Sample records for zealand international two-stream

  1. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Farmer, R S


    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  2. International Perspectives of Ethical Approval: The New Zealand scene

    Antoinette McCallin Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The paper “Navigating the process of ethical approval” (Carey, 2010 raises many issues about the influence Institutional Ethics Committees have on research methodology and what can or cannot take place in research. Carey draws attention to the ethical challenges classic grounded theory researchers face when an ethical proposal that follows the principles of the methodology is presented to an Ethics Committee, whose main responsibility is the protection of participants. Ethics committees not only guide researchers on acceptable ethical practice, but are charged with monitoring ethical standards and ensuring researchers act in accordance with professional expectations for researchers within the jurisdiction. These committees aim to ensure consistency of ethical practice in research. While there is generally some flexibility in the review process researchers often find ethical requirements constraining, as guidelines are primarily prescriptive and are designed to ensure consistency in the application of universal ethical principles in research. In New Zealand, consistency includes paying attention to broader socio-cultural responsibilities to society that includes promoting awareness of the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights 1996, the Health Information Privacy Code 1994, and promoting ethical practices which involve Maori (the local indigenous people in research proposals as much as possible (Ministry of Health, 2006. So while researchers in training assume that their prime interest concerns the management of a research topic and methodology, they quickly find out that ethical guidelines influence research design. Even though there is an international code of ethics (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2005 that defines ethical standards for researchers around the world, each country has its own specific requirements depending on the context. In this paper, ethical drivers in the New Zealand context are outlined and

  3. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe


    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  4. Never Argue with a Kiwi: International Exchange Debating in New Zealand.

    Saxon, John D.

    A report concerning the value of the international exchange debate tour of New Zealand sponsored by the Committee on International Discussion and Debate of the Speech Communication Association is given in this paper. The report provides an examination of the goals and benefits of international exchange debating, discusses how this particular tour…

  5. Variability of internal frontal bore breaking above Opouawe Bank methane seep area (New Zealand)

    van Haren, H.; Greinert, J.


    Large internal wave breaking is observed exceeding a vertical array of 61 high-resolution temperature sensors at 1 m intervals between 7 and 67 m above the bottom. The array was moored for 5 days at 969 m of Opouawe Bank, New Zealand, a known methane seep area. As breaking internal waves dominate se

  6. Educational Psychology in New Zealand: Results of the 2006 International School Psychology Survey

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Annan, Jean; Skokut, Mary; Renshaw, Tyler L.


    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about New Zealand educational psychologists' characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges they experienced in their work. The results of this survey were considered in relation to the social and cultural context of…

  7. Managing Internal Marketing in a New Zealand Language School: Some Important Lessons for All Educational Leaders

    Stachowski, Christopher Allen


    In New Zealand, private language schools, although controversial, are popular for international travellers who want to study and travel simultaneously. These alternative schools are run in a business-like fashion and their educational administrators have embraced the use of marketing as part of their everyday educational management practice. Even…

  8. International recommendations on competency in critical care ultrasound: pertinence to Australia and New Zealand.

    McLean, Anthony S


    The use of echocardiography and other applications of ultrasound in the management of critically ill patients is becoming mainstream. With increased accessibility to equipment, the main challenges are in providing training and drawing up an outline of what levels of competency should be achieved. An international body of experienced critical care physician sonographers has reached consensus on guidelines in training and on two levels of competency - basic and advanced. Formal structures to aid the physician have been developed in Australia and New Zealand.

  9. A descriptive account of the challenges and coping strategies of international Chinese Students studying at a New Zealand university

    Fen Lu


    Introduction As in many other nations, international student numbers in New Zealand have grown exponentially in the past decade.Chinese students account for 30% of all international students studying in New Zealand (Merwood, 2008).of the 19.2% international graduates from New Zealand' s eight universities in 2006, 79.5% came from Asian nations (New Zealand Vice Chancellors Committee, 2008).Adjusting to academic life in the host country has reported as the biggest challenge in the previous studies (Poyrazli & Lopez, 2007).In this paper we present our findings of the study challenges experienced by a small group of international Chinese students, and their personal strategies for overcoming these challenges.

  10. Dare to Dream: Personal Values, Life Goals, and International Students in New Zealand.

    Zhang, Kaili C; Zhang, Abraham


    It has been well identified and supported in the literature that values and life goals are associated with one's general well-being. However, there have been few studies on values and life goals among international students in New Zealand. This study addressed this lack of research by focusing on the life goals and personal values among international students in three tertiary institutes in New Zealand. Based on the literature review, the hypothesis of this study is that international students' intrinsic life goals are positively correlated with their spiritual values. In contrast, extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. The Aspirations Index, which was used to assess life goals, and the Schwartz' value survey, which measured the students' personal values, were both distributed to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 24 of the participants were also conducted. Findings revealed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals and that extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. As the research findings showed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals, helping international students to find meaning and purpose in life may promote their well-being, and the learning and growth of international students can be improved by incorporating spiritual values and cultural aspects in college education. The authors also argue that a holistic approach to college education for international students is needed.

  11. Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand

    Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Revol, Vincent G.N.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)


    Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO{sub 2} emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or 'bottom-up', model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO{sub 2} per passenger-kilometre (g CO{sub 2} per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO{sub 2} per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the 'hotel' function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO{sub 2} emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)


    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO{sub 2}, calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: {yields} Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. {yields} 7.7 Mt of CO{sub 2} estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. {yields} 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. {yields} The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. {yields} Detailed approach for international transport emissions

  13. Quality of life: international and domestic students studying medicine in New Zealand.

    Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian; Moir, Fiona; Doherty, Iain; Hawken, Susan J


    International students form a significant proportion of students studying within universities in Western countries. The quality of life perceptions of international medical students in comparison with domestic medical students has not been well documented. There is some evidence to suggest that international medical students may have different educational and social experiences in relation to their domestic peers. This study investigates the levels of quality of life experienced by international and domestic students studying medicine. A total of 548 medical students completed the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. The focus of the analysis was to evaluate differences between international and domestic students in their early clinical years. The responses were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance methods. International medical students are experiencing lower social and environmental quality of life compared with domestic peers. International medical students in New Zealand have expressed quality of life concerns, which likely have an impact on their academic achievement, feelings of wellness, acculturation, and social adaptation. The findings reinforce the need for creating stronger social networks and accessible accommodation, as well as developing systems to ensure safety, peer mentorship and student support.

  14. Social Networking Sites and Educational Adaptation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Chinese International Students in New Zealand

    Cao, Ling; Zhang, Tingting


    This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China) in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc.) to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences. PMID:22666100

  15. A fast, exact code for scattered thermal radiation compared with a two-stream approximation. [radiative transfer model

    Cogley, A. C.; Pandey, D. K.; Bergstrom, R. W.


    A two-stream accuracy study for internally (thermal) driven problems is presented by comparison with a recently developed 'exact' adding/doubling method. The resulting errors in external (or boundary) radiative intensity and flux are usually larger than those for the externally driven problems and vary substantially with the radiative parameters. Error predictions for a specific problem are difficult. An unexpected result is that the exact method is computationally as fast as the two-stream approximation for nonisothermal media.

  16. How can international studies such as the international mathematics and science study and the programme for international student assessment be used to inform practice, policy and future research in science education in New Zealand?

    Baker, Robyn; Jones, Alister


    New Zealand is investing in two international studies that assess the achievement of students in science--the International Mathematics and Science Study and the Programme for International Student Assessment. While the studies have very different purposes, they both provide extensive data on student achievement in science and about factors that impact on this achievement. Currently the international and national study reports describe general findings but there has been no systematic secondary analysis or commentary by the New Zealand science education community. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of these international studies including some of the major findings so as to highlight their potential for further interrogation by science educators both nationally and internationally to inform policy, practice and further research.

  17. Rigorous merging of two-stream and Buneman instabilities

    Bret, A.


    Two-stream and Buneman instabilities are among the most well-known streaming plasma instabilities. In general, they occur within distinct ranges of wave vectors and can be treated separately in the linear regime. For symmetric counter-streams however, these modes overlap and even merge exactly for some wavelengths. The corresponding range can be expressed using Cardano's method for the resolution of the cubic equation.

  18. Are Private Providers more Productive and Efficient than Public Providers of International Education? Evidence from New Zealand

    Dayal TALUKDER


    Full Text Available This study has investigated the productivity growth and efficiency of private and public providers of international education in New Zealand. It has used secondary data to calculate the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index for measuring Total Factor Productivity (TFP-growth and efficiency of both public and private providers of international education during 1999-2010. The study has found that private providers experienced a larger TFP-growth than that of public providers during 1999-2004. However, they experienced a sharp decline in TFP-growth since 2005 through to 2010 and experienced a much smaller TFP-growth than that of public providers during this period. Conversely, public providers experienced a positive TFP-growth during 1999-2004 but they experienced a negative TFP-growth since 2005 through to 2010. Considering efficiency, both private and public providers experienced almost a constant Technical Efficiency Change (TEC having a same level of efficiency of one. Both private and public providers exhibited a constant return to scale during 1999-2010. This study argues that on an average, private providers are more productive than public providers of international education. However, they are not more efficient than public providers as both types of providers exhibited a constant return to scale during 1999-2010. This study also argues that TFP-growth of New Zealand’s international education was determined by Technological Change (TC, not by TEC during this period.


    Rizwan Tahir


    Full Text Available We empirically investigate how different location-specific variables and strategic motives influenced Australian and New Zealand (ANZ firms' ownership strategy choices in foreign markets between 1998 and 2008. This study is the first to analyse how strategic motives and ownership-specific, location-specific, and internalisation variables have influenced the ownership structure choices of ANZ firms in foreign markets. The results indicate that large market potential and low levels of cultural distance increase the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake wholly owned subsidiary (WOS ownership structures and market-seeking (MS and/or efficiency-seeking (ES foreign direct investment (FDI. Low exchange rate fluctuation increases the probability that ANZ manufacturing firms will undertake WOS-type risk reduction-seeking (RRS FDI.

  20. International learning on increasing the value and effectiveness of primary care (I LIVE PC) New Zealand.

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Gauld, Robin; Cumming, Jacqueline; O'Keefe, Bev; Pert, Harry; McCormack, Paul


    New Zealand (NZ) has a central government-driven, tax-funded health system with the state as dominant payer. The NZ experience precedes and endorses the US concept of patient-centered medical homes providing population-based, nonepisodic care supported by network organizations. These networks provide administration, budget holding, incentivized programs, data feedback, peer review, education, human relations, and health information technology support and resources. Key elements include enrolled populations; an interdisciplinary team approach; health information technology interoperability and access between all providers as well as patients; devolution of hospital-based services into the community; intersectorial integration; blended payments (a combination of universal capitated funding, patient copayments, and targeted fee-for-service for specific items); and a balance of clinical, corporate, and community governance. In this article, we discuss reforms to NZ's primary care arrangements over the past 2 decades and reflect on the lessons learned, their relevance to the United States, and issues that remain to be resolved.

  1. The Social and Economic Security of International Students: A New Zealand Study

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity


    International education has generated complex problems of governance. As well as being beneficiaries of educational services and consumers of a product, international students are also migrants, workers and beings with civil rights. Arguably, the regulation of international student security as consumer protection fails to recognize this full range…

  2. The Social and Economic Security of International Students: A New Zealand Study

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity


    International education has generated complex problems of governance. As well as being beneficiaries of educational services and consumers of a product, international students are also migrants, workers and beings with civil rights. Arguably, the regulation of international student security as consumer protection fails to recognize this full range…

  3. Quality of life: international and domestic students studying medicine in New Zealand

    Marcus A. Henning; Krägeloh, Christian; Moir, Fiona; Doherty, Iain; Hawken, Susan J


    International students form a significant proportion of students studying within universities in Western countries. The quality of life perceptions of international medical students in comparison with domestic medical students has not been well documented. There is some evidence to suggest that international medical students may have different educational and social experiences in relation to their domestic peers. This study investigates the levels of quality of life experienced by internatio...

  4. Electrostatic two-stream instability in Fermi-Dirac plasmas

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Mohammadnejad, M.; Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.


    In this paper the electrostatic two-stream instability is investigated for a large range of plasma number-density using the quantum hydrodynamic model by incorporating the relativistic degeneracy, electron-exchange, quantum diffraction and strong parallel quantizing magnetic field effects. It is found that the electron diffraction effect significantly alters the instability growth rate in a wide range of plasma number density. Two cases of classical and quantum Landau quantization limits are compared and the parametric instability condition is closely inspected. It is remarked that for a given streaming speed the instability is bounded by an upper plasma number-density limit. It is also shown that for a given stream speed there is a maximal growth rate corresponding to specific plasma number-density and perturbation wavelength. Current study can help in better understanding of electron-beam plasma interactions and energy exchange for a wide area of number densities ranging from solid density, inertial confined plasmas, big planetary cores and compact stars. It may also be useful in understanding of electrostatic beam-plasma interactions and origin of large magnitude sustainable electrical currents in super-intense plasmas with critically high magnetic fields such as, pulsars, white dwarf interiors and neutron star crusts.

  5. Academic Difficulties Encountered by East Asian International University Students in New Zealand

    Lee, Boram; Farruggia, Susan P.; Brown, Gavin T. L.


    The study focused on learning difficulties experienced by East Asian International (EAI) students. Participants were 117 EAI students undertaking tertiary study at a major university, all were surveyed and 21 students were interviewed. The findings suggest that language limitations, academic content and learning styles were associated with…

  6. New Zealand Split



    The Kiwis worry about Chinese investment The news China Investment Corp.wanted to invest NZ$6 billion($4.8b illion)in New Zealand sent the country’s stock market spiraling into its best day in three years in late May.This fol-lowed an ongoing internal wrangle in New Zealand over whether Shanghai Pengxin Group should be allowed to buy into the defunct Crafar faming empire.

  7. The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve and light pollution issues in New Zealand

    Hearnshaw, John


    I will discuss the Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve, recognized by IDA in 2012, and how the reserve is managed and promoted to the public to make them aware of light pollution issues and in order to promote star-gazing and astro-tourism. AMIDSR is the world's largest Dark Sky Reserve recognized by IDA and has gold tier status. We will have a Starlight festival in October to promote the Reserve to the public.

  8. P. Gluckman Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Minister, New Zealand signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations R. Voss. Accompanied by A. Bell throughout.

    Anna Pantelia


    P. Gluckman Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Minister, New Zealand signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations R. Voss. Accompanied by A. Bell throughout.

  9. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (NZPAQ: A doubly labelled water validation

    Rodgers Anthony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ. The aim of this study was to validate the IPAQ and NZPAQ against doubly labelled water (DLW. Method: Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE was estimated by subtracting the energy expenditure from resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding from TEE. The IPAQ (long form and NZPAQ (short form were completed at the end of each 7-day period. Activity-related energy expenditure (IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE was calculated from each questionnaire and compared to DLWAEE. Results Thirty six adults aged 18 to 56 years (56% female completed all measurements. Compared to DLWAEE, IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE on average underestimated energy expenditure by 27% and 59%, respectively. There was good agreement between DLWAEE and both IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE at lower levels of physical activity. However there was marked underestimation of questionnaire-derived energy expenditure at higher levels of activity. Conclusion Both the IPAQ and NZPAQ instruments have a demonstrated systematic bias toward underestimation of physical activity-related energy expenditure at higher levels of physical activity compared to DLW. Appropriate calibration factors could be used to correct for measurement error in physical activity questionnaires and hence improve estimation of AEE.

  10. Internal structure and volcanic hazard potential of Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from 3D gravity and magnetic models

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn


    A new 3D geophysical model of the Mt Tongariro Volcanic Massif (TgVM), New Zealand, provides a high resolution view of the volcano's internal structure and hydrothermal system, from which we derive implications for volcanic hazards. Geologically constrained 3D inversions of potential field data provides a greater level of insight into the volcanic structure than is possible from unconstrained models. A complex region of gravity highs and lows (± 6 mGal) is set within a broader, ~ 20 mGal gravity low. A magnetic high (1300 nT) is associated with Mt Ngauruhoe, while a substantial, thick, demagnetised area occurs to the north, coincident with a gravity low and interpreted as representing the hydrothermal system. The hydrothermal system is constrained to the west by major faults, interpreted as an impermeable barrier to fluid migration and extends to basement depth. These faults are considered low probability areas for future eruption sites, as there is little to indicate they have acted as magmatic pathways. Where the hydrothermal system coincides with steep topographic slopes, an increased likelihood of landslides is present and the newly delineated hydrothermal system maps the area most likely to have phreatic eruptions. Such eruptions, while small on a global scale, are important hazards at the TgVM as it is a popular hiking area with hundreds of visitors per day in close proximity to eruption sites. The model shows that the volume of volcanic material erupted over the lifespan of the TgVM is five to six times greater than previous estimates, suggesting a higher rate of magma supply, in line with global rates of andesite production. We suggest that our model of physical property distribution can be used to provide constraints for other models of dynamic geophysical processes occurring at the TgVM.

  11. A Study of the Adoption and Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in the Two EU Countries of Denmark and Ireland and New Zealand, a Non EU Country

    Holm, Claus; Schøler, Finn; Lønne, Henrik

    The International Accounting Standards Board has as its mission the development of a singlet set of high quality standards to be applied consistently by companies globally.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation process to integrate IFRS in the smaller and developed countries...... of Denmark, Ireland and New Zealand.  The paper examines the enablers for successful IFRS implementation, namely, Legislative changes, Accounting profession, Stock exchanges, Enforcement, Early adopters in 2004, and Adopters in 2005.  An examination of the top 30 companies' annual reports for the three...... countries was made to test for voluntary compliance of IFRS in 2004 and mandatory compliance in 2005.  The results show that Denmark is the only country with early adopters in 2004.  All 30 Danish companies complied in 2005, with 24 in Ireland, and 9 in New Zealand....

  12. Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students: Making a Globalising Industry in New Zealand

    Lewis, Nicolas


    Export education in New Zealand has grown rapidly since 1990, earning significant foreign exchange and underwriting the finance of domestic education. As principal owner of education institutions, the national state is the primary investor. Previous governments treated the "industry" as both windfall and cash-cow as they advanced the…

  13. Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students: Making a Globalising Industry in New Zealand

    Lewis, Nicolas


    Export education in New Zealand has grown rapidly since 1990, earning significant foreign exchange and underwriting the finance of domestic education. As principal owner of education institutions, the national state is the primary investor. Previous governments treated the "industry" as both windfall and cash-cow as they advanced the…

  14. Forming of space charge wave with broad frequency spectrum in helical relativistic two-stream electron beams

    Lysenko, Alexander V.; Volk, Iurii I.; Serozhko, A.


    We elaborate a quadratic nonlinear theory of plural interactions of growing space charge wave (SCW) harmonics during the development of the two-stream instability in helical relativistic electron beams. It is found that in helical two-stream electron beams the growth rate of the two-stream instab...

  15. Two-Stream Model: Toward Data Production for Sharing Field Science Data

    Baker, K. S.; Palmer, C. L.; Thomer, A. K.; Wickett, K.; DiLauro, T.; Asangba, A. E.; Fouke, B. W.; Choudhury, G. S.


    Scientific data play a central role in the production of knowledge reported in scientific publications. Today, data sharing policies together with technological capacity are fueling visions of data as open and accessible where data appear to stand-alone as products of the research process. Yet, guidelines and outputs are constantly being produced that impact subsequent work with the data, particularly in field-oriented, data-rich earth science research. We propose a model that focuses on two distinct yet intertwined data streams: internal-use data and public-reuse data. Internal-use data often involves a complex mix of processing, analysis and integration strategies creating data in forms leading to the publication of papers. Public-reuse data is prepared with a more standardized set of procedures creating data packages in the form of well-described, parameter-based datasets for release to a data repository and for reuse by others. While scientific researchers are familiar with collecting and analyzing data for publication in the scientific literature, the second data stream helps to identify tasks relating to the preparation of data for future, unanticipated reuse. The second stream represents an expansion in conceptualization of data management for the majority of natural scientists from a publication metaphor to recognition of a release metaphor (Parsons and Fox 2012). A combined dual-function model brings attention to some of the less recognized barriers that impede preparation of data for reuse. Digital data analysis spawns a multitude of files often assessed while ';in use' so for reuse of data, scientists must first identify what data files to share. They must also create robust data processes that frequently involve establishing new distributions of labor. The two-stream approach creates a visual representation for data generators who now must think about what data are most likely to have value not only for their work but also for the work of others

  16. Transition regime of the one-dimensional two-stream instability

    Lotov, K V


    The transition between kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes of the one-dimensional two-stream instability is numerically analyzed, and the correction coefficients to the well-known textbook formulae are calculated. The approximate expressions are shown to overestimate the growth rate several times in a wide parameter area.

  17. Weibel and Two-Stream Instabilities for Intense Charged Particle Beam Propagation through Neutralizing Background Plasma

    Ronald C. Davidson; Igor Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev


    Properties of the multi-species electromagnetic Weibel and electrostatic two-stream instabilities are investigated for an intense ion beam propagating through background plasma. Assuming that the background plasma electrons provide complete charge and current neutralization, detailed linear stability properties are calculated within the framework of a macroscopic cold-fluid model for a wide range of system parameters.

  18. Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Chi-Lon Fern


    Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed

  19. White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand

    Thornley, Simon; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Denaxas, Spiros; Jackson, Rod; Hemingway, Harry


    Objectives Electronic health records offer the opportunity to discover new clinical implications for established blood tests, but international comparisons have been lacking. We tested the association of total white cell count (WBC) with all-cause mortality in England and New Zealand. Setting Primary care practices in England (ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER)) and New Zealand (PREDICT). Design Analysis of linked electronic health record data sets: CALIBER (primary care, hospitalisation, mortality and acute coronary syndrome registry) and PREDICT (cardiovascular risk assessments in primary care, hospitalisations, mortality, dispensed medication and laboratory results). Participants People aged 30–75 years with no prior cardiovascular disease (CALIBER: N=686 475, 92.0% white; PREDICT: N=194 513, 53.5% European, 14.7% Pacific, 13.4% Maori), followed until death, transfer out of practice (in CALIBER) or study end. Primary outcome measure HRs for mortality were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, ethnicity and total:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio. Results We found ‘J’-shaped associations between WBC and mortality; the second quintile was associated with lowest risk in both cohorts. High WBC within the reference range (8.65–10.05×109/L) was associated with significantly increased mortality compared to the middle quintile (6.25–7.25×109/L); adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.59) in CALIBER and 1.33 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.65) in PREDICT. WBC outside the reference range was associated with even greater mortality. The association was stronger over the first 6 months of follow-up, but similar across ethnic groups. Conclusions Clinically recorded WBC within the range considered ‘normal’ is associated with mortality in ethnically different populations from two countries, particularly within the first 6 months. Large

  20. Electron Two-stream Instability and Its Application in Solar and Heliophysics

    Che, Haihong


    It is well known that electron beams accelerated in solar flares can drive two-stream instability and produce radio bursts in the solar corona as well as in the interplanetary medium. Recent observations show that the solar wind likely originates from nanoflare-like events near the surface of the Sun where locally heated plasma escapes along open field lines into space. Recent numerical simulations and theoretical studies show that electron two-stream instability (ETSI) driven by nanoflare-accelerated electron beams can produce the observed nanoflare-type radio bursts, the non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function of the solar wind, and the kinetic scale turbulence in solar wind. This brief review focus on the basic theoretical framework and recent progress in the nonlinear evolution of ETSI, including the formation of electron holes, Langmuir wave generation in warm plasma, and the nonlinear modulation instability and Langmuir collapse. Potential applications in heliophysics and astrophysics are...

  1. Oblique Ion Two-Stream Instability in the Foot Region of a Collisionless Shock

    Ohira, Yutaka


    Electrostatic behavior of a collisionless plasma in the foot region of high Mach number perpendicular shocks is investigated through the two-dimensional linear analysis and electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulations are double periodic and taken as a proxy for the situation in the foot. The linear analysis for relatively cold unmagnetized plasmas with a reflected proton beam shows that obliquely propagating Buneman instability is strongly excited. We also found that when the electron temperature is much higher than the proton temperature, the most unstable mode is the highly obliquely propagating ion two-stream instability excited through the resonance between ion plasma oscillations of the background protons and of the beam protons, rather than the ion acoustic instability that is dominant for parallel propagation. To investigate nonlinear behavior of the ion two-stream instability, we have made PIC simulations for the shock foot region in which the initial state satisfies the Buneman i...

  2. Electron two-stream instability and its application in solar and heliophysics

    Che, Haihong


    It is well known that electron beams accelerated in solar flares can drive two-stream instability and produce radio bursts in the solar corona as well as in the interplanetary medium. Recent observations show that the solar wind likely originates from nanoflare-like events near the surface of the Sun where locally heated plasma escapes along open field lines into space. Recent numerical simulations and theoretical studies show that electron two-stream instability (ETSI) driven by nanoflare-accelerated electron beams can produce the observed nanoflare-type radio bursts, the non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function of the solar wind, and the kinetic scale turbulence in solar wind. This brief review focus on the basic theoretical framework and recent progress in the nonlinear evolution of ETSI driven by electron beams, including the formation of electron holes, Langmuir wave generation in warm plasma, and the nonlinear modulation instability and Langmuir collapse. Potential applications in heliophysics and astrophysics are discussed.

  3. Entropy resistance analyses of a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang


    Heat exchangers are widely used in industry,and analyses and optimizations of the performance of heat exchangers are important topics.In this paper,we define the concept of entropy resistance based on the entropy generation analyses of a one-dimensional heat transfer process.With this concept,a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating is analyzed and discussed.It is found that the minimization of entropy resistance always leads to the maximum heat transfer rate for the discussed two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger,while the minimizations of entropy generation rate,entropy generation numbers,and revised entropy generation number do not always.

  4. Instability saturation by the oscillating two-stream instability in a weakly relativistic plasma

    Pal, Barnali; Poria, Swarup, E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Sahu, Biswajit, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India)


    The two-stream instability has wide range of astrophysical applications starting from gamma-ray bursts and pulsar glitches to cosmology. We consider one dimensional weakly relativistic Zakharov equations and describe nonlinear saturation of the oscillating two-stream instability using a three dimensional dynamical system resulting form a truncation of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation to three modes. The equilibrium points of the model are determined and their stability natures are discussed. Using the tools of nonlinear dynamics such as the bifurcation diagram, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunav exponents, existence of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic solutions are established in the dynamical system. Interestingly, we observe the multistable behavior in this plasma model. The system has multiple attractors depending on the initial conditions. We also notice that the relativistic parameter plays the role of control parameter in the model. The theoretical results presented in this paper may be helpful for better understanding of space and astrophysical plasmas.


    Pang Yongjiang; Li Zhongyuan; Liu Yuan


    In this paper, we adopted a reasonable particle distribution function and used a simplified judgement to analyze the possibility of the ion-pickup caused by two-stream instibility in cometary tail. On calculation, we get an energy limitation(ΔE1, ΔE2) between the solar wind particles and the cometary particles .When the energy diffference is between ΔE1 and ΔE2, the pickup of ions in the cometary tail is more effective.

  6. Model of two-stream non-radial accretion for binary X-ray pulsars

    Lipunov, V.M. (Sternberg Astronomical Inst., Moscow (USSR))


    The general case of non-radial accretion is assumed to occur in real binary systems containing X-ray pulsars. The structure and the stability of the magnetosphere, the interaction between the magnetosphere and accreted matter, as well as evolution of neutron star in close binary system are examined within the framework of the two-stream model of nonradial accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Observable parameters of X-ray pulsars are explained in terms of the model considered.

  7. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity


    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  8. Dialogic action in climate change discussions: An international study of high school students in China, New Zealand, Norway and the United States

    Diana J. Arya


    Full Text Available Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014. This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141. Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999, we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.

  9. Maori and English: New Zealand's Bilingual Problem.

    Adcock, C. John


    Attempts to consider all of the relevant aspects of the role of the Maori culture and language in developing New Zealand's language policy. Those aspects considered include national identity, cultural bias, and international communication needs. (Author/CB)

  10. Ultrashort electromagnetic clusters formation by two-stream superheterodyne free electron lasers

    Kulish, Viktor V.; Lysenko, Alexander V.; Volk, Iurii I.


    A cubic nonlinear self-consistent theory of multiharmonic two-stream superheterodyne free electron lasers (TSFEL) of a klystron type, intended to form powerful ultrashort clusters of an electromagnetic field is constructed. Plural three-wave parametric resonant interactions of wave harmonics have...... been taken into account. An amplitude, phase and spectral analyses of the processes occurring in such devices have been carried out. The conditions necessary for the forming of the ultrashort clusters of an electromagnetic field have been found out. The possibility of the ultrashort electromagnetic...

  11. How electron two-stream instability drives cyclic Langmuir collapse and continuous coherent emission

    Che, Haihong; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Diamond, Patrick H.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.


    Continuous plasma coherent emission is maintained by repetitive Langmuir collapse driven by the nonlinear evolution of a strong electron two-stream instability. The Langmuir waves are modulated by solitary waves in the linear stage and electrostatic whistler waves in the nonlinear stage. Modulational instability leads to Langmuir collapse and electron heating that fills in cavitons. The high pressure is released via excitation of a short-wavelength ion acoustic mode that is damped by electrons and reexcites small-scale Langmuir waves; this process closes a feedback loop that maintains the continuous coherent emission.

  12. Two-Stream Transformer Networks for Video-based Face Alignment.

    Liu, Hao; Lu, Jiwen; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie


    In this paper, we propose a two-stream transformer networks (TSTN) approach for video-based face alignment. Unlike conventional image-based face alignment approaches which cannot explicitly model the temporal dependency in videos and motivated by the fact that consistent movements of facial landmarks usually occur across consecutive frames, our TSTN aims to capture the complementary information of both the spatial appearance on still frames and the temporal consistency information across frames. To achieve this, we develop a two-stream architecture, which decomposes the video-based face alignment into spatial and temporal streams accordingly. Specifically, the spatial stream aims to transform the facial image to the landmark positions by preserving the holistic facial shape structure. Accordingly, the temporal stream encodes the video input as active appearance codes, where the temporal consistency information across frames is captured to help shape refinements. Experimental results on the benchmarking video-based face alignment datasets show very competitive performance of our method in comparisons to the state-of-the-arts.

  13. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. IV. Improved Two-stream Radiative Transfer for the Treatment of Aerosols

    Heng, Kevin; Kitzmann, Daniel


    We present a novel generalization of the two-stream method of radiative transfer, which allows for the accurate treatment of radiative transfer in the presence of strong infrared scattering by aerosols. We prove that this generalization involves only a simple modification of the coupling coefficients and transmission functions in the hemispheric two-stream method. This modification originates from allowing the ratio of the first Eddington coefficients to depart from unity. At the heart of the method is the fact that this ratio may be computed once and for all over the entire range of values of the single-scattering albedo and scattering asymmetry factor. We benchmark our improved two-stream method by calculating the fraction of flux reflected by a single atmospheric layer (the reflectivity) and comparing these calculations to those performed using a 32-stream discrete-ordinates method. We further compare our improved two-stream method to the two-stream source function (16 streams) and delta-Eddington methods, demonstrating that it is often more accurate at the order-of-magnitude level. Finally, we illustrate its accuracy using a toy model of the early Martian atmosphere hosting a cloud layer composed of carbon dioxide ice particles. The simplicity of implementation and accuracy of our improved two-stream method renders it suitable for implementation in three-dimensional general circulation models. In other words, our improved two-stream method has the ease of implementation of a standard two-stream method, but the accuracy of a 32-stream method.

  14. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.


    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  15. Nonlinear damping of a finite amplitude whistler wave due to modified two stream instability

    Saito, Shinji, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Nariyuki, Yasuhiro, E-mail: [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Umeda, Takayuki, E-mail: [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    A two-dimensional, fully kinetic, particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate the nonlinear development of a parallel propagating finite amplitude whistler wave (parent wave) with a wavelength longer than an ion inertial length. The cross field current of the parent wave generates short-scale whistler waves propagating highly oblique directions to the ambient magnetic field through the modified two-stream instability (MTSI) which scatters electrons and ions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively. The parent wave is largely damped during a time comparable to the wave period. The MTSI-driven damping process is proposed as a cause of nonlinear dissipation of kinetic turbulence in the solar wind.

  16. Collisionsless amplifying of longitudinal electron waves in two-stream plasma

    Soshnikov, V N


    To better understanding the principal features of collisionless damping/growing plasma waves we have implemented a demonstrative calculation for the simplest cases of electron waves in two-stream plasmas with the delta-function type electron velocity distribution function of each of the streams with velocities v(1) and v(2). The traditional dispersion equation is reduced to an algebraic 4th order equation, for which numerical solutions are presented for a variant of equal stream densities. In the case of uniform half-infinite slab one finds two dominant type solutions: non-damping forward waves and forward complex conjugated exponentially both damping and growing waves. Beside it in this case there is no necessity of calculation any logarithmically divergent indefinite integrals. The possibility of wave amplifying might be useful in practical applications.

  17. Effect of collisions on the two-stream instability in a finite length plasma

    Sydorenko, D.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Ventzek, P. L. G.; Chen, L.


    The instability of a monoenergetic electron beam in a collisional one-dimensional plasma bounded between grounded walls is considered both analytically and numerically. Collisions between electrons and neutrals are accounted for the plasma electrons only. Solution of a dispersion equation shows that the temporal growth rate of the instability is a decreasing linear function of the collision frequency which becomes zero when the collision frequency is two times the collisionless growth rate. This result is confirmed by fluid simulations. Practical formulas are given for the estimate of the threshold beam current which is required for the two-stream instability to develop for a given system length, neutral gas pressure, plasma density, and beam energy. Particle-in-cell simulations carried out with different neutral densities and beam currents demonstrate a good agreement with the fluid theory predictions for both the growth rate and the threshold beam current.

  18. Viscous boundary layers of radiation-dominated, relativistic jets. I. The two-stream model

    Coughlin, Eric R


    Using the relativistic equations of radiation hydrodynamics in the viscous limit, we analyze the boundary layers that develop between radiation-dominated jets and their environments. In this paper we present the solution for the self-similar, 2-D, plane-parallel two-stream problem, wherein the jet and the ambient medium are considered to be separate, interacting fluids, and we compare our results to those of previous authors. (In a companion paper we investigate an alternative scenario, known as the free-streaming jet model.) Consistent with past findings, we show that the boundary layer that develops between the jet and its surroundings creates a region of low-density material. These models may be applicable to sources such as super-Eddington tidal disruption events and long gamma-ray bursts.

  19. Oscillating two-stream instability in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma

    Tinakiche, Nouara [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, U.M.B.B, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Annou, R. [Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)


    Oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma has been thoroughly studied, e.g., in ionospheric heating experiments [C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves With Electron Beams and Plasmas (World Scientific, 1994); V. K. Tripathi and P. V. Siva Rama Prasad, J. Plasma Phys. 41, 13 (1989); K. Ramachandran and V. K. Tripathi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 423 (1997)]. In this paper, OTSI is investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The dispersion relation of the process is established. The pump field threshold, along with the maximum growth rate of the instability is assessed using the Arecibo and HAARP parameters.

  20. Oscillating two-stream instability in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma

    Tinakiche, Nouara; Annou, R.


    Oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma has been thoroughly studied, e.g., in ionospheric heating experiments [C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves With Electron Beams and Plasmas (World Scientific, 1994); V. K. Tripathi and P. V. Siva Rama Prasad, J. Plasma Phys. 41, 13 (1989); K. Ramachandran and V. K. Tripathi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 423 (1997)]. In this paper, OTSI is investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The dispersion relation of the process is established. The pump field threshold, along with the maximum growth rate of the instability is assessed using the Arecibo and HAARP parameters.

  1. Effect of collisions on the two-stream instability in a finite length plasm

    Sydorenko, Dmytro; Vetzek, Peter L G


    The instability of a monoenergetic electron beam in a collisional one-dimensional plasma bounded between grounded walls is considered both analytically and numerically. Collisions between electrons and neutrals are accounted for the plasma electrons only. Solution of a dispersion equation shows that the temporal growth rate of the instability is a decreasing linear function of the collision frequency which becomes zero when the collision frequency is two times the collisionless growth rate. This result is confirmed by fluid simulations. Practical formulas are given for the estimate of the threshold beam current which is required for the two-stream instability to develop for a given system length, neutral gas pressure, plasma density, and beam energy. Particle-in-cell simulations carried out with different neutral densities and beam currents demonstrate good agreement with the fluid theory predictions for both the growth rate and the threshold beam current.

  2. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. II. Radiative Transfer via the Two-Stream Approximation

    Heng, Kevin; Lee, Jaemin


    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior) and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically under-determined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We further demonstrate that traditional non-isothermal treatments of each atmospheric layer lead to unphysical contributions to the ...

  3. Oscillating two-stream instability of laser wakefield-driven plasma wave

    Nafis Ahmad; V K Tripathi; Moiz Ahmad; M Rafat


    The laser wakefield-driven plasma wave in a low-density plasma is seen to be susceptible to the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). The plasma wave couples to two short wavelength plasma wave sidebands. The pump plasma wave and sidebands exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons driving a low-frequency quasimode. The electron density perturbation associated with this mode couples with the pump-driven electron oscillatory velocity to produce nonlinear currents driving the sidebands. At large pump amplitude, the instability grows faster than the ion plasma frequency and ions do not play a significant role. The growth rate of the quasimode, at large pump amplitude scales faster than linear. The growth rate is maximum for an optimum wave number of the quasimode and also increases with pump amplitude. Nonlocal effects, however reduce the growth rate by about half.

  4. Behavioral and catastrophic drift of invertebrates in two streams in northeastern Wyoming

    Wangsness, David J.; Peterson, David A.


    Invertebrate drift samples were collected in August 1977 from two streams in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming. The streams are Clear Creek, a mountain stream, and the Little Powder River, a plains stream. Two major patterns of drift were recognized. Clear Creek was sampled during a period of normal seasonal conditions. High drift rates occurred during the night indicating a behavioral drift pattern that is related to the benthic invertebrate density and carrying capacity of the stream substrates. The mayfly genes Baetis, a common drift organism, dominated the peak periods of drift in Clear Creek. The Little Powder River has a high discharge during the study period. Midge larvae of the families Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae, ususally not common in drift, dominated the drift community. The dominance of midge larvae, the presence of several other organisms not common in drift, and the high discharge during the study period caused a catastrophic drift pattern. (USGS)

  5. Theory of Collisional Two-Stream Plasma Instabilities in the Solar Chromosphere

    Madsen, Chad Allen; Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers; Fontenla, Juan


    The solar chromosphere experiences intense heating just above its temperature minimum. The heating increases the electron temperature in this region by over 2000 K. Furthermore, it exhibits little time variation and appears widespread across the solar disk. Although semi-empirical models, UV continuum observations, and line emission measurements confirm the existence of the heating, its source remains unexplained. Potential heating sources such as acoustic shocks, resistive dissipation, and magnetic reconnection via nanoflares fail to account for the intensity, persistence, and ubiquity of the heating. Fontenla (2005) suggested turbulence from a collisional two-stream plasma instability known as the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) could contribute significantly to the heating. This instability is known to heat the plasma of the E-region ionosphere which bears many similarities to the chromospheric plasma. However, the ionospheric theory of the FBI does not account for the diverse ion species found in the solar chromosphere. This work develops a new collisional, two-stream instability theory appropriate for the chromospheric plasma environment using a linear fluid analysis to derive a new dispersion relationship and critical E x B drift velocity required to trigger the instability. Using a 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, radiative transfer model and careful estimates of collision rates and magnetic field strengths, we calculate the trigger velocities necessary to induce the instability throughout the chromosphere. Trigger velocities as low as 4 km s^-1 are found near the temperature minimum, well below the local neutral acoustic speed in that region. From this, we expect the instability to occur frequently, converting kinetic energy contained in neutral convective flows from the photosphere into thermal energy via turbulence. This could contribute significantly to chromospheric heating and explain its persistent and ubiquitous nature.

  6. A Pragmatic Approach for E-governance Evaluation Built over Two Streams (of Literature

    Marya Butt


    Full Text Available The paper presents a pragmatic approach for egovernance evaluation by constructing a methodology built over two streams of literature i.e. e-governance and evaluation. In the available literature, e-governance evaluation approaches are mostly discussed from only e-governance perspective. The paper will investigate the use of exploiting both streams of literature in designing the e-governance evaluation. The fundamentals concepts from both streams of literature mutually contribute to build an e-governance evaluation framework e.g. e-government development models, e-governance dimensions, delivery models and e-governance evaluation modes are extracted from e-governance streams while evaluation processes and evaluation methods and techniques are adopted from the evaluation stream. The paper presents an e-governance evaluation process spanning five phases (pre-evaluation development, manipulation, action, and outcome utilization.The use of the evaluation literature in e-governance evaluation framework enable the approach result-oriented and pragmatic i.e. outcome utilization phase that is added in the egovernance evaluation process ensures that the evaluation outcomes trigger learning process in the government body and are not dispensed for merely benchmarking.

  7. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.


    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  8. Modeling of a Compact Terahertz Source based on the Two-Stream Instability

    Svimonishvili, Tengiz [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    THz radiation straddles the microwave and infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus combining the penetrating power of lower-frequency waves and imaging capabilities of higher-energy infrared radiation. THz radiation is employed in various elds such as cancer research, biology, agriculture, homeland security, and environmental monitoring. Conventional vacuum electronic sources of THz radiation (e.g., fast- and slow-wave devices) either require very small structures or are bulky and expensive to operate. Optical sources necessitate cryogenic cooling and are presently capable of producing milliwatt levels of power at THz frequencies. We propose a millimeter and sub-millimeter wave source based on a well-known phenomenon called the two-stream instability. The two-beam source relies on lowenergy and low-current electron beams for operation. Also, it is compact, simple in design, and does not contain expensive parts that require complex machining and precise alignment. In this dissertation, we perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the interaction region of the two-beam source. The interaction region consists of a beam pipe of radius ra and two electron beams of radius rb co-propagating and interacting inside the pipe. The simulations involve the interaction of unmodulated (no initial energy modulation) and modulated (energy-modulated, seeded at a given frequency) electron beams. In addition, both cold (monoenergetic) and warm (Gaussian) beams are treated.

  9. POPs monitoring in Australia and New Zealand using plastic resin pellets, and International Pellet Watch as a tool for education and raising public awareness on plastic debris and POPs.

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Taylor, Heidi; Ito, Maki; Hosoda, Junki; Allinson, Mayumi; Connell, Sharnie; Greaves, Laura; McGrath, John


    Persistent organic pollutants (i.e. PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs) were analyzed along Australia and New Zealand North Island coastlines. PCB concentrations were high in urban areas (107-294 ng/g-pellet), with Sydney Harbour the most polluted. Hepta-chlorinated PCB was abundant, with ~30% in urban areas suggesting legacy pollution. DDT concentrations showed similar pattern except in rural agricultural sites, Taupo Bay and Ahipara, New Zealand (23 and 47 ng/g-pellet). p,p'-DDE predominance at these 2 sites suggested historical input; they also had high HCH concentrations (17 and 29 ng/g-pellet). The role of International Pellet Watch (IPW) in science communication was studied through feedbacks from IPW volunteers, case studies and examples. IPW data were categorized into understandable terms and tailored reports based on volunteers' backgrounds complemented with pollution maps. The effectiveness of IPW science communication has led to its use in awareness and education activities focusing on both POPs and plastic debris issues.

  10. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.


    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  11. New Zealand's medical manslaughter.

    Collins, D B


    Doctors in New Zealand may be prosecuted for manslaughter if patients die as a consequence of the doctor's failure to exercise reasonable knowledge, skill and care. The requirement to use reasonable knowledge, skill and care has been held to be breached in New Zealand if a doctor is merely careless. No distinction is made between 'criminal negligence' and the negligence standard applicable in civil law. This article examines New Zealand's law relating to medical manslaughter with particular reference to the case of R v Yogasakaran [1990] 1 NZLR 399 which was the subject of a petition to the Privy Council on 30 January 1991.

  12. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a plasma: Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations due to ion-ion two-stream instabilities

    Wahlund, J.E.; Opgenoorth, H.J.; Persson, M.A.L. (Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)); Mishin, E.V.; Volokitin, A.S. (IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)); Forme, F.R.E. (CNRS/CRPE (France))


    The authors propose an explanation for ion acoustic line spectra which have been observed by the EISCAT and Millstone Hill radars in the topside auroral ionosphere. They show that such lines can be generated in plasmas which are unstable to the ion-ion two-stream instability. This mechanism has the advantage of explaining the observed phenomena, and being consistent with typical conditions in the topside ionosphere.

  13. Celebrating Islam and Multiculturalism in New Zealand

    Ismatu Ropi


    Full Text Available Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN Jakarta in collaboration with the Embassy of New Zealand in Jakarta, the Asia New Zealand Foundation and the International Office of UIN Jakarta on 20 to 24 May 2013 held a photographic exhibition documenting the stories of Asian Muslims in the Kiwi Island, and a half-day discussion of a book by Adrienne Jansen and Ans Westra entitled “The Crescent Moon: The Asian Face of Islam in New Zealand”.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i2.392 

  14. Development Education Revisited: The New Zealand Experience

    Small, David


    Until the mid-1980s, New Zealanders were progressing in their understanding of the causes of and strategies for overcoming world poverty and injustice. However, the arrival of more multinational aid agencies and the increased competition for the donor dollar have given rise to a new conservatism in the development debate. This has coincided with the imposition of structural adjustment policies in New Zealand which provides an opportunity to demonstrate connections between poverty and powerlessness, and parallels between the growth of poverty and inequality at home and in "underdeveloped" countries. The government, the media and the wealthy agencies conceal these parallels and promote aid responses based on charity. This excludes from the development debate the increasingly marginalised sectors of New Zealand society and undermines the international solidarity essential for building strategies for change.

  15. in New Zealand?

    Rhiannon Braund


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood poisoning is a significant international health concern. Very little is known about trends in exposures within schools and preschools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the data recorded by the New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NPC on these types of exposures over a 21 year period (1989 to 2009 and to determine trends and propose strategies to reduce the exposures. Methods: Call information regarding human poison exposure at preschools and schools from Jan1st 1989 to Dec 31st 2009 were extracted from the dataset held by the NPC. The number of calls received by the NPC relating to the exposures was plotted against year as totals and then categorized according to gender. The number of calls related to each substance type for each year, and the number of calls related to each age group for each year were quantified. Results: There were 3632 calls over this period. In every year studied, there were more calls relating to males than females. Household items were responsible for 31% of exposures, followed by plants (20%, industrial items (14% and therapeutic agents (14%. Almost one quarter of all exposures occurred in the 13 year old age group. Further investigation of this group, showed that the causes of exposures included “splash” incidents (27%, “pengestion” (pen breaking in mouth and releasing contents (16%, “exploratory” (5% and “prank” (4%. Conclusion: Identification of these areas allows recommendations to be made including feedback to teachers about exposure risks, storage and access of science, cleaning and art supplies.    

  16. Suicide in New Zealand

    Said Shahtahmasebi


    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  17. Suppression of two-stream hose instabilities at wavelengths shorter than the beam’s transverse size

    R. A. Bosch


    Full Text Available Transverse hose instability may disrupt the propagation of a charged-particle beam in a channel of oppositely charged particles. A theoretical model predicts stabilization of this two-stream instability when the instability wavelength becomes smaller than the beam’s transverse size in a frame of reference where the instability’s phase velocity is nonrelativistic. Suppression of short-wavelength instability is also predicted when a proton beam propagates through a channel consisting of electrons and positive ions, consistent with previous experimental results.

  18. Two-stream cyclotron radiative instabilities due to the marginally mirror-trapped fraction for fustion alphas in tokamaks

    Arunasalam, V.


    It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c{alpha}}. This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies {omega} {approx} m{omega}{sub c{alpha}}.

  19. Return migration of New Zealanders: a profile of 1990 returnees.

    Lidgard, J M


    "In the 1990s the population [of New Zealand] is experiencing higher levels of mobility than at any time in its history. However, with regards to European migration to New Zealand, the settler flows of the past have been overtaken in importance by reverse flows of temporary migrants. Now flows of new settlers come predominantly from Asia and the Pacific....This paper is about return migration--a process that has been largely ignored in the literature on international migration to New Zealand."

  20. Kiwi magic: New Zealand paleomagnetism comes of age

    Turner, Gillian M.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    When the New Zealand Geological Society held its annual meeting in November 1988 in Hamilton, they scheduled a major symposium, Palaeomagnetism and Its Applications in the New Zealand Region. That interest and enthusiasm for paleomagnetic research in New Zealand has reached such a level is a tribute to those who, over the past 30 years, have built expertise and developed our facilities to international standards.In 1957 Colin Bull became the first geophysicist appointed to the physics department at Victoria University, in Wellington. He brought with him from the United Kingdom a magnet assembly that was incorporated into an astatic magnetometer by Jim Gellen [1959] as part of his Master's degree project.

  1. Nonlinear perturbative particle simulation studies of the electron-proton two-stream instability in high intensity proton beams

    Hong Qin


    Full Text Available Two-stream instabilities in intense charged particle beams, described self-consistently by the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations, are studied using a 3D multispecies perturbative particle simulation method. The recently developed Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport code is used to simulate the linear and nonlinear properties of the electron-proton (e-p two-stream instability observed in the Proton Storage Ring (PSR experiment for a long, coasting beam. Simulations in a parameter regime characteristic of the PSR experiment show that the e-p instability has a dipole-mode structure, and that the growth rate is an increasing function of beam intensity, but a decreasing function of the longitudinal momentum spread. It is also shown that the instability threshold decreases with increasing fractional charge neutralization and increases with increasing axial momentum spread of the beam particles. In the nonlinear phase, the simulations show that the proton density perturbation first saturates at a relatively low level and subsequently grows to a higher level. Finally, the nonlinear space-charge-induced transverse tune spread, which introduces a major growth-rate reduction effect on the e-p instability, is studied for self-consistent equilibrium populations of protons and electrons.

  2. New Zealand Revisited


    <正>New Zealand, composed of two big islands at the southernmost of the Pacific Ocean, is a beautiful country with an area of 270,000 square kilometres and a population of less than 4 million. Having a vast territory, a sparse population,

  3. Summer-autumn habitat use of yearling rainbow trout in two streams in the Lake Ontario watershed

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc


    Understanding the habitat requirements of salmonids in streams is an important component of fisheries management. We examined the summer and autumn habitat use of yearling Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to available habitat in two streams in the Lake Ontario watershed. Little interstream variation in trout habitat use was observed; the variation that did occur was largely due to differences between streams in available habitat in the autumn. In both streams, yearling Rainbow Trout utilized pool habitat and during periods of high stream discharge were associated with larger substrate that may provide a velocity barrier. These findings may assist resource managers in their efforts to protect and restore habitat for migratory Rainbow Trout in the Lake Ontario watershed.

  4. Long-term response in episodic acidification to declining SO42– deposition in two streams in Nova Scotia

    H. Laudon


    Full Text Available Trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with extended winter snow melt/rain episodes between 1983 and 1998 were investigated for two streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. The anthropogenic contribution to Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC was analysed using the Boreal Dilution Model (Bishop et al., 2000 modified by applying a sea-salt correction to all input hydrochemistry. The anthropogenic contribution to episodic ANC decline was statistically significant and strongly correlated with the decline in acid deposition, which decreased by approximately 50% during the period of record. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the BDM can be applied to surface waters with sea-salt contributions although the correction increases model uncertainty. Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of reduced emissions in North America in the last decades in decreasing the severity of episodic acidification in the Atlantic region of Canada. Keywords: episodic acidification, acidification recovery, Nova Scotia, snowmelt, winter

  5. A comparative study of the filamentation and two-stream instabilities in weakly relativistic counter-streaming plasmas

    Ghorbanalilu, M.; Sadegzadeh, S.


    Counter-streaming plasma structures are ubiquitous in astrophysical sources of non-thermal radiations. We discuss the dispersion properties and the stability of this non-thermal particle distribution, which is modeled on the basis of the relativistic Jüttner-Maxwell distribution function in the correct laboratory frame of reference. In this work, we aim to construct analytical solutions of the dispersion relations and investigate the properties of the growth rate of the filamentation and two-stream instabilities in an unmagnetized and homogeneous counter-propagating plasma. The Maxwell and the relativistic Vlasov equations are used to derive the covariant dispersion relations that are valid in any (conveniently chosen) reference frame. Aperiodic solutions ( ℜ(ω)≃0 ) to the covariant dispersion relations of the growing modes ( ℑ(ω)>0 ) are demonstrated with the aid of analytical calculations. The dependence of the growth rate on the normalized bulk velocity β0=V0/c and thermal parameter μ=m c2/KBT is shown in graphic illustrations. We found that for both kinds of instabilities, growth rates are decreased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the bulk velocity. Therefore, the electrons at sufficiently low temperatures and with relativistic streams are capable of increasing the range of unstable wave numbers and consequently prevent the instability to cease at small wave numbers. The results indicate that under the same condition and in contrast to the non-relativistic regime, the filamentation instability has the largest growth rate and the electrostatic two-stream instability is in the next place.

  6. Acceleration of plasma electrons by intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    Kaganovich, Igor D.


    In this paper we study the effects of the two-stream instability on the propagation of intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams in background plasma. Development of the two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons leads to beam breakup, a slowing down of the beam particles, acceleration of the plasma particles, and transfer of the beam energy to the plasma particles and wave excitations. Making use of the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP, and analytic theory we have simulated the effects of the two-stream instability on beam propagation over a wide range of beam and plasma parameters. Because of the two-stream instability the plasma electrons can be accelerated to velocities as high as twice the beam velocity. The resulting return current of the accelerated electrons may completely change the structure of the beam self - magnetic field, thereby changing its effect on the beam from focusing to defocusing. Therefore, previous theories of beam self-electromagnetic fields that did not take into account the effects of the two-stream instability must be significantly modified. This effect can be observed on the National Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma. Particle-in-cell, fluid simulations, and analytical theory also reveal the rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena: intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges; band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma and repeated acceleration of electrons in a finite system. In collaboration with E. Tokluoglu, D. Sydorenko, E. A. Startsev, J. Carlsson, and R. C. Davidson. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... as previously they never did. This study analyzes the changes in the groundwater potential between 1936 and 2006 in two stream catchments in central Zealand (Elverdam and Langvad) to assess how groundwater abstraction has affected the regional aquifers potential for contribution to base-flow in the streams......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  8. Working Together: Planting the Seed. "Kia Pihi Ai Te Mahi Ngatahi." Proceedings of the 2012 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Hamilton, New Zealand, Nov 21-23, 2013). Volume 8

    Gera, Christina, Ed.


    The 7 articles in this 8th volume comprise the referred proceedings of the 2012 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. The first three chapters present tools that can assist students with their academic development: In chapter 1, ("The DELNA Language Advisory Session: How do Students…

  9. Exploring the history of New Zealand astronomy trials, tribulations, telescopes and transits

    Orchiston, Wayne


    Professor Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material.  The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging fie...

  10. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam


    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of self-fields on the electron trajectory in a two-stream free electron laser with a helical wiggler and an axial guiding magnetic field

    S. Saviz; E. Lashani; Farzin M. Aghamir


    A theory for the two-stream free-electron laser (TSFEL) with a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field is developed.In the analysis,the effects of self-fields are taken into account.An analysis of the two-stream steady-state electron trajectories is given by solving the equation of motion.Numerical calculations show that there are seven groups of orbits in the presence of self-fields instead of two groups reported in the absence of self-fields.The stability of the trajectories is studied numerically.

  12. CPAFFC Delegation Visits New Zealand

    Xu; Fenghua


    In early December 2015,a CPAFFC delegation,with representatives from six departments,visited New Zealand at the host’s invitation.Members conducted work exchanges with the New Zealand-China Maori Friendship Trust and held talks with the

  13. Management Development in New Zealand

    Ruth, Damian


    Purpose: To give an overview of prevalent views on and practices in management development in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Employs a questionnaire, mainly Likert-scale, to interview human resource managers and line managers in 86 companies in New Zealand. The research model and instrumentation is based on existing research on…

  14. The New Zealand Geological Timescale

    Felix M. Gradstein


    @@ The editor and coordinator of this new 284 pages study on the New Zealand Geological Timescale, Roger A. Cooper, and his team of 22 New Zealand and foreign experts are to be complimented for their achievement in creating this comprehensive regional time scale monograph.

  15. Shaping the Responsible, Successful and Contributing Citizen of the Future: "Values" in the New Zealand Curriculum and Its Challenge to the Development of Ethical Teacher Professionality

    Benade, Leon


    The revised New Zealand Curriculum became mandatory for use in New Zealand schools in February 2010. The ongoing reform agenda in education in New Zealand since 1989 and elsewhere internationally has had corrosive effects on teacher professionality. State-driven neo-liberal policy and education reforms are deeply damaging to the mental and moral…

  16. Teaching international students at UCN

    Simonsen, Berit Elsebeth; Miller, Tanja; Hammershøy, Anna


    has been collected among the lecturers who teach at one of the international two-year Academic Professional (AP) programmes that UCN currently offers. Within the Study program, the education is offered in two streams, Danish (with Danish as the teaching medium) and international (with English...

  17. General circulation and thermal structure simulated by a Venus AGCM with a two-stream radiative code

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Ikeda, Kohei; Takahashi, Masaaki


    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding Venus climate and atmospheric dynamics. At the present stage, however, the full-physics model is under development. Ikeda (2011) developed a two-stream radiative transfer code, which covers the solar to infrared radiative processes due to the gases and aerosol particles. The radiative code was applied to Venus AGCM (T21L52) at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Univ. Tokyo. We analyzed the results in a few Venus days simulation that was restarted after nudging zonal wind to a super-rotating state until the equilibrium. The simulated thermal structure has low-stability layer around 105 Pa at low latitudes, and the neutral stability extends from ˜105 Pa to the lower atmosphere at high latitudes. At the equatorial cloud top, the temperature lowers in the region between noon and evening terminator. For zonal and meridional winds, we can see difference between the zonal and day-side means. As was indicated in previous works, the day-side mean meridional wind speed mostly corresponds to the poleward component of the thermal tide and is much higher than the zonal mean. Toward understanding dynamical roles of waves in UV cloud tracking and brightness, we calculated the eddy heat and momentum fluxes averaged over the day-side hemisphere. The eddy heat and momentum fluxes are poleward in the poleward flank of the jet. In contrast, the fluxes are relatively weak and equatorward at low latitudes. The eddy momentum flux becomes equatorward in the dynamical situation that the simulated equatorial wind is weaker than the midlatitude jet. The sensitivity to the zonal flow used for the nudging will be also discussed in the model validation.

  18. Representing 3-D cloud radiation effects in two-stream schemes: 1. Longwave considerations and effective cloud edge length

    Schäfer, Sophia A. K.; Hogan, Robin J.; Klinger, Carolin; Chiu, J. Christine; Mayer, Bernhard


    Current weather and climate models neglect 3-D radiative transfer through cloud sides, which can change the cloud radiative effect (CRE) significantly. This two-part paper describes the development of the SPeedy Algorithm for Radiative TrAnsfer through CloUd Sides (SPARTACUS) to capture these effects efficiently in a two-stream radiation scheme for use in global models. The present paper concerns the longwave spectral region, where not much work has been done previously, although the limited previous work has suggested that radiative transfer through cloud sides increases the longwave surface CRE of shallow cumulus by around 30%. To assist the development of a longwave capability for SPARTACUS, we use a reference case of an isolated, isothermal, optically thick, cubic cloud in vacuum, for which 3-D effects increase CRE by exactly 200%. It is shown that for any cloud shape, the 3-D effect can be represented in SPARTACUS provided that correct account is made for (1) the effective zenith angle of diffuse radiation emitted from a cloud, (2) the spatial distribution of fluxes in the cloud, (3) cloud clustering that enhances the interception of emitted radiation by neighboring clouds, and (4) radiative smoothing leading to the effective cloud edge length being less than the measured value. We find empirically that the circumference of an ellipse fitted to a horizontal cross section through a cumulus cloud provides a good estimate of the radiatively effective cloud edge length, which provides some guidance to how cloud observations could be analyzed to extract their most important properties for radiation.

  19. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris


    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  20. Intrapersonal Factors in New Zealand School Leadership Success

    Notman, Ross


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share New Zealand findings from the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP) which relate to intrapersonal dimensions of leadership that promote principals' sustained success over time. Design/methodology/approach: Multi-site case study methods were used to describe the ongoing success…

  1. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris


    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  2. 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Island, New Zealand earthquake occurred as part of the aftershock sequence of the M 7.0 September 3, 2010 Darfield, NZ earthquake. It involved...

  3. Evaluation of the Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) over the Hainich Forest FLUXNET site

    Pinty, B.; Jung, M.; Kaminski, T.; Lavergne, T.; Mund, M.; Plummer, S.; Thomas, E.; Widlowski, J.-L.


    The Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) makes use of the MODIS and MISR white sky albedo products to deliver consistent sets of information about the terrestrial environments. The baseline version of the JRC-TIP operates at a spatial resolution of 0.01degree and yields estimates of the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the effective canopy Leaf Area Index (LAI), the canopy background albedo, the vegetation scattering properties, as well as, the absorbed, reflected and transmitted fluxes of the vegetation canopy. In this contribution the evaluation efforts of the JRC-TIP products are extended to the deciduous forest site of Hainich (Germany) where multiannual datasets of in-situ estimates of canopy transmission - derived from LAI-2000 observations - are available. As a Fluxnet site, Hainich offers access to camera acquisitions from fixed locations in and above the canopy that are being used in phenological studies. These images qualitatively confirm the seasonal patterns of the effective LAI, canopy transmission and canopy absorption products (in the visible range of the solar spectrum) derived with the JRC-TIP. Making use of the LAI-2000 observations it is found that 3/4 of the JRC-TIP products lie within a +/- 0.15 interval around the in-situ estimates of canopy transmission and absorption. The largest discrepancies occur at the end of the senescence phase when the scattering properties of the vegetation (evidenced by the pictures) and the effective LAI (also derived from LAI-2000 measurements) are experiencing large simultaneous changes. It was also found that the seasonal pattern of vegetation scattering properties derived from MISR observations in the near-infrared varies together with the Excess Green index computed from the various channels of the camera data acquired at the top of the canopy. The approach adopted in the present study is cost-effective, rather simple but efficient to provide a first evaluation of the JRC

  4. Environmental management frameworks for offshore mining: the New Zealand approach

    Ellis, Joanne


    The New Zealand region contains untapped natural mineral, oil, and gas resources while also supporting globally unique and diverse faunal communities that need to be managed sustainably. In this paper key information from the international literature is reviewed that can underpin an Environmental Mining Management System which includes elements of Environmental Risk Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Planning. This paper focuses on four developing areas of seafloor mining activities presently being undertaken or planned in the New Zealand region: hydrocarbons (oil and gas), minerals, ironsands and phosphorite nodules. A number of issues with the implementation of environmental management systems are identified including the difficulty of assessing new marine activities or technologies and the need for standardised reporting metrics. Finally, the development of ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning is discussed which will be required to enhance environmental mining management frameworks in New Zealand.

  5. Ten citation classics from the New Zealand Medical Journal.

    Smith, Derek R


    Although their contribution may go unrecognised at the time, if journal citations are indeed the "currency" of science, then citation classics could justifiably be regarded as the "gold bullion". This article examines the 10 most highly-cited articles published by the New Zealand Medical Journal (NZMJ), as of August 2007. By topic, the top cited article described a study of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome among New Zealand infants, while 3 of the remaining 9 articles focused on asthma. Most citation classics from the NZMJ were comparatively recent, with the top cited article being published in 1991, 7 having been published in the 1980s, and 2 in the 1970s. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the international relevance of New Zealand medical researchers, and the significant global impact of their findings for human health.

  6. Active FEL-Klystrons as Formers of Femto-Second Clusters of Electromagnetic Field. Systems on the Basis of Two-Stream Instability

    V.V. Kulish


    Full Text Available A general analysis of the two-stream cluster FEL-klystrons, as a new high efficient class of electronic devices, intended for generation of femto-second clusters of electromagnetic field has been performed. Three models are described firstly in the article. Detail weak-signal analysis of multi-harmonic processes within the FEL-klystron transition section is accomplished.

  7. Diet and trophic guilds of fish assemblages in two streams with different anthropic impacts in the northwest of Paraná, Brazil

    Karine Orlandi Bonato


    Full Text Available In the present study, we describe the diets of the fish assemblages in two streams in the Maringá region of Paraná that are under the influence of different anthropic impacts. We also evaluate how the origin and use of food resources varies temporally and spatially and how the trophic organization of the fish assemblages differs between the two streams. Fish were collected every two months from October 2006 to October 2007 using sieves, seining and closing nets along two 50 m stretches of each stream. We used the volumetric method to analyze the stomach contents of 599 fish belonging to 15 species. We then employed ANOSIM, SIMPER, NMDS and cluster analyses (using the Bray-Curtis index to examine how different factors (species, stream, sampling site and season influenced the diets of the assemblages. The dietary analysis revealed a total of 21 types of items consumed, with the most common being detritus and immature Diptera. Spatial factors resulted in differences in diets between the two streams, with detritus representing the material consumed most often in the Morangueiro stream and immature Diptera being the most consumed item in the Queçaba stream. SIMPER analysis indicated a 76.33% dissimilarity between species' diets during the dry and rainy seasons, with detritus, immature Diptera and testate amoebae making the greatest contributions to this differentiation. In the Morangueiro stream, three trophic guilds were found: detritivorous, detritivorous/aquatic insectivorous, and aquatic insectivorous. In Queçaba stream, six trophic guilds were present: detritivorous, benthophagous, aquatic insectivorous, terrestrial insectivorous, herbivorous and carnivorous. Autochthonous items were generally the items most consumed by species, in particularly in the Queçaba stream. In the Morangueiro stream, food items of indeterminate origin were more relevant. The differences in the diets of fish species between the two streams support the conclusion

  8. Using Participatory Action Research to Study the Implementation of Career Development Benchmarks at a New Zealand University

    Furbish, Dale S.; Bailey, Robyn; Trought, David


    Benchmarks for career development services at tertiary institutions have been developed by Careers New Zealand. The benchmarks are intended to provide standards derived from international best practices to guide career development services. A new career development service was initiated at a large New Zealand university just after the benchmarks…

  9. Nurses and the euthanasia debate: reflections from New Zealand.

    Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J


    Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about

  10. Developing an Undergraduate International Business Program: Context, Rationale, Process and Focus

    Bell, Jim; Gray, Brendan; McNaughton, Rod


    This paper discusses the recent development of a new undergraduate international business program at the University of Otago in New Zealand. Firstly, it describes the context of the initiative in terms of the New Zealand business environment, the university sector in New Zealand and recent global trends in international business education.…

  11. New Zealand's first general anaesthetic.

    Newson, A J


    The administration of New Zealand's first general anaesthetic took place at the Colonial Gaol, Wellington, on the morning of Monday, September 27th, 1847. The agent used was sulphuric ether which was administered by Mr. Marriot, the manufacturer of the Herapath-type inhaler used on this occasion. The operation, a dental extraction, was performed by the Colonial Surgeon, Dr. J. P. Fitzgerald.

  12. Lavender Islands: the New Zealand study.

    Henrickson, Mark; Neville, Stephen; Jordan, Claire; Donaghey, Sara


    Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and sexuality, families of choice, immigration and internal migration, wellbeing, politics, income and spending, education, careers and leisure, community connections, challenges, and spirituality. A four-axis model of sexual identity was also tested; 2,269 responses were received. Of these 83% were from the website; 45% of responses were from women and 54% from men. Responses identified a robust, highly educated, relatively high-income, politically active LGB community. Male and female respondents experienced same-sex relationships and identity in significantly different ways.

  13. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R


    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  14. Pacemaker Use in New Zealand - Data From the New Zealand Implanted Cardiac Device Registry (ANZACS-QI 15).

    Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K


    The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1(st) January 2014 and 1(st) June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.


    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  16. Understanding keratoconus: what have we learned from the New Zealand perspective?

    Patel, Dipika; McGhee, Charles


    Although first described more than 150 years ago, keratoconus is still an enigmatic disease that remains an area of wide-ranging, dynamic, international research. This review considers data from New Zealand/Aotearoa, where keratoconus is both relatively common and extensively studied. New Zealand researchers have made several significant contributions to the international literature in this field, including identifying a higher prevalence of keratoconus in New Zealand per se and within Maori and Polynesian populations compared to many international studies. As reported in other studies, a higher proportion of asthma, allergy and eczema as potential risk co-factors are present in New Zealand subjects with keratoconus compared with estimates from the general population. The rates of family history of keratoconus are typically higher than those reported internationally, with higher rates in Asian, Pacific and Maori ethnicities. Interestingly, such a positive family history has been associated with less severe keratoconus on computerised topographic analysis. Investigations of corneal microstructure have revealed dramatic alterations in the keratoconic cornea, with reduced density and abnormal morphology of the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus and decreased keratocytic density. Laboratory studies of keratoconic corneal buttons have also furthered our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease, demonstrating elevated levels of cathepsin enzymes and localised disruptions in Bowman's layer with incursion of cellular processes from anterior keratocytes. Over the past two decades keratoconus has consistently remained the leading indication for corneal transplantation in New Zealand, accounting for over 40 per cent of cases. Indeed, New Zealand appears to have the highest reported proportion of transplantation surgery for keratoconus worldwide. Current and future studies of keratoconus in New Zealand highlight an emphasis on elucidating the genetics of, and

  17. New Zealand pathway towards Asia-Pacific and global e-VLBI research and development

    Gulyaev, Sergei; Weston, Stuart; Thomasson, Peter


    Over the past 3 years, Auckland University of Technology has established the first radio astronomical observatory in New Zealand, which, because of its remote geographic location, has quickly become a member of a number of international VLBI networks, in particular the IVS and the LBA. Not only has this added significantly to the observational power in the Pacific and Oceania, but by utilising new fibre connections within New Zealand, and across the Pacific and the Tasman Sea, the New Zealand radio telescopes have now been linked to many in Australia, Asia and the Pacific. Recent astronomical results are presented and plans for widening New Zealand participation in Australasian, Asia-Pacific and global VLBI research and development are outlined. Real-time e-VLBI is a vital part of New Zealand's capability development towards the SKA. The rapid and challenging establishment of New Zealand radio astronomy can serve as a model for the engagement in mega-Science and e-Science by resource-limited institutions and ...

  18. Collaboration, vision and reality: water fluoridation in New Zealand (1952-1968).

    Akers, H F


    In comparison with that of other nations in the British Commonwealth, New Zealand's early and comparatively high adoption of water fluoridation was a distinctive health policy. National concerns about the caries epidemic and the legacies of TR Hunter, F Truby King, HP Pickerill and JP Walsh engendered a spirit of cooperation between the Department of Health, the New Zealand School Dental Service, the Medical Research Council (of New Zealand), the New Zealand Dental Association and the University of Otago's dental and medical schools. The consequence was a contagious culture of multidisciplinary research and institutional liaisons that produced exceptional dental epidemiology. The government's involvement in children's public dentistry harmonised with fluoride advocates' radical vision of community caries reduction. New Zealand assumed not only a leading international role in immediate post-World War cariology, but also the dominant position in the fluoride politics of the British Commonwealth. The incomplete fulfilment of Fuller's "Dreams Pursued" presents a case study that confirms the roles of both scientific evidence and centralised political authority in public health administration. Paradoxically, political scientists have largely ignored New Zealand's early adoption of water fluoridation. This paper addresses this deficiency.

  19. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A


    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  20. The current state of ototoxicity monitoring in New Zealand.

    Steffens, Lotte; Venter, Kinau; O'Beirne, Greg A; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca; Gibbs, David; Bird, Philip


    To explore medical oncologists' and audiologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding ototoxicity monitoring, and to gain an understanding of monitoring currently being implemented at District Health Boards (DHBs) nationwide. We also aimed to identify ways in which audiological outcomes for patients receiving potentially ototoxic treatments could be improved, including examining whether the formulation and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline is necessary. Complementary telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 senior or charge audiologists and seven senior medical oncologists from DHBs across New Zealand, and their responses analysed. Responses indicate a comprehensive understanding of ototoxicity across both disciplines; however there is limited familiarity with ototoxicity monitoring protocols. Patients across New Zealand undergo significantly variable ototoxicity monitoring; local practices range from no routine monitoring to audiological assessment prior to each cycle of chemotherapy. No routine audiological follow up is conducted post completion of treatment at any DHB, in contrast with international guidelines. Twenty-two of 23 participants were in favour of development of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline. There is significant discrepancy in how ototoxicity monitoring is conducted across New Zealand, and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring protocol may improve audiological outcomes for patients receiving ototoxic chemotherapy.

  1. Rainfall erosivity in New Zealand

    Klik, Andreas; Haas, Kathrin; Dvorackova, Anna; Fuller, Ian


    Rainfall and its kinetic energy expressed by the rainfall erosivity is the main driver of soil erosion processes by water. The Rainfall-Runoff Erosivity Factor (R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation is one oft he most widely used parameters describing rainfall erosivity. This factor includes the cumulative effects of the many moderate-sized storms as well as the effects oft he occasional severe ones: R quantifies the effect of raindrop impact and reflects the amopunt and rate of runoff associated with the rain. New Zealand is geologically young and not comparable with any other country in the world. Inordinately high rainfall and strong prevailing winds are New Zealand's dominant climatic features. Annual rainfall up to 15000 mm, steep slopes, small catchments and earthquakes are the perfect basis for a high rate of natural and accelerated erosion. Due to the multifacted landscape of New Zealand its location as island between the Pacific and the Tasmanian Sea there is a high gradient in precipitation between North and South Island as well as between West and East Coast. The objective of this study was to determine the R-factor for the different climatic regions in New Zealand, in order to create a rainfall erosivity map. We used rainfall data (breakpoint data in 10-min intervals) from 34 gauging stations for the calcuation of the rainfall erosivity. 15 stations were located on the North Island and 19 stations on the South Island. From these stations, a total of 397 station years with 12710 rainstorms were analyzed. The kinetic energy for each rainfall event was calculated based on the equation by Brown and Foster (1987), using the breakpoint precipitation data for each storm. On average, a mean annual precipitation of 1357 mm was obtained from the 15 observed stations on the North Island. Rainfall distribution throughout the year is relatively even with 22-24% of annual rainfall occurring in spring , fall and winter and 31% in summer. On the South Island


    Jowitt Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to present ethnic differences in body size and body composition in Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand, associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, through the comparison with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. About 74 studies out of 128 publications were selected to ensure relevance to the topic of the review. Seven research projects were presented for the body size and body composition of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes of 8.6% in Asian Indians in New Zealand is still higher than in their homeland, owing to their ethnicity, genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle and altered nutrition, and other psychosocial factors related to migration and living conditions like stress at work and depression. For the same body mass index, in comparison with people of other ethnic groups in New Zealand Asian Indians had more total body fat, higher percent body fat, more central fat, less lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Central obesity was associated with insulin resistance and low grade systemic inflammation. Considering the evidence that type 2 diabetes develops ten years earlier in Asian Indians than in other populations, further studies are warranted to shed some light on the still incompletely understood metabolic syndrome and “thin-fat” Indian phenotype.

  3. Band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Sydorenko, D.


    This paper presents a study of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a finite-size plasma placed between two electrodes. It is shown that the growth rate in such a system is much smaller than that of an infinite plasma or a finite size plasma with periodic boundary conditions. Even if the width of the plasma matches the resonance condition for a standing wave, a spatially growing wave is excited instead with the growth rate small compared to that of the standing wave in a periodic system. The approximate expression for this growth rate is γ≈(1 /13 )ωpe(nb/np)(L ωpe/vb)ln (L ωpe/vb)[1 -0.18 cos (L ωpe/vb+π/2 ) ] , where ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, nb and np are the beam and the plasma densities, respectively, vb is the beam velocity, and L is the plasma width. The frequency, wave number, and the spatial and temporal growth rates, as functions of the plasma size, exhibit band structure. The amplitude of saturation of the instability depends on the system length, not on the beam current. For short systems, the amplitude may exceed values predicted for infinite plasmas by more than an order of magnitude.

  4. Band Structure of the Growth Rate of the Two-Stream Instability of an Electron Beam Propagating in a Bounded Plasma

    Kaganovich, I D


    This paper presents a study of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a finite-size plasma placed between two electrodes. It is shown that the growth rate in such a system is much smaller than that of an infinite plasma or a finite size plasma with periodic boundary conditions. Even if the width of the plasma matches the resonance condition for a standing wave, a spatially growing wave is excited instead with the growth rate small compared to that of the standing wave in a periodic system. The approximate expression for this growth rate is $\\gamma \\approx (1/13)\\omega_{pe}(n_{b}/n_{p})(L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b})\\ln (L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b})[ 1-0.18\\cos ( L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b}+{\\pi }/{2}) ]$, where $\\omega_{pe}$ is the electron plasma frequency, $n_{b}$ and $n_{p}$ are the beam and the plasma densities, respectively, $v_{b}$ is the beam velocity, and $L$ is the plasma width. The frequency, wave number and the spatial and temporal growth rates as functions of the plasma size exhibit band structure.

  5. Numbers Talk--Words Count: Language Policy and Adult Numeracy Education in Wales and New Zealand

    Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara


    In this paper we review and compare language policy in relation to adult numeracy education in Wales and New Zealand with respect to the Maori and Welsh languages in the latest stage of our international comparative study of adult numeracy education. While much has been written about the relationship between language and literacy, the relationship…

  6. Acquired Brain Injury and Return to Work in Australia and New Zealand.

    Athanasou, James A.


    A research review of 9 Australian-New Zealand (n=1,010) and 23 international (n=2,182) studies found the overall return-to-work rates after head injury were 44% and 45% respectively. Methodological issues might have inflated these numbers. Only an estimated 7-10% of persons with acquired brain injury returned to the same job. (Contains 46…

  7. Word-of-Mouth amongst Students at a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

    Warring, Susan


    Purpose: The aim of this case study was to investigate the extent of word-of-mouth influence amongst international students at a New Zealand tertiary institution and to review the literature for a valid and reliable conceptualisation and measurement of word-of-mouth. Design/methodology/approach: Literature suggests that opinion-leading and seeking…

  8. Changing Mechanisms of Governmentality? Academic Development in New Zealand and Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Barrow, M.; Grant, B. M.


    Academic (or educational) development is a relatively recent project in universities. In Aotearoa New Zealand there were two waves of foundation for academic development, separated by almost 20 years, during which time much in national and international higher education had changed. This article draws on empirical and archival data to propose that…

  9. High School Teaching of Bioethics in New Zealand, Australia, and Japan.

    Asada, Yukiko; Tsuzuki, Miho; Akiyama, Shiro; Macer, Nobuko Y.; Macer, Darryl R. J.


    Summarizes the results of an International Bioethics Education Survey conducted in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Compares knowledge and teaching of 15 selected topics with particular emphasis on the teaching of social, ethical, and environmental issues of in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides,…

  10. High School Teaching of Bioethics in New Zealand, Australia, and Japan.

    Asada, Yukiko; Tsuzuki, Miho; Akiyama, Shiro; Macer, Nobuko Y.; Macer, Darryl R. J.


    Summarizes the results of an International Bioethics Education Survey conducted in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Compares knowledge and teaching of 15 selected topics with particular emphasis on the teaching of social, ethical, and environmental issues of in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides,…

  11. Preparation for internship of Teaching Japanese in New Zealand and Australia

    玉井, 美穂子


    It started in 1995 that students of the Japanese Section of Daito Bunka University went to foreign countries to practice skills of teaching Japanese to foreign students. This article explained what we prepared the project. We visited the universities in New Zealand and Australia and asked them to accept our students as interns.

  12. Notified viral hepatitis in New Zealand.

    McGlashan, N


    Statistical analysis of notified cases of viral hepatits in New Zealand for an 18-month period is used first to demonstrate and then to consider a geographical gradient across the country with implications warranting further epidemiologic enquiry.

  13. Status assessment of New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems.

    Holdaway, Robert J; Wiser, Susan K; Williams, Peter A


    Globally, ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressure; thus, many are at risk of elimination. This situation has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to propose a quantitative approach to ecosystem-risk assessment. However, there is a need for their proposed criteria to be evaluated through practical examples spanning a diverse range of ecosystems and scales. We applied the IUCN's ecosystem red-list criteria, which are based on changes in extent of ecosystems and reductions in ecosystem processes, to New Zealand's 72 naturally uncommon ecosystems. We aimed to test the applicability of the proposed criteria to ecosystems that are naturally uncommon (i.e., those that would naturally occur over a small area in the absence of human activity) and to provide information on the probability of ecosystem elimination so that conservation priorities might be set. We also tested the hypothesis that naturally uncommon ecosystems classified as threatened on the basis of IUCN Red List criteria contain more threatened plant species than those classified as nonthreatened. We identified 18 critically endangered, 17 endangered, and 10 vulnerable ecosystems. We estimated that naturally uncommon ecosystems contained 145 (85%) of mainland New Zealand's taxonomically distinct nationally critical, nationally endangered, and nationally vulnerable plant species, 66 (46%) of which were endemic to naturally uncommon ecosystems. We estimated there was a greater number of threatened plant species (per unit area) in critically endangered ecosystems than in ecosystems classified as nonthreatened. With their high levels of endemism and rapid and relatively well-documented history of anthropogenic change, New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems provide an excellent case-study for the ongoing development of international criteria for threatened ecosystems. We suggest that interactions and synergies among decline in area, decline in function, and the scale of

  14. The role of the benthic-hyporheic zone in controlling nitrous oxide emissions along two stream networks draining watersheds with contrasting land use

    Marzadri, Alessandra; Dee, Martha M.; Tonina, Daniele; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bellin, Alberto


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas responsible of stratospheric ozone destruction. Denitrification in stream ecosystems occurs within the benthic layer at the sediment-water interface and within subsurface environments such as the hyporheic zone and results in N2O production that could be eventually emitted to the atmosphere. Here, we quantify the role of benthic and hyporheic zones as sources of N2O gas and explore the dependence of emissions from stream morphology, flow hydraulics, land use and climate using a recently-developed fully analytical framework. Variations in N2O emissions within and among catchments of contrasting land use can be explained with a new denitrification Damköhler number (DaD) that accounts for denitrification processes within both benthic and hyporheic zones. For initial model development, we found a strong relationship between DaD and stream N2O emissions using field data collected from multiple headwater streams (i.e., LINXII project) from different biomes draining contrasting land use. We then tested its generality by comparing N2O emissions predicted with DaD to those measured using a synoptic sampling campaign in two stream networks draining contrasting land use: Manistee R (Michigan, USA) and Tippecanoe R (Indiana, USA). Our dimensionless analysis shows that the effect of land use disappears after making the emissions dimensionless with respect to the nitrogen load. Reliable predictions of N2O emissions at the stream network scale can be obtained from a limited amount of information, consisting in relatively easy to obtain biogeochemical and hydromorphological quantities.

  15. Detention and treatment down under: human rights and mental health laws in Australia and New Zealand.

    McSherry, Bernadette; Wilson, Kay


    Mental health law reform in recent decades has drawn on the international human rights movement. The entering into force of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on May 3 2008 has been hailed by some as signalling a new era in relation to how domestic mental health laws should be reformed. Both Australia and New Zealand have ratified the CRPD and Australia has acceded to its Optional Protocol. New Zealand and the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria have statutory bills of rights which have an interpretive effect, but are unable to render other statutes invalid. Drawing on the results of interviews conducted with fifty-two representatives of consumer and carer organisations, lawyers, and mental health professionals across Australia and New Zealand, this paper examines the current thinking on human rights and mental health laws in these countries and outlines what changes, if any, may be brought to domestic legislation in light of the Convention.

  16. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    Hearnshaw, John


    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  17. Rheumatic fever in New Zealand.

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, Nigel


    Acute rheumatic fever and its sequel rheumatic heart disease remain major unsolved problems in New Zealand, causing significant morbidity and premature death. The disease burden affects predominantly indigenous Māori and Pacific Island children and young adults. In the past decade these ethnic disparities are even widening. Secondary prophylaxis using 28-day intramuscular penicillin has been the mainstay of disease control. In the greater Auckland region, audit shows community nurse-led penicillin delivery rates of 95% and recurrence rates of less than 5%. The true penicillin failure rate of 0.07 per 100 patient years supports 4 weekly penicillin rather than more frequent dose regimens. Landmark primary prevention research has been undertaken supporting sore throat primary prevention programmes in regions with very high rheumatic fever rates. Echocardiographic screening found 2.4% previously undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease in socially disadvantaged children. Combined with secondary prevention, echocardiography screening has the potential to reduce the prevalence of severe rheumatic heart disease.

  18. New Zealand's drug development industry.

    Lockhart, Michelle Marie; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Carswell, Christopher; Garg, Sanjay


    The pharmaceutical industry's profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ) from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ's clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ's clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  19. First record of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor in New Zealand with description, sequencing information and key to known species of Meloidogyne in New Zealand.

    Zhao, Zeng Qi; Ho, Wellcome; Griffin, Ruth; Surrey, Michael; Taylor, Robert; Aalders, Lee T; Bell, Nigel L; Xu, Yu Mei; Alexander, Brett J R


    Meloidogyne minor Karssen et al. 2004 was collected from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in a sports ground in Christchurch, New Zealand. This is a new record for M. minor, the first report of this nematode occurring in New Zealand, and the second report from the southern hemisphere (after Chile). In general, the New Zealand isolate of M. minor corresponds well to the descriptions of M. minor given by Karssen et al. (2004). The New Zealand isolate is characterized by having a female with dorsally curved stylet, 13-14 μm long, with transversely ovoid knobs slightly sloping backwards from shaft; rounded perineal pattern; and male with stylet 16-19 μm long, large transversely ovoid knobs sloping slightly backwards from shaft; head region not set off, labial disc elevated, lateral lips prominent; and second stage juvenile 370-390 μm long, with hemizonid posterior but adjacent to excretory pore; tail 53-63 μm long; and a distinct hyaline tail terminus 14-18 μm long. In addition, molecular phylogeny using near full length small subunit (SSU), D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 and 2), and the intergenic spacer (IGS2) of the ribosomal rDNA supports the identification.

  20. Business Cycle Synchronization Between Australia and New Zealand

    Jie Wei; Minsoo Lee; Christopher Gan


    .... By analyzing the shock-transmission channels via trade, monetary policy, and exchange rates between Australia and New Zealand we can infer that if Australia and New Zealand trade less, have more...

  1. Molecular evidence for bicontinental hybridogenous genomic constitution in Lepidium sensu stricto (Brassicaceae) species from Australia and New Zealand.

    Mummenhoff, Klaus; Linder, Peter; Friesen, Nikolai; Bowman, John L; Lee, Ji-Young; Franzke, Andreas


    Lepidium sensu stricto (s.s.) (Brassicaceae) (ca. 150 species) is distributed worldwide with endemic species on every continent. It is represented in Australia and New Zealand by 19 and seven native species, respectively. In the present study we used a nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogeny in comparison with a cpDNA phylogeny to unravel the origin of Australian/New Zealand species. Although phylogenetic relationships within Lepidium s.s. were not fully resolved, the cpDNA data were in agreement with a Californian origin of Lepidium species from Australia/New Zealand. Strongly conflicting signals between the cp- and nuclear DNA phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated hybridogenous genomic constitution of Australian Lepidium s.s. species: All 18 studied Australian/New Zealand Lepidium s.s. species examined shared a Californian cpDNA type. While eleven Australian/New Zealand species appeared to harbor a Californian ITS type, a group of seven species shared a South African ITS type. This pattern is most likely explained by two trans-oceanic dispersals of Lepidium from California and Africa to Australia/New Zealand and subsequent hybridization followed by homogenization of the ribosomal DNA either to the Californian or South African ITS type in the two different lineages. Calibration of our molecular trees indicates a Pliocene/Pleistocene origin of Lepidium in Australia/New Zealand. Low levels of cpDNA and ITS sequence divergence and unresolved topologies within Australian/New Zealand species suggest a rapid and recent radiation of Lepidium after the hybridization event. This coincides with dramatic climatic changes in that geological epoch shaping the composition of the vegetation.

  2. Attitudes of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the use of Maori in New Zealand English

    De Bres, Julia


    As majority language speakers have an important impact on minority languages, the the attitudes and behaviours of non-Māori New Zealanders towards the Māori language are likely to have an influence on Māori language regeneration (de Bres 2008). Moreover, as the presence of Māori words is arguably the most distinctive feature of New Zealand English (Deverson 1991, Macalister 2005), these attitudes and behaviours are also likely to influence aspects of New Zealand English. Although there is now...

  3. Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Dickson, Sandra; Willis, Gwenda M


    The extensive and sometimes profoundly damaging effects of sexual violence and large numbers of victims necessitate dedicated attention to primary prevention efforts. Few studies have examined the scope of current prevention activities or their fit with empirical research into effective prevention strategies. The current article presents findings from a survey of primary prevention activities in non-Māori and bicultural communities within Aotearoa New Zealand. Forty-four respondents representing 42 agencies responded to a comprehensive survey that canvased types of sexual violence primary prevention activities undertaken, sexual violence primary prevention programs, and barriers and supports to sexual violence prevention work. Consistent with findings from previous international surveys, the focus of primary prevention work in New Zealand was on sexual violence education and increasing awareness. Findings are discussed in the context of the sexual violence prevention literature and what works in prevention more broadly to help identify promising initiatives as well as gaps in current practices. Recommendations for advancing sexual violence primary prevention research are also provided.

  4. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied


    H. L. Maranhão


    Full Text Available New Zealand is unique when it comes to landscapes and biodiversity, being one of the countries which has the highest numbers of endemism. With such vast diversity, wetlands play a key role maintaining many of these species and also providing essential ecosystem services for the local communities. However, New Zealand has been largely degraded on wetland areas in the last two hundred years, remaining only 10% of the original composition which brings a special attention to the country. In this case, this review provides an overview of New Zealand’s wetlands highlighting aspects such as definitions, uses, values, threats and management.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  7. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Maori Community in New Zealand


    <正>At the invitation of the New Zealand Maori China Friendship Association (NZMCFA), a CPAFFC delegation paid a visit to New Zealand from February 28 to March 9. They had a close contact with the Maoris in New Zealand. They stayed at their homes, and

  8. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    Furbish, Dale


    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  9. Inclusive Education Policy in New Zealand: Reality or Ruse?

    Kearney, Alison; Kane, Ruth


    New Zealand, like many countries, is beginning the journey towards a more inclusive education system. This paper examines inclusive education in New Zealand, and in particular policy related to inclusive education. New Zealand has the chance to make inclusion a reality, but as Skrtic (1991) points out this will require a different way of thinking…

  10. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    Furbish, Dale


    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  11. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand.

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J


    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the ACPSEM, are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organization). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists (168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program. The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach

  12. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Mills Clair


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  13. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    was investigated by using a time-calibrated relaxed molecular clock with fossil calibration points. The results showed, that New Zealand was colonised by Hyperomma at least two times independently, once about 43–68 ma (possibly while still connected to Gondwana) and at least once ca. 28.5–47 ma (most probable...

  14. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach


    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  15. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander


    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  16. Wellbeing in the New Zealand Curriculum

    Soutter, Anne K.; O'Steen, Billy; Gilmore, Alison


    This study examines the usage and contexts of "wellbeing" in New Zealand's curriculum, a formal statement of education policy enacted by a democratically elected government. The analysis is guided by a current model of student wellbeing rooted in seven, interdependent domains: "Having," "Being," "Relating," "Thinking," "Feeling," "Functioning,"…

  17. Rural Medical Education in New Zealand.

    Mayer, Heidi; Renouf, Tia


    Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article.

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.


    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  19. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George


    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  20. New Zealand scientists in firing line


    "Kiwi scientists have a great chance to have their work bombarded with protons and to participate in world-class particle physics research, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) and New Zealand" (1/2 page)

  1. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger


    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  2. Transgender Health: New Zealand's Innovative Statistical Standard for Gender Identity.

    Pega, Frank; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L; Veale, Jaimie F


    The implementation of the New Zealand government's recently developed statistical standard for gender identity has led to, and will stimulate further, collection of gender identity data in administrative records, population surveys, and perhaps the census. This will provide important information about the demographics, health service use, and health outcomes of transgender populations to allow evidence-based policy development and service planning. However, the standard does not promote the two-question method, risking misclassification and undercounts; does promote the use of the ambiguous response category "gender diverse" in standard questions; and is not intersex inclusive. Nevertheless, the statistical standard provides a first model for other countries and international organizations, including United Nations agencies, interested in policy tools for improving transgender people's health.

  3. Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Rupert Sutherland


    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, constitutes a globally significant natural laboratory for research into how active plate-bounding continental faults work and, in particular, how rocks exposed at the surface today relate to deep-seated processes of tectonic deformation, seismogenesis, and mineralization. The along-strike homogeneity of the hanging wall, rapid rate of dextral-reverse slip on an inclined fault plane, and relatively shallow depths to mechanical and chemical transitions make the Alpine Fault and the broader South Island plate boundary an important international site for multi-disciplinary research and a realistic target for an ambitious long-term program of scientific drilling investigations.

  4. Time trends, ethnicity and risk factors for eczema in New Zealand children: ISAAC Phase Three

    Clayton, Tadd; Asher, M Innes; Crane, Julian; Ellwood, Philippa; Mackay, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A; Moyes, Chris D; Pattemore, Philip; Pearce, Neil; Stewart, Alistair W.


    Background Eczema is a common chronic disease which has significant morbidity and costs for children and their families. Phase One (1993) of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) found a high prevalence of symptoms of eczema in New Zealand. Objective In Phase Three (2001-3) we aimed to answer these three questions: Is the prevalence of eczema changing over time?; Are there ethnic differences in prevalence?; and What are the risk factors for eczema? Methods Five ...

  5. An Empirical Modelling of New Zealand Hospitality and Tourism Stock Returns

    Christine Lim; Felix Chan


    This paper examines the factor risk premiums of stock returns for the hospitality and tourism companies in New Zealand. The Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) approach is used to investigate the expected return for stock portfolio with respect to market, macro (i.e., money supply and discount rate), and tourism factor sensitivities. Monthly stock prices, market index, tourism, and macroeconomic data are used in the study. The results indicate that the risk premiums for international tourism deman...

  6. Hearing, Auditory Processing, and Language Skills of Male Youth Offenders and Remandees in Youth Justice Residences in New Zealand

    Lount, Sarah A.; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Hand, Linda


    Purpose: International evidence suggests youth offenders have greater difficulties with oral language than their nonoffending peers. This study examined the hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees (YORs) in New Zealand. Method: Thirty-three male YORs, aged 14-17 years, were recruited from 2 youth…

  7. Hearing, Auditory Processing, and Language Skills of Male Youth Offenders and Remandees in Youth Justice Residences in New Zealand

    Lount, Sarah A.; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Hand, Linda


    Purpose: International evidence suggests youth offenders have greater difficulties with oral language than their nonoffending peers. This study examined the hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees (YORs) in New Zealand. Method: Thirty-three male YORs, aged 14-17 years, were recruited from 2 youth…

  8. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.


    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  9. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca


    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  10. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca


    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  11. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.


    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  12. Population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand women.

    Hayes, J; Richardson, A; Frampton, C


    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer in New Zealand women and modifiable lifestyle risk factors may contribute to this. To estimate population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand. Estimates of the magnitude of the impact of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer (relative risks and odds ratios obtained from published epidemiological studies) and the prevalence of exposure in New Zealand were used to calculate the population attributable risk percent (PAR%) for each risk factor. The PAR% show the relative importance of these considered risk factors and give an indication of the potential impact of reducing the prevalence of these lifestyle risk factors on the incidence of breast cancer in New Zealand. Six modifiable lifestyle factors were identified for breast cancer. These were obesity, lack of physical activity, high alcohol intake, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and delayed first birth. The PAR% for these risk factors ranged from 1% for delayed first birth to 10% for obesity (16% for Maori women and 17% for Pacific women). The most important primary preventive strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer in New Zealand are lifestyle changes to reduce obesity, promoting regular physical activity (which may in turn reduce the prevalence of obesity), reducing HRT use and avoiding high alcohol intake. Strategies that encourage regular physical activity and reduce obesity could also have other benefits, such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    found, 8 known species re-described after contemporary standards, and a species inventory with keys to those 25 species and the paederine genera occurring in New Zealand was produced. The genus was placed in the phylogenetic context of its subfamily, Paederinae, for which a robust phylogenetic...... was investigated by using a time-calibrated relaxed molecular clock with fossil calibration points. The results showed, that New Zealand was colonised by Hyperomma at least two times independently, once about 43–68 ma (possibly while still connected to Gondwana) and at least once ca. 28.5–47 ma (most probable....... Additionally, the extinct Cretaceous staphylinid genus Apticax was described connected with a short review on fossil Paederinae and closely related fossils....

  14. Theoretical study of electrostatic two-stream instability on cold relativistic electron beams%相对论性冷电子束流静电双流不稳定性

    贺妮妮; 刘笑兰


    The relativistic electrostatic two-stream instability can take place in the fast ignition process of in-ertial confinement fusion, which has an important influence on the fast electron propagation and energy deposition. From the full covariant relativistic hydrodynamic equations of electromagnetism,the relativistic electrostatic two-stream instability has been investigated both (delete) analytically and numerically. The dispersion relation for cold relativistic electron beams was derived. The numerical results indicated that a-long with the fast-electron beam density increasing,the electron two-stream instability growth rate would become larger,while the unstable range would become smaller and shift to the smaller wave number region. By contrast, as the speed of fast stream increases, the growth rate and unstable region decrease. In brief,the two-stream instability is restrained.%激光核聚变的“快点火”过程中高能电子的产生会引起相对论性静电双流不稳定性,它对相对论性电子的传输和能量沉积有重要影响.从完全协变相对论性电磁流体力学方程出发,研究了相对论性冷电子束流激发的静电双流不稳定性.研究表明,快电子束流速度越大,对不稳定的增长率和不稳定区域的抑制性越强,即相对论性越强,越能抑制双流不稳定性的产生;而快电子束密度越大,越易于引发双流不稳定性;随着快电子束流速度以及束流密度的增大,不稳定性最大增长率都向小波数区域移动.

  15. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    Elder, J.W.


    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  16. Cancer in Pacific people in New Zealand.

    Meredith, Ineke; Sarfati, Diana; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Blakely, Tony


    To describe cancer incidence rates among Pacific people living in New Zealand from 1981 to 2004. Linked census-cancer registration data were used to calculate age-standardized cancer incidence rates for Pacific people. Both trends over time within Pacific people and differences in rates between Pacific and European/Other people in New Zealand were assessed. Pacific rates were higher for cancers of the cervix, endometrium, gallbladder, lip, mouth and pharynx, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid, and lower for colorectal, bladder, and testicular cancers and melanoma. Differences were large, ranging from a 90 % lower rate of melanoma to over seven times higher rate of liver cancer compared to European/Other. Breast and prostate cancers were the commonest malignancies for Pacific women and men, respectively. Important changes for Pacific women over time include a 64 % decrease in cervical cancer incidence (ptrend = 0.02) and a 245 % increase for lung cancer (ptrend = 0.02), while men had a 366 % increase in prostate cancer (ptrend = 0.02). Pacific people in New Zealand have a disproportionate cancer burden related to infectious diseases such as HPV and Hepatitis B. However, with escalating evidence for causal associations between diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity with various cancers, the challenge will be to prevent these cancers from rising in Pacific people who have the highest rates of these conditions in New Zealand. Disparities for tobacco-related cancers support tobacco consumption as another important cause of cancer incidence disparity. Continued efforts are needed to reduce infectious disease and improve screening program uptake among Pacific people.

  17. Equity in statin use in New Zealand

    Norris P


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Preventive medications such as statins are used to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is some evidence to suggest that people of lower socioeconomic position are less likely to be prescribed statins. In New Zealand, Maori have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aimed to investigate statin utilisation by socioeconomic position and ethnicity in a region of New Zealand. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected on all prescriptions dispensed from all pharmacies in one city during 2005/6. Linkage with national datasets provided information on patients' age, gender and ethnicity. Socioeconomic position was identified using the New Zealand Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation 2006. RESULTS: Statin use increased with age until around 75 years. Below age 65 years, those in the most deprived socioeconomic areas were most likely to receive statins. In the 55-64 age group, 22.3% of the most deprived population received a statin prescription (compared with 17.5% of the mid and 18.6% of the least deprived group. At ages up to 75 years, use was higher amongst Maori than non-Maori, particularly in middle age, where Maori have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In the 45-54 age group, 11.6% of Maori received a statin prescription, compared with 8.7% of non-Maori. DISCUSSION: Statin use approximately matched the pattern of need, in contrast to other studies which found under-treatment of people of low socioeconomic position. A PHARMAC campaign to increase statin use may have increased use in high-risk groups in New Zealand.

  18. Recovery in New Zealand: an evolving concept?

    O'Hagan, Mary; Reynolds, Paul; Smith, Cherryl


    Recovery was first officially promoted in New Zealand in 1998 and it became a key concept in mental health service development. Since the mid 2000s however, recovery has been on the wane in New Zealand, but the fundamental concepts within the term live on in two more recently adopted terms: whanau ora and well-being. He Korowai Oranga (Maori Health Strategy) defines whanau ora as families being supported to achieve health and well-being. The extended family is recognized as a source of strength, identity, security and support. Whanau ora is underpinned by Te Whare Tapa Wha, a well-being model that focuses on health being a balance between Taha Wairua (spiritual health), Taha Tinana (physical health), Taha Hinengaro (psychological health) and Taha Whānau (family health). New Zealanders are also using the term well-being, not just for the whole population but for people diagnosed with mental illness. The advantages of placing recovery into the larger well-being agenda are reduced discrimination and segregation of people with a diagnosis into a distinct population group, reduced association with medical and deficits approaches that can counter the recovery approach, and bypassing the dilution of the recovery approach that has occurred in traditional services.

  19. Locating women in the New Zealand computing industry

    Alison Hunter, PhD

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that women are under-represented in computing occupations in many Western countries, but is the situation similar in New Zealand? This article presents a quantitative analysis of gendered employment patterns in New Zealand\\'s computing industry. Findings from analysis of 2001 and 2006 census employment data demonstrate that women are now well represented in some newer computing occupations in New Zealand, but they remain significantly under-represented in traditional computing roles such as programming and systems analysis. Furthermore, New Zealand women in computing do not have pay parity with men. On some occasions during the early days of computing in New Zealand women participated more equally in number but they have always experienced pay discrimination.

  20. Coniform stromatolites from geothermal systems, North Island, New Zealand

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, Michael R.; Ansdell, K.M.


    Coniform stromatolites are found in several sites in the Tokaanu and Whakarewarewa geothermal areas of North Island, New Zealand. At Tokaanu, silicification of these stromatolites is taking place in Kirihoro, a shallow hot springfed pool. At Whakarewarewa, subfossil silicified coniform stromatolites are found on the floor of "Waikite Pool" on the discharge apron below Waikite Geyser, and in an old sinter succession at Te Anarata. The microbes in the coniform stromatolites from Tokaanu, Waikite Pool, and Te Anarata have been well preserved through rapid silicification. Nevertheless, subtle differences in the silicification style induced morphological variations that commonly mask or alter morphological features needed for identification of the microbes in terms of extant taxa. The coniform stromatolites in the New Zealand hotspring pools are distinctive because (1) they are formed of upward tapering (i.e., conical) columns, (2) neighboring columns commonly are linked by vertical sheets or bridges, (3) internally, they are formed of alternating high- and low-porosity laminae that have a conical vertical profile, and (4) Phormidium form more than 90% of the biota. As such, they are comparable to modern coniform mats and stromatolites found in the geothermal systems of Yellowstone National Park and ice-covered lakes in Antarctica. Formation of the coniform stromatolites is restricted to pools that are characterized by low current energy and a microflora that is dominated by Phormidium. These delicate and intricate stromatolites could not form in areas characterized by fast flowing water or a diverse microflora. Thus, it appears that the distribution of these distinctive stromatolites is controlled by biological constraints that are superimposed on environmental needs.

  1. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Declan T. Waugh


    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  2. Inflation Targeting and Economic Reforms in New Zealand

    Matteo Cacciatore; Fabio Ghironi; Turnovsky, Stephen J.


    We study the consequences of economic reforms in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1990s. Inflation targeting became the monetary policymaking framework of the RBNZ in 1990. In the years that followed, New Zealand implemented labor market reform and became increasingly integrated in world trade. We use a New Keynesian model with rich trade microfoundations and labor market dynamics to study the performance of inflation targeting versus alternative monetary policy rules for New Zealand in...

  3. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    Cumming, Jacqueline


    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  4. Midwifery education in New Zealand: Education, practice and autonomy.

    Gilkison, Andrea; Pairman, Sally; McAra-Couper, Judith; Kensington, Mary; James, Liz


    New Zealand's midwifery education model is intertwined with a practice model which is underpinned by autonomy and partnership. The curriculum prepares students for practice across the scope of midwifery on their own responsibility. While students have formal learning opportunities within educational institutions they spend at least half of their programme learning through authentic work experiences alongside midwives and women. Midwifery educators partner with practising midwives to support students to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to practise midwifery in the New Zealand context. This paper provides an overview of New Zealand's midwifery education model and identifies how it is integrated with New Zealand's unique midwifery service.

  5. Intercultural Competence of English Language Teachers in International Baccalaureate World Schools in Turkey and Abroad

    Demircioglu, Serife; Çakir, Cemal


    The study explores the opinions and attitudes of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) English language teachers from Turkey, the USA, the UK, New Zealand and Spain on intercultural language teaching. 16 teachers from Turkey, 15 teachers from the USA, 11 teachers from the UK, 10 teachers from New Zealand and 8 teachers from Spain,…

  6. A hydrological model of New Zealand

    Woods, R. A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Ibbitt, R. P.; Wild, M.; Henderson, R. D.; Turner, R.


    We present initial results from a hydrological model of New Zealand, using Topnet, a variant of TOPMODEL, linked to a kinematic wave channel network routing algorithm. This model run uses daily timesteps for the period 1985-2001, and subdivides the country into approximately 35,000 sub-catchments of 7-10 sq km each. The sub-catchments are linked by 55,000 river reaches, which route sub-catchment runoff. The model subcatchments and reaches are defined automatically by DEM analyses, and initial estimates of model parameters are defined by GIS overlay, coupled with purpose-built model assembly code, and lookup tables for model parameters. A daily simulation for 1 year over New Zealand takes two hours on a standard desktop computer. The model is forced by gridded daily rainfall and temperature data, and it calculates daily water balance for each of the sub-catchments (rain, evaporation, throughfall, infiltration, soil drainage, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, and changes in storage in the canopy, root zone, and saturated storage), as well as daily flows in each river reach. The model as currently implemented does not include snow, glaciers, or deep groundwater flow (i.e. across sub-catchment boundaries). The first applications of the model are for developing an annual water balance of New Zealand for the period 1994-2001, at the regional scale, and for driving a high-spatial resolution, daily time-stepping national erosion model. We are moving to further applications for water resource modeling (e.g. impact of abstraction and/or storage), and for flood forecasting, using hourly rainfall from a mesoscale atmospheric model.

  7. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand



    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  8. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand



    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  9. The principal time balls of New Zealand

    Kinns, Roger


    Accurate time signals in New Zealand were important for navigation in the Pacific. Time balls at Wellington and Lyttelton were noted in the 1880 Admiralty list of time signals, with later addition of Otago. The time ball service at Wellington started in March 1864 using the first official observatory in New Zealand, but there was no Wellington time ball service during a long period of waterfront redevelopment during the 1880s. The time ball service restarted in November 1888 at a different harbour location. The original mechanical apparatus was used with a new ball, but the system was destroyed by fire in March 1909 and was never replaced. Instead, a time light service was inaugurated in 1912. The service at Lyttelton, near Christchurch, began in December 1876 after construction of the signal station there. It used telegraph signals from Wellington to regulate the time ball. By the end of 1909, it was the only official time ball in New Zealand, providing a service that lasted until 1934. The Lyttelton time ball tower was an iconic landmark in New Zealand that had been carefully restored. Tragically, the tower collapsed in the 2011 earthquakes and aftershocks that devastated Christchurch. A daily time ball service at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, started in June 1867, initially using local observatory facilities. The service appears to have been discontinued in October 1877, but was re-established in April 1882 as a weekly service, with control by telegraph from Wellington. The service had been withdrawn altogether by the end of 1909. Auckland never established a reliable time ball service, despite provision of a weekly service for mariners by a public-spirited citizen between August 1864 and June 1866. A time ball was finally installed on the Harbour Board building in 1901, but the signal was unreliable and it ceased in 1902. Complaints from ships' masters led to various proposals to re-establish a service. These concluded with erection of a time ball on the new

  10. Interference Tests at Kawerau, New Zealand

    Burnell, John G.; McGuinness, Mark J.


    Analysis of interference tests at the Kawerau geothermal field in New Zealand has indicated that the reservoir may be viewed on a coarse scale as a two-layer structure. While these layers have high permeabilities, they are in poor hydrological communication with each other. The shallower layer is modelled as a finite cylindrical reservoir. The deeper layer is modelled as a larger cylindrical reservoir with recharge from the sides. The fitted permeabilities and storativities suggest the importance of flow in fractures at Kawerau. 2 tabs., 14 figs., 8 refs.

  11. IA of bio-economic projects in Region Zealand, Denmark

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge; Palsberg, Aske

    Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts.......Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts....

  12. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian


    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  13. Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers.

    O'Hagan, Mary

    This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…

  14. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn


    "The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…

  15. Competition and Reform of the New Zealand Tertiary Education Sector

    Abbott, Malcolm


    The purpose of this paper is to use an historical approach to examine the changing nature, size and diversification of education and training in New Zealand. In particular, attention will be concentrated on the impact of the introduction of competition into the New Zealand tertiary education industry since 1989. It will examine the relationship…

  16. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary


    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  17. Spirituality in Career from a New Zealand Maori Perspective.

    Furbish, Dale S.; Reid, Lynette

    New Zealand Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa, a relatively small nation of 4 million people. The juxtaposition of Maori and European cultures presents an opportunity to contrast the highly spiritual nature of Maori culture with European traditions of linearity and rationality. This contrast can be especially appreciated in…

  18. Small Country, Big Business? New Zealand as Education Exporter

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter


    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…

  19. International resources law


    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  20. A Critical Review of International Students' Adjustment Research from a Deleuzian Perspective

    Vasilopoulos, Gene


    The author in this paper critically reviews recent literature on international student language and adjustment to Western Anglophone universities. Two streams of research are discussed: the problem-solving approach guided largely by positivist epistemologies and quantitative methodologies contrasted to the post-structuralist language and identity…

  1. New Zealand needs a Practice Based Research Network.

    Leitch, Sharon


    Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs) are groups of general practices collaborating to produce research. Contemporary New Zealand health information technology systems are ideal for electronic data extraction for PBRN research. Stakeholders have a valuable, but typically underutilised, part to play in research. Development of an e-participation platform will facilitate stakeholder engagement. New Zealand is in a unique position to create an innovative, low cost, stakeholder-engaged PBRN. This type of PBRN would offer unparalleled research opportunities, and would strengthen New Zealand's general practice research capacity. The more research information we have based on our New Zealand population, the more appropriate care we can provide. Establishing a stakeholder-engaged PBRN in New Zealand will promote and support transformational change within our health system.

  2. New Zealand students on tour at CERN


    The three prize-winners Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson in front of the CMS magnet, with their teacher Noema Watene on the left. The "Journey to the End of Science" makes a stop at CERN. Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson, three high-school students from Fairfield College in Hamilton, New Zealand, won first prize in the New Zealand Royal Society's scientific film competition - the trip of a lifetime to Europe. The reward for their excellent documentary on the nuclear physicist and winner of the Nobel prize for Medicine Maurice Wilkins was a trip to Italy and Switzerland, stopping at CERN on the way. Accompanied by one of their teachers and a science journalist, the students were shown around the antiproton decelerator and the CMS experiment by Alick Macpherson, a Kiwi physicist at CERN. Their faithful camera always at the ready, the students filmed every minute of their visits to the various sites - perhaps they were hatching plans for next year's competition...

  3. Survey of the use of nuclear medicine in New Zealand in 1993

    Smyth, V.G.; Laban, J.A. [National Radiation Laboratory, Christchurch, (New Zealand)


    Full text: The National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) has surveyed the use of radioactive materials in medicine each decade since 1966. The purpose of this is to monitor trends and estimate the radiation dose to the population from this modality. Each of the nuclear medicine facilities in New Zealand was surveyed. The data provided consisted of total numbers of each type of procedure has increased by nearly 10 per cent in 10 years. Bone scans have nearly doubled in frequency, and form just under half of all diagnostic procedures, compared to 30 per cent in 1983. There has been an eightfold increase in the number of cardiac studies. Renal and lung studies are up, but liver tests and brain scans are down.The 1983 survey noted that the activities administered in New Zealand were high compared to those in other countries. Since then, a reasonable international consensus has formed over `reference doses` for each standard procedure. There are incorporated in the NRL Code of Safe Practice and compliance is good. While in some countries there is a considerably greater frequency of nuclear medicine procedures, this survey indicates that overall practice in New Zealand is similar to many industrialized countries.

  4. Quantifying potential tsunami hazard in the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand

    Hayes, G.P.; Furlong, K.P.


    Studies of subduction zone seismogenesis and tsunami potential, particularly of large subduction zones, have recently seen a resurgence after the great 2004 earthquake and tsunami offshore of Sumatra, yet these global studies have generally neglected the tsunami potential of small subduction zones such as the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand. Here, we study one such relatively small subduction zone by analysing the historical seismicity over the entire plate boundary region south of New Zealand, using these data to determine the seismic moment deficit of the subduction zone over the past ~100 yr. Our calculations indicate unreleased moment equivalent to a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake, suggesting this subduction zone has the potential to host a great, tsunamigenic event. We model this tsunami hazard and find that a tsunami caused by a great earthquake on the Puysegur subduction zone would pose threats to the coasts of southern and western South Island, New Zealand, Tasmania and southeastern Australia, nearly 2000 km distant. No claim to original US government works Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  5. Cases of cutaneous diphtheria in New Zealand: implications for surveillance and management.

    Sears, Ann; McLean, Margot; Hingston, David; Eddie, Barbara; Short, Pat; Jones, Mark


    Diphtheria is an acute bacterial illness caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae). We describe two epidemiologically-linked cases of skin infections from which toxigenic C. diphtheriae was isolated, and discuss implications for diphtheria surveillance and management in New Zealand. A public health investigation was undertaken to identify and manage close contacts of the index case. National and international guidelines on the surveillance and management of cutaneous diphtheria were reviewed, and data on toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolates identified in New Zealand from 1987-2009 were examined. The index case was an adult male who developed a cutaneous infection after being tattooed in Samoa. A wound swab taken from the infected tattoo grew a toxigenic strain of C. diphtheriae (var gravis). A secondary case of toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria was identified in a household contact. Instances of respiratory diphtheria associated with toxigenic cutaneous lesions have been reported in the literature. The review of surveillance data revealed inconsistencies in the notification of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae isolated from cutaneous sites. These cases are an important reminder that diphtheria remains a threat in New Zealand. All cases with toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolated from a clinical specimen, regardless of the site of infection, should be notified to a Medical Officer of Health.

  6. Evaluating stress, burnout and job satisfaction in New Zealand radiation oncology departments.

    Jasperse, M; Herst, P; Dungey, G


    This research aimed to determine the levels of occupational stress, burnout and job satisfaction among radiation oncology workers across New Zealand. All oncology staff practising in all eight radiation oncology departments in New Zealand were invited to participate anonymously in a questionnaire, which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and measures of stress intensity associated with specific occupational stressors, stress reduction strategies and job satisfaction. A total of 171 (out of 349) complete responses were analysed using spss 19; there were 23 oncologists, 111 radiation therapists, 22 radiation nurses and 15 radiation physicists. All participants, regardless of profession, reported high stress levels associated with both patient-centred and organisational stressors. Participants scored high in all three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Interestingly, although organisational stressors predicted higher emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion predicted lower job satisfaction, patient stressors were associated with higher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction initiatives such as ongoing education, mentoring and role extension were supported by many participants as was addressing organisational stressors, such as lack of recognition and support from management and unrealistic expectations and demands. New Zealand staff exhibit higher levels of burnout than Maslach Burnout Inventory medical norms and oncology workers in previous international studies.

  7. The University of Canterbury Library (Christchurch, New Zealand

    Mojca Jevnikar-Zajc


    Full Text Available Successful performance of study and research programs of individual academic institutions depends on the quality of its support services, including library services. An example of such a service is the University of Canterbury Library in New Zealand,which fulfills its mission and set goals on the basis of international library standards.Adequately furnished areas, well organized work and professional staff enable the library to function successfully. Its work is mainly aimed at user education and information technology development. This is achieved by bringing information closer to the user by means of a well organized communication process, user education for active use of library services, by offering reference and information aid and by enabling different access to information resources and library services. The majority of library services can be processed by users themselves - eg. retrieval, ordering and browsing through materials, the use of electronic resources, information printing, learning how to use library services and resources. The library is an essential part of an information centre of a wider area of the Christchurch and Canterbury region and as such does not serve the students’ needs alone but follows globalisation trends in the field of acquisition, accessibility and information exchange.

  8. Transitioning to a hydrogen economy in New Zealand - An EnergyScape project

    Whitney, Rob; Clemens, Tony; Gardiner, Alister; Leaver, Jonathan


    The project identifies how hydrogen could become a significant contributor to New Zealand's energy system by 2050. Future transport scenarios are modeled with a changing mix of internal combustion engine (ICE), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) over the period between the present day and 2050. For scenarios the model takes account of the electricity generation requirements and costs, the resources used, and the renewable content of that electricity generation. With high penetration of FCV, or a mix of FCV and BEV, NZ targets for renewable electricity generation and transport related emission reductions can be achieved.

  9. Training the intern: The value of a pre-intern year in preparing students for practice.

    Dare, Anna; Fancourt, Nicholas; Robinson, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Tim; Bagg, Warwick


    To evaluate the clinical and professional development that occurs during a New Zealand trainee intern year in preparation for the first house officer role. A quantitative questionnaire was distributed to all trainee interns (year 6) and year 5 medical students in New Zealand at the end of the 2007 academic year. This survey assessed self-reported competency and performance across clinical, professional and role development domains. Response rate was 65% (457/702). Compared to year 5 students, trainee interns reported significantly greater competence and performance levels across all three domains. The greatest improvement occurred in the independent performance of procedural skills (trainee interns: 77%, year 5: 35%, p interns: 94%, year 5: 56%, p intern year, 92% of students felt prepared to be a junior doctor, versus only 53% at the end of their 5th year (p intern year is important in preparing graduates for the intern role. The year affords increased responsibility and practical experience, whilst retaining an educational focus, facilitating the move from competence towards performance. Preparedness for practice was substantially higher following the New Zealand trainee intern year than has been reported with other pre-intern placements.

  10. Updated Palaeotsunami Database for Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Gadsby, M. R.; Goff, J. R.; King, D. N.; Robbins, J.; Duesing, U.; Franz, T.; Borrero, J. C.; Watkins, A.


    The updated configuration, design, and implementation of a national palaeotsunami (pre-historic tsunami) database for Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) is near completion. This tool enables correlation of events along different stretches of the NZ coastline, provides information on frequency and extent of local, regional and distant-source tsunamis, and delivers detailed information on the science and proxies used to identify the deposits. In A/NZ a plethora of data, scientific research and experience surrounds palaeotsunami deposits, but much of this information has been difficult to locate, has variable reporting standards, and lacked quality assurance. The original database was created by Professor James Goff while working at the National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research in A/NZ, but has subsequently been updated during his tenure at the University of New South Wales. The updating and establishment of the national database was funded by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), led by Environment Canterbury Regional Council, and supported by all 16 regions of A/NZ's local government. Creation of a single database has consolidated a wide range of published and unpublished research contributions from many science providers on palaeotsunamis in A/NZ. The information is now easily accessible and quality assured and allows examination of frequency, extent and correlation of events. This provides authoritative scientific support for coastal-marine planning and risk management. The database will complement the GNS New Zealand Historical Database, and contributes to a heightened public awareness of tsunami by being a "one-stop-shop" for information on past tsunami impacts. There is scope for this to become an international database, enabling the pacific-wide correlation of large events, as well as identifying smaller regional ones. The Australian research community has already expressed an interest, and the database is also compatible with a

  11. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  12. Transfers from rural hospitals in New Zealand.

    Lloyd, Trevor; Blattner, Katharina; Nixon, Garry


    To canvass the experience of a group of New Zealand rural hospital doctors of transfers from their hospitals. Ten rural hospital doctors were required to write an assignment on patient transfer as part of their assessment for a postgraduate diploma. The information from the completed assignments was grouped into themes for analysis. The responses from the ten doctors could be grouped into six themes: resources at the rural hospital, clinical conditions, mode of transfer, communication, issues during transfer, and health system issues. The experience of this group of doctors is consistent with the available published information. Transfer of patients is an inevitable part of rural hospital practice. The outcome for patients could be improved through better resourcing of rural hospitals and education for staff, improved communication with transport services and with base hospital specialists, and involvement in the development of regionalised transport protocols.

  13. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew


    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  14. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew


    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  15. A Thermal Oscillating Two-Stream Instability

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.


    , and transverse scale of maximum growth are obtained. Special attention is paid to the transport theory, since the physical picture depends heavily on the kind of electron collisions which dominate. This is due to the velocity dependence of collison frequencies, which gives rise to the thermal forces....

  16. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    Priestley, Rebecca


    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  17. [Smoke-free New Zealand 2025 - utopia or a model?].

    Králíková, Eva


    New Zealand politicians are aware of the devastating economic and health impact of smoking in their country. The prevalence of that dependence is in New Zealand population aged 15 to 64 years about 20%, but only 4% of the population are "happy" smokers. Therefore, the majority of the population, including smokers, should support plan of gradual effective steps, leading in 2025 to "smoke-free" New Zealand with smoking prevalence in the population below 5%. In the same age group, according to the National Institute of Public Health, the Czech smoking prevalence has remained about 30% for almost ten years and no effective tobacco control legislation is in sight.

  18. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    Andkjær, Søren


    The article draws on a doctoral study of young peoples’ participation in organised friluftsliv and outdoor education in Denmark and New Zealand. The research questions concentrate on views of nature, values and general characteristics in friluftsliv and outdoor education. The results are based...... on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...... the empirical studies on outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed and compared to the cultural perspective of friluftsliv in Denmark....

  19. Survival on home dialysis in New Zealand.

    Mark R Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New Zealand (NZ has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD and home haemodialysis (HD relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. METHODS: We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. RESULTS: We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (3 years, with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase.

  20. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Peter de Lange


    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  1. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.


    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  2. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm


    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  3. Motivating Information Technology Professionals: The case of New Zealand

    Shoaib Ahmed; Nazim Taskin; DAVID J. PAULEEN; Jane Parker


    IT professionals play a critical role in organizations. Research indicates that they may be unique in their attitudes toward motivation and job satisfaction. In New Zealand, a shortage of skilled professionals may contribute to or impact on motivation. Using a modified model of Herzberg’s two-factor theory by Smerek and Peterson (2007), this research seeks to answer the question: what motivates New Zealand IT professionals? In response, an online questionnaire was distributed to a population ...

  4. The long locum: health propaganda in New Zealand.

    Dow, Derek


    Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.

  5. A dissident voice in New Zealand wartime sex education.

    Gooder, Claire


    Sex education in wartime New Zealand focused primarily on adults and was concerned with community stability in aberrant times. In 1943 Dr. Clara Lee's bold move to ask a group of New Zealand women candidly about their sexual experiences caused her dismissal as lecturer in sex hygiene to military women. This encounter provides an important counter discourse to the dominantly held contemporary sex education framework of marital love and premarital chastity.

  6. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Stockwell Alannah; Carroll Rebecca; Townsend Simon; Yi Jesse; Ah-Yen Damien; Chakrabarti Anannya; Okawa Ken; Smith Tara; Fry Bridget; Gale Jesse; Sievwright Andrea; Dew Kevin; Thomson George


    Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New ...

  7. Nursing Informatics in New Zealand: From History to Strategy

    Michelle L. L. Honey; Westbrooke, Lucy A.


    As technological advances saw computers become more common, nurses in New Zealand were inspired to look for ways to harness the use of computers and other technologies to aid patient care and their practice. This paper traces the history of the development of nursing informatics in New Zealand from the earliest days in the 1980s through to the present, when nurses have leadership roles in informatics and are represented at the highest levels in national decision making, thereby influencing th...

  8. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand


    <正>Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship So-ciety, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantong, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chi

  9. An outbreak of multiple serotypes of salmonella in New Zealand linked to consumption of contaminated tahini imported from Turkey.

    Paine, Shevaun; Thornley, Craig; Wilson, Maurice; Dufour, Muriel; Sexton, Kerry; Miller, Jim; King, Grant; Bell, Stephen; Bandaranayake, Don; Mackereth, Graham


    A widespread salmonellosis outbreak linked to consumption of hummus made from contaminated tahini imported from Turkey occurred in New Zealand in November 2012. This article summarizes the outbreak detection, investigation, and control. The New Zealand Enteric Reference Laboratory alerted public health units regarding a cluster of 11 persons with Salmonella Montevideo infection identified from different regions of the North Island of New Zealand. A multiagency outbreak investigation commenced to determine the source of illness and prevent further transmission. Salmonellosis is a notifiable disease in New Zealand. Outbreak cases were identified through routine salmonellosis notifications, and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to identify common exposures. Clinical and food isolates were initially characterized by serotyping and then further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE profiles were sent to PulseNet and international alerts were posted. The scope of the investigation widened to include persons with either Salmonella Maastricht and Salmonella Mbandaka infection following detection of these serotypes in tahini epidemiologically linked to laboratory-confirmed cases. All three of the tahini-associated serotypes were detected in people who had consumed tahini, and these were found to have PFGE profiles indistinguishable from the tahini isolates. Twenty-seven salmonellosis cases infected with at least one of the three tahini-associated Salmonella serotypes were detected between September 1 and December 31, 2012; of these, 16 (59%) cases (12 with Salmonella Montevideo, 3 with Salmonella Mbandaka, and 1 with Salmonella Maastricht infection) had PFGE patterns indistinguishable from the outbreak profile. The investigation led to a trade withdrawal and consumer recall for tahini sesame paste from the consignment and products containing this tahini. The outbreak ceased following the recall. The importer of the implicated tahini was

  10. Trends in hospital bed utilisation in New Zealand 1989 to 2006: more or less beds in the future?

    Malcolm, Laurence


    Reduction in hospital bed utilisation has been a key factor in controlling costs in recent decades in many health systems, including New Zealand's. This paper has the following aims: to analyse trends in hospital bed utilisation from 1988 to 2006; to examine variation between district health boards (DHBs); to consider factors which may explain the trends observed; to compare the results with international trends; and to discuss future need for beds and factors affecting this need, including the integrated DHB system. Ministry of Health Hospital Throughput reports for 1988/89 to 2005/06 were accessed and present standardised, filtered, and truncated data on discharges, average length of stay (ALOS), bed days, and DHB comparisons. Data on beds were also obtained from the Private Surgical Hospitals Association. Rates of utilisation were calculated using Statistics New Zealand and the Ministry of Health population data. Australian, UK, and US comparisons were obtained. The New Zealand data showed a continuing rise in discharge rates, especially case weighted. This was almost entirely due to the increase in day patients. There was a marked downward trend in bed day rates due to a more than 50% decline in the ALOS and a corresponding decline in bed availability. There was a marked variation between DHBs in standardised discharge ratios in 2005/06, with low rates indicating potential benchmarks to which higher utilisation DHBs might aspire. New Zealand was well ahead of both Australia and the UK National Health System (NHS) in reducing bed utilisation but comparisons with Kaiser Permanente indicated that DHBs could potentially, even dramatically, reduce bed utilisation through reducing admissions. The findings point to important progress in New Zealand in containing costs associated with hospital bed utilisation. Future strategies need to focus strongly on reducing hospital admissions through PHO action to provide community alternatives and chronic disease management.

  11. The New Zealand Tsunami Database: historical and modern records

    Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.


    A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.

  12. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.


    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  13. Characterisation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strains isolated from humans in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand

    Robins-Browne Roy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is an important cause of bloody diarrhoea (BD, non-bloody diarrhoea (NBD and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS. In Argentina and New Zealand, the most prevalent STEC serotype is O157:H7, which is responsible for the majority of HUS cases. In Australia, on the other hand, STEC O157:H7 is associated with a minority of HUS cases. The main aims of this study were to compare the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of STEC O157 strains isolated between 1993 and 1996 from humans in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand, and to establish their clonal relatedness. Results Seventy-three O157 STEC strains, isolated from HUS (n = 36, BD (n = 20, NBD (n = 10, or unspecified conditions (n = 7 in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand, were analysed. The strains were confirmed to be E. coli O157 by biochemical tests and serotyping. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the stx1, stx2 and rfbO157 genes and a genotyping method based on PCR-RFLP was used to determine stx1 and stx2 variants. This analysis revealed that the most frequent stx genotypes were stx2/stx2c (vh-a (91% in Argentina, stx2 (89% in New Zealand, and stx1/stx2 (30% in Australia. No stx1-postive strains were identified in Argentina or New Zealand. All strains harboured the eae gene and 72 strains produced enterohaemolysin (EHEC-Hly. The clonal relatedness of strains was investigated by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The most frequent phage types (PT identified in Argentinian, Australian, and New Zealand strains were PT49 (n = 12, PT14 (n = 9, and PT2 (n = 15, respectively. Forty-six different patterns were obtained by XbaI-PFGE; 37 strains were grouped in 10 clusters and 36 strains showed unique patterns. Most clusters could be further subdivided by BlnI-PFGE. Conclusion STEC O157 strains isolated in Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand differed from each other in terms of

  14. The Influence of IFRS Adoption on Corporate Transparency and Accountability: Evidence from New Zealand

    Jude Edeigba


    Full Text Available This study investigates the implications of the gap between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards (NZIFRS on financial reporting transparency, accountability and corporate fraud. Content analysis of IFRS and NZIFRS was carried out to determine if there are differences between IFRS and NZIFRS. Four IFRS, namely IAS 12, IFRS 13, IFRS 15, IAS 17 and IFRS 16 were analysed on the basis of adoption concessions and Reduced Disclosure Regime (RDR for tier 1 and 2 entities. The findings from these standards led to a review of the associated IFRS to further understand the implications of the standards on financial reporting transparency and decline in incidences of corporate fraud. We found that the difference between IFRS and NZIFRS lies in the financial reporting framework for tier 2 entities. However, we did not find a difference between IFRS and NZIFRS for entities in tier 1 but we identified a decline in incidences of corporate fraud after IFRS was adopted. We further identified the presence of information asymmetry for tier 2 which is capable of retaining Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs. These differences may increase the incidence of corporate fraud among the entities in tier 2 of External Reporting Framework. This is due to an excessive concession from IFRS implementation in New Zealand.

  15. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Serdar Durdyev


    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  16. Is health workforce sustainability in Australia and New Zealand a realistic policy goal?

    Buchan, James M; Naccarella, Lucio; Brooks, Peter M


    This paper assesses what health workforce 'sustainability' might mean for Australia and New Zealand, given the policy direction set out in the World Health Organization draft code on international recruitment of health workers. The governments in both countries have in the past made policy statements about the desirability of health workforce 'self-sufficiency', but OECD data show that both have a high level of dependence on internationally recruited health professionals relative to most other OECD countries. The paper argues that if a target of 'self-sufficiency' or sustainability were to be based on meeting health workforce requirements from home based training, both Australia and New Zealand fall far short of this measure, and continue to be active recruiters. The paper stresses that there is no common agreed definition of what health workforce 'self-sufficiency', or 'sustainability' is in practice, and that without an agreed definition it will be difficult for policy-makers to move the debate on to reaching agreement and possibly setting measurable targets or timelines for achievement. The paper concludes that any policy decisions related to health workforce sustainability will also have to taken in the context of a wider community debate on what is required of a health system and how is it to be funded.

  17. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in New Zealand: differences associated with being a practitioner in New Zealand compared to China.

    Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh


    While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.

  18. Australian and New Zealand Fish Oil Products in 2016 Meet Label Omega-3 Claims and Are Not Oxidized

    Peter D. Nichols


    Full Text Available We provide new fish oil product results to assist industry in Australia and New Zealand and, ultimately, consumers in understanding the high product quality assurance protocols in place, together with the high product quality that has been determined by both industry and independent laboratories. Fish oil capsule products common to Australia and New Zealand were purchased in May 2016 in Richmond, Victoria, Australia. Products were from two groups; five standard fish oil products and five fish oil concentrates. Noting Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA requirement for use of standard methods, for all analyses undertaken a laboratory was selected that met the TGA criteria, including with accreditation. Total n-3 content exceeded the label-claimed content for all 10 products, with supplements containing on average 124% of the claimed content (range 115%–136%; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA content averaged 109% of the label claim (range 99%–119%. All 10 products (100% similarly met the international recommended peroxide value (PV level. Anisidine value (pAV met the international recommended level for eight of the 10 products, with two products known to contain flavorings that interfere with the pAV test. When accredited laboratories and standard protocols are used, Australian and New Zealand fish oil products have been shown to clearly meet their label claims for EPA + DHA content, and are not oxidized.

  19. Australian and New Zealand Fish Oil Products in 2016 Meet Label Omega-3 Claims and Are Not Oxidized.

    Nichols, Peter D; Dogan, Lalen; Sinclair, Andrew


    We provide new fish oil product results to assist industry in Australia and New Zealand and, ultimately, consumers in understanding the high product quality assurance protocols in place, together with the high product quality that has been determined by both industry and independent laboratories. Fish oil capsule products common to Australia and New Zealand were purchased in May 2016 in Richmond, Victoria, Australia. Products were from two groups; five standard fish oil products and five fish oil concentrates. Noting Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) requirement for use of standard methods, for all analyses undertaken a laboratory was selected that met the TGA criteria, including with accreditation. Total n-3 content exceeded the label-claimed content for all 10 products, with supplements containing on average 124% of the claimed content (range 115%-136%); eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) content averaged 109% of the label claim (range 99%-119%). All 10 products (100%) similarly met the international recommended peroxide value (PV) level. Anisidine value (pAV) met the international recommended level for eight of the 10 products, with two products known to contain flavorings that interfere with the pAV test. When accredited laboratories and standard protocols are used, Australian and New Zealand fish oil products have been shown to clearly meet their label claims for EPA + DHA content, and are not oxidized.

  20. Nocturnal haemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand.

    Agar, John W M


    Although early experience in Australia and New Zealand confirmed home haemodialysis to be well tolerated, effective and with lower morbidity and mortality compared with centre-based haemodialysis, the advent of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 'satellite' haemodialysis has led to a steadily declining home haemodialysis population. However, the emergence of nocturnal haemodialysis, as a safe and highly effective therapy, has added to the modality choices now available and offers a new, highly attractive home-based option with many advantages over centre-based dialysis. For the patient, nocturnal haemodialysis means fluid and dietary freedom, less antihypertensive medication, the abolition of phosphate binders, the return of daytime freedom and the capacity for full-time employment. Potential biochemical benefits include normalization of the blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, beta(2) microglobulin, homocysteine and triglyceride levels and other nutritional markers. Improved quality of life and sleep patterns and a resolution of sleep apnoea have been shown. Left ventricular function has also shown marked improvement. For the provider, nocturnal home haemodialysis offers clear cost advantages by avoiding high-cost nursing and infrastructure expenditure. Although consumable and equipment costs are higher, the savings on wage and infrastructure far outweigh this added expenditure. These combined factors make nocturnal haemodialysis an irresistible addition to comprehensive dialysis services, both from a clinical outcome and fiscal perspective.

  1. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D


    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  2. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand


    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  3. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Reeder Anthony I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  4. International hearing protector standardization

    Poulsen, Torben


    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  5. An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network - OzFlux

    Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McHugh, Ian; Arndt, Stefan K.; Campbell, David; Cleugh, Helen A.; Cleverly, James; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Eamus, Derek; Evans, Bradley; Ewenz, Cacilia; Grace, Peter; Griebel, Anne; Haverd, Vanessa; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Huete, Alfredo; Isaac, Peter; Kanniah, Kasturi; Leuning, Ray; Liddell, Michael J.; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne; Moore, Caitlin; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Rutledge, Susanna; Schroder, Ivan; Silberstein, Richard; Southall, Patricia; Yee, Mei Sun; Tapper, Nigel J.; van Gorsel, Eva; Vote, Camilla; Walker, Jeff; Wardlaw, Tim


    OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70 %) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620 gC m-2 yr-1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820 gC m-2 yr-1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.

  6. Late-life homicide-suicide: a national case series in New Zealand.

    Cheung, Gary; Hatters Friedman, Susan; Sundram, Frederick


    Homicide-suicide is a rare event, but it has a significant impact on the family and community of the perpetrator and victim(s). The phenomenon of late-life homicide-suicide has not been previously studied in New Zealand, and there is only limited data in the international literature. The aim of this study is to systematically review coroners' records of late-life homicide-suicides in New Zealand. After ethics approval was granted, the Coronial Services of New Zealand was approached to provide records of all closed cases with a suicide verdict (age 65+) over a five-year period (July 2007-December 2012). Of the 225 suicides, 4 cases of homicide-suicide were identified (an estimated incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 per persons year). All four perpetrators were men; three had been farmers. Their ages ranged from 65 to 82. One case occurred in the context of an underlying psychiatric illness (psychotic depression in bipolar disorder). Firearms were used in three cases. Two cases were categorized as spousal/consortial subtype, one case as filicide-suicide, and one case as siblicide-suicide. The prospect of major social upheaval in the form of losing their homes was present in all four cases. The findings of this case series were consistent with the limited existing literature on homicide-suicide. Age-related biopsychosocial issues were highlighted in this case series of late-life homicide-suicide. Additionally, evaluating firearm licences in high-risk groups may represent a prevention strategy.

  7. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Ghosh, Dilip


    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  8. Personal medicines storage in New Zealand

    Hewson C


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Poor storage of medicines can reduce their efficacy, yet little is known about how people store medicines in their homes and elsewhere, why these locations are chosen, and whether the conditions are suitable for medicines storage. AIM: To investigate where medicines are commonly stored in New Zealand households, why, and the typical conditions-temperature and relative humidity-in those places of storage. METHODS: Data from a large qualitative study on the meanings of medicines were analysed to explore where people store medicines in their households, and why. A data logger was used to log temperature and relative humidity in common medicine storage places, such as homes and cars. RESULTS: Kitchens and bathrooms were the most commonly reported storage places, with people influenced by convenience, desire to remember to take medicines, and child safety when deciding where to store medicines. High temperatures and humidity were found in kitchens and bathrooms, extreme temperatures in a car and a backpack, and extremely low temperatures in checked-in luggage on a plane. DISCUSSION: Temperature- and humidity-sensitive medicines should not be stored long-term in common storage locations, such as kitchens and bathrooms. Conditions in these places may not comply with the recommended storage conditions given by the manufacturer. Furthermore, medicines should not be left in backpacks or cars, especially if the vehicle is in the sun. Medicines that may degrade upon freezing and thawing - such as protein-containing medicines, emulsions, suspensions and some solutions - should not be stored in the cargo hold of a plane.

  9. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    H.H. Dijkstra; B.A. Marshall


    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  10. New Zealand Advances in Performance-Based Seismic Design

    Andrew King; Roger Shelton


    This paper provides a summary of the objectives and principles which underpin the 2004 edition of the New Zealand earthquake design standard, AS/NZS 1170 Part 5. As with many modern earthquake design standards, the New Zealand earthquake design standard recognizes that earthquake resistant design that only addresses life safety goals without addressing both operational continuity of essential facilities and damage control, falls short of public expectations. Such standards not longer meet societal expectations. The paper outlines how these issues have been addressed within New Zealand, and some of the issues addressed when preparing appendices to the standard to provide guidance for materials standard writers to ensure consistency with the proposed approach. Recognizing the significance of non-structural components and parts of buildings in both damage control and operational continuity has been an important step forward in attaining the performance levels required.

  11. New Zealand signs up to co-operate with CERN

    Patrice Loïez


    On 4 December 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN and the government of New Zealand was signed in the presence of Peter Hamilton, New Zealand's ambassador to Switzerland. This MoU concerns the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy particle physics between Ernest Rutherford's birthplace and CERN, which now hosts one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).    In anticipation of the MoU, two New Zealand universities (the University of Auckland and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch) have already joined the CMS collaboration to work on pixel detectors, where they can benefit from the expertise of the pixel group at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These detectors are not only valuable in high-energy particle physics, but also serve medical applications.

  12. Motivating Information Technology Professionals: The case of New Zealand

    Shoaib Ahmed


    Full Text Available IT professionals play a critical role in organizations. Research indicates that they may be unique in their attitudes toward motivation and job satisfaction. In New Zealand, a shortage of skilled professionals may contribute to or impact on motivation. Using a modified model of Herzberg’s two-factor theory by Smerek and Peterson (2007, this research seeks to answer the question: what motivates New Zealand IT professionals? In response, an online questionnaire was distributed to a population of New Zealand IT professionals and the data analysed using Partial Least Squares to understand the relationship between the various dimensions of job satisfaction, the impact of personal and job characteristics, and turnover intention. The findings show that the New Zealand IT professional is primarily motivated by the nature of his or her work, followed by perceptions of responsibility, and how supervisors encourage an environment for such. Satisfaction with salary is a predictor to a lesser degree. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, professional growth opportunities, career advancement, and recognition do not have a statistically-significant positive association with motivation. We conclude that, to motivate their IT workforce, organizations should: 1 focus on the nature of the jobs that IT professionals undertake; 2 train supervisors to provide an empowering environment; 3 offer competitive salaries to retain top talent; 4 not hesitate to employ IT professionals born outside New Zealand; and 5 take account of the singularities of the New Zealand labour market in seeking to attract, recruit and retain IT professionals. Implications for policy, practice and theory are discussed.

  13. User experience of interRAI assessment tools in New Zealand.

    Smith, Joanne; Whiddett, Dick; Hunter, Inga


    The international residential assessment instrument (interRAI) has been adopted for phased national implementation in New Zealand. It targets people over 65 years who require needs assessment for access to long term publicly funded services. There is limited research on the barriers to adoption for interRAI electronic assessment tools, and none relating to the New Zealand health sector. This research qualitatively explored clinicians' perceptions and experience of using interRAI electronic assessment tools using semi-structured interviews guided by constructs from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model [9]. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. Three major barriers to adoption of interRAI tools emerged from the research: 1) lack of ready access to individual laptops/computers with consistent network connectivity, 2) need for ongoing training for interRAI assessors, and, 3) lack of understanding of what information is being collected and for what reasons. The growth in aging populations will see greater use of interRAI electronic assessment tools, and therefore more clinicians required to learn and use the technology. Addressing these barriers to adoption is therefore vital.

  14. The role of contextual factors for musculoskeletal disorders in the New Zealand meat processing industry.

    Tappin, D C; Bentley, T A; Vitalis, A


    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are the leading cause of occupational injury internationally. In New Zealand, the highest incidence of MSD is in meat processing, accounting for over half the injury compensation costs for the sector. MSD in meat processing have proven highly resistant to physical, micro-level interventions, suggesting a new approach is required. This paper reports on part of a 2-year study looking at MSD in the New Zealand meat processing industry. The qualitative study involved interviews with 237 workers, management, union and safety personnel in 28 processing sites. These data were summarised into a list of contextual factors, which, it is postulated, may create conditions under which greater exposure to physical and psychosocial factors can occur in meat processing. Some of the contextual factors are recognised as problematic by the industry, but have not previously been associated with MSD risk. The paper concludes by reflecting on conducting MSD research with a focus on contextual factors and how this may influence MSD prevention. The manuscript provides industry-based data on MSD risk and outlines the approach used in its collection. Identifying contextual factors and understanding their role in creating MSD risk may help improve the acceptance and effectiveness of MSD interventions in industry.

  15. Cultural Competency Education in Academic Dental Institutions in Australia and New Zealand: A Survey Study.

    Nicholson, Sheree L; Hayes, Melanie J; Taylor, Jane A


    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cultural competency education in Australian and New Zealand dental, dental hygiene, and oral health therapy programs. The study sought to explore the extent to which cultural competence is included in these programs' curricula, building on similar studies conducted in the United States and thus contributing to the international body of knowledge on this topic. A 12-item instrument was designed with questions in four areas (demographics, content of cultural competency education, organization of overall program curriculum, and educational methods used to teach cultural competence) and was sent to all Australian and New Zealand dental, dental hygiene, and oral health therapy educational programs. Of the total 24 programs, 15 responded for a response rate of 62.5%. The results showed that lectures were the most frequent teaching method used in cultural competency education; however, the variation in responses indicated inconsistencies across study participants, as discussions and self-directed learning also featured prominently in the responses. The majority of respondents reported that cultural competence was not taught as a specific course but rather integrated into their programs' existing curricula. The variations in methods may indicate the need for a standardized framework for cultural competency education in these countries. In addition, the notion of cultural competency education in academic dental institutions demands additional evaluation, and further research is required to develop a solid evidence base on which to develop cultural competency education, specifically regarding content, most effective pedagogies, and assessment of student preparedness.

  16. Every child to thrive, belong and achieve? Time to reflect and act in New Zealand.

    D'Souza, Amanda J; Turner, Nikki; Simmers, Don; Craig, Elizabeth; Dowell, Tony


    New Zealand continues to grapple with poor and inequitable child health and wellbeing outcomes. The associated high economic costs, the long-term impact on adult health and New Zealand's international children's rights obligations provide further grounds for action. Although there have been many different reports offering solutions and some key areas of progress, gains have been limited and there has not been sufficient clarity and agreement on wider actions. The environment is complex and solutions cross agency and disciplinary boundaries. This paper reviews the current situation and proposes a set of actions to improve child health and equity. These include a group of recommendations on high-level leadership and coordination, actions to address social conditions, and a range of specific health and wellbeing actions. Progress will require the will, commitment and courage of many to acknowledge the issues and find a way forward. Preventing suffering and ensuring the wellbeing of our youngest citizens during their formative years is an ethical issue for our nation, an issue of what we value as a society, and the best investment for a highly productive, innovative and resilient nation for the future.

  17. Paediatric CT dose: a multicentre audit of subspecialty practice in Australia and New Zealand

    Jackson, D.; Atkin, K.; Clark, J. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bettenay, F. [Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Ditchfield, M.R. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Monash Children' s, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Grimm, J.E. [Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Linke, R. [Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Long, G. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Onikul, E. [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Pereira, J. [Sydney Children' s Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); The University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales (Australia); Phillips, M. [Mater Children' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Wilson, F. [Starship Children' s Health, Auckland (New Zealand); Paul, E. [Monash University, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Goergen, S.K. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Monash University, Department of Surgery, Southern Clinical School, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)


    To evaluate paediatric CT dosimetry in Australia and New Zealand and calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) for chest and abdominal examinations. Eight hospitals provided data from 12 CT systems for 1462 CTs in children aged 0-15. Imaging data were recorded for eight examinations: head (trauma, shunt), temporal bone, paranasal sinuses, chest (mass) and chest HRCT (high-resolution CT), and abdomen/pelvis (mass/inflammation). Dose data for cranial examinations were categorised by age and SSDEs by lateral dimension. Diagnostic reference ranges (DRRs) were defined by the 25th and 75th percentiles. Centralised image quality assessment was not undertaken. DRRs for 201 abdominopelvic SSDEs were: 2.8-4.7, 3.6-11.5, 8.5-15.0, 7.6-15, and 10.6-16.2 for the <15 cm, 15-19 cm, 20-24 cm, 25-29 cm and >30 cm groups, respectively. For 147 chest examinations using these body width categories, SSDE DRRs were 2.0-4.4, 3.3-7.9, 4.0-9.4, 4.5-12, and 6.5-12. Kilovoltage peak (kVp), but not AEC or IR, was associated with SSDE (parameter estimate [standard error]: 0.12 (0.03); p < 0.0001). Australian and New Zealand paediatric CT DRRs and abdominal SSDEs are comparable to international data. SSDEs for chest examinations are proposed. Dose variations could be reduced by adjusting kVp. (orig.)

  18. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John


    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drawing conclusions: perceptions of the New Zealand agricultural landscape

    Amy West


    Full Text Available When I made the decision to finish my undergraduate education in New Zealand, I was barraged with comments about 'the beautiful natural landscapes', 'Oh you'll love the natural beauty' and 'They have such a diverse wild landscape'. However it was the aversion to comments about the agriculture which interested me. 'There are more sheep than people' is what I heard, yet where was the talk about the land which these sheep occupied? So began my quest, both as a landscape architect and as an artist, to record what there was to the New Zealand agricultural landscapes.

  20. A New Patriotism? Neoliberalism, Citizenship and Tertiary Education in New Zealand

    Roberts, Peter


    This paper argues that a new patriotism has emerged in New Zealand over recent years. This has been promoted in tandem with the notion of advancing New Zealand as a knowledge economy and society. The new patriotism encourages New Zealanders to accept, indeed embrace, a single, shared vision of the future: one structured by a neoliberal ontology…

  1. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi


    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  2. Asia-Born New Zealand-Educated Business Graduates' Transition to Work

    Anderson, Vivienne; McGrath, Terry; Butcher, Andrew


    In 2008 the Asia New Zealand Foundation commissioned a three-year project examining Asia-born New Zealand-educated business graduates' study to work transitions. Data were collected through annual online surveys and in-depth interviews. Graduates were asked to discuss their post-study experiences, reflections on studying in New Zealand, and…

  3. Professional Development for E-Learning: Researching a Strategy for New Zealand's Tertiary Education Sector

    Shephard, Kerry; Mansvelt, Juliana; Stein, Sarah; Suddaby, Gordon; Harris, Irene; O'Hara, Duncan


    This collaborative research project devised a framework to support professional development for e-learning within New Zealand's diverse and integrated tertiary education sector. The research was supported by New Zealand's Ministry of Education. The research included reviews of developments in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and a…

  4. The 1st China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum Opens in Xiamen

    Ye; Zi


    In order to follow up Chinese President Xi Jinping"s visit to New Zealand in 2014,the CPAFFC and the New Zealand Local Government Association held the first China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum with the theme of"innovation and development"in Xiamen on September 7,2015.Chinese People’s Political Con-

  5. Why People Gamble: A Qualitative Study of Four New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    Tse, Samson; Dyall, Lorna; Clarke, Dave; Abbott, Max; Townsend, Sonia; Kingi, Pefi


    In multicultural countries such as New Zealand, it is particularly important that gambling research take into account possible cultural differences. Many New Zealanders come from cultures that do not have a history of gambling, including the Maori (New Zealand indigenous people), Pacific Islanders, and recent migrants. Little research has examined…

  6. Emerging Voices or Linguistic Silence?: Examining a New Zealand Linguistic Landscape

    Macalister, John


    The monolingualism of New Zealand has often been remarked on, but statutory and demographic changes in recent years suggest a shift away from the dominance of the English language. New Zealand now has two official languages, the indigenous Maori language and New Zealand Sign Language, and census data report a decreasing proportion of monolingual…

  7. The New Zealand framework for government and private sector research, and its operation with respect to the upstream petroleum industry

    Beggs, J.M. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)


    The New Zealand government has replaced its science bureaucracy with ten Crown Research Institutes, which are structured as government-owned limited-liability companies. Government research funding is allocated by a Foundation, while a small Ministry has been retained to deal exclusively with science policy. As a Crown Research Institute, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences gains approximately 70% of its revenues from contracts with the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, and the remainder from a wide range of consultancy services to several industries. Petroleum exploration and development is a particular focus, and applied research and consultancy activities in basin analysis, source rock and reservoir systems, thermal modelling etc. are underpinned by research programmes in related fundamental areas such as paleontology and deep crustal structure. Situated on an active plate boundary with a complex configuration and history of development, New Zealand serves as a natural laboratory in which to develop and test models of deformation and depositional systems. The Institute`s private-sector research funding, in many cases in collaboration with international partners, addresses such topics as Quaternary sequence stratigraphy, deep-water depositional systems, basin thermal modelling and charge prediction (including distribution of inert gases). The results of this research are applicable world-wide. Insights from active tectonic and depositional processes in New Zealand improve the effectiveness of exploration and development in older or less understood basins which have developed in complex subduction and strike-slip tectonic settings.

  8. Intensive sheep and beef production from pasture--a New Zealand perspective of concerns, opportunities and challenges.

    Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R


    This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tick front-of-pack label has a positive nutritional impact on foods sold in New Zealand.

    Thomson, Rachel K; McLean, Rachael M; Ning, Sherry X; Mainvil, Louise A


    Nutritional impact of the Tick front-of-pack labelling programme was evaluated by investigating nutrient changes to the purchased food supply and the nutritional quality of Tick v. non-Tick products. Factors influencing manufacturers' decisions to develop and license Tick products were also explored. Observational, cross-sectional and change over time data. New Zealand food supply, 2011-2013. Forty-five newly licensed Tick products from five food categories were analysed: Edible Oil Spreads, Yoghurt & Dairy Desserts, Frozen Desserts, Ready Meals and Processed Poultry. Four manufacturers of these products were interviewed. Eligible products (31 % of all Tick products in these categories) removed 4·1 million megajoules of energy, 156·0 tonnes of saturated fat, 15·4 tonnes of trans-fat and 4·0 tonnes of sodium from food products sold in New Zealand over three years. In each food category, these Tick products were, on average, 14-76 % lower in energy, saturated fat, trans-fat and sodium than non-Tick products, indicating healthier options. Participating manufacturers reported that international market trends and consumer demand for tasty, healthy foods primarily influenced Tick product development and sales. Tick was used as part of their marketing strategy as it was perceived as a credible, well-recognised logo for New Zealand consumers. Tick was cited as the primary initiative encouraging saturated fat reduction. The Tick Programme is continuing to encourage manufacturers to make meaningful improvements to the nutritional quality of the New Zealand food supply. Over time, these changes are likely to influence population nutrient intakes and reduce CVD risk factors.

  10. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand



    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  11. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.


    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  12. The State of Accounting Education Scholarship in New Zealand

    Adler, Ralph


    This paper examines publishing trends of New Zealand accounting education scholars over the 20-year period 1991-2010. Longitudinal analyses of the annual number of publications, research theme studied, researcher productivity, and institutional productivity, along with cross-sectional analyses of authors' Hirsch "h"-index scores, the…

  13. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.


    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  14. Energy Literacy and Agency of New Zealand Children

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.


    The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…

  15. Children's Rights and Early Childhood Policy: A New Zealand Story

    One, Sarah Te


    This paper begins with a brief historical overview of children's rights in Aotearoa New Zealand and then examines some of the key early childhood education documents since the 1984 Labour Government's reform agenda, the great experiment (Kelsey, 1995), which not only changed the language of education but also revolutionized the sector…

  16. History of Transracial Adoption: A New Zealand Perspective

    Newman, Erica


    This article explores the New Zealand legal history of adoption and the effect it has had on Maori. The status of children within Maori and European societies before and during the early contact periods differed, and it is from here that the author begins this article. These two societies had their own terms in relation to the care of children by…

  17. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide and health in Rotorua, New Zealand

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.


    Rotorua, New Zealand, lies inside a volcanic caldera. Natural steam is extensively used for space and water heating, and electric power generation. This report presents results of a preliminary reconnaissance survey of atmospheric H/sub 2/S levels in the area and attempts to relate these levels to health statistics in the region. 5 refs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

  18. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Stockwell Alannah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  19. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George


    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  20. Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew


    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

  1. Factors Associated with Reports of Wife Assault in New Zealand.

    Fergusson, David M.; And Others


    Examined the frequency of wife assault among New Zealand mothers. Wife assault occurred at a rate of 2 percent to 3 percent per year. Rates of assault were related to length of marriage, type of marriage, planning of pregnancy, parental age, church attendance, and family socioeconomic status. (Author/BL)

  2. Localising Neoliberalism: Indigenist Brokerage in the New Zealand University

    Rata, Elizabeth


    The examination of indigenist interests in the New Zealand university is framed by a theoretical understanding of indigeneity as a strategy in regulating social organisation and resource management in neoliberal global capitalism. Three stages of the brokerage of indigenist interests are identified. These are: the production and representation of…

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review



    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  4. The House Crow (Corvus splendens: A Threat to New Zealand?

    Diane L. Fraser


    Full Text Available The house crow (Corvus splendens, a native of the Indian subcontinent, has shown a rapid expansion of habitat range across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and Asia. It is an adaptable, gregarious commensal bird which is regarded globally as an important pest species due to its impacts on livestock, agricultural and horticultural crops and indigenous fauna and as a fecal contaminator of human environments and water resources. Two Maxent (v3.3.3k models (A with presence data in Australia and (B with simulated entry data locations in New Zealand and a third ArcGIS model (C with environmental and social layers are used to determine an overall suitability index and establish a niche-based model of the potential spatial distribution for C. splendens within New Zealand. The results show that New Zealand, particularly the northern regions of North Island, has suitable environments for the establishment of the house crow. In order of suitability Model B showed highest potential land area suitability (31.84% followed by Model A (13.79% and Model C (10.89%. The potential for further expansion of this bird’s invasive range is high and, if New Zealand is invaded, impacts are likely to be significant.

  5. Shifting Landscapes of Counselling Identities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Rodgers, Neil


    The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…

  6. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume One: Basic Developmental Influences.

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the first of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume deals with home, school, socio-emotional and sexual influences on adolescent development. The following topics are included: the generation gap; sex education in the schools; venereal disease; adolescent hopes and fears;…

  7. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene


    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  8. Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand


    <正>At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  9. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda


    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  10. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene


    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  11. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand



    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  12. School Zoning, Equity and Freedom: The Case of New Zealand.

    McCulloch, Gary


    Discusses implications of major reforms in secondary school zoning in New Zealand, highlighting freedom and equity considerations. Zoning's primary aim has changed from balancing out different schools' declared needs to emphasizing parents' rights. The new zoning provisions involve both a strong role for freedom and a weak role for equity. (72…

  13. Understanding Student Learning in Environmental Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Eames, Chris; Barker, Miles


    This paper seeks to provide a perspective on environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand. To contextualise this perspective, it illustrates how environmental, socio-cultural and political imperatives have shaped the development of environmental education in this land. These imperatives illuminate the natural history of the country, the…

  14. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S


    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  15. Identification of Mathematically Gifted Children in New Zealand.

    Niederer, Kate; Irwin, R. John; Irwin, Kathryn C.; Reilly, Ivan L.


    A study compared the performance of 66 New Zealand children (ages 9-12) on a published problem-solving test and the Progressive Achievement Test (PAT). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that, independent of any chosen percentile, the PAT's accuracy at identifying mathematically gifted children was only 78%. (Contains references.)…

  16. Technology Education in New Zealand: The Connected Curriculum

    O'Sullivan, Gary


    This paper aims to identify what actually takes place when policy directives bring together Technology Education, Enterprise Education, and the wider Community Partnerships. Since the introduction of a national technology curriculum to New Zealand schools in 1999 there has been little critique as to the intentions of the curriculum. In late 2005…

  17. The Reform of New Zealand's University System: "After Neoliberalism"

    Shore, Cris


    This article explores the legacy of three decades of neoliberal reforms on New Zealand's university system. By tracing the different government policies during this period, it seeks to contribute to wider debates about the trajectory of contemporary universities in an age of globalisation. Since Lyotard's influential report on "The Postmodern…

  18. Diversity in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue


    The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…

  19. Skink predation by hedgehogs at Macraes Flat, Otago, New Zealand

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A.; Spitzen, J.; Houston, D.; Stumpel, A.H.P.


    The stomach contents of 158 hedgehogs captured at Macraes Flat, Otago, New Zealand, over two summers in 2000 and 2001 were examined for the occurrence of lizards. The remains of at least 43 skinks (both Oligosoma nigriplantare polychroma and O. maccanni) and one gecko (Hoplodactylus sp.) were found.

  20. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    de Bres, Julia


    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  1. A New Zealand Perspective on Managing Cultural Diversity.

    Mohi, John H.

    This paper describes the work of the New Zealand National Library and its commitment to being a center for diversity so that the collections within it are a reflection of the community it represents. Two acts that have focused attention on managing diversity in the government sector are summarized: the State Sector Act 1998, which requires the…

  2. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.


    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  3. New Zealand's size and isolation can stimulate new science

    Yock, Philip


    It is conventionally thought that New Zealand's distance from the large, northern hemisphere centres of learning, and our relatively small population and wealth, are detrimental to the contribution we can make to the advancement of scientific knowledge. Here the reverse point of view is argued.

  4. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume Two: Wider Perspectives.

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…

  5. Soil Genesis and Development: Views Held by New Zealand Students.

    Happs, John C.


    To help plan effective teaching strategies, it is important to determine students' existing knowledge about the topic to be taught. Interviews with New Zealand students showed that they hold nonscientific ideas about soil. These student views should be respected by teachers. They should be discussed and compared with scientific viewpoints. (RM)

  6. Attitudes to other ethnicities among New Zealand workers

    Houkamau, C.A.; Boxall, P.


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the “other-group orientation” (OGO) of New Zealand (NZ) workers as a way of measuring their attitudes to the growing ethnic diversity in the contemporary workplace. Design/methodology/approach In all, 500 randomly selected NZ employees were surveyed

  7. Kinship Care of the Abused Child: The New Zealand Experience.

    Worrall, Jill


    Discusses the experiences of caregivers and their kin children under the 1989 New Zealand Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act. Considers the responsibilities and roles of extended family in Maori culture reflected in the Act's provisions, as well as changes and challenges for the caregiving family. Notes the value of this policy and…

  8. Sense or Nonsense?: New Zealand Heritage Leglislation in Perspective

    Greg Vossler


    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current legislative ‘landscape’ that shapes the nature of historic heritage protection and management in New Zealand. It identifies some of the principal laws that impinge on historic heritage and outlines the purpose and principles, administrative processes, protective measures and offences and enforcement provisions associated with each of these statutes.

  9. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    de Bres, Julia


    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  10. Studies on Methane Emissions from Pastoral Farming in New Zealand

    LI Meng-meng; ZHANG Gui-guo; SUN Xue-zhao; DONG Shu-ting; Simone O. Hoskin


    The aim of this paper was to give a basic understanding of studies on methane emissions of New Zealand, as we know the agriculture of New Zealand is pastoral farming, most livestock animals are grazed in pasture, and quantities of methane were released from the digestive tract and animals excreta. In New Zealand some 50% greenhouse gases (GHG) sources are attributed to agriculture and one third is methane from livestock enteric formation. For many years, many researchers have been exploiting the techniques and methods to measure the emission of methane of New Zealand, further more studing the available options to alleviate the methane emissions. Their pioneering work and successful experiences including the determined methods and mitigation strategies are worth learning for scholars around the world. Some of their approaches were not only suitable for New Zealand grazed livestock, but for many other countries, even the animals are intensively bred in pen. The calorimeter/respiration chamber is the most exactly method in present, but it needs expensive equipments and skilled manipulators, so there are still some dififculty in applying this approach extensively in practice. Sulfur hexalfuoride (SF6) trace technique is much adopted for grazed livestock evaluating the methane emission, though its veracity was doubted by some researchers, it is still a good option in present for studying the GHG emissions for grazing animals. By measuring the rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration to estimate the methane emission is a relatively simple approach, it is just only a rough evaluation, and it is unsuitable for exact study, but this method may be used in China for extensively raised ruminant. In present China, the ruminants are fed in an extensively managed state, the diversities of roughage and animals varieties caused dififcult to exactly estimate the methane emission. So exploiting theavailable options is much important for constituting the exhaustive emission

  11. WFAS International Symposium of Acupuncture 2006

    WFAS secretariat


    @@ WFAS International Symposium of Acupuncture 2006 is held on 24 - 26 November 2006, in Bali, Indonesia. It is hosted by World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies (WFAS), and organized by the National Acupuncture Union of Indonesia (PAKSI). More than 300 participants from 17 countries and regions, such as China, Japan, Vietnam, Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, South Korea, Germany, New Zealand, Italy, America, etc., attended this symposium.

  12. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.


    A. Sknar


    Full Text Available Contemporary economic science is looking for ways of research actualisation to resolve the challenges under the world financial crisis. Besides existing challenges in private de-regulated sector, one of the efficient innovations can be found in broadening ERP applications in the Public Sector. This paper approaches to the ERP applications mainly from the economical rather than from technical perspective. Comparative analysis of New Zealand public sector is supported by relevant international practical experience (implementations, and by core fundamental analysis of economical nature of business processes used by public entities. The key advantage (based on a historical timeline comes from a full integration of financial scope and operational activities. Using the example of ERP (as one of the drivers of productivity and performance improvement, the paper is aiming to underline how to bring the best practice and technology (data management and logical architecture from the private sector into the public sphere.

  14. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Hopkins, Debbie


    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.

  15. Privatization and the Corporate Cost of Capital in New Zealand: An Application of Fama and French (1999)


    Fama and French’s (1999) internal rate of return method is applied to Datastream data from 1993-2001 for 81 non-financial firms listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange. The nominal return on value is 7.09%. The real return on value is 5.07%. The nominal return on cost is 11.59%. The real return on cost is 9.48%. The 10 former state-owned enterprises have nominal and real returns significantly higher than the 71other publicly-listed companies and their capital structures and market-to-book ...

  16. Assessing the value for money of pharmaceuticals in New Zealand--PHARMAC's approach to cost-utility analysis.

    Grocott, Rachel; Metcalfe, Scott; Alexander, Paul; Werner, Rachel


    Cost-utility analysis (CUA) is a form of economic analysis that has been used by PHARMAC for nearly 20 years. It is also used by many health funding and assessment agencies internationally. So what is CUA and why is it so important? This article describes the process involved in undertaking CUA, including critical appraisal of clinical evidence; transforming the evidence to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); estimating costs; and how this information is combined to obtain an output that can be used to inform decision-making. The article also describes how PHARMAC uses CUA to prioritise pharmaceuticals for funding in New Zealand.

  17. The Third Wave: Future Trends in International Education.

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman; Seng, Michael Sim Yaw


    Describes how the second half of the twentieth century saw the development of a global market in international education, so that by the 1990s, the systems of many host nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, United Stated, United Kingdom, and New Zealand) had become more market focused and were adopting professional marketing strategies to recruit…

  18. The Global Career Development Facilitator Credential: An International Perspective

    Furbish, Dale; Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre


    The Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) credential was established to provide professional training and standards for individuals working in the career field. GCDF programs are now available in the United States and 10 other countries. The authors highlight the first international GCDF program in New Zealand, new online GCDF training in…

  19. In Search of "The Vibe": Creating Effective International Education Partnerships

    Heffernan, Troy; Poole, David


    In common with universities in the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, increasing numbers of Australian universities have established offshore education partnerships, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. More than one-third of international students currently enrolled in Australian university courses study at a campus in their home country…

  20. International efforts to combat the financing of terrorism

    Ken Matthews


    Following the terrorist attacks in September 2001, there have been a number of developments in measures to combat the financing of terrorism. This article discusses the characteristics of terrorist financing and summarises the international initiatives to counter the financing of terrorist activities, including measures taken by the United Nations, Financial Action Task Force, regional bodies and national authorities, including New Zealand.

  1. Social Responsibility and "Mana" in International Business Education.

    Patterson, John; Patterson, Glenys


    Suggests that exposure to indigenous philosophies and values such as those of the Maori of New Zealand can contribute to the education of international business majors. Uses as an example the Maori concept of "mana," or standing, which is directly linked to demonstration of social responsibility. (Author/DB)

  2. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  3. Modifying the Victor® easy Set® rat trap to improve the animal welfare of stoats and ship rats trapped in New Zealand.

    Grant A Morriss

    Full Text Available Stoats (Mustela erminea and ship rats (Rattus rattus in New Zealand are targeted by trapping to mitigate their predation on native wildlife. Internationally recognized guidelines for assessing the effectiveness and welfare performance of kill traps are supported by New Zealand legislation under the Animal Welfare Act 1999. The Victor® Easy Set® rat trap was tested and passed a similar standard for killing short-tailed weasels in Canada but failed for stoats when tested in New Zealand in 2002 (short-tailed weasels and stoats are the same species. We tested a modified version of the trap in 2011-12, modified by changing the treadle trigger to a pull trigger and adding a plastic shroud to direct and align approach by animals to the front of the trap. These traps, in vertical and horizontal sets, were tested with both stoats and ship rats. During each test the trap had to render 10 of 10 animals irreversibly unconscious within 3 minutes to meet approval requirements. The modified trap passed with both species in both trap sets. All stoats were struck across the cranium whereas rats were struck either on the cranium or neck. We recommend this trap design for use by community conservation groups for targeting stoats and ship rats in New Zealand.

  4. New Zealand = Maori, New Zealand = Bicultural: Ethnic Group Differences in a National Sample of Maori and Europeans

    Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew


    New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…

  5. Consumer satisfaction with practice nursing: a cross-sectional survey in New Zealand general practice.

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Davies, Deborah; Salamonson, Yenna


    An important consideration in health service delivery is ensuring that services meet consumer needs. Whilst nursing services in primary care have grown internationally, there has been limited exploration of consumer satisfaction with these services. This paper reports a descriptive survey that sought to evaluate consumers' perceptions of New Zealand practice nurses (PNs). One thousand, five hundred and five patients who received nursing services at one of 20 participating New Zealand general practices completed a survey tool between December 2010 and December 2011. The 64-item self- report survey tool contained the 21-item General Practice Nurse Satisfaction (GPNS) scale. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Internal consistency of the GPNS scale was high (Cronbach's α 0.97). Participants aged over 60 years and those of European descent were significantly less satisfied with the PN (P = 0.001). Controlling for these characteristics, participants who had visited the PN more than four times previously were 1.34 times (adjusted odds ratio 1.34 (95% CI: 1.06-1.70) more satisfied than the comparison group (up to 4 previous visits to PN). In addition to the further validation of the psychometric properties of the GPNS scale in a different setting, the study also revealed a high level of satisfaction with PNs, with increased satisfaction with an increased number of visits. Nevertheless, the lower levels of satisfaction with PNs in the older age group as well as those of European descent, warrants further examination. The study also highlights the need for PNs and consumers to discuss consumer's expectations of services and create a shared understanding of treatment goals.

  6. Nutrition and health claims on healthy and less-healthy packaged food products in New Zealand.

    Al-Ani, Haya H; Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie


    Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages. The Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) was used to classify products as 'healthy' or 'less healthy'. In total, 7526 products were included, with 47 % (n 3557) classified as 'healthy'. More than one-third of products displayed at least one nutrition claim and 15 % featured at least one health claim on the front-of-pack. Claims were found on one-third of 'less-healthy' products; 26 % of those products displayed nutrition claims and 7 % featured health claims. About 45 % of 'healthy' products displayed nutrition claims and 23 % featured health claims. Out of 7058 individual claims, the majority (69 %) were found on 'healthy' products. Cereals displayed the greatest proportion of nutrition and health claims (1503 claims on 564 products), of which one-third were displayed on 'less-healthy' cereals. Such claims could be misleading consumers' perceptions of nutritional quality of foods. It needs to be explored how current regulations on nutrition and health claims in New Zealand could be further strengthened (e.g. using the NPSC for nutrition claims, including general health claims as per the INFORMAS taxonomy) to ensure consumers are protected and not misled.

  7. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products: Proceedings of IUFRO Division 5 Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12, Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11–15, 2003.

    E.M. Donoghue; G.L. Benson; J.L. Chamberlain


    This proceedings is a collection of 18 papers and extended abstracts based on talks presented at the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Division 5 Conference, held in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11–15, 2003. This conference emphasized the many ways that forest products research can contribute to sustainable choices in forest management....

  8. Retrieval method of GOCI\\AOT using two stream approximate algorithm and its application%采用二流式算法的GOCI\AOT反演方法及其应用

    姚玲玲; 张霄宇; 江彬彬


    针对静止海洋水色传感器(GOCI)2.1μm 短波红外通道缺失和高太阳天顶角的特点,采用二流式算法,并考虑气溶胶的折射率、地球曲率等因素,重新计算地表反射率、表观反射率以及反演 GOCI 气溶胶光学厚度(AOT ).结果表明:参数重新计算后的 GOCI\AOT 反演精度明显增高;根据目前广泛使用的实测 AOT (440 nm)>1.00霾判定阈值,采用线性内插方法,建议 GOCI\AOT 以 AOT (555 nm)>0.81作为霾判定阈值;中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS)是业务化的极轨卫星,GOCI\AOT 整体略大于 MODIS \AOT ,拟合精度 R2=0.82.以2015年11月27日至同年12月2日华北地区发生的霾事件为例,结合具有大范围观测能力的 MODIS 卫星,多源遥感监测方法有效地反映了该霾事件的动态发展过程.%Aerosol optical thickness (AOT ) of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI ) was retrieved based on the two-stream approximate algorithm considering aerosol refractive index and earth curvature and other causations ,aiming at the lackage of 2 .1 μm short wave infrared band and the high solar zenith angle of GOCI . As specified , the retrieval precision of GOCI \\AOT gets improved after parameters recalculation .According to the widely used groundbase haze threshold of AOT (440 nm) > 1 .00 ,GOCI\\AOT (555 nm) > 0 .81 is proposed as the haze determination threshold based on the linear interpolation method . Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS ) is an operational polar orbiting satellite ,GOCI \\AOT is slightly higher than MODIS \\AOT with R2 of 0 .82 . The haze event from November 27 to December 2 ,2015 was selected as one case and MODIS satellite was combined to realize real-time dynamic monitoring of haze events over North China ,which indicates that the multi satellites remote sensing monitoring method can reflect the dynamic process of haze event effectively .

  9. Building an Amphibious Capability for New Zealand in the 21st Century: Essential in an Uncertain Security Environment


    assets limit opportunities for joint training. In November 2012, the NZDF conducted Exercise Pae Tata. This exercise provided an opportunity of access 2 Jan 2012. 34 The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force Developing Amphibious Capability” The New Zealand...Plan, 2008 – 2025. Wellington, New Zealand: Royal New Zealand Navy, 2008. The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force

  10. Earthquake-induced Landslidingand Ground Damage In New Zealand

    Hancox, G. T.; Perrin, N. D.; Dellow, G. D.

    A study of landsliding caused by 22 historical earthquakes in New Zealand was completed at the end of 1997 (Hancox et al., 1997). The main aims of that study were to determine: (a) the nature and extent of landsliding and other ground damage (sand boils, subsidence and lateral spreading due to soil liquefaction) caused by historical earthquakes; (b) relationships between landsliding and earthquake magnitude, epicentre, faulting, geology and topography; (c) improved environmental criteria and ground classes for assigning MM intensities and seismic hazard assessments in N.Z. The data and results of the 1997 study have recently been summarised and expanded (Hancox et al., in press), and are described in this paper. Relationships developed from these studies indicate that the minimum magnitude for earthquake-induced landsliding (EIL) in N.Z. is about M 5, with significant landsliding occurring at M 6 or greater. The minimum MM intensity for landsliding is MM6, while the most common intensities for significant landsliding are MM7-8. The intensity threshold for soil liquefaction in New Zealand was found to be MM7 for sand boils, and MM8 for lateral spreading, although such effects may also occur at one intensity level lower in highly susceptible materials. The minimum magnitude for liquefaction phenomena in N.Z. is about M 6, compared to M 5 overseas where highly susceptible soils are probably more widespread. Revised environmental response criteria (landsliding, subsidence, liquefaction-induced sand boils and lateral spreading) have also been established for the New Zealand MM Intensity Scale, and provisional landslide susceptibility Ground Classes developed for assigning MM intensities in areas where there are few buildings. Other new data presented include a size/frequency distribution model for earthquake-induced landslides over the last 150 years and a preliminary EIL Opportunity model for N.Z. The application of EIL data and relationships for seismic hazard

  11. Counting Family: Making the Family of International Students Visible in Higher Education Policy and Practice

    Doyle, Stephanie; Loveridge, Judith; Faamanatu-Eteuati, Niusila


    This article focuses on a significant group of postgraduate international students overlooked by institutions and policymakers, namely those with accompanying partners and children. The economic importance of international students to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America is highlighted. It is argued…

  12. Pulled in Many Directions: Tensions and Complexity for Academic Staff Responding to International Students

    Skyrme, Gillian; McGee, Alyson


    This article reports on an interview-based study of the academic practices of staff members in a New Zealand university in response to international students in their classes and under their supervision. International students enter academic cultures which are inevitably different from those which have provided their academic preparation.…

  13. Mass-customisation and self-reflective frameworks: early developments in New Zealand

    John Clayton


    Full Text Available Education has long been regarded as the foundation stone of national growth and international competitiveness. In the last three decades national educational reforms to improve access to higher education qualifications, individual higher education institutions’ aggressive national and international marketing initiatives and improved information and communication technology (ICT systems and infrastructure have resulted in greatly increased participation in tertiary education. As a consequence of this wider participation, tertiary educators are now engaging with increased numbers of culturally and economically diverse learners in distributed ICT environments that they, the educators and learners, are often unfamiliar with. There is an expectation that these educators will be able to design learning modules to meet students’ multi-cultural needs, in a range of contexts, with no additional resources. In essence, it is expected that learners will participate in individually customised learning events at a cost similar to traditional delivery. This requires a fundamental shift in educators and learners conceptions on the provision of education. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the development and deployment of reflective frameworks, based on recognised international standards, can fully engage learners in mass-customised environments. First this article outlines the key building blocks required for reflective mass-customisation to occur. Second, it illustrates how this concept is being tentatively explored at a New Zealand institution. Finally, it recommends the areas of action for further research on the impact and effect of mass-customisation on learners, educators and institutions to be undertaken.

  14. Online access and literacy in Maori New Zealanders with diabetes.

    Reti, Shane R; Feldman, Henry J; Safran, Charles


    Online web-based interventions can be effective ancillary tools for managing diabetes. There is a high prevalence of diabetes in New Zealand Maori, and yet this group has generally been a low priority for web-based interventions due to perceptions of low Internet access and Internet literacy. To assess Internet access and literacy in New Zealanders with diabetes, especially high-risk Maori. A telephone survey of all patients with diabetes in an urban general practice. Internet access is assessed by Internet presence in the home, and Internet literacy by the ability to use email and the World Wide Web. One hundred percent response rate with 68 participants, including 38% Maori. Internet access for Maori was 70% and Internet literacy 41%. Internet access and literacy for Maori with diabetes may be higher than previously thought. Health policies may wish to focus effective and cost-efficient web-based interventions on this high diabetes risk group.

  15. Disability profile of multiple sclerosis in New Zealand

    Alla, Sridhar; Pearson, John F.; Taylor, Bruce V.;


    New Zealand is a high risk region for multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate demographic, clinical and temporal factors associated with disability status in the New Zealand National Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence Study (NZNMSPS) cohort. Data were obtained from the 2006...... NZNMSPS with MS diagnosis based on the 2005 McDonald criteria. Disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Disability profiles were generated using multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 2917 persons with MS was identified, of whom disability data were available...... for 2422 (75% females). The overall disability was EDSS 4.4. ±. standard deviation 2.6. Higher disability was associated with older age, longer disease duration, older and younger ages of onset, spinal cord syndromes with motor involvement at onset, and a progressive onset type. Lower disability...

  16. Neoliberalism and criticisms of earthquake insurance arrangements in New Zealand.

    Hay, I


    Global collapse of the Fordist-Keynesian regime of accumulation and an attendant philosophical shift in New Zealand politics to neoliberalism have prompted criticisms of, and changes to, the Earthquake and War Damage Commission. Earthquake insurance arrangements made 50 years ago in an era of collectivist, welfarist political action are now set in an environment in which emphasis is given to competitive relations and individualism. Six specific criticisms of the Commission are identified, each of which is founded in the rhetoric and ideology of a neoliberal political project which has underpinned radical social and economic changes in New Zealand since the early 1980s. On the basis of those criticisms, and in terms of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Commission has been restructured. The new Commission is withdrawing from its primary position as the nation's non-residential property hazards insurer and is restricting its coverage of residential properties.

  17. Art’s histories in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Jonathan Mané Wheoki


    Full Text Available This is the text of an illustrated paper presented at ‘Art History’s History in Australia and New Zealand’; a joint symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Art History in the University of Melbourne and the Australian and New Zealand Association of Art Historians (AAANZ; held on 28 – 29 August 2010. Responding to a set of questions framed around the ‘state of art history in New Zealand’; this paper reviews the ‘invention’ of a nationalist art history and argues that there can be no coherent; integrated history of art in New Zealand that does not encompass the timeframe of the cultural production of New Zealand’s indigenous Maori; or that of the Pacific nations for which the country is a regional hub; or the burgeoning cultural diversity of an emerging Asia-Pacific nation.

  18. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A


    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  19. Commercialisation in the provision of meteorological services in New Zealand

    Steiner, J. Thomas; Martin, John R.; Gordon, Neil D.; Grant, Malcolm A.


    There have been significant reforms in New Zealand of government management in general and of the science and transport sectors in particular. The impact of the reforms on the provision of meteorological services is discussed as an example of the application of the general reform thrust to a specialist technical area. The eventual outcome was the establishment of Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService) as a commercial company, trading in the weather forecasting market but remaining under Crown ownership. At the same time the National Institute of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA) was established. It includes the climatic responsibilities and much of the scientific research component of the former NZMS. It too operates commercially and is Crown owned. Unlike MetService, NIWA is not required to return a dividend to its owners. The procedures leading to the establishment of these new organisations, their mode of operation and their initial successful performance are described.

  20. Evolving National Strategy Driving Nursing Informatics in New Zealand.

    Honey, Michelle; Westbrooke, Lucy


    An update to the New Zealand Health Strategy identifying direction and priorities for health services is underway. Three specific areas have implications for nursing informatics and link to education and practice: best use of technology and information, fostering and spreading innovation and quality improvements, and building leaders and capability for the future. An emphasis on prevention and wellness means nursing needs to focus on health promotion and the role of consumers is changing with access to their on-line information a major focus. As the modes of delivery for services such as telehealth and telenursing changes, nurses are increasingly working independently and utilizing information and communication technologies to collaborate with the health team. New Zealand, and other countries, need strong nursing leadership to sustain the nursing voice in policy and planning and ensure nurses develop the required informatics skills.

  1. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    Andkjær, Søren


      This presentation takes general view of understanding outdoor education in New Zealand.  This is seen from an outsider's perspective and is compared with "friluftsliv" in Denmark and the Nordic countries. Analysing and understanding one's culture is never easy, and the main challenge is to focus...... on and question everyday phenomena which seem natural and that reproduce one's own perspective. Cultural analysis and the analysis of social configurations together with a comparative cultural perspective form the research approach.  . The presentation is based on a comparative and qualitative case study (Ragin......, 1992) of friluftsliv in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Friluftsliv and outdoor education are understood as socio-cultural constructs which develop and differ in time and space. The theoretical framework is based on ethnological cultural analysis (Ehn & Lofgren, 1982, 2008) combined...

  2. Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the Government of New-Zealand concerning the Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Particle Physics


    New Zealand has a pioneering tradition in experimental fundamental physics that originated with Ernest Rutherford. The country currently has active research programmes in the related areas of astrophysics and theoretical physics. Experimental groups from the Universities of Auckland and Canterbury have recently been accepted into the CMS collaboration. They are planning a contribution to the CMS pixel detector, and have already started simulations of heavy-ion collisions in CMS. They have also expressed interest in the applications of pixel imaging technology to medicine, and in Grid computing. Collaboration with CERN is seen by the New Zealand Government as an important element in its strategy of seeking linkages with international research networks and overcoming the country's relative geographical isolation. The proposed Agreement (which, taking into account specific New Zealand legal constraints, is named « Memorandum of Understanding » instead of, as is usual at CERN,« Co-operation Agreement ») would...

  3. New Zealand women traveller writers: from exile to diaspora

    Wilson, Janet M


    The focus of this article is a group of New Zealand women traveller writers of the first half of the twentieth century who left their country of origin, and in the encounter with new worlds overseas, reconstructed themselves as deterritorialised, diasporic subjects with new understandings of home and belonging. Their work can be read as both transitional and transnational, reflecting the ambivalence of multiple cultural affiliations and reinflecting literary conventions. Such encounters and n...

  4. Infective endocarditis in New Zealand children 1994-2012.

    Webb, Rachel; Voss, Lesley; Roberts, Sally; Hornung, Tim; Rumball, Elizabeth; Lennon, Diana


    New Zealand is a developed country with high incidence of bacterial infections and postinfectious sequelae including rheumatic heart disease. We sought to describe the clinical and microbiology features of children with infective endocarditis (IE) between 1994 and 2012. Retrospective review of patients Pacific Island countries, 13 cases were referred. There were 72 children who originated in New Zealand, of whom 52% were either indigenous New Zealand Maori or Pacific migrants. The median age at diagnosis was 7 (0-15) years. Of the 85 cases, 51 (60%) had congenital heart disease 10 children with rheumatic heart disease developed IE. Of the 85 cases, 35 (41%) met our criteria for healthcare-associated IE. 39/85 underwent surgery for IE. As direct result of IE, 4 (4.7%) children died and 9% of survivors had neurologic sequelae. Attributable in-hospital mortality was 4.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism, accounting for 26 episodes (30.6%). Other notable pathogens included Corynebacterium diphtheriae (10 cases, 11.8%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (7 cases, 8.2%). In 6 episodes, the microbiologic diagnosis was made by 16S ribosomal RNA testing of excised cardiac tissue. Congenital heart disease was the major risk factor for IE; however, rheumatic heart disease is also an important risk factor in New Zealand, with implications for local endocarditis prophylaxis recommendations. In addition to a high burden of healthcare-associated and staphylococcal IE, pathogens such as C. diphtheriae and S. pyogenes occurred. 16S ribosomal RNA testing is a useful tool to determine the etiologic agent in culture-negative IE.

  5. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand


    Purpose of the review: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are.Recent findings: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgrad...

  6. Meteors in the Maori Astronomical Traditions of New Zealand

    Britton, Tui R


    We review the literature for perceptions of meteors in the Maori cultures of New Zealand. We examine representations of meteors in religion, story, and ceremony. We find that meteors are sometimes personified as gods or children, or are seen as omens of death and destruction. The stories we found highlight the broad perception of meteors found throughout the Maori culture and demonstrate that some early scholars conflated the terms comet and meteor.

  7. HACCP/RMP Adoption in the New Zealand Meat Industry

    Cao, Kay; Scrimgeour, Frank G.


    In New Zealand, the Animal Products Act 1999 requires that all animal product primary processing businesses must have a risk management programme (RMP) based on the principles of Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). However, due to market access requirements, many primary food exporters have voluntarily adopted HACCP systems for food safety management since the 1990s. This paper studies the process of HACCP/RMP adoption and the transition from voluntary HACCP to mandatory RMP ...

  8. Hangi Magnetism: first Archaeomagnetic Results from New Zealand

    Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.; Alfheid, M.; Ingham, M.


    Holocene secular variation data, particularly palaeointensities, from the New Zealand region are critical to models of the global field and the geodynamo, but to date are few and far between. New Zealand's early Maori settlers did not make pottery - they steamed their food in flax baskets in earth ovens called umu or hangi. These ovens were pits in the ground into which were placed hot stones, covered with baskets of food and layers of fern fronds soaked in water. The whole was covered with soil and left to cook for several hours. Hangi stones were carefully chosen, prized possessions, and were used many times. Andesite boulders from the Central North Island were highly favoured. We have shown that hangi stones have the potential to be reliable recorders of both the intensity and direction of the palaeomagnetic field at the time of their last use. In collaboration with Maori tangata whenua we laid and fired an experimental hangi using traditional methods. We included volcanic and sedimentary rocks from different regions of New Zealand. The rocks reached temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees C and cooled very slowly, with minimal physical disturbance. A sampling method was devised, and on separate subsets of samples, we were able to accurately retrieve both the direction and intensity of the local geomagnetic field, from most lithologies. We are in the early stages of sampling archaeological hangi sites from throughout New Zealand, which span the past 600-700 years. Palaeomagnetic data from these sites will complement directional secular variation records from lake and marine sediments, and will provide crucial absolute palaeointensities.

  9. Performance Anxiety: Audit Culture and the Neoliberal New Zealand University

    Geoff Stahl


    Full Text Available This essay considers the role of audit culture and research output measurement regimes in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It explores the nature of neoliberalism and how it has worked its way into research and publishing, as well as departmental and teaching, contexts. This forms an important part of what Alison Hearn has called the promotional university, complete with bibliometrics and the attendant disciplinary mechanisms that work to produce 'productive' researchers.

  10. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities.

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.


    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  11. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.


    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  12. New Zealand-China Friendship Society Delegation in China


    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC,the delegation of New Zealand-China Friendship Society (NZCFS) led by Trevor Linyard,member of the Executive Committee of the NZCFS,visited Beijing,Xi’an,Chengdu and Shanghai from May 27 to June 5. The delegation is composed of those who have been actively engaged in promoting people-to-people friendship between

  13. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan


    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  14. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Hathaway, S C


    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  15. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica


    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  16. Vitamin D status of newborns in New Zealand.

    Camargo, Carlos A; Ingham, Tristram; Wickens, Kristin; Thadhani, Ravi I; Silvers, Karen M; Epton, Michael J; Town, G Ian; Espinola, Janice A; Crane, Julian


    Recognition of the important non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D has focused attention on the vitamin D status of individuals across the lifespan. To examine the vitamin D status of newborns, we measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the cord blood of 929 apparently healthy newborns in a population-based study in New Zealand, a country at 41 °S latitude, with strong anti-skin cancer (sun avoidance) campaigns and without vitamin D food fortification. Randomly selected midwives in two regions recruited children. The median cord blood level of 25(OH)D was 44 nmol/l (interquartile range, 29-78 nmol/l). Overall, 19 % of newborns had 25(OH)D levels determinants of low vitamin D status were winter month of birth and non-European ethnicity. Other determinants of low cord blood 25(OH)D included longer gestational age, younger maternal age and a parental history of asthma. In summary, low levels of vitamin D are common among apparently healthy New Zealand newborns, and are independently associated with several easily identified factors. Although the optimal timing and dosage of vitamin D supplementation require further study, our findings may assist future efforts to correct low levels of 25(OH)D among New Zealand mothers and their newborn children.

  17. Atherosclerosis induced by diabetogenic diet in New Zealand white rabbits


    To observe the effects of diabetogenic (high fat high sucrose, lacking choleserol) diet on atherogenesis in New Zealand white rabbits. Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits received regular rabbit chow (the normal control), or high fat high sucrose diet for 4 months. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose were investigated, the areas of fatty streak of the aortae were measured after staining with Sodan IV, and the aortic, coronary specimens were observed with light and electron microscopies. The plasma glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were increased significantly by high fat high sucrose feeding. At the end of 4 months, the early charateristics of atherosclerosis were present in the animals' vascular specimens. Our findings suggest that high fat high sucrose feeding can induce hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits, and this could be a potential animal model for studying the mechanisms of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. This study raised a question: What is the mechanism by which high fat high sucrose feeding induces atherosclerosis?. The related hypothesis was given in this article.

  18. Surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in New Zealand birds

    Daniel Tompkins


    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods: Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693 were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22. In the second season, blood clots (n = 544 were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146 was conducted. Results: Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand.

  19. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G


    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  20. Prevalence and biofilm-forming ability of Listeria monocytogenes in New Zealand mussel (Perna canaliculus) processing plants.

    Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C


    Greenshell™ mussels are New Zealand's largest seafood export species. Some export markets require compliance with 'zero' tolerance legislation for Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of product. Even though individually quick frozen (IQF) mussel products are labeled 'to be cooked', and are not classified as ready-to-eat, some markets still require them to comply with the strict policy. Three mussel processing plants were assessed for the pattern of L. monocytogenes contamination on raw material, environment, food contact surfaces, and in the final product. Cultures (n = 101) obtained from an industrial Listeria monitoring program from August 2007 to June 2009 were characterized by serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Using the crystal violet method, isolates were assessed for their ability to form biofilms. This work confirmed the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw and processed product, and the importance of cross-contamination from external and internal environments. Processing plants had L. monocytogenes pulsotypes that were detected more than once over 6 months. No correlation was found between biofilm-forming ability and persistent isolates. Two pulsotypes (including a persistent one), were previously isolated in human cases of listeriosis in New Zealand, but none of the pulsotypes matched those involved in international outbreaks.

  1. Lessons from the removal of lead from gasoline for controlling other environmental pollutants: A case study from New Zealand

    Horrocks John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It took over two decades to achieve the removal of leaded gasoline in this country. This was despite international evidence and original research conducted in New Zealand on the harm to child cognitive function and behaviour from lead exposure. Objective To identify lessons from the New Zealand experience of removing leaded gasoline that are potentially relevant to the control of other environmental pollutants. Discussion From the available documentation, we suggest a number of reasons for the slow policy response to the leaded gasoline hazard. These include: (1 industry power in the form of successful lobbying by the lead additive supplier, Associated Octel; (2 the absence of the precautionary principle as part of risk management policy; and (3 weak policymaking machinery that included: (a the poor use of health research evidence (from both NZ and internationally, as well as limited use of expertise in academic and non-governmental organisations; (b lack of personnel competent in addressing technically complex issues; and (c diffusion of responsibility among government agencies. Conclusion There is a need for a stronger precautionary approach by policymakers when considering environmental pollutants. Politicians, officials and health workers need to strengthen policymaking processes and effectively counter the industry tactics used to delay regulatory responses.

  2. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand.

    Tanner, Jasmine; Rogers, Chris; Bolwell, Charlotte; Cogger, Naomi; Gee, Erica; Mcllwraith, Wayne


    The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts) of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64-3.12). The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria). In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  3. Estimated infant intake of persistent organic pollutants through breast milk in New Zealand.

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Coakley, Jonathan; Bridgen, Phil; Smith, Allan H; Read, Deborah; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen


    To estimate average infant daily intake of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through the consumption of breast milk in New Zealand. Breast milk of 39 first-time mothers aged 20-30 years was collected during 2007-2010 and analysed for persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds and organochlorine pesticides. The quantity of POPs consumed by infants assuming exclusive breast feeding was estimated by calculating the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) expressed as amount consumed through breast milk per kilogram of body weight per day. Of all POPs quantified, the EDI of DDT (principally in the form of its metabolite p,p'-DDE) was the highest (1.6 mcg/kg/day), and above the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.5 mcg/kg/day. The mean EDI for dioxin-like compounds (including PCDD/Fs and PCBs) was 19.7 pg TEQ(toxic equivalency)/kg/day, which is among the lowest reported worldwide, yet above the TDI of 1 pg TEQ/kg/day. The EDI of HCH, HCB, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were 32.9, 37.9, 39.4, 2.0, and 0.9 ng/kg/day respectively, all of which were below the current TDI. Age of the mother was positively associated with higher EDIs for the infant, particularly for total-TEQ and total-DDT. Infant daily intakes of chlorinated POPs through breast milk estimated for New Zealand are low or average by international comparison, and 5 times lower than 25 years ago. Future breast milk monitoring will determine whether this diminishing trend is continuing as well as providing monitoring information on other POPs.

  4. Midwifery empowerment: National surveys of midwives from Australia, New Zealand and Sweden.

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Gamble, Jenny; Sidebotham, Mary; Creedy, Debra K; Guilliland, Karen; Dixon, Lesley; Pallant, Julie; Fenwick, Jennifer


    the predicted midwifery workforce shortages in several countries have serious implications for the care of women during pregnancy, birth and post partum. There are a number of factors known to contribute to midwifery shortages and work attrition. However, midwives assessment of their own professional identity and role (sense of empowerment) are perhaps among the most important. There are few international workforce comparisons. to compare midwives' sense of empowerment across Australia, New Zealand and Sweden using the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale-R (PEMS-Revised). a self-administered survey package was distributed to midwives through professional colleges and networks in each country. The surveys asked about personal, professional and employment details and included the Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale-R (PEMS-Revised). Descriptive statistics for the sample and PEMS were generated separately for the three countries. A series of analysis of variance with posthoc tests (Tukey's HSD) were conducted to compare scale scores across countries. Effect size statistics (partial eta squared) were also calculated. completed surveys were received from 2585 midwives (Australia 1037; New Zealand 1073 and Sweden 475). Respondents were predominantly female (98%), aged 50-59 years and had significant work experience as a midwife (+20 years). Statistically significant differences were recorded comparing scores on all four PEMS subscales across countries. Moderate effects were found on Professional Recognition, Skills and Resources and Autonomy/Empowerment comparisons. All pairwise comparisons between countries reached statistical significance (pempowerment compared to their Australian counterparts. This is likely the result of working in more autonomous ways within a health system that is primary health care focused and a culture that constructs childbirth as a normal but significant life event. If midwifery is to reach its full potential globally then

  5. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand

    Jasmine Tanner


    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  6. Accounting for medical variation: the case of prescribing activity in a New Zealand general practice sample.

    Davis, P B; Yee, R L; Millar, J


    Medical practice variation is extensive and well documented, particularly for surgical interventions, and raises important questions for health policy. To date, however, little work has been carried out on interpractitioner variation in prescribing activity in the primary care setting. An analytical model of medical variation is derived from the literature and relevant indicators are identified from a study of New Zealand general practice. The data are based on nearly 9,500 completed patient encounter records drawn from over a hundred practitioners in the Waikato region of the North Island, New Zealand. The data set represents a 1% sample of all weekday general practice office encounters in the Hamilton Health District recorded over a 12-month period. Overall levels of prescribing, and the distribution of drug mentions across diagnostic groupings, are broadly comparable to results drawn from international benchmark data. A multivariate analysis is carried out on seven measures of activity in the areas of prescribing volume, script detail, and therapeutic choice. The analysis indicates that patient, practitioner and practice attributes exert little systematic influence on the prescribing task. The principal influences are diagnosis, followed by practitioner identity. The pattern of findings suggests also that the prescribing task cannot be viewed as an undifferentiated activity. It is more usefully considered as a process of decision-making in which 'core' judgements--such as the decision to prescribe and the choice of drug--are highly predictable and strongly influenced by diagnosis, while 'peripheral' features of the task--such as choosing a combination drug or prescribing generically--are less determinate and more subject to the exercise of clinical discretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey.

    Rogers, Karyne M; Somerton, Kerry; Rogers, Pamela; Cox, Julie


    Carbon isotope analyses (delta(13)C) of some New Zealand Manuka honeys show that they often fail the internationally recognised Association of Official Analytical Chemists sugar test (AOAC method 998.12) which detects added C(4) sugar, although these honeys are from unadulterated sources. Failure of these high value products is detrimental to the New Zealand honey industry, not only in lost export revenue, but also in brand and market reputation damage. The standard AOAC test compares the carbon isotope value of the whole honey and corresponding protein isolated from the same honey. Differences between whole honey and protein delta(13)C values should not be greater than +1.0 per thousand, as it indicates the possibility of adulteration with syrups or sugars from C(4) plants such as high fructose corn syrup or cane sugar.We have determined that during the standard AOAC method, pollen and other insoluble components are isolated with the flocculated protein. These non-protein components have isotope values which are considerably different from those of the pure protein, and can shift the apparent delta(13)C value of protein further away from the delta(13)C value of the whole honey, giving a false positive result for added C(4) sugar. To eliminate a false positive C(4) sugar test for Manuka honey, prior removal of pollen and other insoluble material from the honey is necessary to ensure that only the pure protein is isolated. This will enable a true comparison between whole honey and protein delta(13)C isotopes. Furthermore, we strongly suggest this modification to the AOAC method be universally adopted for all honey C(4) sugar tests. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Alcohol sponsorship of a summer of sport: a frequency analysis of alcohol marketing during major sports events on New Zealand television.

    Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise; Carter, Mary-Ann; McConville, Samuel; Wong, Rebecca; Zhu, Wendy


    This research aims to assess the nature and extent of alcohol marketing through sport sponsorship over a summer of televised sport in New Zealand. Frequency analysis of New Zealand television broadcasts of five international sporting events during the summer of 2014-2015. Broadcasts were analysed to identify the percentage of time when alcohol brands were visible during game-play. The number of independent alcohol brand exposures was recorded. Alcohol brands were observed during every televised event. Audiences were exposed to between 1.6 and 3.8 alcohol brand exposures per minute. Alcohol brands were visible between 42 and 777 times across the games examined. For three out of the five events alcohol brands were visible for almost half of the game. Alcohol sponsorship was prevalent in international sport on New Zealand television. Given the popularity of broadcast sport, especially with children, there is an urgent need for regulation of alcohol sponsorship of sport. There are viable models of alcohol sponsorship replacement but their implementation requires the will of both sporting organisations and politicians. This research adds weight to arguments to implement recommendations to remove all alcohol sponsorship of sport.

  9. A Descriptive Study of the Practice Patterns of Massage New Zealand Massage Therapists

    Smith, Joanna M.; Sullivan, S John; Baxter, G David


    Background: Massage therapy has grown in popularity, yet little is known globally or in New Zealand about massage therapists and their practices. Purpose and Setting: The aims of this study were to describe the practice patterns of trained Massage New Zealand massage therapists in New Zealand private practice, with regard to therapist characteristics; practice modes and settings, and therapy characteristics; referral patterns; and massage therapy as an occupation. Research Design and Particip...

  10. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P


    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  11. Is New Zealand vegetation really 'problematic'? Dansereau's puzzles revisited.

    Wilson, J Bastow; Lee, William G


    Over four decades ago, Pierre Dansereau, the noted North American ecologist, proposed six features of New Zealand vegetation as being problematic or unusual in a global context. We examine his propositions in the light of current ecological knowledge to determine whether or not these can still be considered unusual characteristics of New Zealand vegetation. (1) 'Climatic change is still progressing' resulting in disequilibrium between species' distributions and the present climate. New data and methods of analysis now available have removed the impression that Dansereau gained of imprecise zonation, unclear vegetation/climate relations and missing vegetation types. Communities cited as having regeneration failure can now be seen as even-aged stands that developed after major disturbance, although there are other, also non-climatic, explanations. However, the cause of the Westland 'Nothofagus gap' has become more, rather than less, controversial. (2) 'Continuity of community composition defies classification' and 'Very few New Zealand associations have faithful species' are correct observations, but perhaps equally true of vegetation elsewhere. Dansereau's assertion of low species richness in New Zealand is not supported by the comparative data available. (3) 'Lack of intolerant [i.e. mid-seral] trees …' is not evident with newer information. The order of species in succession, seen as unclear by Dansereau, has been determined by a range of approaches, largely confirming each other. (4) 'Discrepancies of form and function …' in divaricate shrubs and widespread heteroblasty are still controversial, with many more explanations. Several abiotic explanations have failed to stand up to investigation. Explanations in terms of herbivory have been well supported, although the extinction of the large avian herbivores makes certainty impossible. (5) 'Incidence of hybridization …' remains problematic. We do not know whether the incidence is unusually high, as Dansereau

  12. The impact of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand programme on hand hygiene practices in New Zealand's public hospitals.

    Freeman, Joshua; Dawson, Louise; Jowitt, Deborah; White, Margo; Callard, Hayley; Sieczkowski, Christine; Kuriyan, Ron; Roberts, Sally


    To detail the progress made by Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) since 2011 and also describe the challenges experienced along the way and the factors required for delivery of a successful hand hygiene programme at a national level. HHNZ is a multimodal culture-change programme based on the WHO '5 moments for hand hygiene' approach. The key components of the programme include clinical leadership, auditing of hand hygiene compliance with thrice yearly reporting of improvement in hand hygiene practice, biannual reporting of the outcome marker, healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB), effective communication with key stakeholders and the use of the front-line ownership (FLO) principles for quality improvement. The nationally aggregated hand hygiene compliance has increased from 62% in June 2012 to 81% in March 2016. There has been improvement across all 'moments', all healthcare worker groups and a range of different clinical specialties. The rate of HA-SAB has remained stable. The HHNZ programme has led to significant improvements in hand hygiene practice in DHBs throughout New Zealand. The principles of FLO are now widely used to drive hand hygiene improvement in New Zealand DHBs.

  13. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba;


    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2) and morpholog......New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...... was also detected and its conservation implications are discussed....

  14. A survey of New Zealand academic reference librarians: Current and future skills and competencies

    Brenda Chawner; Gillian Oliver


    .... The results from New Zealand show that, serving academic library customers requires not only traditional 'reference' skills, but also skills in customer service, technology support, and training...

  15. Toxicity of elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide to invasive New Zealand mudsnails

    Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.


    The authors tested the efficacy of elevated partial pressures of CO2 to kill invasive New Zealand mudsnails. The New Zealand mudsnails were exposed to 100 kPa at three water temperatures, and the survival was modeled versus dose as cumulative °C-h. We estimated an LD50 of 59.4°C-h for adult and juvenile New Zealand mudsnails. The results suggest that CO2 may be an effective and inexpensive lethal tool to treat substrates, tanks, or materials infested with New Zealand mudsnails.

  16. International energy outlook 1998



    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  17. A content analysis of the portrayal of alcohol in televised music videos in New Zealand: changes over time.

    Sloane, Kate; Wilson, Nick; Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona


    We aimed to: (i) document the extent and nature of alcohol portrayal in televised music videos in New Zealand in 2010; and (ii) assess trends over time by comparing with a similar 2005 sample. We undertook a content analysis for references to alcohol in 861 music videos shown on a youth-orientated television channel in New Zealand. This was compared with a sample in 2005 (564 music videos on the same channel plus sampling from two other channels). The proportion of alcohol content in the music videos was slightly higher in 2010 than for the same channel in the 2005 sample (19.5% vs. 15.7%) but this difference was not statistically significant. Only in the genre 'Rhythm and Blues' was the increase over time significant (P = 0.015). In both studies, the portrayal of alcohol was significantly more common in music videos where the main artist was international (not from New Zealand). Furthermore, in the music videos with alcohol content, at least a third of the time, alcohol was shown being consumed and the main artist was involved with alcohol. In only 2% (in 2005) and 4% (in 2010) of these videos was the tone explicitly negative towards alcohol. In both these studies, the portrayal of alcohol was relatively common in music videos. Nevertheless, there are various ways that policy makers can denormalise alcohol in youth-orientated media such as music videos or to compensate via other alcohol control measures such as higher alcohol taxes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. A developmental toxicity study of 3S, 3'S-Astaxanthin in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Schneider, Steffen; Mellert, Werner; Schulte, Stefan; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard


    Astaxanthin, a naturally occurring pigment used to give the characteristic orange-pink colour to salmonid fish reared in aquaculture, is also marketed as a dietary supplement. Synthetic 3S, 3'S-Astaxanthin was tested for potential harmful effects on the in utero development of New Zealand white rabbits in a study according to international regulatory guidelines. There were two control groups, one being a placebo administration and three dose levels corresponding to 100, 200, and 400 mg of 3S, 3'S-Astaxanthin per kg body weight/day. The group sizes varied from 23 to 27 litters, providing approximately 200 fetuses per group for evaluation of developmental toxicity. There were no significant effects on the health of the does, nor on the size and viability of the litters. Malformations, both external and internal, were rare and occurred in all groups, including controls with no indication of a treatment relationship. Variations were much more common, being found in all litters. However, when examined by type and frequency, no pattern emerged indicating a relationship to administration of the test substance. It is concluded that administration of 3S, 3'S-Astaxanthin in a gelatin/carbohydrate powder formulation throughout pregnancy up to 400 mg/kg body weight/day is without harmful effects on reproduction or fetal development.

  19. Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment. A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand

    Wratt, D.; Mullan, B.; Salinger, J. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research NIWA, Newmarket, Auckland (New Zealand); Allan, S.; Morgan, T. [MWH New Zealand, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kenny, G. [Earthwise Consulting, Hastings (New Zealand)


    Climate change is a real and internationally recognised outcome of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It will have effects over the next decades that are predictable with some level of certainty, but which will vary from place to place throughout New Zealand. The climate will also change from year to year and decade to decade due to natural processes. For example, some parts of the country often have dry summers and autumns when an El Nino climate pattern is present. Both natural fluctuations and human-induced climate changes need to be considered when developing adaptation plans and policies, rather than just 'greenhouse warming' effects on their own. Councils already address extreme weather events and climate variations as they develop plans and provide services. Climate change effects need also to be considered as part of these regulatory, assessment and planning activities. It is not necessary to develop a set of procedures for dealing separately with effects and impacts of climate change - they can be built into existing practices. Over time, climate change responses will involve iterative planning processes, keeping up-to-date with new information, monitoring changes, and reviewing the effectiveness of responses. The response to climate change involves international, national, regional, district and community consideration and action. The Guidance Manual aims to assist local government in working with its communities and making appropriate decisions.

  20. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.

    Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M


    Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7 kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13 kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas.

  1. CAS – A Journey Has Begun in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Derek Smith


    Full Text Available This paper explores a journey through hand-held technology changes in mathematics teaching and learning and raises questions we as mathematics educators should be considering in the shorter and longer term. New Zealand is embarking on a Computer Algebraic Systems (CAS Pilot Programme in secondary school mathematics. The Ministry of Education and the New Zealand Qualifications Authority have selected secondary schools to be part of a pilot programme in the use of CAS technology in mathematics classes. The aim of the pilot programme is to improve teaching and learning of mathematics through the use of this technology. Six schools in 2005 used CAS technology with Year 9 (13-14 year olds students and, an additional 16 schools joined the programme in 2006. The pilot is planned to continue with an increasing number of schools in subsequent years. By the time students in the pilot schools reach Years 11, 12 and 13, alternative external assessments using the CAS technology will be available. Professional development support and assistance in obtaining and using the technology will be provided to the pilot schools. The project's emphasis in 2005 was on the Geometry and Algebra strands; the Statistics strand was added in 2006. By 2010 the first cohort of project programme students will have been through their secondary mathematics education via a CAS environment. New Zealand teachers have only a finite time to get into CAS technology and integrate it into their teaching practice. This paper discusses a research project based on a mathematics department professional development that is linked to the pilot.

  2. Control of clinical paratuberculosis in New Zealand pastoral livestock.

    Gautam, M; Ridler, A; Wilson, P R; Heuer, C


    This review summarises current control measures for clinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease; JD) in New Zealand pastoral livestock. Most New Zealand sheep, deer, beef and dairy cattle herds and flocks are infected by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Dairy cattle and deer are mostly infected with bovine (Type II), and sheep and beef cattle with ovine (Type I) strains. Control in all industries is voluntary. While control in sheep and beef cattle is ad hoc, the dairy and deer industries have developed resources to assist development of farm-specific programmes. The primary target for all livestock is reduction of the incidence rate of clinical disease rather than bacterial eradication per se. For dairy farms, a nationally instituted JD-specific programme provides guidelines for risk management, monitoring and testing clinically suspect animals. While there is no formal programme for sheep farms, for those with annual prevalences of clinical disease >2%, especially fine wool breeds, vaccination may be a cost effective control option. The deer industry proactively monitors infection by a national abattoir surveillance programme and farmers with an apparent high disease incidence are encouraged to engage with a national network of trained consultants for management and control advice. Evaluation of the biological and economic effectiveness of control in all industries remains to be undertaken. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for farmers who perceive significant JD problems in their herds/flocks to participate in systematic best-practice activities that are likely to reduce the number of clinical infections with Map on their farms and therefore the overall prevalence of JD in New Zealand's farming industries.

  3. Evaluating Defect Reporting in New Residential Buildings in New Zealand

    Funmilayo Ebun Rotimi


    Full Text Available The need for defect reporting is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore at handover of new residential buildings. A general review in defect studies has consistently shown that newly built properties can be found to have a significant number of defects. Very often the responsibility for rectifying these common defects is borne by the new homeowner even though house developers are liable. In the current study, survey data is obtained from 216 recent home purchasers/owners across New Zealand urban cities. The intent of the investigation is to show that opportunities exist for defect reporting that will act as a mechanism to measure performance and thus improve the quality of finished construction products in New Zealand. The study found that a significant number (81% of the participants were involved in the construction of their homes and could influence quality performance if they were proactive enough. The results show that (64.7% did not engage the service of independent building inspectors for defect reporting on their new homes. Seventy-four percent now agree that independent building inspection was important in hindsight. The study findings are in line with literature on defects and the poor use of defect reporting in new residential buildings. The current challenge for defect rectification by house developers after handover is real and this could increase the confidence that new home owners can have in their developers. Defect reporting could confer benefits to new residential building quality in New Zealand and should be embraced as part of a wider best practice.

  4. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.


    We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will

  5. Sub-aqueous sulfur volcanos at Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Grimes, S.; Rickard, D. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Browne, P.; Simmons, S. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Institute and Geology Dept.; Jull, T. [University of Arizona, Tucson (United States). AMS Facility


    Exhumed, sub-aqueous sulfur mounds occur in the Waiotapu geothermal area, New Zealand. The extinct mounds are < 2 m high and composed of small (< 0.5 cm) hollow spheres, and occasional teardrop-shaped globules. They are located within a drained valley that until recently was connected to Lake Whangioterangi. They were formed a maximum of 820 {+-} 80 years BP as a result of the rapid sub-aqueous deposition of sulfur globules, formed when fumarolic gases discharged through molten sulfur pools. Similar globules are now being formed by the discharge of fumarolic gases through a sub-aqueous molten sulfur pool in Lake Whangioterangi. (author)

  6. Management Matters in New Zealand: How Does Manufacturing Measure Up?

    Green, Roy; Agarwal, Renu


    This paper benchmarks management practices in New Zealand manufacturing firms against the global best. The project was undertaken by a research team from the University of Technology Sydney and is part of a world-wide study led by the London School of Economics and McKinsey & Co. The findings suggest that while some of New Zealand’s firms are as good as any in the world, there is a substantial ‘tail’ of firms that are mediocre, especially in their approach to people management. This is a key ...

  7. Plant macrofossils of the upper Cretaceous Kaitangata coalfield, New Zealand

    Pole, M.; Douglas, B. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Botany


    Uppermost Cretaceous sediments from the Cretaceous Kaitangata Coal Mine and the Wangaloa coast (south of Dunedin, New Zealand) were investigated for dispersed plant macrofossils. The gymnosperms include two cycads (Macrozamia sp. and Pterostoma sp.), Ginkgo sp., three further possible ginkgophyte taxa, and ten conifer taxa. The conifers include two new conifer genera and species, Maikuku stephaniae and Ware riderensis, which are placed in the Taxodiaceae s.l. There are also 13 types of angiosperm cuticle. Sample heterogeneity as regards taxa present and their abundance suggests taxonomic heterogeneity in the original vegetation.

  8. Older Consumers' Readiness for e-Health in New Zealand.

    Honey, Michelle; Waterworth, Susan; Aung, Htein


    The increase in numbers of older people in the population and their incidence of long term conditions means their readiness for e-health is imperative. This cross sectional survey set in primary health care in New Zealand sought to understand how older people are accessing health information. A convenience sample (n = 263) found one third had been on-line and this was more likely to be those with poorer health. Free telephone services and receiving health information in person were preferred, with little use of email or text messaging found. Information found on-line was considered useful to understand their health conditions, treatment options and for decision-making.

  9. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita


    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime‐time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scen...

  10. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.


    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  11. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita


    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime‐time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scen...

  12. Reflective Engagement in Cultural History: A Lacanian Perspective on Pasifika Teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Brown, Tony; Devine, Nesta; Leslie, Elsie; Paiti, Margaret; Sila'ila'i, Emilie; Umaki, Sandra; Williams, Jay


    How do we understand our own cultural histories and how do these understandings impact on our senses of self? This paper addresses the case of Pacific islander migration into New Zealand. It is based on a study fuelled by a group of Pacific island teachers exploring their own experiences of becoming teachers in New Zealand schools. The paper…

  13. Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand

    Trampusch, Christine


    This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

  14. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary


    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation…

  15. Schools "as" Communities and "for" Communities: Learning from the 2010-2011 New Zealand Earthquakes

    Mutch, Carol


    The author followed five primary (elementary) schools over three years as they responded to and began to recover from the 2010-2011 earthquakes in and around the city of Christchurch in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. The purpose was to capture the stories for the schools themselves, their communities, and for New Zealand's historical…

  16. Promoting the Maori Language to Non-Maori: Evaluating the New Zealand Government's Approach

    de Bres, Julia


    New Zealand's two main government Maori language planning agencies, the Maori Language Commission and the Ministry of Maori Development, have engaged for some time in language planning targeting the attitudes and behaviours of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the Maori language. This activity is undertaken on the basis that the attitudes and…

  17. Text-Bullying: Associations with Traditional Bullying and Depression among New Zealand Adolescents

    Raskauskas, Juliana


    Bullying via mobile phone text messages (text-bullying) is a growing problem in New Zealand. Little research exists on this important issue. This study examined the nature and prevalence of text-bullying among adolescents. A total of 1,530 students ages 11-18 from three schools in New Zealand participated in this research. Students completed…

  18. Women in Education, Science and Leadership in New Zealand: A Personal Reflection

    Austin, Margaret


    In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…

  19. Development of a New Zealand database of plant virus and virus-like organisms

    Fletcher, J.D.; Lister, R.A.; Clover, G.R.G.; Horner, M.B.; Thomas, J.E.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; MacDiarmid, R.M.


    The recent 8th Australasian plant virology workshop in Rotorua, New Zealand, discussed the development of a New Zealand database of plant virus and virus-like organisms. Key points of discussion included: (i) the purpose of such a database; (ii) who would benefit from the information in a database;

  20. The isoflavone content of commercially-available feline diets in New Zealand

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.


    To identify and quantify concentrations of the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin in commercially-prepared feline diets sold in New Zealand. METHODS: Feline diets (n=138) were collected from supermarkets, pet stores and veterinary clinics in New Zealand. Diets were classif

  1. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben


    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their waterways.…

  2. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben


    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their waterways.…

  3. Reply to O'Neill: The Privatisation of Public Schooling in New Zealand

    Strathdee, Rob


    In a recent contribution to this journal, John O'Neill (2011) argues that recent privatisation practices in New Zealand public schooling are evidence of a small, but growing, influence of neo-liberalism on New Zealand's public education. The focus in his paper is on the active enablement of non-government provision of public education through, for…

  4. Artists in Schools: "Kick Starting" or "Kicking Out" Dance from New Zealand Classrooms

    Snook, Barbara; Buck, Ralph


    New Zealand primary school teachers have access to a comprehensive arts curriculum that includes dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This research focused on several teachers' reality of implementing the dance curriculum in New Zealand primary schools, drawing on Snook's (2012) study in this field. Our research valued the voices of teachers,…

  5. Towards a Pre-Service Technology Teacher Education Resource for New Zealand

    Forret, Michael; Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Granshaw, Bruce; Harwood, Cliff; Miller, Angela; O'Sullivan, Gary; Patterson, Moira


    The Pre-service Technology Teacher Education Resource (PTTER) was developed as a cross-institutional resource to support the development of initial technology teacher education programmes in New Zealand. The PTTER was developed through collaboration involving representatives from each of the six New Zealand university teacher education providers,…

  6. Tertiary Teachers' Perspectives on Their Role in Student Engagement: A Snapshot from Aotearoa New Zealand

    Leach, Linda; Zepke, Nick; Butler, Philippa


    This article is based on data from a large mixed method research project funded by the Teaching and Learning Research Initiative (TLRI) in Aotearoa New Zealand. The article addresses the question: how do tertiary teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand perceive their role in student engagement? Quantitative data revealed both similarities and differences…

  7. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary


    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation Corporation…

  8. Early Learnings from the National Library of New Zealand's National Digital Heritage Archive Project

    Knight, Steve


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the digital preservation programme at the National Library of New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of the legislative and strategic context for digital preservation in New Zealand, details are provided of the system for the National Digital…

  9. Competition and Efficiency: Overseas Students and Technical Efficiency in Australian and New Zealand Universities

    Abbott, Malcolm; Doucouliagos, Chris


    Economic theory suggests that competitive pressures will impact on organisational efficiency. In recent years, universities in Australia and New Zealand have faced increased competition for students. The aim of this paper is to explore the efficiency of Australian and New Zealand public universities and to investigate the impact of competition for…

  10. Educational Middle Change Leadership in New Zealand: The Meat in the Sandwich

    Marshall, Steven Gregory


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a larger study into the role of middle leaders of change in New Zealand higher education. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten middle leaders from the New Zealand higher education sector took part in a recent research project which examined successful change leadership in higher…

  11. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis


    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  12. Artists in Schools: "Kick Starting" or "Kicking Out" Dance from New Zealand Classrooms

    Snook, Barbara; Buck, Ralph


    New Zealand primary school teachers have access to a comprehensive arts curriculum that includes dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This research focused on several teachers' reality of implementing the dance curriculum in New Zealand primary schools, drawing on Snook's (2012) study in this field. Our research valued the voices of teachers,…

  13. Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)

    Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian


    This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

  14. Building a Future-Oriented Science Education System in New Zealand: How Are We Doing?

    Gilbert, Jane; Bull, Ally


    This paper makes the case for deep and radical change to New Zealand's approach to science education. It discusses the implications of recent science education research and policy work, and argues New Zealand still has a long way to go to developing a future-oriented science education system. It explores what needs to change and contains…

  15. Pride and Prejudice... and Other Barriers to Teaching for Asian New Zealanders

    Howard, Jocelyn


    As New Zealand has become increasingly pluralistic, the teaching profession has become progressively less reflective of the wider population. This paper reviews the literature on impediments to teaching for minority students, and reports on a case study exploring factors that deter Asian New Zealanders from pursuing teaching as a career. The…

  16. CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin Leads Delegation to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Vanuatu


    <正>At the invitation of the China-PNG Friendship Association Incorporation (CPNGFA), the New Zealand-China Friendship Society (NZCFS) and Vanuatuan Ambassador to China, a CPAFFC delegation led by its vice president Li Xiaolin visited Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Vanuatu from May

  17. Influences on Children's Environmental Cognition: A Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and Mexico

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, Ikerne; Freeman, Claire; Vass, Eva


    This paper investigates Mexican and New Zealand children's conception of the environment and their understandings of environmental issues, focusing on how personal experiences, culture and school-based environmental education (EE) programmes influence their perspectives. Sixty Year 5 children (age 9-11) from three schools in Dunedin (New Zealand)…

  18. Synopsis of Grimmia Hedw. in New Zealand, including Grimmia wilsonii sp. nov

    Greven, H.C.


    The New Zealand Grimmia Hedw. specimens from AK, AKU, BM, CHR, OTA and WELT have been revised and a bryological field trip to the New Zealand Southern Alps was made to study specimens in their natural habitats. As a result of the revision and the field trip, G. anodon, G. austrofunalis, G. orbicular

  19. Takina te Kawa: Laying the Foundation, a Research Engagement Methodology in Aotearoa (New Zealand)

    Taiwhati, Marama; Toia, Rawiri; Te Maro, Pania; McRae, Hiria; McKenzie, Tabitha


    In the bi-cultural context of Aotearoa (New Zealand), engagement with stakeholders that is transparent and culturally responsive is a priority for educational research. More common research approaches in New Zealand have followed a Western euro-centric model of engagement with research participants resulting in interventions and initiatives that…

  20. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba


    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  1. Trends in web-based HIV behavioural surveillance among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: complementing location-based surveillance.

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J


    Most HIV behavioural surveillance programmes for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) sample from location-based (offline) or web-based (online) populations, but few combine these two streams. MSM sampled online have been found to differ demographically and behaviourally from those sampled offline, meaning trends identified in one system may not hold for the other. The aim was to examine trends among MSM responding to supplementary repeat online behavioural surveillance surveys who had not participated in offline surveillance earlier that year in the same city, to see whether trends were parallel, converged or diverged. We recruited a total of 1613 MSM from an Internet dating site in Auckland, New Zealand in 2006, 2008 and 2011 using identical questionnaires and eligibility criteria to offline surveillance. Condom use was stable over time, HIV testing rates rose, the proportion reporting over 20 recent male partners declined, and anal intercourse rates increased, consistent with trends in offline surveillance conducted concomitantly and reported elsewhere. Variant trends included greater stability in condom use with casual partners among online-recruited MSM, and a rise in regular fuckbuddy partnering not identified among offline-recruited MSM. Among MSM recruited online, the frequency of checking Internet dating profiles increased between 2008 and 2011. In conclusion, supplementary web-based behavioural surveillance among MSM generally corroborates trends identified in offline surveillance. There are however some divergent trends, that would have been overlooked if only one form of surveillance had been conducted. As MSM populations increasingly shift their socialising patterns online and diversify, multiple forms of HIV behavioural monitoring may be required.

  2. Women in medical physics: a preliminary analysis of workforce and research participation in Australia and New Zealand.

    Crowe, S B; Kairn, T


    Although the participation of women within the science, technology, engineering and mathematics workforces has been widely discussed over recent decades, the recording and analysis of data pertaining to the gender balance of medical physicists in Australia and New Zealand remains rare. This study aimed to provide a baseline for evaluating future changes in workforce demographics by quantifying the current level of representation of women in the Australasian medical physics workforce and providing an indication of the relative contribution made by those women to the local research environment. The 2015 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) member directory and list of chief physicists at ACPSEM-accredited radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging training centres were interrogated to identify the gender balance of medical physicists working in Australia and New Zealand. A specific investigation of the employment levels of all medical physicists in Queensland was undertaken to provide an example of the gender balance at different levels of seniority in one large Australian state. Lists of authors of medical physics presentations at ACPSEM annual conferences and authors of publications in the ACPSEM's official journal, were used to provide an indication of the gender balance in published research within Australia and New Zealand. The results of this study showed that women currently constitute approximately 28 % of the medical physics workforce in Australia and New Zealand, distributed disproportionally in junior roles; there is a decrease in female participation in the field with increasing levels of seniority, which is particularly apparent in the stratified data obtained for the Queensland workforce. Comparisons with older data suggest that this situation has changed little since 2008. Examination of ACPSEM conference presentations suggested that there are similar disparities between the gender-balance of proffered and

  3. Healthcare professional perspectives on quality and safety in New Zealand public hospitals: findings from a national survey.

    Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon


    group of hospitals, using a lengthy tool such as the 'safety climate survey'. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? We used a simple three-question survey approach (derived from existing measures) to measuring healthcare professionals' perceptions of quality and safety in New Zealand's public hospitals. In doing so, we also collected the first such information on this. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? New Zealand policy makers and health professionals can take some comfort in our findings, but also note that there is considerable scope for improvement. Our finding that more positive perceptions of quality and safety were related to perceptions of stronger clinical leadership adds to the international literature indicating the importance of this. Policy makers and hospital managers should support strong clinical leadership.

  4. Young Adult Perceptions of the British American Tobacco New Zealand Agree/Disagree Plain Packaging Counter-Campaign.

    McCool, Judith; Wong-Cornall, Cecilia; Freeman, Becky


    In 2012, British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched a mass media campaign branded "Agree/ Disagree" as a response to the New Zealand government's plans to introduce plain packaging. We examined young adult's views about the campaign to assist tobacco control policymakers in planning future interventions. Interviews with young adults living in the Auckland area were conducted. Interviews covered existing knowledge about plain packaging of tobacco, knowledge about the tobacco industry, and perceptions of specific advertisements included in the campaign. Interview data were analyzed to determine the dominant views about the campaign. Perspectives from 12 interviews reflect the dominant discourse in New Zealand on the benefits of serving economic progress and international trade. Pervasive views about the campaigns reflected perceptions of the risk to the New Zealand image, trade, and economy. Similarly, participants expressed concern about the potential for plain packaging to creep toward other products, such as alcohol. Perceptions of the tobacco industry were mixed but reflect a tolerant view of the ethics of business if viewed to be beneficial to the economy. Participants were broadly accepting of the campaign messages. We identified a tendency toward quasi-libertarian leanings when discussing economics and trade, commercial versus personal responsibility, and the value of freedom (commercial and social). These perspectives were often held simultaneously with conflicting socially responsive values and references to the hegemonic position of "big business." This study affirms the importance of closely monitoring public opinion about tobacco control and of broadening denormalization strategies to reflect the critical role the tobacco industry plays in prolonging the tobacco epidemic. To date there is little evidence on the perceptions young adults hold toward to the tobacco industry and their arguments regarding the introduction of plain packaged

  5. "Googling" for Cancer: An Infodemiological Assessment of Online Search Interests in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Foroughi, Forough; Lam, Alfred K-Y; Lim, Megan S C; Saremi, Nassim; Ahmadvand, Alireza


    The infodemiological analysis of queries from search engines to shed light on the status of various noncommunicable diseases has gained increasing popularity in recent years. The aim of the study was to determine the international perspective on the distribution of information seeking in Google regarding "cancer" in major English-speaking countries. We used Google Trends service to assess people's interest in searching about "Cancer" classified as "Disease," from January 2004 to December 2015 in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Then, we evaluated top cities and their relative search volumes (SVs) and country-specific "Top searches" and "Rising searches." We also evaluated the cross-country correlations of SVs for cancer, as well as rank correlations of SVs from 2010 to 2014 with the incidence of cancer in 2012 in the abovementioned countries. From 2004 to 2015, the United States (relative SV [from 100]: 63), Canada (62), and Australia (61) were the top countries searching for cancer in Google, followed by New Zealand (54) and the United Kingdom (48). There was a consistent seasonality pattern in searching for cancer in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Baltimore (United States), St John's (Canada), Sydney (Australia), Otaika (New Zealand), and Saint Albans (United Kingdom) had the highest search interest in their corresponding countries. "Breast cancer" was the cancer entity that consistently appeared high in the list of top searches in all 5 countries. The "Rising searches" were "pancreatic cancer" in Canada and "ovarian cancer" in New Zealand. Cross-correlation of SVs was strong between the United States, Canada, and Australia (>.70, P<.01). Cancer maintained its popularity as a search term for people in the United States, Canada, and Australia, comparably higher than New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The increased interest in searching for keywords related to cancer shows the possible effectiveness

  6. The origins of white-chinned petrels killed by long-line fisheries off South Africa and New Zealand

    N.M.S. Mareile Techow


    Full Text Available The white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis is the seabird species most frequently killed by fisheries in the Southern Ocean and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as globally vulnerable. It breeds around the sub-Antarctic, but genetic data identified two subspecies: P. a. aequinoctialis from islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and P. a. steadi from the New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands. We identify the region of origin of birds killed by two long-line fisheries based on differences in the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. All 113 birds killed off South Africa had the haplotype of P. a. aequinoctialis, whereas all the 60 birds from New Zealand had P. a. steadi haplotypes. The two subspecies of white-chinned petrels thus appear to disperse to different regions irrespective of their age, which accords with the tracking data of adult birds. Our finding has significant implications for managing the bycatch of this species by regional fisheries.

  7. New Zealand University students' knowledge of fertility decline in women via natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Lucas, Nathanael; Rosario, Roseanne; Shelling, Andrew


    Female fertility declines with age. University students are the group of people most likely to postpone parenthood, yet several international studies have shown that they overestimate their fertility. We designed a questionnaire based on a previous study in Israel, where university students were asked to answer questions related to their awareness of fertility decline in spontaneous and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) pregnancies, and methods they considered would prolong their reproductive lifespan. Our study has shown that New Zealand University students overestimated the rates of pregnancy for both spontaneous natural and IVF pregnancies. Students are mainly aware of the availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), but overestimate their effectiveness. Few students mentioned non-medical or well-being initiatives as measures to prolong parenthood. It is important that university students are aware of the rate of fertility decline in women, as although ARTs can be effective at times, they are not a guaranteed solution to an ageing woman's fertility. New Zealand University students, like other cohorts, overestimated the chances of a woman getting pregnant and predicted the fertility decline to occur much later than it does in reality.

  8. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription.To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia.We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013. Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience.The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch', unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches.Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  9. Moving backwards, moving forward: the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to life in New Zealand.

    Montayre, Jed; Neville, Stephen; Holroyd, Eleanor


    To explore the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to living permanently in New Zealand. The qualitative descriptive approach taken in this study involved 17 individual face-to-face interviews of older Filipino migrants in New Zealand. Three main themes emerged from the data. The first theme was "moving backwards and moving forward", which described how these older Filipino migrants adjusted to challenges they experienced with migration. The second theme was "engaging with health services" and presented challenges relating to the New Zealand healthcare system, including a lack of knowledge of the nature of health services, language barriers, and differences in cultural views. The third theme, "new-found home", highlighted establishing a Filipino identity in New Zealand and adjusting to the challenges of relocation. Adjustment to life in New Zealand for these older Filipino migrants meant starting over again by building new values through learning the basics and then moving forward from there.

  10. Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges.

    Callister, Paul; Badkar, Juthika; Didham, Robert


    Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zealand stands out among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of the high level of movements in and out of the country of skilled professionals, including nurses. In New Zealand, much attention has been given to increasing the number of Māori and Pacific nurses as one mechanism for improving Māori and Pacific health. Against a backdrop of the changing characteristics of the New Zealand nursing workforce, this study demonstrates that the globalisation of the nursing workforce is increasing at a faster rate than its localisation (as measured by the growth of the Māori and New Zealand-born Pacific workforces in New Zealand). This challenges the implementation of culturally appropriate nursing programmes based on the matching of nurse and client ethnicities.

  11. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    Powell, Denise


    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  12. The last deglaciation in New Zealand ; revisiting the Misery moraines at Arthur's Pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Fink, David; Rother, Henrik; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James; Wilcken, Klaus


    Recent debate on mid-latitude New Zealand glaciation has focused on reconstructing paleo-climate conditions leading into the (global) Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation dynamics during the last termination. Paleo-environmental evidence coupled with reliable glacial chronologies supporting a Southern Hemisphere glacial readvance commensurate with Younger Dryas timing ( 11.5-12.5 ka) showing similar cooling as observed in the Northern Hemisphere has also been hotly debated. Many New Zealand lake and pollen records suggest a minor cooling or hiatus in warming during the period from 14.5 - 12.0 ka which pre-dates YD onset and is more commonly associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) (14.7 - 13.0 ka). Achieving the required sub-millennial temporal differentiation using in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating comes with numerous difficulties. The Arthur's Pass Moraine complex, deposited by an alpine glacier advancing out of the Otira Gorge splaying east and westward over the divide of the Southern Alps in New Zealand ( 950 masl), exhibits a full post-LGM glacial chronology. The moraines consist of multiple cross-valley terminal, lobate and discontinuous latero-terminal moraines up to 3 kilometres down valley from the proximal Misery moraines at the outlet of Otira Gorge. Within the gorge towards the headwall only 1 km up-valley from the Misery sequence, no other moraines are evident. We have determined paired 10-Be and 26-Al exposure ages from 58 greywacke samples taken from all major moraines, including repeat sampling from the Misery moraines. The new exposure ages show that the Arthur's Pass moraine system spans a period of 19.5 ka to 12.0 ka (Putnam local NZ production rate) with mean recessional moraine ages in chrono-stratigraphic sequence. The overall timing of deglaciation after peak LGM conditions is similar to that observed at down-valley terminal positions of the larger outlet river systems of the Rakaia, Waimakariri and Rangitata Valleys

  13. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    James L Croft

    Full Text Available i to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand.Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors.Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61% and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving. Older men (aged +55 years old had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74 and when involved in different activities.Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.


    Nicola Naismith


    Full Text Available There is a wealth of knowledge concerning conflict management and its resolution in the workplace, however there is a dearth of information relating to conflict management and its resolution in engineering project management. This paper set out to examine the reality of conflict management in engineering project management in New Zealand. This was achieved through a review of credible literature sources and the completion of a pilot study to gain subject matter expert perspectives. The research suggests that conflicts can be destructive, resulting in anxiety and strong emotional responses leading to reflexive reactions including avoidance, aggression, fight, hostility and a breakdown in communications and relationships. Findings indicate that managing a project structure is synonymous with handling conflict and these disagreements can be detrimental to the success of a project. The initial results suggest that a number of factors act as drivers of conflict in engineering projects in New Zealand. These drivers are: power, personality, group dynamics and organisation culture. The conflict resolution tools cited as being widely used for engineering projects are collaboration and negotiation. The paper also offers recommendations for future research.

  15. Rapid biological speciation driven by tectonic evolution in New Zealand

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Burridge, Christopher P.; Wallis, Graham P.; Waters, Jonathan M.


    Collisions between tectonic plates lead to the rise of new mountain ranges that can separate biological populations and ultimately result in new species. However, the identification of links between tectonic mountain-building and biological speciation is confounded by environmental and ecological factors. Thus, there are surprisingly few well-documented examples of direct tectonic controls on terrestrial biological speciation. Here we present examples from New Zealand, where the rapid evolution of 18 species of freshwater fishes has resulted from parallel tectonic landscape evolution. We use numerical models to reconstruct changes in the deep crustal structure and surface drainage catchments of the southern island of New Zealand over the past 25 million years. We show that the island and mountain topography evolved in six principal tectonic zones, which have distinct drainage catchments that separated fish populations. We use new and existing phylogenetic analyses of freshwater fish populations, based on over 1,000 specimens from more than 400 localities, to show that fish genomes can retain evidence of this tectonic landscape development, with a clear correlation between geologic age and extent of DNA sequence divergence. We conclude that landscape evolution has controlled on-going biological diversification over the past 25 million years.

  16. Training generalist doctors for rural practice in New Zealand.

    Nixon, Garry; Blattner, Katharina; Williamson, Martyn; McHugh, Patrick; Reid, James


    Targeted postgraduate training increases the likelihood young doctors will take up careers in rural generalist medicine. This article describes the postgraduate pathways that have evolved for these doctors in New Zealand. The Cairns consensus statement 2014 defined rural medical generalism as a scope of practice that encompasses primary care, hospital or secondary care, emergency care, advanced skill sets and a population-based approach to the health needs of rural communities. Even as work goes on to define this role different jurisdictions have developed their own training pathways for these important members of the rural healthcare workforce. In 2002 the University of Otago developed a distance-taught postgraduate diploma aimed at the extended practice of rural general practitioners (GPs) and rural hospital medical officers. This qualification has evolved into a 4-year vocational training program in rural hospital medicine, with the university diploma retained as the academic component. The intentionally flexible and modular nature of the rural hospital training program and university diploma allow for a range of training options. The majority of trainees are taking advantage of this by combining general practice and rural hospital training. Although structured quite differently the components of this combined pathway looks similar to the Australian rural generalist pathways. There is evidence that the program has had a positive impact on the New Zealand rural hospital medical workforce.

  17. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    Yielder, Jill, E-mail: [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen [University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)


    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  18. Traits influencing range contraction in New Zealand's endemic forest birds.

    Parlato, Elizabeth H; Armstrong, Doug P; Innes, John G


    Understanding vulnerability of endemic taxa to predation is clearly important for conservation management. In New Zealand, predation by introduced mammals such as rats and mustelids is widely recognized as the primary factor responsible for declines of indigenous fauna. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vulnerability of New Zealand's surviving endemic forest bird species to impacts of introduced mammalian predators, and identify key life history attributes underlying this vulnerability. We measured range contraction following the introduction of exotic mammalian predators for 23 endemic forest bird species using information on both pre-human and current distributions. We used Bayesian modeling techniques to analyze whether variation in range contraction was associated with life history traits potentially influencing species' predation vulnerability, while accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our results showed that the extent of range contraction varied greatly among species, with some species remaining in available forest habitat throughout most of their pre-human range, and others having disappeared completely from the main islands. Cavity nesting was the key trait associated with more extensive range decline, suggesting that cavity-nesting species are more vulnerable to predation than species that nest in more open sites.

  19. Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.


    A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

  20. New Zealand's mental health legislation needs reform to avoid discrimination.

    Gordon, Sarah E; O'Brien, Anthony


    New Zealand's Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act (the Act) is now over 20 years old. As has occurred historically our conceptualisation of humane treatment of people with mental illness has altered significantly over the period in which the Act has been in force. The emergence of the philosophy of recovery, and its subsequent policy endorsement, has seen a significant shift in mental health service delivery towards a greater emphasis on autonomy. Human rights developments such as New Zealand's ratification of the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have resulted in compulsory treatment, where it is justified in whole or part by a person's mental illness, now being considered antithetical to best practice, and discriminatory. However the number of people subject to the Act is increasing, especially in community settings, and it is questionable how effective the mechanisms for challenging compulsion are in practice. Moreover, monitoring of the situation at the systemic level lacks critical analysis. Complacency, including no indication that review and reform of this now antiquated legislation is nigh, continues a pattern of old where the situation of people with experience of mental illness is largely ignored and neglected.

  1. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A.; Weber, Janet L.; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S.; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C.


    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%–55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand. PMID:28282932

  2. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand.

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen


    IntroductionThis article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). MethodsThe study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. ResultsFindings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. ConclusionsThe authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  3. Highly informative ancient DNA 'snippets' for New Zealand moa.

    Jonathan McCallum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of ancient DNA has provided invaluable information on past ecologies, ancient populations, and extinct species. We used a short snippet of highly variable mitochondrial control region sequence from New Zealand's moa to characterise a large number of bones previously intractable to DNA analysis as well as bone fragments from swamps to gain information about the haplotype diversity and phylogeography that existed in five moa species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By targeting such 'snippets', we show that moa populations differed substantially in geographic structure that is likely to be related to population mobility and history. We show that populations of Pachyornis geranoides, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Dinornis robustus were highly structured and some appear to have occupied the same geographic location for hundreds of thousands of years. In contrast, populations of the moa Anomalopteryx didiformis and Euryapteryx curtus were widespread, with specific populations of the latter occupying both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. We further show that for a specific area, in this case a North Island swamp, complete haplotype diversity and even sex can be recovered from collections of small, often discarded, bone fragments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short highly variable mitochondrial 'snippets' allow successful typing of environmentally damaged and fragmented skeletal material, and can provide useful information about ancient population diversity and structure without the need to sample valuable, whole bones often held by museums.

  4. Absence of mammals and the evolution of New Zealand grasses.

    Antonelli, Alexandre; Humphreys, Aelys M; Lee, William G; Linder, H Peter


    Anthropogenic alteration of biotic distributions and disturbance regimes has dramatically changed the evolutionary context for the differentiation of species traits. Some of the most striking examples in recent centuries have been on islands where flightless birds, which evolved in the absence of mammalian carnivores, have been decimated following the widespread introduction of exotic predators. Until now, no equivalent case has been reported for plants. Here, we make use of robust analytical tools and an exceptionally well-sampled molecular phylogeny to show that a majority of New Zealand danthonioid grasses (Poaceae) may have adapted to the relaxed vertebrate herbivore pressure during the late Cenozoic through the development of a distinctive and unusual habit: abscission of old leaves. This feature occurs in only about 3 per cent of the world's roughly 11,000 grass species and has been empirically shown to increase plant productivity but to reduce protection against mammal grazing. This result suggests that release from a selective pressure can lead to species radiations. This seemingly anachronistic adaptation may represent an overlooked factor contributing to the severe decline in the geographical extent and species diversity of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands following the introduction of herbivorous terrestrial mammals in the 19th century.

  5. The role, costs and value for money of external consultancies in the health sector: A study of New Zealand's District Health Boards.

    Penno, Erin; Gauld, Robin


    Public spending on external consultancies, particularly within the health sector, is highly controversial in many countries. Yet, despite the apparently large sums of money involved, there is little international analysis surrounding the scope of activities of consultants, meaning there is little understanding of how much is spent, for what purpose and with what result. This paper examines spending on external consultancies in each of New Zealand's 20 District Health Boards (DHB). Using evidence obtained from DHBs, it provides an insight into the cost and activities of consultants within the New Zealand health sector, the policies behind their engagement and the processes in place to ensure value for money. It finds that DHB spending on external consultants is substantial, at $NZ10-60 million annually. However, few DHBs had policies governing when consultants should be engaged and many were unable to easily identify the extent or purpose of consultancies within their organisation, making it difficult to derive an accurate picture of consultant activity throughout the DHB sector. Policies surrounding value for money were uncommon and, where present, were rarely applied. Given the large sums being spent by New Zealand's DHBs, and assuming expenditure is similar in other health systems, our findings point to the need for greater accountability for expenditure and better evidence of value for money of consultancies within publicly funded health systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the First International Megapode Symposium, Christchurch, New Zealand, December 1990

    Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Jones, D.N.


    Contents Contents................................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.............................................................................................................

  7. Young Children's Learning in Art Museums: A Review of New Zealand and International Literature

    Terreni, Lisa


    In order to examine the existing literature in relation to the benefits of art museum education for the young, as well as to emphasise the literature gap in early childhood education research pertaining to access to and use of art museums by young children, a review of literature that discussed museum education for young children was undertaken. A…

  8. An Analysis of the Qualitative Characteristics of Management Commentary Reporting by New Zealand Companies

    Bikram Chatterjee


    Full Text Available The narrative section of annual reports has considerable value to its user groups, such as financial analysts and investors (Barlett & Chandler 1997; International Accounting Standards Board (IASB 2006; Tiexiera 2004. This narrative section including chirpersons’/presidents’ statement contains twice the quantity ofinformation than the financial statements section (Smith & Taffler 2000. However, the abundance of information does not necessarily enhance the quality of such information (IASB 2006. This issue ofqualitative characteristics has been long foregone by researchers. This issue has attracted the attention of IASB (2006. Following the dearth in research in regard to qualitative characteristics of reporting this paper explores whether investors’ required qualitative characteristics as outlined by the IASB (2006 have beensatisfied in the management commentary section of New Zealand companies’ annual reports. Our result suggests that the principal stakeholders’, that is, investors’ qualitative characteristics requirements have been partially met in this section of annual reports. The qualitative characteristic of ‘relevance’ and ‘supportability’ have been satisfied in more annual reports compared to that of ‘balance’ and ‘comparability’.

  9. Participatory photography gives voice to young non-drivers in New Zealand.

    Ward, Aimee L; Baggett, Trina; Orsini, Arthur; Angelo, Jennifer; Weiss, Hank


    Youth have the highest crash injury risk in New Zealand. Māori and Pacific youth have an even higher risk. Highlighting and promoting benefits of modal shift from cars to active and public transport may increase health and safety. We aimed to create a discussion surrounding transport issues to gain a better understanding of attitudes and behaviours of non-driving youth, to empower our participants and to promote health and social change by making participants' opinions and experiences known to the broader community through a public exhibition. We engaged nine non-drivers aged 16-24 years in photovoice. Through sharing their photos and stories, participants used the power of the visual image to communicate their experiences. This method is an internationally recognized tool that reduces inequalities by giving those who have minimal decision-making power an opportunity to share their voice. By the end of the project, it was clear that the participants were comfortable with their non-driving status, noting that public and active transport was more cost-effective, easy and convenient. This attitude reflects recent studies showing a marked decrease in licensure among young people in developed countries. This project uniquely prioritized young Māori, Pacific and Asian non-drivers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Parallel molecular routes to cold adaptation in eight genera of New Zealand stick insects.

    Dennis, Alice B; Dunning, Luke T; Sinclair, Brent J; Buckley, Thomas R


    The acquisition of physiological strategies to tolerate novel thermal conditions allows organisms to exploit new environments. As a result, thermal tolerance is a key determinant of the global distribution of biodiversity, yet the constraints on its evolution are not well understood. Here we investigate parallel evolution of cold tolerance in New Zealand stick insects, an endemic radiation containing three montane-occurring species. Using a phylogeny constructed from 274 orthologous genes, we show that stick insects have independently colonized montane environments at least twice. We compare supercooling point and survival of internal ice formation among ten species from eight genera, and identify both freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance in separate montane lineages. Freeze tolerance is also verified in both lowland and montane populations of a single, geographically widespread, species. Transcriptome sequencing following cold shock identifies a set of structural cuticular genes that are both differentially regulated and under positive sequence selection in each species. However, while cuticular proteins in general are associated with cold shock across the phylogeny, the specific genes at play differ among species. Thus, while processes related to cuticular structure are consistently associated with adaptation for cold, this may not be the consequence of shared ancestral genetic constraints.

  11. Stronger communities? Changing prospects for community-led strategic planning in New Zealand

    Bruno Brosnan


    Full Text Available New Zealand’s Local Government Act 2002 ushered in a new phase in local government, a phase that is best characterised by the term ‘empowerment’. Not only were councils empowered to promote social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being, in contrast with previous more prescriptive legislation, but citizens were empowered to engage in community-led strategic planning. In many respects the new statute reflected contemporary international public management trends in which governance is increasingly being conducted via networks of public and private actors. However, with the change of government from a centre-left Labour-led coalition to a centre-right National-led government following the November 2008 general election, it is less certain that local government and communities will continue to experience a strengthening of the pluralisation of governance that has been a feature of the past decade. This article argues that the potential disempowerment of local government, and possible attenuation of community-led strategic planning in New Zealand, comes at a time when the momentum for devolution to local government and other communities is increasing elsewhere.

  12. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.


    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.7±1.4 and 81.3±6.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.34±6.08mT, from an

  13. Measuring the 'obesogenic' food environment in New Zealand primary schools.

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd


    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed.

  14. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah


    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  15. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.


    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  16. Nau mai, haere mai! Welcome to Aotearoa, Land of the Long White Cloud or about Culture and Management in New Zealand

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU


    Full Text Available The Pacific nation of New Zealand may be geographically isolated but it’s easily accessible and very much in tune with international trends in technology and lifestyle. And once you’re here, you’ll discover a technologically and socially advanced nation. Also you’re never far away from the water and boating is a way of life. As in most developed nations, the majority of people live in cities and towns, meaning that vast areas are sparsely populated and numerous national parks and mountainous areas are inhabited by nobody at all.

  17. The New Zealand Health and Disability Commissioner: a comparative assessment of the commissioner's contribution to protecting the rights of mental health consumers.

    Kazmierow, Maria


    The Health and Disabliity Commissioner's contribution to the protection of mental health consumers' rights is examined. This assessment covers a number of aspects. It includes the scope of consumer rights jurisdiction, the breadth of legal entitlements, protective mechanisms used, and the effectiveness of that protection. The Commissioner's role is also assessed comparatively. It is contrasted domestically with District Inspectors of Mental Health and internationally with Scottish and United Kingdom reform proposals. While analysis reveals considerable similarities, the New Zealand Health and Disability Commissioner is favourably highlighted in contrast with Scotland and the United Kingdom, particularly in the area of enforceability of mental health consumer rights.

  18. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE.

    Darren Ward

    Full Text Available Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE. Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae. However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286, and major differences include: i the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe; and ii the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%. The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36% have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60% compared to Europe (~30%, and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950. Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  19. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    Lieshout, P. van [DesignPower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)


    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  20. Literature Education in Ten Countries: An Empirical Study. International Studies in Evaluation II.

    Purves, Alan C.

    It is the purpose of this volume to present some of the highlights of the literature survey inaugurated by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement which was undertaken in nine countries: Belgium, Chile, England, Finland, Iran, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United States. Information was sought concerning…

  1. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices and Fourth-Graders' Reading Literacy Achievements: An International Study

    Hao, Shiqi; Johnson, Robert L.


    This study, through multilevel analyses of the data of four English-speaking nations (i.e., Canada, England, New Zealand and the United States) from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 database, investigated the relationship between teachers' uses of various types of classroom assessments and their fourth-graders'…

  2. Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby

    Goff, John Eric; Lipscombe, Trevor Davis


    The hearts of sports fans were stirred recently by the fastest-ever try scored in international rugby. Welsh winger Dafydd Howells crossed the Fijian try line to score a mere six seconds after Angus O'Brien had started the game with a kickoff, in one of the fixtures in rugby's Junior World Cup played on June 2, 2014, in New Zealand. This…

  3. International trends in health science librarianship: part 1 - the English speaking world.

    Browne, Ruth; Lasserre, Kaye; McTaggart, Jill; Bayley, Liz; McKibbon, Ann; Clark, Megan; Perry, Gerald J; Murphy, Jeannette


    This is the second in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country - viz. Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Future issues will track trends in Northern Europe, the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM.

  4. From Them to Us: An International Study of Inclusion in Education.

    Booth, Tony, Ed.; Ainscow, Mel, Ed.

    This book describes the outcomes of a comparative study that brought together an international team of researchers from eight countries (United States, Scotland, New Zealand, Norway, the Netherlands, Ireland, Australia, and England). The purpose of the study was to develop case studies that would explore the process of inclusion and exclusion…

  5. Magnetotelluric Phase Tensor Applications to Geothermal Assessment in New Zealand and New Mexico

    Jiracek, G. R.; Feucht, D. W.; Brown, D.; Castro, B.; Chang, J.; Goff, D.; Hardwick, C.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Nakai, J.; Wilson, C.; Bertrand, E. A.; Bennie, S.; Caldwell, G.; Hill, G. J.; Wallin, E.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Hasterok, D. P.; Pellerin, L.


    Magnetotelluric (MT) phase tensor analysis preserves the background (regional) phase response irrespective of galvanic distortion even if distorting inhomogeneities change between multiple MT deployments. This characteristic is the basis for repeat MT monitoring of the South Karapiti, New Zealand region near the Wairakei Power Station where 1-2 km-deep reinjection of spent geothermal fluids will commence soon. Deep electrical conductivity changes caused by this injection may be detected by background phase tensor changes independent of possible surficial changes, e.g., from drilling operations, or from differing sensor alignments during the multi-MT occupations. In 2010-2012 twenty MT sites within 1.5 km of a newly-drilled injection well were reoccupied by New Zealand GNS scientists and US students from NSF's International Research Experiences for Students program. Maps of phase tensor ellipses at various frequencies have identified frequency bands exhibiting good repeatability, therefore, they are potentially useful for detection of future brine injection. Final reoccupation of the MT sites is scheduled in 2013 after a large brine injection. In New Mexico, the 2012 SAGE program (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) applied phase tensor analysis to 8 MT soundings aimed at understanding the occurrence of anomalously high vertical and horizontal temperature gradients located approximately 25 km NW of Santa Fe. Plots of phase tensor ellipses allowed unique, distortion-free visualization of the dimensionality and directions of background geoelectric variations. Analysis of the plots as functions of frequency and location revealed a nearly one-dimensional (1-D) upper conductive (sedimentary) section. Variations in the orientations of the principal axes of phase tensor ellipses exposed an overall, deeper three-dimensional (3-D) geoelectric structure in the region. However, two sequential frequency bands revealed dominantly two-dimensional (2-D) regional features

  6. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry


    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  7. Policies for the vaccination of cats and dogs in New Zealand veterinary practices.

    Cave, N J; Jackson, R; Bridges, J P


    To determine current practices and attitudes towards vaccination of dogs and cats of veterinarians in New Zealand; the methods used for informing clients on which vaccines to use, and the preferred site for vaccination of cats. A postal questionnaire was sent to all 483 listed veterinary practices in New Zealand during February 2012. Some questions were specific to pet dogs, cats, or working farm dogs. Responses were categorised according to practice type and geographical region of the respondent. Factors associated with respondent recommendation of annual vaccination with modified live viral (MLV) vaccines were examined using logistic regression analysis. Vaccines that were considered to be essential for every animal were defined as core; those that may be recommended for animals whose location or lifestyle placed them at risk, were defined as non-core. There were 204 useable returns, equivalent to a response rate of 42.2%, distributed across the country. Annual vaccination with MLV vaccines of dogs was recommended by 54/198 (27.3%) respondents, and of cats by 107/181 (59.1%) respondents. Factors associated with the recommendation of annual administration of MLV vaccines to dogs included being a companion animal practice, a desire for policies on vaccination to be left to individual clinics, and having one veterinarian in the practice. Administration of the final vaccination for puppies was recommended at ≥14 weeks old by 55/185 (29.7%) respondents, and for kittens at ≥13 weeks old by 42/183 (23%) respondents. Of respondents that administered MLV vaccines annually, 62/103 (60.2%) believed reducing the frequency of vaccination would reduce income, and 52/103 (50.5%) considered it would have a negative effect on animal health. Advice to enable clients to decide which non-core vaccines were administered was given by 181/199 (91%) respondents. Factors considered when recommending a vaccine included consideration of risk to individual patients (190/203; 93

  8. Persist and cope: New Zealand women in computing

    Alison Hunter

    Full Text Available New Zealand has a thriving computing industry but further growth is hampered by a skills shortage. A lack of women in the industry exacerbates this problem. Women are under-represented in the industry, and those who do take up computing careers experience conditions of discrimination and marginalisation. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the strategies used by women to cope with their marginalisation. Using multi-sited ethnographic methodology, data were collected using semi-structured interviews with twenty-nine computing professionals. Despite some women denying any marginalisation, all were found to employ some form of coping strategy. Seven different strategies were identified. The women interviewed were more inclined to join organisations directly relating to their roles rather than support initiatives which might improve conditions for women.

  9. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand

    Simon A. Reid


    Full Text Available Purpose of the review: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ. The review sought to determine 1 how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2 how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3 how collaborative and integrated they are. Recent findings: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD. Of the broad range of One Health research performed in ANZ, the majority is performed by teams with limited disciplinary diversity, although diversity is improving. Summary: Progress has been made in building collaboration between human, animal, and environmental health professions. However, the lack of clearly defined competencies and agreed purpose for One Health may be impeding collaboration.

  10. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand

    Reid, Simon A.; McKenzie, Joanna; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.


    Purpose of the review This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are. Recent findings There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD). Of the broad range of One Health research performed in ANZ, the majority is performed by teams with limited disciplinary diversity, although diversity is improving. Summary Progress has been made in building collaboration between human, animal, and environmental health professions. However, the lack of clearly defined competencies and agreed purpose for One Health may be impeding collaboration. PMID:27906122

  11. Native title and the New Zealand mining experience

    Ingram, J.


    Discusses legislation affecting mining in New Zealand. All legislation for the management of land, air, water, mineral and energy resources is now embodied in the Resource Management Act and the Crown Minerals Act. This new legislation came into force in October 1991. The aim of the Resource Management Act is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources. As minerals cannot be mined sustainably, legislation concerning minerals was placed in a separate Bill, the Crown Minerals Bill. This Bill ensures that the value of each mineral to the Crown is maximized. The paper discusses the application of mining legislation to Maori land. The establishment of a steel industry at Glenbrook, 45 km south of Auckland is described as a case study.

  12. Toponymy: positionality and containment on New Zealand high country stations

    Michele Dominy


    Full Text Available I examine the discursive practice of naming and its use as a way of dividing up the landscape to designate location and create meaningful spaces, as well as to understand high country people"s conception and construction of place. In this analysis, an array of materials is used, including geological maps, resource surveys, and high country inhabitants" vernacular categories. The semiotic qualities of narratives are elicited by transforming boundary talk into cognitive components. In the high country of the South Island of New Zealand, social cartography is measured from the homestead; directionality is more important than altitude. Ways of talking about place specify not only location, but also use and belonging.I catalogue these names and map the place to hold them still. Maurice Gee (Sole Survivor 1983, cited in McNaughton 1986, p.277

  13. Proximate analysis of New Zealand and Australian coals by thermogravimetry

    Beamish, B.B. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology


    A technique has been developed at The University of Auckland for proximate analysis of coals by thermogravimetry using sample weights of {lt}20 mg. Samples from three New Zealand coalfields and the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, have been analysed. Coals tested range in rank from subbituminous to semianthracite, and have ash contents from 3.1 to 21.4% on a dry basis. Results obtained using the technique are within acceptable precision limits of the standard procedure. Volatile matter content of the coal shows a logarithmic increase with decreasing sample weight. To minimise this effect on repeatability, and to optimise the equipment capabilities, sample weights of 15.5 +/- 0.5 mg should be used. The technique is ideally suited to (1) analysing samples where insufficient material is available for standard proximate analysis, and (2) correlation with microstudies of coal.

  14. Does Board Independence Matter? Evidence from New Zealand

    Hardjo Koerniadi


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the presence of independent directors on firm value using both market-based performance measures (Tobin’s Q ratio and EVA and accounting-based ratios (ROA and ROE. We find that, instead of adding value, independent directors in NewZealand negatively affect firm value. We also find that, consistent with stewardship theory,independent directors have a positive effect on firm value only when they are in the minority.These findings are important given the increasing trend toward independence in corporate boards around the globe and suggest that board independence may not generally be suitable for countries where managers are considered as active partners along with other stakeholders in companies.

  15. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham


    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  16. On the Waterfront: The Historic Waterfront Precinct, Dunedin, New Zealand

    Alexander Trapeznik


    Full Text Available This article examines the industrial and mercantile built heritage of New Zealand by considering a remarkable precinct in Dunedin of surviving commercial buildings from the second half of the nineteenth century. The city was then the country’s financial, commercial and industrial centre, having undergone a gold rush boom in the 1860s. A large industrial and commercial precinct was rapidly created on reclaimed land in the central city over the following three decades. This study seeks to emphasise the importance of the agricultural economy and the stock and station agency business in particular to urban growth; this urban-rural interdependency that shaped nineteenth-century Dunedin. This contradicts the common emphasis on the gold rush boom and its architectural legacy. This study adopts a landscapes approach, offering a holistic framework which recognises the inter-relationship of

  17. The indigenous and the imported: The New Zealand school system

    Snook, Ivan


    New Zealand (Aotearoa) was colonized from Britain and the colonizers imposed on the indigenous Maori people a foreign view of education. From then on tradition has vied with local adaptations to produce a school system with substantial traces of the `Old Country' but with many local features. The curriculum for boys continued to dominate, with that for girls struggling to make itself felt. There has been constant debate about `basics' and `frills' though these terms have not been clearly defined. More recently there has been more serious consideration of the curriculum but this has been overtaken by a `market forces' view of schooling. A new administration system comes into operation on 1st October 1989. The future is unclear but it is reasonable to hope that there will continue a dialectic which may one day produce a genuine synthesis suited to the multicultural nature of Aotearoa.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: New Zealand 2010 update



    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  19. (Non)regulation of marketing of unhealthy food to children in New Zealand.

    Shaw, Caroline


    Three and a half years ago an editorial in the NZMJ called for restrictions on marketing of unhealthy food to New Zealand children. This paper discusses progress since then. There has been a seemingly relentless documentation of adverse health consequences of the obesity epidemic in the intervening years, increasing evidence that marketing of unhealthy food contributes to the epidemic, growing knowledge about New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy food, and evidence of public support to decrease children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy food. Yet there is still a lack of substantive action on the restriction of marketing of unhealthy food to children in New Zealand.

  20. Launching Ceremony of China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum Held in Auckland

    Xu; Fenghua


    The Launching Ceremony of the China-New Zealand Mayoral Forumjointlyorgani zedby the CPAFF Cand Local Government New Zealand(LGNZ)was held in Auckland on November 21,2014.Chinese President Xi Jinping who was on a state visit to New Zealand and his host Prime Minister John Key attended and gave speeches.Wang Huning,Li Zhanshu,Yang Jiechi and other Party and State leaders of China were among the 100 people attending the event.In his speech,President Xi said the timely launching of the China-

  1. A Comparison of the Geochemical Features of Some Loess Sections in New Zealand and China

    文启忠; DENNISN.EDEN; 等


    A comparison of the geochemical features of loesses of New Zealand and China indicates that the distributions of the elements and their variations reflect the fluctuations of climate which can be compared with the oxygen isotope stages and glacial periods.New Zialand loess is different in source from Chinese loess.Therefore ,some differences are also noticed in their chemical compositions .Loess accumulation in New Zealand is later than that in China.Because of more rainfall in New Zealand and different distributions of loess the elements in loess have suffered stronger leaching than in China.

  2. Sleep disorders among high school students in New Zealand

    Fernando AT


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. RESULTS: A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23 and females represented 43.5% (n=604 of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, p<0.01, and sleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, p<0.01. Problem alcohol use and other substance use were more common in students with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively. No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.

  3. Arsenic speciation of geothermal waters in New Zealand.

    Lord, Gillian; Kim, Nick; Ward, Neil I


    Total arsenic and four arsenic species; arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), are reported in 28 geothermal features from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Waikato region of New Zealand. Samples were collected for arsenic speciation analysis via a solid phase extraction (SPE) kit allowing the separation, stabilisation and pre-concentration of the species at the time of sample collection in the field. This is the first research to present data for arsenic species collected by this technique in geothermal waters from New Zealand. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 0.008 to 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As. The highest levels were discovered in three features in Tokaanu (Taumatapuhipuhi, Takarea #5 and #6), with arsenic concentrations of 8.59, 8.70 and 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As, respectively. Inorganic arsenic species were predominant in the geothermal waters, with arsenite contributing to more than 70% of the total arsenic in the majority of samples. Organic species were also determined in all samples, indicating the presence of microbial activity. A potential risk to human health was highlighted due to the high levels of arsenic, mainly as arsenite, in geothermal features linked to bathing pools. Further research is needed into dermal absorption as a potential route of arsenic exposure whilst bathing in these hot pools, as it may contribute to an occurrence of acute arsenic-related health problems.

  4. Gallstones in New Zealand: composition, risk factors and ethnic differences.

    Stringer, Mark D; Fraser, Sara; Gordon, Keith C; Sharples, Katrina; Windsor, John A


    Gallstone disease is a worldwide problem causing morbidity, mortality and a drain on health-care resources. This prospective study aimed to investigate the spectrum of gallstone types in New Zealand and relate these to known risk factors. Gallstone samples were collected from 107 patients undergoing surgery for gallstone disease at Auckland City Hospital between June 2009 and June 2010. Detailed chemical analyses were performed using Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. The relationship between gallstone type and age, gender, ethnicity, obesity and positive family history were analysed. Median age was 51 years (range 19-88), 75 (70%) were female, one third were obese (body mass index ≥ 30) and 41% had a positive family history. Major ethnic groups were European (51%), Asian (23%) and Māori/Pacific (18%). Gallstone types included pure or mixed cholesterol stones (74%), black pigment stones (20%) and brown pigment stones (5%). Asians had a higher proportion of black pigment stones and NZ Europeans had more cholesterol and mixed cholesterol stones (odds ratio 3.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 11.5)). The frequency of cholesterol/mixed cholesterol stones was not significantly different between NZ Europeans and Māori/Pacific groups (P = 0.7). Black pigment stones were more common in older patients (mean 68.0 years compared with 47.6 for cholesterol/mixed cholesterol stones) (P = 0.0001). There was no significant relationship between stone type and family history (P = 0.16) or gender (P = 0.17). This novel prospective study highlights risk factors and ethnic differences in gallstone composition in New Zealand. These may be important when considering gallstone prevention strategies. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Tapering Practices of New Zealand's Elite Raw Powerlifters.

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Tod, David A; Barnes, Matthew J; Keogh, Justin W; McGuigan, Michael R


    Pritchard, HJ, Tod, DA, Barnes, MJ, Keogh, JW, and McGuigan, MR. Tapering practices of New Zealand's elite raw powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1796-1804, 2016-The major aim of this study was to determine tapering strategies of elite powerlifters. Eleven New Zealand powerlifters (28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score of 431.9 ± 43.9 points) classified as elite were interviewed, using semistructured interviews, about their tapering strategies. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Total training volume peaked 5.2 ± 1.7 weeks from competition while average training intensity (of 1 repetition maximum) peaked 1.9 ± 0.8 weeks from competition. During tapering, volume was reduced by 58.9 ± 8.4% while intensity was maintained (or slightly reduced) and the final weight training session was performed 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Participants generally stated that tapering was performed to achieve full recovery; that accessory work was removed around 2 weeks out from competition; and deadlifting takes longer to recover from than other lifts. Typically participants stated that trial and error, and changes based on "feel" were the sources of tapering strategies; equipment used and movements performed during tapering are the same as in competition; nutrition was manipulated during the taper (for weight cutting or performance aims); and poor tapering occurred when too long (1 week or more) was taken off training. These results suggest that athletes may benefit from continuing to strength train before important events with reduced volume and maintained intensity. Only exercises that directly assist sports performance should remain in the strength program during tapering, to assist with reductions in fatigue while maintaining/improving strength expression and performance.

  6. Contemporary tectonic stress pattern of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Rajabi, Mojtaba; Ziegler, Moritz; Tingay, Mark; Heidbach, Oliver; Reynolds, Scott


    The present-day stress state is a key parameter in numerous geoscientific research fields including geodynamics, seismic hazard assessment, and geomechanics of georeservoirs. The Taranaki Basin of New Zealand is located on the Australian Plate and forms the western boundary of tectonic deformation due to Pacific Plate subduction along the Hikurangi margin. This paper presents the first comprehensive wellbore-derived basin-scale in situ stress analysis in New Zealand. We analyze borehole image and oriented caliper data from 129 petroleum wells in the Taranaki Basin to interpret the shape of boreholes and determine the orientation of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax). We combine these data (151 SHmax data records) with 40 stress data records derived from individual earthquake focal mechanism solutions, 6 from stress inversions of focal mechanisms, and 1 data record using the average of several focal mechanism solutions. The resulting data set has 198 data records for the Taranaki Basin and suggests a regional SHmax orientation of N068°E (±22°), which is in agreement with NW-SE extension suggested by geological data. Furthermore, this ENE-WSW average SHmax orientation is subparallel to the subduction trench and strike of the subducting slab (N50°E) beneath the central western North Island. Hence, we suggest that the slab geometry and the associated forces due to slab rollback are the key control of crustal stress in the Taranaki Basin. In addition, we find stress perturbations with depth in the vicinity of faults in some of the studied wells, which highlight the impact of local stress sources on the present-day stress rotation.

  7. Internal and International Corruption

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci


    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  8. International arbejdsdeling

    Henten, Anders


    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  9. Internal Bleeding

    ... in Paralyzed Monkeys Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Wounds Soft-Tissue Injuries Severed or Constricted Limbs ...

  10. Time-capsule: Explorations of Concepts of Time and Law in Colonial New Zealand

    Jonathan Barrett


    Full Text Available Postcolonial legal culture in New Zealand (Aotearoa has sought to revise the past by reinterpreting Victorian legal contexts in the light of contemporary understandings of inter-cultural differences. This article develops an argument that demonstrates the relationship between cultural and legal notions of time during nineteenth century New Zealand. It examines the way in which Victorian attitudes were expressed in the expansion of colonial empire and the discursive ideologies which may have informed them. It explores the notion of time as expressed in lawmaking in colonial New Zealand through an examination of legal and philosophical commentary derived from contemporary jurisprudence and para-legal literature. The article is concerned with presenting an argument for the way in which colonial law and lawmakers manipulated the symbolic notion of time to the possible occlusion of indigenous interests in colonial New Zealand.

  11. Geologic Provinces of Australia and New Zealand, 2000 (prv3cl)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Australia and New Zealand area...

  12. Fred Tschopp (1905-1980, Landscape Architecture: New Zealands Forst Modern Practitioner

    John Adam


    Full Text Available Ad Astera Per Aspera With its naturally beautiful and varied topography the Domain calls for nothing less than 'landscape architecture'. This is something more comprehensive than 'landscape gardening'. Fred Tschopp, 1931 (New Zealand Herald

  13. Friendship Activities in Brief——Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand



    At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  14. Socio-economic drivers of freshwater fish declines in a changing climate: a New Zealand perspective.

    Ling, N


    New Zealand has a freshwater fish fauna characterized by high levels of national and local endemism and which is threatened by anthropogenic stressors including habitat destruction or deterioration, commercial harvest, pollution and interactions with invasive exotic species. Significant expansion of New Zealand's dairy production has recently created further deterioration of lowland water quality and greater pressure for water allocation in drier eastern regions of the South Island. New Zealand has large freshwater resources and its climate is predicted to experience less dramatic changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation than many other regions of the world as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Predicted changes in regional climate and further expansion of the dairy industry, however, will impose similar pressures on freshwater resources in northern New Zealand to those already acting to threaten freshwater biodiversity in the eastern South Island.

  15. The New Zealand Labour Movement and Migration: A Short Historical Survey.

    Roth, Herbert


    The labor movement in New Zealand was heavily influenced by British unions and migration policies. Other factors were union opposition to further immigration and the treatment of the Maori people. (SK)

  16. An evaluation of new circle system of anesthesia. Quantitative anesthesia with isoflurane in new zealand rabbits

    Fonseca,Neuber M.; Saul Goldenberg; Duvaldo Eurides; Novo, Neil F; Cirilo A. P. Lima


    A small circuit system of anesthesia was developed by Fonseca and Goldenberg in 1993. The authors used in this study New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits under closed system anesthetic regiment by insoflurane. Twenty male adult New Zealand rabbits were distributed in two groups of ten animals. No premedicant drugs were given. Endotraqueal intubation was made after intravenous administration of propofol (10mg/kg). Insoflurane was used to anesthesia management, administred by lowflow closed system t...

  17. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) and human factors training: What Air New Zealand is doing about it

    Scott-Milligan, Fionna; Wyness, Bryan


    The authors have played an integral role in Air New Zealand's evaluation of CRM and Human Factors training options available to date. As the final decision as to which course is best suited to Air New Zealand's needs has yet to be made, briefly outlined are: (1) why this form of training was considered necessary; (2) the approach taken to evaluating the options available; (3) some of the problems encountered on the way; and (4) some plans for the future.

  18. Transformational Leadership and the New Zealand Defence Force: Supporting Effective Organizational Change


    Force, 2012), 14. 20 This assertion was supported by the Controller and Auditor - General in their report on the civilianization process. 21 New Zealand...Defence Force, Annual Report , 15. 22 Controller and Auditor - General , The Civilianisation Process, 15. 23 New Zealand Defence Force, NZDF Ongoing...Army Command and General Staff College ATTN: ATZL-SWD-GD Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2301 8. PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  19. Three new species of the genus Austrophthiracarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae).

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang


    Three new species of Austrophthiracarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) from New Zealand are described: Austrophthiracarus matuku sp. nov. from the Bethells Matuku Reserve, Auckland, Austrophthiracarus notoporosus sp. nov. from the Tutoko Bench, Fiordland and Austrophthiracarus karioi sp. nov. from the Mt. Karioi, Waikato. Holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research and paratypes are deposited in the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Perception of Workplace Discrimination among Immigrants and Native Born New Zealanders

    Daldy, Bridget M.; Poot, Jacques; Roskruge, Matthew


    Despite considerable research on differences in labour market outcomes between native born New Zealanders and immigrants, the extent of discrimination experienced by the foreign born in the workplace remains relatively unexplored. We use micro data from the Confidentialised Unit Record File of the 2008 New Zealand General Social Survey (n = 8,721) to examine the determinants of self-reported discrimination in the workplace. We find that immigrants are significantly more likely than New Zealan...