Sample records for zamani huecejre qomeostasinin

  1. From Point Cloud to Textured Model, the Zamani Laser Scanning ...


    3D computer model based on experiences gained during the ongoing ... The development of terrestrial laser scanning from primarily time-of-flight (ToF) ..... Textured 3D model of rock art panel at Game Pass shelter, Drakensberg, South Africa.

  2. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.


    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  3. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.


    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  4. Financial stress during medical residency training: an experience from Iran

    Zamani M


    Full Text Available Mohammad Zamani,1 Vahid Zamani2 1Student Research Committee, Department of Medicine, 2Vice-Chancellery for Health, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IranWe have read with great interest the article by Abdulghani et al,1 in which they well documented the high prevalence of stress among the Saudi Arabian medical residents and its effects on their working efficacy and general physical health during the residency training. This important issue similarly applies in Iran. Previous surveys performed on the Iranian resident trainees revealed the increased levels of psychological and emotional disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress among them.2–4View original paper by Abdulghani et al.

  5. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran

    Mohsen MOLLA MOHAMMADI; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; Khatami, Alireza; Azargashb, Eznollah; Tavasoli, Azita; Javadzadeh, Mohsen; Zamani, Gholamreza


    How to Cite This Article: Molla Mohammadi M, Tonekaboni SH, Khatami AR, Azargashb E, Tavasoli A, Javadzadeh M, Zamani GR. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4):24-31.ObjectiveSeizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis.First unprovoked seizures (FUS) are seizures that occur in patients without feve...

  6. On the relationship between reflective teaching and teachers’ burnout

    Farzaneh Javadi


    Full Text Available Few studies with a focus on teachers and their characteristics have attempted to shed light on the effects teachers’ dissatisfaction and demotivation can have on their professional development (Ozer & Beycioglu, 2010; Zamani Rad, 2010. Surprisingly, no studies have addressed the relationship between their feelings of dissatisfaction and burnout with reflective teaching. As many as 170 Iranian EFL teachers in different private language teaching institutes participated in the study. Data were collected using Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996 and reflective teaching measurement scale (Behzadpoure, 2007. Correlation analysis indicated that teachers’ reflection was significantly and inversely related to their feeling of burnout (r= -80, p<0.05. The Step-Wise Multiple Regression also showed that the components of burnout i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment can considerably predict teachers’ reflection. The findings offer some implications for in-service and pre-service teacher preparation programs.

  7. Alam dalam Pandangan Abu Hamid al-Ghazali

    Irwan Malik Marpaung


    Full Text Available Pernyataan bahwa alam ini muncul bersamaan dengan Zat Tuhan berimplikasi kepada adanya persaingan antara alam dengan Tuhan dalam eksistensinya. Benarkah Tuhan yang menciptakan alam? Jika benar, kapan Tuhan mulai menciptakannya? Dan mengapa Tuhan tidak menciptakannya pada waktu yang lain? Di antara para Filsuf Muslim pun terdapat ragam pendapat yang jika kita salah dalam memahaminya, akan menyebabkan seseorang mengingkari eksistensi Tuhan. Salah satu pendapat yang cukup menarik untuk dicermati adalah konsep alam menurut al-Ghazali. Ia merupakan salah satu filosof dan teolog Muslim yang terkenal yang dengan kedalaman ilmunya membuat ia digelar sebagai hujjah al-Islam. Makalah ini akan membahas konsepsi al-Ghazali tentang alam yang tersusun terutama dari kritik al-Ghazali terhadap argumentasi para filsuf berupa argumen Tarjih dan Murajjih, argumen Taqaddum Zamani, argumentasi al-Imkan, serta argumen materi. Melalui makalah sederhana ini akan dipaparkan pemikiran al-Ghazali mengenai alam, sekaligus membantah beberapa konsep para filosof barat dengan nas-nas yang otentik.

  8. Advances in drug delivery via electrospun and electrosprayed nanomaterials

    Zamani M


    Full Text Available Maedeh Zamani,1 Molamma P Prabhakaran,2 Seeram Ramakrishna1,21Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, SingaporeAbstract: Electrohydrodynamic (EHD techniques refer to procedures that utilize electrostatic forces to fabricate fibers or particles of different shapes with sizes in the nano-range to a few microns through electrically charged fluid jet. Employing different techniques, such as blending, surface modification, and coaxial process, there is a great possibility of incorporating bioactive such molecules as drugs, DNA, and growth factors into the nanostructures fabricated via EHD techniques. By careful selection of materials and processing conditions, desired encapsulation efficiency as well as preserved bioactivity of the therapeutic agents can be achieved. The drug-loaded nanostructures produced can be applied via different routes, such as implantation, injection, and topical or oral administration for a wide range of disease treatment. Taking advantage of the recent developments in EHD techniques like the coaxial process or multilayered structures, individually controlled delivery of multiple drugs is achievable, which is of great demand in cancer therapy and growth-factor delivery. This review summarizes the most recent techniques and postmodification methods to fabricate electrospun nanofibers and electrosprayed particles for drug-delivery applications.Keywords: electrospinning, electrospraying, gene delivery, growth-factor delivery, cancer therapy, wound dressing

  9. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    Zamani Sani SH


    Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

  10. Composite poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl acetate electrospun nanofibrous mats as a novel wound dressing matrix for controlled release of drugs

    Jannesari M


    Full Text Available Marziyeh Jannesari1, Jaleh Varshosaz2, Mohammad Morshed1, Maedeh Zamani11Department of Textile Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to develop novel biomedicated nanofiber electrospun mats for controlled drug release, especially drug release directly to an injury site to accelerate wound healing. Nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA, poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, and a 50:50 composite blend, loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl, were successfully prepared by an electrospinning technique for the first time. The morphology and average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies indicated an amorphous distribution of the drug inside the nanofiber blend. Introducing the drug into polymeric solutions significantly decreased solution viscosities as well as nanofiber diameter. In vitro drug release evaluations showed that both the kind of polymer and the amount of drug loaded greatly affected the degree of swelling, weight loss, and initial burst and rate of drug release. Blending PVA and PVAc exhibited a useful and convenient method for electrospinning in order to control the rate and period of drug release in wound healing applications. Also, the thickness of the blend nanofiber mats strongly influenced the initial release and rate of drug release.Keywords: biodegradable polymers, drug delivery, controlled release, electrospun nanofibers, wound dressing

  11. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae

    Sergei Zonstein


    Full Text Available The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962 (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. alexandri Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♀ Z. akhanii Marusik & Zamani, 2015 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 (Cyprus, ♂♀ Z. beshkentica (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. brignoliana sp. nov. (Iran, ♂♀ Z. ferghanensis sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. feti sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. halepensis sp. nov. (Syria, ♀ Z. huberi sp. nov. (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. inderensis Ponomarev, 2005 (Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. kunti sp. nov. (Cyprus, Turkey, ♂♀ Z. logunovi sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ♂♀ Z. maracandica (Charitonov, 1946 (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. martynovae (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. medica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. minoica sp. nov. (Greece, ♀ Z. minuta sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. persica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂ Z. psammodroma sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1911, the type species (Egypt, Israel, ♂♀ Z. spinimana sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. wunderlichi sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan and ♀ Z. zonsteini Fomichev & Marusik, 1969 (Kazakhstan. Twelve above-listed species are newly described, and males of Z. annulipes, Z. beshkentica, Z. maracandica and Z. martynovae are described for the first time. Two new combinations are established: Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 comb. nov., ex Filistata, and Pholcoides monticola (Spassky, 1941 comb. nov., ex Zaitunia. New data on distribution of the considered taxa are provided.

  12. Greater ethnic diversity correlates with lower HIV prevalence in Africa: justification for an alloimmunity vaccine

    Zamani C


    Full Text Available Christopher Zamani, Jared D Elzey, James EK Hildreth Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research at Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee, USA Purpose: After decades of research, AIDS continues to be a major pandemic and to date, adaptive immunity vaccine designs have had little to no success. Data indicate the alloimmune response is a potent mitigator of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, for which experiments of nature should be demonstrable to justify pursuit of an alloimmune vaccine strategy. We sought to determine if large-scale alloimmune diversity correlates with lower HIV infection rates. Methods: Using published data of African linguistic groups to determine sub-Saharan country ethnicity profiles as a proxy for human leukocyte antigen (HLA diversity, a correlation analysis was performed against respective sub-Saharan country HIV infection rates. Ethnicity data from 37 sub-Saharan nations in 2003 and from 38 nations in 2005 were used to calculate the Meyers-Macintosh ethnic diversity score for each nation as the independent variable. World Health Organization data on HIV infection rates for the same countries were used as the dependent variable. The main outcome measure was the correlation coefficient of ethnic diversity versus HIV infection rate. Results: A significant negative correlation was shown between ethnic diversity and HIV infection: for 2003 data, -0.4586 (two-tailed P-value of 0.0043; and, for 2005 data, -0.3866 (two-tailed P-value of 0.0165. Conclusion: In conjunction with substantial evidence that alloimmunity confers protection against HIV transmission and recent work identifying specific anti-HIV mechanisms, this analysis strongly justifies an HLA-based alloimmune vaccine strategy against HIV. Keywords: AIDS, adaptive immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA

  13. Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases.

    Weil, E; Irikawa, A; Casareto, B; Suzuki, Y


    Other than coral bleaching, few coral diseases or diseases of other reef organisms have been reported from Japan. This is the first report of lesions similar to Porites ulcerative white spots (PUWS), brown band disease (BrB), pigmentation response (PR), and crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) for this region. To assess the health status and disease prevalence, qualitative and quantitative surveys (3 belt transects of 100 m² each on each reef) were performed in March and September 2010 on 2 reefs of the Ginowan-Ooyama reef complex off Okinawa, and 2 protected reefs off Zamani Island, in the Kerama Islands 40 km west of Okinawa. Overall, mean (±SD) disease prevalence was higher in Ginowan-Ooyama (9.7 ± 7.9%) compared to Zamami (3.6 ± 4.6%). Porites lutea was most affected by PUWS at Ooyama (23.1 ± 10.4 vs. 4.5 ± 5.2%). White syndrome (WS) mostly affected Acropora cytherea (12. 5 ± 18.0%) in Zamami and Oxipora lacera (10.2 ± 10%) in Ooyama. Growth anomalies (GA) and BrB were only observed on A. cytherea (8.3 ± 6.2%) and A. nobilis (0.8%) at Zamami. Black band disease affected Pachyseris speciosa (6.0 ± 4.6%) in Ooyama only. Pigmentation responses (PR) were common in massive Porites in both localities (2.6 ± 1.9 and 5.6 ± 2.3% respectively). Crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) was observed in both localities. These results significantly expand the geographic distribution of PUWS, BrB, PR and CCWS in the Indo-Pacific, indicating that the northernmost coral reefs in the western Pacific are susceptible to a larger number of coral diseases than previously thought.

  14. Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a large teaching hospital in southern Iran

    Vazin A


    Full Text Available Afsaneh Vazin,1 Zahra Zamani,1 Nahid Hatam2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Abstract: This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5% MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2% and antimicrobial (23.6% medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6% and wrong time error (4.4% were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04, higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017, and the morning shifts (P=0.035 were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction

  15. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: AshrafiMR, Azizi Malamiri R, Zamani GR, Mohammadi M, Hosseini F. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter;7(1:15-19.ObjectiveElectroencephalography (EEG recording is a long duration procedure that needs patient’s cooperation for device setup and performing the procedure. Many children lose their cooperation during this procedure. Therefore, sedation and sleep are frequently induced using a few agents as pre procedure medication in children before EEG recording. We aimed to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate before the procedure along with their impacts on EEG recording in children.Materials & MethodsA randomized trial was carried out to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate and their impacts on EEG recording in children. A total of 198 children (100 in the midazolam group and 98 in the chloral hydrate group were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either oral moidazolam or chloral hydrate.ResultsOral midazolam had superiority neither in sleep onset latency nor in sleep duration when compared to chloral hydrate. Moreover, the yield of epileptiform discharges in the chloral hydrate group was more than the midazolam group.ConclusionThe results of this study showed that both chloral hydrate 5% (one ml/kg and oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg could be administered as a pre medication agent for EEG recording in children. However, oral midazolam at this dose had no advantage compared with chloral hydrate.ReferencesAshrafi MR, Mohammadi M, Tafarroji J, Shabanian R, Salamati P, Zamani GR. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2010;14(3:235-8.Slifer KJ, Avis KT, Frutchey RA. Behavioral intervention to increase compliance with electroencephalographic procedures in children with developmental disabilities. Epilepsy

  16. Methylmalonic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH


    , Melhem ER, Barker PB. Multi-slice proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging in methylmalonic acidemia: report of two cases and review of the literature. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22(5:831-3.2. Mahoney MJ, Bick D. Recent advances in the inherited methylmalonic acidemias. Acta Paediatr Scand1987;76(5:689-96.3. Radmanesh A, Zaman T, Ghanaati H, Molaei S, Robertson RL, ZamaniAA. Methylmalonic acidemia: brain imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature.Pediatr Radiol 2008 Oct;38(10:1054-61.4. Cantani A. [Methylmalonic acidemia: classification, diagnosis and therapy]. KlinPadiatr 1983;195(6:388-93.5. Avery ME, First LR, Pediatric Medicine, 2nd ed. Williams & Wilkins, Waverly Company; 1994. p.1075.6. Matsui SM, Mahoney MJ, Resenberg LE. The natural history of the inherited methylmalonic acidemias. N Engl J Med 1983;308(15:857-61.7. Holliday MA, Barrat M, Arner ED. Pediatric Nephrology, 3rd ed. William and Wilkins 1994; p. 890.8. Soda H, Yoshida I, Aramaki S, Kuriya N, Aoki K, Inokuchi T, et al. Renal handling of methylmalonic acid in a uraemic patient with vitamin B12 unresponsive methylmalonica cidaemia. J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(1:90-1.9. Imen M, Hanene B, Ichraf K, Aida R, Ilhem T, Naziha K, et al. Methylmalonic acidemia and hyperglycemia: an unusual association. Brain Dev 2012;34(2:113-4.10. Ma X, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Liu X, Yang Z, Bao X, et al. Epilepsy in children with methylmalonic acidemia: electroclinical features and prognosis. Brain Dev 2011;33(9:790-5.11. Brismar J, Ozand PT. CT and MR of the brain in disorders of the propionate and methylmalonatemetabolism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1994;15(8:1459-73.12. Nicolaides P, Leonard J, Surtees R. Neurological outcome of methylmalonic acidaemia. Arch Dis Child 1998;78:508-12. 

  17. A Case Report of Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis (CIPA

    Mehran KARIMI


    F, Soleymanpour J. Case report: two casereports of hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy typeII in a family. Med J Tabriz Uni Med Sci 2009;31(1:91-4.Gharagozlou M, Zandieh F, Tabatabaei P, Zamani GH.Congenital sensory neuropathy as a differential diagnosis for phagocytic immunodeficiency. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006 Mar;5(1:35- 7.Menkes JH. Heredo degenerative Diseases. In: Menkes JH, Sarnat HB, Maria BL. Child neurology. 7th ed.Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2006. p. 194-8.Schwarzkopf R, Pinsk V, Weisel Y, Atar D, Gorzak Y.Clinical and genetic aspects of congenital insensitivity topain with anhidrosis. Harefuah 2005 Jun;144(6:433-7,453, 452. [Article in Hebrew]Machtei A, Levy J, Friger M, Bodner L. Osteomyelitisof the mandible in a group of 33 pediatric patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2011 Apr;75(4:523-6.Jarade EF, El-Sheikh HF, Tabbara KF. Indolent cornealulcers in a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: a case report and literature review. Eur J Ophthalmol 2002 Jan-Feb;12(1:60-5.John D, Thomas M, Jacob P Neurotrophic keratitisand congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis-a case report with 10-year follow-up. Cornea 2011 Jan;30(1:100-2.Bonkowsky JL, Johnson J, Carey JC, Smith AG,Swoboda KJ. An infant with primary tooth loss andpalmar hyperkeratosis: a novel mutation in the NTRK1 gene causing congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Pediatrics 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1:e237-41.Neves BG, Roza RT, Castro GF. Traumatic lesions from congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis in a pediatric patient: dental management. Dent Traumatol 2009 Oct;25(5:545-9. 

  18. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Afshin FAYYAZI


    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fayyazi A, Khajeh A, Bagheri M, Ahmadi S. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child. Iranian Journal of ChildNeurology 2012;6(1:35-38.Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication. References:1. Nazari H. Clinical approach to methadone toxication.Quarterly journal of Addiction 2007;2:18-20.2. Plummer JL, Gourlay GK, Cherry DA, Cousins MJ.Estimation of methadone clearance: application in themanagement of cancer pain. Pain 1988 Jun;33(3:313-22.3. Davies D, DeVlaming D, Haines C. Methadoneanalgesia for children with advanced cancer. PediatrBlood Cancer 2008 Sep;51(3:393-7.4. Riascos R, Kumfa P, Rojas R, Cuellar H, Descartes F.Fatal methadone intoxication in a child. Emerg Radiol2008 Jan;15(1:67-70.5. Binchy JM, Molyneux EM, Manning J. Accidental ingestion of methadone by children in Merseyside.BMJ 1994 May 21;308(6940:1335-6.6. Li L, Levine B, Smialek JE. Fatal methadone poisoningin children: Maryland 1992-1996. Subst Use Misuse2000 Aug;35(9:1141-8.7. Milroy CM, Forrest AR. Methadone deaths: atoxicological analysis. J Clin Pathol 2000 Apr;53(4:277-81.8. Afzali S, Jafari MR. One year study of chest X-raychanges in opiate-poisoned patients in Hamadan. JQom Uni Med Sci 2010; 4(2:3-7.9. Zamani N, Sanaei-Zadeh H, Mostafazadeh B. Hallmarksof opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Trop Doct2010 Oct; 40(4:220-2.10. Besharat S, Besharat M, Akhavan Masouleh A, JabbariA, Yazdi HR. Opium intoxication in children under 5years old, Golestan- Iran (2006-07. J Gorgan Uni MedSci Spring 2010;12(1:85-9.11. Izadi Mood N, Gheshlaghi F, Sharafi SE. Fatalpoisoning cases admitted to the emergency departmentof poisoning, Noor Hospital, Isfahan. J Legal Med IslRep Iran 2003;9(31:122-26.12. Boushehri B, Yekta Z, Zareei-Kheirabad A, Kabiri SH

  19. Accidental Children Poisoning With Methadone: An Iranian Pediatric Sectional Study



    phosphine. In: Haddad LM, Shannon MW, Winchester J, eds. Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2007. p. 640-7.Jennifer C, Gibson A. Accidental methadone poisoning in children: A call for Canadian research action. Child Abuse Negl;2010;34(8:553-4.Binchy JM, Molyneux E, Manning J. Accidental ingestion of methadone by children in Merseyside. BMJ 1994;308(6940:1335-6.Zamani N, Sanaei-Zadeh H, Mostafazadeh B. Hallmarks of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Trop Doct 2010;40(4:220-2.LoVecchio F, Pizon A, Riley B, Sami A, D’Incognito C. Onset of symptoms after methadone overdose. Am J Emerg Med 2007;25(1:57-9.Thanavaro KL, Thanavaro JL. Methadone-induced torsades de pointes: a twist of fate. Heart Lung 2011;40(5:448-53.Gaalen FA, Compier EA, Fogteloo AJ. Sudden hearing loss after a methadone overdose. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2009;266(5:773-4.Lynch RE, Hack RA. Methadone-induced rigid-chest syndrome after substantial overdose.Pediatrics. 2010; 126(1:232-4.Sidlo J, Valuch J, Ocko P, Bauerová J. Fatal methadone intoxication in a 11-month-old male infant. Soud Lek 2009;54(2:23-5. 

  20. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Gholam Reza ZAMANI


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Zamani GH, Shervin Badv R, Niksirat A, Alizadeh H. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:25-28. ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies. References1. Fenichel M. Clinical Pediatric Neurology: A Signs and Symptoms Approach. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. p. 119-52.2. A guide to investigation of children with developmental delay in East Anglia 2005Available from:http://www. Williams J. Global developmental

  1. Clinical and Para clinical Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study on 81 Pediatric Patients

    Seyyed Hassan TONEKABONI


    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Tonekaboni SH, Tousi P, Ebrahimi A, Ahmadabadi F, keyhanidoust Z, Zamani Gh, Rezvani M, Amirsalari S, Tavassoli A, Rounagh A, Rezayi A. Clinical and Para clinical Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study on 81 Pediatric Patients. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 25-31.ObjectiveMigraine is a disabling illness that causes absence from school andaffects the quality of life. It has been stated that headache may representan epileptic event. EEG abnormality is a prominent finding in childrenwith migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG abnormalitiesin children with migraine.Materials & MethodsTwo-hundred twenty-eight children were enrolled into the study.Evaluation and following of cases was performed by one physician,paraclinical tests were used to increase the accuracy. The study wasconducted under the supervision of pediatric neurology masters and theselected cases were from different parts of the country.ResultsComparing EEG abnormalities in different types of migraine revealedthat there is an association between them. There was also a significantdifference between EEG abnormalities in different types of aura. Migrainetype was associated with the patient’s age. Sleep disorders were morecommon in patients with a positive family history of seizure.ConclusionOur study dosclosed migraine as a common problem in children withabnormalities present in approximately 20% of the patients. Migraineand abnormal EEG findings are significantly associated.RefrencesBundey S, Evans K. Tuberous sclerosis: a genetic study. J Neurol Neurosurg. Psychiatry 1969 Dec;32(6:591-603.Staley BA, Vail EA, Thiele EA. Tuberous sclerosis complex: diagnostic challenges, presenting symptoms,and commonly missed signs. Pediatrics 2011 Jan;127(1:e117-25.Thiele EA, Korf BR. Phakomatoses and allied conditions.In: Swaiman KF, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM. Swaimans pediatric neurology. 5th ed. China: Elsevier Saunders;2012. p. 504

  2. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran



    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Molla Mohammadi M, Tonekaboni SH, Khatami AR, Azargashb E, Tavasoli A, Javadzadeh M, Zamani GR. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:24-31.ObjectiveSeizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis.First unprovoked seizures (FUS are seizures that occur in patients without fever, trauma or infection. Due to the rapid improvement in diagnostic techniques in the last few decades, the etiology will be revealed and this term will no longer exist. This Study was designed to evaluate brain imaging findings in FUS patients. Materials & MethodsNinety-six children with FUS, who were admitted in three major children’s hospitals in Tehran, underwent brain imaging and were enrolled into the study.The decision about the type of imaging (CT or MRI was based on the patient’s medical and financial conditions. An expert radiologist in the field of pediatric neuroimaging interpreted the images. ResultsAltogether, 27.1% had abnormal findings of which 29.2% were in the brain MRI group and 14.3% were in the brain CT scan group.Abnormal results were gliosis (10.4%, hemorrhage (4.2%, dysgenesis (2.1%, dysmyelination (7.3%, encephalomalacy (1%, atrophy (5.2% and infarction (2.1%. In some patients, the lesions were in 2 or 3 sites and some had more than one type of lesion.There was no association between the duration, age and type of seizure and imaging abnormlities. However, we found an association between the location of the lesion and the type of seizure. ConclusionWe recommend brain imaging in all patients with FUS and apart from some exceptions, brain MRI is superior to CT. ReferencesJohnston MV. Siezure in childhood. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, editors. Nelson text book of pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010. p. 2457

  3. Prophylaxis of Childhood Migraine: Topiramate Versus Propranolol

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI


    :319-28.Stewart WF, Linet MS, Celentano DD, Van Natta M, Ziegler D. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates of migraine with and without aura. Am J Epidemiol 1991 Nov; 134 (10: 1111-20.Marcos J. Cruz, Ignacio Valencia, Agustı´n Legido, et al, Efficacy and Tolerability of Topiramate in Pediatric Migraine. Pediatr Neurol 2009; 41: 167-170.Ashrafi  MR,  Shabanian  R,  Zamani  GR,  Mahfelati  F. Sodium valproat versus Propranolol in pediatric migraine prophylaxis. Eur J Pediatr Neurol 2005; 9 (5: 333-8.Hershey AD, Winner PK. Pediatric migraine: recognition and treatment. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2005 Apr; 105:4 ( Supple 2:2S–8S.Lewis DW, Scott D, Rendin V. Treatment of pediatric headache. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2002 Oct;3(10:1433-42.Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Kolodner K, Liberman J, Sawyer J. Reliability of the migraine disability assessment scores in a population-based sample of headache sufferers. Cephalalgia 1999 Mar; 19 (2: 107-14.Hershey AD,  Powers  SW,  Vockell ALB,  LeCates  SL, Kabbouche MA, Maynard MK. PedMIDAS: development of a questionnaire to assess disability of migraines in children. Neurology 2001 Dec; 57(11: 2034-9.Hershey AD, Powers SW, Vockell ALB, LeCates SL, Segers A, Kabbouche MA. Development of a patient- based grading scale for PedMIDAS. Cephalalgia 2004 Oct; 24 (10: 844-9.Ferraro D, Di Trapani G. Topiramate in the prevention of pediatric migraine: literature review. J Headache Pain 2008 Jun; 9 (3: 147-50.J W. Lance and P J. Goadsby. Mechanism and Management of Headache. Butterworth-Heinemann; 7th edition, 2004.Lipton RB, Silberstein SD. Stewart WF. An update on the epidemiology of migraine. Headache 1994 Jun; 34(6:319-28. 

  4. Manevi Kültürümüze Ait İki Kelime: ‘Ağıt ve Sığıt’ Üzerine About two Words Belonging to Our Spiritual Culture: ‘Ağıt and Sığıt’

    Adem AYDEMİR


    merasimleri, her kültürün ayrılmazbir parçasıdır. İnsanlığın başlangıcından bu yana ölü yakınları, ölümkarşısında farklı davranış biçimleri sergilemişlerdir. Türkler, diğerçağdaş kültürlerde olduğu gibi ölümden sonraki yaşama inanıyorlardı.Ölüm ile ilgili inanış ve uygulamalar, Türklerin tarih boyuncadeğişmeyen veya kabul etmek zorunda kaldıkları bütün inanç sistemleriiçerisinde varlığını farklı biçimlerde devam ettirmiştir.Farklı köklere bağlı olarak türetilmiş gibi görünen ağıt, sagu, sığıtve yoğ kelimeleri ‘ığ ~ ağ’ fiiline eklenen kelime ve eklerle meydanaçıkmış; kaynaşmalar ve köklerde meydana gelen ses değişimlerisonucunda farklı şekillere bürünmüş ortak fiil köklerine sahip, aynı ‘ığ~ ağ’dan doğmuş kardeş kelimelerdir. Semantik, dili artzamanlı veeşzamanlı yöntemleri kullanarak anlam yönünden inceleyen bir bilimdalıdır. Türkçede semantik çalışmaların azlığı bilinmektedir. Zamaniçinde sözcükler anlam değişmelerine uğrayabilirler. Anlam genişlemesi,daralması, başka anlama geçiş, anlam iyileşmesi, güzelleşmesi,kötüleşmesi bu bilim dalının çalışma alanlarından yalnızca birkaçınıoluşturur.Bu makalede, soyut olan durumların, somut durumlarınifadesinde kullanılan terimlerle adlandırıldığı, ‘ağıt, yas, aş, sagu, sığıt,yoğ’ gibi dinî hayata özgü terimlerin hususiyle ölüm ve sonrasında ruhve bedenin halleri ile geride kalanların onun için yaptığı ayin vefaaliyetlerle alâkalı olduğu, bunların ‘ığ ~ ağ’ fiil köküne bağlıbulunduğu ortaya konulmaktadır.

  5. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH


    , Hindawy A, El-Gammal MA. Clinical, Electroencephalographic (EEG, Neuroradiological and Molecular Correlations in Late-Detected Phenylketonuria (PKU Patients.Egypt J. Neurol. Psychiat. Neurosurg., 2005, 42(2:391-406.Karimzadeh P, Ahmadabadi F, Jafari N, Shariatmadari F, Nemati H, Ahadi A, KarimiDardashti S, Mirzarahimi M, Dastborhan Z, ZareNoghabi J. Study on MRI Changes in Phenylketonuria in Patients Referred to Mofid Hospital/ Iran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 spring 8(2:53-56.Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Ahmad Abadi F, Jabbedari S, Taghdiri MM, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonekaboni SH, NejadBiglari H. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:58-61.Ozand PT, Rashed M, Gascon GG, Youssef NG, Harfi H, Rahbeeni Z, et al. Unusual presentations of propionic acidemia. Brain Dev 1994;16(Suppl:46-57 .Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Jabbehdari S, Taghdiri MM, Nemati H, Saket S, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonakebni SH. Methylmalonicacidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 63-66.Radmanesh A, Zaman T, Ghanaati H, Molaei S, Robertson RL, ZamaniAA. Methylmalonicacidemia: brain-imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature. PediatrRadiol 2008 Oct;38(10:1054-6.Karimzadeh P, Ahmadabadi F, Jafari N, Jabbehdari S, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Taghdiri MM, Tonekaboni SH. Biotinidase Deficiency: A Reversible Neurometabolic Disorder (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:47- 52.Karimzadeh P, Pirzadeh Z, Ahmadabadi F, Jafari N, Jabbehdari S, Nemati H, Ghofrani M, Taghdiri MM, Tonekaboni SH, Mohammad-Reza Sharbatdaralaei. Glutaricaciduria type 1: diagnosis and neuroimaging findings of this neurometabolic disorder in an Iranian pediatric case series. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities 05/2014; DOI: 10.1179/2047387714Y.0000000039.Bernier FP, Boneh A, Dennett X, Chow