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Sample records for zashchitnoj obolochki aehs

  1. Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Krause, Daniel; Herder, Eelco

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Krause, D., & Herder, E. (2008). Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies. In W. Nejdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (Eds.), Proceedings Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems 5th International Conference, AH 2008 (pp. 410-415). July 29-August, 1, 2008, Hannover, Germany:

  2. Scalable Coupling of Multi-Scale AEH and PARADYN Impact Analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valisetty, Rama; Cheung, Peter; Namburu, Raju

    2004-01-01

    .... An asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) based micro-structural code available for modeling micro-structural aspects of modern armor materials is coupled with PARADYN, a parallel explicit Lagrangian finite element code...

  3. Scalable Coupling of Multiscale AEH and PARADYN Analyses for Impact Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valisetty, Rama R; Chung, Peter W; Namburu, Raju R

    2005-01-01

    .... An asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH)-based microstructural model available for modeling microstructural aspects of modern armor materials is coupled with PARADYN, a parallel explicit Lagrangian finite-element code...

  4. Slug-Burst Detection in the G3 Reactor; La detection de rupture de gaine au reacteur G3; Obnaruzhenie razryva obolochki v reaktore G3; Deteccion de fallas del revestimiento en el reactor G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plisson, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Marcoule (France)

    1963-10-15

    The author explains the principles underlying slug-burst detection and describes the construction of the apparatus concerned. The main features are a) fully automatic operation, b) centralization of data in the control room and c) measurement by electrostatic collection on a turntable. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire, l'auteur expose les principes sur lesquels est fondee la detection de rupture de gaines et il decrit la realisation des installations. Les caracteristiques principales sont a) l'automatisme integral, b) la centralisation des informations dans la salle de commande et c) mesure par collection electrostatique sur plaque tournante. (author) [Spanish] El autor expone los principios en que se basa la deteccion de las fallas en los revestimientos de los elementos combustibles y describe las caracteristicas principales de la instalacion, que son: a) automatizacion integral, b) centralizacion de las informaciones en la sala de mandos, y c) medicion por recoleccion electrostatica sobre una placa giratoria. (author) [Russian] Izlagayutsya printsipy, na kotorykh osnovano obnaruzhenie razryva obolochki, opisyvaetsya konstruirovanie ustanovok. Osnovnye kharakteristiki takovy: a) integral'nyj avtomatizm, b) tsentralizatsiya informatsii v komandnom zale i c) izmerenie putem ehlektrostaticheskogo sobiraniya na povorachivayushchejsya plastinke. (author)

  5. Gas-flow detector for uranium contamination on finned-can surface of a reactor fuel; Detecteur a courant gazeux pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire; Gazopotochnyj detektor zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov; Detector de flujo gaseoso para medir la contaminacion de uranio en la superficie de la vaina de aletas de los elementos combustibles para reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Shiojiri, T; Maeda, Y [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    colectores y el catodo sirve de camara de multiplicacion gaseosa, al igual que en un contador proporcional ordinario. Cada resistencia de 50 k{Omega} separa la capacidad parasita del respectivo colector de las de los otros. La salida del detector se acopla a un amplificador de corriente de baja impedancia de entrada. Esa baja impedancia de entrada tambien contribuye a reducir el efecto nocivo de la capacidad parasita de los circuitos de entrada. Asi se obtiene una relacion senal/ruido conveniente y se facilita una deteccion de particulas alfa con buena sensibilidad. Antes de efectuar una medida se empieza por hacer el vacio en el contador mediante una bomba rotativa y luego se introduce el gas (argon = 90%, metano = 10%). Usando este nuevo equipo, los autores han logrado detectar con exito las particulas alfa emitidas por una contaminacion de 1 x 10{sup -5}g de uranio natural sobre la superficie de una vaina de aletas en un elemento combustible para reactor tipo Calder Hall y de ahora en adelante todos los elementos combustibles destinados al reactor JRR-3 se habran de inspeccionar con el contador descrito. (author) [Russian] EHtot gazopotochnyj detektor predstavlyaet soboyu setochnyj proportsional'nyj schetchik, spetsial'no skonstruirovannyj dlya obnaruzheniya zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov. Obychnyj proportsional'nyj schetchik, sostoyashchij lish' iz katoda i kollektora, vryad li mozhet obnaruzhivat' al'fa-chastitsy, ispuskaemye uranom, zagryaznyayushchim nerovnuyu poverkhnost', kak, naprimer, rebra obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov, tak kak ehlektricheskoe pole vblizi takoj poverkhnosti teryaet svoyu odnorodnost'. Po ehtim soobrazheniyam my postroili setochnyj proportsional'nyj schetchik. Ehtot schetchik sostoit iz toplivnogo ehlementa, setki, kollektorov i katoda, skonstruirovannogo v forme tsilindra i raspolozhennogo koaksial'no. Toplivnyj ehlement pomeshchaetsya v seredinu setki i

  6. Positive and negative aspects of the Kozloduy NPP; AEhS Kozloduy - plyusy i minusy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzmanov, K [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    This opening address delivered by the Kozloduy NPP General Director summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of the Kozloduy NPP. It is emphasized that the plant supplies 40% of the national electricity demand and has been running without any accidents or environmental contamination. The production cost of the electricity produced is between two and three times less than the one from thermal stations. Among the disadvantages are: great initial investments; the need to handle and store properly the radioactive waste; the need for modernization and reconstruction in order to improve safety.

  7. Non-destructive control at the Kozloduy NPP; Nerazrushayushchij kontrol` v AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhovsky, M [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Skordev, A [SIME-CONTROL, Sofia (Bulgaria); Nichev, V; Tsokov, P; Popova, N [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    A program for technical diagnostics using non-destructive methods is being carried out at the Kozloduy NPP. The main target is to test mechanical equipment integrity (metal control, mechanical stress control, etc.) as well as electrical equipment. Computer methods and simulation are widely used in program implementation. Non-destructive testing is based on methods involving optical, radiation, ultrasonic and magnetic processes. Control procedures are standardised in special technological documents and one of them is described as an example. It refers to ultrasonic control of the austenitic steel welds of the WWER-440 piping system (DU-500). Graphic representing the microstructure of the welds, the distribution of surface ultrasonic wave and the longitudinal and vertically polarised perpendicular waves are presented. 6 refs. 8 figs.

  8. Kozloduy NPP - its 20 years operational experience; AEhS `Kozloduy`: 20-letni opyt ehksploatatsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankov, M; Grizanov, I; Sabinov, S [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The main technical and economic results of 20 year operation of the Kozloduy NPP are summarised. The total electricity produced amounts to more than 200 billions KWh. The energy produced by the plant accounts for more than 40% of the national electricity output since 1993. Details of electricity production in different years by all 6 units are given. The efficiency of units 1-4 (WWER-440) is 29-30% and of units 5-6 (WWER-1000) is 29-33%. The Unit 6 has best characteristics. Since 1989 a safety test is being carried out in cooperation with the IAEA. Units 1 and 2 have been reconstructed in order to enhance safety and reliability. 1 tab.

  9. Nuclear power plants with reactors WWER-1000 type: today and tomorrow; AEhS s WWER-1000: nastoyashchee i budushchee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanov, V; Biryukov, G; Novak, K [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    There are currently 19 NPP units based on WWER-1000 reactors working in Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria. They are of four types: V-187, V-302, V-338, V-320. The design principles of these reactors comply with regulations of the eighties, and it is necessary to introduce improvements according to the new regulations and to the operation experience gained. Two approaches for safety and efficiency enhancement are described: AS-91 and AS-92. AS-91 implies gradual improvement of the base WWER-1000/V-320 design by incorporation of new design solutions avoiding the need of building large scale models. AS-92 refers to entirely new design which require experimental research by building a full scale models or by using natural stands. The latter approach will be used for NPP projects to be built after year 2000. The main new feature of AS-92 is the addition of passive safety systems to the active ones in order to protect the fuel from damage.

  10. Safety culture in an RBMK perspective; Sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya sistemy povysheniya kul`tury bezopasnosti AEhS Rossii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porokhin, V G [Rosenergoatom, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation discusses the following issues: state and perspectives of the development of the system on Russia NPP safety culture enhancement; steps of Rosehnergoatom on development of system on Russia NPP Russia NPP safety culture enhancement, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the safety culture, the nearest perspectives on safety culture enhancement in Russia.

  11. Promotion of a good safety culture at Ignalina RBMKs; Vnedrenie kul`tury bezopasnosti na Ignalinskoj AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevaldin, V [Ignalina NPP, Visaginas (Lithuania)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation discusses the following issues: politics of Ignalina nuclear power plant in the area of safety and quality assurance; check of safety conditions; the activities of the Safety committee at the Ignalina NPP.

  12. Safety problems of nuclear power plants with reactors of new generation; Voprosy bezopasnosti v proehktakh AEhS novogo pokoleniya s WWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V; Rogov, M; Biryukov, G [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Modernization schemes for safety enhancement of WWER-1000 reactors are proposed. In the case of WWER-1000/V-392 it is based on introduction of additional safety systems and overall design improvement. For WWER-1100 (1000-1100 MW) the safety is enhanced by passive systems built from two-stage heat exchangers. For WWER-500/600 the use of passive safety system is extended to emergency cooling of the active zone and removal of the residual heat emissions from the reactor. The technical characteristics of the three reactors are compared. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Safety and upgrading of nuclear power plants with WWER-440/V-230; Voprosy bezopasnosti i modernizatsii AEhS s WWER-440 (V-230)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Modernization of WWER-440/V-230 reactors is considered according to the WANO project `Proposal for reconstruction of WWER-440/V-230 reactors` (1990). The main technical measures to be taken relate to: 1. Expanding the considered spectrum of design basis accidents; 2. Provision of first loop integrity; 3. Safety system structure and components reliability enhancement; 4. Reduction o initiating events probability; 5. Enhancement of hermeticity and integrity of the area surrounding the first loop; 6. Fire fighting system upgrade; 7. Radiation control system upgrade; 8. Provision of seismic resistance. Details of the recommended technical steps for some NPPs are presented. 1 tab.

  14. Malignant neoplasm rate in inhabitants of the Kozloduy NPP area; Zabolevaemost` zlokachestvennymi novoobrazovaniyami sredi naselenya v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, P [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Illness incidence of malignant formations in lungs, mammary gland, thyroid gland, lymph and blood producing tissues is investigated in the 30 km area around Kozloduy and compared to data from two other locations in Bulgaria. The number of malignant growth in the lungs, mammary or thyroid gland on 100 000 persons is lower than the average number for the country as a whole. The number of malignant formations in lymph and blood producing tissues is higher than the average number for the country but the difference is statistically insignificant. Thyroid gland diseases occur with very small frequency for the investigated period (1985-1990). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in the Kozloduy NPP environment; Soderzhanie 137Cs i 90Sr v obektakh okruzhayushchej sredy v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaivanova, R; Totseva, R; Badulin, V; Zlatanova, R; Fajtondzhieva, K [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radioactivity status of soil and plant samples collected in the 12 km controlled zone surrounding Kozloduy has been investigated in the period 1990-1993. The average annual concentrations of Sr-90 and Cs-137 are compared to the values taken at 40 km distance. Cs-137 has in general higher concentrations in soil samples from the NPP close surroundings - e.g. 50-55 Bq/kg in 1992 versus 2-2.5 Bq/kg for Sr-90. Radionuclide concentrations in grass do not differ significantly from the data at 40 km distance. It is concluded that the average annual doses follow the radionuclide dynamics in the global fallout and the effect of Kozloduy operation can not be separated from the background radioactivity status. 4 refs., 21 figs.

  16. Structure of roofing cover for NPP reactor compartment in India. Ustrojstvo krovel'nogo pokrytiya reaktornogo otdeleniya AEhS v Indii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movchan, S V

    1990-04-01

    Technology of fabrication of the roofing cover for NPP reactor compartments in India is briefly described. The cover is two-layer. The underlying thermal-hydroinsulating layer with the thickness of 100 mm is produced of beaten brick on lime-sand mortar. Facing layer of ceramic tile is applied to it.

  17. AEhLT-1-type image scanner for nuclear-physics and applied problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The design of the AELT-1 automatic scanner intended for measuring 35 mm photographs is presented. The photographs are scanned by the ''flying spot'' method, i.e. by transillumination of a photograph being measured and detection, with the help of a photomultiplier, of instants at which the CRT light spot meets different darkenings (nuclear particle tracks, etc.) available on it. On the CRT scope the light spot moves along lines the position (number) of which is controlled by a computer. Coordinates are measured by means of a special system of reference gratings on which with the aid of semitransparent mirrors a part of the CRT light is directed. Codes of the beginning and end of measured darkenings are fed to the computer for processing. In the process of scanning the computer controls the output signal discrimination level in the film channel. Based on the AELT-1 automatic scanner in JINR a system for processing photographs from a wide gap spark chamber during experiments aimed at studying the secondary electroproduction of pions is developed and put into operation in 1973. The tracks have a small length (1 mm), and the bulk of them has low contrast range. The capacity of the developed processing system is 70 thousand events per year for single shift operation

  18. Methodical installations for fast resource testing of reliability of electrotechnical components intended for NPP equipment; Metodicheskie ustanovki dlya uskorennykh roesursnykh ispytanij na nadezhnost ` ehlektrotekhnicheskikh komplektuyushchikh, vkhodyashchikh v sostav oborudovaniya AEhS i yadernykh ustanovok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, V S

    1994-12-31

    Installations for testing the electrotechnical equipment, microswitches for mechanical bend tests of cables as well as for high voltage tests of electrotechnical equipment are developed and described.

  19. Influence of dose rate of ionizing radiation on working capacity of the oil-filled electrical equipment for NPP; Vliyanie moshchnosti dozy ioniziruyushchego oblucheniya na rabotosposobnost` maslonapolnennogo ehlektrooborudovaniya dlya AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutnev, A P [and others

    1994-12-31

    Dependence of radiation electric conductivity transformer oil on the gamma radiation absorbed dose rate and on the energy proton flux is investigated. It is ascertained that the electrical reliability of oil and oil-barrier insulation does not depend on the absorbed dose rate up to the maximum achieved values of 200 rad/s.

  20. Study on radiation resistance of electro insulating materials used in high-voltage equipment at Chernobylsk NPP; Issledovanie radiatsionnoj stojkosti ehlektroizolyatsionnykh materialov, primenyaemykh v vytsfsokovol`tnom oborudovanii na Chernobyl`skoj AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizunov, S D [and others

    1994-12-31

    Investigations into the radiation resistance of the transformer oil and electro insulating cardboard during emergency irradiation at the NPP in 1986 are conducted. It is shown that as a result of transformer oil irradiation it is decomposed with the release of hydrogen, ethane, ethylene, ethane and other gases.

  1. Safety systems I/C reliability analysis of the Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6; Analiz nadezhnosti KIP i sistem bezopasnosti pyatogo i shestogo bloka AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, B [Risk Engineering Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the analysis is to assess the safety systems I/C equipment reliability of the Kozloduy-5 and the Kozloduy-6 reactors. The assessment of quantitative and qualitative effect of control systems unavailability on the safety systems unavailability is performed. The analysis is limited to the following systems: sprinkler management, low pressure emergency spray, emergency injection of boric acid, hydro accumulators, pressure compensator and compressed air. The code for probabilistic safety assessment PSAPACK has been used in analysis. Fault trees for all analysed safety systems have been constructed. Results indicates a high reliability of the safety systems management.

  2. Nitrided steel 38CrN3MAFA for supporting elements in nuclear power plants; Vysokoazotistaya stal` tipa 38HN3MAFA dlya krepezhnikh detajlej reaktorov AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasheva, I; Argirov, Kh; Stojchev, T [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite

    1996-12-31

    Nitride doping of steel at different concentrations is achieved by counter-pressure casting in nitrogen ambience. A new type of steel is developed containing 0.05-0.2% N{sub 2}. It is compared to a standard 34NiCrMoV145 steel (DIN). The mechanical properties are improved significantly after a two-stage thermal treatment and are as follows: fluidity limit R{sub 0}.2>=1045 MPa, relative elongation A>=15%, relative shortening Z>=62%, impact viscosity KCU >= 1 MJ/m{sup 2}. The quench hardening consists of heating to 800-850{sup o} C in oil and cooling to 600{sup o} C in air. The steel is suitable for rotors, turbines, compressor shafts and reactor supporting elements in nuclear power plants. 3 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Determination of P, Cu, Cr, Va and Ti in samples of welded joint No.4 of Kozloduy-1 reactor pressure vessel; Opredelenie soderzhanya fosfora, medi, nikelya, khroma, vanadya i titana v struzhkakh 4 shva 1 bloka AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskaev, E [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Penev, I; Taskaeva, M [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika; Aleksieva, L [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Tsokov, P [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of reactor steel composition has been carried out in 1989 in order to determine metal embrittlement. The samples consist of shavings taken at 3-4 mm depth from the 4-th welded joint of Unit 1 of the Kozloduy NPP. The shavings have been gradually dissolved in a mixture of acids and the solution evaporated. Quantitative analysis has been carried out by spectrophotometry and by ICP emission spectroscopy. The following element concentrations have been found: P - from 0.0462 to 0.052% by weight; Ni - 0.25 - 0.26% (passport data 0.29%); Cr - 1.47 - 1.54 (passport 1.58%); V - 0.1% (passport 0.15%); Cu - 0.11-0.13% (passport 0.12); Ti - 0.002. The data have been used to calculate metal embrittlement. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Experience in scientific guidance during start-up and normal operation of NPPs with WWER reactors; Opyt nauchnogo rukovodstva puskom i soprovozhdeniya pri ehkspluatatsii ehnergoblokov AEhS s WWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abagyan, A; Kazakov, V; Kryakvin, L [All-Russian Inst. for NPP Operation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The experience gained in the All-Russian Research Institute of NPP Operation (RU) in improvement of reactor start-up and normal operation of NPPs has been reported. The work was carried out on NPPs in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. All scientific programmes applied use the system approach, modern methods of safety assessment and the principle of loss effect optimization. For the Kozloduy NPP the following projects have been implemented: design of accelerated unloading system for WWER-1000; refinement of water feeding unit for the WWER-1000 steam generator; response analysis of the safety anti-breakdown system of the second loop. The importance of technical substantiation in the process of decision making is stressed. 6 refs.

  5. Indicators of Chernobyl NPP personnel irradiation in 1986; Pokazateli obluchaemosti personala ChAEhS za 1986 g.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil` chenko, V N; Nosovskij, A V; Il` ichev, S V; Snisar, I B [Virobniche Ob` jednannya Chernobil` s` ka AES, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1996-12-31

    The results of retrospective evaluation of ChNPP personnel irradiation during Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation are presented. Only occupational doses received within 30-km exclusion zone are considered.

  6. Inhalation exposure control problems in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Problemy kontrolya ingalyatsionnogo oblucheniya v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhoruchkin, A K; Kazakov, S V; Marchenko, V I [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Space-time inequality of air contamination and rare high-active fuel aerosol causes different exposure of personnel. An increased content of {sup 137} Cs in the organism of people working in the 30 km zone restricts the possibility to detect incorporated transuranium nuclides by means of a whole-body radiation spectrometer.

  7. Plutonium in the wood of natural trees in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Plutonij v drevesine zhivykh derev`ev blizhnej zony ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopejkin, V A [VNIIGEOLNERUD, Kazan` (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    It was for the first time that the fact of radionuclides migration, particularly migration of plutonium in the wood of natural trees, was fixed in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP. The data obtained show considerably quicker process of radioactive fall-out penetration than it was considered before.

  8. Simulation of << Hot >> particles formation during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP.; Modelirovanie obrazovaniya << goryachikh >> chastits vo vremya avarii na ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashparov, V A; Ivanov, Yu A; Prister, B S; Zvarich, S I; Protsak, V P; Khomutinin, Yu V; Polyakov, V D; Gudkov, A N; Kurepin, A D; Pazukhin, Eh M [Yinstitut Syil` s` kogospodars` koyi Radyiologyiyi, Kyiv (Ukraine); [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Dispersal composition of fuel << hot >> particles formed after oxidation of real Chernobyl nuclear fuel in the air for 3-21 hours at 673-1173 K was obtained. Mechanism of ruthenium particles formation during the accident (with dispersion of nuclear fuel) as a result of ruthenium oxidation, its sublimation, condensation and restoration on materials, presented by the elements of iron group was modelled. Dynamics of relative release of fission products, as well as of transuranium and transplutonium elements from real and modeled << hot >> particles at their high temperature incineration (1273-2273 K) in the inert media was measured.

  9. Common problems of acquisition of reference data on radiation reliability of structural electro insulating materials used in NPP electrical equipment; Obshchie voprosy polucheniya spravochnykh dannykh po radiatsionnoj nadezhnos ti konstruktsionnykh i ehlektroizolyatsionnykh materialov, ispol`zuemykh v ehlektrooborudovanii AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutnev, A P; Valeev, R S

    1994-12-31

    General principles of conducting accelerated radiation testings of electrotechnical products with regard to operation factors typical of NPPs are considered. Non-additivity of effect of these factors on the product and material parameters and parameter dependence on ionizing radiation dose rate are demonstrated.

  10. Probabilistic safety analysis of the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 (WWER-440/230) using independent emergency feedwater system; Veroyatnostnyj analiz bezopasnosti I-IV blokov AEhS `Kozloduy` s reaktorami tipa WWER-440 (V 230) pri vklyuchenii nezavisimoj sistemy avarijnoj podpitki PG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, B; Marinov, M; Dimitrov, B; Avdzhiev, K [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The safety of the Kozloduy NPP is being promoted by backfitting and improved operational practice. Special measures mitigating potential severe accidents consequences are needed because of some deficiencies in the original design of the four WWER-440 units. In conditions of a total LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) it is impossible to ensure decay heat removal using the existing safety system. In such cases an extra emergency feedwater system independent of the plant`s other systems has been introduced which offers a new alternative means of removing the residual heat from the reactor. A probabilistic safety analysis is carried out using the method of event trees. A comparison between the existing safety system and the newly proposed is made. The simulation results of the unit behaviour prove that the damage frequency of the active zone is lower with the new system. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Developing reports on safety analysis and probabilistic analysis of safety for operating power units at nuclear power stations with WWER reactors in Russia; Razrabotka otchetov po analizu bezopasnosti i VAB dlya ehkspluatiruyushchikhsya ehnergoblokov AEhS s WWEhR v Rossii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, A B; Morozov, V B [ATOMENERGOPROEKT Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-06-01

    Report presents the current state-of art in developing safety reports and probabilistic safety analyses for WWER NPPs operated in Russia. Development of these reports and implementation of PSA is done according to the requirements outlined in the basic document `General Statement on Ensuring safety (OPB). At present submitting safety reports to the regulatory authority GAN RF is mandatory for licensing NPPs. Current state of safety reports for the operating WWER type NPPs meets generally the effective Russian standard engineering documents which are approaching the international standards. A mechanism ensuring correspondence of the safety documentation to the current state of operating units is determined. Modernization of the operating units is underway, it is aimed to eliminate existing deviations from requirements of the modern standards in the field of NPP safety

  12. Physic status and working ability of the persons affected at the Chernobyl accident during recovery and short-term effects of acute radiation disease. Psikhicheskoe sostoyanie i trudosposobnost' postradavshikh pri avarii na Chernobyl'skoj AEhS v period vosstanovleniya i blizhajshikh posledstvij ostroj luchevoj bolezni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torubarov, F S; Chinkina, O V [Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR)

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the results of clinicopsychological investigation of persons developing ARS (1-3 degree of severity) as a result of the Chernobyl accident has shown that 4-6 mos. after the exposure the psychic status and mental working ability of the affected persons showed close correlation with a degree of ARS. In 12-18 mos. profession and adequate employment played a decisive role in the formation of unfavorable psychic conditions and limited working ability. Later on in 2.5-3 years after exposure a decrease in psychic working ability, the development of unfavorable psychic conditions was noted more frequently in patients with ARS of more severe types and in examinees of older age. At all stages of rehabilitation personality traits of the affected persons play an important role in the revival of working abilities.

  13. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'; Materialy II mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii 'Preodolenie posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl'skoj AEhS: sostoyanie i perspektivy'simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kapitonova, Eh K [eds.

    2004-04-01

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting.

  14. [Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: current state of knowledge and clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, V; Bertel, C; Tas, P; Bendavid, C; Rouquette, S; Foucher, F; Audrain, O; Bouriel, C; Levêque, J

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) increases with breast cancer screening. AEH is divided in three groups: atypical ductal hyperplasia, columnar cell lesions with atypia, lobular neoplasia. The management of women with AEH is not consensual because of uncertainty about their diagnosis related to the type of the biopsy sampling (core needle biopsy or surgical excision) and their controversial clinical signification between risk marker and true precursor of breast cancer. A systematic review of published studies was performed. Medline baseline interrogation was performed with the following keywords: atypical ductal hyperplasia, columnar cell lesions with atypia, lobular neoplasia, core needle biopsy, breast cancer, precursor lesion, hormonal replacement therapy. For each breast lesion, identified publications (English or French) were assessed for clinical practise in epidemiology, diagnosis and patient management. With immunohistochemistry and molecular studies, AEH seems to be precursor of breast cancer. But, epidemiological studies show low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH. AEH were still classified as risk factor of breast cancer. Because of high rate of breast cancer underestimation, surgical excision is necessary after the diagnosis of AEH at core needle biopsy. Surgical oncology rules and collaboration with radiologist are required for this surgery. A second operation was not required due to involved margins by AEH (except with pleiomorphic lobular neoplasia) because local control of breast cancer seems to be unchanged. Besides, hormonal replacement therapy for patient with AEH is not recommended because of lack of studies about this subject. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Certain results and problems of experimental retrospective radiation monitoring in the estrangement zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Nekotorye rezul`taty i problemy ehksperimental`noj retrospektivnoj dozimetrii v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar` yakhtar, V G; Bugaj, A A; Gajchenko, V A; Koval` , G N; Proskura, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Poluprovodnikov; [Admyinyistratsyiya zoni vyidchuzhennya, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental methods of retrospective radiation monitoring in the estrangement zone of the Chernobyl NPP are described. It is shown that the method of thermoluminescence of quartz particles as well as the method of electron paramagnetic resonance of tooth enamel may be applied both to verify theoretical designs and experimental estimates and to accumulate experimental data on the most interesting and typical cases of accidental irradiation.

  16. Composition and structure of solid-phase carriers of activity in soils of the exclusion zone.; Stroenie i sostav tverdofaznykh nositelej aktivnosti v pochvakh Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Dolin, V V; Val` ter, A A; Tikhanov, Eh K [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov; [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    From four different soils in the exclusion Chernobyl zone 35 << hot >> particles were picked out, their radionuclide and substance composition was investigated. To estimate a specific quantity of solid-phase carriers of activity we have calculated a ratio of activities of {sup 144} Ce and {sup 137} Cs in soils to the particles. Substance composition of the << hot >> particles investigated by the methods of electronic microscopy.

  17. Distribution of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs in vertical soil sections of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.; Raspredelenie form nakhozhdeniya {sup 90} Sr i {sup 137} Cs po vertikal`nym pochvennym razrezam Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Kononenko, L.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov

    1994-12-31

    Water-soluble, exchangeable and acid-soluble (IM HCI) forms of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs were determined in 15 layer-by-layer (1 cm) samples of podzolis and peaty soils from the Chernobyl exclusion zone taken in 1991 and 1992. Positions of centers of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr supply as well as their water-soluble and exchangeable forms were estimated. The data obtained testify to deceleration of vertical migration of {sup 137} Cs in soils till the early 90th. The conclusion is made on evolution of dominating mechanisms of vertical migration of radionuclides. It consists in a decrease of the lessivage significance.

  18. Results of complex studies in radiation state of temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the Chernobyl estrangement zone.; Rezul`taty kompleksnykh issledovanij radiatsionnogo sostoyaniya punktov vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledenev, A I; Ovcharov, P A; Mishunina, I B; Antropov, V M [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Describing complex studies in radiation state of temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the nearest Chernobyl NPP zone, the paper provides results of these studies as well as results of inspection of radioactive waste hidden in 1990 - 1994.

  19. Estimation of safety of radionuclide localization in temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the Chernobyl estrangement zone.; Otsenka nadezhnosti lokalizatsii radionuklidov v punkte vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishunina, I B; Ledenev, A I; Khvesik, O V [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Preliminary estimation of soil water contamination as a result of radionuclide migration from burials is described. The studies necessary to make trustworthy prediction of soil water contamination are outlined.

  20. Cytohematological indices of cattle adaptation to the chronic radiation effect in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Tsitogematologicheskie pokazateli adaptatsii u krupnogo rogatogo skota pri khronicheskom radiatsionnom vozdejstvii v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchenko, N A; Filimonov, I S; Zagorujko, E E; Gashchak, S P; Korisheva, A P [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine); [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Peripheral blood cells have been examined in cattle from the experimental farm in the 10 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP. With that aim 25 animals of different age groups and generations were investigation. Appearance of heteropholic granulocytes and << specific >> basophilic cells which heterogeneity is explained by their morphological and functional attribution has been observed.

  1. System approach for evaluation of soil contamination by nitrogen containing pollutants in the 30-km zone power nuclear plant; Sistemnyj podkhod dlya otsenki zagryazneniya okruzhayushchej sredy azotsoderzhashchimi pollyutantami v 30-km zone aehs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, O. V.; Zhigunova, L. N.; Makovskaya, N. A.; Pavlovich, E. L. [Ob' ' edinennyj institut ehnergeticheskikh i yadernykh issledovanij – Sosny NAN Belarusi, Minsk(Belarus)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the results of studies of the nitrogen-containing chemical pollutants of the soil 30 km zone nuclear power plant in order to evaluate the chemical carcinogenic risk to public health. As a result of this work the least amount of NDMA fixed at 0,83 × 10{sup -4} mg/kg, the highest - 128,29 × 10{sup -4} mg/kg, which is 0,83 and 128,3 %, respectively, of Madman established in the Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan, the content of NDMA precursors - nitrite ions varies from 0,07 to 4,43 mg/kg. Found that most of the compounds reported in agricultural land. Calculate the total carcinogenic risk for the population living in the region - the set value corresponds to the maximum risk tolerance, i. e. the upper limit of acceptable risk. These levels are subject to continuous monitoring. (authors)

  2. State of the art in acoustic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Khan, Farid; Izhar

    2015-02-01

    For portable and embedded smart, wireless electronic systems, energy harvesting from the ambient energy sources has gained immense interest in recent years. Several ambient energies exist in the environment of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that include thermal, solar, vibration and acoustic energy. This paper presents the recent development in the field of acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs). AEHs convert the acoustic energy into useful electrical energy for the operation of autonomous wireless sensors. Mainly, two types of AEHs (electromagnetic and piezoelectric based) have been developed and reported in literature. The power produced by the reported piezoelectric AEHs ranges from 0.68 pW to 30 mW however, the power generation of the developed electromagnetic AEHs is in the range of 1.5-1.96 mW. The overall size of most of the developed piezoelectric and electromagnetic AEHs are quite comparable and in millimeter scale. The resonant frequencies of electromagnetic AEHs are on the lower side (143-470 Hz), than that of piezoelectric AEHs (146 Hz-16.7 kHz).

  3. State of the art in acoustic energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2015-01-01

    For portable and embedded smart, wireless electronic systems, energy harvesting from the ambient energy sources has gained immense interest in recent years. Several ambient energies exist in the environment of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that include thermal, solar, vibration and acoustic energy. This paper presents the recent development in the field of acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs). AEHs convert the acoustic energy into useful electrical energy for the operation of autonomous wireless sensors. Mainly, two types of AEHs (electromagnetic and piezoelectric based) have been developed and reported in literature. The power produced by the reported piezoelectric AEHs ranges from 0.68 pW to 30 mW; however, the power generation of the developed electromagnetic AEHs is in the range of 1.5–1.96 mW. The overall size of most of the developed piezoelectric and electromagnetic AEHs are quite comparable and in millimeter scale. The resonant frequencies of electromagnetic AEHs are on the lower side (143–470 Hz), than that of piezoelectric AEHs (146 Hz–16.7 kHz). (topical review)

  4. Real-World Impact of Neurocognitive Deficits in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24277439

  5. Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Ludivine; Racin, Adelaïde; Brousse, Susie; Beltjens, Françoise; Cauchois, Aurélie; Levêque, Jean; Coutant, Charles; Lavoué, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) of the breast is considered benign histological lesions with breast cancer risk. This review focuses on clinical signification and management of AEH that remains controversial. A review of published studies was performed using medline database. In this review, we fully describe the current evidence available. In particular, we describe 1) data from immunohistochemistry and molecular studies that suggest AEH is a precursor of breast cancer; 2) epidemiological studies demonstrate low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH; 3) surgical excision is necessary after diagnosis of AEH, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia, on core needle biopsy; 4) although current recommendations are evolving to fewer (if not no) excisions for flat epithelial with atypia and classic lobular neoplasia found on percutaneous biopsy (without radiologic indications for excision). Expert commentary: HEA management steel need prospective evidences, but recent retrospective data give some clue for less invasive management for some of HEA.

  6. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Guo, Zhengdong; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Ainong

    2013-10-03

    Hericium erinaceus, as a commonly used medicine or food, has attracted much attention due to its health effects when used as a home remedy for some diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus (AEHE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (55 mg/kg BW.) intraperitoneally. AEHE (100 and 200 mg/kg BW.) was administered for a period of 28 days. The effects of AEHE on glucose, insulin, and lipid files in blood, and oxidative stress parameters in the liver were evaluated. The body weights of rats were recorded at day 0, 14 and 28th days. The administration of AEHE for 28 days in STZ diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in serum glucose level and a significant rise in serum insulin level. AEHE treatment attenuated lipid disorders. In addition, AEHE administration increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px, and GSH level, and reduced MDA level in the liver tissue significantly. Our results suggest that AEHE possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties in STZ-induced diabetes rats.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: early diagnosis and intervention are necessary for fertility preservation in young women with endometrial cancer under 35 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yoshinori; Saito, Fumitaka; Takaishi, Kiyomi; Motohara, Takeshi; Honda, Ritsuo; Ohba, Takashi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a significant risk factor for premenopausal endometrial cancer (EC) and/or atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH). The aim was to elucidate the clinical background and detailed menstrual history of EC and/or AEH in young women with PCOS. From January 2001 to December 2013, women under 35 years of age who had been diagnosed with EC and/or AEH and who had been treated at Kumamoto University Hospital, Japan, were recruited. The patients' clinical characteristics, clinical stages of EC and/or AEH, medication and operation methods, endocrine profiles, and menstrual history were assessed retrospectively. Of all the cases of EC and/or AEH, 25 (4.6%) were under 35 years of age. The mean age was 29.0 years and all the patients were nulligravida. The clinical stages of EC and/or AEH that were identified included: AEH (five cases), stage IA (18 cases), IB (one case), and IIIA (one case). Fourteen (56%) cases met the criteria for PCOS. Both the Body Mass Index and Homeostatic Model Assessment-insulin resistance were significantly higher in the patients with PCOS than in the patients without PCOS. Medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy was not effective for the patients with PCOS and they underwent a hysterectomy more often than the patients without PCOS. All the patients with PCOS exhibited irregular menstruation or amenorrhea, the mean duration of which was 13.1 years before PCOS and EC and/or AEH were diagnosed. Although both the patients with and without PCOS had irregular menstruation, the patients with PCOS were less likely to have fertility-sparing surgery than the patients without PCOS because they had more advanced disease or failed to respond to medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy.

  8. In vitro synergistic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in combination with standard antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Berchová, Kateřina; Majerová, Michaela; Pokorná, Marie; Švajdlenka, Emil

    2016-09-01

    Context The increasing problem of drug-resistant strains has led to the failure of current treatment regimens of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Recently, a new treatment strategy has been developed to overcome the problem by using natural products in combination with antibiotics to enhance the treatment efficacy. Objective The antimicrobial combinatory effect of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) (AEHS) with antibiotics (clarithromycin, CLA; amoxicillin, AMX; metronidazole, MTZ) has been evaluated in vitro against HP strains. Materials and methods Hibiscus calyces (35 g) were brewed in 250 mL of boiled water for 30 min, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution method. The checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial combinatory effect according to the sum of fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC) indices. Results In this study, AEHS exerted remarkable bacteriostatic effect against all HP strains tested with MICs values ranging from 9.18 to 16.68 μg/mL. Synergy effect of AEHS with CLA or MTZ was obtained against four of seven HP strains tested with ∑FIC ranging from 0.21 to 0.39. The additive effect of AEHS with AMX was obtained against five of seven HP strains tested with ∑FIC ranging from 0.61 to 0.91. Conclusion This study presents AEHS as a potent therapeutic candidate alone, or in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of HP infection.

  9. Contributed Review: Recent developments in acoustic energy harvesting for autonomous wireless sensor nodes applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Khattak, Muhammad Umair

    2016-02-01

    Rapid developments in micro electronics, micro fabrication, ultra-large scale of integration, ultra-low power sensors, and wireless technology have greatly reduced the power consumption requirements of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) and make it possible to operate these devices with energy harvesters. Likewise, other energy harvesters, acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs), have been developed and are gaining swift interest in last few years. This paper presents a review of AEHs reported in the literature for the applications of WSNs. Based on transduction mechanism, there are two types of AEHs: piezoelectric acoustic energy harvesters (PEAEHs) and electromagnetic acoustic energy harvesters (EMAEHs). The reported AEHs are mostly characterized under the sound pressure level (SPL) that ranges from 45 to 161 dB. The range for resonant frequency of the produced AEHs is from 146 Hz to 24 kHz and these produced 0.68 × 10-6 μW to 30 mW power. The maximum power (30 mW) is produced by a PEAEH, when the harvester is subjected to a SPL of 161 dB and 2.64 kHz frequency. However, for EMAEHs, the maximum power reported is about 1.96 mW (at 125 dB and 143 Hz). Under the comparable SPLs, the power production by the reported EMAEHs is relatively better than that of PEAEHs, moreover, due to lower resonant frequency, the EMAEHs are more feasible for the low frequency band acoustical environment.

  10. Acetobacter turbidans α-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase. How a Single Mutation Improves an Antibiotic-Producing Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Thomas R.M.; Polderman-Tijmes, Jolanda J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Williams, Christopher; Wybenga, Gjalt; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2006-01-01

    The α-amino acid ester hydrolase (AEH) from Acetobacter turbidans is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis and synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. The crystal structures of the native enzyme, both unliganded and in complex with the hydrolysis product D-phenylglycine are reported, as well as

  11. Learning To Hope: A Study of the Adult Education for the Homeless Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel; Koloski, Judy

    A comprehensive study of the Adult Education for the Homeless Program (AEH) was conducted using data from the following sources: program files; focus groups conducted with state project administrators; site visits to 9 local programs in 3 states; surveys of 32 state projects, 230 local programs, 588 service delivery sites, and 2,943 program…

  12. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Shin-Aeh Lee1 Seung-Gon Lee1 Kyoung-Oh Cho2 Changbaig Hyun1. Section of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200 701, Korea; Institute of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Kwangju 500 757, ...

  13. Non-traumatic spontaneous acute epidural hematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serarslan, Yurdal; Aras, Mustafa; Altaş, Murat; Kaya, Hasan; Urfalı, Boran

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (SCD) was referred to our hospital after two days of hospitalization at another hospital for a headache crisis. This headache crisis was due to a raised intracranial pressure; these symptoms were noted and included in her comprehensive list of symptoms. There was an acute drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The cranial CT scan demonstrated a left fronto-parietal acute epidural hematoma (AEH) and a calvarial bone expansion, which was suggestive of medullary hematopoiesis. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma. There were no abnormal findings intra-operatively apart from the AEH, except skull thickening and active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries. Repeated CT scan showed a complete evacuation of the hematoma. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. In addition to the factors mentioned in the relevant literature, any active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries on the separated surface of the dura from the skull could have contributed to the expanding of the AEH in our patient. Neurosurgeons and other health care providers should be aware of spontaneous AEH in patients with SCD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH, Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice ( Mus musculus were divided into four groups ( n = 10, which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage.

  15. Main research results in the field of nuclear power engineering of the Nuclear Reactors and Thermal Physics Institute in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trufanov, A.A.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Sorokin, A.P.; Chernonog, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The main results of scientific and technological activities for last years of the Nuclear Reactors and Thermal Physics Institute FSUE SSC RF - IPPE in solving problems of nuclear power engineering are presented. The work have been carried out on the following problems: justification of research and development solutions and safety of NPPs with fast reactors of new generation with sodium (BN-1200, MBIR) and lead (BREST-OD-300) coolants, justification of safety of operating and advanced NPPs with WWER reactor facilities (WWER-1000, AEhS 2006, WWER-TOI), development and benchmarking of computational codes, research and development support of Beloyarsk-3 (BN-600) and Bilibino (BN-800) NPPs operation, decommissioning of AM and BR-10 research reactors, pilot scientific studies (WWER-SKD, ITER), international scientific and technical cooperation. Problems for further investigations are charted [ru

  16. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 3. Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on Software Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Distributed Computing Systems impact DrnwrR - aehR on Sotwar Quaity. PERFORMING 010. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOW) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT "UMBER(*)IS ThomasY...C31 Application", "Space Systems Network", "Need for Distributed Database Management", and "Adaptive Routing". This is discussed in the last para ...data reduction, buffering, encryption, and error detection and correction functions. Examples of such data streams include imagery data, video

  17. Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization for Multiscale Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations can benefit by utilizing high-fidelity models running at a lower length scale. Lower length-scale models provide a detailed view of the material behavior that is used to determine the average material response at the macroscale. These lower length-scale calculations may provide insight into material behavior where experimental data is sparse or nonexistent. This multiscale approach is especially useful in the nuclear field, since irradiation experiments are difficult and expensive to conduct. The lower length-scale models complement the experiments by influencing the types of experiments required and by reducing the total number of experiments needed. This multiscale modeling approach is a central motivation in the development of the BISON-MARMOT fuel performance codes at Idaho National Laboratory. These codes seek to provide more accurate and predictive solutions for nuclear fuel behavior. One critical aspect of multiscale modeling is the ability to extract the relevant information from the lower length-scale sim- ulations. One approach, the asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) technique, has proven to be an effective method for determining homogenized material parameters. The AEH technique prescribes a system of equations to solve at the microscale that are used to compute homogenized material constants for use at the engineering scale. In this work, we employ AEH to explore the effect of evolving microstructural thermal conductivity and elastic constants on nuclear fuel performance. We show that the AEH approach fits cleanly into the BISON and MARMOT codes and provides a natural, multidimensional homogenization capability.

  18. Angioedema recorrente – caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrina Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Angioedema hereditário (AEH é uma causa rara de angioedema recorrente, resultante de um defeito a nível do gene que codifica o inibidor do C1 esterase (C1 -INH. O edema envolve predominantemente os tecidos da face, membros, trato gastrointestinal e área genital. O envolvimento da laringe, apesar de menos frequente, constitui a expressão clínica mais grave, sendo potencialmente fatal. Caso clínico: Descreve -se o caso clínico de uma criança do sexo feminino de oito anos de idade referenciada à consulta de pediatria por episódios recorrentes de angioedema. O estudo efetuado revelou tratar -se de um caso de AEH. Discussão: O diagnóstico, estabelecido com base no quadro clínico, estudo do complemento e história familiar, é de importância fundamental considerando que o AEH é potencialmente fatal e exige uma terapêutica específica.

  19. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces extracts with simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showande, S J; Adegbolagun, O M; Igbinoba, S I; Fakeye, T O

    2017-12-01

    Increasing number of patients use herbs with their medications. Such practice may result in beneficial or harmful herb-drug interactions. A recent survey reported that some participants co-administered Hibiscus sabdariffa, a widely used beverage, or tea, with their antihyperlipidaemic medications. This study therefore evaluated the effect of concomitant administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces' extracts with simvastatin on hyperlipidaemia and pharmacokinetics of the drug in vivo. Factorial experimental designs were used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and interactions between simvastatin and aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) on lipid profile parameters in hyperlipidaemia-induced Wistar rats. Different combinations of low (AEHS 250 mg/kg; simvastatin 10 mg/kg) and high doses (AEHS 500 mg/kg; simvastatin 20 mg/kg) were administered individually and concurrently daily for 2 and 4 weeks. Lipid profile parameters were assessed at these treatment periods. Subsequently, the effect of aqueous beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (ABHS) on the pharmacokinetics of single-dose 40 mg simvastatin was also evaluated in six healthy human volunteers using two-period randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 24 hours. The plasma obtained was analysed for simvastatin using RP-HPLC/UV method. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa reduced total cholesterol (T c ) better than simvastatin (P = .031). Low-dose AEHS and low-dose simvastatin used concomitantly caused 38.3% and 57.4% reductions in T c and triglyceride levels, respectively, compared with low-dose simvastatin (P Hibiscus sabdariffa lowered T c better than simvastatin and enhanced the antihyperlipidaemic activity of the drug when co-administered at low doses in an animal model. However, aqueous beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa caused a significant herb-drug interaction resulting in overall reduction in exposure to simvastatin in humans. Caution should

  20. Kinetic parameters of nitridation of molybdenum and niobium alloys with various structure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodkin, G.A.; Bulgach, A.A.; Likhacheva, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of preliminary plastic strain under rolling on kinetic parameters of nitridation of VN-2AEh, VN-3 niobium alloys and molybdenum alloy with hafnium is investigated. Extreme character of dependence of kinetic parameters of nitridation on the degree of reduction under rolling is determined. Preliminary plastic strain at negligible reduction is shown to accelerate growth of the zone of internal nitridation and decelerates growth of the nitride zone. Nitrogen atom removal from the surface to the centre is retarded at the increase of the degree of reduction up to 50% and higher. The degree of deformations is the higher the lower nitridation temperature is

  1. Influencia del tipo de hormigón y de acero, y de las características geométricas de la estructura, en los costes de materiales y en la superficie ocupada por los pilares en estructuras de edificios de hormigón armado con forjado unidireccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Hermoso, J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The project and construction experience of building structures permit to affirm that greatest part of this structures usually are concrete frames with one way slab. This is the reason to develop this systematic study about the influence that concrete and steel used have in this structures. The aim is to give some criteria to geometric structure definition and the materials choice. We have calculated 80 structure buildings modified the height (small, intermediate and tall, with 5,12 and 20 tipical flats over ground, respectively, the concrete class (HI 75, H200, H250, H300, H400 y H500, the steel types (AEH400 and AEH500, the distance between columns (short and long, 5,00 and 6,00 m, respectively and the slab depth (24. 26 and 29 cm. When the calculation results were obtained (as shown on a set of tables and graphs, we made an analysis of materials cost (concrete and steel and the surface occupied for the columns.

    La experiencia en el proyecto y ejecución de estructuras de edificación permite afirmar que, en un porcentaje muy elevado de ocasiones, se encuentran constituidas por pórticos de hormigón armado y forjados unidireccionales. Este hecho ha sido la causa fundamental que ha motivado el desarrollo de este estudio sistemático sobre la influencia que en estas estructuras puede tener el tipo de hormigón y acero utilizados, persiguiendo como objetivo final facilitar unos criterios para la definición geométrica de la estructura y la elección de materiales. Se ha procedido al cálculo de 80 edificios clasificados en función de la altura (bajo, medio y alto, con 5, 12 y 20 plantas tipo sobre rasante, respectivamente, el tipo de hormigón (H175, H200, H250, H300, H400 y H500, el tipo de acero (AEH400 y AEH500, la luz entre pilares (corta y larga, con 5,00 y 6,00 m, respectivamente y el canto del forjado (24, 26 y 29 cm, siendo la viga plana. Tras la obtención de los resultados (presentados en una serie de tablas y gráficos, se

  2. Indicadores económicos ganaderos de los sistemas agropecuarios extensivos del partido de Saavedra (Buenos Aires)

    OpenAIRE

    Gargano, Alfredo O.; Saldungaray, María C.; Chimeno, Patricia; Conti, Viviana P.; Adúriz, Miguel A.

    2004-01-01

    p.227-236 El objetivo fue determinar los resultados económicos ganaderos de los agrosistemas del partido de Saavedra (Buenos Aires) y compararlos con los de la agricultura. Se calcularon los ingresos netos (IN), costos directos (CD), márgenes brutos (MB) y la relación IN-CD. Los MB de los conglomerados, subsistemas ganaderos y estratos por superficie tuvieron mayor dependencia de los IN que de los CD. Los MB de los conglomerados, promedios de las áreas edáficas homogéneas (AEH), oscilaron ...

  3. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA, have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL−1, respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL−1. This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil; Berchová-Bímová, Kateřina

    2017-04-30

    For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA), have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC 50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL -1 , respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC 50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL -1 . This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  5. Evaluation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis and by autohydrolysis in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Lizett González-Félix

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine bioprocessing industry offers great potential to utilize byproducts for fish meal replacement in aquafeeds. Jumbo squid is an important fishery commodity in Mexico, but only the mantle is marketed. Head, fins, guts and tentacles are discarded in spite of being protein-rich byproducts. This study evaluated the use of two jumbo squid byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis (AEH and by autohydrolysis (AH as ingredients in practical diets for shrimp. The hydrolysates were included at levels of 2.5 and 5.0% of the diet dry weight in four practical diets, including a control diet without hydrolysate. Shrimp growth and survival were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Postharvest quality of abdominal muscle was evaluated in terms of proximate composition and sensory evaluation. Significantly higher crude protein was observed in the muscle of shrimp fed the highest hydrolysate levels, AH 5% (204.8 g kg- 1 or AEH 5% (201.3 g kg- 1. Sensory analysis of cooked muscle showed significant differences for all variables evaluated: color, odor, flavor, and firmness. It was concluded that Jumbo squid byproducts can be successfully processed by autohydrolysis or acid-enzymatic hydrolysis, and that up to 5.0% of the hydrolysates can be incorporated into shrimp diets without affecting growth or survival.

  6. On the effect of brazing thermal cycle on the properties of niobium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.; Cherkasov, A.F.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of the main parameters of the soldering thermal cycle on the properties of Nb and its alloys was studied by heating the samples under modelled conditions of soldering. The studies were made on commercial VN-niobium, alloys of the Nb-Mo-Zr system VN2A, VN2AEHM) and alloys of the Nb-Mo-Zr-C system (VN5AEH,VN5A). The degree of a preliminary plastic deformation of samples 0.3 to 0.8 mm thick made up 60 to 80%. The heating was made in vacuum (10 -4 to 5x10 -5 mm Hg) or in argon by passing the electric current across the samples. After heating a metallographic study and X-ray electron-probe analysis were made. The studies have shown that the changes in the heating rate result in a proportional change in the recrystallization initiation temperature. At a heating rate 300 deg C/s the recrystallization initiation temperature of commercial Nb is 930 to 960 deg as soon as the heating rate increases up to 900 deg/c the recrystallization initiation temperature rises up to about 1200 deg C. The heating temperature effect on the mechanical characteristics of commercial Nb and alloys VN2, VN2AEH and VN5AEH is shown. It is found that soldered joints of Nb and its alloys could be made of good quality when observing the thermal cycles ensuring the minimum softening of the base material. The main factors affecting the properties of Nb and alloy-VN2 are the heating temperature and the extent of a preliminary cold deformation. In a more deformed material the annealing results in the activation of the recrystallization processes. The production of high-strength soldered joints of commercial Nb is possible at the soldering temperature equal to 1100 deg C, but of Nb-Mo-Zr alloys-at 1200 to 1300 deg C and hold-up periods not exceeding one hour. A heterophase structure of alloys of the Nb-Mo-Zr-C system and the presence of Mo- and Zr-carbide phases in them result in a considerable hardening of the alloys and the increase in their recrystallization temperature. The usage of alloys

  7. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  8. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  9. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas e invasoras. Un hallazgo relevante fue el papel de

  10. A Quick Method of Measuring and Analyzing {beta} Emitters in Solution of Very Low-Level Specific Activity; Remarques sur une technique rapide de mesure et d'analyse d'emetteurs {beta} en solution de tres faible activite specifique; Zamechaniya o bystroj tekhnike izmereniya i analize izluchatelej {beta}-chastits v rastvore s ochen' slaboj spetsificheskoj aktivnost'yu; Observaciones sobre un metodo rapido de medicion y analisis de emisores {beta} en soluciones de muy baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y; Grinberg, B; Thenard, M [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-06-15

    vaina de contadores conectados en anticoincidencia con los primeros. 2. Ademas enumeran las posibilidades y campos de utilizacion del metodo que: a) especialmente en el caso de los emisores {beta} blandos, permite medir actividades especificas mucho mas bajas que cuando se utilizan contadores para liquidos; b) permite descubrir las sustancias radiactivas presentes como impurezas en determinados radioelementos (por ejemplo, 2/10 000 de P{sup 32} en S{sup 35}); c) para la mayor parte de los radioelementos permite medir, sin necesidad de proceder a una concentracion previa, actividades especificas de igual orden de magnitud que los limites de tolerancia actualmente admitidos. (author) [Russian] 1. Opisanie mekhanizma izmereniya so slabym fonom prednaznachennog o dlya izmereniya radioaktivnykh produktov v zhidkom sostoyanii, kotoryj sostoit v osnovnom iz dvukh ploskikh schetchikov s odnim oknom i odnogo ploskogo schetchika s dvumya oknami, raspolozhenny kh parallel'no drug k DRUGU i izolirovanny kh vnutri zashchitnoj obolochkoj schetchikov, vstavlen- nykh takim obrazom, chtoby oni ne sovpadali s pervymi. 2. Vozmozhnosti i oblasti ispol'zovaniya metoda: a) ehtot metod pozvolyaet izmerit' gorazdo bolee slabuyu spetsificheskuyu aktivnost', chem ehto vozmozhno s zhidkotnymi schetchikami, v chastnosti s izluchatelyami ne zhestkikh {beta}-chastits; b) ehtot metod pozvolyaet obnaruzhivat' radioaktivnye primesi vnutri radioehlementa (napr. 2/10 OOO R{sup 32} v S{sup 35}); s) ehtot metod pozvolyaet dlya bol'shinstva radioehlemento v izmeryat' bez predvaritel'no j kontsentratsii spetsificheskuyu aktivnost' sootvetstvenno ravnuyu prinyatym v nastoyashchee v nastoyashchee vremya predel'nym dopuskam. (author)

  11. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  12. Brincar no hospital: estratégia de enfrentamento da hospitalização infantil Playing in the hospital: coping strategy in child hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Brunoro Motta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdicas possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos, em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital, contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção.Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possible playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital, consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly

  13. Phase II study of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus metformin as a fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, A; Sato, Y; Kiyokawa, T; Koshizaka, M; Hanaoka, H; Shozu, M

    2016-02-01

    Metformin, widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduces the risk of cancer and relapse after treatment. Fertility-sparing treatment for endometrial cancer (EC) with progestin is associated with a high chance of disease regression, and the high relapse rate continues to be a problem. We assessed the efficacy of metformin in preventing recurrence after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) as fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and EC. This phase II study enrolled 17 patients with AEH and 19 patients with EC limited to the endometrium (age, 20-40 years). MPA (400 mg/day) and metformin (750-2250 mg/day) were administered for 24-36 weeks to achieve a complete response (CR). Metformin was administered until conception, even after MPA discontinuation. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS) after remission. We analyzed all efficacy end points in the full analysis set. The body mass index was ≥25 kg/m(2) in 27 patients (mean, 31 kg/m(2); range, 19-51 kg/m(2)), and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index was ≥2.5 in 24 patients (mean, 4.7; range, 0.7-21). Two patients showed progression at 12 weeks [6%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2-18]. At 36 weeks, 29 (81%; 95% CI 65-90) patients achieved CR, and 5 (14%; 95% CI 6-29) patients achieved partial response. During a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-66 months) after remission, relapse was confirmed in three of the patients who had achieved CR (relapse rate, 10%). The 3-year estimated RFS rate was 89%. No patients experienced severe toxicity. Metformin inhibited disease relapse after MPA therapy. The combination of metformin and MPA in EC treatment should be studied further. UMIN 000002210. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of cellular responses to oxidative stress using MCF-7 breast cancer cells, black seed (N. Sativa L.) extracts and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O

    2005-12-01

    Black seed (N. Sativa L) is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example) to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H[2]O[2] as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE) and ethanol (AE) extracts of N. sativa and H[2]O[2] was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 mug/ml in descending potency for H[2]O[2]+AE to the mix of 3). In contrast, H[2]O[2] alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H[2]O[2], WE+H[2]O[2], AE+WE, and WE+AE+H[2]O[2]. Mixtures other than AE+H[2]O[2] showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro) in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the

  15. Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L. Extracts and H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Farah

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Black seed (N. Sativa L is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE and ethanol (AE extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3. In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer

  16. Localized Failure Promoted by Heterogeneous Stresses in Tectonic Mélanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    Within the shallow (PLC) toolbox developed at the University of Maine, which uses Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization (AEH) over a finite element mesh to determine the instantaneous stress distributions in a multiphase system. We model the shale matrix mélange to be deforming through a modified flow law for viscous creep based on coupled frictional sliding and pressure solution, where at a strain rate of 10-12 s-1 the flow stress is 10 MPa under the temperature (190 ºC) and pressure ( 100 MPa) conditions during deformation, and describe the behaviour of the basaltic blocks using experimentally-derived power law flow laws. The results show that at the strain rates calculated based on plate-rate motion, differential stresses high enough to cause comminution of the basalts ( 300 MPa) correspond strongly to areas around the blocks with basalt derived cataclasites. Within the basalt derived cataclasites, thin zones of ultracataclasite record localized slip. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous stress distributions within subduction mélanges: 1) fractures the strong basalt thereby facilitating weakening through fluid-rock interactions, and 2) promotes localized slip (and occasionally seismicity) within these zones of altered basalt along the margins of strong intact basalt.

  17. 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), and NASA Headquarters on November 22, 2013 (list of participants is in Section IX of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Alterations in Host-Microorganism Interactions (Host Microbe Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Health Effects of Exposure to Dust and Volatiles during Exploration of Celestial Bodies (Dust Risk). Overall, the SRP was impressed with the strong research plans presented by the scientists and staff associated with the SHFH Element. The SRP also thought that the updated research plans were thorough, well organized, and presented in a comprehensive manner. The SRP agrees with the changes made to the Host Microbe Risk and Food Risk portfolios and thinks that the targets for Gap closure are appropriate.

  18. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  19. Seismic anisotropy from compositional banding in granulites from the deep magmatic arc of Fiordland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprych, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.

    2017-11-01

    We present calculated seismic velocities and anisotropies of mafic granulites and eclogites from the Cretaceous deep lower crust (∼40-65 km) of Fiordland, New Zealand. Both rock types show a distinct foliation defined by cm-scale compositional banding. Seismic properties are estimated using the Asymptotic Expansion Homogenisation - Finite Element (AEH-FE) method that, unlike the commonly used Voigt-Reuss-Hill homogenisation, incorporates the phase boundary network into calculations. The predicted mean P- and S-wave velocities are consistent with previously published data for similar lithologies from other locations (e.g., Kohistan Arc), although we find higher than expected anisotropies (AVP ∼ 5.0-8.0%, AVS ∼ 3.0-6.5%) and substantial S-wave splitting along foliation planes in granulites. This seismic signature of granulites results from a density and elasticity contrast between cm-scale pyroxene ± garnet stringers and plagioclase matrix rather than from crystallographic orientations alone. Banded eclogites do not show elevated anisotropies as the contrast in density and elastic constants of garnet and pyroxene is too small. The origin of compositional banding in Fiordland granulites is primarily magmatic and structures described here are expected to be typical for the base of present day magmatic arcs. Hence, we identify a new potential source of anisotropy within this geotectonic setting.

  20. Forensic applications of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in tracing nitrate sources in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S.R.; Ging, P.B.; Lee, R.W.; Ebbert, J.C.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Inkpen, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground and surface waters in urban areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination from septic systems, leaking sewer lines, and fertilizer applications. Source identification is a primary step toward a successful remediation plan in affected areas. In this respect, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate, in conjunction with hydrologic data and water chemistry, have proven valuable in urban studies from Austin, Texas, and Tacoma, Washington. In Austin, stream water was sampled during stremflow and baseflow conditions to assess surface and subsurface sources of nitrate, respectively. In Tacoma, well waters were sampled in adjacent sewered and un-sewered areas to determine if locally high nitrate concentrations were caused by septic systems in the un-sewered areas. In both studies, sewage was identified as a nitrate source and mixing between sewage and other sources of nitrate was apparent. In addition to source identification, combined nitrogen and oxygen isotopes were important in determining the significance of denitrification, which can complicate source assessment by reducing nitrate concentrations and increasing ??15N values. The two studies illustrate the value of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate for forensic applications in urban areas. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  1. The Economical Application of Non-Destructive Testing to Reactor Components, Especially Jacket Tubing; Avantages Economiques du Controle Non Destructif des Pieces de Reacteurs, Notamment des Tubes de Gainage; Ehkonomicheskoe primenenie nedestruktivnykh ispytanij dlya reaktornykh komponentov, v chastnosti obolochechnykh trub; Aplicacion en Condiciones Economicas de Ensayos No Destructivos a las Piezas de los Reactores, en Especial a los Tubos de Revestimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renken, C. J. [Metallurgy Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-10-15

    varias fuentes indicadoras de falsos defectos que seuelen existir tanto cuando se aplican los metodos ultrasonicos como los electromagneticos. La experiencia adquirida en la aplicacion de esos dos metodos por el Argonne National Laboratory a cantidades relativamente grandes de tubo de diversas procedencias se estudia desde el punto de vista del costo mas bajo posible a que pueda efectuarse la inspeccion por unidad de longitud del tubo de que se trate. En la presente seccion se expone ademas en forma concisa la experiencia adquirida en Argonne con los modernos metodos de impulsos electromagneticos. Se examina la influencia critica, pero generalmente inapreciada, que tienen en el costo de la inspeccion el diametro y el espesor de pared del tubo. Teniendo en cuenta que el problema de la inspeccion en condiciones economicas guarda una estrecha relacion con el numero medio de defectos admisibles, se estudian asimismo los promedios y las normas que se aplican en Argonne. Por ultimo, se enumeran los obstaculos de orden teorico y practico para reducir el costo de la inspeccion de piezas sobre esa base, y se evaluan las posibles reducciones de costo que podrian lograrse en lo futuro aplicando los metodos de ensayo ultrasonicos y electromagneticos. (author) [Russian] Ideal'naja konstrukcija reaktora, pomimo drugih zhelatel'nyh dlja nee harakteristik, ne potrebuet provedenija ispytanij bez razrushenija obolochki obrazca. Takogo ideala, kak i mnogih drugih, verojatno, nikogda ne dobit'sja. Pri ljubom proektirovanii reaktora, kogda zatraty javljajutsja vazhnym faktorom, vopros otom, mogut liego komponenty ispytyvat'sja jekonomicheski vygodno, sleduet vydvigat' odnovremenno s rassmotreniem voprosov izgotovlenija. V nastojashhij razdel vkljucheny nekotorye momenty razrabotki jetih voprosov, a takzhe obsuzhdenie vazhnosti provedenija ispytanij bez razrushenija obolochki obrazca v pis'mennyh specifikacijah. Na izgotovitelja takzhe lozhitsja otvetstvennost' ispol'zovat' pomoshh

  2. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    materiales de alta resistencia, tales como el Inconel-X y el molibdeno pueden soportar la presion de los gases de fision a las temperaturas de funcionamiento corrientes. Desgraciadamente , la seccion eficaz de absorcion de estos materiales es superior a la del acero inoxidable. El autor presenta los resultados de calculos, realizados segun una teoria de varios grupos, que permite conocer el efecto de la utilizacion de estos materiales y de la disminucion de la densidad del combustible, sobre la masa critica y sobre la razon de reproduccion en los reactores reproductores de pequenas y medianas dimensiones. (author) [Russian] Na stoimost' toplivnogo tsikla i na vremya udvoeniya reaktorovbriderov na bystrykh nejtronakh sil'no vliyaet stepen' dostigaemogo vygoraniya topliva. Ispol'zovani e oksidnogo ili karbidnogo topliva daet vozmozhnost' dostignut' vygoraniya poryadka 100 000 mvt-n/t. V toplivnykh ehlementakh s pokrytiem ogranichivayushchi m faktorom yavlyaetsya rost gazov produktov deleniya. Pri rassmatrivaemo m vysokom vygoranii poddayushchayasya otsenke fraktsiya gazov, obrazuemykh pri delenii, popadaet v pory i tem samym uvelichivaet davlenie na obolochku. Iskhodya iz izvestnykh vykhodov produktov deleniya i tsepochek raspada bylo vychisleno kolichestvo obrazuyushchegosya gaza i sozdavaemoe im davlenie. Pri raschete davleniya, dejstvuyushchego na obolochku, byli ispol'zovany tri fizicheskikh modeli: i) gaz soderzhalsya v svyazanykh mezhdu soboj porakh, ii) v otdel'nykh porakh i iii) v tsentral'nom otverstii. Budet rassmotrena zavisimost' davleniya ot svobodnogo ob{sup e}ma (plotnost' topliva) i temperatury. Obolochki, izgotovlennye iz vysokoprochnykh materialov, naprimer, iz inkonelya-Kh i molibdena, mogli by vyderzhat' pri rabochikh temperaturakh davlenie gazov, vydelyayushchikhsya v rezul'tate deleniya. K sozhaleniyu, ehti materialy obladayut bolee vysokimi poperechnymi secheniyami pogloshcheniya, chem nerzhaveyushchaya stal'. Budut dany rezul'taty mnogogruppovog o

  3. Salmonella Typhi-specific multifunctional CD8+ T cells play a dominant role in protection from typhoid fever in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-03-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major public health problem worldwide. Development of novel vaccines remains imperative, but is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the immune responses that correlate with protection. Recently, a controlled human infection model was re-established in which volunteers received ~10(3) cfu wild-type S. Typhi (Quailes strain) orally. Twenty-one volunteers were evaluated for their cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Ex vivo PBMC isolated before and up to 1 year after challenge were exposed to three S. Typhi-infected targets, i.e., autologous B lymphoblastoid cell-lines (B-LCL), autologous blasts and HLA-E restricted AEH B-LCL cells. CMI responses were evaluated using 14-color multiparametric flow cytometry to detect simultaneously five intracellular cytokines/chemokines (i.e., IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a and MIP-1b) and a marker of degranulation/cytotoxic activity (CD107a). Herein we provide the first evidence that S. Typhi-specific CD8+ responses correlate with clinical outcome in humans challenged with wild-type S. Typhi. Higher multifunctional S. Typhi-specific CD8+ baseline responses were associated with protection against typhoid and delayed disease onset. Moreover, following challenge, development of typhoid fever was accompanied by decreases in circulating S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T effector/memory (TEM) with gut homing potential, suggesting migration to the site(s) of infection. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or no changes in circulating S. Typhi-specific TEM. These studies provide novel insights into the protective immune responses against typhoid disease that will aid in selection and development of new vaccine candidates.

  4. Elusive Role of the CD94/NKG2C NK Cell Receptor in the Response to Cytomegalovirus: Novel Experimental Observations in a Reporter Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Pupuleku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection promotes the differentiation and persistent expansion of a mature NK cell subset, which displays high surface levels of the activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor, together with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. The mechanisms underlying the development of adaptive NK cells remain uncertain but some observations support the involvement of a cognate interaction of CD94/NKG2C with ligand(s displayed by HCMV-infected cells. To approach this issue, the heterodimer and its adaptor (DAP12 were expressed in the human Jurkat leukemia T cell line; signaling was detected by transfection of a reporter plasmid encoding for Luciferase (Luc under NFAT/AP1-dependent control. Engagement of the receptor by solid-phase bound CD94- or NKG2C-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs triggered Luc expression. Moreover, reporter activation was detectable upon interaction with HLA-E+ 721.221 (.221-AEH cells, as well as with 721.221 cells incubated with synthetic peptides, which stabilized surface expression of endogenous HLA-E; the response was specifically antagonized by soluble NKG2C- and HLA-E-specific mAbs. By contrast, activation of Jurkat-NKG2C+ was undetectable upon interaction with Human Fetal Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFFF infected with HCMV laboratory strains (i.e., AD169, Towne, regardless of their differential ability to preserve surface HLA-E expression. On the other hand, infection with two clinical isolates or with the endotheliotropic TB40/E strain triggered Jurkat-NKG2C+ activation; yet, this response was not inhibited by blocking mAbs and was independent of CD94/NKG2C expression. The results are discussed in the framework of previous observations supporting the hypothetical existence of specific ligand(s for CD94/NKG2C in HCMV-infected cells.

  5. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal: A possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, G. K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA sediments. We present evidence here that native coal may have been prematurely dismissed, because BRCF coals do not adequately represent the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation. Contrary to previous thought, Kulthieth Formation coals east of the BRCF have much higher PAH: TOC ratios, and the patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals suggest a possible genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analyses of low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal indicate the low maturity coal is a significant source of PAH. Source apportionment models that neglect this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the regional background hydrocarbon signature. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  6. 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 14 - 15, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (MicroHost Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). During the meeting, the SRP also met with the vehicle engineers to discuss possible food storage options. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Oubre and Dr. Douglas for their detailed presentations, as well the frank, refreshing, and comprehensive engineering presentation. This gave much needed perspective to the food storage issues and reassured the committee about NASA's approach to the problem. In terms of critiques, the SRP remains unconvinced about the rationale for probiotic use other than for specific applications supported by the literature. It is not clear what gap or problem is being addressed by the use of probiotics, and the rationale for their use needs to be clearly rooted in the available literature. The SRP thinks that if low-Earth orbit is associated with immune system impairment, then there may additional risks linked with the use of probiotics. It is not clear to the SRP how NASA will determine if probiotics are having their intended beneficial effect. A similar concern is raised as to what gaps or problems are being addressed by "functional foods". Mixed infections, rather than single species infections, which can augment severity of disease, also represent a significant concern. Overall, the SRP considers this to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data.

  7. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radicals scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH; showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ±0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic, alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol, theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.

  8. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Iron(II-Iron(III) Electron-Exchange Reaction in Mixed Solvent Media; Cinetique et Mecanisme de l'Echange d'Electrons entre Fer (II) et Fer (III), dans des Melanges de Solvants; Ikinetika i mekhanizm reaktsii ehlektronnogo obmena zheleza (I) - zheleza (III) v smeshannoj rastvoryayushchej srede; Cinetica y Mecanismo del Intercambio de Electrones Entre Fe{sup II} Y Fe{sup lII} en Mezclas de Disolventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R. A. [Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    de intercambio electronico entre Fe{sup II} y Fe{sup III} a diversas temperaturas, grados de acidez y fuerzas ionicas, en soluciones de aguaacetona, agua-metanol y agua-etanol. La velocidad de reaccion disminuye apreciablemente al aumentar la concentracion de agua en el ultimo de estos sistemas, tendiendo a cero con la concentracion. La energfa de activacion del intercambio es la misma en mezclas de disolventes que en solucion acuosa. La constante dielectrica efectiva que interviene entre los reactivos sigue siendo la misma que en agua pura, incluso par a soluciones en agua-etanol bastante pobres en agua. Las mediciones espectroscopicas y del intercambio electronico reflejan las alteraciones de la composicion de la vaina de solvatacion del Fe{sup III} en disolventes mixtos. Estos resultados corroboran la teoria de que el intercambio electronico se efectua por intermedio de puentes agua. (author) [Russian] Byli izmereny udel'nye kon stanty skorosti reakcii jelektronnogo obmena Fe{sup II} - Fe{sup III} n pri razlichnyh temperaturah kislotnostjah i ionnyh silah v sredah: voda - aceton, voda - metanal i voda - jetanol. Sko rost' reakcii zametno snizhaetsja s umen'sheniem koncentracii vody v poslednej sistem i priblizhaetsja k nulju, kogda koncentracija vody priblizhaetsja k nulju. Jenergija aktivaci obmena javljaetsja toj zhe samoj v.smeshannom rastvore, kak i v vodnom rastvore. Jeffektiv naja dijelektricheskaja konstanta, kotoruju 'vidjat' reagirujushhie veshhestva, prodolzhaet byt konstantoj chistoj vody dazhe v rastvorah - jetanol, vpolne rastvorimyh v vode. Iz menenija v sostave obolochki sol'vatacii Fe{sup III} v smeshannoj srede otrazhajutsja kak v jelek tronnom obmene, tak i v spektroskopicheskih izmerenijah. Jeti vyvody, poluchennye na osnov rezul'tatov v smeshannoj rastvorjajushhej srede, podtverzhdajut teoriju vodjanogo mostika pr jelektronnom obmene. (author)

  9. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  10. Quality Selection of Zircaloy-2 Canning Tubes by Ultrasonic Testing on Small Defects; Controle de la Qualite des Gaines en Zircaloy-2: Detection de Petits Defauts par les Ultrasons; Achestvennyjotb ortrub chatykh obolochek iz tsirkalloya-2 putem vyyavleniya nebol'shikh defektov s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Control de Calidad de los Revestimientos de Zircaloy-2 por Localizacion Ultrasonica de Pequenos Defectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Linde, A. [Reactor Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands); Deraad, J. A. [Roentgen Technische Dienst N.V., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1965-09-15

    , de los 93 tubos ensayados, 21 presentaban defectos transversales de 10 a 50 {mu}m de profundidad. Por consiguiente, puede afirmarse que el procedimiento indicado permite clasificar los tubos con arreglo a su calidad. (author) [Russian] Trubchatye obolochki iz cirkalloja-2 s vnutrennim diametrom 10,20 mm, tolshhinoj stenok 0,90 mm i dlinoj 1500 mm, prednaznachennye dlja proverki v kachestve pokrytija toplivnyh sterzhnej pri temperature 330 Degree-Sign S v reaktornoj petle s vodoj pod davleniem ispytyvalis' s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka s cel'ju obnaruzhenija defektov. Ispytyvaemye trubchatye obolochki byli postavleny izgotoviteljami v SShA, soedinennom Korolevstve i v Skandinavii. Nashe trebovanie, chtoby vse postavlennye trubki byli svobodny ot treshhin i drugih defektov razmerom svyshe 500 - 1000 mikron po dline i svyshe 25 - 50 mikron po glubine, ne bylo prinjato polnost'ju izgotoviteljami. Oni mogli garantirovat' tol'ko otsutstvie treshhin velichinoj svyshe 1000 mikron po dline i svyshe 50 mikron po glubine. V svjazi s tem, chto iz 93 ispytannyh trub tol'ko u dvuh byli obnaruzheny treshhiny velichinoj svyshe 50 mikron po glubine, reshili provodit' bolee stroguju proverku, v rezul'tate kotoroj mozhno bylo by obnaruzhivat' defekty velichinoj porjadka 10 - 50 mikron po glubine. Dlja obnaruzhenija i registracii takih nebol'shih defektov primenjalos' poluavtomaticheskoe ul'trazvukovoe impul'snoe oborudovanie, dejstvujushhee kak v prodol'nom, tak i v poperechnom napravlenijah, v kombinacii s sistemami propuskanija i mnogokanal'nym registratorom. Sistema razvertki byla otregulirovana takim obrazom, chto vnutrennie i naruzhnye defekty odnogo i togo zhe porjadka i razmera ukazyvalis' s odinakovymi amplitudami. Kalibrovanie oborudovanija proizvodili na iskusstvennyh defektah. Defekty, obrazovavshiesja v prodol'nom napravlenii, obnaruzhivalis' s pomoshh'ju razdel'noj sistemy datchik-priemnik s primeneniem fokusirovannogo puchka. Defekty, obrazovavshiesja v poperechnom napravlenii

  11. Interesting Developments in UO{sub 2} Technology; Progres interessants dans la technologie du bioxyde d'uranium; Interesnye usovershenstvovaniya tekhnologii UO{sub 2}; Recientes progresos en la tecnologia del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. A.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-11-15

    permitiran determinar si las nuevas formas de combustible pueden ofrecer alguna ventaja economica. Mientras tanto, el continuo perfeccionamiento de las barras combustibles de UO{sub 2} sinterizado en geometrias simples dara lugar a una renida competencia. (author) [Russian] Sejchas, kogda neskol'ko reaktorov, v kotorykh toplivom sluzhit UO{sub 2}, nakhodyatsya v postoyannoj ehkspluatatsii, khoroshie radiatsionnye -svojstva UO{sub 2} ne nuzhdayutsya v dokazatel'stve. Priyatno uznavat' o tom, chto vazhnye usovershenstvovaniya eshche poyavlyayutsya. Naibolee znachitel'nom za poslednee vremya yavilos' otkrytie sotrudnikami istituta Behttely ochen' vysokoj teploprovodnosti otdel'nogo odinochnogo kristalla UO{sub 2} pri povyshennykh temperaturakh. Provedennoe v svyazi s raskhozhdeniem mnenij po ehtomu voprosu obluchenie v Chok-Rivere pokazalo, chto bol'shie zerna, obrazuyushchiesya v rabotavshikh toplivnykh ehlementakh, ne obyazatel'no obladayut ehtoj povyshennoj provodimost'yu. Ehksperimenty nashej laboratorii pokazali, chto povyshenie imeet mesto tol'ko v podstekhiometricheskikh soedineniyakh i malo zavisit, esli voobshche zavisit, ot otsutstviya granits zeren. Bezuslovno, vysokaya provodimost' mozhet byt' poluchena v polikristallicheskikh spekshikhsya materialakh putem regulirovaniya stekhiometrii. Davno izvestno, chto udlinenie obolochki mozhno umen'shit', esli izgotovit' tabletki ieh UO{sub 2} s uglubleniyami na tortsovykh poverkhnostyakh. Pozzhe bylo pokazano, chto smeshcheniyu topliva v pustoe prostranstvo v kontse trubki s tabletkami meshaet diametral'noe rasshirenie topliva i ego mekhanicheskoe vzaimodejstvie s obolochkoj. Samym bol'shim dostizheniem v otnoshenii svedeniya k minimumu rasshireniya obolochki yavilos' uyasnenie togo, chto prodol'noe, i diametral'noe rasshireniya vzaimosvyazany cherez posredstvo ob{sup e}mnogo rasshireniya topliva, goryachaya serdtsevina kotorogo dovol'no plastichna. Rasshirilis' nashi prakticheskie znaniya faktorov, opredelyayushchikh

  12. High-Volume Non-Destructive Test Applications at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation; Applications Industrielles des Essais Non Destructifs a l'Etablissement Nucleaire de Hanford; Provedenie bol'shogo chisla nedestruktivnykh ispytanii v ''khenford atomik prodakts opereishen''; Ensayos No Destructivos en Gran Escala Aplicados en Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worlton, D. C. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    resultados obtenidos con este metodo de ensayo, que se ha aplicado en condiciones dificiles a 250 000 m de tuberia instalada. (author) [Russian] Bezopasnost' i jeffektivnost' kriticheskih processov Henforda garantiruetsja bystrym, nadezhnym i avtomaticheskim sposobom ispytanija obrazcov bez razrushenija obolochki. Vysokochuvstvitel'nye toki Fuko i ul'trazvuk nahodjat svoe obychnoe primenenie v jetoj oblasti i v processah izgotovlenija izdelij dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' maksimal'nuju garantiju kachestva bol'shih kolichestv materiala za mini- mal'nyj period vremeni. Opisyvajutsja sistemy, ispol'zuemye dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' kachestvennost' processov Henforda po izgotovleniju izdelij jadernogo topliva. Dejstvujushhie kak obychnoe oborudovanie jeti sistemy ispol'zujut izmerenija ul'trazvukovogo zatuhanija dlja togo, chtoby prokontrolirovat' strukturu zerna aktivnyh zon nejekranirovannogo uranovogo topliva, a ul'trazvukovoj metod i metod tokov Fuko dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' sootvetstvujushhuju po- losnost' i tolshhinu 0,040 djujma aljuminievogo pokrytija jelementov ' kassetah, i novyj shirokopolosnyj metod s vysokorazreshajushhej sposobnost'ju ul'trazvukovogo obsledovanija dlja obnaruzhenija defektov v svarnyh shvah na stykah obolochki. Ob{sup e}dinenie ispytanij s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka i tokov Fuko primenjaetsja odnovremenno dlja togo, chtoby provesti polnoe obsledovanie toplivnogo jelementa v devjatisekundnom cikle. Jelementy s defektom avtomaticheski udaljajutsja s potochnoj linii proizvodstva. Osobyj upor delaetsja na usovershenstvovannye metody ispytanij s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka po obsledovaniju tonkostennyh obolochnyh trub dlja toplivnyh jelementov. Ispol'zujutsja special'nye preryvateli s vysokoj fokusirovkoj vmeste s shirokopolosnoj shemoj dlja togo, chtoby poluchit' chistyj srez volny v trubah tolshhinoj 0,015 djujma. Prostejshie i bolee slozhnye volnovye dvizhenija iskljuchajutsja, poskol'ku rezul'taty ispytanij legko istolkovyvajutsja i vosproizvodjatsja

  13. Efficiency of the Shut-Down and Safety Equipment and the Kinetic Characteristics of the G2 and G3 Reactors; Efficacite des dispositifs de secours et de securite et caracteristiques cinetiques des piles G2 et G3; Ehffektivnost' sistem avarijnoj zashchity reaktorov G.2 i G.3 i kineticheskie kharakteristiki ehtikh sistem; Caracteristicas cineticas y eficacia de los dispositivos de auxilio y de seguridad de los reactores G2 y G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henri, C.; Plisson, J.; Teste duBailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-10-15

    dispositivos de seguridad instalados. (author) [Russian] Opyt, priobretennyj v techenie neskol'kikh let ehkspluatatsii reaktorov G.2 i G.3, daet vozmozhnost' podtverdit' vysokuyu stepen' bezopasnosti raboty semejstva reaktorov na prirodnom urane, grafite i gaze. Opisyvayutsya ustanovki avarijnoj zashity, kotorye pozvolyaet predotvrashchat', s odnoj storony, takie avarii kak prekrashchenie postupleniya ehlektroehnergii v raspredelitel'nuyu set', ostanovka tsirkulyatsii gaza, prekrashchenie podachi vody i t.d., i, s drugoj storony, takie avarii, kak razrushenie obolochki, mestnye peregrevy, poterya zhidkogo teplonositelya i t.d. Printsipial'nye skhemy dayut ob{sup y}asnenie rabote ehtikh ustanovok. Izuchaetsya, glavnym obrazom, ehlektrosnabzhenie i ''kontrol''' pri avarijnykh situatsiyakh, avarijnoe snabzhenie vodoj i tsepochka avarijnoj zashchity. Ukazyvayutsya posledovatel'nye izmeneniya i uluchsheniya ehtikh ustanovok S pomoshch'yu ehksperimental'nogo issledovaniya povedeniya reaktorov na nestatsionarnom rezhime vyyavlyayutsya vnutrenne prisushchie ehtim reaktoram kharakteristiki zashchity. Issledovaniya pozvolyayut podttverdit' prigodnost' raschetnogo metoda. (author)

  14. Problems Arising from Disposal of Low-Activity Radioactive Waste in the Coastal Waters of the Netherlands; Problemes Poses par l'Evacuation des dechets de Faible Radioactivite dans les Eaux Cotieres des Pays-Bas; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas que Plantea la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos de Baja Actividad en las Aguas Costeras de los Paises Bajos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korringa, P. [Netherlands Institute for Fishery Investigations, Ijmuiden (Netherlands)

    1960-07-01

    acumulacion puede alcanzar niveles alarmantes. Dado que los principales productos de pesqueria que se obtienen en las proximidades de la conduccion de descarga proyectada para el centro holandes de investigacion sobre reactores son los camarones, lenguados platijas y mejillones, habria que evitar que se produjese una acumulacion apreciable de desechos radiactivos en estos animales. La peculiar situacion internacional del mercado pesquero de los Paises Bajos exige particular cuidado, y la migracion de peces y camarones impide el evitar que exista una zona contaminada. (author) [Russian] Radioaktivnye othody s nizkoj aktivnost'ju, otvedennye v pribrezhnye vody, budut vkljuchat'sja v morskoj ''pishhevoj obmen'' dvumja sovershenno razlichnymi putjami. 1. Adsorbcija na poverhnosti planktonovyh organizmov i adsorbcija na chasticy ila. V poslednem sluchae ryby i drugie sushhestva mogut zaglotit' zagrjaznennye chastichki so svoej obychnoj pishhej. V tom sluchae, kogda rassmatrivaemye jelementy ne igrajut pervostepennoj biologicheskoj roli dlja dannyh organizmov, akkumuljacija ne budet vozrastat' v geometricheskoj progressij. Bol'shaja chast' radioaktivnogo materiala, proglochennogo vmeste s chasticami ila, pozdnee pokinet organizm. 2. Akkumuljacija cherez aktivnoe usvoenie jelementov, sobiraemyh v sostojanii rastvora organizmami, kotorye nosjat na sebe obolochki. Med', cink, marganec, kobal't i t.p. jelementy akkumulirujutsja v znachitel'noj stepeni sushhestvami, kotorye sozdajut sebe pokrytie, takimi kak moljuski, i sohranjajutsja v soedinitel'nyh tkanjah. Esli chast' takih jelementov javljaetsja radioaktivnoj, akkumuljacija mozhet dostignut' opasnyh predelov. Krevetki, morskie jazyki, kambala i dvustvorchatye rakoviny, javljajutsja osnovnym rybnym produktom v rajone, prilegajushhem k planiruemomu truboprovodu Datskogo centra po issledovaniju reaktorov, i sleduet predotvratit' znachitel'nuju akkumuljaciju radioaktivnyh othodov v jetih organizmah. Osoboe mezhdunarodnoe polozhenie

  15. Study and Construction of the Metal Vessels for the Reactors of the EDF1 and EDF2 Sectors at Chinon; Etude et construction des caissons metalliques des reacteurs des tranches EDF1 et EDF2 de la centrale de Chinon; Izuchenie i konstruktsiya metallicheskikh korpusov reaktorov pervoj i vtoroj chasti programm ehlektrostantsij; Estudio y construccion de los recipientes metalicos de los reactores EDF1 y EDF2 de la central de Chinon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamiral, G.; Millot, R.; Passerieux, P. [Electricite de France, Clamart, Seine (France)

    1963-10-15

    proektirovaniya i opredeleniya razmerov utolshchenij stenok otverstij. Voprosy utolshchenij stenok prokhodov upravlyayushchikh sterkhnej i stenok otverstij dlya zagruzki byli izucheny na maketakh, poluchennye rezul'taty provereny na okonchatel'nykh konstruktsiyakh v protsesse gidravlicheskikh ispytanij. Metod konstruirovaniya, pervonachal'no primenyaemyj k korpusu EDF. 1, byl otnositel'no prost; listovoj metall, kotoryj podlezhal svarke, predvaritel'no podogrevalsya v opredelennom meste; posle zaversheniya vsekh svarochnykh rabot korpus dolzhen byl projti tol'ko odnu teplovuyu obrabotku po otpusku. Ser'eznoe rastreskivanie obolochki v protsesse rabot vedet k polnomu povtoreniyu s nachala metoda konstruirovaniya, a takzhe bez proverki vsekh svarochnykh rabot pri obshchem podogreve i ralaksavdi napryazheniya putem obrabotok s neodnokratnymi otpuskami. Takoj metod raboty pozvolil postroit' korpusy reaktorov EDF. 1 i EDF. 2, no vmeste s tem vyyavilis' nekotorye ogranichivayushchie faktory, znachitel'no oslozhnivshie raboty pri stroitel'stve. (author)

  16. Non-Destructive Examination of the Heat-Affected Zone of Welded Zr-Nb Alloy; Controle Non Destructif de la Zone d'Un Alliage Zr-Nb Affectee par la Chaleur Lors du Soudage; Nedestruktivnoe ispytanie zony svarnogo shva iz tsirkonij-niobij splava, kotoryj podverzhen teplovomu vliyaniyu; Examen No Destructivo de la Zona de Soldadura Afectada por el Calor en las Aleaciones de Circonio y Niobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanstock, R. F.; Walker, D. C.B. [U.K.A.E.A. Reactor Materials Laboratory, Culcheth (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    sencilla modificacion, para examinar las soldaduras en las aleaciones de circonio y niobio. Se da un ejemplo de las variaciones en la respuesta de la sonda en las distintas partes de una soldadura afectadas por el calor, y se las compara con los resultados del estudio de la corrosion efectuado en autoclave. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zovanie splava iz cir- konija i 2,5% niobija dlja obolochki vysokogo davlenija v reaktorah s vodnym zamedlitelem imeet rjad preimushhestv, svjazannyh s prochnost'ju je t ogo splava blagodarja termoobrabotke. Termoobrabotka takzhe chuvstvitel'no vlijaet na korrozionnuju stojkost' splava v uslovijah raboty reaktora, i v zonah svarki plavleniem, kotorye podverzheny teplovomu vlijaniju, mogut pojavit'sja zony nizkoj korrozionnoj stojkosti. Zony, podverzhennye korrozii, mozhno usta- novit' putem obrabotki v avtoklave. Odnako je tot metod javljaetsja neudobnym v teh slucha- jah, kogda putem svarki sobirajutsja krupnogabaritnye kontury vysokogo davlenija. Prishli k vyvodu, chto zony teplovogo vozdejstvija, chuvstvitel'nye k korrozii, mozhno obnaruzhit' putem izmerenija termojelektricheskogo potenciala mezhdu nagretym metallicheskim tochech- nym zondom, kontaktirujushhimsja s opredelennymi oblastjami svarnogo shva, i primykajushhim k nemu metallom. Termojelektricheskij zond izgotavlivaetsja tak zhe, kak zond, kotoryj soz - dan Britanskoj associaciej po issledovanijam cvetnyh metallov dlja izmerenija tolshhiny pokrytija metallicheskih substratov. Imejushhijsja v prodazhe pribor, kotoryj vkljuchaet takoj zond s neznachitel'nymi vidoizmenenijami, mozhno ispol'zovat' dlja ispytanija svarnyh soedinenij iz cirkonij-niobij splavov. Privoditsja primer izmenenija zondovoj chuvstvitel'- nosti po zonam svarnogo shva, podverzhennym teplovomu vozdejstviju, i jet ot primer srav- nivaetsja s provedennym v avtoklave ispytaniem na korroziju. (author)

  17. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows

  18. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows the

  19. Study on the Localization of Iodine in the Stomach; Etude de la Localisation de l'Iode dans l'Estomac; Izuchenie lokalizatsii joda v zheludke; Estudio de la Localizacion del Yodo en el Estomago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clode, W. H.; Perez Fernandez, M. A.; Baptista, A. M. [Comissao de Estudos de Energia Nuclear do Instituto de Alta Cultura, Lisbon (Portugal); Simao Rodrigues, M.; Murteira, M. A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1964-10-15

    koncentracii radioaktivnyh izotopov predpolagaet sushhestvovanie bolee chem odnogo mehanizma vydelenija joda. Jeti nabljudenija podtverzhdajut vyvody drugih issledovatelej, ispol'zovavshih razlichnye metody. Skennirovanie cherez 24 chasa posle vvedenija joda-131 pozvoljaet obnaruzhit' rak zheludka u bol'shinstva obsledovannyh bol'nyh, stradajushhih jetoj bolezn'ju. Jeti rezul'taty ob{sup j}asnjajutsja ne tol'ko koncentraciej joda kletkami opuholi, no takzhe i nekotoroj zaderzhkoj joda v stenkah zheludka. V bol'shinstve sluchaev koncentracija radioaktivnogo joda v opuholi byla ne vyshe, chem v uchastkah slizistoj obolochki, gde nabljudaetsja povyshennoe pogloshhenie joda. (author)

  20. Pointing Out Main Factors from Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Existing Nuclear Plants for Assisting in Shaping Future Nuclear Power Programmes; Les principaux criteres degages de l'etude, de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires existantes et leur interet pour l'elaboration des futurs programmes d'energie d'origine nucleaire; Ukazanie osnovnykh faktorov proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i opyta ehkspluatatsii sushchestvuyutsikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij, chto dolzhno pomoch' pri sostavlenii budushchikh programm atomnoj ehnergetiki; Principales consideraciones relativas al diseno, construccion y explotacion de centrales nucleares, encaminadas a facilitar la preparacion de programas futuros de energia nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Volta, F. [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    de tipo bien conocido, la memoria estudia en que medida estas instalaciones pueden construirse sin dificultades y satisfacer la demanda de la red; tambien en este aspecto se refiere al creciente papel que cabe atribuir en Italia a la energia nucleoelectrica. Por ultimo, la memoria re calca hasta que punto el acopio y la interpretacion de los datos relativos a las tres centrales nucleares que ahora comienzan a funcionar en Italia facilitarian el proyecto de instalaciones futuras. Alude a la posibilidad de establecer desde ya ciclos de combustible mas extensos. (author) [Russian] Rassmatrivayutsya naibolee vazhnye tekhnicheskie i ehkonomicheskie faktory, kotorye vyyavilis' pri proektirovanii, stroitel'stve i ehkspluatatsii pervykh promyshlennykh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij i kotorye mogut byt' ochen' poleznymi pri sozdanii v budushchem novykh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij, uchityvaya osoben-nosti uslovij v Italii. Nyneshnee sostoyanie tekhnologii proizvodstva i ee postoyannoe razvitie v khode osushchestvleniya proektov pokazali sushchestvovanie opredelennoj tendentsii k snizheniyu kak stoimosti toplivnogo tsikla, tak i stoimosti komponentov stantsii. Ehtomu takzhe blagopriyatstvuyut vozrastayushchaya tendentsiya k uvelicheniyu razmerov ehlektrostantsii i tot fakt, chto analiz ehnergeticheskogo prognoza ehnergosistemy govorit o nalichii blagopriyatnykh uslovij dlya stroitel'stva ehlektrostantsij bol'shej moshchnosti na yadernom toplive vmesto stantsij na obychnom toplive, iskhodya iz predskazannykh izmenenij v stoimosti proizvodstva ehnergii, obuslovlennykh uvelicheniem kolichestva atomnykh ehlektrostantsij. Rassmatrivayutsya osnovnye faktory, kotorye dolrsny byt' uchteny v budushchem pri planirovanii ehlektrostantsij s uchetom takzhe grafikov stroitel'stva i ispytaniya. Opredelennyj upor sdelan na problemu protivoavarijnoj obolochki s uchetom takzhe spetsificheskikh uslovij Italii v otnoshenii nekotorykh aspektov ehtoj problemy; v rezul'tate udobnogo razmeshcheniya

  1. Review of the {sup 60}Co Source. Development Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Le Programme de Mise au Point des Sources au {sup 60}Co au Laboratoire National de Brookhaven; Obzor programmy po razrabotke istochnikov {sup 60}Co v brukkhejvenskoj natsional'noj laboratorii; El Programa de Preparacion de Fuentes de {sup 60}Co del Laboratorio Nacional de Brookhaven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, O. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1966-11-15

    jenergii SShA Brukhejvenskaja nacional'naja laboratorija(BNL) pristupila k razrabotke istochnikov izluchenij. Jeti istochniki byli v osnovnom bol'shie trubki i ploskie plastinki. Pervonachal'no oni prednaznachalis' dlja issledovanij v BNL. Pozdnee drugie uchrezhdenija poluchili razreshenie ispol'zovat' obluchateli, prednaznachennye dlja jetih istochnikov. Po mere povyshenija interesa kombinirovannye ustanovki, vkljuchajushhie istochnik i obluchatel', predostavljalis' drugim issledovateljam. Byli razrabotany kontejnery dlja transportirovki istochnikov i skonstruirovany nebol'shie ''gorjachie'' kamery i napolnennye vodoj bassejny dlja ispol'zovanija jetih istochnikov. Obsuzhdajutsja metody dozimetrii, opredelenie radioaktivnosti v kjuri i konstrukcija obluchatelja dlja jetih istochnikov. V bol'shinstve sluchaev vo vremja provedenija issledovanij jekonomicheskie aspekty ne imeli znachenija; odnako v svjazi s tendenciej k krupnomasshtabnoj radiacionnoj obrabotke v obla Inverted-Question-Mark tjax pishhevyh produktov, himikatov i medicinskih materialov neobhodimo budet tshhatel'no izuchit' tehnicheskie i jekonomicheskie aspekty konstrukcii istochnika. Razrabotka standartnyh istochnikov Brukhejvenskoj nacional'noj laboratorii ''Mark I'' i ''Mark I{sup ,} kotorye' uzhe ispol'zujutsja v rjade ustanovok, prizvana udovletvorit' jetim vazhnym trebovanijam. Istochniki ''Mark Ij i 'Mark II' vzaimozamenjaemy. Konstrukcija istochnika 'Mark II' uluchshena za schet metallurgicheskogo soedinenija vnutrennej obolochki s kobal'tovym serdechnikom. V nastojashhee vremja vpervye mozhno povtorno aktivirovat' jeti istochniki posle nekotorogo ispol'zovanija. Otdel'nye polosy dovodjatsja do trebuemyh razmerov s tem, chtoby ih mozhno bylo legko prikrepit' k plastinkam razlichnogo razmera i formy. Opisyvajutsja teoreticheskoe obosnovanie konstrukcii, metody izgotovlenija i procedury ispytanija, a takzhe analiz istochnika i opredelenie radioaktivnosti v kjuri. ''Proizvodjatsja ''sravnenija s drugimi

  2. The Nature of the Phonon Spectrum and the Analysis of Lattice Thermal Conductivity; Nature du Spectre des Phonons et Analyse de la Conductibilite Thermique du Reseau; Kharakter fononnogo spektra i analiz teploprovodnosti reshetki; Naturaleza del Espectro Fononico y Analisis de la Conductividad Termica Reticular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S. K.; Sharma, K. C. [Physics Department, Allahabad University, Allahabad (India)

    1965-04-15

    neobhodimym ispol'zovat' ochen' horosho otrabotannuju model' obolochki dlja dinamiki reshetki germanija, predlozhennuju Kohranom. Pri sootvetstvujushhem podbore parametrov, vhodjashhih v nashe vyrazhenie dlja rascheta teploprovodnosti reshetki, my vnov' poluchaem horoshee sootvetstvie s jeksperimental'nymi dannymi. My prishli k vyvodu, chto harakter fononnogo spektra ne vlijaet sil'no na analiz dannyh teploprovodnosti reshetki sushhestvujushhimi metodami, i tochnost' fononnogo spektra terjaetsja v rezul'tate podgonki razlichnyh vhodjashhih sjuda parametrov. Est' mnenie, chto vmesto togo, chtoby tratit' slishkom mnogo vremeni na raschet trudoemkih integralov dlja bolee realistichnyh dinamicheskih modelej reshetki, luchshe izuchit' spravedlivost' razlichnyh predpolozhenij o vremeni relaksacii, vhodjashhih v jeti integraly. (author)

  3. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4

  4. A reward semi-Markov process with memory for wind speed modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. The primary goal of this analysis is the study of the time history of the wind in order to assess its reliability as a source of power and to determine the associated storage levels required. In order to assess this issue we use a probabilistic model based on indexed semi-Markov process [4] to which a reward structure is attached. Our model is used to calculate the expected energy produced by a given turbine and its variability expressed by the variance of the process. Our results can be used to compare different wind farms based on their reward and also on the risk of missed production due to the intrinsic variability of the wind speed process. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and backtesting procedure is used to compare results on first and second oder moments of rewards between real and synthetic data. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic gen- eration of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind speed time series at Tangiers, Morocco, Re- newable Energy 29 (2004) 1407-1418. [3] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling of wind using first-order Markov chain and Weibull distribu- tion, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1787-1802. [4]F. Petroni, G. D'Amico, F. Prattico, Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling. To be submitted.

  5. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    priborov, ih chuvstvitel'nost' i ih predely. Predlagajutsja metody analiza bez razrushenija obrazca s ispol'zovaniem stabil'nyh izotopov, obrazujushhihsja vo vremja processa delenija. Pri ispol'zovanii stabil'nyh izotopov detal'naja istorija radiacii priobretaet vtorostepennoe znachenie, a vremja ohlazhdenija voobshhe ne imeet znachenija. K tomu zhe imejutsja bolee tochnye dannye dlja stabil'nyh produktov raspada. Iz stabil'nyh izotopov, poluchennyh v processe delenija, naibolee poleznymi javljajutsja cirkonij, molibden, rutenij i neodim. Obsuzhdajutsja predlagaemye metody analiza bez razrushenija obolochki s ispol'zovaniem stabil'nyh izotopov. (author)

  6. Biological Effects of Thermal Neutrons and the B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) Li{sup 7} reaction; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Thermiques et la Reaction {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li; Biologicheskoe dejstvie teplovykh nejtronov i reaktsiya B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) Li{sup 7}; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Termicos y la Reaccion {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, J. O.; Alcober, V.; Calvo, W. G.; Brenneis, H. [Medical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1964-05-15

    -izluchenija, pojavljajushhegosja pri zahvate teplovyh nejtronov jelementami tkani i jekranirujushhih materialov, a takzhe gamma-izluchenija i obluchenija bystrymi nejtronami, pojavljajushhimisja pri processah delenija v aktivnoj zone reaktora. Konechnyj rezul'tat obluchenija teplovymi nejtronami javljaetsja funkciej padajushhego potoka nejtronov. Poskol'ku plotnost' potoka teplovyh nejtronov v tkani bystro padaet (sloj polovinnogo pogloshhenija Approximately-Equal-To 1,8 sm), dlja obespechenija vysokih doz v glubine na poverhnost' dolzhny popadat' bol'shie dozy. Pojetomu reakcii legkih, kishechnika, kostnogo mozga i slizistoj obolochki zavisjat glavnym obrazom, ot gamma-obluchenija v rezul'tate zahvata nejtronov vyshelezhashhimi tkanjami. Obluchenie golovy u sobak pri nejtronnom potoke 1.4 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} privodit k jepiljacii, jeriteme i vlazhnoj deskvamacii s soputstvujushhim ugneteniem krovotvorenija. Odnako v techenie 25-30 dnej na''ljudaetsja vosstanovlenie dejatel'nosti kostnogo mozga i izlechenie kozhnyh porazhenij. Pri nejtronnom obluchenii zhivotnyh 5 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} cherez 30 minut posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija 35 mg/kg bora-10 u zhivotnyh nabljudaetsja nekroticheskij jepidermit, otek kozhi golovy i kon{sup j}unktivit. B mozgu obnaruzhivajutsja kapiljarnye krovoizlijanija i staz s povrezhdeniem nejtronov i astrocitov i narusheniem jendotileja kapilljarov. Znachitel'no umen'shaetsja chislo trombocitov, kotoroe usugubljaet mestnye izmenenija. Zhivotnye pogibajut ot krovotechenij i/ili mozgovyh narushenij na 5 -8-j den' posle obluchenija. Jeti jeffekty svjazyvajut kak s gamma- tak i s al'fa-oblucheniem, voznikajushhim pri zahvate nejtronov borom (B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) Li{sup 7}). Obluchenie kozhi svinej pri 5 x 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} ne privodit k gistologicheskim izmenenijam. Pri obluchenii kozhi posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija 35 mg/kg bora-10 pri takoj zhe moshhnosti nejtronnogo potoka razvivaetsja klassicheskij radio-jepidermit, izlechivajushhijsja cherez36 -40 dnej

  7. The Subcritical Assembly for High-Temperature Use; Assemblage Sous-Critique Pour Emploi a Haute Temperature; K voprosu o podkriticheskoj sborke dlya ispol'zovaniya pri vysokikh temperaturakh; Conjunto Subcritico para Temperatura Elevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Y.; Sekiya, T.; Suita, T. [Osaka University (Japan); Hishida, H.; Hamada, H.; Nagashima, K. [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Group (Japan)

    1964-04-15

    semejantes a los de un pequeflo reactor nuclear. Se estudia la manera de determinar experimentalmente el laplaciano del sistema y se procura encontrar la mejor ubicacion posible para la fuente neutronica pulsante y para los detectores. Ademas, se esta perfeccionando un metodo exclusivo de medicion de la densidad del flujo neutronico a temperatura elevada. Por ultimo, el autor se propone investigar la influencia de esta temperatura elevada sobre los parametros del reactor. (author) [Russian] Podkriticheskie sborki predstavljajut soboj ustanovki s grafitovym zamedlitelem i toplivom v vide prirodnogo urana. Osobennost' konstrukcii takoj ustanovki zakljuchaetsja v nalichii vysokotemperaturnoj oblasti, kotoraja mozhet byt' sozdana v centre sborok aktivnoj zony v nizkotemperaturnoj oblasti i daet vozmozhnost' poluchenija informacii kak dlja vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora s gazovym ohlazhdeniem, tak i dlja neposredstvennogo prevrashhenija jenergii vysokotemperaturnoj gazovoj sredy v jelektrichestvo. Dalee, podkriticheskie sborki predpolagaetsja ispol'zovat' dlja podgotovki studentov starshih kursov. Dannaja sborka byla smontirovana v ob{sup e}me 2 x 2 x 3 m iz grafitovyh blokov v vide kvadratnyh sterzhnej dlinoj 10 sm. Vysokotemperaturnaja oblast' ob{sup e}mom 1 m3 obrazuetsja s pomoshh'ju dzhouleva tepla, v nej mozhet podderzhivat'sja temperatura do 2000 Degree-Sign S. Dlja nizkotemperaturnoj oblasti primenjaetsja toplivo v vide tabletok UO{sub 2}, dlja vysokotemperaturnoj chasti izgotovljajutsja tabletki iz UC{sub 2}. Toplivo pomeshhaetsja vnutri grafitovoj obolochki kvadratnyh sterzhnej. Istochniki Am -Be moshhnost'ju 5 kjuri ustanavlivajutsja pod podstavkoj, raspolozhennoj v nizhnej chasti sborok. S drugoj storony, impul'snye nejtrony inzhektirujutsja v proizvol'noj tochke vnutri sborki. Mishen' v konce rasshiritel'noj trubki uskoritelja bombardiruetsja puchkom dejtronov. Vyhodnaja shina sistemy dzhouleva podogreva ohlazhdaetsja vodoj, a dlja ohlazhdenija vsej poverhnosti stenok

  8. The Application of Various Nondestructive Testing Methods to Fuel Elements of the Orgel Type; Application des Differentes Methodes d'Essais Non Destructifs aux Elements Combustibles du Type Orgel; Primenenie razlichnykh nedestruktivnykh metodov ispytanij k toplivnym ehlementam tipa ''orgel''; Aplicacion de Distintos Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo a los Elementos Combustibles de Tipo Orgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, P.; Jansen, J. [EURATOM, C.C.R., Ispra (Italy)

    1965-09-15

    experimentales para obtener una definicion satisfactoria. Para concluir, los autores presentan un proyecto de cadena de control semi-industrial, con las diferentes posibilidades de tratamiento existentes y formulan observaciones de validez general sobre los ensayos no destructivos aplicados e elementos combustibles. (author) [Russian] Izlagajutsja razlichnye metody obnaruzhenija defektov v obolochkah toplivnyh jelementov (defekty v razmerah ili strukture). Govoritsja takzhe ob okonchatel'nyh ispytanijah toplivnyh jelementov, v chastnosti o radiografii svarki i ob ispytanijah na germetichnost'. Jeta tema uzhe zatragivalas' chastichno. Izuchenie razmernyh harakteristik torcevogo sreza obolochki iz spechennogo aljuminievogo poroshka uzhe javljalos' temoj dovol'no razvernutyh issledovanij. V chastnosti izuchalis' sledujushhie voprosy: 1. Izmerenija vnutrennih i vneshnih diametrov na osnove primenenija pnevmaticheskih lovushek i registracii rezul'tatov. 2. Izmerenija tolshhiny na osnove ispol'zovanija libo ul'trazvuka po metodu rezonansa, libo luchej (kontrakt mezhdu Evratomom i Jeksperimental'nym institutom legkoj metallurgii) . 3. Kontrol' po strele progiba. 4. Ispytanija na rebristyh trubah. Obnaruzhenie defektov v obolochkah takzhe bylo temoj nauchnoj raboty, i kriterij neprigodnosti byl prinjat s uchetom budushhego primenenija obolochek. Daetsja opisanie sledujushhih ispytanij: a. Sozdanie iskusstvennyh treshhin i vyjavlenie zavisimosti ih vreda po sravneniju s dejstvitel'nymi treshhinami v spechennom aljuminievom poroshke. Jeto issledovanie v dejstvitel'nosti pokazalo bol'shuju chuvstvitel'nost' k prodol'nym treshhinam, voznikajushhim obychno v period prevrashhenij, vyzvannyh krupnymi vkraplenijami. b. Ispytanija ul'trazvukom. Prodol'nye treshhiny. Sravnenie metodov s dvumja i s odnoj lovushkoj svidetel'stvuet o predelah ispol'zovanija oboih metodov. Poperechnye treshhiny. Daetsja kratkoe opisanie metoda s odnoj lovushkoj, primenennogo v dannom issledovanii. Mehanicheskaja

  9. Non-Destructive Testing in Reactor Pressure-Vessel Fabrication; Essais non Destructifs dans la Fabrication des Caissons Etanches de Reacteurs; Nedestruktivnoe ispytanie pri izgotovlenii reaktornykh bakov vysokogo davleniya; Ensayo no Destructivo Durante la Fabricacion de Recipientes de Presion para Reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Fluids Dynamics Research, Iit Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1965-09-15

    'nyj, rentgenovskij i gamma-radiografiju, ul'trazvuk, magnitnye chasticy i proniknovenie zhidkosti. Programma nedestruktivnyh ispytanij vkljuchaet proverku materiala plastiny, shtampovki, otlivki, obolochki i svarnyh shvov. Obsuzhdajutsja.opredelennye problemy, s kotorymi stalkivajutsja pri izgotovlenii jadernyh bakov vysokogo davlenija. Privodjatsja primery i obsuzhdajutsja specificheskie metody nedestruktivnyh ispytanij bakov vysokogo davlenija i ih komponentov. Izlagajutsja dejstvujushhie pravila i specifikacii, naprimer instrukcija po jekspluatacii kotlov i drugih sosudov vysokogo davlenija, izdannaja Amerikanskim obshhestvom inzhenerov-mehanikov, a takzhe instrukcii drugih rasporjaditel'nyh organov. Obsuzhdajutsja voprosy, kakim obrazom ispytanie bez razrushenija mozhet sodejstvovat' sobljudeniju specifikacij i trebovanij, predusmotrennyh razlichnymi rasporjaditel'nymi organami, a takzhe voprosy dostatochnosti i prigodnosti standartov, kotorye ispol'zujutsja pri takom primenenii. Predlagajutsja realistichnye i vmeste s tem otvechajushhie trebovanijam kriterii dlja priemki i brakovki. Daetsja opisanie procedury, kotoraja okazhet pomoshh' personalu, zanimajushhemusja nedestruktivnymi ispytanijami, dolzhnym obrazom vypolnjat' svoi objazannosti v sootvetstvujushhee vremja v processe izgotovlenija. Rassmatrivaetsja vzaimosvjaz' mezhdu gruppoj, provodjashhej nedestruktivnye ispytanija, i drugimi gruppami, svjazannymi s izgotovleniem sosudov vysokogo davlenija. (author)

  10. Fabrication and Testing of Prototype APM-Clad UO{sub 2} Fuel Elements; Fabrication et essai de prototypes de cartouches de combustible en bioxyde d'uranium gaine d'aluminium (APM); Izgotovlenie i ispytanie prototipa toplivnykh ehlementov na osnove UO{sub 2} s obolochkoj iz alyuminiya metodom poroshkovoj metallurgii; Elaboracion y ensayo de elementos combustibles prototipo de UO{sub 2} con revestimiento de aluminio sinterizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, III, J. L.; Friske, W. H.; Gordon, R. B. [Atomics International, Canoga Park, California (United States)

    1963-11-15

    APM imeet vosem' spiral'nykh reber s shagom vinta 45 ili 90{sup o} na 1 fut. Soedineniya stykov toplivnykh sterzhnej proizvodilis' s pomoshch'yu ehvteticheskogo, soedineniya poserebrennogo alyuminiya v vide kontsevykh probok k trubkam APM. EHlementy byli snabzheny prisposobleniyami dlya: 1. Izmereniya poverkhnosti obolochki i temperatury okhladitelya. 2. Opredeleniya neispravnosti toplivnogo sterzhnya. 3. Izmeneniya skorosti okhladitelya (sredstva polucheniya maksimal'noj temperatury poverkhnosti pokrytiya 850{sup o}F). 4. Izmereniya skorosti okhladitelya. 5., Izmereniya obrazuyushchikhsya pri raspade gazov. Ehti ehlementy byli ustanovleny v opytnom reaktore s organicheskim zamedlitelem pri raschetnykh dannykh vygoraniya topliva s 25 000 do 30 000 mgvt-dnej/t urana. Na 1 fevralya 1963 goda oni dostigli naivysshego vygoraniya v predelakh ot 7 700 do 12 000 mgvt-dnej/t urana. Iz imeyushchikhsya ehlementov dva byli udaleny iz reaktora vvidu trudnostej, kotorye vstretilis' pri ispol'zovanii kontrol'noizmeritel'nykh priborov, svyazannykh s ispytaniem ehlementov. Ostal'nye tri ehlementa byli ostavleny v reaktore. Rezul'taty ehksperimental'noj raboty, provedennoj na segodnyashnij den', ukazyvayut na to, chto toplivnaya sistema APM - UO{sub 2} dast svoi rezul'taty v programme POPR. (author)

  11. Coincidence scanning with positron-emitting arsenic or copper in the diagnosis of focal intracranial disease; Exploration par coincidences avec l'Arsenic ou le Cuivre Emetteurs de Positrons dans le Diagnostic des Maladies intracraniennes localisees; Raspoznavanie ochagovykh vnutricherepnykh zabolevanij putem podscheta (skanirovaniya) sovpralenij s primeneniem mysh'yaka ili medi, vydelyayushchikh pozitrony; Exploracion por coincidencia con arsenico o cobre emisores de positrones en el diagnostico de enfermedades intracraneanas localizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, William H; Mealey, John Jr; Brownell, Gordon L; Aronow, Saul [Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Neurosurgical Service and Physics Research Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    isslodovanii opukholej, raspolozhenny kh pod mozzhechkovym nametom tverdoj mozgovoj obolochki, ne zametiv ikh v 23 iz 39 sluchaev, to est' 59%. K gruppe ne otnosyashchikhsya k novoobrazovaniya m opukholej my lokaliziroval i pri pomoshchi mysh'yaka 7 iz 8 nakhodyashchikhsya pod tverdoj mozgovoj obolochkoj gematom i ni odnu iz trekh pri pomoshchi medi. Ustanovlennye pri proverke vnutrimozgovye sgustki krovi byli lokalizirovan y v 4 iz 5 sluchaev mysh'yakom i v odnom iz 3 sluchaev med'yu. Vse 10 abstsessov byli obnaruzheny pri pomoshchi mysh'yaka i 3 iz 4 pri pomoshchi medi. U vsekh trekh patsientov, stradavshikh odnovremennym zabolevaniem belykh krovyanykh telets i mozga (leukoencephalopathy)' issledovanie metodom mysh'yaka dalo vozmozhnost' opredelit' glavnye zony razrusheniya mielina. Iz 10 bol'nykh, podvergnutykh v obshchej slozhnosti 16 issledovaniyam rassmatrivaemog o tipa, a takzhe vskrytiyu cherepa, kotoroe ne dalo polozhitel'nykh rezul'tatov, tol'ko u 2 bylo obnaruzheno metodom skanirovaniya nalichie yavnoj ochagovoj anomalii - v odnom sluchae pri pomoshchi mysh'yaka, a v drugom - pri pomoshchi medi. (author)