Zealand's IMGs come from the UK NHS, yet only around 50% stay longer than 1 year post-registration with significant costs to the New Zealand health care system. Why these doctors go to New Zealand and do not stay for long is an important question. UK-trained doctors who had gained registration with the Medical Council of New Zealand and currently practising in New Zealand were surveyed (n = 1357) on the motivation for their move to New Zealand, experiences once there and what was prompting any intentions to move away from New Zealand. Multivariate proportional odds models (POM) were used to quantify various associations. The survey had a 47% response (n = 632). Quality of life considerations motivated 96% of respondents to move to New Zealand, although 65% indicated they were pushed by a desire to leave the NHS. POM analyses revealed older respondents were significantly less likely than younger respondents to be motivated by quality of life considerations. Younger doctors were significantly more likely to be seeking to leave the NHS. Seventy-six per cent of respondents signalling an intention to leave New Zealand indicated that the desire to return to the UK was the primary reason for this. There is a long history of medical migration from the UK to New Zealand. However, the 65% of respondents in this study seeking to leave the NHS was much higher than found elsewhere, perhaps reflecting increasing workplace and funding pressures in recent years. Of concern to policy makers were the higher odds of seeking to leave the NHS motivating younger doctors. Various changes "down under", in New Zealand as well as Australia, mean their IMG markets may well be tightening up.

  15. Word-of-Mouth amongst Students at a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warring, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this case study was to investigate the extent of word-of-mouth influence amongst international students at a New Zealand tertiary institution and to review the literature for a valid and reliable conceptualisation and measurement of word-of-mouth. Design/methodology/approach: Literature suggests that opinion-leading and seeking…

  16. Modelling the volatility in short and long haul Japanese tourist arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  17. Modelling the Volatility in Short and Long Haul Japanese Tourist Arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  18. February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Island, New Zealand earthquake occurred as part of the aftershock sequence of the M 7.0 September 3, 2010 Darfield, NZ earthquake. It involved...

  19. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  20. Analysis of Medicine Prices in New Zealand and 16 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Kilpatrick, Kate; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2015-06-01

    To compare prices of medicines, both originators and generics, in New Zealand and 16 European countries. Ex-factory price data as of December 2012 from New Zealand and 16 European countries were compared for a basket of 14 medicines, most of which were at least partially funded by the state in the 17 countries. Five medicines had, at least in some countries, generic versions on the market whose prices were also analyzed. Medicine price data for the 16 European countries were provided by the Pharma Price Information service. New Zealand medicine prices were retrieved from the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Schedule. Unit prices converted into euro were compared at the ex-factory price level. For the 14 medicines surveyed, considerable price differences at the ex-factory price level were identified. Within the European countries, prices in Greece, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Spain ranked at the lower end, whereas prices in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden were at the upper end. The results for New Zealand compared with Europe were variable. New Zealand prices were found in the lowest quartile for five medicines and in the highest quartile for seven other products. Price differences between the originator products and generic versions ranged from 0% to 90% depending on the medicine and the country. Medicine prices varied considerably between European countries and New Zealand as well as among the European countries. These differences are likely to result from national pricing and reimbursement policies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km 2 , with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  2. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km{sup 2}, with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  3. Detention and treatment down under: human rights and mental health laws in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Bernadette; Wilson, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Mental health law reform in recent decades has drawn on the international human rights movement. The entering into force of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on May 3 2008 has been hailed by some as signalling a new era in relation to how domestic mental health laws should be reformed. Both Australia and New Zealand have ratified the CRPD and Australia has acceded to its Optional Protocol. New Zealand and the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria have statutory bills of rights which have an interpretive effect, but are unable to render other statutes invalid. Drawing on the results of interviews conducted with fifty-two representatives of consumer and carer organisations, lawyers, and mental health professionals across Australia and New Zealand, this paper examines the current thinking on human rights and mental health laws in these countries and outlines what changes, if any, may be brought to domestic legislation in light of the Convention.

  4. Seasonal variation in the acute presentation of urinary calculi over 8 years in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sum Sum; Johnston, Richard; Al Sameraaii, Ahmed; Metcalf, Patricia A; Rice, Michael L; Masters, Jonathan G

    2010-07-01

    Symptom prevalence (retrospective cohort) Level of Evidence 2b. To determine the incidence of acute presentation of urinary calculi (UC) in Auckland, New Zealand, during the period 1999-2007, and whether there was any significant seasonal variation. The details of all UC within the population presenting acutely to public hospitals in Auckland between 1999 and 2007 were collected using clinical coding searches International Classification of Disease 10th revision (Australian Modification) N132 and N20. Climatic variables for the Auckland region were obtained from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand. The mean atmospheric temperature, hours of sunshine and humidity data were calculated monthly for this period. During the study there were 7668 acute presentations of UC in the Auckland region. A Poisson regression model showed that the number of presentations was significantly related to temperature (P Auckland, New Zealand, varies significantly with temperature and hours of sunshine. Humidity was not a significant factor.

  5. New Zealand dental technicians and continuing education: findings from a qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vivienne R; Pang, Lilian C Y; Aarts, John M

    2012-06-01

    Under the 2003 Health Practitioners Competence Assurance (HPCA) Act, New Zealand registered dental technicians are subject to mandatory Continuing Professional Development (CPD) requirements. Internationally, little published literature has examined dental technicians' perspectives of CPD and CPD needs, and there is no published literature relating to the New Zealand context. Available research highlights the importance of CPD for maintaining high professional standards, ensuring patient safety, allowing dental technicians to keep abreast of current research and technological advances, fostering peer networks, and promoting job satisfaction. In 2009, an online open-ended questionnaire was developed to examine New Zealand dental and clinical dental technicians' perspectives of CPD and their perceived CPD needs. In total, 45 New Zealand registered dental technicians responded. Questionnaire responses provided rich qualitative insights into dental technicians' wide-ranging perceptions of CPD, factors that make CPD involvement more or less difficult and more or less desirable, and ways in which CPD access and relevance might be improved. This paper discusses the survey findings in the light of the existing literature on CPD and in relation to the unique New Zealand regulatory environment. It highlights the factors which respondents identified as shaping their CPD decisions, barriers to CPD engagement, perceived CPD needs, suggestions as to how the current CPD system could be improved, and areas for future research.

  6. Trampolines in New Zealand: a decade of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D J; Hume, P A; Wilson, B D

    1994-01-01

    Despite international concern about the safety of trampolines, they have become increasingly popular in New Zealand. While internationally attention has centred on a relatively few cases of catastrophic cervical spine injury, little research effort has been directed at placing these incidents in a wider context. To redress this, a descriptive epidemiological study of trampoline-related injury in New Zealand was undertaken. National hospitalization and mortality data for a 10-year period revealed 2098 hospitalizations and two deaths. The incidence rate for hospitalizations increased from 3.1 per 100,000 population per year in 1979 to 9.3 in 1988. Of the hospitalized victims, 71% were injured on home trampolines and 80% fell from the trampoline to the surrounding surface. Fractures were the commonest type of injury (68%), and the body site most frequently involved was the upper limb (53%). There was no evidence of a high incidence of severe head and neck injuries. It was concluded that, although existing trampoline standards addressed many of the issues raised by this research, measures to reduce the impact of falls from trampolines to the ground and to prohibit the provision of trampolines as 'play equipment' are required. PMID:7894953

  7. Trampolines in New Zealand: a decade of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D J; Hume, P A; Wilson, B D

    1994-12-01

    Despite international concern about the safety of trampolines, they have become increasingly popular in New Zealand. While internationally attention has centred on a relatively few cases of catastrophic cervical spine injury, little research effort has been directed at placing these incidents in a wider context. To redress this, a descriptive epidemiological study of trampoline-related injury in New Zealand was undertaken. National hospitalization and mortality data for a 10-year period revealed 2098 hospitalizations and two deaths. The incidence rate for hospitalizations increased from 3.1 per 100,000 population per year in 1979 to 9.3 in 1988. Of the hospitalized victims, 71% were injured on home trampolines and 80% fell from the trampoline to the surrounding surface. Fractures were the commonest type of injury (68%), and the body site most frequently involved was the upper limb (53%). There was no evidence of a high incidence of severe head and neck injuries. It was concluded that, although existing trampoline standards addressed many of the issues raised by this research, measures to reduce the impact of falls from trampolines to the ground and to prohibit the provision of trampolines as 'play equipment' are required.

  8. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  9. The Influence of IFRS Adoption on Corporate Transparency and Accountability: Evidence from New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Jude Edeigba; Felix Amenkhienan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of the gap between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards (NZIFRS) on financial reporting transparency, accountability and corporate fraud. Content analysis of IFRS and NZIFRS was carried out to determine if there are differences between IFRS and NZIFRS. Four IFRS, namely IAS 12, IFRS 13, IFRS 15, IAS 17 and IFRS 16 were analysed on the basis of adoption concessions and...

  10. Stereo Pair: Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents. As seen here, the natural terrain imposes strong control over the urban growth pattern (urban features generally appear gray or white in this view). Rugged hills generally rising to 300 meters (1,000 feet) help protect the city and harbor from strong winter windsNew Zealand is seismically active and faults are readily seen in the topography. The Wellington Fault forms the straight northwestern (left) shoreline of the harbor. Toward the southwest (down) the fault crosses through the city, then forms linear canyons in the hills before continuing offshore at the bottom. Toward the northeast (upper right) the fault forms the sharp mountain front along the northern edge of the heavily populated Hutt Valley.This stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced true color Landsat7 satellite image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image

  11. Midwifery in New Zealand 1904-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Jane

    2008-10-01

    Childbirth for European women in early twentieth century New Zealand was family centred. The majority of births took place in the home, accepted as a difficult but natural part of a woman's role in life. Midwives were mostly married women who worked autonomously and had usually borne children themselves. By the 1970s this picture had dramatically changed. Virtually all births took place in hospital and were under the control of medical men and women. When legislation was passed (the Nurses Act 1971) that removed the right of New Zealand midwives to practice autonomously, New Zealand midwifery had largely been subsumed by nursing, controlled by medicine and displaced from a community based profession into a hospital based workforce. This article examines how the trends of medicalisation, hospitalisation, and nursification changed the New Zealand maternity services from 1900 to 1971, outlining the effect those changes had on the midwifery profession. The changes described here were also common to other western societies; examining how they occurred provides a context for understanding the history of midwifery in New Zealand.

  12. Electroconvulsive Therapy Practice in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark Wilkinson; Morrison, John; Jones, Paul Anthony

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in New Zealand. A 53-item questionnaire was sent to all services providing ECT as of December 2015. Electroconvulsive therapy was provided by 16 services covering 15 district health boards funded by the New Zealand government. No private facilities provided ECT. All services providing ECT responded to an online survey questionnaire. Rates of ECT utilization were low relative to similar countries. Survey results indicated ECT was practiced to an overall good standard. Several resource and logistical issues potentially contributing to low ECT utilization were identified. Electroconvulsive therapy in New Zealand is provided using modern equipment and practices. However, overall rates of utilization remain low, perhaps as a result of controversy surrounding ECT and some resourcing issues.

  13. Measuring Economic Growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mawson

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand’s ranking in the OECD based on real GDP per capita. The fall in ranking experienced by New Zealand implies that real GDP per capita growth in New Zealand has been relatively poor in comparison to other OECD countries. The paper examines the history of New Zealand’s growth rate and explores the differences between various techniques for measuring average growth rates. The approaches are all shown to be variants of the average annual growth rate but differ in ter...

  14. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  15. Current National Approach to Healthcare ICT Standardization: Focus on Progress in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Taek; Atalag, Koray

    2015-07-01

    Many countries try to efficiently deliver high quality healthcare services at lower and manageable costs where healthcare information and communication technologies (ICT) standardisation may play an important role. New Zealand provides a good model of healthcare ICT standardisation. The purpose of this study was to review the current healthcare ICT standardisation and progress in New Zealand. This study reviewed the reports regarding the healthcare ICT standardisation in New Zealand. We also investigated relevant websites related with the healthcare ICT standards, most of which were run by the government. Then, we summarised the governance structure, standardisation processes, and their output regarding the current healthcare ICT standards status of New Zealand. New Zealand government bodies have established a set of healthcare ICT standards and clear guidelines and procedures for healthcare ICT standardisation. Government has actively participated in various enactments of healthcare ICT standards from the inception of ideas to their eventual retirement. Great achievements in eHealth have already been realized, and various standards are currently utilised at all levels of healthcare regionally and nationally. Standard clinical terminologies, such as International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) have been adopted and Health Level Seven (HL7) standards are actively used in health information exchanges. The government to New Zealand has well organised ICT institutions, guidelines, and regulations, as well as various programs, such as e-Medications and integrated care services. Local district health boards directly running hospitals have effectively adopted various new ICT standards. They might already be benefiting from improved efficiency resulting from healthcare ICT standardisation.

  16. The New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit: Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Stephen R; Evans, Helen M; Gane, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand is a geographically isolated country with 4.55 million inhabitants. It has endemic hepatitis B (HBV) infection that is especially evident in Maori and Pacific Island communities and impacts indications for liver transplantation. The country has a socialised medical system that allows for full coverage of the assessment for, and completion of liver transplants in suitable recipients. Between February 1998 and December 2014, the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit (NZLTU) had performed 595 liver transplants in 568 patients, indicating a crude re-transplant rate of 4.8%. Overall 1, 5, and 10 year patient survival rates for all adult (96%, 89%, and 81%, respectively) and pediatric (93%, 92%, and 92%, respectively) recipients compare very favourably with international outcomes from Europe and the United States. Eligibility criteria could be modestly expanded if deceased donor rates improved from the current level of around 10 per million of population per year. This somewhat meagre supply of deceased donor organs, along with significant waiting list attrition, has necessitated the use of living donors, which have been used in more than 50 recipients to date. Despite these limitations, the NZLTU has contributed to improvements in the outcome of transplantation for HBV and hepatitis C through the development of effective antiviral prophylaxis regimes. Furthermore, innovative changes have been made to the manner in which pediatric patients are transitioned to the adult service.

  17. Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Sandra; Willis, Gwenda M

    2017-03-01

    The extensive and sometimes profoundly damaging effects of sexual violence and large numbers of victims necessitate dedicated attention to primary prevention efforts. Few studies have examined the scope of current prevention activities or their fit with empirical research into effective prevention strategies. The current article presents findings from a survey of primary prevention activities in non-Māori and bicultural communities within Aotearoa New Zealand. Forty-four respondents representing 42 agencies responded to a comprehensive survey that canvased types of sexual violence primary prevention activities undertaken, sexual violence primary prevention programs, and barriers and supports to sexual violence prevention work. Consistent with findings from previous international surveys, the focus of primary prevention work in New Zealand was on sexual violence education and increasing awareness. Findings are discussed in the context of the sexual violence prevention literature and what works in prevention more broadly to help identify promising initiatives as well as gaps in current practices. Recommendations for advancing sexual violence primary prevention research are also provided.

  18. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel John; Zhao, Jinfeng; Crengle, Sue; Lee, Arier; Browne, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices. We identified 28 indicators of deprivation from national health, social development, taxation, education, police databases, geospatial data providers and the 2013 Census, all of which represented seven Domains of deprivation: Employment; Income; Crime; Housing; Health; Education; and Geographical Access. The IMD is the combination of these seven Domains. The Domains may be used individually or in combination, to explore the geography of deprivation and its association with a given health or social outcome. Geographic variations in the distribution of the IMD and its Domains were found among the District Health Boards in NZ, suggesting that factors underpinning overall deprivation are inconsistent across the country. With the exception of the Access Domain, the IMD and its Domains were statistically and moderately-to-strongly associated with both smoking rates and household poverty. The IMD provides a more nuanced view of area deprivation circumstances in Aotearoa NZ. Our vision is for the IMD and the Data Zones to be widely used to inform research, policy and resource allocation projects, providing a better measurement of area deprivation in NZ, improved outcomes for Māori, and a more consistent approach to reporting and monitoring the social

  19. What motivates doctors to leave the UK NHS for a “life in the sun” in New Zealand; and, once there, why don’t they stay?

    OpenAIRE

    Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background At 44%, New Zealand has the highest proportion of international medical graduates (IMGs) in its workforce amongst OECD member countries. Around half of New Zealand’s IMGs come from the UK NHS, yet only around 50% stay longer than 1 year post-registration with significant costs to the New Zealand health care system. Why these doctors go to New Zealand and do not stay for long is an important question. Methods UK-trained doctors who had gained registration with the Medical Council of...

  20. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.; Fitchew, R.; Drew, J.

    2001-01-01

    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM), are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organisation). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists ( 168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program.The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new

  1. Incidence and characteristics of vitamin D deficiency rickets in New Zealand children: a New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Benjamin J; Dickson, Nigel P; Houghton, Lisa A; Ward, Leanne M; Taylor, Barry J

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the incidence and characteristics of vitamin D deficiency rickets in New Zealand (NZ). Prospective surveillance among paediatricians of Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets was conducted by the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit (NZPSU) for 36 months, from July 2010 to June 2013, inclusive. Inclusion criteria were: children and adolescents rickets (defined by low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and/or radiological rickets). Fifty-eight children with confirmed vitamin D deficiency rickets were identified. Median age was 1.4 (range 0.3-11) years, 47% were male, and 95% of the children were born in NZ; however, the majority of the mothers (68%) were born outside NZ. Overall annual incidence of rickets in children aged rickets remains a problem for NZ children. Key risk factors remain similar to those identified in the international literature. Preventative targeted vitamin D supplementation, as per existing national guidelines, was lacking in all cases reported. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is the most significant manifestation of vitamin D deficiency in growing children. To reduce the incidence of this disease among those at high risk, increasing awareness and implementation of current public health policies for targeted maternal, infant and child supplementation are required. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Teaching Gender Geography in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…

  3. Forests, energy and the New Zealand home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, J B

    1976-02-25

    Any increase in output of electrical energy in New Zealand is in the face of mounting capital requirements and increasingly intractable social costs. However, a peculiarity of New Zealand overall energy distribution is the large proportion of electricity (47%) devoted to domestic heat production. Alternative developments in the use of combustion for this purpose are considered and the unique potential of fuelwood in New Zealand highlighted. Logging wastes and thinnings in existing exotic forests could in theory supply more than current calorific requirements. Inconvenience and inefficiency arising from partial combustion, rather than the low calorific value, have eliminated consideration of fuelwood as a serious fuel option. The actual retail price, on a heat value basis, is at present only about one-fifth that of fuel oil and could become much less. Complete combustion of fuelwood is a realisable possibility. A suitable domestic unit might embody controllable forced draught, countercurrent heating of incoming air, and heat-shielding of combustion zone; all heating applications would use the driven steam of effluent gases. One such device is outlined tentatively. Successful development and widespread adoption of such a unit would have considerable material and social benefits for New Zealand. Research costs would be trivial in relation to potential return.

  4. Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique

    2018-07-01

    This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.

  5. Ten Ideas Worth Stealing from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…

  6. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  7. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Clair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  8. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clair; Reid, Papaarangi; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2012-05-28

    Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of "doing nothing" is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and "cost of illness" methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative "base case" scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  9. Safe sleep practices in a New Zealand community and development of a Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) risk assessment instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew; Sayers, Rachel M; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Lawrence, Julie; Taylor, Rachael; Taylor, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) have generally been population wide interventions instituted after case?control studies identified specific childcare practices associated with sudden death. While successful overall, in New Zealand (NZ), the rates are still relatively high by international comparison. This study aims to describe childcare practices related to SUDI prevention messages in a New Zealand community, and to develop and explore the utilit...

  10. Sarcoptes scabiei on hedgehogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaum, Caroline; Pomroy, William; Gedye, Kristene

    2018-03-01

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were introduced into New Zealand from Britain during the period from 1869 to the early 1900s. The only mite found on New Zealand hedgehogs in early studies was Caparinia tripilis, with Sarcoptes scabiei first being reported in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Sarcoptes infestation on hedgehogs in New Zealand, the number of mites found and the degree of mange observed. Dead hedgehogs were collected from veterinary clinics, rescue centres, members of the public and from road-kill. Twenty-one (55.3%) of the animals examined had visible skin lesions. Both Caparinia and Sarcoptes mites were identified on microscopic examination with Sarcoptes the most common, being found on over 70% of animals examined (n = 38). The numbers of mites recovered after brushing the head and body ranged from 1 to 5659 (median = 341 mites) with only six animals (22.2%) having fewer than 10 Sarcoptes mites found. Caparinia mites were seen on fewer animals and generally in very low numbers. These findings indicate a change in the mite populations on hedgehogs in New Zealand and that infected animals develop the debilitating hyperkeratotic form of sarcoptic mange without an accompanying hypersensitivity response limiting numbers of mites. Analysis of the cox 1 gene of Sarcoptes from two hedgehogs showed close alignment to sequences derived from a pig with one and from a dog with the second. More work needs to be undertaken to identify the source(s) of the Sarcoptes found on hedgehogs in New Zealand and whether other mammalian hosts may be infected from contact with hedgehogs.

  11. New directions in New Zealand local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McKinlay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a ‘work in progress’ report on some initiatives emerging from local government practice in New Zealand which should help us consider how we think about the role of local government in a world which is undergoing dramatic change. The starting point is work which the writer undertook with the support of Local Government New Zealand (the national association and a number of New Zealand councils considering the ‘proper role’ of local government. The context is an ongoing public debate driven substantially by the New Zealand business community from a perspective that this ‘proper role’ should be restricted to the delivery of local public goods, narrowly defined. This has included argument that local governments themselves should be structured substantially to promote the efficient delivery of services generally within the now well understood prescriptions of the ‘new public management’. One implication which the business sector in particular drew in looking at the workings of local government was that there should be economies of scale through further amalgamation of councils (the local government sector having been through a major amalgamation process in 1989 which eliminated a large number of special purpose authorities and reduced the number of territorial local authorities from more than 200 to 73. Debate continues, with the latest manifestation being the National Party led government's proposals for the restructuring of local government within the Auckland region, New Zealand's major metropolitan area. The initiatives discussed in this paper are partly a response, but more significantly a result of selected local authorities reflecting on the nature of their role, and the opportunities for being proactive in using their statutory privileges in ways that could produce benefits for their communities without any associated increase in the cost of local government itself.

  12. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Caroline; Kaye-Blake, William; Marshall, Liz; Greenhalgh, Suzie; De Aragao Pereira, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk. (author)

  13. Delineating advanced practice nursing in New Zealand: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carryer, J; Wilkinson, J; Towers, A; Gardner, G

    2018-03-01

    A variety of advanced practice nursing roles and titles have proliferated in response to the changing demands of a population characterized by increasing age and chronic illness. Whilst similarly identified as advanced practice roles, they do not share a common practice profile, educational requirements or legislative direction. The lack of clarity limits comparative research that can inform policy and health service planning. To identify advanced practice roles within nursing titles employed in New Zealand and practice differences between advanced practice and other roles. Replicating recent Australian research, 3255 registered nurses/nurse practitioners in New Zealand completed the amended Advanced Practice Delineation survey tool. The mean domain scores of the predominant advanced practice position were compared with those of other positions. Differences between groups were explored using one-way ANOVA and post hoc between group comparisons. Four nursing position bands were identified: nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, domain-specific and registered nurse. Significant differences between the bands were found on many domain scores. The nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist bands had the most similar practice profiles, nurse practitioners being more involved in direct care and professional leadership. Similar to the position of clinical nurse consultant in Australia, those practicing as clinical nurse specialists were deemed to reflect the threshold for advanced practice nursing. The results identified different practice patterns for the identified bands and distinguish the advanced practice nursing roles. By replicating the Australian study of Gardener et al. (2016), this NZ paper extends the international data available to support more evidence-based nursing workforce planning and policy development. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  14. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.

    2015-01-01

    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  15. New Zealand Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Naku Te Rourou Nau Te Rourou Ka Ora Ai Te Iwi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This special issue focuses on histories, pedagogies, policies, philosophies and alternative perspectives in early childhood education. "Te Whariki" is heralded as the first bicultural curriculum not only in New Zealand, but in the world. Its importance is reflected in national and international research and early childhood discourses.…

  16. Updating the New Zealand Glacier Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, S. C.; Anderson, B.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Chinn, T.; Collier, C.; Rack, W.; Purdie, H.

    2017-12-01

    The last complete glacier inventory of New Zealand dates from the year 1978 (North Island 1988) and was manually constructed from oblique aerial photographs and geodetic maps (Chinn 2001). The inventory has been partly updated by Gjermundsen et al. (2011) for the year 2002 (40% of total area) and by Sirguey & More (2010) for the year 2009 (32% of total area), both using ASTER satellite imagery. We used Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite data from February/March 2016 to map the total glaciated area. Clean and debris-covered ice were mapped semi-automatically. The band ratio approach was used for clean ice (ratio: red/SWIR). We mapped debris-covered ice using a supervised classification (maximum likelihood). Manual post processing was necessary due to misclassifications (e.g. lakes, clouds) or mapping in shadowed areas. It was also necessary to manually combine the clean and debris-covered parts into single glaciers. Additional input data for the post processing were Sentinel 2 images from the same time period, orthophotos from Land Information New Zealand (resolution: 0.75 m, date: Nov 2014), and the 1978/88 outlines from the GLIMS database (http://www.glims.org/). As the Sentinel 2 data were more heavily cloud covered compared to the Landsat 8 images, they were only used for post processing and not for the classification itself. Initial results show that New Zealand glaciers covered an area of about 1050 km² in 2016, a reduction of 16% since 1978. Approximately 17% of glacier area was covered in surface debris. The glaciers in the central Southern Alps around Mt Cook reduced in area by 24%. Glaciers in the North Island of New Zealand reduced by 71% since 1988, and only 2 km² of ice cover remained in 2016. Chinn, TJH (2001). "Distribution of the glacial water resources of New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 40(2): 139-187 Gjermundsen, EF, Mathieu, R, Kääb, A, Chinn, TJH, Fitzharris, B & Hagen, JO (2011). "Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and

  17. Anaesthesia medical workforce in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Y

    2006-04-01

    This survey was conducted in all 28 New Zealand District Health Boards with a response rate of 100%. The Clinical Directors of Departments of Anaesthesia were asked to quantify their current anaesthesia service delivery and to assess their workforce level. Over half of the District Health Boards reported understaffing, fifty percent occurring in hospitals of provincial cities or towns with an inability to attract specialist anaesthesia staff. Financial constraint was the other main reason for understaffing. With the information from the survey, an attempt was made to predict future New Zealand anaesthesia workforce requirements. A model for Australasia established by Baker in 1997 was used. In comparing this survey to previous studies, there is evidence that the nature and expectations of the anaesthesia workforce are changing as well as the work environment. Currently, there is no indication that anaesthesia specialist training numbers should be reduced. Close, ongoing monitoring and planning are essential to ensure future demands for anaesthesia services can be met.

  18. Thermogravimetric studies of New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A.; Benfell, K.E.; Shaw, K.J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1997-12-31

    The thermal behaviour of New Zealand coals may be reliably characterised by a series of tightly constrained thermogravimetric (TG) procedures of high repeatability developed in the Department of Geology at The University of Auckland. Proximate, combustion and char reactivity analyses can be routinely obtained for run-of-mine samples. Volatile matter determination by TG produces an acceptable reproducible result compared with the ISO method, whereas further refinement of the technique is necessary to achieve the same level of precision for ash content of New Zealand low rank coals. Combining combustion and char reactivity analyses enables the performance of a coal to be assessed under differing operating conditions, and offers the opportunity to elucidate competing effects of major element geochemistry of the coal. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Firework related injury in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J A; Langley, J D

    1994-10-26

    In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.

  20. Equity in statin use in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Preventive medications such as statins are used to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is some evidence to suggest that people of lower socioeconomic position are less likely to be prescribed statins. In New Zealand, Maori have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aimed to investigate statin utilisation by socioeconomic position and ethnicity in a region of New Zealand. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected on all prescriptions dispensed from all pharmacies in one city during 2005/6. Linkage with national datasets provided information on patients' age, gender and ethnicity. Socioeconomic position was identified using the New Zealand Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation 2006. RESULTS: Statin use increased with age until around 75 years. Below age 65 years, those in the most deprived socioeconomic areas were most likely to receive statins. In the 55-64 age group, 22.3% of the most deprived population received a statin prescription (compared with 17.5% of the mid and 18.6% of the least deprived group. At ages up to 75 years, use was higher amongst Maori than non-Maori, particularly in middle age, where Maori have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In the 45-54 age group, 11.6% of Maori received a statin prescription, compared with 8.7% of non-Maori. DISCUSSION: Statin use approximately matched the pattern of need, in contrast to other studies which found under-treatment of people of low socioeconomic position. A PHARMAC campaign to increase statin use may have increased use in high-risk groups in New Zealand.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  2. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  3. Towards integrated catchment management, Whaingaroa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, M; Knight, S

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.

  4. Imported malaria in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan

    2012-11-09

    To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.

  5. A Thermal Oscillating Two-Stream Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    , and transverse scale of maximum growth are obtained. Special attention is paid to the transport theory, since the physical picture depends heavily on the kind of electron collisions which dominate. This is due to the velocity dependence of collison frequencies, which gives rise to the thermal forces....

  6. Locating women in the New Zealand computing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hunter, PhD

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that women are under-represented in computing occupations in many Western countries, but is the situation similar in New Zealand? This article presents a quantitative analysis of gendered employment patterns in New Zealand\\'s computing industry. Findings from analysis of 2001 and 2006 census employment data demonstrate that women are now well represented in some newer computing occupations in New Zealand, but they remain significantly under-represented in traditional computing roles such as programming and systems analysis. Furthermore, New Zealand women in computing do not have pay parity with men. On some occasions during the early days of computing in New Zealand women participated more equally in number but they have always experienced pay discrimination.

  7. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates

  8. Suicide Research and Adolescent Suicide Trends in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been a number of claims and counterclaims from suicide research using time series and longitudinal data; in particular, the linkage of increased antidepressant prescriptions to a decrease in suicide rates. Suicide time series appear to have a memory compounded with seasonal and cyclic effects. Failure to take into account these properties may lead to misleading conclusions, e.g., a downward blip is interpreted as the result of current knowledge and public health policies, while an upward blip is explained as suicide being complex depending on many variables requiring further research. In previous publications, I argued that this misuse of time series data is the result of an uncritical acceptance of a medical model that links mental ill-health to suicide. The consequences of such research behaviour are further increases in antidepressant prescriptions and medications to those who should not be prescribed them, with adverse effects showing across the population, e.g., the prescription of antidepressants to very young children (some under 1 year of age in New Zealand. Moreover, the New Zealand Evidence-based Health Care Bulletin recommends an authoritarian approach for every interaction with a young person to check their psychosocial well-being. When viewed holistically, this kind of human behaviour makes researchers, policy makers (politicians, treatment, and practitioners, and society in general part of the problem rather than the solution. This paper explores some dynamic aspects of suicide, using only official data with particular reference to youth suicide, and suggests that the medical model of suicide is only an attempt to treat depression without addressing suicide, and recommends the creation of a unified database through understanding the society that individuals live in. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  9. "Healthy Eating - Healthy Action": evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuvasa Ausaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.

  10. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  11. A survey of role stress, coping and health in Australian and New Zealand hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther M L; Bidewell, John W; Huntington, Annette D; Daly, John; Johnson, Amanda; Wilson, Helen; Lambert, Vicki A; Lambert, Clinton E

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has identified international and cultural differences in nurses' workplace stress and coping responses. We hypothesised an association between problem-focused coping and improved health, emotion-focused coping with reduced health, and more frequent workplace stress with reduced health. Test the above hypotheses with Australian and New Zealand nurses, and compare Australian and New Zealand nurses' experience of workplace stress, coping and health status. Three hundred and twenty-eight New South Wales (NSW) and 190 New Zealand (NZ) volunteer acute care hospital nurses (response rate 41%) from randomly sampled nurses. Postal survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Nursing Stress Scale, the WAYS of Coping Questionnaire and the SF-36 Health Survey Version 2. Consistent with hypotheses, more frequent workplace stress predicted lower physical and mental health. Problem-focused coping was associated with better mental health. Emotion-focused coping was associated with reduced mental health. Contrary to hypotheses, coping styles did not predict physical health. NSW and NZ scored effectively the same on sources of workplace stress, stress coping methods, and physical and mental health when controlling for relevant variables. Results suggest mental health benefits for nurses who use problem-solving to cope with stress by addressing the external source of the stress, rather than emotion-focused coping in which nurses try to control or manage their internal response to stress. Cultural similarities and similar hospital environments could account for equivalent findings for NSW and NZ.

  12. Distributed small-scale wind in New Zealand: Advantages, barriers and policy support instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Martin; Chapman, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    If future climate change goals being negotiated internationally are to have any chance of being achieved, developed countries need to undertake a major transition in their energy systems. This will require a rapid expansion of renewable energy generation, including wind electricity. Wind energy in New Zealand is commercially viable in many cases, yet opportunities for its exploitation are far from fully utilised. Many communities are showing resistance to wind farm developments, since large wind farms are often seen as intrusive. Building wind farms on a small scale may be a useful way of overcoming this problem. This study examines the pattern of recent wind industry development in New Zealand. It is argued that two key characteristics have emerged that are limiting the potential development of the industry: a trend towards large scale, leading to increased local opposition; and a small number of investors. Research methods include a review of international and local literature, and a rural mail survey questionnaire, with 338 respondents. We provide survey evidence that small wind farms, and community ownership of them, may be attractive to local communities, and that this point of advantage is helpful for the rapid expansion of wind generation in New Zealand.

  13. Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002-2008: descriptive epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Warren Leonard; Chalmers, David John

    2014-06-01

    To describe the incidence, prevalence, nature and severity of injury to elite New Zealand cricketers for the 2002/2003 to 2007/2008 seasons. Prospective cohort. Elite cricket in New Zealand. 248 elite male cricketers. Incidence and prevalence rates. The overall match injury incidence rate for the international competition (51.6 injuries per 10 000 player-hours; 95% CI 40.1 to 65.3) was almost twice that of the domestic competition (27.2; 23.5 to 31.4). The prevalence rate for the international competition (12%; 11.3% to 12.8%) was significantly higher than that for the domestic competition (9.7%; 9.4% to 10.1%). Overall, 79.5% of injuries occurred in matches and 48.7% of all injuries were sustained while bowling. The lower limb was the body region most commonly injured (43.5%), the most common specific diagnosis was hamstring strains/tears (11.1%) and the injuries contributing the highest proportion of match days lost were stress fractures to the low back (22%). The findings of this study support ongoing injury surveillance in New Zealand and other test cricket playing nations for the purpose of describing injury and monitoring the effect of interventions over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Assessment of primary impacts of a hydrogen economy in New Zealand using UniSyD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, Jonathan D.; Gillingham, Kenneth T.; Leaver, Luke H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Small economies such as New Zealand risk significant economic hardship without careful evaluation of alternatives to petroleum-based transportation due to the adverse effects of climate change and depleting international oil reserves. This paper uses an integrated multi-regional multi-fleet system dynamics model of New Zealand's energy economy to assess the primary impacts of alternative vehicle fleet technologies. Results suggest that hydrogen fuelled HICEs and FCVs may offer significantly greater economic savings than BEVs due to a much lower capital cost. Under our Base Case, 65% of the light fleet are HICEs and FCVs and 5% BEVs. Excluding hydrogen vehicles from the vehicle fleet can result in an average annual cost of US$562 per vehicle between 2015 and 2050. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity using coal gasification with carbon capture and storage is the dominant long term hydrogen production technology. (author)

  15. ‘Look No Further than the Exterior’: Corruption and Disaster in New Zealand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Matthewman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transparency International considers New Zealand the least corrupt country in the world. Yet ranking systems can flatter to deceive. This article takes a critical stance towards their global classification, which is a perceptions-based measure that ignores the private sector. In so doing, it heeds David Beetham’s (2015 call for a broader definition of corruption, one that acknowledges the subjugation of the public sphere to secure private advantage. Jane Kelsey (2015: 11, 150 has noted that New Zealand is ‘at the pure end of the neoliberal spectrum’, being ‘first to liberalise, last to regulate’. These points are examined with particular reference to corruption, the construction industry and the country’s numerous housing problems. The opening section of How Corrupt is Britain?, in which Beetham’s work appears, is titled ‘Neoliberalism and Corruption’. This article questions the need for the conjunction.

  16. Online and social media presence of Australian and New Zealand urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicholas; Murphy, Declan G; van Rij, Simon; Woo, Henry H; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    To assess the online and social media presence of all practising Australian and New Zealand urologists. In July 2014, all active members of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) were identified. A comprehensive search of Google and each social media platform (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and YouTube) was undertaken for each urologist to identify any private websites or social media profiles. Of the 435 urologists currently practising in Australia and New Zealand, 305 (70.1%) have an easily identifiable social media account. LinkedIn (51.3%) is the most commonly used form of social media followed by Twitter (33.3%) and private Facebook (30.1%) accounts. About half (49.8%) have a private business website. The average number of social media accounts per urologist is 1.42 and 16 urologists (3.7%) have an account with all searched social media platforms. Over half of those with a Twitter account (55.9%) follow a dedicated urology journal club and have a median (range) number of 'followers' of 12 (1-2 862). Social media users had a median (range) of 2 (0-8 717) 'tweets' on Twitter, 2 (1-45) LinkedIn posts and 1 (1-14) YouTube video. This study represents a unique dataset not relying on selection or recall bias but using data freely available to patients and colleagues to gauge social media presence of urologists. Most Australian and New Zealand urologists have a readily identifiable online and social media presence, with widespread and consistent use across both countries. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Primary care and health reform in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C C; Forrest, C B; Starfield, B

    1997-02-14

    (1) To describe New Zealand's primary care system (2) to compare New Zealand to other Anglo-American members of the OECD with respect to the adequacy of primary care, and (3) to assess the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of New Zealand's system by comparing health spending and health indicators relevant to primary care. A cross-national comparison of primary care, health spending and health indicators in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Main outcome measures were health spending measured in purchasing power parties. Health indicators: mean life expectancy in years, years of potential life lost and infant mortality rates. New Zealand's primary care system ranked below the UK, above the USA and similar to Canada and Australia. Favourable characteristics of New Zealand's primary care system were the use of generalists as the predominant type of practitioner and the low proportion of active physicians who were specialists. Compared to the other countries, New Zealand scored poorly for financial that are necessary for the practise of good primary care. New Zealand and the UK had the lowest spending per capita on health care. New Zealand and the USA scored lowest for all three of the health care indicators. The quality of primary care in New Zealand is limited by barriers to access to care and the intermediate level of practise characteristics essential to primary care. Compared to other AngloAmerican OECD nations, New Zealand has relatively low levels of national health expenditure. In order to improve the quality of primary care, future reform should aim to facilitate access to care, increase the gatekeeping role of primary care physicians, and promote the practise characteristics essential to primary care.

  18. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  19. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs

  20. Breeding Responses of New Zealand White Does to Artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of artificial insemination on the reproductive performance of rabbits in the humid tropical conditions of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Eighteen post pubertal New Zealand White does aged 7-8 months and four matured bucks (8 months old) of the same New Zealand White ...

  1. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  2. New Zealand Teachers Respond to the "National Writing Project" Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Terry; Whitehead, David; Dix, Stephanie; Cawkwell, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on early data from a two-year project (2009-11) being undertaken in the New Zealand context by the authors entitled: "Teachers as Writers: Transforming Professional Identity and Classroom Practice". Based on the National Writing Project in the USA (and in New Zealand in the 1980s) its hypothesis is that when teachers…

  3. 'Poorly defined': unknown unknowns in New Zealand Rural Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, David; Lawrenson, Ross; Nixon, Garry

    2016-08-05

    There is a considerable mismatch between the population that accesses rural healthcare in New Zealand and the population defined as 'rural' using the current statistics New Zealand rural and urban categorisations. Statistics New Zealand definitions (based on population size or density) do not accurately identify the population of New Zealanders who actually access rural health services. In fact, around 40% of people who access rural health services are classified as 'urban' under the Statistics New Zealand definition, while a further 20% of people who are currently classified as 'rural' actually have ready access to urban health services. Although there is some recognition that current definitions are suboptimal, the extent of the uncertainty arising from these definitions is not widely appreciated. This mismatch is sufficient to potentially undermine the validity of both nationally-collated statistics and also any research undertaken using Statistics New Zealand data. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the differences between rural and urban health care found in other countries with similar health services have been difficult to demonstrate in New Zealand. This article explains the extent of this mismatch and suggests how definitions of rural might be improved to allow a better understanding of New Zealand rural health.

  4. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  5. Anti-Nuclear Attitudes in New Zealand and Australia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Wellington, 5 March 1985. 5. John Henderson, Keith Jackson , Richard Kennawav, eds. Beyond New Zealand; The Foreign Policy of a Small State. (Auckland...the city of San Francisco this first day of September, 1951. For Australia: PERCY C. SPENDER For New Zealand: C.A. BERENDSEN For the United States of

  6. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn

    2004-01-01

    "The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…

  7. Towards a climate event stratigraphy for New Zealand over the past 30,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrell, D.J.A.; Alloway, B.V.; Shulmeister, J.; Newnham, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A poster summarizing a representative selection of evidence for environmental conditions and climate change in New Zealand during the last 30,000 years has been prepared as a 'first-step' contribution to the INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, Marine and TerrEstrial records) initiative of the INQUA Paleoclimate Commission. This international initiative aims to establish a more detailed knowledge of the nature, timing and regional to global extent of climatic and environmental changes associated with the Last Termination. The poster depicts key New Zealand onshore and offshore records for the Last Glacial Maximum and the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition, from a variety of latitudes and elevations. Inset maps show New Zealand's oceanographic setting, principal currents and water masses, extent of glaciers, and distribution of vegetation zones at approximately 22,000 calendar years ago and at modern times (incorporating the inferred vegetation distribution at c. 1250 AD, before deforestation associated with human settlement). A calendar-age timescale is based on a combination of volcanic ash (tephra) and radiometric dates. Paleoclimate records from ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland are presented for comparison with New Zealand records. High-resolution records are presented for sediment-filled volcanic craters in Auckland (total carbon, carbon isotopes and pollen), wetlands in northeast North Island, central North Island and western South Island (pollen), marine sediments off eastern North Island (oxygen isotopes), and stalagmites in caves in northwest South Island (carbon and oxygen isotopes). In addition, the poster includes a range of lower resolution or fragmentary records of climate events, based on glacial landforms and deposits (central Southern Alps, South Island), river terraces and deposits, loess deposits (eastern North and South Islands), and Aeolian quartz silt in non-quartzose, loess-like, andesitic tephric deposits of western North Island. The

  8. New Zealand students on tour at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The three prize-winners Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson in front of the CMS magnet, with their teacher Noema Watene on the left. The "Journey to the End of Science" makes a stop at CERN. Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson, three high-school students from Fairfield College in Hamilton, New Zealand, won first prize in the New Zealand Royal Society's scientific film competition - the trip of a lifetime to Europe. The reward for their excellent documentary on the nuclear physicist and winner of the Nobel prize for Medicine Maurice Wilkins was a trip to Italy and Switzerland, stopping at CERN on the way. Accompanied by one of their teachers and a science journalist, the students were shown around the antiproton decelerator and the CMS experiment by Alick Macpherson, a Kiwi physicist at CERN. Their faithful camera always at the ready, the students filmed every minute of their visits to the various sites - perhaps they were hatching plans for next year's competition...

  9. Encephalocoele-- epidemiological variance in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Stephen J; Heppner, Peter A; Law, Andrew J J

    2005-06-01

    Considerable variation in the epidemiology of encephalocoeles throughout the world has been described in previous studies. We analysed 46 cases of encephalocoele presenting to Auckland and Starship Children's Hospital over the last 25 years to determine if our experience differed from that seen in a typical Western population, and to determine if there was variation between the different racial groups within New Zealand. The overall incidence of encephalocoeles in the area serviced by the neurosurgical services of Auckland and Starship Children's Hospitals was 1 in 13,418 births. This rate is at the higher end of the incidence spectrum compared with previous series. Overall, New Zealand appears to demonstrate a typical Western distribution of encephalocoele location. In people of Pacific Island descent, both the rate of encephaloceles (1 per 8,873 births) and the percentage of sincipital lesions (44%) differed from the rest of the population. Additionally, a higher than expected proportion of sincipital encephalocoeles was seen in male babies (5:1 male to female ratio). In most other regards our population resembles that of western cohorts published in the literature.

  10. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus

    2017-12-03

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medication in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Duggal, Rishi; Menkes, David B

    2014-08-29

    The last decade has seen increasing measures aimed at regulating the influence of 'Big Pharma' following a number of scandals relating to unethical marketing. Despite these international trends, New Zealand continues to tolerate direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medication, a controversial pharmaceutical marketing strategy that has been prohibited in all but two countries in the industrialised world. While the pharmaceutical industry asserts that DTCA is informational and empowers consumers, in this viewpoint article we argue that DTCA is a heavily biased source of health information that favours representation of benefits over harms, and is associated with unnecessary prescribing, iatrogenic harm and increased costs to the taxpayer. In this paper, we show that DTCA provides unbalanced information to consumers who may misconstrue DTCA as public health messages, and fail to recognise inherent commercial bias. We describe how DTCA has been linked with inappropriate prescribing and overtreatment, with evidence indicating that patients request and receive specific medications in response to DTCA, even when treatment is not clinically indicated. This exposes patients to unnecessary adverse effects and iatrogenic harm, and increases costs for the health-care sector through the prescription of expensive branded medication. We use local examples to illustrate these points. New Zealand remains an outlier in allowing DTCA to continue which, in our view, is a controversial and harmful practice. The available evidence suggests that consumers and health care professionals are generally opposed to DTCA. Therefore, we believe that the New Zealand government should review its stance on DTCA.

  12. Teamwork - general practitioners and practice nurses working together in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Mary P; Raymont, Antony

    2012-06-01

    Teamwork in primary health care has been encouraged in New Zealand and in the international literature. It may improve work satisfaction for staff, and satisfaction and outcomes for patients. Teamwork may be classified as being multi-, inter- or transdisciplinary and is likely to be influenced by the nature of the work and the organisational context. To describe and analyse teamwork between general practitioners and practice nurses in New Zealand. Data were drawn from a survey of general practices and from interviews with primary health care staff and management. Doctors and nurses in general practice in New Zealand see themselves as a team. Evidence suggests that the nature of the work and the business context most often leads to a multidisciplinary style of teamwork. Some providers have adopted a more intense teamwork approach, often when serving more disadvantaged populations or in caring for those with chronic illnesses. Concepts of teamwork differ. This article provides a classification of teams and suggests that most general practice teams are multidisciplinary. It is hoped that this will help personnel to communicate their expectations of a team and encourage progressive team development where it would be of value.

  13. Media reporting of global health issues and events in New Zealand daily newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Cussen, Ashleigh; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2011-12-01

    In the context of a globalised world, reports on health that extend personal or country borders have increasing relevance. Media can promote opportunities to identify and address gaps in important global health issues. In light of the potential role of media as an advocacy tool for global health, we examined how global health issues are represented in mainstream media in New Zealand. We conducted a content analysis of media reports on global health issues in the four highest circulation newspapers in New Zealand between June 2007 and May 2009. Search terms included 'global health, 'international health' and 'world health'. Communicable disease was the most frequently reported global health issue in New Zealand newspapers, followed by environment (e.g. climate change), general health risks (unsafe pharmaceuticals) and substance use (tobacco and alcohol). Chronic disease, injury or their determinants were less frequently reported. Mainstream media favours health-related reports based on crisis, epidemic or acute conditions over chronic or non-communicable diseases or disability. Health issues facing the Asia Pacific region increasingly include chronic diseases, which would benefit from greater media coverage to increase advocacy and political awareness of global health challenges.

  14. Use of information and communication technology amongst New Zealand dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S; Pollock, D; Rountree, J; Murray, C M

    2016-08-01

    Although international studies have shown an increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) amongst dental students, there are no published studies specific to New Zealand (NZ). The aim of this research was to identify device ownership and academic utilisation patterns amongst New Zealand dental students, including preferences and perceptions, and barriers to use. All currently enrolled dental students (322) were invited to complete a 15-item questionnaire. Data were statistically analysed in SPSS version 20.0. Qualitative data were analysed using a general inductive technique. The participation rate was 78.6% (N = 253 of 322). The majority of respondents personally owned laptop computers (98%) and smartphones (80.2%). A total of 10.8% of participants used a desktop computer everyday for academic purposes, whilst 78.7% used a laptop computer daily, and 54.7% a smartphone. New Zealand dental students demonstrated a high usage of ICT for their coursework with varied use of different online resources. The most frequently used online resources were search engines, social networking sites and lecture slides provided on Blackboard(®) . A high perceived value was placed on both audio podcasts and video podcasts despite the high value also placed on the traditional lectures. Although most participants (84.5%) felt that their ICT knowledge was adequate to meet academic requirements, a small number (1.6%) did not agree. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluating stress, burnout and job satisfaction in New Zealand radiation oncology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, M; Herst, P; Dungey, G

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the levels of occupational stress, burnout and job satisfaction among radiation oncology workers across New Zealand. All oncology staff practising in all eight radiation oncology departments in New Zealand were invited to participate anonymously in a questionnaire, which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and measures of stress intensity associated with specific occupational stressors, stress reduction strategies and job satisfaction. A total of 171 (out of 349) complete responses were analysed using spss 19; there were 23 oncologists, 111 radiation therapists, 22 radiation nurses and 15 radiation physicists. All participants, regardless of profession, reported high stress levels associated with both patient-centred and organisational stressors. Participants scored high in all three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Interestingly, although organisational stressors predicted higher emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion predicted lower job satisfaction, patient stressors were associated with higher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction initiatives such as ongoing education, mentoring and role extension were supported by many participants as was addressing organisational stressors, such as lack of recognition and support from management and unrealistic expectations and demands. New Zealand staff exhibit higher levels of burnout than Maslach Burnout Inventory medical norms and oncology workers in previous international studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genetic characterization of strains of Saccharomyces uvarum from New Zealand wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyao; Richards, Keith D; Wilson, Sandra; Lee, Soon A; Sheehan, Hester; Roncoroni, Miguel; Gardner, Richard C

    2015-04-01

    We present a genetic characterization of 65 isolates of Saccharomyces uvarum isolated from wineries in New Zealand, along with the complete nucleotide sequence of a single sulfite-tolerant isolate. The genome of the New Zealand isolate averaged 99.85% nucleotide identity to CBS7001, the previously sequenced strain of S. uvarum. However, three genomic segments (37-87 kb) showed 10% nucleotide divergence from CBS7001 but 99% identity to Saccharomyces eubayanus. We conclude that these three segments appear to have been introgressed from that species. The nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from other New Zealand isolates were also very similar to that of CBS7001, and hybrids showed complete genetic compatibility for some strains, with tetrads giving four viable progeny that showed 2:2 segregations of marker genes. Some strains showed high tolerance to sulfite, with genetic analysis indicating linkage of this trait to the transcription factor FZF1, but not to SSU1, the sulfite efflux pump that it regulates in order to confer sulfite tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentation characteristics of selected strains of S. uvarum showed exceptionally good cold fermentation characteristics, superior to the best commercially available strains of S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Zealand Winegrowers Attitudes and Behaviours towards Wine Tourism and Sustainable Winegrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Baird

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are significant economic, environmental, social, and marketing issues that exist from the supply-side perspective in response to sustainability. This study examines New Zealand winegrowers in terms of their attitudes and behaviours towards wine tourism and sustainable wine production. A national survey was conducted at the end of 2015, which was the fourth such survey to be undertaken as part of a longitudinal study of wine tourism in New Zealand. This survey drew on issues of wine and biosecurity, climate change, and eco-labelling, as well as wine tourism. These issues were examined within the context of three key drivers of sustainability: the physical aspects of sustainable wine production, the internal drivers within wine businesses for the adoption of sustainable practices, and the external regulatory aspects that govern the adoption of sustainable wine production practices. The findings indicate that there were substantial concerns with the perceived value provided by both wine tourism and sustainable winegrowing practices. These concerns exist at both the firm level and with the governing bodies that are responsible for implementing sustainable winegrowing initiatives. Unless this perception of the value of sustainability within the New Zealand wine industry is altered in the future, it appears that there will continue to be an ongoing issue as to how sustainable winegrowing initiatives are implemented.

  18. Metabolic monitoring in New Zealand district health board mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveley, Aimee; Soosay, Ian; O'Brien, Anthony J

    2017-11-10

    To audit New Zealand district health boards' (DHBs) metabolic monitoring policies in relation to consumers prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications using a best practice guideline. Metabolic monitoring policies from DHBs and one private clinic were analysed in relation to a best practice standard developed from the current literature and published guidelines relevant to metabolic syndrome. Fourteen of New Zealand's 20 DHBs currently have metabolic monitoring policies for consumers prescribed antipsychotic medication. Two of those policies are consistent with the literature-based guideline. Eight policies include actions to be taken when consumers meet criteria for metabolic syndrome. Four DHBs have systems for measuring their rates of metabolic monitoring. There is no consensus on who is clinically responsible for metabolic monitoring. Metabolic monitoring by mental health services in New Zealand reflects international experience that current levels of monitoring are low and policies are not always in place. Collaboration across the mental health and primary care sectors together with the adoption of a consensus guideline is needed to improve rates of monitoring and reduce current rates of physical health morbidities.

  19. Survey of the use of nuclear medicine in New Zealand in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.G.; Laban, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) has surveyed the use of radioactive materials in medicine each decade since 1966. The purpose of this is to monitor trends and estimate the radiation dose to the population from this modality. Each of the nuclear medicine facilities in New Zealand was surveyed. The data provided consisted of total numbers of each type of procedure has increased by nearly 10 per cent in 10 years. Bone scans have nearly doubled in frequency, and form just under half of all diagnostic procedures, compared to 30 per cent in 1983. There has been an eightfold increase in the number of cardiac studies. Renal and lung studies are up, but liver tests and brain scans are down.The 1983 survey noted that the activities administered in New Zealand were high compared to those in other countries. Since then, a reasonable international consensus has formed over 'reference doses' for each standard procedure. There are incorporated in the NRL Code of Safe Practice and compliance is good. While in some countries there is a considerably greater frequency of nuclear medicine procedures, this survey indicates that overall practice in New Zealand is similar to many industrialized countries

  20. Punching loan sharks on the nose: effective interventions to reduce financial hardship in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Bowers, Sharron

    2012-08-01

    Growth in the high-cost, unregulated fringe lender market (with these lenders commonly referred to as loan sharks) has occurred both internationally and in New Zealand in recent years. The credit practices of loan sharks create financial hardship for many people including Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. This paper reports on research that explored strategies for reducing the impact of the fringe lender market on Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. A narrative literature review and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to provide information on how best to intervene to reduce the impact of the fringe lender market for these people. The main interventions identified were: two regulatory approaches, one for capping interest rates and another to create codes of responsible lending; access to safe affordable micro-finance options; financial literacy education; and Pacific cultural change around fa'alavelave, which are the 'obligations' of giving. Protecting consumers from the unsafe practices of fringe lenders requires a combined approach of discouraging the undesirable practices of fringe lenders through regulation and encouraging the growth of safe, affordable micro-finance options. Financial literacy education is a valuable activity for directing consumer attention to the safest options, but in isolation will have limited effect if options are limited. Health promoters have a valuable role to play in implementing these interventions.

  1. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John; Elliman, Robert; Mccallum, Jeffrey; Ionescu, Mihail; Markwitz, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The papers in this issue of NIMB were presented at the 20th international conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM) held at Te Papa Museum, Wellington, New Zealand from October 30th until November 4th, 2016. This conference continued the proud legacy of New Zealand-born Lord Rutherford and his pioneering research in ion beam physics.

  2. Slavery in New Zealand: What is the role of the health sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paula; Blaiklock, Alison; Stringer, Christina; Amaranathan, Jay; McLean, Margot

    2017-10-06

    Contemporary forms of slavery and associated adverse health effects are a serious, complex and often neglected issue within the New Zealand health sector. Slavery in New Zealand has most recently been associated with the fishing and horticulture industries. However, victims may be found in a number of other industry sectors, including the health and aged-care sectors, or outside of the labour market such as in forced, early (underage) and servile forms of marriage. Victims of slavery are at increased risk of acute and chronic health problems, injuries from dangerous working and living conditions, and physical and sexual abuse. These issues are compounded by restricted access to high-quality healthcare. Slavery is a violation of many human rights, including the right to health. New Zealand has obligations under international law to ensure that all victims of slavery have access to adequate physical and psychological care. The health sector has opportunities to identify, intervene and protect victims. This requires doctors and other health practitioners to demonstrate their leadership, knowledge and commitment towards addressing slavery and its health consequences in ways that are effective and do not cause further harm. Key recommendations for a safe approach towards identifying and managing people in situations of slavery include building rapport, and culturally competent practice with an empathetic non-judgmental approach. We also recommend that health organisations and regulatory and professional bodies develop culturally competent guidelines to respond safely to those identified in situations of slavery. These responses should be based on the respect, promotion and protection of human rights, and occur within a robust person-centric coordinated government response to addressing slavery in New Zealand.

  3. The First New Zealanders? An Alternative Interpretation of Stable Isotope Data from Wairau Bar, New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Brown

    Full Text Available PLOS ONE Volume 8 includes an article "The First New Zealanders: Patterns of Diet and Mobility Revealed through Isotope Analysis". The paper proposes that burial groups within the settlement phase site of Wairau Bar differ in terms of dietary stable isotopes and 87Sr/86Sr. The authors argue this difference is probably due to one group being a founding population while the other burials are later. Here we review the work of Kinaston et al. and present an alternative analysis and interpretation of the isotopic data. Treating the isotope data independently from cultural and biological factors we find that sex best explains dietary variation. Our reassessment of 87Sr/86Sr confirms the authors original finding of high mobility of early New Zealanders but suggests a larger range of individuals should be considered 'non-local' on current evidence.

  4. Perceptions of migrant doctors joining the New Zealand medical workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Steven; St George, Ian; Upsdell, Ruth

    2006-02-17

    New Zealand, like many first World countries, has become increasingly dependent on overseas-trained doctors (OTDs). This qualitative study identifies and explores issues of concern to OTDs when first integrating into the New Zealand medical system through the New Zealand Registration Examination (NZREX) pathway. The data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups involving 10 OTDs who were working in a New Zealand hospital. The study identified four key issues: work issues which included difficulty finding employment and difficulty integrating into their work role; a bridging programme which improved the ability of OTDs to gain knowledge and experience of the New Zealand medical working environment; financial difficulties which were a major impediment to attaining registration and a career pathway in New Zealand; and bureaucratic barriers (including examinations and information availability), which were seen as necessary but unsympathetic processes in gaining registration. Sociocultural educational theory provides a useful framework for understanding the difficulties faced by OTDs integrating into a New Zealand medical workforce.

  5. The burden of cancer in 25-29 year olds in New Zealand: a case for a wider adolescent and young adult age range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kirsten R; Utley, Victoria; Watson, Heidi; Sullivan, Michael J; Spearing, Ruth

    2018-01-19

    New Zealand currently defines the adolescent and young adult (AYA) group for cancer services as young people 12-24 years of age, while other countries favour a designation of 15-29 years. This study was undertaken to compare cancer incidence and survival among 25-29 year olds to New Zealand's younger AYA population and to assess survival for our 15-29 year population against international benchmarks. Diagnostic and demographic information for cancer registrations between 2000 and 2009 for 25-29 year olds was obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. Incidence rates (IR) and five-year relative survival estimates were calculated according to AYA diagnostic group/sub-group, sex and prioritised ethnicity. 1,541 new primary malignant cancers were diagnosed (IR: 588 per million). Five-year relative survival was 85%, but was significantly lower for Māori and Pacific peoples (both 77%) compared to non-Māori/non-Pacific peoples (88%). In the overall 15-29 year AYA cohort, disease-specific outcomes for bone tumours (46%) and breast cancer (64%) were inferior to international standards. New Zealand 25 to 29 year olds are at twice the risk of developing cancer as those 15-24 years. Given that the survival disparities identified were remarkably consistent with those for younger AYA, consideration should be given widening New Zealand's AYA age range.

  6. Deaf New Zealand Sign Language users' access to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witko, Joanne; Boyles, Pauline; Smiler, Kirsten; McKee, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    The research described was undertaken as part of a Sub-Regional Disability Strategy 2017-2022 across the Wairarapa, Hutt Valley and Capital and Coast District Health Boards (DHBs). The aim was to investigate deaf New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) users' quality of access to health services. Findings have formed the basis for developing a 'NZSL plan' for DHBs in the Wellington sub-region. Qualitative data was collected from 56 deaf participants and family members about their experiences of healthcare services via focus group, individual interviews and online survey, which were thematically analysed. Contextual perspective was gained from 57 healthcare professionals at five meetings. Two professionals were interviewed, and 65 staff responded to an online survey. A deaf steering group co-designed the framework and methods, and validated findings. Key issues reported across the health system include: inconsistent interpreter provision; lack of informed consent for treatment via communication in NZSL; limited access to general health information in NZSL and the reduced ability of deaf patients to understand and comply with treatment options. This problematic communication with NZSL users echoes international evidence and other documented local evidence for patients with limited English proficiency. Deaf NZSL users face multiple barriers to equitable healthcare, stemming from linguistic and educational factors and inaccessible service delivery. These need to be addressed through policy and training for healthcare personnel that enable effective systemic responses to NZSL users. Deaf participants emphasise that recognition of their identity as members of a language community is central to improving their healthcare experiences.

  7. Service management: New Zealand's model of resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, L

    1990-12-01

    The health system in New Zealand, which in many respects is similar to that of the United Kingdom NHS, is currently undergoing massive change. In 1989 fourteen area health boards were formed, each board being accountable to the minister of health for achieving health goals and providing comprehensive health services for its defined population. This process has been assisted by the promulgation of a set of national health goals and a national health charter. Within area health boards the principle of general management is being implemented. Organisational structures are moving away from hospitals to services in a process which is being called service management which may be defined as the decentralisation of general management to the clinical workface. Similar in many respects to the resource management initiatives in the NHS it brings together medical, nursing and business management at the operational level with one person being accountable for the achievement of quality of care objectives within a budgetary framework. Budgetary restraints in excess of 10% have been achieved in the last 12 months partly through the service management process. Service management is seen to be a major paradigm shift in health services organisation and could be of international significance in its potential for achieving medical accountability for cost containment and quality assurance, and for coordinating care across agency and disciplinary boundaries.

  8. Biosocial profile of New Zealand prosthetic eye wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith R; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-10-12

    To describe the biosocial profile of New Zealand (NZ) artificial eye wearers and establish a basis for future research and international comparison. This retrospective study surveyed 431 NZ artificial eye wearers to investigate their ethnicity, gender, age, causes of eye loss, age of current prosthesis, ocular prosthetic maintenance regimes and the extent and severity of discharge associated with prosthesis wear. Approximately 3000 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Accidents were the main cause of eye loss prior to 1990 and medical conditions have been the main cause since. In the 1960s, the ratio of men to women losing an eye from accidents was 5:1, but during the past decade the ratio was 1.4:1. Socket discharge occurred at least twice daily for one-third of the study group. Approximately 1 in 1440 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Decline of eye loss due to accidents is consistent with decreasing workplace and traffic accidents and may be due to improved medical management, workplace safety standards and safer roads. Mucoid discharge is prevalent in the anophthalmic population of NZ and an evidence based treatment protocol for discharge associated with prosthesis wear is needed. Research into this distressing condition is planned.

  9. The University of Canterbury Library (Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jevnikar-Zajc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful performance of study and research programs of individual academic institutions depends on the quality of its support services, including library services. An example of such a service is the University of Canterbury Library in New Zealand,which fulfills its mission and set goals on the basis of international library standards.Adequately furnished areas, well organized work and professional staff enable the library to function successfully. Its work is mainly aimed at user education and information technology development. This is achieved by bringing information closer to the user by means of a well organized communication process, user education for active use of library services, by offering reference and information aid and by enabling different access to information resources and library services. The majority of library services can be processed by users themselves - eg. retrieval, ordering and browsing through materials, the use of electronic resources, information printing, learning how to use library services and resources. The library is an essential part of an information centre of a wider area of the Christchurch and Canterbury region and as such does not serve the students’ needs alone but follows globalisation trends in the field of acquisition, accessibility and information exchange.

  10. Measuring earnings quality: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurul Houqe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilize two basic approaches to measure the quality of earnings which control two different dimensions of earnings management. The research design is structured primary on the basis of calculating two different measures of the quality of earnings on the industry level and on the company level. We calculate earnings quality for New Zealand public firms from the OSIRIS (http://www.osiris.com database for 2004-2007. This research concludes that various stakeholders should apply more than one measure for the quality of earning in order to have strong evidence about the level of quality before taking any corrective action or making any decision related to that company. If one company is having low quality of earning according to one technique and high quality of earnings according to another, the stakeholders cannot have a final conclusion about that company and they need more investigations and analysis to assess the quality of earnings

  11. Wind power developments in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, P.; White, G.

    1997-01-01

    New Zealand currently generates approximately 86% of its electricity requirement from renewable energy sources, predominantly large hydro. Forecasts show that due to the expected increase in demand, a new mid-sized power station will be required by 1997/98. Due to the commercialisation and restructuring of the electricity market, and despite the country's commitment to CO 2 reductions, proposed new large generation projects are gas fired stations. The country's first commercial wind farm was commissioned in June 1996, in a market where there are no subsidies or tax benefits for non traditional energy generation. For wind power projects to compete with other forms of electricity generation, they need to take full advantage of all the benefits of being embedded into the local network. This paper considers these issues in the existing electricity market. (author)

  12. Gas in electricity generation [In New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Gas is New Zealand's major thermal fuel for electricity generation. This paper describes what influences the volumes of gas burnt by ECNZ, and forecasts future gas demands for electricity generation. It also reviews the uncertainties associated with these forecasts and likely competition in building new electricity generating stations and outlines the strategy now being formulated to accommodate them. Because ECNZ's generation system is hydro-based, relatively small rapid changes in hydrological conditions can significantly affect the amount of gas used. This situation will change over time with major increases in thermal generation likely to be needed over the next 20 years. However, there are considerable uncertainties on gas supply and electricity demand levels in the long run, which will complicate investment and fuel decisions. (Author)

  13. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  14. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  15. The practice of surrogacy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynley; Snelling, Jeanne; Tomlins-Jahnke, Huia

    2012-06-01

    Commercial surrogacy is prohibited in New Zealand by the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2004 (HART Act). However, altruistic clinic-assisted surrogacy is permitted. Couples wishing to attempt altruistic surrogacy must apply for approval to a statutorily appointed ethics committee. One of seven principles that underpin the HART Act stipulates that the needs, values and beliefs of Maori (NZ's indigenous population) should be considered and treated with respect. This paper reviews the outcomes of surrogacy applications since the HART Act was established and the uptake of surrogacy by Maori. The authors examined the demographic data provided to the ethics committee by way of surrogacy applications and the outcome data provided by fertility clinics. This paper reviews the outcomes for surrogacy applications: the number accepted/declined, the number of live births, those applications discontinued and uptake by Maori. Of 104 applications for surrogacy between 2005 and 2010, 4 (3.8%) were declined. By July 2011, of 100 approved, there have been 26 (26%) live births; 52 (52%) were discontinued, and 22 (22%) remain ongoing. Maori are much less likely to utilise surrogacy. Of the 104 original applications, 9 (8.6%) Maori women were willing to act as a surrogate, and 2 (1.9%) were intended mothers. 7 (6.7%) Maori were partners of a surrogate, with 2 (1.9%) intending mothers having Maori partners. The process of surrogacy applications is comprehensive and robust, resulting in few being declined. Further research is required to discover why applications are discontinued and why, despite explicit attempts to meet the needs of Maori, few utilise surrogacy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  17. Regional model simulations of New Zealand climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, James A.; Katzfey, Jack J.; Nguyen, Kim C.; McGregor, John L.

    1998-03-01

    Simulation of New Zealand climate is examined through the use of a regional climate model nested within the output of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation nine-level general circulation model (GCM). R21 resolution GCM output is used to drive a regional model run at 125 km grid spacing over the Australasian region. The 125 km run is used in turn to drive a simulation at 50 km resolution over New Zealand. Simulations with a full seasonal cycle are performed for 10 model years. The focus is on the quality of the simulation of present-day climate, but results of a doubled-CO2 run are discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of mean simulated precipitation and surface temperatures improve markedly as horizontal resolution is increased, through the better resolution of the country's orography. However, increased horizontal resolution leads to a positive bias in precipitation. At 50 km resolution, simulated frequency distributions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are statistically similar to those of observations at many stations, while frequency distributions of daily precipitation appear to be statistically different to those of observations at most stations. Modeled daily precipitation variability at 125 km resolution is considerably less than observed, but is comparable to, or exceeds, observed variability at 50 km resolution. The sensitivity of the simulated climate to changes in the specification of the land surface is discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of the frequency of extreme temperatures and precipitation are generally well modeled. Under a doubling of CO2, the frequency of precipitation extremes changes only slightly at most locations, while air frosts become virtually unknown except at high-elevation sites.

  18. Updated Palaeotsunami Database for Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, M. R.; Goff, J. R.; King, D. N.; Robbins, J.; Duesing, U.; Franz, T.; Borrero, J. C.; Watkins, A.

    2016-12-01

    The updated configuration, design, and implementation of a national palaeotsunami (pre-historic tsunami) database for Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) is near completion. This tool enables correlation of events along different stretches of the NZ coastline, provides information on frequency and extent of local, regional and distant-source tsunamis, and delivers detailed information on the science and proxies used to identify the deposits. In A/NZ a plethora of data, scientific research and experience surrounds palaeotsunami deposits, but much of this information has been difficult to locate, has variable reporting standards, and lacked quality assurance. The original database was created by Professor James Goff while working at the National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research in A/NZ, but has subsequently been updated during his tenure at the University of New South Wales. The updating and establishment of the national database was funded by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), led by Environment Canterbury Regional Council, and supported by all 16 regions of A/NZ's local government. Creation of a single database has consolidated a wide range of published and unpublished research contributions from many science providers on palaeotsunamis in A/NZ. The information is now easily accessible and quality assured and allows examination of frequency, extent and correlation of events. This provides authoritative scientific support for coastal-marine planning and risk management. The database will complement the GNS New Zealand Historical Database, and contributes to a heightened public awareness of tsunami by being a "one-stop-shop" for information on past tsunami impacts. There is scope for this to become an international database, enabling the pacific-wide correlation of large events, as well as identifying smaller regional ones. The Australian research community has already expressed an interest, and the database is also compatible with a

  19. Transitioning to a hydrogen economy in New Zealand - An EnergyScape project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Rob; Clemens, Tony; Gardiner, Alister; Leaver, Jonathan

    2010-09-15

    The project identifies how hydrogen could become a significant contributor to New Zealand's energy system by 2050. Future transport scenarios are modeled with a changing mix of internal combustion engine (ICE), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) over the period between the present day and 2050. For scenarios the model takes account of the electricity generation requirements and costs, the resources used, and the renewable content of that electricity generation. With high penetration of FCV, or a mix of FCV and BEV, NZ targets for renewable electricity generation and transport related emission reductions can be achieved.

  20. Competition for petroleum exploration capital in the Asia-Pacific region - implications for New Zealand and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the future energy production and demand profiles for the Asia Pacific region and the global allocation of exploration capital made by major international petroleum companies. The implications of these factors for future government petroleum exploration policies within the region are considered, in particular the Australian and New Zealand situations, together with likely effects of such measures on the ability of exploration and production companies to raise capital. (Author)

  1. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  2. "Un-Learning and Re-Learning": The Experiences of Chinese Undergraduates in a First Year Management Class in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoyan; Jones, Glyndwr

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's economy over the last two decades saw many Chinese students going overseas to study. Like many western countries, New Zealand benefited from increased international student enrolments, with Chinese students making up the largest proportion of the numbers. Many of these students experienced "culture shock" in their…

  3. Variation by Age in Parish Involvement Scores of Catholic Church Attenders in Australia, New Zealand and the United States: Age Effect or Generational Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article examines levels of involvement of weekly church attenders in Catholic parishes in Australia, New Zealand and the United States through an analysis of data from the International Congregational Life Survey. Factor analysis was used to identify four questionnaire items related to parish involvement which were then combined to produce a…

  4. The Intersection of Advertising and Antitrust in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Matthews; Gus Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The enforcement fusion of (some) advertising and antitrust law, coupled with other advertising law, provide a powerful toolkit for New Zealand’s regulator and competitors alike. Andrew Matthews & Gus Stewart (Matthews Law)

  5. The long locum: health propaganda in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Derek

    2003-03-14

    Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.

  6. Innate resistance of New Zealand paua to abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J

    2017-06-01

    The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Culture and Sexuality: Cognitive-Emotional Determinants of Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Iranian and New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmanafi, Atefe; Nobre, Pedro; Winter, Sam; Tilley, P J Matt; Jahromi, Reza Ghorban

    2018-05-01

    cultural backgrounds. Limitations include the lack of evaluation of psychological and interpersonal variables that may impact on women's sexual dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that there may be a role of culture in shaping beliefs, attitudes, and values toward sexuality; and provide evidence for the effect of cognitive-emotional variables in predicting women's sexual dissatisfaction. Abdolmanafi A, Nobre P, Winter S, et al. Culture and Sexuality: Cognitive-Emotional Determinants of Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Iranian and New Zealand Women. J Sex Med 2018;15:687-697. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in New Zealand children Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjardin, Natalia; Reed, Peter; Albert, Ben; Mouat, Fran; Carter, Phillipa J; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Gunn, Alistair; Jefferies, Craig

    2018-04-24

    It is important to understand whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in childhood for health-care planning and clinical management. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of T2DM in New Zealand children, aged Auckland, New Zealand. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a population-based referral cohort from 1995 to 2015. Hundred and four children presented with T2DM over the 21-year period. The female:male ratio was 1.8:1, at mean (standard deviation) age 12.9 (1.9) years, body mass index standard deviation score +2.3 (0.5), blood sugar 15.3 (8.5) mmol/L, HbA1c 76 (28) mmol/mol. At diagnosis, 90% had acanthosis nigricans and 48% were symptomatic. In all, 33% were Maori, 46% Pacific Island, 15% Asian/Middle Eastern and 6% European. There was a progressive secular increase of 5% year on year in incidence. The overall annual incidence of T2DM <15 years of age was 1.5/100 000 (1.2-1.9) (95% confidence interval), with higher rates in Pacific Island (5.9/100 000) and Maori (4.1/100 000). The incidence of T2DM in children <15 years of age in New Zealand has increased progressively at 5%/year over the last 21 years. The risk was disproportionately associated with girls and children from high-risk ethnic groups. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Recent Trends in Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Police Detainees in New Zealand, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Prasad, Jitesh; Parker, Karl; Rychert, Marta; Barnes, Helen Moewaka

    New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i.e. Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch) from 2010 to 2015. The proportion of police detainees who had used methamphetamine in the previous year increased from 28% in 2012 to 36% in 2015. Drinking prior to arrest declined from 41% in 2013 to 28% in 2015. The use of cannabis in the past year declined slightly from 76% in 2011 to 69% in 2015. The proportion using ecstasy in the previous year steadily declined from 28% in 2011 to 19% in 2015. Only small minorities had recently used cocaine or an opioid. Use of methamphetamine and ecstasy increased in Christchurch. Growing methamphetamine use is consistent with record seizures of methamphetamine over the past 2-3 years. Increasing drug use in Christchurch may reflect factors related to the devastating earthquakes in 2011 and the subsequent city rebuild, including an influx of construction workers, more organised trafficking groups and earthquake-related stress. The decline in cannabis use may be related to the emergence of 'legal' synthetic cannabinoids. The decline in ecstasy use may be the result of recent domestic enforcement operations and the overall global shortage of MDMA. The decline in alcohol drinking may be due to the introduction of pre-charge formal warnings for minor alcohol and disorder offences, and new restrictions on alcohol premise opening hours. Acknowledgements: The New Zealand Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) research study is funded by the New Zealand Police and is conducted by SHORE and Whariki Research

  10. Working with racism: a qualitative study of the perspectives of Māori (indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) registered nurses on a global phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huria, Tania; Cuddy, Jessica; Lacey, Cameron; Pitama, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Substantial health disparities exist between Māori--the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand--and non-Māori New Zealanders. This article explores the experience and impact of racism on Māori registered nurses within the New Zealand health system. The narratives of 15 Māori registered nurses were analyzed to identify the effects of racism. This Māori nursing cohort and the data on racism form a secondary analysis drawn from a larger research project investigating the experiences of indigenous health workers in New Zealand and Canada. Jones's levels of racism were utilized as a coding frame for the structural analysis of the transcribed Māori registered nurse interviews. Participants experienced racism on institutional, interpersonal, and internalized levels, leading to marginalization and being overworked yet undervalued. Māori registered nurses identified a lack of acknowledgement of dual nursing competencies: while their clinical skills were validated, their cultural skills-their skills in Hauora Māori--were often not. Experiences of racism were a commonality. Racism--at every level--can be seen as highly influential in the recruitment, training, retention, and practice of Māori registered nurses. The nursing profession in New Zealand and other countries of indigenous peoples needs to acknowledge the presence of racism within training and clinical environments as well as supporting indigenous registered nurses to develop and implement indigenous dual cultural-clinical competencies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  12. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  13. An Online Survey of New Zealand Vapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Truman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using electronic cigarettes (vaping is controversial, but is increasingly widespread. This paper reports the results of an electronic survey of vapers in New Zealand, a country where the sale and supply of e-liquids containing nicotine is illegal, although vapers can legally access e-liquids from overseas. An on-line survey was conducted, using vaper and smoking cessation networks for recruitment, with follow up surveys conducted 1 and 2 months after the initial survey. 218 participants were recruited. Almost all had been smokers, but three quarters no longer smoked, with the remainder having significantly reduced their tobacco use. Three participants were non-smokers before starting to vape, but none had gone on to become smokers. The overriding motivation to begin and continue vaping was to stop or to reduce smoking. The results were consistent with a progression from initially both vaping and smoking using less effective electronic cigarette types, then moving to more powerful devices, experimentation with flavors and nicotine strengths—all resulting in reducing or stopping tobacco use. Lack of access to nicotine and lack of support for their chosen cessation method were the main problems reported. Vaping had resulted in effective smoking cessation for the majority of participants.

  14. Determinants of nomination committee: New Zealand evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A sizable volume of corporate governance literature documents that an independent and competent board of directors matter for organizational success. In order to function effectively, board comprises of different sub-committees and the three most common sub-committees are audit committees, compensation committees and nomination committees. Surprisingly, there is a paucity of research in understanding the determinants of nomination committee notwithstanding the importance of an independent nomination committee in board selection process. We contribute to the nomination committee literature by investigating the factors associated with the determination of nomination committees in New Zealand. We find that cross-sectional variation in the firm-specific characteristics affect the existence of nomination committees. This finding casts doubt on the „one-size-fits all‟ approach of corporate governance. Our logistic regression of the nomination committee determinants indicates that firm size, governance regulation and busy directors are positively associated with the existence of nomination committees, whereas firm leverage, controlling shareholders, and director independence are negatively related to the formation of nomination committees.

  15. An Online Survey of New Zealand Vapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Fraser, Trish

    2018-01-01

    Using electronic cigarettes (vaping) is controversial, but is increasingly widespread. This paper reports the results of an electronic survey of vapers in New Zealand, a country where the sale and supply of e-liquids containing nicotine is illegal, although vapers can legally access e-liquids from overseas. An on-line survey was conducted, using vaper and smoking cessation networks for recruitment, with follow up surveys conducted 1 and 2 months after the initial survey. 218 participants were recruited. Almost all had been smokers, but three quarters no longer smoked, with the remainder having significantly reduced their tobacco use. Three participants were non-smokers before starting to vape, but none had gone on to become smokers. The overriding motivation to begin and continue vaping was to stop or to reduce smoking. The results were consistent with a progression from initially both vaping and smoking using less effective electronic cigarette types, then moving to more powerful devices, experimentation with flavors and nicotine strengths—all resulting in reducing or stopping tobacco use. Lack of access to nicotine and lack of support for their chosen cessation method were the main problems reported. Vaping had resulted in effective smoking cessation for the majority of participants. PMID:29382129

  16. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  17. Deuterium in New Zealand rivers and streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Cox, M.A.; James, M.R.; Lyon, G.

    1983-07-01

    Over 750 deuterium measurements on rivers and streams in New Zealand are reported. Monthly samples were collected for periods of several years from a number of representative rivers. These show irregular storm-to-storm as well as seasonal deuterium variations. The seasonal variations range from as low as 1 per mille for lake-fed rivers to 8-10 per mille for rivers with large spring snow-melt contributions. Variations in mean annual ΔD values are believed to reflect changes in climatic variables; the present data will be used to compare with future changes. The bulk of the data are single samples; these show a geographic variation related to the altitude, latitude and climatic character of the catchments, with the highest deuterium contents (ΔD = -20 per mille) occurring in the far north, and lowest contents (-80 per mille) in the inland Otago region. Regression equations derived for the ΔD dependence on altitude (h) and latitude (l), are ΔD = -0.0169 h - 30.2 and westerly influence. Eastern climatic zones have lower deuterium contents because of rainout effects on the axial ranges. Contours of constant

  18. The Influence of IFRS Adoption on Corporate Transparency and Accountability: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edeigba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the implications of the gap between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards (NZIFRS on financial reporting transparency, accountability and corporate fraud. Content analysis of IFRS and NZIFRS was carried out to determine if there are differences between IFRS and NZIFRS. Four IFRS, namely IAS 12, IFRS 13, IFRS 15, IAS 17 and IFRS 16 were analysed on the basis of adoption concessions and Reduced Disclosure Regime (RDR for tier 1 and 2 entities. The findings from these standards led to a review of the associated IFRS to further understand the implications of the standards on financial reporting transparency and decline in incidences of corporate fraud. We found that the difference between IFRS and NZIFRS lies in the financial reporting framework for tier 2 entities. However, we did not find a difference between IFRS and NZIFRS for entities in tier 1 but we identified a decline in incidences of corporate fraud after IFRS was adopted. We further identified the presence of information asymmetry for tier 2 which is capable of retaining Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs. These differences may increase the incidence of corporate fraud among the entities in tier 2 of External Reporting Framework. This is due to an excessive concession from IFRS implementation in New Zealand.

  19. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  20. Is health workforce sustainability in Australia and New Zealand a realistic policy goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James M; Naccarella, Lucio; Brooks, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses what health workforce 'sustainability' might mean for Australia and New Zealand, given the policy direction set out in the World Health Organization draft code on international recruitment of health workers. The governments in both countries have in the past made policy statements about the desirability of health workforce 'self-sufficiency', but OECD data show that both have a high level of dependence on internationally recruited health professionals relative to most other OECD countries. The paper argues that if a target of 'self-sufficiency' or sustainability were to be based on meeting health workforce requirements from home based training, both Australia and New Zealand fall far short of this measure, and continue to be active recruiters. The paper stresses that there is no common agreed definition of what health workforce 'self-sufficiency', or 'sustainability' is in practice, and that without an agreed definition it will be difficult for policy-makers to move the debate on to reaching agreement and possibly setting measurable targets or timelines for achievement. The paper concludes that any policy decisions related to health workforce sustainability will also have to taken in the context of a wider community debate on what is required of a health system and how is it to be funded.

  1. Revolution in New Zealand's Radiation Protection Legislation and Evolution and Continual Improvement in its Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.

    2004-01-01

    The safe use of ionising radiation in New Zealand is regulated by the Radiation Protection Act 1965 and the Radiation Protection Regulations 1982, which are administered by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL). This legislation is now out of date and creates difficulties for New Zealand in meeting international standards of radiation safety and security, and complying with obligations under international treaties. These problems can be addressed by new legislation that would change the powers and functions of the regulatory authority, and change the responsibilities of licensees under the Act. However historically NRL has provided radiation services as well as acting as regulatory authority. This has the potential to create a conflict of interest in making regulatory judgements. Over the preceding 50 years NRL has undergone an evolution that has resulted in a clarification of the regulatory functions, and development of a quality management system that is now accredited to ISO standards. This paper presents a possible structure of a new Act, and discusses the role of quality management in maintaining the independence of regulatory authority. (Author)

  2. Early nurse attrition in New Zealand and associated policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L; Clendon, J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the factors contributing to nurses choosing to exit the nursing profession before retirement age. Population growth, ageing and growing demand for health services mean increased demand for nurses. Better retention could help meet this demand, yet little work has been done in New Zealand to understand early attrition. An online survey of registered and enrolled nurses and nurse practitioners who had left nursing was used. This study reports analysis of responses from 285 ex-nurses aged under 55. The primary reasons nurses left the profession were as follows: workplace concerns; personal challenges; career factors; family reasons; lack of confidence; leaving for overseas; unwillingness to complete educational requirements; poor work-life balance; and inability to find suitable nursing work. Most nurses discussed their intentions to leave with a family member or manager and most reported gaining transferrable skills through nursing. Nurses leave for many reasons. Implementing positive practice environments and individualized approaches to retaining staff may help reduce this attrition. Generational changes in the nature of work and careers mean that nurses may continue to leave the profession sooner than anticipated by policymakers. If the nursing workforce is to be able to meet projected need, education, recruitment and retention policies must urgently address issues leading to early attrition. In particular, policies improving the wider environmental context of nursing practice and ensuring that working environments are safe and nurses are well supported must be developed and implemented. Equally, national nursing workforce planning must take into account that nursing is no longer viewed as a career for life. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  3. International power opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Key factors in international development were discussed, using TransAlta Energy Corporation as an example. Trans-Alta is a company generating 4,500 MW of electricity from coal, hydro and natural gas. It has operating facilities in Canada, Argentina and New Zealand, including extensive coal mining interests in Canada. The climate for international opportunities in the energy field were judged to be very good in view of the projected requirement for some 900,000 MW of new power generation in different parts of the world by the year 2003. The five key factors identified for international power development were: (1) using core skills to add value, (2) have a long-term focus, (3) focus on specific countries and selected regions, (4) develop strong relationships with local partners, and (5) develop appropriate projects. 2 figs

  4. Stimulating the clinical academics of tomorrow: a survey of research opportunities for medical students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S; Wells, Cameron I

    2017-09-22

    Developing the clinical academic workforce of the future is a priority of international relevance. Despite a number of measures implemented to address this challenge, a small proportion of medical students engage in research. Lack of knowledge of available research opportunities, and difficulty finding projects and suitable mentors are key barriers to undergraduate medical research. To date, there is no consolidated source of information on undergraduate research training opportunities and their outcomes available to medical students in New Zealand. Based on a comprehensive review of the published and grey literature and the authors' personal experiences of research training activities as medical students, this article presents an overview of the research training opportunities available to medical students in New Zealand. Challenges facing medical student research involvement are discussed and current knowledge gaps in the literature are highlighted. The article concludes with suggested strategies to help promote research training opportunities and support students through their research experience.

  5. New Zealand among global social media initiative leaders for primary care advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Scott-Jones, Joseph; Pinho-Costa, Luís

    2016-06-01

    The international '#1WordforFamilyMedicine' initiative explores the identity of General Practitioners (GPs) and Family Physicians (FPs) by allowing the international Family Medicine community to collaborate on advocating for the discipline via social media. The New Zealand version attracted 83 responses on social media. Thematic analysis was performed on the responses and a 'word cloud' image was created based on an image identifying the country around the world - that of the silver fern. The '#1WorldforFamilyMedicine' project was promoted by WONCA (World Organisation of Family Doctors) globally to help celebrate World Family Doctor Day on 19 May 2015. To date, over 80 images have been created in 60 different countries on six continents. The images represent GPs' love for their profession and the community they serve. We hope that this initiative will help inspire current and future Family Medicine and Primary Care providers.

  6. Anaglyph, Landsat Overlay: Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents. As seen here, the natural terrain imposes strong control over the urban growth pattern. Rugged hills generally rising to 300 meters (1,000 feet) help protect the city and harbor from strong winter winds.New Zealand is seismically active and faults are readily seen in the topography. The Wellington Fault forms the straight northwestern (upper left) shoreline of the harbor. Toward the southwest (lower left) the fault crosses through the city, then forms linear canyons in the hills before continuing offshore. Toward the northeast (upper right) the fault forms the sharp mountain front along the northern edge of the heavily populated Hutt Valley.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  7. Corporal punishment and child maltreatment in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    On 2 May, 2007, the New Zealand Parliament passed a law repealing Section 59 of the Crimes Act. In so doing, New Zealand became the first English-speaking nation in the world to make corporal punishment of a child illegal. The passage of this legislation was surrounded by intense and persistent public debate, and supporters of corporal punishment continue to advocate against the law change to the present day. In Sweden, where the first stage of similar repeal took place in 1957, it may be difficult for many to understand the strength of the public opposition to this change in New Zealand. This article will present a viewpoint on the evolution of the debate in New Zealand, review the wider context of child maltreatment and family violence in New Zealand and summarize a range of attempts to prevent or intervene effectively in the cycle of dysfunction. Child maltreatment and family violence are public health issues of great importance, and a stain on all societies. While corporal punishment may be a significant contributing factor, there is no single 'solution'. Change must occur on multiple levels (political, economic, cultural, familial and professional) before the tide will turn.

  8. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The prevalence, correlates and reasons for using electronic cigarettes among New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Judy; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Walton, Darren

    2015-06-01

    There is strong interest in the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) globally. This paper is the first to report population-based data on ever-use and current use of e-cigarettes among New Zealand adults. The paper also extends previous international studies by exploring the reasons for trying e-cigarettes, ever users' recall of brand(s) they have ever tried, and current users' recall of their current brand. The Health and Lifestyles Survey (HLS) is a biennial face-to-face in-house survey of New Zealand adults aged 15 years or over. In 2014, 2594 participants completed the survey. Ever-use and current use of e-cigarettes were 13.1% and 0.8% respectively. Tobacco smoking status predicted the use of e-cigarettes, with current smokers reporting the highest rate of use (50% ever-use and 4% current use). Among current smokers who had tried an e-cigarette, curiosity (49%) and desire to quit smoking (37%) were the most common reasons for trying. About half of the ever-users could not name any of the brand(s) they had ever tried, and one-fifth of current users could not name their current brand. Compared with other countries, New Zealand has a high rate of ever-use. Among current smokers, one in two had tried an e-cigarette. However, progression to regular use appears to be rare. The finding that 18% of current e-cigarette users could not name their current brand highlights the importance of investigating users' knowledge of e-cigarettes in general and assessing the factors that influence brand choice such as advertising, price, and accessibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network - OzFlux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McHugh, Ian; Arndt, Stefan K.; Campbell, David; Cleugh, Helen A.; Cleverly, James; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Eamus, Derek; Evans, Bradley; Ewenz, Cacilia; Grace, Peter; Griebel, Anne; Haverd, Vanessa; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Huete, Alfredo; Isaac, Peter; Kanniah, Kasturi; Leuning, Ray; Liddell, Michael J.; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne; Moore, Caitlin; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Rutledge, Susanna; Schroder, Ivan; Silberstein, Richard; Southall, Patricia; Yee, Mei Sun; Tapper, Nigel J.; van Gorsel, Eva; Vote, Camilla; Walker, Jeff; Wardlaw, Tim

    2016-10-01

    OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70 %) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620 gC m-2 yr-1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820 gC m-2 yr-1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.

  12. Detection and analysis of endogenous badnaviruses in the New Zealand flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, David J; Orlovich, David A; Guy, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    Badnaviruses and their host-integrated DNA occur in tropical crops and a few northern temperate species. Following the discovery of a badnavirus on a subantarctic island with floristic links to New Zealand, we postulated that badnaviruses exist in the New Zealand flora. Badnavirus reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences consist of variable regions flanked by highly conserved regions. This study used RT sequences to detect and characterize badnavirus sequences in the New Zealand flora and to investigate their utility for the study of broader aspects of plant biology. Molecular diversity of RT sequences was analysed using polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In a study of the genus Melicytus, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were compared with the RT data. No freely replicating badnaviruses were detected but more than half of the species (37/60) contained RT sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of 21 RT sequences formed monophyletic groups distinct from other species and from badnaviruses. No frameshift mutations occurred in any of the sequences translated in silico. More detailed study of the genus Melicytus indicated broader applications for our approach. Analysis of RT sequences revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized species (confirmed using ITS). Inheritance of DGGE profiles by Melicytus ramiflorus seedlings suggested that this species may undergo apomixis. The presence of integrated badnavirus sequences in a wide range of taxa from this Southern Hemisphere flora indicates that these sequences may be common in many temperate regions. Potential to activate viruses from these sequences should be considered when placing these species in tissue culture or under other forms of abiotic or genomic stress. Analysis of endogenous RT sequences shows potential for the study of systematics, phylogenetics and plant reproductive biology.

  13. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  14. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Marshall, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  15. New Zealand signs up to co-operate with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    On 4 December 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN and the government of New Zealand was signed in the presence of Peter Hamilton, New Zealand's ambassador to Switzerland. This MoU concerns the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy particle physics between Ernest Rutherford's birthplace and CERN, which now hosts one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).    In anticipation of the MoU, two New Zealand universities (the University of Auckland and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch) have already joined the CMS collaboration to work on pixel detectors, where they can benefit from the expertise of the pixel group at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These detectors are not only valuable in high-energy particle physics, but also serve medical applications.

  16. Repairing Organisational Legitimacy : the Case of the New Zealand Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Samkin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.

  17. Information behaviour of recent Chinese immigrants in Auckland, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Machet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public library services in New Zealand are being re-examined in light of the developments in ICT and an increasinglymulticultural population. The research question investigated was “Can an internet portal on a public library website beused to meet the information needs of new Chinese Mandarin immigrants to the Auckland region of New Zealand?” In anattempt to effectively answer the research question and sub-questions a literature survey was carried out focusing on twoaspects relevant to the study: immigration theory and information behaviour (IB. Thirty Chinese Mandarin speakingrecent migrants to the Auckland region of New Zealand were interviewed in-depth to determine their IB and resourcesused. The findings indicate that respondents were in need of everyday survival information. The findings suggest that amore coordinated approach to information provision, for example through a library web portal, will assist respondents intheir search for information relating to their initial settlement.

  18. My New Zealand lesbian studies through time and times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Alison J

    2012-01-01

    In this article Alison J. Laurie reflects on her political activism and how it informs her academic scholarship and research interests relating to lesbian studies in New Zealand. She concludes that her desire for social change and commitment to lesbian community development inspired her early activism and has continued to inform her activism as well as her academic research and writing. She discusses her involvement in lesbian and gay organizations and campaigns, in New Zealand, Scandinavia, the United States and the United Kingdom, and the ideas that have informed and influenced her work. She pioneered the first lesbian studies courses in New Zealand, initially through community education, and from 1990 for university credit, and considers the contribution these courses can make. Finally, she reflects on several of her articles, book chapters and books considering how her work has developed during the past 50 years.

  19. 15 CFR 740.11 - Governments, international organizations, and international inspections under the Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.11... Bureau of Industry and Security. (b) Governments—(1) Scope. The provisions of paragraph (b) authorize..., Korea (Republic of), New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan. (c) International...

  20. Motivating Information Technology Professionals: The case of New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IT professionals play a critical role in organizations. Research indicates that they may be unique in their attitudes toward motivation and job satisfaction. In New Zealand, a shortage of skilled professionals may contribute to or impact on motivation. Using a modified model of Herzberg’s two-factor theory by Smerek and Peterson (2007, this research seeks to answer the question: what motivates New Zealand IT professionals? In response, an online questionnaire was distributed to a population of New Zealand IT professionals and the data analysed using Partial Least Squares to understand the relationship between the various dimensions of job satisfaction, the impact of personal and job characteristics, and turnover intention. The findings show that the New Zealand IT professional is primarily motivated by the nature of his or her work, followed by perceptions of responsibility, and how supervisors encourage an environment for such. Satisfaction with salary is a predictor to a lesser degree. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, professional growth opportunities, career advancement, and recognition do not have a statistically-significant positive association with motivation. We conclude that, to motivate their IT workforce, organizations should: 1 focus on the nature of the jobs that IT professionals undertake; 2 train supervisors to provide an empowering environment; 3 offer competitive salaries to retain top talent; 4 not hesitate to employ IT professionals born outside New Zealand; and 5 take account of the singularities of the New Zealand labour market in seeking to attract, recruit and retain IT professionals. Implications for policy, practice and theory are discussed.

  1. Nuclear medicine in New Zealand: a social history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear medicine in New Zealand began in 1948 at Christchurch Hospital. Hosted initially by Medical Physics Services, the radioisotope clinic in each hospital has charted its own course through disease metabolism and structure, resulting in the development of wide spectrum of clinical interest in New Zealand. Nine clinics have been established, some being more robust than others. Geographically, these clinics are widely dispersed from Auckland in North Island to Invercargill in the far south. A brief overview of their activities is given. The period under review refers mainly to the decades from 1950 to 1970. 15 refs., ills

  2. Income Inequality and Gender in New Zealand, 1998-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Papps, Kerry L.

    2004-01-01

    A number of authors have documented an increase in earnings or income inequality in New Zealand during the late 1980s and early 1990s, a period of major economic reform, however no study has evaluated changes in inequality during the post-reform era. This paper applies a recently-developed method for decomposing changes in inequality to New Zealand income and earnings data and extends it to analyse changes in inequality between men and women. Across the total working-age population, income in...

  3. Medical practice in New Zealand 1769-1860.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Ross

    2004-06-01

    New Zealand was discovered by Captain Cook in 1769. Over the next ninety years, increasing numbers of medical practitioners visited and began to settle in what became a British colony. The first medical visitors were usually naval surgeons or served on board whaling ships. The major influx of doctors occurred at the behest of the New Zealand Company between 1840 and 1848, although Christian missionaries, army doctors, and individual medical entrepreneurs also emigrated and provided services. This paper describes the pattern of medical settlement in the colony's earliest years and relates this to the health of the population and the development of medical and hospital services.

  4. Ectoparasites of livestock and companion animals in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Acg

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Extract Principal livestock species in New Zealand, namely sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, horses and deer, are hosts, collectively to at least 45 species of ectoparasites, whereas companion animals such as dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs and ferrets, share about 30 species. Tenquist and Charleston (2001) provide a host/parasite checklist of all species, together with limited information on distribution and aspects of nomenclature. Many of the parasites are not host-specific and none is restricted to New Zealand. There is only one recorded eradication, that of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, but the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, is very rare.

  5. A review of the availability and cost effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management interventions in rural Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michelle E; Spiliopoulos, Nicolaos; Collins, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease, which consumes a significant proportion of the Australian and New Zealand healthcare budget. Studies have shown that people living with COPD outside of urban areas have higher rates of hospitalisations. Two international reviews have demonstrated reduced hospital admissions and length of stay in people with COPD who participate in an integrated disease management program. However, most studies included in these reviews are in urban settings. The purpose of this review is to explore the type and cost-effectiveness of COPD management interventions located in rural or remote settings of Australia and New Zealand in order to inform planning and ongoing service development in the authors' local health district. Six databases and Google scholar were searched to find literature relating to the availability and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for the management of COPD in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand. Two studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. Both studies had small sample sizes, were single intervention studies and showed a positive influence on variables such as number of hospital admissions and length of stay at 12 months post-intervention. However, because of the limited number of studies and the lack of homogeneity of interventions, no conclusions regarding availability and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand could be drawn. Limited literature exists to inform planning and development of services for people with COPD living in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand. Approximately 50% of pulmonary rehabilitation programs are situated in rural and remote locations in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from existing programs need to be reported in a consistent and coordinated manner to allow evaluation of health resource utilisation.

  6. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  7. Te Reo Maori: Indigenous Language Acquisition in the Context of New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the status of te reo Maori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds ("Growing Up in New Zealand"), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood…

  8. Asia-Born New Zealand-Educated Business Graduates' Transition to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vivienne; McGrath, Terry; Butcher, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the Asia New Zealand Foundation commissioned a three-year project examining Asia-born New Zealand-educated business graduates' study to work transitions. Data were collected through annual online surveys and in-depth interviews. Graduates were asked to discuss their post-study experiences, reflections on studying in New Zealand, and…

  9. A Visit to a New Zealand School: Informal but On-Task, Strict but Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfengardner, Jerrold D.; O'Dell, Frank L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a visit by two educators to a primary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Discusses the development of children, educational goals, traditions, curricula, administration, and facilities of this New Zealand school. Finds the major difference is the New Zealand school's child-centered approach. (MS)

  10. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Dark, Frances; Humberstone, Verity; Jablensky, Assen; Killackey, Eóin; Kulkarni, Jayashri; McGorry, Patrick; Nielssen, Olav; Tran, Nga

    2016-05-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the clinical management of schizophrenia and related disorders for health professionals working in Australia and New Zealand. It aims to encourage all clinicians to adopt best practice principles. The recommendations represent the consensus of a group of Australian and New Zealand experts in the management of schizophrenia and related disorders. This guideline includes the management of ultra-high risk syndromes, first-episode psychoses and prolonged psychoses, including psychoses associated with substance use. It takes a holistic approach, addressing all aspects of the care of people with schizophrenia and related disorders, not only correct diagnosis and symptom relief but also optimal recovery of social function. The writing group planned the scope and individual members drafted sections according to their area of interest and expertise, with reference to existing systematic reviews and informal literature reviews undertaken for this guideline. In addition, experts in specific areas contributed to the relevant sections. All members of the writing group reviewed the entire document. The writing group also considered relevant international clinical practice guidelines. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated when the writing group judged that there was sufficient evidence on a topic. Where evidence was weak or lacking, consensus-based recommendations were formulated. Consensus-based recommendations are based on the consensus of a group of experts in the field and are informed by their agreement as a group, according to their collective clinical and research knowledge and experience. Key considerations were selected and reviewed by the writing group. To encourage wide community participation, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists invited review by its committees and members, an expert advisory committee and key stakeholders including professional bodies and special interest groups. The

  11. Case clusters of leproid granulomas in foxhounds in New Zealand and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Bronwyn; Willis, Richard; Malik, Richard; Studdert, Virginia; Collins, Desmond M; Kawakami, Pamela; Graham, Duncan; Fyfe, Janet A

    2012-12-01

    Canine leproid granuloma (CLG) characteristically presents as single to multiple circumscribed dermal to subcutaneous nodules in haired skin. An unidentified mycobacterium is considered be the aetiological agent of this entity. Several cases of canine leproid granulomas occurred in dogs in New Zealand during 2010 and 2011. Cases appeared in clusters, affecting multiple closely related foxhounds domiciled in the same kennels. All affected hounds recovered after topical and/or systemic antimicrobial therapy. Two similar outbreaks that occurred in foxhounds near Melbourne, Australia are also reported. Cases were investigated using cytological, histological, microbiological and several molecular techniques. An environmental epidemiological study was also performed. A diagnosis of CLG was established in 11 dogs. Molecular identification of the causative agent confirmed that it was a mycobacterial species with 100% sequence homology within the amplified regions of the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) with that found in association with similar infections from the USA, Brazil and Australia. This report details the first occurrence of multiple cases of CLG occurring in in-contact dogs and the first proven case of CLG in dogs in New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Paediatric CT dose: a multicentre audit of subspecialty practice in Australia and New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.; Atkin, K.; Clark, J. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bettenay, F. [Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Ditchfield, M.R. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Monash Children' s, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Grimm, J.E. [Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Linke, R. [Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Long, G. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Onikul, E. [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Pereira, J. [Sydney Children' s Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); The University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales (Australia); Phillips, M. [Mater Children' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Wilson, F. [Starship Children' s Health, Auckland (New Zealand); Paul, E. [Monash University, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Goergen, S.K. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Monash University, Department of Surgery, Southern Clinical School, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate paediatric CT dosimetry in Australia and New Zealand and calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) for chest and abdominal examinations. Eight hospitals provided data from 12 CT systems for 1462 CTs in children aged 0-15. Imaging data were recorded for eight examinations: head (trauma, shunt), temporal bone, paranasal sinuses, chest (mass) and chest HRCT (high-resolution CT), and abdomen/pelvis (mass/inflammation). Dose data for cranial examinations were categorised by age and SSDEs by lateral dimension. Diagnostic reference ranges (DRRs) were defined by the 25th and 75th percentiles. Centralised image quality assessment was not undertaken. DRRs for 201 abdominopelvic SSDEs were: 2.8-4.7, 3.6-11.5, 8.5-15.0, 7.6-15, and 10.6-16.2 for the <15 cm, 15-19 cm, 20-24 cm, 25-29 cm and >30 cm groups, respectively. For 147 chest examinations using these body width categories, SSDE DRRs were 2.0-4.4, 3.3-7.9, 4.0-9.4, 4.5-12, and 6.5-12. Kilovoltage peak (kVp), but not AEC or IR, was associated with SSDE (parameter estimate [standard error]: 0.12 (0.03); p < 0.0001). Australian and New Zealand paediatric CT DRRs and abdominal SSDEs are comparable to international data. SSDEs for chest examinations are proposed. Dose variations could be reduced by adjusting kVp. (orig.)

  13. Output-based allocations and revenue recycling. Implications for the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, James A.; Nieuwkoop, Renger van

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) is more comprehensive in its coverage of emissions than schemes introduced or proposed to date in any other country in that it includes agricultural greenhouse gases, which account for half of New Zealand's total emissions. But, motivated by concerns for the international competitiveness of emissions-intensive, trade-exposed industrial and agricultural activities, current legislation provides for substantial ongoing free allocations to such activities, linked to their output. Here we use a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the impacts of output-based allocation, given the possibility of recycling net revenues to reduce prior distorting taxes. Unlike previous modelling studies of alternative NZ ETS designs, we allow for a more realistic modelling both of capital and labour supply. We find that, as suggested by theoretical results, interactions between the ETS and existing taxes are important. Given any level of output-based allocation, the negative macroeconomic impacts can be reduced by recycling net revenues as efficiently as possible. Less obviously, we find that there may be an optimal non-zero level of output-based allocation. This optimal level increases as the carbon price and/or factor supply elasticities increase, but decreases if revenues are recycled with greater efficiency. (author)

  14. Sexuality and gender identity teaching within preclinical medical training in New Zealand: content, attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Oscar; Rapsey, Charlene M; Treharne, Gareth J

    2018-06-22

    To investigate inclusion of sexuality and gender identity content, attitudes and barriers to inclusion of content in preclinical curricula of New Zealand medical schools from the perspective of key teaching staff. Staff responsible for curriculum oversight at New Zealand's two medical schools were invited to complete a mixed-methods survey about sexuality and gender identity content in their modules. Of 24 respondents, the majority included very little content relating to sexuality or gender identity (33%) or none at all (54%). This content was deemed important by most participants (69%), and none believed there should be less such content in their curriculum. Time was reported to be the main barrier limiting inclusion of such content. Our finding of limited content is consistent with international literature. Our findings extend the literature by revealing that barriers to greater inclusion of content are not due to overt negative attitudes. Staff responsible for preclinical medical curriculum oversight have positive attitudes about content relating to sexuality and gender identity but perceive curriculum space to be a limiting barrier. This is important as it informs approaches to change. Future interventions with medical schools should focus on methods to increase diverse content as part of existing teaching, education to increase knowledge of LGBTQI relevant material and potentially incorporate strategies used to address unconscious bias. Addressing the perceived barriers of time constraints and lack of relevance is required to ensure medical students receive training to develop the competencies to provide positive healthcare experiences for all patients regardless of sexuality and gender identity.

  15. Application of carbon isotope stratigraphy to late miocene shallow marine sediments, new zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutit, T S; Kennett, J P

    1979-06-15

    A distinct (0.5 per mil) carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic shift in the light direction has been identified in a shallow marine sedimentary sequence of Late Miocene age at Blind River, New Zealand, and correlated with a similar shift in Late Miocene Deep Sea Drilling Project sequences throughout the Indo-Pacific. A dated piston core provides an age for the shift of 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years. Correlations based on the carbon isotopic change require a revision of the previously established magnetostratigraphy at Blind River. The carbon shift at Blind River occurs between 6.2 and 6.3 +/- 0.1 million years before present. A new chronology provides an age for the evolutionary first appearance datum of Globorotalia conomiozea at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years, the beginning of a distinct latest Miocene cooling event associated with the Kapitean stage at 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years, and the beginning of a distinct shallowing of water depths at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years. The Miocene-Pliocene boundary as recognized in New Zealand is now dated at 5.3 +/- 0.1 million years. Extension of carbon isotope stratigraphy to other shallow Late Miocene sequences should provide an important datum for international correlation of Late Miocene shallow and deep marine sequences.

  16. Output-based allocations and revenue recycling. Implications for the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennox, James A. [Landcare Research NZ, Lincoln (New Zealand); Nieuwkoop, Renger van [Center for Energy Policy and Economy, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) is more comprehensive in its coverage of emissions than schemes introduced or proposed to date in any other country in that it includes agricultural greenhouse gases, which account for half of New Zealand's total emissions. But, motivated by concerns for the international competitiveness of emissions-intensive, trade-exposed industrial and agricultural activities, current legislation provides for substantial ongoing free allocations to such activities, linked to their output. Here we use a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the impacts of output-based allocation, given the possibility of recycling net revenues to reduce prior distorting taxes. Unlike previous modelling studies of alternative NZ ETS designs, we allow for a more realistic modelling both of capital and labour supply. We find that, as suggested by theoretical results, interactions between the ETS and existing taxes are important. Given any level of output-based allocation, the negative macroeconomic impacts can be reduced by recycling net revenues as efficiently as possible. Less obviously, we find that there may be an optimal non-zero level of output-based allocation. This optimal level increases as the carbon price and/or factor supply elasticities increase, but decreases if revenues are recycled with greater efficiency. (author)

  17. Carcinogenicity of glyphosate: why is New Zealand's EPA lost in the weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douwes, Jeroen; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McLean, Dave; Pearce, Neil; Woodward, Alistair; Potter, John D

    2018-03-23

    In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans". The New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZEPA) rejected this and commissioned a new report, concluding that glyphosate was unlikely to be genotoxic or carcinogenic to humans. The NZEPA has argued that the difference arose because IARC is a "hazard-identification authority", whereas NZEPA is a "regulatory body that needs to cast the net more widely". We conclude that the NZEPA process for evaluating the carcinogenicity of glyphosate was flawed and the post hoc justification invalid: there is no mention of risk assessment or "net-benefit approach" in the NZEPA report; and there is no discussion of current New Zealand glyphosate exposures. Further, the NZEPA report quotes heavily from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) report, which is itself markedly flawed, and like the NZEPA report, relies heavily on industry-funded and industry-manipulated reviews. Given the scientific flaws in both reports we urge that: the NZEPA report be withdrawn; the NZEPA respond to the concerns raised and for a reassessment to be conducted; and clearer process and better understanding of science be used to inform any future review of hazardous substances in New Zealand.

  18. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  19. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  20. Inclusive Academic Language Teaching in New Zealand: History and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Meeting the educational needs of a linguistically diverse population is a challenge for many countries. This is a particular challenge for New Zealand (NZ) which, until the 1980s, had a White Immigration Policy. The last 30 years have seen NZ become a full member of the Asia Pacific Region and move from being a mostly homogenous society to one of…

  1. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2010-01-01

    on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...

  2. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  3. Quantifying Creative Destruction Entrepreneurship and Productivity in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    John McMillan

    2005-01-01

    This paper (a) provides a framework for quantifying any economy’s flexibility, and (b) reviews the evidence on New Zealand firms’ birth, growth and death. The data indicate that, by and large, the labour market and the financial market are doing their job.

  4. A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides (Myrtaceae complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Lange

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides complex is presented. This paper is the final of a series that has explored the systematics of the New Zealand Kunzea complex using cytological and molecular variation, as well as experimental hybridisations between postulated segregates. As a result of those studies ten species, all endemic to New Zealand, are recognised; seven of these are new. One species, K. triregensis sp. nov., is endemic to the Three Kings Islands and another species K. sinclairii, endemic to Aotea (Great Barrier Island. The North Island of New Zealand has seven species, K. amathicola sp. nov., K. salterae sp. nov., K. serotina sp. nov., K. robusta sp. nov., K. tenuicaulis sp. nov., K. toelkenii sp. nov., and K. linearis comb. nov. Of these, K. linearis, K. salterae, K. tenuicaulis and K. toelkenii are endemic to the North Island, and K. amathicola, K. robusta and K. serotina extend to the South Island which also supports one endemic, K. ericoides. Typifications are published for Leptospermum ericoides A.Rich., L. ericoides var. linearis Kirk, L. ericoides var. microflorum G.Simps., L. ericoides var. pubescens Kirk, and L. sinclairii Kirk, names here all referred to Kunzea. The ecology, conservation, extent of natural hybridisation and some aspects of the ethnobotany (vernacular names of these Kunzea are also discussed.

  5. The House Crow (Corvus splendens: A Threat to New Zealand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Fraser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The house crow (Corvus splendens, a native of the Indian subcontinent, has shown a rapid expansion of habitat range across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and Asia. It is an adaptable, gregarious commensal bird which is regarded globally as an important pest species due to its impacts on livestock, agricultural and horticultural crops and indigenous fauna and as a fecal contaminator of human environments and water resources. Two Maxent (v3.3.3k models (A with presence data in Australia and (B with simulated entry data locations in New Zealand and a third ArcGIS model (C with environmental and social layers are used to determine an overall suitability index and establish a niche-based model of the potential spatial distribution for C. splendens within New Zealand. The results show that New Zealand, particularly the northern regions of North Island, has suitable environments for the establishment of the house crow. In order of suitability Model B showed highest potential land area suitability (31.84% followed by Model A (13.79% and Model C (10.89%. The potential for further expansion of this bird’s invasive range is high and, if New Zealand is invaded, impacts are likely to be significant.

  6. Education in New Zealand. Bulletin, 1964, No. 34. OE-14105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrien, Marcia T.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin presents a study of the development of education in New Zealand. Chapter I, Historical Development of Education, covers the growth of education since 1877. Chapter II, Educational Administration and Finance provides details on the Act of 1877; the organization, functions and responsibilities of the Department of Education; and the…

  7. New Zealand health reforms: effect on ophthalmic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynel, S; Reynolds, H

    1999-01-01

    Are specialized ophthalmic units with inpatient facilities going to disappear in the New Zealand public health system? We have entered the era of cost containment, business methodologies, bench marking, day case surgery, and technologic advances. The dilemma for nursing is maintenance of a skill base with dwindling clinical practice areas.

  8. Video Self-Reflection and Coach Development in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Simon; Spencer, Kirsten; Kidman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with New Zealand coaches (N = 6), this study examined how video self-reflection (VSR) was perceived as a tool for learning within "on-going" coach development. This study also looked to determine the potential barriers experienced by coaches before engaging in VSR. Each participant was a…

  9. Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Nicholls, Sarah; Thomson, George

    2006-02-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997 and data from Australia. Compared to Australian channels, both New Zealand channels (TV3 and TV2) had significantly higher proportions of food advertisements that were classified as being "high in fat and/or sugar" (54% versus 80% and 69%, respectively). Using a more detailed classification system, 70.3% of food advertisements on the New Zealand channels were for foods "counter to improved nutrition" (95% CI: 67.1%, 73.3%) compared to those "favoring improved nutrition" at 5.1% (95% CI: 3.8%, 6.9%). The number of food advertisements per hour was higher in 2005 than in 1997 for the channel (TV2) for which there was time trend data (12.8 versus 8.0 per hour for the afternoon time slot). These findings provide further evidence that the majority of food advertising on New Zealand television is counter to nutritional guidelines. They suggest the need for further regulatory or other controls.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-23

    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  11. New Zealand coal characteristics in the global scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, G.R.; Moore, T.A. [CRL Energy Research and Testing, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    1999-03-01

    The properties unique to New Zealand coals are highlighted by comparing them to other coal types from throughout the world. This allows them to be ranked for specific users overseas, maximising the return for the producer. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The age of the Takatika Grit, Chatham Islands, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollis, Christopher J.; Stickley, Catherine E.; Bijl, Peter K.; Schiøler, Poul; Clowes, Christopher D.; Li, Xun; Campbell, Hamish

    2017-01-01

    The oldest Paleogene strata on Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand, are the phosphatized conglomerates and sandstones of the Takatika Grit that crops out on the northeastern coast at Tioriori and unconformably overlies the Chatham Schist. An intact Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary transition is not

  13. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume Two: Wider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…

  14. Attitudes to other ethnicities among New Zealand workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkamau, C.A.; Boxall, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the “other-group orientation” (OGO) of New Zealand (NZ) workers as a way of measuring their attitudes to the growing ethnic diversity in the contemporary workplace. Design/methodology/approach In all, 500 randomly selected NZ employees were surveyed

  15. The State of Accounting Education Scholarship in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines publishing trends of New Zealand accounting education scholars over the 20-year period 1991-2010. Longitudinal analyses of the annual number of publications, research theme studied, researcher productivity, and institutional productivity, along with cross-sectional analyses of authors' Hirsch "h"-index scores, the…

  16. Carbon taxation, prices and welfare in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creedy, John; Sleeman, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on consumer prices arising from imposing a carbon tax in New Zealand, using information about inter-industry transactions and the use of fossil fuels by industries. The welfare effects of the carbon tax are examined for a range of different household types. Finally, overall measures of inequality are reported. (author)

  17. Pre-European Maori fishing at Foxton, Manawatu, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.; Leach, F.; Greig, K.; Leach, P.

    2000-01-01

    Fish remains from excavations in four areas of the Foxton archaeological site (S24/3) were analysed. The 4109 identified bones produced a Minimum Mumber of Individuals of 1040 fish from 8 families. The assemblage was dominated by New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Family Sparidae), which comprised 80% of the total MNI. Kahawai (Arripis trutta, Family Arripidae) contributed 15% and other families only minor amounts. Snapper decreased in abundance and kahawai increased from the lower to the upper layers. The Foxton catch at all periods is different from other assemblages studied from central New Zealand. This partly reflects the local marine environment, which lacks rocky shores and reefs, but we also hypothesise that it is related to warmer surface sea water conditions in Cook Strait in the early phase of the New Zealand prehistoric period. Size frequency diagrams were constructed for snapper and kahawai. It was found that the mean fork length and mean ungutted weight of snapper increased over time. Similar changes have been observed for other species in archaeological sites in New Zealand. (author). 26 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  18. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  19. Shifting Landscapes of Counselling Identities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…

  20. School Culture Meets Sport: A Case Study in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…

  1. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  2. Workplace Assessment in New Zealand: Stated Intentions and Realisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Mack, Penny

    2005-01-01

    Workplace assessment (WPA) of New Zealand's National Qualifications Framework (NQF) competencies has become a significant alternative pathway for vocational adult education. This article reports on a research project which compares stated intentions for workplace assessment with evidence of its practical realization. The perceptions of the…

  3. Restorative Justice: Two Examples from New Zealand Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Janice; McKinney, Rawiri; Glynn, Ted

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Janice Wearmouth, formerly professor of education at the University of Wellington, New Zealand and now at Liverpool Hope University, Rawiri McKinney, an advocate for Rangatahi who has recently completed his Master of Education degree, and Ted Glynn, foundation professor of teacher education at the University of Waikato, discuss…

  4. Energy Literacy and Agency of New Zealand Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.

    2017-01-01

    The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…

  5. Some prehistory of New Zealand intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2009-07-01

    In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.

  6. Images of Academic Leadership in Large New Zealand Polytechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    As accountability stakes continue to be raised in all education sectors, leadership as a factor that can have an impact on improved student outcomes is being studied with heightened interest. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in New Zealand's large urban polytechnics with the aim of investigating the nature and expectations of academic…

  7. Building and Sustaining Successful School Leadership in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notman, Ross; Henry, D. Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines success factors of six New Zealand primary and secondary school principals. These factors are grouped under principals' personal characteristics, leadership skills that connect with their teachers, leadership strategies that impact positively on school stakeholder needs, and factors that sustain leadership success. Emerging…

  8. Honoring Family and Culture: Learning from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Education's early childhood curriculum policy is built on a framework called "Te Whariki." This framework provides a sociocultural context for children's early learning and emphasizes a learning partnership between teachers, parents, families, and community. Besides interpersonal relationships, Te Whariki…

  9. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  10. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  11. Sense or Nonsense?: New Zealand Heritage Leglislation in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Vossler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current legislative ‘landscape’ that shapes the nature of historic heritage protection and management in New Zealand. It identifies some of the principal laws that impinge on historic heritage and outlines the purpose and principles, administrative processes, protective measures and offences and enforcement provisions associated with each of these statutes.

  12. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  13. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  14. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  15. Inclusion in Aotearoa/New Zealand: From Rhetoric to Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that the education system in Aotearoa/New Zealand relegates children with disabilities, along with Maori and children of minority groups, to the margins of education. It stresses the need for teachers to focus on ways in which inclusion practices are reinforcing the marginal position of many students. (Contains references.)…

  16. Health information technology adoption in New Zealand optometric practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarian, Ahmadali; Mason, David

    2013-11-01

    Health information technology (HIT) has the potential to fundamentally change the practice of optometry and the relationship between optometrists and patients and to improve clinical outcomes. This paper aims to provide data on how health information technology is currently being used in New Zealand optometric practices. Also this paper aims to explore the potential benefits and barriers to the future adoption of health information technology in New Zealand. One hundred and six New Zealand optometrists were surveyed about their current use of health information technology and about potential benefits and barriers. In addition, 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out with leaders of health information technology in New Zealand optometry. The areas of interest were the current and intended use of HIT, the potential benefits of and barriers to using HIT in optometric offices and the level of investment in health information technology. Nearly all optometrists (98.7 per cent) in New Zealand use computers in their practices and 93.4 per cent of them use a computer in their consulting room. The most commonly used clinical assessment technology in optometric practices in New Zealand was automated perimeter (97.1 per cent), followed by a digital fundus/retinal camera (82.6 per cent) and automated lensometer (62.9 per cent). The pachymeter is the technology that most respondents intended to purchase in the next one to five years (42.6 per cent), followed by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (36.8 per cent) and corneal topographer (32.9 per cent). The main benefits of using health information technology in optometric practices were improving patient perceptions of ‘state of the art’ practice and providing patients with information and digital images to explain the results of assessment. Barriers to the adoption of HIT included the need for frequent technology upgrades, cost, lack of time for implementation, and training. New Zealand optometrists are using HIT

  17. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries ('third countries' that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 results in the Directive having extra-territorial effect and exerting an influence in countries outside the EU. Like South Africa, New Zealand is a 'third' country in terms of the EU Directive on data protection. New Zealand recognised the need for data protection and adopted a data protection Act over 15 years ago. The focus of this article is on the data protection provisions in New Zealand law with a view to establishing whether South Africa can learn any lessons from them. In general, it can be said that although New Zealand law does not expressly recognise a right to privacy, it has a data protection regime that functions well and that goes a long way to providing adequate data protection as required by the EU Directive on data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has not made a finding to that effect as yet. The New Zealand data protection act requires a couple of amendments before New Zealand might be adjudged ‘adequate’. South Africa’s protection of the right to privacy and identity is better developed and more extensive than that of New Zealand. Privacy is recognised and protected in the law of delict and by the South African Constitution. Despite South Africa’s apparently high regard for the individual’s right to privacy and identity and our well-developed common and constitutional law of privacy, South Africa does not meet the adequacy requirement of the EU Directive, because we do not have a data protection Act. This means that South African participants in the information technology arena are at a constant disadvantage. It is argued that South Africa should follow New Zealand’s example and adopt a data

  18. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  19. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.

  20. INNOVATIVE ERP APPLICATIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEW ZEALAND EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sknar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary economic science is looking for ways of research actualisation to resolve the challenges under the world financial crisis. Besides existing challenges in private de-regulated sector, one of the efficient innovations can be found in broadening ERP applications in the Public Sector. This paper approaches to the ERP applications mainly from the economical rather than from technical perspective. Comparative analysis of New Zealand public sector is supported by relevant international practical experience (implementations, and by core fundamental analysis of economical nature of business processes used by public entities. The key advantage (based on a historical timeline comes from a full integration of financial scope and operational activities. Using the example of ERP (as one of the drivers of productivity and performance improvement, the paper is aiming to underline how to bring the best practice and technology (data management and logical architecture from the private sector into the public sphere.

  1. Seismic signals of snow-slurry lahars in motion: 25 September 2007, Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, S. E.; Cronin, S. J.; Sherburn, S.; Manville, V.

    2009-05-01

    Detection of ground shaking forms the basis of many lahar-warning systems. Seismic records of two lahar types at Ruapehu, New Zealand, in 2007 are used to examine their nature and internal dynamics. Upstream detection of a flow depends upon flow type and coupling with the ground. 3-D characteristics of seismic signals can be used to distinguish the dominant rheology and gross physical composition. Water-rich hyperconcentrated flows are turbulent; common inter-particle and particle-substrate collisions engender higher energy in cross-channel vibrations relative to channel-parallel. Plug-like snow-slurry lahars show greater energy in channel-parallel signals, due to lateral deposition insulating channel margins, and low turbulence. Direct comparison of flow size must account for flow rheology; a water-rich lahar will generate signals of greater amplitude than a similar-sized snow-slurry flow.

  2. A preliminary assessment of biofouling and non-indigenous marine species associated with commercial slow-moving vessels arriving in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-07-01

    Vessel traffic is the primary pathway for non-indigenous marine species introductions to New Zealand, with hull fouling recognised as being an important mechanism. This article describes hull fouling on seven slow-moving commercial vessels sampled over a 1 year period. Sampling involved the collection of images and fouling specimens from different hull locations using a standardised protocol developed to assess vessel biofouling in New Zealand. A total of 29 taxa was identified by expert taxonomists, of which 24% were indigenous to New Zealand and 17% non-indigenous. No first records to New Zealand were reported, however 59% of species were classified as 'unknown' due to insufficient taxonomic resolution. The extent of fouling was low compared to that described for other slow-movers. Fouling cover, biomass and richness were on average 17.1% (SE = 1.8%), 5.2 g (SE = 1.1 g) and 0.8 (SE = 0.07) per photoquadrat (200 x 200 mm), respectively. The fouling extent was lowest on the main hull areas where the antifouling paint was in good condition. In contrast, highest levels of fouling were associated with dry-docking support strips and other niche areas of the hull where the paint condition was poor. Future studies should target vessels from a broader range of bioregions, including vessels that remain idle for extended periods (ie months) between voyages, to increase understanding of the biosecurity risks posed by international commercial slow-movers.

  3. The New Zealand National Eye Bank study: trends in the acquisition and storage of corneal tissue over the decade 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William J; Moffatt, S Louise; Brookes, Nigel H; Twohill, Helen C; Pendergrast, David G C; Stewart, Joanna M; McGhee, Charles N J

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate trends in the acquisition, storage, and utilization of donated corneal tissue in New Zealand, 2000 to 2009. The New Zealand National Eye Bank records were analyzed for the decade January 2000 to December 2009. Variables analyzed included donor demographics (age, sex, and ethnicity), donor source, donor cause of death, death-to-preservation interval (DPI), corneal storage time, tissue contamination, endothelial assessment, cornea suitability for transplantation, and corneal tissue utilization. A total of 1268 eye donors were identified during the 10-year period. Overall, 36% (n = 457) were female and 64% male (n = 813). Median donor age was 67 years, and 23% of donors were younger than 50 years (range, 5-90 years). There was a decrease in donor age over the decade (P = 0.006). The median DPI was 18.5 hours. No relationship was identified between cornea suitability for transplantation and DPI (P = 0.28) or donor gender (P = 0.54). There was a low microbial contamination rate (1%). Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C serology was positive in 48 donors (4%). Overall, 90% of corneas were suitable for transplantation with a high utilization rate (88%). A novel association was identified between male sex and lower corneal endothelial cell density (P = 0.03). This New Zealand National Eye Bank analysis identified trends in the acquisition, storage, and utilization of donated corneal tissue throughout New Zealand over the past decade and provides valuable additional information to the international eye bank data.

  4. Alexander Falconer Sr Seamen's missionary in New Zealand, son Alexander Falconer medical superintendent for mentally ill, grandson Murray Falconer neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    Alexander Falconer Sr (1843-1915) came from Scotland to New Zealand. A practical Christian, he set up places of relaxation for miners, sailors and soldiers; he became the Seamen's Missionary. Son, Dr Alexander Falconer (1874-1955) trained at Otago University Medical School. As medical superintendent for the mentally ill, he urged the early introduction of psychotherapy. His son, Murray Falconer (1910-1977) was the first Nuffield Dominions Clinical Fellow, training in neurosurgery in Oxford. He was the first director of the Guy's-Maudsley Neurosurgical Unit in London and was internationally known for the surgical management of temporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products: Proceedings of IUFRO Division 5 Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12, Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11–15, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Donoghue; G.L. Benson; J.L. Chamberlain

    2004-01-01

    This proceedings is a collection of 18 papers and extended abstracts based on talks presented at the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Division 5 Conference, held in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11–15, 2003. This conference emphasized the many ways that forest products research can contribute to sustainable choices in forest management....

  6. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  7. A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E M L; French, R A; Kennedy, R R

    2011-09-01

    Predicting workforce requirements is a difficult but necessary part of health resource planning. A 'snapshot' workforce survey undertaken in 2002 examined issues that New Zealand anaesthesia trainees expected would influence their choice of future workplace. We have restudied the same cohort to see if that workforce survey was a good predictor of outcome. Seventy (51%) of 138 surveys were completed in 2009 compared with 100 (80%) of 138 in the 2002 survey. Eighty percent of the 2002 respondents planned consultant positions in New Zealand. We found 64% of respondents were working in New Zealand (P New Zealand based respondents but only 40% of those living outside New Zealand agreed or strongly agreed with this statement (P New Zealand but was important for only 2% of those resident in New Zealand (P New Zealand were predominantly between NZ$150,000 and $200,000 while those overseas received between NZ$300,000 and $400,000. Of those that are resident in New Zealand, 84% had studied in a New Zealand medical school compared with 52% of those currently working overseas (P < 0.01). Our study shows that stated career intentions in a group do not predict the actual group outcomes. We suggest that 'snapshot' studies examining workforce intentions are of little value for workforce planning. However we believe an ongoing program matching career aspirations against career outcomes would be a useful tool in workforce planning.

  8. Status of Radiotherapy around the World: Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Chapter 25.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Eng-Siew; Hanna, T.P.; Barton, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    Australia has a population of over 22 million and New Zealand 4 million people. Both are classified as high income countries. In 2007, there were over 100 000 new cases of cancer diagnosed in Australia (excluding basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin), with the most commonly diagnosed cancers being prostate, bowel, breast, melanoma of the skin and lung cancer. The incidence profiles are similar in New Zealand. In both countries, lung cancer accounted for the most cancer deaths in 2008 (19%), followed by colorectal, prostate and breast cancers. In Australia, the age standardized death rate per 100 000 population due to cancer is 140.8 for men and 92.9 for women. The relative survival rate for cancer patients in Australia is among the best in an international comparison of six developed nations. Radiotherapy services across Australia and New Zealand are predominantly outpatient based and provided in public sector specialist cancer care facilities. According to the IAEA’s DIRAC database, there are currently 69 radiotherapy centres in Australia and eight in New Zealand. Megavoltage linacs for standard 3-D external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, as well as stereotactic radiotherapy for both cranial and extracranial applications are available in selected large metropolitan based centres. Across Australia and New Zealand, a wide range of current imaging technologies, including CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography, are available for incorporation into radiation treatment planning. IMRT was first introduced around 2001 for head and neck cancers and is now available in most radiotherapy centres for selected tumour sites and clinical indications. Papua New Guinea, classified in the low and middle income group, has a current population of over 6.8 million people dispersed over 600 islands. Registrations at the National Cancer Registry do not document the true burden of cancer in Papua New Guinea. It is estimated that there are

  9. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2009-01-01

    relationships linked to identity. Masculine values are dominant and outdoor education in New Zealand can generally be understood as a reproduction of political ideas and values in society. Friluftsliv in Denmark is traditionally closely linked to similar traditions in Sweden and Norway (Tordsson, 1993). However......  This presentation takes general view of understanding outdoor education in New Zealand.  This is seen from an outsider's perspective and is compared with "friluftsliv" in Denmark and the Nordic countries. Analysing and understanding one's culture is never easy, and the main challenge is to focus...... on and question everyday phenomena which seem natural and that reproduce one's own perspective. Cultural analysis and the analysis of social configurations together with a comparative cultural perspective form the research approach.  . The presentation is based on a comparative and qualitative case study (Ragin...

  10. Excavations at Cook's Cove, Tolaga Bay, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.; Jacomb, C.; Brooks, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Cook's Cove site (Z17/311) on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand is an unusual example of an archaeological site spanning close to the full duration of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. In addition to a record of Polynesian activities, the site is also well known as the type site for the North Island Holocene stratigraphy. Recent excavations at Cook's Cove have resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature of Polynesian occupation and adaptation in this part of the North Island. The application of an 'event phase' interpretative approach provides the means for reconstructing a detailed history of environmental processes and their relationships to cultural activities over a period of 700 years. (author). 61 refs., 17 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Evolving National Strategy Driving Nursing Informatics in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Michelle; Westbrooke, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    An update to the New Zealand Health Strategy identifying direction and priorities for health services is underway. Three specific areas have implications for nursing informatics and link to education and practice: best use of technology and information, fostering and spreading innovation and quality improvements, and building leaders and capability for the future. An emphasis on prevention and wellness means nursing needs to focus on health promotion and the role of consumers is changing with access to their on-line information a major focus. As the modes of delivery for services such as telehealth and telenursing changes, nurses are increasingly working independently and utilizing information and communication technologies to collaborate with the health team. New Zealand, and other countries, need strong nursing leadership to sustain the nursing voice in policy and planning and ensure nurses develop the required informatics skills.

  12. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A

    2007-11-01

    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  13. Neoliberalism and criticisms of earthquake insurance arrangements in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, I

    1996-03-01

    Global collapse of the Fordist-Keynesian regime of accumulation and an attendant philosophical shift in New Zealand politics to neoliberalism have prompted criticisms of, and changes to, the Earthquake and War Damage Commission. Earthquake insurance arrangements made 50 years ago in an era of collectivist, welfarist political action are now set in an environment in which emphasis is given to competitive relations and individualism. Six specific criticisms of the Commission are identified, each of which is founded in the rhetoric and ideology of a neoliberal political project which has underpinned radical social and economic changes in New Zealand since the early 1980s. On the basis of those criticisms, and in terms of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Commission has been restructured. The new Commission is withdrawing from its primary position as the nation's non-residential property hazards insurer and is restricting its coverage of residential properties.

  14. Drug-free workplace programmes: New Zealand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Susan

    2008-01-30

    New Zealand (NZ) companies have been introducing Drug & Alcohol Free Workplace Policies and Programmes, which include testing, since 1992. Most "safety-critical" industry sectors are now embracing drug and alcohol testing as part of comprehensive programmes which also have a strong focus on education and rehabilitation. Prison Inmate testing was also introduced in 1998. Lawful drug testing in NZ should be conducted to the strict medico-legal requirements of the Australian/New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4308:2001 "Procedures for the collection, detection and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine." This paper gives an overview of the NZ experience, highlighting the mix of testing options employed, the industry sector trends, the categories of drugs misused, the influence of significant Employment Court Judgements, proposed changes to the AS/NZS 4308(2006), and current oral fluid research projects.

  15. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  16. The chronology of Moncks Cave, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.

    2008-01-01

    Moncks Cave is a key site in understanding the nature and course of change to Maori culture during the early period of New Zealand prehistory because of the range of both perishable and non-perishable artefacts found there in 1889. Understood to have been completely excavated at that time, the interpretation of the material culture of the site has been rendered difficult by the absence of chronological or stratigraphic provenance data. Recent investigations at Moncks Cave revealed several intact cultural deposits, including both faunal and artefactual remains. Eleven radiocarbon determinations on marine shell suggest that the cave was occupied some time between the mid-fourteenth and mid-fifteenth centuries AD. Although the dates cannot be directly correlated with any particular artefact, the results have important implications for the interpretation of the place of the site and its contents as a whole in the context of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Socio-demographic correlates of divorce in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, G A

    1988-05-01

    "This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of bride and groom, marital status prior to marriage, relative marital status of bride and groom, pregnancy status of the wife at marriage, timing of the first birth, religion, country of birth and socioeconomic status. Several findings of overseas studies, such as the special proneness to divorce of very youthful marriages and remarriages following previous divorces, are verified for New Zealand. After controlling for age at marriage, pregnancy does not seem to have directly increased the risk of divorce." excerpt

  18. Economics of alternative energy supply in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. V.

    1977-10-15

    Alternative means of supplying the main categories of energy demand in New Zealand are examined, using a common economic basis. In this context alternative means are defined to include those not presently in significant large-scale use in New Zealand but which have been demonstrated to be broadly technically feasible. Energy demand is conveniently divided into four categories each corresponding to a grade of energy required and each including all relevant demand in households, commerce, and industry. These categories are called low-grade heat, process heat, transport, and high-grade energy. The high-grade energy market is largely satisfied only by electricity and alternative means of supplying electricity are considered by other authors. The remaining categories are discussed. The comparison of alternatives includes a brief examination of how the comparative economics are affected by the economic criteria used and particularly the cash flow discount rate. The results obtained are of scoping accuracy only but some policy implications are suggested.

  19. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  20. Volcano-hydrothermal energy research at white Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allis, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the White Island (New Zealand) volcano-hydrothermal research project by the N.Z. DSIR and the Geological Survey of Japan, which is investigating the coupling between magmatic and geothermal systems. The first phase of this investigation is a geophysical survey of the crater floor of the andesite volcano, White Island during 1991/1992, to be followed by drilling from the crater floor into the hydrothermal system. (TEC). 4 figs., 8 refs

  1. HIV and the decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    The decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand will protect the rights of sex workers and improve their working conditions and general well-being. It will also improve HIV prevention programs. In this article, which is based on a presentation at a "learning from practice" session at the conference, Catherine Healy describes the situation prior to decriminalization, and discusses the features of the new law and accompanying guidelines.

  2. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  3. PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN HIGH TECH NEW ZEALAND FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    LINCOLN WOOD; QIANG LU

    2008-01-01

    There are three distinct functions in the product realization chain — product design, process design, and process execution; thus there are two interfaces (product design — process design; process design — process execution) rather than one (product-manufacturing). Case studies of four organizations manufacturing high-tech products in New Zealand are explored to study the organization of process design functions and success strategies. Similarities in structuring, relationships between functi...

  4. Radioactive waste disposal : policies and practices in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste and its ultimate dispoal have been a significant problem for the nuclear industry. A lot of resources have been devoted to developing management and dispoal systems. As well as being one of the major technical problems, it has been a very significant public relations issue. Public concern about risks associated with disposal of radioactive waste has been on a global scle. It has focused on local issues in some countries, but generl attitudes have been common worldwide. Great differences exist between countries in the scale and aspects of nuclear technoloy in use. In particular the presence or absence of a nuclear power programme, and to a lesser extent of any nuclear reactors, greatly influence the magnitude of the waste disposal problem. Nevertheless, public perceptions of the problem are to some degree independent of these differences. What radioactive wastes are there in New Zealand? Is there a hazard to the New Zealand public or the New Zealand environment from current radioactive waste disposal practices? What policies are in place to control these practices? This report seeks to provide some information on these questions. It also brings together in one document the waste disposal policies followed by the National Radiation Laboratory for different uses of radioactive mateials. Except for some small quantities which are exempt from most controls, radioactive material can be used in New Zealand only under the control of a person holding a licence under the Radiation Protection Act 1965. All requirements of the Radiation Protection Regulations 1982 must also be observed. More detailed safety advice and further mandatory requirements are contained in codes of safe practice. Compliance with one of these is a condition on most licencees. These provisions are administered by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) of the Ministry of Health. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Sleep disorders among high school students in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando AT; Samaranayake CB; Blank CJ; Roberts G; Arroll B

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of househol...

  6. Keeping it pure: could New Zealand be an eco paradise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Yeoman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The world is changing and key change agents include climate change and scarcity of resources. The purpose of this paper is to address how New Zealand and tourism could address the future and generate appropriate strategic responses. Design/methodology/approach – Using the process of scenario analysis and drawing upon recent research from the www.tourism2050.com project, this paper describes the circumstances, drivers, economic consequences and key decisions that New Zealand would have to take in order to position itself as an eco paradise. The background to the scenario presumes overarching behaviours in a cooperative world in which resources are scarce. Findings – The scenario portrays a future of collective individualism, where a high degree of personal freedom exists but within the constraints of a world in which there is a scarcity of resources. A communitarian ethos drives policy making with an emphasis on efficient resource use and waste minimisation. New Zealand is a nation favoured by climate change. Environmental intellectual property is one of the nation's key resources and in the spirit of achieving a global environmental equilibrium these technologies are shared with the rest of the world. Life is simple. Competitive individualism is equated with excess and resource waste, while cooperation, harmony, and the continuation of a global cooperative psyche are seen as the foundation stones of the continued, relatively comfortable survival of humanity. Tourism is a luxury and activities are environmentally ethical. Visitors are well-off, purposeful, highly respectful and careful to prove their worth. Originality/value – Eco paradise represents the classic tale of a prisoner's dilemma in which decision makers and consumers ponder the betterment of humankind against individualism. The scenario concludes with a strategic map of the core decisions New Zealand's tourism industry would have to take. The significance of the

  7. Software Development Methods and Tools: a New Zealand study

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Phillips; Elizabeth Kemp; Duncan Hedderley

    2005-01-01

    This study is a more detailed follow-up to a preliminary investigation of the practices of software engineers in New Zealand. The focus of this study is on the methods and tools used by software developers in their current organisation. The project involved detailed questionnaires being piloted and sent out to several hundred software developers. A central part of the research involved the identification of factors affecting the use and take-up of existing software development tools in the wo...

  8. Union Free-Riding in Britain and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of workers who choose not to join the union available to them at their workplace has been rising in Britain and New Zealand. Social custom, union instrumentality, the fixed costs of joining, employee perceptions of management attitudes to unionization and employee problems at work all influence the propensity to free-ride. Ideological convictions regarding the role of unions also play some role, as do private excludable goods. There is little indication of employer-inspired pol...

  9. Investigations of DNA-repair in New Zealand mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschl, H; Kovac, R; Altmann, H

    1974-09-01

    DNA repair was investigated in New Zealand mice strains which developed murine lupus and compared with Swiss control mice. Unscheduled DNA synthesis demonstrated by autoradiography was used to measure the repair capacity of spleen cells. After gamma-irradiation DNA repair was decreased in the autoimmune strains, while it was significantly increased after UV-irradiation. A possible relationship between repair capacity after gamma-respectively UV-irradiation and the etiologic factor of autoimmunity is discussed. (auth)

  10. Food irradiation technology and some implications for New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Sutton, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of irradiation in the food industry overseas is growing steadily, but it is likely to be several years before New Zealand industry makes extensive use of the process. The design, operation, and likely costs of facilities to provide controlled doses of radiation to foods are reviewed. Different sources of radiation 60 Co, 137 Cs, accelerators, and mobile units) and a variety of package handling methods are discussed. (auths)

  11. The glacial record of New Zealand's Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G.; Lowell, T.; Anderson, B.; Rinterknecht, V.; Schlosser, P.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P.; Schluechter, C.; Chinn, T.; Barrell, D.; Lifton, N.; Jull, T.

    2004-12-01

    We present detailed mapping and surface exposure dating using in-situ Be-10 and C-14 of the moraine set of Lake Pukaki, New Zealand's Southern Alps, spanning from the penultimate glaciation, over several Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) moraines, the late glacial event to Holocene glacial advances. New Zealand, a mountain ridge in the middle of the Southern Ocean, has one of the best preserved moraine records world-wide, offering the opportunity to reconstruct amplitude and timing of climate changes from Southern mid-latitudes, an area where paleoclimate data is scarce. The extensive mapping effort by G. Denton and colleagues (http://wyvern.gns.cri.nz/website/csigg/) provides a unique background for sample selection for Surface Exposure Dating. Our extensive data set (>40 samples analyzed so far) indicate that (i) the LGM in New Zealand terminated clearly prior to the Boelling/Alleroed warming, (ii) the late glacial advance is within uncertainties consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal; (iii) there occurred an early Holocene glacial event of the same amplitude than the Little Ice Age. This latter event is the first Holocene glacial event from the Southern Hemisphere dated by in-situ Be-10 and C-14.

  12. Corporate Governance Compliance and Discretionary Accruals: New Zealand Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of better compliance with corporate governance regulation on managerial accruals (discretionary accruals in New Zealand listed companies. Unlike previous research of earnings management, Jones model ( Jones 1991, Modified Jones model (Dechow, Sloan, & Sweeney, 1995 and Performance Matched Accruals Model (Kothari, Leone, & Wasley, 2005 this research focuses on free cash flow as a measure of discretionary accruals instead of cash flow from operating activities. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done on 70 New Zealand listed firms over the period of 2000 - 2007 (inclusive. Results found that better compliance with corporate governance reduces discretionary accruals implying lower managerial opportunistic behaviour. Consistent with existing theoriesand models of discretionary accruals, this research documents that free cash flow increase managerial discretion by comparing with commonly used accruals model such as Jones Model, Modified Jones Model and Performance Matched Accruals Model. This study provides insights to regulators in developing corporate governance and financial reporting guidelines. It suggests that ‘Comply or Explain’ form of soft regulation reduces managerial discretion with stock exchange listing. This research uses a comparative analysis of traditional discretionary accrual measure with free cash flow approach of discretionary accruals. Moreover, an integration approach of discretionary accrual measure was never previously done in New Zealand.

  13. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  14. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  15. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  16. Antarctic air over New Zealand following vortex breakdown in 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ajtic

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available An ozonesonde profile over the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC site at Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E, New Zealand, for 24 December 1998 showed atypically low ozone centered around 24 km altitude (600 K potential temperature. The origin of the anomaly is explained using reverse domain filling (RDF calculations combined with a PV/O3 fitting technique applied to ozone measurements from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument. The RDF calculations for two isentropic surfaces, 550 and 600 K, show that ozone-poor air from the Antarctic polar vortex reached New Zealand on 24–26 December 1998. The vortex air on the 550 K isentrope originated in the ozone hole region, unlike the air on 600 K where low ozone values were caused by dynamical effects. High-resolution ozone maps were generated, and their examination shows that a vortex remnant situated above New Zealand was the cause of the altered ozone profile on 24 December. The maps also illustrate mixing of the vortex filaments into southern midlatitudes, whereby the overall mid-latitude ozone levels were decreased.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  17. Antarctic air over New Zealand following vortex breakdown in 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ajtic

    Full Text Available An ozonesonde profile over the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC site at Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E, New Zealand, for 24 December 1998 showed atypically low ozone centered around 24 km altitude (600 K potential temperature. The origin of the anomaly is explained using reverse domain filling (RDF calculations combined with a PV/O3 fitting technique applied to ozone measurements from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument. The RDF calculations for two isentropic surfaces, 550 and 600 K, show that ozone-poor air from the Antarctic polar vortex reached New Zealand on 24–26 December 1998. The vortex air on the 550 K isentrope originated in the ozone hole region, unlike the air on 600 K where low ozone values were caused by dynamical effects. High-resolution ozone maps were generated, and their examination shows that a vortex remnant situated above New Zealand was the cause of the altered ozone profile on 24 December. The maps also illustrate mixing of the vortex filaments into southern midlatitudes, whereby the overall mid-latitude ozone levels were decreased.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  18. Alcohol fuels in New Zealand's energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titchener, A.L. (Liquid Fuels Trust Board, Wellington, New Zealand); Walker, B.V.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the structure of energy planning, research, and development in New Zealand, and the resource bases on which future energy supplies may be expected to depend. It addresses the problem of imported liquid fuels and the means of substituting for them. Recent decisions taken by the government are outlined. New Zealand is economically and strategically vulnerable to the supply of oil. A problem of increasing importance will be the supply of middle distillate fuels, especially diesel. In the longer term, and in the absence of discovery of indigenous oil or additional gas, the resource bases for synthetic liquid fuels in New Zealand will be coal or biomass or both. Prima facie the most obvious synthetic liquid fuels are liquid hydrocarbons. However, the alcohols have a number of advantages over synthetic hydrocarbon liquids, the most important of which are higher conversion efficiency (especially when used in spark-ignition engines) and known and relatively simple conversion technology. The present programme aimed at investigating means of substituting for imported liquid fuels is planned to embrace all reasonable options. Consequently it includes a significant body of research into the alcohols as engine fuels. The present paper has reviewed this research programme. Decisions on whether to move towards alcohol fuels must be ragarded as some way in the future. (DMC)

  19. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica

    2017-07-26

    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  20. Natural gas in road transport in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, C J

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes how the products of New Zealand's natural gas fields are to be used in the transport sector to reduce oil imports. As a result of such developments New Zealand will be about 53% self-sufficient in transport fuels in 1986/1987. This self-sufficiency will be made up as follows: 25% from condensate from gas fields, 18% from synthetic gasoline, 5% from the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPT) in vehicles and 5% from indigenous oil supplies. History and status of the CNG Programme are outlined. Government has set a goal of 200,000 vehicles operating on CNG by 1990 and, at present, about 80,000 vehicles are powered by natural gas. The Gas to Gasoline project is described in some detail. New Zealand's imports of crude oil and oil products for 1986/1987 are forecast to total 1,900,000 tonnes, less than one-half of the 4,257,000 tonnes of comparable imports in 1973/1974.

  1. Characterising the combustion behaviour of New Zealand coals by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-31

    Thirty-three New Zealand coals were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) to evaluate the techniques` applicability to New Zealand coals. Generally, New Zealand sub-bituminous coals have lower burnout temperatures than bituminous coals. However, local and regional differences occur, where some sub-bituminous coals show both higher and lower char burnout temperatures than may be otherwise expected from their rank and T{sub 6} values (the peak temperature where the rate of weight loss of the sample is the greatest). There is a sizeable variations in the char burnout temperature (T{sub 8}) (465 to 636{degree}C) in coals with volatile matter contents above 40%, whereas coals with lower volatile contents have T{sub 8} values around 646{degree}C. The temperature of char burnout gives a better indication of combustion efficiency than rank or volatile matter content alone. Industrial operators could use this technique to provide an indication of burnout performance before a coal is purchased, assisting evaluation of the coal`s suitability for a particular usage. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  3. Mass-customisation and self-reflective frameworks: early developments in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clayton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Education has long been regarded as the foundation stone of national growth and international competitiveness. In the last three decades national educational reforms to improve access to higher education qualifications, individual higher education institutions’ aggressive national and international marketing initiatives and improved information and communication technology (ICT systems and infrastructure have resulted in greatly increased participation in tertiary education. As a consequence of this wider participation, tertiary educators are now engaging with increased numbers of culturally and economically diverse learners in distributed ICT environments that they, the educators and learners, are often unfamiliar with. There is an expectation that these educators will be able to design learning modules to meet students’ multi-cultural needs, in a range of contexts, with no additional resources. In essence, it is expected that learners will participate in individually customised learning events at a cost similar to traditional delivery. This requires a fundamental shift in educators and learners conceptions on the provision of education. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the development and deployment of reflective frameworks, based on recognised international standards, can fully engage learners in mass-customised environments. First this article outlines the key building blocks required for reflective mass-customisation to occur. Second, it illustrates how this concept is being tentatively explored at a New Zealand institution. Finally, it recommends the areas of action for further research on the impact and effect of mass-customisation on learners, educators and institutions to be undertaken.

  4. Women, Football and History: International Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jean; Hess, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Special edition of the International Journal of the History of Sport The papers in this collection, however, have their focus on developments related to women and football that occur outside the locus of established scholarship. In particular, the studies concentrate on the geographic locations of New Zealand, Australia and the USA, and, unique for such a collection, the papers cover four major football codes. The investigations are also not limited to women playing football, but female sp...

  5. Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the Government of New-Zealand concerning the Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    New Zealand has a pioneering tradition in experimental fundamental physics that originated with Ernest Rutherford. The country currently has active research programmes in the related areas of astrophysics and theoretical physics. Experimental groups from the Universities of Auckland and Canterbury have recently been accepted into the CMS collaboration. They are planning a contribution to the CMS pixel detector, and have already started simulations of heavy-ion collisions in CMS. They have also expressed interest in the applications of pixel imaging technology to medicine, and in Grid computing. Collaboration with CERN is seen by the New Zealand Government as an important element in its strategy of seeking linkages with international research networks and overcoming the country's relative geographical isolation. The proposed Agreement (which, taking into account specific New Zealand legal constraints, is named « Memorandum of Understanding » instead of, as is usual at CERN,« Co-operation Agreement ») would...

  6. Ethnic bias and clinical decision-making among New Zealand medical students: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Curtis, Elana; Jones, Rhys; Lacey, Cameron

    2018-01-23

    overall this was not associated with clinical decision-making. This study both adds to the small body of literature internationally on racial/ethnic bias among medical students and provides relevant and important information for medical education on indigenous health and ethnic health inequities in New Zealand.

  7. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  8. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  9. Lessons from the removal of lead from gasoline for controlling other environmental pollutants: A case study from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horrocks John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It took over two decades to achieve the removal of leaded gasoline in this country. This was despite international evidence and original research conducted in New Zealand on the harm to child cognitive function and behaviour from lead exposure. Objective To identify lessons from the New Zealand experience of removing leaded gasoline that are potentially relevant to the control of other environmental pollutants. Discussion From the available documentation, we suggest a number of reasons for the slow policy response to the leaded gasoline hazard. These include: (1 industry power in the form of successful lobbying by the lead additive supplier, Associated Octel; (2 the absence of the precautionary principle as part of risk management policy; and (3 weak policymaking machinery that included: (a the poor use of health research evidence (from both NZ and internationally, as well as limited use of expertise in academic and non-governmental organisations; (b lack of personnel competent in addressing technically complex issues; and (c diffusion of responsibility among government agencies. Conclusion There is a need for a stronger precautionary approach by policymakers when considering environmental pollutants. Politicians, officials and health workers need to strengthen policymaking processes and effectively counter the industry tactics used to delay regulatory responses.

  10. Lessons from the removal of lead from gasoline for controlling other environmental pollutants: a case study from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Horrocks, John

    2008-01-07

    It took over two decades to achieve the removal of leaded gasoline in this country. This was despite international evidence and original research conducted in New Zealand on the harm to child cognitive function and behaviour from lead exposure. To identify lessons from the New Zealand experience of removing leaded gasoline that are potentially relevant to the control of other environmental pollutants. From the available documentation, we suggest a number of reasons for the slow policy response to the leaded gasoline hazard. These include: (1) industry power in the form of successful lobbying by the lead additive supplier, Associated Octel; (2) the absence of the precautionary principle as part of risk management policy; and (3) weak policymaking machinery that included: (a) the poor use of health research evidence (from both NZ and internationally), as well as limited use of expertise in academic and non-governmental organisations; (b) lack of personnel competent in addressing technically complex issues; and (c) diffusion of responsibility among government agencies. There is a need for a stronger precautionary approach by policymakers when considering environmental pollutants. Politicians, officials and health workers need to strengthen policymaking processes and effectively counter the industry tactics used to delay regulatory responses.

  11. ANZUS in Revision: Changing Defense Features of Australia and New Zealand in the Mid-1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Allan C. Brownfeld, "Fragility of Alliance Illustrated in New Zealand," Washington Times, 12 September 1984, 3C-4C; Beaglehole, 8 ; Graham Ansell , 4 1...RAN purchased three US-built Adams -class guided missile destroyers . In the 1970s Australia decided to buy four Perry-class guided missiles frigates...According to Graham Ansell , the New Zealand high commissioner for Australia, his government understands the "Pacific way" of the islands . New Zealand

  12. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  13. The impact of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand programme on hand hygiene practices in New Zealand's public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua; Dawson, Louise; Jowitt, Deborah; White, Margo; Callard, Hayley; Sieczkowski, Christine; Kuriyan, Ron; Roberts, Sally

    2016-10-14

    To detail the progress made by Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) since 2011 and also describe the challenges experienced along the way and the factors required for delivery of a successful hand hygiene programme at a national level. HHNZ is a multimodal culture-change programme based on the WHO '5 moments for hand hygiene' approach. The key components of the programme include clinical leadership, auditing of hand hygiene compliance with thrice yearly reporting of improvement in hand hygiene practice, biannual reporting of the outcome marker, healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB), effective communication with key stakeholders and the use of the front-line ownership (FLO) principles for quality improvement. The nationally aggregated hand hygiene compliance has increased from 62% in June 2012 to 81% in March 2016. There has been improvement across all 'moments', all healthcare worker groups and a range of different clinical specialties. The rate of HA-SAB has remained stable. The HHNZ programme has led to significant improvements in hand hygiene practice in DHBs throughout New Zealand. The principles of FLO are now widely used to drive hand hygiene improvement in New Zealand DHBs.

  14. Accounting for medical variation: the case of prescribing activity in a New Zealand general practice sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P B; Yee, R L; Millar, J

    1994-08-01

    Medical practice variation is extensive and well documented, particularly for surgical interventions, and raises important questions for health policy. To date, however, little work has been carried out on interpractitioner variation in prescribing activity in the primary care setting. An analytical model of medical variation is derived from the literature and relevant indicators are identified from a study of New Zealand general practice. The data are based on nearly 9,500 completed patient encounter records drawn from over a hundred practitioners in the Waikato region of the North Island, New Zealand. The data set represents a 1% sample of all weekday general practice office encounters in the Hamilton Health District recorded over a 12-month period. Overall levels of prescribing, and the distribution of drug mentions across diagnostic groupings, are broadly comparable to results drawn from international benchmark data. A multivariate analysis is carried out on seven measures of activity in the areas of prescribing volume, script detail, and therapeutic choice. The analysis indicates that patient, practitioner and practice attributes exert little systematic influence on the prescribing task. The principal influences are diagnosis, followed by practitioner identity. The pattern of findings suggests also that the prescribing task cannot be viewed as an undifferentiated activity. It is more usefully considered as a process of decision-making in which 'core' judgements--such as the decision to prescribe and the choice of drug--are highly predictable and strongly influenced by diagnosis, while 'peripheral' features of the task--such as choosing a combination drug or prescribing generically--are less determinate and more subject to the exercise of clinical discretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  16. An exploratory wastewater analysis study of drug use in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; Wilkins, Chris; Thai, Phong; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Consumption of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine, codeine and methadone (mg/day/1000 people) was estimated by using a back-calculation formula. Methamphetamine, codeine, morphine and methadone were detected with high frequency (80-100%), followed by amphetamine (~60%), MDMA (~7%, i.e. 8 occasions) and methylone (3 occasions). An overall mean of 360 mg of methamphetamine and 60 mg of MDMA was estimated to have been consumed per day per 1000 people. Methamphetamine consumption was found at similar levels in both catchments (377 and 351 mg/day/1000 people). Cocaine was only detected in 1 catchment and on only 8 occasions. JWH-018 was detected in 1 catchment and only on 1 occasion. Methamphetamine, codeine and other opioids were detected at a consistent level throughout the week. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylone were detected only during the weekends. Wastewater analysis confirms that methamphetamine was one of the most commonly detected illegal drugs in Auckland and was detected consistently throughout the week. In contrast, cocaine and MDMA were rarely detected, with detection limited to weekends. [Lai FY, Wilkins C, Thai P, Mueller JF. An exploratory wastewater analysis study of drug use in Auckland, New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Indigenous Perspectives and Knowledge Informing Freshwater Management, Planning and Decision Making in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsworth, G.

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous Māori have distinct cultural values and perspectives that establish their identity, responsibilities, and rights to manage and use freshwater in New Zealand. Recognition of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi and its principles has culminated in an array of modern legislation, obligations, national policy statements, statutory requirements, holistic frameworks, and approaches that strengthens Māori participation and authority in resource management and environmental decision-making. We briefly explain indigenous Māori frameworks, knowledge, values, and perspectives used to grow indigenous research and capability, enrich western scientific research, and inform freshwater planning, policy, and management. We will discuss some important methods, indicators, and tools that Māori have developed, or are developing, to support environmental assessment and the monitoring and reporting of freshwater ecosystems, particularly to help sustain and enhance customary values and practice. These tools include, for example, the Cultural Health Index, the Wai Ora Wai Māori assessment tool, the mauri compass, the mauri model, Māori wetlands assessment, kaitiaki tools, taonga assessment, which are being used to build Māori capability and capacity in freshwater sciences and management and to provide innovative approaches based on integrative knowledge systems. Many of these indigenous-led initiatives are now being used next to science and technical approaches at local, regional, and national scale in New Zealand to guide policy and help understand complex and dynamic human-environmental interactions. Māori epistemologies provide a holistic worldview well aligned with current international thinking and approaches that stress the importance of systems thinking and understanding interconnections between sub-component parts; exploring the world and universe within holistic, integrative frameworks; taking into account different perspectives, values, and worldviews, measuring

  18. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 Workforce Census: a comparison of New Zealand and Australian responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa; Munro, Philip M; Leung, John

    2015-04-17

    This paper outlines the key results of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) Faculty of Radiation Oncology (FRO) 2014 workforce census, and compares the results of New Zealand and Australian responses in order to identify similarities and differences in workforce characteristics. The workforce census was conducted online in mid-2014. The census was distributed to all radiation oncologists (Fellows, life members, educational affiliates, retired) and radiation oncology trainees on the RANZCR membership database. Six weekly reminders were sent to non-respondents and all responses were aggregated for analysis. This paper addresses only consultant radiation oncologist responses. The combined response rate for New Zealand radiation oncologists was 85.7% (compared with 76% from Australian respondents). The census found that the demographic characteristics of New Zealand and Australian radiation oncologists are similar. Points of difference include (i) the role of educational affiliates in New Zealand, (ii) New Zealand radiation oncologists reporting higher hours spent at work, (iii) New Zealand radiation oncologists spending a higher proportion of time on clinical duties, (iv) A lower proportion of New Zealand radiation oncologists with higher degrees, and (v) private/ public workplace mix. A comparison by country would suggest that there are many similarities, but also some important differences that may affect workforce issues in New Zealand. Separate datasets are useful for RANZCR to better inform members, governments and other key stakeholders in each country. Separate datasets also provide a basis for comparison with future surveys to facilitate the monitoring of trends.

  19. The Foundation and Development of New Zealand Local Government: An Administrative Work in Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew CARDOW

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available From its genesis in Mid 19th Century liberalism to its current rationalist position, local government in New Zealand has followed a similar path to that of New Zealand central government in that it has embraced a neo liberal economic rationalist view of its role in public policy. The article traces the historical foundation of New Zealand local government and the factors that have assisted in forming the current shape of local government in New Zealand. The article ends by suggesting that the system of local government is dynamic and is still in development.

  20. Counting Family: Making the Family of International Students Visible in Higher Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Stephanie; Loveridge, Judith; Faamanatu-Eteuati, Niusila

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a significant group of postgraduate international students overlooked by institutions and policymakers, namely those with accompanying partners and children. The economic importance of international students to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America is highlighted. It is argued…

  1. International migration, 1995: some reflections on an exceptional year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, R

    1996-10-01

    "This paper examines the 1995 international migration statistics in the context of New Zealand's immigration policy, and with reference to the impact of migration on population change in 1995. Particular attention is focused on trying to unravel and interpret the statistics relating to net migration. Considerable confusion has arisen in the public debate about immigration because of uniformed and, at times, quite misleading use of information supplied by Statistics New Zealand and the Department of Labour.... This is a reprinted version of an article originally published in the New Zealand Journal of Geography in April 1996. The article has been reprinted because a number of tables in the earlier version were incorrectly reproduced. Any inconvenience caused by this problem is regretted." excerpt

  2. Case Series Analysis of New Zealand Reports of Rapid Intense Potentiation of Warfarin by Roxithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Ruth L; Tatley, Michael V

    2018-05-01

    We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity. To investigate the potentiating effect of warfarin on roxithromycin in this New Zealand case series, the reports were reviewed to identify patients at risk, compare the reporting pattern with published Australian data and evaluate the appropriateness of current prescribing advice. Thirty patient reports were identified. The age range was 23-88 years, mean 66.8, median 73.0 (standard deviation 17.7) and the international normalised ratios after roxithromycin commencement ranged from 3.6 to 16.7 (mean 7.6, median 7.6, standard deviation 3.6). For eight patients with measurements on day 3, international normalised ratios were 4.3-16.7 (mean 10.4, median 8.8, standard deviation 4.4). Four patients had serious haemorrhage. Indications for roxithromycin were a range of respiratory tract infections. Anticoagulation was stable for most patients prior to acute infection. Serious infection occurred in 54.5% (12 of 22 patients with information). Polypharmacy (five or more medicines daily) was used by 36.7% of patients long term, increasing acutely to 83.3%, including additional potentially interacting medicines. Warfarin daily dose (1.5-13.0 mg, mean 4.4, median 4.0, standard deviation 2.2) was moderate to low. Pre-roxithromycin international normalised ratio values ranged from 1.4 to 3.7, mean and median 2.5, standard deviation 0.5. A high proportion of interactions were observed between warfarin and roxithromycin compared with other

  3. The Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative: Study description and sample characteristics of the Australian and New Zealand arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Katherine M; Martin, Felicity C; Mao, Amy; Parker, Richard; Maguire, Sarah; Thornton, Laura M; Zhu, Gu; McAloney, Kerrie; Freeman, Jeremy L; Hay, Phillipa; Madden, Sloane; Morgan, Christine; Russell, Janice; Sawyer, Susan M; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Fursland, Anthea; McCormack, Julie; Wagg, Fiona; Jordan, Jennifer; Kennedy, Martin A; Ward, Warren; Wade, Tracey D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2017-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder with high mortality rates. While its aetiology is poorly understood, there is evidence of a significant genetic component. The Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative is an international collaboration which aims to understand the genetic basis of the disorder. This paper describes the recruitment and characteristics of the Australasian Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative sample, the largest sample of individuals with anorexia nervosa ever assembled across Australia and New Zealand. Participants completed an online questionnaire based on the Structured Clinical Interview Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) eating disorders section. Participants who met specified case criteria for lifetime anorexia nervosa were requested to provide a DNA sample for genetic analysis. Overall, the study recruited 3414 Australians and 543 New Zealanders meeting the lifetime anorexia nervosa case criteria by using a variety of conventional and social media recruitment methods. At the time of questionnaire completion, 28% had a body mass index ⩽ 18.5 kg/m 2 . Fasting and exercise were the most commonly employed methods of weight control, and were associated with the youngest reported ages of onset. At the time of the study, 32% of participants meeting lifetime anorexia nervosa case criteria were under the care of a medical practitioner; those with current body mass index anorexia nervosa in Australia and New Zealand to date. The proportion of people with anorexia nervosa currently receiving medical care, and the most common sources of treatment accessed, indicates the importance of training for general practitioners and dietitians in treating anorexia nervosa.

  4. Patient-Targeted Googling by New Zealand Mental Health Professionals: A New Field of Ethical Consideration in the Internet Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, Hiran; Sawyer, Adam; Eischenberg, Christiane

    2018-01-29

    Patient-targeted Googling (PTG) describes the searching on the Internet by healthcare professionals for information about patients with or without their knowledge. Little research has been conducted into PTG internationally. PTG can have particular ethical implications within the field of mental health. This study was undertaken to identify the extent of PTG by New Zealand mental healthcare professionals and needs for further guidance regarding this issue. All (1,850) psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and psychotherapists working in New Zealand were electronically surveyed about their experience of PTG and knowledge about the associated practice of therapist-targeted Googling (TTG) using a questionnaire that had previously been developed with a German sample. Due to ethics and advertising restrictions, only one indirect approach was made to potential participants. Eighty-eight clinicians (5%) responded to the survey invitation. More than half (53.4%, N = 47) of respondents reportedly being engaged in PTG, but only a minority (10.3%, N = 9) had ever received any education about the subject. Reasons for undertaking PTG included facilitating the therapeutic process, information being in the public domain, and mitigating risks. Reasons against undertaking PTG included impairment of therapeutic relationship, unethical invasion of privacy, and concerns regarding the accuracy and clinical relevance of online information. Two-thirds of participants reported being the subject of TTG. New Zealand psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and psychotherapists are engaging in PTG with limited education and professional guidance. Further discussion and research are required, and so, PTG is undertaken in a manner that is safe and useful for patients and health practitioners.

  5. Pacific Island publications in the reproductive health literature 2000-2011: with New Zealand as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroma, Alec J; Pollock, Terina; Kenealy, Tim; Shulruf, Boaz; Shurulf, Boaz; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Montorzi, Gabriela; McCowan, Lesley M E; Hill, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    There is a keen interest to develop research systems and increase research output in the 14 Pacific Island Forum Countries (PIFC) to support development of policies and practice based on locally relevant research evidence. To assess the quantity and characteristics of reproductive health research output by each country (14 PIFC) from 2000 to 2011 using New Zealand's reproductive research outputs as the reference. A systematic search of the literature using a broad definition of reproductive health. There were 174 papers published in the PIFC from 2000 to 2011 compared with 628 papers published in New Zealand (NZ). Most (57%) of the PIFC papers were from Papua New Guinea (PNG), although Samoa had the most papers by population (10/100,000). Five of the countries did not have a single publication. The majority of papers from both the PIFC and NZ were observational studies (72 vs 36%). Authors from Australia were responsible for 34% of PIFC publications followed by 25% from PNG. Sixty-three per cent of papers by PIFC sole and first authors were published in local journals, whereas 86% of non-PIFC authors published in international journals. There is a need for reproductive research in PIFC. PNG had the most publications on the back of a well-funded dedicated research institute and a significant collaboration with Australian researchers. The large number of papers in PIFC countries without PIFC authors raises the question about the need to require non-PIFC researchers to enter into genuine research partnerships in order to build research capacity in the PIFC. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. A content analysis of the portrayal of alcohol in televised music videos in New Zealand: changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Kate; Wilson, Nick; Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to: (i) document the extent and nature of alcohol portrayal in televised music videos in New Zealand in 2010; and (ii) assess trends over time by comparing with a similar 2005 sample. We undertook a content analysis for references to alcohol in 861 music videos shown on a youth-orientated television channel in New Zealand. This was compared with a sample in 2005 (564 music videos on the same channel plus sampling from two other channels). The proportion of alcohol content in the music videos was slightly higher in 2010 than for the same channel in the 2005 sample (19.5% vs. 15.7%) but this difference was not statistically significant. Only in the genre 'Rhythm and Blues' was the increase over time significant (P = 0.015). In both studies, the portrayal of alcohol was significantly more common in music videos where the main artist was international (not from New Zealand). Furthermore, in the music videos with alcohol content, at least a third of the time, alcohol was shown being consumed and the main artist was involved with alcohol. In only 2% (in 2005) and 4% (in 2010) of these videos was the tone explicitly negative towards alcohol. In both these studies, the portrayal of alcohol was relatively common in music videos. Nevertheless, there are various ways that policy makers can denormalise alcohol in youth-orientated media such as music videos or to compensate via other alcohol control measures such as higher alcohol taxes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Job variation in advanced training in adult neurology in Australia and New Zealand: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, J R; Parratt, K; Lueck, C J

    2014-06-01

    Six years ago, a survey of Australian trainees in neurology highlighted several differences in the training offered by the various positions. There has been a subsequent increase in trainee numbers. This survey aimed to re-examine the workload and exposure provided by individual positions and to compare training in Australia and New Zealand. A questionnaire was circulated in 2012 to all advanced trainees in core adult neurology positions in Australia and New Zealand, looking at ward work, outpatient clinics, neurophysiology exposure and on-call commitments. The response rate was 85.7%. There was a 48.7% increase in the number of core training positions in Australia, but an average increase in inpatient workload of 56%. General neurology clinic numbers were unchanged while specialist clinic exposure had risen from 1.0 to 1.8 clinics/week. In some cases, exposure to neurophysiology had fallen. The requirement for out-of-hours on-call had fallen. There were no major differences between positions in Australia and New Zealand. There have been significant improvements in advanced training in adult neurology in the 5 years between 2007 and 2012: numbers of trainees have increased, on-call commitments have fallen and exposure to specialist clinics has risen. However, inpatient workload has increased significantly, accompanied by a slight reduction in exposure to training in neurophysiology in some cases. Overall, the changes are encouraging, but more work is still needed to ensure that individual positions meet the training needs of trainees. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Remote rural women's choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean; Foureur, Maralyn; Skinner, Joan

    2017-09-01

    specialist care. Themes included, deciding about the safest place to give birth; making the decision to transfer; experiencing transfer in labour, and reflecting on their birth experience and considering future birthplace choices. The experiences of the women show that for some, distance from a base hospital influences their place of birth decisions in remote rural areas of New Zealand and increases the distress for those needing to transfer over large distances. These experiences can result in women choosing, or needing to make different choices for subsequent births; the consequences of which impact on the future sustainability of midwifery services in remote rural areas, a challenge which resonates with maternity service provision internationally. While choices about birth place cannot be reliably predicted, creative solutions are needed to provide rural midwifery care and birth options for women and more timely and efficient transfer services when required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A surgical career for New Zealand junior doctors? Factors influencing this choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jason; Sathanathan, Janarthanan; Naden, Gill; Child, Stephen

    2009-08-07

    To discover the level of interest in a surgical career amongst junior doctors and trainee interns in the Auckland region. Secondary aims are to identify the factors that influence career choice as well as the timing of career choice. An anonymous and structured questionnaire was distributed to all trainee interns and junior doctors in their first to fifth postgraduate years in the Auckland region. Questions were based on basic demographics, level of training, career preference and factors from previous experiences in surgery that may have influenced their career choice. Total of 87 replies with 36% expressed interest in surgery whereas 64% were interested in non-surgical specialties. Top three factors influencing career choice were similar in both groups: Lifestyle, career ambitions and family. Personal interest, practical hands-on and positive previous experiences were the top reasons why junior doctors chose surgery. Poor lifestyle, lacking of interest, limited future part-time work and previous negative experiences were the top reasons why junior doctors did not choose surgery. A significantly (pcareers earlier. Career aspirations of New Zealand junior doctors were similar to findings reported overseas. To promote surgery amongst junior doctors and medical students, attention should be paid to the key factors which may influence career choice. By improving working conditions and have better surgical education with good mentoring, team atmosphere and opportunities for early exposure will hopefully allow better recruitment and training of future surgeons.

  10. The healthy food environment policy index: findings of an expert panel in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-05-01

    To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76-0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts.

  11. Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment. A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wratt, D.; Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Allan, S.; Morgan, T.; Kenny, G.

    2004-05-01

    Climate change is a real and internationally recognised outcome of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It will have effects over the next decades that are predictable with some level of certainty, but which will vary from place to place throughout New Zealand. The climate will also change from year to year and decade to decade due to natural processes. For example, some parts of the country often have dry summers and autumns when an El Nino climate pattern is present. Both natural fluctuations and human-induced climate changes need to be considered when developing adaptation plans and policies, rather than just 'greenhouse warming' effects on their own. Councils already address extreme weather events and climate variations as they develop plans and provide services. Climate change effects need also to be considered as part of these regulatory, assessment and planning activities. It is not necessary to develop a set of procedures for dealing separately with effects and impacts of climate change - they can be built into existing practices. Over time, climate change responses will involve iterative planning processes, keeping up-to-date with new information, monitoring changes, and reviewing the effectiveness of responses. The response to climate change involves international, national, regional, district and community consideration and action. The Guidance Manual aims to assist local government in working with its communities and making appropriate decisions.

  12. CAS – A Journey Has Begun in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a journey through hand-held technology changes in mathematics teaching and learning and raises questions we as mathematics educators should be considering in the shorter and longer term. New Zealand is embarking on a Computer Algebraic Systems (CAS Pilot Programme in secondary school mathematics. The Ministry of Education and the New Zealand Qualifications Authority have selected secondary schools to be part of a pilot programme in the use of CAS technology in mathematics classes. The aim of the pilot programme is to improve teaching and learning of mathematics through the use of this technology. Six schools in 2005 used CAS technology with Year 9 (13-14 year olds students and, an additional 16 schools joined the programme in 2006. The pilot is planned to continue with an increasing number of schools in subsequent years. By the time students in the pilot schools reach Years 11, 12 and 13, alternative external assessments using the CAS technology will be available. Professional development support and assistance in obtaining and using the technology will be provided to the pilot schools. The project's emphasis in 2005 was on the Geometry and Algebra strands; the Statistics strand was added in 2006. By 2010 the first cohort of project programme students will have been through their secondary mathematics education via a CAS environment. New Zealand teachers have only a finite time to get into CAS technology and integrate it into their teaching practice. This paper discusses a research project based on a mathematics department professional development that is linked to the pilot.

  13. Mortality in employees at a New Zealand agrochemical manufacturing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; Herbison, G. Peter; Humphry, Noel F.; Bodner, Kenneth; Collins, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies at the Dow AgroSciences (Formerly Ivon Watkins-Dow) plant in New Plymouth, New Zealand, had raised concerns about the cancer risk in a subset of workers at the site with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. As the plant had been involved in the synthesis and formulation of a wide range of agrochemicals and their feedstocks, we examined the mortality risk for all workers at the site. Aims To quantify the mortality hazards arising from employment at the Dow AgroSciences agrochemical production site in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Methods Workers employed between 1 January 1969 and 1 October 2003 were followed up to the end of 2004. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using national mortality rates by employment duration, sex, period of hire and latency. Results A total of 1754 employees were followed during the study period and 247 deaths were observed. The all causes and all cancers SMRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85–1.10) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.80–1.27), respectively. Mortality due to all causes was higher for short-term workers (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 0.91–1.62) than long-term workers (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80–1.06) and women had lower death rates than men. Analyses by latency and period of hire did not show any patterns consistent with an adverse impact of occupational exposures. Conclusions The mortality experience of workers at the site was similar to the rest of New Zealand. PMID:19297337

  14. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  15. Health promotion funding, workforce recruitment and turnover in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sarah A; Egan, Richard; Robertson, Lindsay; Hicks, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Almost a decade on from the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy and amidst concerns about funding of health promotion, we undertook a nationwide survey of health promotion providers. To identify trends in recruitment and turnover in New Zealand's health promotion workforce. Surveys were sent to 160 organisations identified as having a health focus and employing one or more health promoter. Respondents, primarily health promotion managers, were asked to report budget, retention and hiring data for 1 July 2009 through 1 July 2010. Responses were received from 53% of organisations. Among respondents, government funding for health promotion declined by 6.3% in the year ended July 2010 and health promoter positions decreased by 7.5% (equalling 36.6 full-time equivalent positions). Among staff who left their roles, 79% also left the field of health promotion. Forty-two organisations (52%) reported employing health promoters on time-limited contracts of three years or less; this employment arrangement was particularly common in public health units (80%) and primary health organisations (57%). Among new hires, 46% (n=55) were identified as Maori. Low retention of health promoters may reflect the common use of limited-term employment contracts, which allow employers to alter staffing levels as funding changes. More than half the surveyed primary health organisations reported using fixed-term employment contracts. This may compromise health promotion understanding, culture and institutional memory in these organisations. New Zealand's commitment to addressing ethnic inequalities in health outcomes was evident in the high proportion of Maori who made up new hires.

  16. Mortality after hip fracture: regional variations in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, N; Norton, R; Vander Hoorn, S; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S; Clark, T; Gray, H

    1999-07-23

    To determine the 35-day and one-year mortality rates following a hospital admission for hip fracture, among individuals aged 60 years or older in New Zealand. New Zealand Health Information Service mortality data for the years 1988 to 1992 were examined to determine the case fatality rate among individuals aged 60 years or older admitted to hospital for fractures of the neck of femur (ICD-9 N-code 820). Case fatality rates assessed at 35 days and one year after admission to hospital were examined by age, gender, year of admission, place of residence, area health board region and cause of death. Between 1988 and 1992, the case fatality rate was 8% within 35 days of admission to hospital and 24% within one year of admission. Case fatality rates were found to be twice as high in men compared to women and four to five times higher in individuals aged 85 years and older, compared to people aged between 60 and 64 years. The only regional difference in hip fracture mortality was found in the Canterbury area health board region, which had a 30% higher rate of hip fracture mortality compared to all regions combined. The two main cited underlying causes of death after hip fracture were accidental falls (ICD E880-E888) and ischaemic heart disease (ICD 410-414). Over three-quarters of individuals aged 60 years or older who are hospitalised with a hip fracture in New Zealand survive for at least one year after admission. However, significant variations in mortality exist with age and gender. These data highlight the importance of preventive strategies for hip fracture in older people and the need to identify ways of improving post-admission care.

  17. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  18. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  19. Potential for irradiation of marine foods in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for treatment of fish with ionising radiation to extend the useful shelf life lies with low dose pasteurization methods. A practical extension of 1 week or more under optimal refrigeration conditions can be achieved although a background loss of quality due to autolysis continues throughout storage. Of New Zealands markets for fish products only Australia could be serviced by sea freight with irradiated fresh fish. Two difficulties are forseen: firstly a market advantage for fresh over frozen fish is unproven; secondly the industry is dispersed and does not lend itself to a central irradiation facility. Some possibilities for irradiation may arise in future. (auth.)

  20. Volcanic hazards of North Island, New Zealand-overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, R. R.; Nairn, I. A.; Neall, V. E.

    1985-10-01

    In October 1980, a National Civil Defence Planning Committee on Volcanic Hazards was formed in New Zealand, and solicited reports on the likely areas and types of future eruptions, the risk to public safety, and the need for special precautions. Reports for eight volcanic centres were received, and made available to the authors. This paper summarises and quantifies the type and frequency of hazard, the public risk, and the possibilities for mitigation at the 7 main volcanic centres: Northland, Auckland, White Island, Okataina, Taupo, Tongariro, and Egmont. On the basis of Recent tephrostratigraphy, eruption probabilities up to 20% per century (but commonly 5%), and tephra volumes up to 100 km 3 are credible.

  1. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  2. Sub-aqueous sulfur volcanos at Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, S.; Rickard, D. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Browne, P.; Simmons, S. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Institute and Geology Dept.; Jull, T. [University of Arizona, Tucson (United States). AMS Facility

    1999-12-01

    Exhumed, sub-aqueous sulfur mounds occur in the Waiotapu geothermal area, New Zealand. The extinct mounds are < 2 m high and composed of small (< 0.5 cm) hollow spheres, and occasional teardrop-shaped globules. They are located within a drained valley that until recently was connected to Lake Whangioterangi. They were formed a maximum of 820 {+-} 80 years BP as a result of the rapid sub-aqueous deposition of sulfur globules, formed when fumarolic gases discharged through molten sulfur pools. Similar globules are now being formed by the discharge of fumarolic gases through a sub-aqueous molten sulfur pool in Lake Whangioterangi. (author)

  3. Art’s histories in Aotearoa New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Mané Wheoki

    2011-01-01

    This is the text of an illustrated paper presented at ‘Art History’s History in Australia and New Zealand’; a joint symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Art History in the University of Melbourne and the Australian and New Zealand Association of Art Historians (AAANZ); held on 28 – 29 August 2010. Responding to a set of questions framed around the ‘state of art history in New Zealand’; this paper reviews the ‘invention’ of a nationalist art history and argues that there can be n...

  4. Developing a New Zealand casemix classification for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kathy; Gaines, Phillipa; Burgess, Philip; Green, Janette; Bower, Alison; Buckingham, Bill; Mellsop, Graham

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a casemix classification of characteristics of New Zealand mental health services users. Over a six month period, patient information, staff time and service costs were collected from 8 district health boards. This information was analysed seeking the classification of service user characteristics which best predicted the cost drivers of the services provided. A classification emerged which explained more than two thirds of the variance in service user costs. It can be used to inform service management and funding, but it is premature to have it determine funding.

  5. Using Co-innovation to Stimulate Innovation in the New Zealand Agricultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, N.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Small, B.; Turner, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A recently implemented research and development program; Co-learning and Coinnovation to Achieve Impact in New Zealand’s Biological Industries (Primary Innovation for short) aims to stimulate innovation in the New Zealand agricultural sector, which is an important contributor to the New Zealand

  6. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  7. Towards a Pre-Service Technology Teacher Education Resource for New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forret, Michael; Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Granshaw, Bruce; Harwood, Cliff; Miller, Angela; O'Sullivan, Gary; Patterson, Moira

    2013-01-01

    The Pre-service Technology Teacher Education Resource (PTTER) was developed as a cross-institutional resource to support the development of initial technology teacher education programmes in New Zealand. The PTTER was developed through collaboration involving representatives from each of the six New Zealand university teacher education providers,…

  8. Notes on the Emerging Accreditation Regimes in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Kristian; Blyth, Sue; Scott, Fionna

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, new higher education regulatory regimes have emerged in both New Zealand and Australia. In Australia, the new Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) employs a risk management approach while the New Zealand Quality Agency (NZQA) has adopted an evaluative approach. In practice, these varying approaches create real…

  9. The Role of Agricultural Consultants in New Zealand in Environmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Neels; Coutts, Jeff; Roth, Hein

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role that agricultural consultants in New Zealand were undertaking in the Research, Development and Extension (RD&E) system--and in particular in relation to environmental extension. New Zealand does not have a public extension service and hence there is a strong reliance on consultants and regional…

  10. High incidence of medulloblastoma in Māori and Pacific populations in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, J Mark; Aye, Phyu Sin

    2017-02-17

    In New Zealand from 1995-2010, the incidence of medulloblastoma at ages 1-19 years was significantly higher in Māori (relative risk 2.0) and in Pacific peoples (RR 2.1) than in New Zealand Europeans.

  11. The Critical Success Factors for School and Community (Joint Use) Libraries in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Vivienne Kaye D.; Calvert, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Joint use libraries in New Zealand are generally found in the form of School and Community Libraries, primarily in rural areas, but there is little information available about their effectiveness or success. Research was undertaken by surveying all identified joint use libraries in New Zealand and then following this with detailed Case Studies of…

  12. Early Learnings from the National Library of New Zealand's National Digital Heritage Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the digital preservation programme at the National Library of New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of the legislative and strategic context for digital preservation in New Zealand, details are provided of the system for the National Digital…

  13. Influences on Children's Environmental Cognition: A Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, Ikerne; Freeman, Claire; Vass, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates Mexican and New Zealand children's conception of the environment and their understandings of environmental issues, focusing on how personal experiences, culture and school-based environmental education (EE) programmes influence their perspectives. Sixty Year 5 children (age 9-11) from three schools in Dunedin (New Zealand)…

  14. Artists in Schools: "Kick Starting" or "Kicking Out" Dance from New Zealand Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Barbara; Buck, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand primary school teachers have access to a comprehensive arts curriculum that includes dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This research focused on several teachers' reality of implementing the dance curriculum in New Zealand primary schools, drawing on Snook's (2012) study in this field. Our research valued the voices of teachers,…

  15. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation Corporation…

  16. Equity in New Zealand University Graduate Outcomes: Maori and Pacific Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Reremoana; Taumoepeau, Mele; Kokaua, Jesse; Tustin, Karen; Gollop, Megan; Taylor, Nicola; Hunter, Jackie; Kiro, Cynthia; Poulton, Richie

    2018-01-01

    Higher education confers significant private and social benefits. Maori and Pacific peoples are under-represented within New Zealand universities and have poorer labour market outcomes (e.g., lower wages, under-represented in skilled professions). A New Zealand tertiary education priority is to boost Maori and Pacific success in an effort to…

  17. Promoting the Maori Language to Non-Maori: Evaluating the New Zealand Government's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand's two main government Maori language planning agencies, the Maori Language Commission and the Ministry of Maori Development, have engaged for some time in language planning targeting the attitudes and behaviours of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the Maori language. This activity is undertaken on the basis that the attitudes and…

  18. Middle Eastern Students Shut Out of the U.S. Turn to Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the increase of Middle Eastern students in universities in Australia and New Zealand because of difficulties in getting visas for the United States and Britain. Difficulties in securing visas, combined with more aggressive recruiting by higher-education institutions in New Zealand and Australia, have led a growing number of…

  19. Lessons for a national pharmaceuticals strategy in Canada from Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLorier, Jacques; Rawson, Nugek S B

    2007-07-01

    The provincial formulary review processes in Canada lead to the slow and inequitable availability of new products. In 2004, the exploration of a national pharmaceuticals strategy (NPS) was announced. The pricing policies of New Zealand and Australia have been suggested as possible models for the NPS. To compare health care indexes and health care use information from Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The 2006 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health data were used to compare health and health care indexes from Canada, Australia and New Zealand between 1994 and 2002 to 2004. The principal focus of the evaluation was cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Although the mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction decreased in each country from 1994, it levelled off in New Zealand in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Between 1994 and 2003, the average length of hospital stay for any cause and for cardiovascular disorders was stable in Australia and Canada, but increased in New Zealand, while the rate of hospital discharges for cardiovascular diseases decreased in Canada and Australia, but strongly increased in New Zealand. Over the same period, sales of cardiovascular drugs decreased in New Zealand, while sharply increasing in Canada and Australia. Although only circumstantial, our results suggest an association between decreasing cardiovascular drug sales and markers of declining cardiovascular health in New Zealand. Careful consideration must be given to the potential consequences of any model for an NPS in Canada, as well as to opportunities provided for discussion and input from health care professionals and patients.

  20. Leading Change in Reading for Young Adolescents: What Is Happening in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Effective school leadership in supporting outcomes for all students is critical. This study focuses on six New Zealand principals as they endeavour to make a difference to reading outcomes for 11 to 13 year-old students. In New Zealand, there are approximately 20% of students who are underachieving in reading. Once they reach the final years of…

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  2. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  3. Women in Education, Science and Leadership in New Zealand: A Personal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…

  4. Observations of Two-Stream Ion Wave Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, G.B.; Prahm, L.P.

    1973-01-01

    A double‐humped ion velocity distribution function is produced in a Q‐machine cesium plasma. When the plasma becomes unstable, a growing wave amplitude and a characteristic change in the phase velocity of a grid‐excited ion‐acoustic wave are observed.......A double‐humped ion velocity distribution function is produced in a Q‐machine cesium plasma. When the plasma becomes unstable, a growing wave amplitude and a characteristic change in the phase velocity of a grid‐excited ion‐acoustic wave are observed....

  5. Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Paul; Badkar, Juthika; Didham, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zealand stands out among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of the high level of movements in and out of the country of skilled professionals, including nurses. In New Zealand, much attention has been given to increasing the number of Māori and Pacific nurses as one mechanism for improving Māori and Pacific health. Against a backdrop of the changing characteristics of the New Zealand nursing workforce, this study demonstrates that the globalisation of the nursing workforce is increasing at a faster rate than its localisation (as measured by the growth of the Māori and New Zealand-born Pacific workforces in New Zealand). This challenges the implementation of culturally appropriate nursing programmes based on the matching of nurse and client ethnicities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Moving backwards, moving forward: the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to life in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montayre, Jed; Neville, Stephen; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2017-12-01

    To explore the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to living permanently in New Zealand. The qualitative descriptive approach taken in this study involved 17 individual face-to-face interviews of older Filipino migrants in New Zealand. Three main themes emerged from the data. The first theme was "moving backwards and moving forward", which described how these older Filipino migrants adjusted to challenges they experienced with migration. The second theme was "engaging with health services" and presented challenges relating to the New Zealand healthcare system, including a lack of knowledge of the nature of health services, language barriers, and differences in cultural views. The third theme, "new-found home", highlighted establishing a Filipino identity in New Zealand and adjusting to the challenges of relocation. Adjustment to life in New Zealand for these older Filipino migrants meant starting over again by building new values through learning the basics and then moving forward from there.

  7. The last deglaciation in New Zealand ; revisiting the Misery moraines at Arthur's Pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, David; Rother, Henrik; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James; Wilcken, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Recent debate on mid-latitude New Zealand glaciation has focused on reconstructing paleo-climate conditions leading into the (global) Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation dynamics during the last termination. Paleo-environmental evidence coupled with reliable glacial chronologies supporting a Southern Hemisphere glacial readvance commensurate with Younger Dryas timing ( 11.5-12.5 ka) showing similar cooling as observed in the Northern Hemisphere has also been hotly debated. Many New Zealand lake and pollen records suggest a minor cooling or hiatus in warming during the period from 14.5 - 12.0 ka which pre-dates YD onset and is more commonly associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) (14.7 - 13.0 ka). Achieving the required sub-millennial temporal differentiation using in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating comes with numerous difficulties. The Arthur's Pass Moraine complex, deposited by an alpine glacier advancing out of the Otira Gorge splaying east and westward over the divide of the Southern Alps in New Zealand ( 950 masl), exhibits a full post-LGM glacial chronology. The moraines consist of multiple cross-valley terminal, lobate and discontinuous latero-terminal moraines up to 3 kilometres down valley from the proximal Misery moraines at the outlet of Otira Gorge. Within the gorge towards the headwall only 1 km up-valley from the Misery sequence, no other moraines are evident. We have determined paired 10-Be and 26-Al exposure ages from 58 greywacke samples taken from all major moraines, including repeat sampling from the Misery moraines. The new exposure ages show that the Arthur's Pass moraine system spans a period of 19.5 ka to 12.0 ka (Putnam local NZ production rate) with mean recessional moraine ages in chrono-stratigraphic sequence. The overall timing of deglaciation after peak LGM conditions is similar to that observed at down-valley terminal positions of the larger outlet river systems of the Rakaia, Waimakariri and Rangitata Valleys

  8. Prevalence of mental disorders among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: the New Zealand Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Joanne; Kingi, Te Kani; Tapsell, Rees; Durie, Mason; McGee, Magnus A

    2006-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of mental disorders (period prevalence across aggregated disorders, 12 month and lifetime prevalence) among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, undertaken between 2003 and 2004, was a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 12,992 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, including 2,595 Māori. Ethnicity was measured using the 2001 New Zealand census ethnicity question. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), was used to measure disorder. The overall response rate was 73.3%. This paper presents selected findings for the level and pattern of mental disorder prevalence among Māori. Māori lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 50.7%, 12 month prevalence 29.5% and 1 month prevalence 18.3%. The most common 12 month disorders were anxiety (19.4%), mood (11.4%) and substance (8.6%) disorders and the most common lifetime disorders were anxiety (31.3%), substance (26.5%) and mood (24.3%) disorders. Levels of lifetime comorbidity were high with 12 month prevalence showing 16.4% of Māori with one disorder, 7.6% with two disorders and 5.5% with three or more disorders. Twelve-month disorders were more common in Māori females than in males (33.6%vs 24.8%) and in younger age groups: 16-24 years, 33.2%; 25-44 years, 32.9%; 45-64 years, 23.7%; and 65 years and over, 7.9%. Disorder prevalence was greatest among Māori with the lowest equivalized household income and least education. However, differences by urbanicity and region were not significant. Of Māori with any 12 month disorder, 29.6% had serious, 42.6% had moderate and 27.8% had mild disorders. Mental disorders overall and specific disorder groups (anxiety, mood and substance) are common among Māori and measures of severity indicate that disorders

  9. Young Adult Perceptions of the British American Tobacco New Zealand Agree/Disagree Plain Packaging Counter-Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Wong-Cornall, Cecilia; Freeman, Becky

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched a mass media campaign branded "Agree/ Disagree" as a response to the New Zealand government's plans to introduce plain packaging. We examined young adult's views about the campaign to assist tobacco control policymakers in planning future interventions. Interviews with young adults living in the Auckland area were conducted. Interviews covered existing knowledge about plain packaging of tobacco, knowledge about the tobacco industry, and perceptions of specific advertisements included in the campaign. Interview data were analyzed to determine the dominant views about the campaign. Perspectives from 12 interviews reflect the dominant discourse in New Zealand on the benefits of serving economic progress and international trade. Pervasive views about the campaigns reflected perceptions of the risk to the New Zealand image, trade, and economy. Similarly, participants expressed concern about the potential for plain packaging to creep toward other products, such as alcohol. Perceptions of the tobacco industry were mixed but reflect a tolerant view of the ethics of business if viewed to be beneficial to the economy. Participants were broadly accepting of the campaign messages. We identified a tendency toward quasi-libertarian leanings when discussing economics and trade, commercial versus personal responsibility, and the value of freedom (commercial and social). These perspectives were often held simultaneously with conflicting socially responsive values and references to the hegemonic position of "big business." This study affirms the importance of closely monitoring public opinion about tobacco control and of broadening denormalization strategies to reflect the critical role the tobacco industry plays in prolonging the tobacco epidemic. To date there is little evidence on the perceptions young adults hold toward to the tobacco industry and their arguments regarding the introduction of plain packaged

  10. Women in medical physics: a preliminary analysis of workforce and research participation in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, S B; Kairn, T

    2016-06-01

    Although the participation of women within the science, technology, engineering and mathematics workforces has been widely discussed over recent decades, the recording and analysis of data pertaining to the gender balance of medical physicists in Australia and New Zealand remains rare. This study aimed to provide a baseline for evaluating future changes in workforce demographics by quantifying the current level of representation of women in the Australasian medical physics workforce and providing an indication of the relative contribution made by those women to the local research environment. The 2015 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) member directory and list of chief physicists at ACPSEM-accredited radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging training centres were interrogated to identify the gender balance of medical physicists working in Australia and New Zealand. A specific investigation of the employment levels of all medical physicists in Queensland was undertaken to provide an example of the gender balance at different levels of seniority in one large Australian state. Lists of authors of medical physics presentations at ACPSEM annual conferences and authors of publications in the ACPSEM's official journal, were used to provide an indication of the gender balance in published research within Australia and New Zealand. The results of this study showed that women currently constitute approximately 28 % of the medical physics workforce in Australia and New Zealand, distributed disproportionally in junior roles; there is a decrease in female participation in the field with increasing levels of seniority, which is particularly apparent in the stratified data obtained for the Queensland workforce. Comparisons with older data suggest that this situation has changed little since 2008. Examination of ACPSEM conference presentations suggested that there are similar disparities between the gender-balance of proffered and

  11. 9 CFR 98.10a - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98.10a Section 98.10a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Asses § 98.10a Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. (a) Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, embryos from sheep may only be imported...

  12. The provision of family-centred intensive care bereavement support in Australia and New Zealand: Results of a cross sectional explorative descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marion; Coombs, Maureen; Wetzig, Krista

    2017-05-01

    Caring for the bereaved is an intrinsic part of intensive care practice with family bereavement support an important aspect of the nursing role at end of life. However, reporting on provision of intensive care family bereavement support at a national level has not been well reported since an Australian paper published ten years ago. The objective was to investigate provision of family bereavement support in intensive care units (ICU) across New Zealand (NZ) and Australia. A cross-sectional exploratory descriptive web-based survey was used. All ICUs [public/private, neonatal/pediatrics/adults] were included. The survey was distributed to one nursing leader from each identified ICU (n=229; 188 in Australia, 41 in NZ). Internal validity of the survey was established through piloting. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Ethical approval was received by the ethics committees of two universities. One-hundred and fifty-three (67%) responses were received from across New Zealand and Australia with 69.3% of respondents from the public sector. Whilst respondents reported common bereavement practices to include debriefing for staff after a traumatic death (87.9%), there was greater variation in sending a sympathy card to families (NZ 54.2%, Australia 20.8%). Fifty percent of responding New Zealand units had a bereavement follow-up service compared to 28.3% of Australian unit respondents. Of those with follow-up services, 92.3% of New Zealand units undertook follow-up calls to families compared to 76.5% of Australian units. Bereavement follow-up services were mainly managed by social workers in Australia and nursing staff in New Zealand. This is the first Australia and New Zealand-wide survey on ICU bereavement support services. Whilst key components of family bereavement support remain consistent over the past decade, there were fewer bereavement follow-up services in responding Australian ICUs in 2015. As a quality improvement initiative, support for this

  13. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription.To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia.We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013. Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience.The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch', unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches.Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  14. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Natalie J; Kelly, Fiona S; Emmerton, Lynne M; Buetow, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience. The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch'), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  15. Analysis and Assessment of Exposure to Selected Phthalates Found in Children’s Toys in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew James Ashworth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally several phthalates are subject to regulatory control regarding maximum allowable concentrations in children’s toys. Such regulation is not in place in New Zealand. Phthalates have been associated with developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption. We determined the concentration of seven phthalates in children’s toys purchased in Christchurch, New Zealand. These results provided data for an exposure assessment deriving Hazard Indices (HI for oral and dermal exposure routes in children, based on the concentration of mixtures of phthalates shown by the EU to produce either reproductive/developmental or hepatotoxic effects. Of the 49 toys analyzed, 65% contained at least one phthalate at a concentration of >0.1% by mass; and 35% contained multiple-phthalates at individual concentrations of >0.1%. A HI of 3.4 was derived for the combined exposures to the four phthalates associated with reproductive and developmental effects. A HI of 0.3 was derived for the group of phthalates associated with hepatotoxic effects. Five phthalates were detected at levels exceeding the EU regulatory limit of 0.1% by mass. Risk assessment calculations indicate that, using realistic exposure scenarios, the worst-case combined exposure to phthalates associated with developmental toxicity exceeded a HI of 1 so may cause adverse developmental effects.

  16. Prevalence of severe obesity among New Zealand adolescents and associations with health risk behaviors and emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Fleming, Theresa; Denny, Simon

    2013-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of severe obesity among New Zealand young people attending secondary school and the associations of severe obesity with health risk behaviors and emotional well-being. A random sample of 9107 secondary school students in New Zealand participated in a 2007 health survey. Participants had their height and weight measured and answered an anonymous survey on multiple aspects of their health and well-being. Overall, 2.5% of students met the International Obesity Task Force definition of severe obesity. Students with severe obesity had more weight-related concerns, were more likely to have used unhealthy weight control strategies, and were more likely to experience bullying compared with healthy weight students. For example, students with severe obesity were 1.7 times more likely to have been bullied at school (95% CI 1.2-2.7) and 1.9 times more likely to vomit for weight loss (95% CI 1.1-3.3) than were healthy weight students. Indicators of emotional well-being and most health risk behaviors were similar among young people with severe obesity and a healthy weight. Clinicians who work with young people with severe obesity should prioritize discussing issues of bullying and healthy weight control strategies with families and their children. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of association of gene variants with obesity traits in New Zealand European children at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mohanraj; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; Murphy, Rinki; McCowan, Lesley M E; Shelling, Andrew N; On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group, G

    2017-07-25

    Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age. We recruited 1208 children of mothers from the New Zealand centre of the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Eighty common genetic variants associated with obesity traits were evaluated by the Sequenom assay. Body mass index standardised scores (BMI z-scores) and percentage body fat (PBF; measured by bio-impedance assay (BIA)) were used as anthropometric measures of obesity. A positive correlation was found between BMI z-scores and PBF (p obesity and obesity traits in New Zealand European children.

  18. Compressed air system best practice programmes: What needs to change to secure long-term energy savings for New Zealand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, James R.; Kamp, Peter J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of a compressed air system (CAS) best practice programme is a key component of one of the initial industrial energy efficiency programmes being driven by New Zealand government ministries and agencies. In a global context this is not a new initiative in that existing programmes have been functioning in Europe and USA, yet in each of these cases the impact ten years-on has been patchy with limited long-term improvements in overall energy efficiency. The New Zealand CAS best practice programme currently under development is sponsored by the Electricity Commission (EC) and the Energy Efficiency Conservation Authority (EECA). It takes a new approach in policy direction, with variations from those used in other international programmes. A significant level of electricity levy money is to be committed to this programme and it is timely to highlight its merits and potential weaknesses, and what is required to generate long-term energy savings beyond the levels achieved by more mature overseas programmes.

  19. The origins of white-chinned petrels killed by long-line fisheries off South Africa and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.S. Mareile Techow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis is the seabird species most frequently killed by fisheries in the Southern Ocean and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as globally vulnerable. It breeds around the sub-Antarctic, but genetic data identified two subspecies: P. a. aequinoctialis from islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and P. a. steadi from the New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands. We identify the region of origin of birds killed by two long-line fisheries based on differences in the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. All 113 birds killed off South Africa had the haplotype of P. a. aequinoctialis, whereas all the 60 birds from New Zealand had P. a. steadi haplotypes. The two subspecies of white-chinned petrels thus appear to disperse to different regions irrespective of their age, which accords with the tracking data of adult birds. Our finding has significant implications for managing the bycatch of this species by regional fisheries.

  20. Surveillance of working conditions and the work environment: development of a national hazard surveillance tool in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Firth, Hilda; Cunningham, Chris; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Changes to work and the impact of these changes on worker health and safety have been significant. A core surveillance data set is needed to understand the impact of working conditions and work environments. Yet, there is little harmony amongst international surveys and a critical lack of guidance identifying the best directions for surveillance efforts. This paper describes the establishment of an instrument suitable for use as a hazard surveillance tool for New Zealand workers. An iterative process of critical review was undertaken to create a dimensional framework and select specific measures from existing instruments. Pilot testing to ascertain participant acceptability of the questions was undertaken. The final questionnaire includes measures of socio-demographic characteristics, occupational history, work organisation, physicochemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. Outcome measures were also included. A robust New Zealand hazard surveillance questionnaire comprehensively covering the key measures of work organisation and work environments that impact upon worker health and safety outcomes was developed. Recommended measures of work organisation, work environment and health outcomes that should be captured in work environment surveillance are made.

  1. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ

  2. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  3. Sperm quality in New Zealand: Is the downward trend continuing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Mary A; Peek, John; Valiapan, Sumithra

    2015-10-16

    To investigate whether the decline in sperm concentration in New Zealand sperm donors observed from 1987 to 2007 continued in the period 2008-2014. A retrospective study from 2008 to 2014. The first semen sample of 285 men presenting as sperm donors in Auckland and Wellington was analysed for sperm concentration, seminal fluid volume and the percentage of motile sperm. These results were compared to results from 1987 to 2007 from the same clinics. The decline in semen volume and sperm concentration observed between 1987 and 2007 did not continue in 2008-2014. Sperm concentration decreased from 1987 until some time between 1997 and 2001, and has remained stable at an average of 62x106/ml between 2001 and 2014. Sperm motility declined significantly (8%) in the period 2008-2014, but there was no significant change over the total period studied, between 1987 and 2014. After a decline between 1987 and sometime during 1997-2001, the sperm concentration in men presenting as donors remained unchanged between 2002 and 2014, suggesting semen quality has not changed in New Zealand men over the last decade.

  4. MANAGING CONFLICT IN ENGINEERING PROJECTS: NEW ZEALAND EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Naismith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of knowledge concerning conflict management and its resolution in the workplace, however there is a dearth of information relating to conflict management and its resolution in engineering project management. This paper set out to examine the reality of conflict management in engineering project management in New Zealand. This was achieved through a review of credible literature sources and the completion of a pilot study to gain subject matter expert perspectives. The research suggests that conflicts can be destructive, resulting in anxiety and strong emotional responses leading to reflexive reactions including avoidance, aggression, fight, hostility and a breakdown in communications and relationships. Findings indicate that managing a project structure is synonymous with handling conflict and these disagreements can be detrimental to the success of a project. The initial results suggest that a number of factors act as drivers of conflict in engineering projects in New Zealand. These drivers are: power, personality, group dynamics and organisation culture. The conflict resolution tools cited as being widely used for engineering projects are collaboration and negotiation. The paper also offers recommendations for future research.

  5. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yielder, Jill, E-mail: j.yielder@auckland.ac.nz [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen [University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  6. Metazoan parasites from odontocetes off New Zealand: new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Randhawa, Haseeb; Poulin, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated. Ten parasite species were identified, belonging to the Nematoda (Stenurus minor, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), Anisakis sp. (Anisakidae), Crassicauda sp. (Crassicaudidae)), Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii (Phyllobothriidae)), Trematoda (Brachicladium palliata and Brachicladium delphini (Brachicladiidae)) and Crustacea (Scutocyamus antipodensis (Cyamidae)). Some of the parasite species encountered comprises new records for their host. Although the material was not sampled within a systematic parasitological survey, the findings contain valuable new information about the parasite fauna of rare, vagile and vulnerable marine wildlife from a remote oceanic environment.

  7. Sleep disorders among high school students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Antonio T; Samaranayake, Chinthaka B; Blank, Christopher J; Roberts, Gareth; Arroll, Bruce

    2013-12-01

    Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23) and females represented 43.5% (n=604) of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, psleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, pstudents with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively). No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.

  8. Housing and Health of Kiribati Migrants Living in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Teariki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Settlement is a complex process of adjustment for migrants and refugees. Drawing on recent research on the settlement experiences of Kiribati migrants and their families living in New Zealand, this article examines the role of housing as an influencer of the settlement and health of Kiribati migrants. Using qualitative methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen Kiribati migrants (eight women and six men representing 91 family members about the key issues and events that shaped their settlement in New Zealand. The stories told by participants affirm the association between housing and health. The study serves as an important reminder that children bear a great cost from living in poorly insulated and damp housing, and adults bear the mental costs, including social isolation resulting from inadequate rental housing. Detailed information about how this migrant group entered the private rental housing market, by taking over the rental leases of other Kiribati migrants vacating their rental properties, indicated some of the unintended consequences related to a lack of incentives for landlords to make improvements. With the most vulnerable families most at risk from inadequate housing, this research concludes that there is a need for minimum housing standards to protect tenants.

  9. Radiation and the New Zealand community : a scientific overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to give information and perspective on the risks associated with the widespread use of radiations of different types in modern society. Chapter 1 introduces the radiations that are discussed. It raises questions, which the book seeks to answer about risks and benefits of radiation applications, and discusses the meaning of the oft-quoted expression n uclear free . Chapter 2 briefly describes the nature of radioactivity and the types of radioactive decay processes and emitted radiations most commonly observed. Chapter 3 traces from the perspective of historical developments the use of x-rays and radioactive materials in medical practice. Chapter 4 outlines the wide range of applications of radioactive materials in x-ray equipment in industry with particular emphasis on applications in New Zealand. Chapter 5 is devoted to a description of food irradiation. Chapter 6 is devoted to non-ionizing radiation applications, with separate sections on ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, lasers, infrared radiation, microwave and radiofrequency radiation ,with some particular reference to cellular phone systems, extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and ultrasound. Chapter 7 concludes with an outline of the system of controls on ionizing radiation sources in New Zealand. (author). 7 appendices

  10. Nature & prevalence of stalking among New Zealand mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frances A; Thom, Katey; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-04-01

    Stalking involves recurrent and persistent unwanted communication or contact that generates fear for safety in the victims. This pilot study evaluated the nature and prevalence of stalking among New Zealand nurses and physicians working in mental health services. An anonymous questionnaire asking respondents to describe their experiences with 12 stalking behaviors was distributed to 895 clinicians. Results indicated that regardless of discipline, women were more likely than men to have experienced one or more stalking behaviors, including receiving unwanted telephone calls, letters, and approaches; receiving personal threats: and being followed, spied on, or subject to surveillance. Women also reported higher levels of fearfulness as a consequence of stalking behaviors. Nearly half of the stalkers were clients; the remaining were former partners, colleagues, or acquaintances. In client-related cases, the majority of respondents told their colleagues and supervisors first, and the majority found them to be the most helpful resource. The results of this pilot study indicate a need for further research focused on the stalking of mental health clinicians in New Zealand and for development of workplace policies for adequate response to the stalking of mental health clinicians.

  11. Housing and Health of Kiribati Migrants Living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teariki, Mary Anne

    2017-10-17

    Settlement is a complex process of adjustment for migrants and refugees. Drawing on recent research on the settlement experiences of Kiribati migrants and their families living in New Zealand, this article examines the role of housing as an influencer of the settlement and health of Kiribati migrants. Using qualitative methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen Kiribati migrants (eight women and six men) representing 91 family members about the key issues and events that shaped their settlement in New Zealand. The stories told by participants affirm the association between housing and health. The study serves as an important reminder that children bear a great cost from living in poorly insulated and damp housing, and adults bear the mental costs, including social isolation resulting from inadequate rental housing. Detailed information about how this migrant group entered the private rental housing market, by taking over the rental leases of other Kiribati migrants vacating their rental properties, indicated some of the unintended consequences related to a lack of incentives for landlords to make improvements. With the most vulnerable families most at risk from inadequate housing, this research concludes that there is a need for minimum housing standards to protect tenants.

  12. Second opinion oral pathology referrals in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M

    2017-04-01

    Referral for a second opinion is an important aspect of pathology practice, which reduces the rate of diagnostic error and ensures consistency with diagnoses. The Oral Pathology Centre (OPC) is the only specialist oral diagnostic centre in New Zealand. OPC provides diagnostic services to dentists and dental specialists throughout New Zealand and acts as a referral centre for second opinions for oral pathology specimens that have been sent to anatomical pathologists. The aim of this study was to review second opinion referral cases sent to the OPC over a 15-year period and to assess the levels of concordance between the original and final diagnoses. The findings indicated that the majority of referred cases were odontogenic lesions, followed by connective tissue, epithelial and salivary lesions. The most prevalent diagnoses were ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumour, followed by oral squamous cell carcinoma. Discordant diagnoses were recorded in 24% of cases. Diagnostic discrepancies were higher in odontogenic and salivary gland lesions, resulting in the change of diagnoses. Second opinion of oral pathology cases should be encouraged in view of the relative rarity of these lesions in general pathology laboratories and the rates of diagnostic discrepancy, particularly for odontogenic and salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factor analytic study of two questionnaires measuring oral health-related quality of life among children and adults in New Zealand, Germany and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, H; Deschamps, J P; Leclercq, M H

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire designed to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) in adults and children was assessed for its factorial structure and reliability using data from the Second International Collaborative Study on Oral Health Outcomes in New Zealand, Poland and Germany. Principal component analysis with orthogonal and oblique rotation was applied. The three-factor structure hypothesized for the children's questionnaire (self-reported oral disease symptoms, perceived oral well-being, social and physical functioning) was confirmed in New Zealand and Poland, and two self-reported oral disease symptom dimensions emerged in Germany. Five factors instead of the three hypothesized were identified for adults: two dimensions of symptoms were identified, and social and physical functioning appeared to be independent dimensions of OHRQOL. Similarity between the factors was demonstrated in all three countries. The reliability of the questionnaire ranged from moderate to excellent depending on the dimension and the country. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the cross-cultural stability of the OHRQOL questionnaire in New Zealand, Poland and Germany, for both children and adults. Further investigations by the present authors of the properties of the instrument in other samples will focus on demonstrating the stability and replicability of the factor structure identified here.

  14. International energy outlook 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year's report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs

  15. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  16. Modelling shear wave splitting observations from Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson-Pidgeon, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.

    2004-05-01

    Frequency-dependent anisotropy was previously observed at the permanent broad-band station SNZO, South Karori, Wellington, New Zealand. This has important implications for the interpretation of measurements in other subduction zones and hence for our understanding of mantle flow. This motivated us to make further splitting measurements using events recorded since the previous study and to develop a new modelling technique. Thus, in this study we have made 67 high-quality shear wave splitting measurements using events recorded at the SNZO station spanning a 10-yr period. This station is the only one operating in New Zealand for longer than 2 yr. Using a combination of teleseismic SKS and S phases and regional ScS phases provides good azimuthal coverage, allowing us to undertake detailed modelling. The splitting measurements indicate that in addition to the frequency dependence observed previously at this station, there are also variations with propagation and initial polarization directions. The fast polarization directions range between 2° and 103°, and the delay times range between 0.75 s and 3.05 s. These ranges are much larger than observed previously at SNZO or elsewhere in New Zealand. Because of the observed frequency dependence we measure the dominant frequency of the phase used to make the splitting measurement, and take this into account in the modelling. We fit the fast polarization directions fairly well with a two-layer anisotropic model with horizontal axes of symmetry. However, such a model does not fit the delay times or explain the frequency dependence. We have developed a new inversion method which allows for an inclined axis of symmetry in each of the two layers. However, applying this method to SNZO does not significantly improve the fit over a two-layer model with horizontal symmetry axes. We are therefore unable to explain the frequency dependence or large variation in delay time values with multiple horizontal layers of anisotropy, even

  17. Survey of domestic food handling practices in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, S E; Whyte, R; Bayne, G; Paulin, S M; Lake, R J; van der Logt, P

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the domestic meat and poultry handling practices of New Zealanders in order to support the development of quantitative risk models, as well as providing data to underpin food safety campaigns to consumers. A sample of 1000 New Zealand residents, over 18 years of age, were randomly selected from the electoral roll and asked to participate in a national postal food safety study during 2005. Three hundred and twenty six respondents completed and returned questionnaires containing usable answers, and most of these respondents 'always' prepared the main meal within the household. The majority of meat (84.6%) and poultry (62.9%) purchased by New Zealanders was fresh (rather than frozen), and most consumers (94.4%) claimed that the time taken from food selection to reaching their home was 1 h or less. The majority (approximately 64%) of fresh meat and poultry was frozen in the home and the most favoured method of thawing was at room temperature for up to 12 h. The most common time period for storing cooked or raw meat and poultry in domestic refrigerators was up to 2 days. Most survey respondents preferred their meat and poultry to be cooked either medium or well done. The most popular cooking method for chicken was roasting or baking, while most respondents preferred to pan-fry steak/beef cuts, minced beef or sausages/hamburgers. The potential for undercooking was greatest with pan-fried steak with 19.8% of respondents preferring to consume this meat raw or rare. In answer to questions relating to food handling hygiene practices, 52.2% of respondents selected a hand washing sequence that would help prevent cross contamination. However, it was estimated that 41% and 28% of respondents would use knives and kitchen surfaces respectively in a manner that could allow cross contamination. The data in this survey are self-reported and, particularly for the hygiene questions, respondents may report an answer that they

  18. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.7±1.4 and 81.3±6.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.34±6.08mT, from an

  19. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2013-03-15

    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  20. Comparison of cancer survival in New Zealand and Australia, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Phyu S; Elwood, J Mark; Stevanovic, Vladimir

    2014-12-19

    Previous studies have shown substantially higher mortality rates from cancer in New Zealand compared to Australia, but these studies have not included data on patient survival. This study compares the survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 2006-10 in the whole populations of New Zealand and Australia. Identical period survival methods were used to calculate relative survival ratios for all cancers combined, and for 18 cancers each accounting for more than 50 deaths per year in New Zealand, from 1 to 10 years from diagnosis. Cancer survival was lower in New Zealand, with 5-year relative survival being 4.2% lower in women, and 3.8% lower in men for all cancers combined. Of 18 cancers, 14 showed lower survival in New Zealand; the exceptions, with similar survival in each country, being melanoma, myeloma, mesothelioma, and cervical cancer. For most cancers, the differences in survival were maximum at 1 year after diagnosis, becoming smaller later; however, for breast cancer, the survival difference increased with time after diagnosis. The lower survival in New Zealand, and the higher mortality rates shown earlier, suggest that further improvements in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer in New Zealand should be possible. As the survival differences are seen soon after diagnosis, issues of early management in primary care and time intervals to diagnosis and treatment may be particularly important.