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Sample records for z-trisubstituted allylic alcohols

  1. One-Pot Multicomponent Coupling Methods for the Synthesis of Diastereo- and Enantioenriched (Z)-Trisubstituted Allylic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Michael H.; Jeon, Sang-Jin; Chen, Young K.; Salvi, Luca; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    (Z)-Trisubstituted allylic alcohols are widespread structural motifs in natural products and biologically active compounds but are difficult to directly prepare. Introduced herein is a general one-pot multicomponent coupling method for the synthesis of (Z)-α,α,β-trisubstituted allylic alcohols. (Z)-Trisubstituted vinylzinc reagents are formed in situ by initial hydroboration of 1-bromo-1-alkynes. Addition of dialkylzinc reagents induces a 1,2-metallate rearrangement that is followed by a boron-to-zinc transmetallation. The resulting vinylzinc reagents add to a variety of prochiral aldehydes to produce racemic (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols. When enantioenriched aldehyde substrates are employed (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols are isolated with high dr (>20:1 in many cases). For example, vinylation of enantioenriched benzyl protected α- and β-hydroxy propanal derivatives furnished the expected anti-Felkin addition products via chelation control. Surprisingly, silyl protected α-hydroxy aldehydes also afford anti-Felkin addition products. A protocol for the catalytic asymmetric addition of (Z)-trisubstituted vinylzinc reagents to prochiral aldehydes with a (−)-MIB-based catalyst has also been developed. Several additives were investigated as inhibitors of the Lewis acidic alkylzinc halide byproducts, which promote the background reaction to form the racemate. α-Ethyl and α-cyclohexyl (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols can now be synthesized with excellent levels of enantioselectivity in the presence of diamine inhibitors. PMID:19476375

  2. Compound list: allyl alcohol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available allyl alcohol AA 00010 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/allyl_alcohol....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/allyl_alcohol...dbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/allyl_alcohol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp:/.../ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/allyl_alcohol.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney....Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/allyl_alcohol.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  3. Synthesis of insect pheromones belonging to the group of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorieva, Natalia Ya; Tsiklauri, Paata G

    2000-01-01

    Stereo- and regiocontrolled methods for the construction of a (Z)-trisubstituted C=C bond and for the regiospecific introduction of a chiral fragment are exemplified in total syntheses of insect pheromones belonging to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  4. Catalytic Oxidation of Allylic Alcohols to Methyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Kotni, Rama Krishna; Nielsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of allylic alcohols to methyl esters using gold nanoparticles supported on different metal oxide carriers has been performed successfully under mild conditions (room temperature, 0.1 MPa O2) without significant loss of catalytic activity. The effects of different reaction...... parameters are studied to find the suitable reaction conditions. All catalysts are characterised by XRD, XRF and TEM. Among these catalysts, Au/TiO2 showed the most efficient catalytic activity towards the selective oxidation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding esters. Moreover, the same Au/TiO2...... to synthesize methyl esters from allylic alcohols....

  5. Vanadium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Desymmetrization of meso-Secondary Allylic Alcohols and Homoallylic Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Hisashi Yamamoto, H.

    2008-01-01

    Vanadium-catalyzed epoxidation has extended substrate scope. In addition to various bis-allylic alcohols, bis-homoallylic alcohols can also be desymmetrized using our Vanadium-Bis-hydroxamic acid complexes.

  6. Direct activation of allylic alcohols in palladium catalyzed coupling reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümrükçü, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The direct use of allylic alcohols in substitution reactions without pre-activation of the hydroxyl-group into a better leaving group or the use of additional stoichiometric in situ activators remains challenging due to the poor leaving group ability of the hydroxyl-group. Hence, it is important to

  7. Synthesis of E- and Z-trisubstituted alkenes by catalytic cross-metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thach T.; Koh, Ming Joo; Mann, Tyler J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-12-01

    Catalytic cross-metathesis is a central transformation in chemistry, yet corresponding methods for the stereoselective generation of acyclic trisubstituted alkenes in either the E or the Z isomeric forms are not known. The key problems are a lack of chemoselectivity—namely, the preponderance of side reactions involving only the less hindered starting alkene, resulting in homo-metathesis by-products—and the formation of short-lived methylidene complexes. By contrast, in catalytic cross-coupling, substrates are more distinct and homocoupling is less of a problem. Here we show that through cross-metathesis reactions involving E- or Z-trisubstituted alkenes, which are easily prepared from commercially available starting materials by cross-coupling reactions, many desirable and otherwise difficult-to-access linear E- or Z-trisubstituted alkenes can be synthesized efficiently and in exceptional stereoisomeric purity (up to 98 per cent E or 95 per cent Z). The utility of the strategy is demonstrated by the concise stereoselective syntheses of biologically active compounds, such as the antifungal indiacen B and the anti-inflammatory coibacin D.

  8. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun

    1996-01-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author)

  9. Polymerization of allyl alcohol by radiation to obtain microencapsulated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usanmaz, A.; Saricilar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Allyl alcohol was polymerized by radiation under various conditions. The limiting conversions were about 30 % in bulk, 35 % when containing 0.03 mole fraction AlCl 3 and 50 % when water was contained at 27 % (v/v). Irradiation was done with Co-60 gamma rays at room temperature and under vacuum. The presence of oxygen did not cause any change in the reaction rate. Molecular weights were determined by viscosity and cryoscopic methods. K and α values were found to be 3.57 x 10 -4 and 0.62 for solutions in methanol at 25degC. The polymers up to about 10 % conversion were viscous liquids having microcapsular structures: at high conversions, they became hard and glassy. The microencapsulated structures were also retained in solutions in methanol, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol. The samples were insoluble in water, benzene, and toluence. (author)

  10. Decarbonylation and hydrogenation reactions of allyl alcohol and acrolein on Pd(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Ratna; Barteau, Mark A.

    1994-11-01

    Allyl alcohol and acrolein reactions on the Pd(110) surface were investigated using temperature programmed desorption. For both unsaturated oxygenates, three coverage-dependent reaction pathways were observed. At low coverages, allyl alcohol decomposed completely to CO, hydrogen and carbonaceous species on the surface. For θ > 0.15 monolayer, ethylene (and small amounts of ethane) desorbed at ca. 295 K. Near saturation coverages, desorption of propanal was detected at ca. 235 K. The parent molecule, allyl alcohol, desorbed only after exposures sufficient to saturate these channels. Acrolein decomposition spectra were similar to those observed for allyl alcohol decomposition on the clean surface. Additional experiments with allyl alcohol on hydrogen- and deuterium-precoveredPd(110) surfaces demonstrated increased hydrogenation of the C 2-hydrocarbon products along with hydrogenation of allyl alcohol to 1-propanol. However, in contrast to previous results for allyl alcohol on the Pd(111) surface, there was no evidence for C-O scission reactions of any C 3 oxygenate on Pd(110).

  11. α,β-Unsaturated imines via Ru-catalyzed coupling of allylic alcohols and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Moyer, Sara A; Pearce, Simon D; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-03-07

    A convenient synthesis of α,β-unsaturated imines requiring only an allylic alcohol, an amine and a Ru catalyst has been developed. The use of large excesses of oxidant and the purification of sensitive intermediates can be avoided.

  12. Selective epoxidation of allylic alcohols with a titania-silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    An amorphous mesoporous titania-silica aerogel (20 wt%TiO{sub 2} - 80 wt% SiO{sub 2}) and tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) have been used for the epoxidation of various allylic alcohols. Allylic alcohols possessing an internal double bond were more reactive than those with a terminal C=C bond. Epoxide selectivities could be improved by addition of (basic) zeolite 4 A and NaHCO{sub 3} to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  13. Scope and mechanism in palladium-catalyzed isomerizations of highly substituted allylic, homoallylic, and alkenyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Evgeny; Lin, Luqing; Guénée, Laure; Mazet, Clément

    2014-12-03

    Herein we report the palladium-catalyzed isomerization of highly substituted allylic alcohols and alkenyl alcohols by means of a single catalytic system. The operationally simple reaction protocol is applicable to a broad range of substrates and displays a wide functional group tolerance, and the products are usually isolated in high chemical yield. Experimental and computational mechanistic investigations provide complementary and converging evidence for a chain-walking process consisting of repeated migratory insertion/β-H elimination sequences. Interestingly, the catalyst does not dissociate from the substrate in the isomerization of allylic alcohols, whereas it disengages during the isomerization of alkenyl alcohols when additional substituents are present on the alkyl chain.

  14. Transient overexpression of adh8a increases allyl alcohol toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Klüver

    Full Text Available Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L. Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1 during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos. Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L. Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes

  15. How phenyl makes a difference: mechanistic insights into the ruthenium( ii )-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Manzini, Simone

    2013-10-16

    [RuCl(η5-3-phenylindenyl)(PPh3)2] (1) has been shown to be a highly active catalyst for the isomerisation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding ketones. A variety of substrates undergo the transformation, typically with 0.25-0.5 mol% of catalyst at room temperature, outperforming commonly-used complexes such as [RuCl(Cp)(PPh3) 2] and [RuCl(η5-indenyl)(PPh3) 2]. Mechanistic experiments and density functional theory have been employed to investigate the mechanism and understand the effect of catalyst structure on reactivity. These investigations suggest a oxo-π-allyl mechanism is in operation, avoiding intermediate ruthenium hydride complexes and leading to a characteristic 1,3-deuterium shift. Important mechanistic insights from DFT and experiments also allowed for the design of a protocol that expands the scope of the transformation to include primary allylic alcohols. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. How phenyl makes a difference: mechanistic insights into the ruthenium( ii )-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Manzini, Simone; Poater, Albert; Nelson, David J.; Cavallo, Luigi; Nolan, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    [RuCl(η5-3-phenylindenyl)(PPh3)2] (1) has been shown to be a highly active catalyst for the isomerisation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding ketones. A variety of substrates undergo the transformation, typically with 0.25-0.5 mol% of catalyst at room temperature, outperforming commonly-used complexes such as [RuCl(Cp)(PPh3) 2] and [RuCl(η5-indenyl)(PPh3) 2]. Mechanistic experiments and density functional theory have been employed to investigate the mechanism and understand the effect of catalyst structure on reactivity. These investigations suggest a oxo-π-allyl mechanism is in operation, avoiding intermediate ruthenium hydride complexes and leading to a characteristic 1,3-deuterium shift. Important mechanistic insights from DFT and experiments also allowed for the design of a protocol that expands the scope of the transformation to include primary allylic alcohols. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Dual platinum and pyrrolidine catalysis in the direct alkylation of allylic alcohols: selective synthesis of monoallylation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Ryozo; Lin, Lu; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Mashima, Kazushi; Ohshima, Takashi

    2014-04-22

    A dual platinum- and pyrrolidine-catalyzed direct allylic alkylation of allylic alcohols with various active methylene compounds to produce products with high monoallylation selectivity was developed. The use of pyrrolidine and acetic acid was essential, not only for preventing undesirable side reactions, but also for obtaining high monoallylation selectivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An iron/amine-catalyzed cascade process for the enantioselective functionalization of allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Adrien; Constantieux, Thierry; Rodriguez, Jean

    2013-12-02

    Three is a lucky number: An enantioselective transformation of allylic alcohols into β-chiral saturated alcohols has been developed by combining two distinct metal- and organocatalyzed catalytic cycles. This waste-free triple cascade process merges an iron-catalyzed borrowing-hydrogen step with an aminocatalyzed nucleophilic addition reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis in an aqueous medium: combination of metal-catalysed allylic alcohol isomerisation-asymmetric bioamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Cocina, María; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2015-07-11

    The ruthenium-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols was coupled, for the first time, with asymmetric bioamination in a one-pot process in an aqueous medium. In the cases involving prochiral ketones, the ω-TA exhibited excellent enantioselectivity, identical to that observed in the single step. As a result, amines were obtained from allylic alcohols with high overall yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses.

  20. Iron(III) chloride catalyzed glycosylation of peracylated sugars with allyl/alkynyl alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; Silva, Rodrigo Cesar da; Monteiro, Julia L.; Correa, Arlene G.; Paixao, Marcio W., E-mail: mwpaixao@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    In this work, the use of ferric chloride as an efficient catalyst in glycosylation reactions of sugars in the presence of allyl and alkynyl alcohols is described. The corresponding glycosides were obtained with moderate to good yields. This new procedure presented greater selectivity when compared to classic methods found in the literature. Principal features of this simple method include non-hazardous reaction conditions, low-catalyst loading, good yields and high anomeric selectivity (author)

  1. An XPS study of pulsed plasma polymerised allyl alcohol film growth on polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Lucy [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bismarck, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Lee, Adam F. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Wilson, Darren [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, York Science Park, Heslington, York YO10 5DF (United Kingdom); Wilson, Karen [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kw13@york.ac.uk

    2006-09-30

    The growth of highly functionalised poly allyl alcohol films by pulsed plasma polymerisation of CH{sub 2} =CHCH{sub 2}OH on biomedical grade polyurethane has been followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. Film thickness is observed to increase approximately linearly with plasma modification time, suggesting a layer-by-layer growth mode of poly allyl alcohol. Water contact angle measurements reveal the change in the surface free energy of wetting decreases linearly with plasma modification up to the monolayer point after which a constant limiting value of -24 mJ m{sup -2} was attained. Films prepared at 20 W plasma power with a duty cycle of 10 {mu}s:500 {mu}s exhibit a high degree of hydroxyl (-OH) retention with minimal fragmentation of the monomer observed. Increasing the plasma power up to 125 W is found to improve -OH retention at the expense of ether formation generating films close to the monomer stoichiometry. Duty cycle plays an important role in controlling both film composition and thickness, with longer off times increasing -OH retention, while longer on times enhance allyl alcohol film growth.

  2. The reactivity of allyl and propargyl alcohols with solvated electrons: temperature and solvent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanassiev, A.M.; Okazaki, K.; Freeman, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The rate constants K 1 for the reaction of solvated electrons with allyl alcohol in a number of hydroxylic solvents differ by up to two orders of magnitude and decrease in the order tert-butyl alcohol > 2-propanol > l-propanol approximately ethanol > methanol approximately ethylene glycol > water. In methanol and ethylene glycol the rate constants (7 x 10 7 M -1 s -1 at 298 K) and activation energies (16 kJ/mol) are equal, in spite of a 32-fold difference in solvent viscosity (0.54 and 17.3 cP, respectively) and 3-fold difference in its activation energy (11 and 32 kJ/mol, respectively). The reaction in tert-butyl alcohol is nearly diffusion controlled and has a high activation energy that is characteristic of transport in that liquid (E 1 = 31 kJ/mol, E sub(eta) = 39 kJ/mol). The activation energies in the other alcohols are all 16 kJ/mol, and it is 14 kJ/mol in water. They do not correlate with transport properties. The solvent effect is connected primarily with the entropy of activation. The rate constants correlate with the solvated electron trap depth. When the electron affinity of the scavenger is small, a favorable configuration of solvent molecules about the electron/scavenger encounter pair is required for the electron jump to take place. The behavior of the rate parameters for propargyl alcohol is similar to that for allyl alcohol, but k 1 , A 1 , and E 1 are larger for the former. The ratio k(propargyl)/k(allyl) at 298 K equals 10.5 in water and decreases through the series, reaching 1.3 in tert-butyl alcohol. Rate parameters for several other scavengers are also reported. (author)

  3. Enantioselective epoxidation with chiral MN(III)(salen) catalysts: kinetic resolution of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W; Humpf, H U; Roschmann, K J; Saha-Möller, C R

    2001-08-24

    A set of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols rac-2 has been epoxidized by chiral Mn(salen*) complexes 1 as the catalyst and iodosyl benzene (PhIO) as the oxygen source. Whereas one enantiomer of the allylic alcohol 2 is preferentially epoxidized to give the threo- or cis-epoxy alcohol 3 (up to 80% ee) as the main product (dr up to >95:5), the other enantiomer of 2 is enriched (up to 53% ee). In the case of 1,1-dimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalen-2-ol (2c), the CH oxidation to the enone 4c proceeds enantioselectively and competes with the epoxidation. The absolute configurations of the allylic alcohols 2 and their epoxides 3 have been determined by chemical correlation or CD spectroscopy. The observed diastereo- and enantioselectivities in the epoxidation reactions are rationalized in terms of a beneficial interplay between the hydroxy-directing effect and the attack along the Katsuki trajectory.

  4. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  5. Expression of liver functions following sub-lethal and non-lethal doses of allyl alcohol and acetaminophen in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygstrup, N; Jensen, S A; Krog, B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To relate severity of intoxication with allyl alcohol and acetaminophen to modulated hepatic gene expression of liver functions and regeneration. METHODS: Rats fasted for 12 h received acetaminophen 3.5 or 5.6 g per kg body weight, or allyl alcohol 100 or 125 microl by gastric tu...

  6. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  7. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, A de; Dewulf, J; Durme, J van; Leys, C; Morent, R; Langenhove, H Van

    2008-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation

  8. Eosin Y-catalyzed, visible-light-promoted carbophosphinylation of allylic alcohols via a radical neophyl rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yao; Weng, Wei-Zhi; Sun, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-28

    A visible-light-promoted phosphinylation of allylic alcohols with concomitant 1,2-aryl migration is described. This transformation proceeds smoothly under metal-free and mild conditions by using an inexpensive organic dye, eosin Y, as the photocatalyst, affording various β-aryl-γ-ketophosphine oxides in moderate to good yields. Mechanistic studies suggested that the 1,2-aryl migration proceeded through a radical (neophyl) rearrangement.

  9. Chirality Transfer in Gold(I)-Catalysed Direct Allylic Etherifications of Unactivated Alcohols: Experimental and Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Graeme; Johnson, David G; Young, Paul C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2015-09-21

    Gold(I)-catalysed direct allylic etherifications have been successfully carried out with chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched, γ-substituted secondary allylic ethers. Our investigations include a full substrate-scope screen to ascertain substituent effects on the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and efficiency of chirality transfer, as well as control experiments to elucidate the mechanistic subtleties of the chirality-transfer process. Crucially, addition of molecular sieves was found to be necessary to ensure efficient and general chirality transfer. Computational studies suggest that the efficiency of chirality transfer is linked to the aggregation of the alcohol nucleophile around the reactive π-bound Au-allylic ether complex. With a single alcohol nucleophile, a high degree of chirality transfer is predicted. However, if three alcohols are present, alternative proton transfer chain mechanisms that erode the efficiency of chirality transfer become competitive. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Preservation of beech and spruce wood by allyl alcohol-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, Dilek; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-01-01

    Allyl alcohol (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), monomers and monomer mixtures AA+AN, AA+MMA were used to conserve and consolidate Beech and Spruce. After impregnation, copolymerisation and polymerisation were accomplished by gamma irradiation. The fine structure of wood+polymer(copolymer) composites was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that copolymer obtained from AA+MMA monomer mixture showed the optimum compatibility. The compressional strength and Brinell Hardness Numbers determined for untreated and treated wood samples indicated that the mechanical strength of wood+copolymer composites was increased. It was found that the mechanical strength of the wood samples containing the AA+MMA copolymer was higher than the others. In the presence of P(AA/MMA), at highest conversion, the compressive strength perpendicular to the fibres in Beech and Spruce increased approximately 100 times. The water uptake capacity of wood+copolymer composites was observed to decrease by more than 50% relative to the original samples, and biodegradation did not take place

  11. Proton conductive membranes based on poly (styrene-co-allyl alcohol semi-IPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Moro Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of fuel cell materials, particularly polymer membranes, for PEMFC has driven the development of methods and alternatives to achieve systems with more adequate properties to this application. The sulfonation of poly (styrene-co-allyl alcohol (PSAA, using sulfonating agent:styrene ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, was previously performed to obtain proton conductive polymer membranes. Most of those membranes exhibited solubility in water with increasing temperature and showed conductivity of approximately 10-5 S cm-1. In order to optimize the PSAA properties, especially decreasing its solubility, semi-IPN (SIPN membranes are proposed in the present study. These membranes were obtained from the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, curing reactions in presence of DDS (4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone and PSAA. Different DGEBA/PSAA weight ratios were employed, varying the PSAA concentration between 9 and 50% and keeping the mass ratio of DGEBA:DDS as 1:1. The samples were characterized by FTIR and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Unperturbed bands of PSAA were observed in the FTIR spectra of membranes, suggesting that chemical integrity of the polymer is maintained during the synthesis. In particular, bands involving C-C stretching (1450 cm-1, C=C (aromatic, ~ 3030 cm-1 and C-H (2818 and 2928 cm-1 were observed, unchanged after the synthesis. The disappearance or reduction of the intensity of the band at 916 cm-1, attributed to the DGEBA epoxy ring, is evidenced for all samples, indicating the epoxy ring opening and the DGEBA crosslinking. Conductivity of H3PO4 doped membranes increases with temperature, reaching 10-4 S cm-1.

  12. Exciton Coupling in Circular Dichroic Spectroscopy as a Tool for Establishing the Absolute Configuration of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Esters of Allylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, A.; Cornett, Claus; Christensen, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    alpha-beta-Unsaturated esters of allylic alcohols have been shown to exhibit exciton coupling by circular dichroic spectroscopy. This coupling permits the establishment of the absolute configuration. The method was used to prove the absolute configuration at C-2 of archangelolide. Detailed NMR sp...

  13. Structure and stability of acrolein and allyl alcohol networks on Ag(111) from density functional theory based calculations with dispersion corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Branda, Maria Marta; Illas, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of acrolein and allyl alcohol with the Ag(111) surface has been studied by means of periodic density functional theory based calculations including explicitly dispersion terms. Different coverage values have been explored going from isolated adsorbed molecules to isolated dimers, interacting dimers or ordered overlayers. The inclusion of the dispersion terms largely affects the calculated values of the adsorption energy and also the distance between adsorbed molecule and the metallic surface but much less the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. Owing to the large dipole moment of acrolein, the present calculations predict that at high coverage this molecule forms a stable extensive two-dimensional network on the surface, caused by the alignment of the adsorbate dipoles. For the case of allyl alcohol, dimers and complex networks exhibit similar stability.

  14. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

    2013-08-27

    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  15. Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: Zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campion, Sarah N.; Tatis-Rios, Cristina; Augustine, Lisa M.; Goedken, Michael J.; Rooijen, Nico van; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, Jose E.

    2009-01-01

    During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH

  16. Catalyst-Directed Diastereoselective Isomerization of Allylic Alcohols for the Stereoselective Construction of C(20) in Steroid Side Chains: Scope and Topological Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2015-08-26

    The stereoselective construction of C20 in steroidal derivatives by a highly diastereoselective Ir-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols is reported. A key aspect of this strategy is a straightforward access to geometrically pure steroidal enol tosylate and enol triflate intermediates for subsequent high yielding stereoretentive Negishi cross-coupling reactions to allow structural diversity to be introduced. A range of allylic alcohols participates in the diastereoselective isomerization under the optimized reaction conditions. Electron-rich and electron-poor aryl or heteroaryl substituents are particularly well-tolerated, and the stereospecific nature of the reaction provides indifferently access to the natural C20-(R) and unnatural C20-(S) configurations. Alkyl containing substrates are more challenging as they affect regioselectivity of iridium-hydride insertion. A rationale for the high diastereoselectivities observed is proposed for aryl containing precursors. The scope of our method is further highlighted through topological diversification in the side chain and within the polycyclic domain of advanced and complex steroidal architectures. These findings have the potential to greatly simplify access to epimeric structural analogues of important steroid scaffolds for applications in biological, pharmaceutical, and medical sciences.

  17. Ion beam-induced topographical and chemical modification on the poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) and its effect on the molecular interaction between the modified surface and liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae-Chang; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Ju Hwan; Jang, Sang Bok; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated uniform liquid crystal (LC) alignment on ion beam (IB)-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) by modifying the chemical bonding on the surface. An IB-irradiated copolymer was used for the alignment layer. We used physico-chemical analysis to determine the IB-irradiated surface modification and LC alignment mechanism on the surface. During IB treatment on poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol), IB irradiation induces breaking of chemical bonds on the surface to give rise to new bonds with oxygen atoms. This causes a strong Van der Waals interaction between LCs and the modified surface, thereby resulting in uniform LC alignment. The results of contact angle (CA) studies of the copolymer support the chemical bonding changes that were investigated by XPS. We achieved uniform homogeneous LC alignment and obtained stable electro-optical performance by controlling the IB energy. Therefore, the LC cells with IB-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) exhibited a good potential for alternative alignment of layers in LC applications.

  18. Ion beam-induced topographical and chemical modification on the poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) and its effect on the molecular interaction between the modified surface and liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae-Chang [Information Display Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong-Gyu [School of Electrical, Electronic & Control Engineering, Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Uichang-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, 51140 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hwan; Jang, Sang Bok [Information Display Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byeong-Yun [ZeSHTech Co., Ltd., Business Incubator, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123, Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dae-Shik, E-mail: dsseo@yonsei.ac.kr [Information Display Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrated uniform liquid crystal (LC) alignment on ion beam (IB)-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) by modifying the chemical bonding on the surface. An IB-irradiated copolymer was used for the alignment layer. We used physico-chemical analysis to determine the IB-irradiated surface modification and LC alignment mechanism on the surface. During IB treatment on poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol), IB irradiation induces breaking of chemical bonds on the surface to give rise to new bonds with oxygen atoms. This causes a strong Van der Waals interaction between LCs and the modified surface, thereby resulting in uniform LC alignment. The results of contact angle (CA) studies of the copolymer support the chemical bonding changes that were investigated by XPS. We achieved uniform homogeneous LC alignment and obtained stable electro-optical performance by controlling the IB energy. Therefore, the LC cells with IB-irradiated poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) exhibited a good potential for alternative alignment of layers in LC applications.

  19. Ruthenium Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Coupling of Propargyl Ethers with Alcohols: Siloxy-Crotylation via Hydride Shift Enabled Conversion of Alkynes to π-Allyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Te-Yu; Nguyen, Khoa D; Krische, Michael J

    2015-10-14

    The first enantioselective carbonyl crotylations through direct use of alkynes as chiral allylmetal equivalents are described. Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos (SL-J009-1) catalyze the C-C coupling of TIPS-protected propargyl ether 1a with primary alcohols 2a-2o to form products of carbonyl siloxy-crotylation 3a-3o, which upon silyl deprotection-reduction deliver 1,4-diols 5a-5o with excellent control of regio-, anti-diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Structurally related propargyl ethers 1b and 1c bearing ethyl- and phenyl-substituents engage in diastereo- and enantioselective coupling, as illustrated in the formation of adducts 5p and 5q, respectively. Selective mono-tosylation of diols 5a, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5k, and 5m is accompanied by spontaneous cyclization to deliver the trans-2,3-disubstituted furans 6a, 6c, 6e, 6f, 6k, and 6m, respectively. Primary alcohols 2a, 2l, and 2p were converted to the siloxy-crotylation products 3a, 3l, and 3p, which upon silyl deprotection-lactol oxidation were transformed to the trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones 7a, 7l, and 7p. The formation of 7p represents a total synthesis of (+)-trans-whisky lactone. Unlike closely related ruthenium catalyzed alkyne-alcohol C-C couplings, deuterium labeling studies provide clear evidence of a novel 1,2-hydride shift mechanism that converts metal-bound alkynes to π-allyls in the absence of intervening allenes.

  20. Interaction of water, alkyl hydroperoxide, and allylic alcohol with a single-site homogeneous Ti-Si epoxidation catalyst: A spectroscopic and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Atsushi; Bürgi, Thomas; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-02-17

    Tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)titanium (TTMST, Ti(OSiMe3)4) possesses an isolated Ti center and is a highly active homogeneous catalyst in epoxidation of various olefins. The structure of TTMST resembles that of the active sites in some heterogeneous Ti-Si epoxidation catalysts, especially silylated titania-silica mixed oxides. Water cleaves the Ti-O-Si bond and deactivates the catalyst. An alkyl hydroperoxide, TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide), does not cleave the Ti-O-Si bond, but interacts via weak hydrogen-bonding as supported by NMR, DOSY, IR, and computational studies. ATR-IR spectroscopy combined with computational investigations shows that more than one, that is, up to four, TBHP can undergo hydrogen-bonding with TTMST, leading to the activation of the O-O bond of TBHP. The greater the number of TBHP molecules that form hydrogen bonds to TTMST, the more electrophilic the O-O bond becomes, and the more active the complex is for epoxidation. An allylic alcohol, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, does not interact strongly with TTMST, but the interaction is prominent when it interacts with the TTMST-TBHP complex. On the basis of the experimental and theoretical findings, a hydrogen-bond-assisted epoxidation mechanism of TTMST is suggested.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected beta-Amino Aldehydes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jiajia; Harvey, Emma C.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the preparation of N-protected beta-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward

  2. Regiospecific decarboxylative allylation of nitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Antonio; Tunge, Jon A.

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative α-allylation of nitriles readily occurs using Pd2(dba)3 and rac-BINAP. This catalyst mixture also allows the highly regiospecific α-allylation of nitriles in the presence of much more acidic α-protons. Thus, the reported method provides access to compounds that are not readily available via base-mediated allylation chemistries. Lastly, mechanistic investigations indicate that there is a competition between C- and N-allylation of an intermediate nitrile-stabilized anion and that N-allylation is followed by a rapid [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. PMID:19921827

  3. General Allylic C–H Alkylation with Tertiary Nucleophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C–H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C–H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C–H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C–H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C–H alkylation/Diels–Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C–H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:24641574

  4. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  5. Total synthesis of broussonetine F: the orthoamide Overman rearrangement of an allylic diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Naoto; Aoki, Toshihiro; Miwa, Shohei; Yamazaki, Miki; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2011-02-18

    A first total synthesis of broussonetine F from diethyl L-tartrate was achieved. The cornerstone of our synthesis was an orthoamide Overman rearrangement, which provided an allylic amino alcohol with complete diastereoselectivity.

  6. Solid radiation curable polyene compositions containing liquid polythiols and solid styrene-allyl copolymer based polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Novel styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer based solid polyene compositions which when mixed with liquid polythiols can form solid curable polyene-polythiol systems are claimed. These solid polyenes, containing at least two reactive carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, are urethane or ester derivatives of styrene-allyl alcohol copolymers. The solid polyenes are prepared by treating the hydroxyl groups of a styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer with a reactive unsaturated isocyanate, e.g., allyl isocyanate or a reactive unsaturated carboxylic acid, e.g., acrylic acid. Upon exposure to a free radical generator, e.g., actinic radiation, the solid polyene-polythiol compositions cure to solid, insoluble, chemically resistant, cross-linked polythioether products. Since the solid polyene-liquid polythiol composition can be cured in a solid state, such a curable system finds particular use in preparation of coatings, imaged surfaces such as photoresists, particularly solder-resistant photoresists, printing plates, etc

  7. Preconditioning with subneurotoxic allyl nitrile: protection against allyl nitrile neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, H; Higashi, T; Saijoh, K

    2010-02-01

    High-dose cruciferous allyl nitrile can induce behavioral abnormalities in rodents, while repeated exposure to allyl nitrile at subneurotoxic levels can increase phase 2 detoxification enzymes in many tissues, although the brain has not been investigated yet. In the present study, we examined the effect of 5 days repeated exposure to subneurotoxic allyl nitrile (0-400 micromol/kg/day) on the brain. Elevated glutathione S-transferase activity was recorded in the striatum, hippocampus, medulla oblongata plus pons, and cortex. Enhancement of quinone reductase activity was observed in the medulla oblongata plus pons, hippocampus, and cortex. In the medulla oblongata plus pons, elevated glutathione levels were recorded. Following repeated subneurotoxic allyl nitrile exposure (0-400 micromol/kg/day), mice were administered a high-dose allyl nitrile (1.2 mmol/kg) which alone led to appearance of behavioral abnormalities. Compared with the 0 micromol/kg/day group, animals in the 200 and 400 micromol/kg/day pre-treatment groups exhibited decreased behavioral abnormalities and elevated GABA-positive cell counts in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the interpeduncular nucleus. These data suggest that repeated exposure to subneurotoxic levels of allyl nitrile can induce phase 2 enzymes in the brain, which together with induction in other tissues, may contribute to protection against allyl nitrile neurotoxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  9. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of allylic bromodifluoroacetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Brett R; Altman, Ryan A

    2013-11-01

    The development of new synthetic fluorination reactions has important implications in medicinal, agricultural, and materials chemistries. Given the prevalence and accessibility of alcohols, methods to convert alcohols to trifluoromethanes are desirable. However, this transformation typically requires four-step processes, specialty chemicals, and/or stoichiometric metals to access the trifluoromethyl-containing product. A two-step copper-catalyzed decarboxylative protocol for converting allylic alcohols to trifluoromethanes is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies distinguish this reaction from previously reported Cu-mediated reactions.

  10. Allyl nitrile: Toxicity and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Hideji

    2017-03-28

    Allyl nitrile (3-butenenitrile) occurs naturally in the environment, in particular, in cruciferous vegetables, indicating a possible daily intake of the compound. There is no report on actual health effects of allyl nitrile in humans, although it is possible that individuals in the environment are at a risk of exposure to allyl nitrile. However, little is known about its quantitative assessment for the environment and bioactivity in the body. This study provides a review of previous accumulated studies on allyl nitrile. Published literature on allyl nitrile was examined for findings on toxicity, metabolism, risk of various cancers, generation, intake estimates, and low-dose effects in the body. High doses of allyl nitrile produce toxicity characterized by behavioral abnormalities, which are considered to be produced by an active metabolite, 3,4-epoxybutyronitrile. Cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have a potential role in reducing various cancers. Hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinigrin, rich in cruciferous vegetables, results in the generation of allyl nitrile. An intake of allyl nitrile is estimated at 0.12 μmol/kg body weight in Japan. Repeated exposure to low doses of allyl nitrile upregulates antioxidant/phase II enzymes in various tissues; this may contribute to a reduction in neurotoxicity and skin inflammation. These high and low doses are far more than the intake estimate. Allyl nitrile in the environment is a compound with diverse bioactivities in the body, characterized by inducing behavioral abnormalities at high doses and some antioxidant/phase II enzymes at low doses.

  11. Oxidation of tertiary homoallylic alcohols by thallium trinitrate: fragmentation versus ring contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Luiz F.; Quintiliano, Samir A.P.; Ferraz, Helena M.C.; Santos, Leonardo S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of tertiary homoallylic alcohols with thallium trinitrate (TTN) was investigated. The alcohols bearing an allylic methyl group lose a molecule of acetone via a fragmentation reaction that leads to isomeric secondary allylic alcohols as major products, together with their corresponding acetylated derivatives. On the other hand, treating analogous tertiary alcohols without the allylic methyl group with TTN gives indans, through a ring contraction reaction. (author)

  12. Enantioselective allylations of selected alpha, beta, gamma, delta-unsaturated aldehydes by axially chiral N,N'-dioxides. Synthesis of the left-hand part of papulacandin D

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašaná, K.; Betík, R.; Valterová, Irena; Nečas, D.; Kotora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2016), s. 301-305 ISSN 2213-3372 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : allylation * aldehyde * Lewis base * asymmetric synthesis * organocatalysis * homoallylic alcohol s Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane P. de Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  14. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with allyl ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Guanghu

    2013-05-17

    The asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with allyl ketones has been developed. The α-regioselective alkylation adducts, containing a hexa-1,5-diene framework with important synthetic value, were achieved in up to 83% yield, >99% ee, and 50:1 dr by using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as the catalyst. From the allylic alkylation adduct, a cyclohexene bearing two adjacent chiral centers was readily prepared. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with allyl ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Guanghu; Zhu, Bo; Lee, Richmond; Yang, Wenguo; Tan, Davin; Yang, Caiyun; Han, Zhiqiang; Yan, Lin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with allyl ketones has been developed. The α-regioselective alkylation adducts, containing a hexa-1,5-diene framework with important synthetic value, were achieved in up to 83% yield, >99% ee, and 50:1 dr by using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as the catalyst. From the allylic alkylation adduct, a cyclohexene bearing two adjacent chiral centers was readily prepared. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  19. Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo

    2011-08-19

    A Lewis base catalyzed allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates has been developed. Various chiral MBH alcohols can be synthesized in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This is the first report using water as a nucleophile in asymmetric organocatalysis. The nucleophilic role of water has been verified using 18O-labeling experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed allylation of tautomerizable heterocycles with alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuan-Jun; Chen, Dong-Kai; Chen, Hong; Wang, Hong; Jin, Hongwei; Huang, Xifu; Gao, Jianrong

    2017-07-21

    A method for the allylic amidation of tautomerizable heterocycles was developed by a palladium catalyzed allylation reaction with 100% atom economy. A series of structurally diverse N-allylic substituted heterocycles can be synthesized in good yields with high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities under mild conditions.

  2. Adsorption of aliphatic alcohols on ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, L.B.; Zakumbaeva, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption is studied of allyl-, propyl- and propargyl alcohols on a ruthenium catalyst-electrode at 20, 30 and 40 deg C in H 2 SO 4 in helium. Above adsorption has been found to grow with increased concentration of the alcohols in the solution. In solutions with the same concentration, propargyl alcohol has been noted to show highest sorptive capacity, followed by that of allyl- and propyl alcohols. With variations in the ruthenium electrode potential, alcohol adsorption occurs via maximum at potential = 0.18

  3. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of chiral 2,2'-bipyridine ligands and their N-oxide derivatives: applications in the asymmetric aminolysis of epoxides and asymmetric allylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D R; Sharma, N D; Sbircea, L; Murphy, D; Malone, J F; James, S L; Allen, C C R; Hamilton, J T G

    2010-03-07

    A series of enantiopure 2,2'-bipyridines have been synthesised from the corresponding cis-dihydrodiol metabolites of 2-chloroquinolines. Several of the resulting hydroxylated 2,2'-bipyridines were found to be useful chiral ligands for the asymmetric aminolysis of meso-epoxides leading to the formation of enantioenriched amino alcohols (-->84% ee). N-oxide and N,N'-dioxide derivatives of these 2,2'-bipyridines, including separable atropisomers, have been synthesised and used as enantioselective organocatalysts in the asymmetric allylation of aldehydes to give allylic alcohols (-->86% ee).

  4. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  5. Pressure Dependent Product Formation in the Photochemically Initiated Allyl + Allyl Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zeuch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photochemically driven reactions involving unsaturated radicals produce a thick global layer of organic haze on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. The allyl radical self-reaction is an example for this type of chemistry and was examined at room temperature from an experimental and kinetic modelling perspective. The experiments were performed in a static reactor with a volume of 5 L under wall free conditions. The allyl radicals were produced from laser flash photolysis of three different precursors allyl bromide (C3H5Br, allyl chloride (C3H5Cl, and 1,5-hexadiene (CH2CH(CH22CHCH2 at 193 nm. Stable products were identified by their characteristic vibrational modes and quantified using FTIR spectroscopy. In addition to the (re- combination pathway C3H5+C3H5 → C6H10 we found at low pressures around 1 mbar the highest final product yields for allene and propene for the precursor C3H5Br. A kinetic analysis indicates that the end product formation is influenced by specific reaction kinetics of photochemically activated allyl radicals. Above 10 mbar the (re- combination pathway becomes dominant. These findings exemplify the specificities of reaction kinetics involving chemically activated species, which for certain conditions cannot be simply deduced from combustion kinetics or atmospheric chemistry on Earth.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF ALLYL PHENYL ETHER AND CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Torosyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  7. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...... for the development of allylic C-H alkylation into a widely applicable methodology, thus providing a means to enhance synthetic efficiency in these reactions....

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of allylic sulfonic acids: enantio- and regioselective iridium-catalyzed allylations of Na2SO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Hong-bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Ming-zhu

    2014-12-15

    An enantioselective allylation reaction of allylic carbonates with sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) catalyzed by Ir complex was accomplished, providing allylic sulfonic acids in good to excellent yields with a high level of enantio- and regioselectivities. (R)-2-Phenyl-2-sulfoacetic acid, a key intermediate for the synthesis of Cefsulodin and Sulbenicillin, was synthesized as well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  10. Allyl borates: a novel class of polyhomologation initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2016-12-24

    Allyl borates, a new class of monofunctional polyhomologation initiators, are reported. These monofunctional initiators are less sensitive and more effective towards polymethylene-based architectures. As an example, the synthesis of α-vinyl-ω-hydroxypolymethylenes is given. By designing/synthesizing different allylic borate initiators, and using 1H and 11B NMR spectroscopy, the initiation mechanism was elucidated.

  11. Unusual selectivity-determining factors in the phosphine-free Heck arylation of allyl ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrogio, I.; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Heck reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with allyl ethers has been investigated. Using phosphinefree Pd(OAc)(2) in DNIF at 90 degrees C in the presence of Bu4NOAc, the reaction gave cinnamyl derivatives, usually in good to high yields, with a wide range of aryl halides. The reaction...... tolerates a variety of functional groups, including ether, amide, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, ester, cyano, carboxylic acid, and nitro groups. Ortho-substituted arylating agents afforded moderate yields in some cases, though good to high yields were obtained with o-iodotoluene, iodovanillin, and 1...

  12. Carbocyclization cascades of allyl ketenimines via aza-Claisen rearrangements of N-phosphoryl-N-allyl-ynamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A; Wang, Xiao-Na; Walton, Mary C; Hsung, Richard P

    2012-04-06

    A series of carbocyclization cascades of allyl ketenimines initiated through a thermal aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-phosphoryl-N-allyl ynamides is described. Interceptions of the cationic intermediate via Meerwein-Wagner rearrangements and polyene-type cyclizations en route to fused bi- and tricyclic frameworks are featured.

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  14. Palladium Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Fristrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are highlighted with emphasis on those leading to C-C bond formation, but where it was deemed necessary for the general understanding of the process closely related C-H oxidations and aminations are also included. It is found that C-H cleavage is most likely achieved by ligand participation which could involve......-H alkylation reaction which is the topic of the current review. Particular emphasis is put on current mechanistic proposals for the three reaction types comprising the overall transformation: C-H activation, nucleophillic addition, and re-oxidation of the active catalyst. Recent advances in C-H bond activation...... an acetate ion coordinated to Pd. Several of the reported systems rely on benzoquinone for re-oxidation of the active catalyst. The scope for nucleophilic addition in allylic C-H alkylation is currently limited, due to demands on pKa of the nucleophile. This limitation could be due to the pH dependence...

  15. REACTIVITY OF (η3-ALLYL)DICARBONYLNITROSYL IRON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metal complexes can be synthesized from various organic precursors. Iron allyl ... iron complexes to develop a green chemistry approach [7]. Catalysis ...... Akermark, B.; Jutand, A. Addition of ketone enolates to π-allylpalladlum compounds.

  16. Allyl borates: a novel class of polyhomologation initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Allyl borates, a new class of monofunctional polyhomologation initiators, are reported. These monofunctional initiators are less sensitive and more effective towards polymethylene-based architectures. As an example, the synthesis of α

  17. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols.......In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  18. Highly Stereoselective Intermolecular Haloetherification and Haloesterification of Allyl Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Bardia; Jaganathan, Arvind; Staples, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    An organocatalytic and highly regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective intermolecular haloetherification and haloesterification reaction of allyl amides is reported. A variety of alkene substituents and substitution patterns are compatible with this chemistry. Notably, electronically unbiased alkene substrates exhibit exquisite regio- and diastereoselectivity for the title transformation. We also demonstrate that the same catalytic system can be used in both chlorination and bromination reactions of allyl amides with a variety of nucleophiles with little or no modification. PMID:26110812

  19. Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry Based Study of Nickel-N-Allyl Urea and N-Allyl Thiourea Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eigenvalue, eigenvector and overlap matrix of nickel halide complex of N-allyl urea and N-allyl thiourea have been evaluated. Our results indicate that ligand field parameters (Dq, B’ and β evaluated earlier by electronic spectra are very close to values evaluated with the help of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Eigenvector analysis and population analysis shows that in bonding 4s, 4p, and 3dx2-y2, 3dyz orbitals of nickel are involved but the coefficient values differ in different complexes. Out of 4px, 4py, 4pz the involvement of either 4pz or 4py, is noticeable. The theoretically evaluated positions of infrared bands indicate that N-allyl urea is coordinated to nickel through its oxygen and N-allyl thiourea is coordinated to nickel through its sulphur which is in conformity with the experimental results.

  20. The nature of resonance in allyl ions and radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Mathieu; Humbel, Stéphane; Braïda, Benoît

    2008-12-18

    A recent valence bond scheme based on Lewis structures, the valence bond BOND (VBB) method (BOND: Breathing Orbitals Naturally Delocalized) method (Linares, M.; Braida, B.; Humbel, S. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 2505-2509), is applied to explore the nature of resonance in allyl systems. Whereas allyl radical is correctly described by the resonance between the two traditional Lewis structures, a third "long-bonded" structure, which apparently creates a pi bond between the two distant carbon atoms, appears to plays an important role in allyl ions description. The similar vertical resonance energy (VRE) for both allyl ions is rather moderate (approximately 37 kcal/mol) in the two-structure description but is significantly enhanced when the long-bonded structure is included into the VBB wave function (by up to 20 kcal/mol). The allyl radical is much less resonant and is correctly described by the traditional two-structure picture. The development of VBB Lewis structures into "pure" valence bond determinants enlightens the role of the third structure in the description of allyl ions. The existence of a long bond between the two distant carbon atoms is clearly ruled out. Charge equilibration effect is shown to be a minor factor. The third structure is finally attributed to one- and three-electron bonding character revealed in the pi systems of the cation and anion, respectively. This makes these systems two surprising examples of odd electron bonding within a singlet state. Last, the two-structure description of allyl radical is improved by addition of missing ionic structures.

  1. Water promoted allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3 diphenylallyl acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorpade, Seema Arun; Sawant, Dinesh N; Makki, Arwa; Sekar, N; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal free, water based, greener protocol for allylic alkylation, allylic amination, O-allylation of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate is described. The developed methodology is applicable for a wide range of nucleophiles furnishing excellent yields of corresponding products up to 87% under mild reaction conditions. A Distinct effect of water and base is explored for allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate.

  2. Water promoted allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3 diphenylallyl acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorpade, Seema Arun

    2017-11-30

    Transition metal free, water based, greener protocol for allylic alkylation, allylic amination, O-allylation of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate is described. The developed methodology is applicable for a wide range of nucleophiles furnishing excellent yields of corresponding products up to 87% under mild reaction conditions. A Distinct effect of water and base is explored for allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate.

  3. Direct aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to methyl esters catalyzed by a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inger Staunstrup; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2007-01-01

    Methyl esters can be produced in high yield by oxidising methanolic solutions of primary alcohols with dioxygen over a heterogeneous gold catalyst. The versatility of this new methodology is demonstrated by the fact that alkylic, benzylic and allylic alcohols, as well as alcohols containing...

  4. Rapid synthesis of polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol analogs via dearomative conjunctive allylic annulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenning, Alexander J; Boyce, Jonathan H; Porco, John A

    2014-08-20

    Polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are structurally complex natural products with promising biological activities. Herein, we present a biosynthesis-inspired, diversity-oriented synthesis approach for rapid construction of PPAP analogs via double decarboxylative allylation (DcA) of acylphloroglucinol scaffolds to access allyl-desoxyhumulones followed by dearomative conjunctive allylic alkylation (DCAA).

  5. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cystein upon garlic consumption by human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Boogaard, P.J.; Rijksen, D.A.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (allylmercapturic acid, ALMA) was previously detected in urine from humans consuming garlic. Exposure of rats to allyl halides is also known to lead to excretion of ALMA in urine. ALMA is a potential biomarker for exposure assessment of workers exposed to allyl halides.

  6. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  7. Redox-Neutral Rh(III)-Catalyzed Olefination of Carboxamides with Trifluoromethyl Allylic Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Seok-Yong; Lee, Jong Suk; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, In Su

    2016-11-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed olefination of various carboxamides with α-CF 3 -substituted allylic carbonate is described. This reaction provides direct access to linear CF 3 -allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity. In particular, a rhodium catalyst provided Heck-type γ-CF 3 -allylation products via the β-O-elimination of rhodacycle intermediate and subsequent olefin migration process.

  8. One-Pot Catalytic Enantio- and Diastereoselective Syntheses of anti-, syn-cis-Disubstituted, and syn-Vinyl Cyclopropyl Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun Young; Salvi, Luca; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Highly enantio- and diastereoselective methods for the synthesis of a variety of cyclopropyl alcohols are reported. These methods represent the first one-pot approaches to syn-vinyl cyclopropyl alcohols, syn-cis-disubstituted cyclopropyl alcohols, and anti-cyclopropyl alcohols from achiral precursors. The methods begin with enantioselective C–C bond formations promoted by a MIB-based zinc catalyst to generate allylic alkoxide intermediates. The intermediates are then subjected to in situ alkoxide-directed cyclopropanation to provide cyclopropyl alcohols. In the synthesis of vinyl cyclopropyl alcohols, hydroboration of enynes is followed by transmetalation of the resulting dienylborane to zinc to provide dienylzinc reagents. Enantioselective addition to aldehydes generates the requisite dienyl zinc alkoxides, which are then subjected to in situ cyclopropanation to furnish vinyl cyclopropyl alcohols. Cyclopropanation occurs at the double bond allylic to the alkoxide. Using this method, syn-vinylcyclopropyl alcohols are obtained in 65–85% yield, 76–93% ee, and >19:1 dr. To prepare anti-cyclopropanols, enantioselective addition of alkylzinc reagents to conjugated enals provides allylic zinc alkoxides. Because direct cyclopropanation provides syn-cyclopropyl alcohols, the intermediate allylic alkoxides were treated with TMSCl/Et3N to generate intermediate silyl ethers. In situ cyclopropanation of the allylic silyl ether resulted in cyclopropanation to form the anti-cyclopropyl silyl ether. Workup with TBAF affords the anti-cyclopropyl alcohols in one-pot in 60–82% yield, 89–99% ee, and ≥10:1 dr. For the synthesis of cis-disubstituted cyclopropyl alcohols, in situ generated (Z)-vinyl zinc reagents were employed in asymmetric addition to aldehydes to generate (Z)-allylic zinc alkoxides. In situ cyclopropanation provides syn-cis-disubstituted cyclopropyl alcohols in 42–70% yield, 88–97% ee, and >19:1 dr. These one-pot procedures enable the synthesis of a

  9. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  10. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  11. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  12. Direct Vinylation of Alcohols or Aldehydes Employing Alkynes as Vinyl Donors: A Ruthenium Catalyzed C-C Bond Forming Transfer Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patman, Ryan L.; Chaulagain, Mani Raj; Williams, Vanessa M.; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Under the conditions of ruthenium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation, 2-butyne couples to benzylic and aliphatic alcohols 1a–1i to furnish allylic alcohols 2a–2i, constituting a direct C-H vinylation of alcohols employing alkynes as vinyl donors. Under related transfer hydrogenation conditions employing formic acid as terminal reductant, 2-butyne couples to aldehydes 4a, 4b, and 4e to furnish identical products of carbonyl vinylation 2a, 2b, and 2e. Thus, carbonyl vinylation is achieved from the alcohol or the aldehyde oxidation level in the absence of any stoichiometric metallic reagents. Nonsymmetric alkynes 6a–6c couple efficiently to aldehyde 4b to provide allylic alcohols 2m–2o as single regioisomers. Acetylenic aldehyde 7a engages in efficient intramolecular coupling to deliver cyclic allylic alcohol 8a. PMID:19173651

  13. Conversion of alkyl radicals to allyl radicals in irradiated single crystal mats of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Kuriyama, I.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of alkyl radicals, the conversion of alkyl radicals to allyl radicals and the trapping of allyl radicals in irradiated single crystal mats of polyethylene have been studied by electron spin resonance (e.s.r.). It has been suggested that in the crystal core alkyl radicals react with trans-vinylene double bonds and are converted into trans-vinylene allyl radicals; at the crystal surface, alkyl radicals react with vinyl end groups and are converted into allyl radicals with vinyl end groups. The decay of radical pairs and the formation of trans-vinylene double bonds are discussed. (author)

  14. Mechanism of the Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction Mediated by [Pd(NHC)(allyl)Cl] Precatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Meconi, Giulia Magi

    2017-05-24

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the activation mechanism for the precatalyst series [Pd]-X-1–4 derived from [Pd(IPr)(R-allyl)X] species by substitutions at the terminal position of the allyl moiety ([Pd] = Pd(IPr); R = H (1), Me (2), gem-Me2 (3), Ph (4), X = Cl, Br). Next, we have investigated the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction for the active catalyst species IPr-Pd(0) using 4-chlorotoluene and phenylboronic acid as substrates and isopropyl alcohol as a solvent. Our theoretical findings predict an upper barrier trend, corresponding to the activation mechanism for the [Pd]-Cl-1–4 series, in good agreement with the experiments. They indeed provide a quantitative explanation of the low yield (12%) displayed by [Pd]-Cl-1 species (ΔG⧧ ≈ 30.0 kcal/mol) and of the high yields (≈90%) observed in the case of [Pd]-Cl-2–4 complexes (ΔG⧧ ≈ 20.0 kcal/mol). Additionally, the studied Suzuki–Miyaura reaction involving the IPr-Pd(0) species is calculated to be thermodynamically favorable and kinetically facile. Similar investigations for the [Pd]-Br-1–4 series, derived from [Pd(IPr)(R-allyl)Br], indicate that the oxidative addition step for IPr-Pd(0)-mediated catalysis with 4-bromotoluene is kinetically more favored than that with 4-chlorotoluene. Finally, we have explored the potential of Ni-based complexes [Ni((IPr)(R-allyl)X] (X = Cl, Br) as Suzuki–Miyaura reaction catalysts. Apart from a less endergonic reaction energy profile for both precatalyst activation and catalytic cycle, a steep increase in the predicted upper energy barriers (by 2.0–15.0 kcal/mol) is calculated in the activation mechanism for the [Ni]-X-1–4 series compared to the [Pd]-X-1–4 series. Overall, these results suggest that Ni-based precatalysts are expected to be less active than the Pd-based precatalysts for the studied Suzuki–Miyaura reaction.

  15. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the binary system 1,5-hexadiene + allyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeissi, S.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of accurate vapor–liquid equilibrium data for mixtures of allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene is important for several industrial purposes. The bubble points of binary mixtures of allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene have been measured experimentally using a synthetic method. Measurements were

  16. Memory effects in palladium-catalyzed allylic Alkylations of 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensen, Nina; Fristrup, Peter; Tanner, David Ackland

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the enantiospecificity of the allylic alkylation of enantioenriched 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate with the enolate ion of dimethyl malonate catalyzed by unsymmetrical palladium catalysts. The precatalysts employed were (eta(3)-allyl)PdLCl, where L...

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  18. Practical Stannylation of Allyl Acetates Catalyzed by Nickel with Bu3 SnOMe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeyama, Kimihiro; Itai, Yuuhei; Takaki, Ken

    2016-06-27

    A practical and scalable nickel-catalyzed allylic stannylation of allyl acetates with Bu3 SnOMe is described. A variety of acyclic and cyclic allyl acetates, even with base-sensitive moieties, undergoes the stannylation by using NiBr2 /4,4'-di-tert-butylbipyridine (dtbpy)/Mn catalyst system to afford highly functionalized allyl stannanes with excellent regioselectivity and yields. Furthermore, the scope of protocol is also extended by the reaction of propargyl acetates, giving rise to propargyl or allenyl stannanes. Additionally, a unique diastereoselectivity using the nickel catalyst different from the palladium was demonstrated for the stannylation of cyclic allyl acetates. In the reaction, inexpensive and stable nickel complexes, abundant reductant (Mn), and atom-economical stannyl source were used. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Construction of an Asymmetric Quaternary Carbon Center via Allylation of Hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Bum; Satyender, Apuri; Jang, Doo Ok

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric indium-mediated allylation of imine derivatives bearing a chiral auxiliary is a reliable strategy for the synthesis of chiral homoallylic amines. Various techniques for indium-mediated stereoselective allylation of imines bearing a chiral auxiliary have been reported. In 1997 Loh and co-workers reported indium-mediated allylation with imines derived from L-valine methyl ester. Since then, many forms of indium-mediated allylation bearing a chiral auxiliary have been reported, including imines derived from (S)-valinol, (R)-phenylglycinol, uracil, (R)-phenylglycinol methyl ester, N-tert-butanesufinamide, and (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-indanol. However, the synthesis of chiral auxiliaries often involves a laborious multi-step synthesis with expensive reagents. Therefore, the development of readily accessible chiral auxiliaries for asymmetric indium-mediated all-ylation is in high demand

  20. Hypervalent iodine/TEMPO-mediated oxidation in flow systems: a fast and efficient protocol for alcohol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Ambreen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypervalent iodine(III/TEMPO-mediated oxidation of various aliphatic, aromatic and allylic alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds was successfully achieved by using microreactor technology. This method can be used as an alternative for the oxidation of various alcohols achieving excellent yields and selectivities in significantly shortened reaction times.

  1. Limonene dehydrogenase hydroxylates the allylic methyl group of cyclic monoterpenes in the anaerobic terpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes-Cala, Edinson; Liebeke, Manuel; Markert, Stephanie; Harder, Jens

    2018-05-01

    The enzymatic functionalization of hydrocarbons is a central step in the global carbon cycle initiating the mineralization of methane, isoprene and monoterpenes, the most abundant biologically produced hydrocarbons. Also, terpene-modifying enzymes have found many applications in the energy-economic biotechnological production of fine chemicals. Here we describe a limonene dehydrogenase that was purified from the facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grown on monoterpenes under denitrifying conditions in the absence of molecular oxygen. The purified limonene:ferrocenium oxidoreductase activity hydroxylated the methyl group of limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohex-1-ene) yielding perillyl alcohol ([4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl]methanol). The enzyme had a dithiothreitol:perillyl alcohol oxidoreductase activity yielding limonene. Mass spectrometry and molecular size determinations revealed a heterodimeric enzyme comprising CtmA and CtmB. Recently the two proteins had been identified by transposon mutagenesis and proteomics as part of the cyclic terpene metabolism ( ctm ) in Castellaniella defragrans and were annotated as FAD-dependent oxidoreductases of the protein domain family phytoene dehydrogenases and related proteins (COG1233). CtmAB is the first heterodimeric enzyme in this protein superfamily. Flavins in the purified CtmAB are oxidized by ferrocenium and are reduced by limonene. Heterologous expression of CtmA, CtmB and CtmAB in E. coli demonstrated that limonene dehydrogenase activity required both subunits carrying each a flavin cofactor. Native CtmAB oxidized a wide range of monocyclic monoterpenes containing the allylic methyl group motif (1-methyl-cyclohex-1-ene). In conclusion, we have identified CtmAB as a hydroxylating limonene dehydrogenase and the first heteromer in a family of FAD-dependent dehydrogenases acting on allylic methylene or methyl CH-bonds. We suggest a placement in EC 1

  2. Oral Administration of (S)-Allyl-l-Cysteine and Aged Garlic Extract to Rats: Determination of Metabolites and Their Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehoon; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Lee, Young-Joo

    2017-11-01

    ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is the major bioactive compound in garlic. ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is metabolized to ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide after oral administration. An accurate LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma, and the feasibility of using it in pharmacokinetic studies was tested. The analytes were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. Because significant quantitative interference was observed between ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine as a result of the decomposition of N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine at the detector source, chromatographic separation was required to discriminate ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites on a reversed-phase C 18 analytical column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The calibration curves of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were linear over each concentration range, and the lower limits of quantification were 0.1 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine] and 0.25 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide]. Acceptable intraday and inter-day precisions and accuracies were obtained at three concentration levels. The method satisfied the regulatory requirements for matrix effects, recovery, and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine the concentration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma samples after the administration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine or aged garlic extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds following a strategy of functionalization and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F

    2013-11-27

    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by the catalytic diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S, or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with a high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated.

  4. Reaction of aryl diazonium tetrafluoro borates with allyl methacrylate in the presence of rhodanide-anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, B.D.; Baranovskij, V.S.; Simchak, R.V.; Tulajdan, G.N.; Gorbovoj, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Reaction of aryl diazonium tetrafluoro borates (I) with allyl ester of methacrylic acid in the water-acetone (1:5) medium is studied by means of IR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR. It is established that (I) reacts with aryl methacrylate in the presence of rhodanide-anion and catalytic quantities of copper salts with the formation of allyl esters of 2-thiocyanato-2-methyl-3-aryl propionic acids with the yield of 32-56%. Allyl fragment of biunsaturated compound shows no reaction under the tested conditions [ru

  5. A Facile and Mild Synthesis of Trisubstituted Allylic Sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%–99% with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1. Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  6. A facile and mild synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Li, Yong-Gen; Zhou, Jiang-Feng; Chuan, Yong-Ming; Li, Hong-Li; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2015-05-07

    An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%-99%) with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1). Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  7. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  8. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Chemistry, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014, .... organic synthesis we hope that the procedure described in this paper will find ... Allyl bromide (Fluka) and benzyl bromide (E Merck) were freshly distilled before use.

  9. Biomarkers derived from heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of allylic hydroperoxides resulting from alkenone autoxidation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontania, J.F.; Harji, R.; Volkmanc, J.K.

    Laboratory incubation of alkenone mixtures with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and di-tert-butyl nitroxide (radical initiator) in hexane, as a means to simulate alkenone autoxidation processes, rapidly led to the formation of allylic hydroperoxides, whose...

  10. Development of chiral terminal-alkene-phosphine hybrid ligands for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Du, Haifeng

    2010-07-02

    A variety of novel chiral terminal-alkene-phosphine hybrid ligands were successfully developed from diethyl L-tartrate for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations, etherifications, and amination to give the desired products in excellent yields and ee's.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of almorexant via iridium-catalysed intramolecular allylic amidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fananas Mastral, Martin; Teichert, Johannes F.; Fernandez-Salas, Jose Antonio; Heijnen, Dorus; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of almorexant, a potent antagonist of human orexin receptors, is presented. The chiral tetrahydroisoquinoline core structure was prepared via iridium-catalysed asymmetric intramolecular allylic amidation. Further key catalytic steps of the synthesis include an oxidative

  12. Catalytic allylic oxidation of internal alkenes to a multifunctional chiral building block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeh, Liela; Le, Phong Q.; Tambar, Uttam K.

    2017-07-01

    The stereoselective oxidation of hydrocarbons is one of the most notable advances in synthetic chemistry over the past fifty years. Inspired by nature, enantioselective dihydroxylations, epoxidations and other oxidations of unsaturated hydrocarbons have been developed. More recently, the catalytic enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of alkenes has streamlined the production of pharmaceuticals, natural products, fine chemicals and other functional materials. Allylic functionalization provides a direct path to chiral building blocks with a newly formed stereocentre from petrochemical feedstocks while preserving the olefin functionality as a handle for further chemical elaboration. Various metal-based catalysts have been discovered for the enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of simple alkenes with cyclic or terminal double bonds. However, a general and selective allylic oxidation using the more common internal alkenes remains elusive. Here we report the enantioselective, regioselective and E/Z-selective allylic oxidation of unactivated internal alkenes via a catalytic hetero-ene reaction with a chalcogen-based oxidant. Our method enables non-symmetric internal alkenes to be selectively converted into allylic functionalized products with high stereoselectivity and regioselectivity. Stereospecific transformations of the resulting multifunctional chiral building blocks highlight the potential for rapidly converting internal alkenes into a broad range of enantioenriched structures that can be used in the synthesis of complex target molecules.

  13. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Russell Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also reported to damage DNA and is toxic to aquatic organisms, the objective of the present study was to determine whether it possesses teratogenic properties. The frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX was used to determine the following measures of developmental toxicity of the allyl isothiocyanate: (a 96-h LC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b 96-h EC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c teratogenic malformation index (TI, equal to 96-h LC50/96-h EC50. The quantitative results and the photographs of embryos before and after exposure suggest that allyl isothiocyanate seems to exhibit moderate teratogenic properties. The results also indicate differences in the toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate toward exposed embryos observed in the present study compared to reported adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate in fish, rodents, and humans. The significance of the results for food safety and possible approaches to protect against adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate are discussed.

  14. Gold-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of sulfonylacetylene with allyl ethers: [3,3]- and [1,3]-rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Jun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gold-catalyzed intermolecular couplings of sulfonylacetylenes with allyl ethers are reported. A cooperative polarization of alkynes both by a gold catalyst and a sulfonyl substituent resulted in an efficient intermolecular tandem carboalkoxylation. Reactions of linear allyl ethers are consistent with the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement mechanism, while those of branched allyl ethers provided [3,3]- and [1,3]-rearrangement products through the formation of a tight ion–dipole pair.

  15. Ketenimines from Isocyanides and Allyl Carbonates: Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of β,γ-Unsaturated Amides and Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanyinsheng; Mamboury, Mathias; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-12-05

    The reaction of allyl ethyl carbonates with isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc) 2 provided ketenimines through β-hydride elimination of the allyl imidoylpalladium intermediates. The insertion of the isocyanide into the π-allyl Pd complex proceeded via an unusual η 1 -allyl Pd species. The resulting ketenimines were hydrolyzed to β,γ-unsaturated carboxamides during purification by flash column chromatography on silica gel or converted in situ into 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles by [3+2] cycloaddition with hydrazoic acid or trimethylsilyl azide. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Radiation synthesis and characterization of new hydrogels based on acrylamide copolymers cross-linked with 1-allyl-2-thiourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiner, Nurettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 0653 Ankara (Turkey); Malci, Savas [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 0653 Ankara (Turkey); Celikbicak, Oemuer [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 0653 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Oemer [Ankara Nuclear Research Center, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Salih, Bekir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 0653 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: bekir@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-10-01

    Poly(acrylamide-1-allyl-2-thiourea) hydrogels, Poly(AA-AT), were synthesized by gamma irradiation using {sup 60}Co {gamma} source in different irradiation dose and at different 1-allyl-2-thiourea content in the monomer mixture. For the characterization of the hydrogels, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), elemental analyzer and the swellability of the hydrogels were used. It was noted that 1-allyl-2-thiourea in the synthesized hydrogels was increased by the increasing the content of the 1-allyl-2-thiourea in the irradiation monomer mixture and increasing the radiation dose for the hydrogel synthesis. sis.

  17. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  18. Allyl isothiocyanate induced stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini AkalRachna K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC from mustard is cytotoxic; however the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We examined the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also examined factors affecting the production of AITC from its precursor, sinigrin, a glucosinolate, in ground Brassica juncea cv. Vulcan seed as mustard has some potential as a biopesticide. Findings An assay to determine the concentration of AITC in ground mustard seed was improved to allow the measurement of AITC release in the first minutes after exposure of ground mustard seed to water. Using this assay, we determined that temperatures above 67°C decreased sinigrin conversion to AITC in hydrated ground B. juncea seed. A pH near 6.0 was found to be necessary for AITC release. RT-qPCR revealed no significant change in HSP70A mRNA expression at low concentrations of AITC ( 1.0 μM resulted in a four- to five-fold increase in expression. A HSP70 ELISA showed that AITC toxicity in C. elegans was ameliorated by the presence of ground seed from low sinigrin B. juncea cv. Arrid. Conclusions • AITC induced toxicity in C. elegans, as measured by HSP70 expression. • Conditions required for the conversion of sinigrin to AITC in ground B. juncea seed were determined. • The use of C. elegans as a bioassay to test AITC or mustard biopesticide efficacy is discussed.

  19. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Allyl isothiocyanate affects the cell cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Elisabeth Åsberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates (ITCs are degradation products of glucosinolates present in members of the Brassicaceae family acting as herbivore repellents and antimicrobial compounds. Recent results indicate that allyl ITC (AITC has a role in defense responses such as glutathione depletion, ROS generation and stomatal closure. In this study we show that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of AITC causes a shift in the cell cycle distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana leading to accumulation of cells in S-phases and a reduced number of cells in non-replicating phases. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed an AITC-induced up-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase A while several genes encoding mitotic proteins were down-regulated, suggesting an inhibition of mitotic processes. Interestingly, visualization of DNA synthesis indicated that exposure to AITC reduced the rate of DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that non-lethal concentrations of AITC induce cells of A. thaliana to enter the cell cycle and accumulate in S-phases, presumably as a part of a defensive response. Thus, this study suggests that AITC has several roles in plant defense and add evidence to the growing data supporting a multifunctional role of glucosinolates and their degradation products in plants.

  1. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John

    2001-01-01

    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed by asy...... the allylic stereocenter and the alkene geometry. Thus, a single $gamma@-substituted ester was obtained as the overall product, in high isomeric purity. The method was applied to a synthesis of a subunit of the iejimalides, a group of cytotoxic macrolides.......A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...... by asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  2. SYNTHESIS OF 4-ALLYL-2-METHOXY-6-AMINOPHENOL FROM NATURAL EUGENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary research was to synthesize derivatives of eugenol such as 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-nitrophenol (2 and 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-aminophenol (3. The result could be used as a reference on the transformation of eugenol to its derivatives. Theoriticaly nitration of eugenol (1 by nitric acid could produced 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-nitrophenol (2 and followed by reduction could achieved 4-allyl-2-mehtoxy-6-aminophenol (3. The formation of this product was analyzed by analytical thin layer chromatography (TLC and GC-MS. These analysis showed the formation of product (2 and (3 were visible. TLC showed product (1 less polar than eugenol and gave orange colour, and supported by GC-MS which showed molecular ion at m/z 209 due to the presence of -NO2 by replacing one H at 6 position of eugenol. Product (3 was afforded by reduction of (2 with Sn/HCl and tlc analysis showed compound (3 more polar than eugenol (1 and (2 and supported by GC-MS which showed molecular ion at m/z 179 due to the presence of -NH2.   Keywords: Synthesis, 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-aminophenol, Eugenol

  3. On the Nature of the Intermediates and the Role of Chloride Ions in Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylations: Added Insight from Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Tanner, David Ackland

    2008-01-01

    The reactivity of intermediates in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation was investigated using DFT (B3LYP) calculations including a PB-SCRF solvation model. In the presence of both phosphine and chloride ligands, the allyl intermediate is in equilibrium between a cationic eta(3)-allylPd complex...

  4. An intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition of ketenimines via palladium-catalyzed rearrangements of N-allyl-ynamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A; Hsung, Richard P; Song, Wang-Ze; Wang, Xiao-Na; Walton, Mary C

    2012-06-15

    A cascade of Pd-catalyzed N-to-C allyl transfer-intramolecular ketenimine-[2 + 2] cycloadditions of N-allyl ynamides is described. This tandem sequence is highly stereoselective and the [2 + 2] cycloaddition could be rendered in a crossed or fused manner depending on alkene substitutions, leading to bridged and fused bicycloimines.

  5. An Efficient Synthesis of de novo Imidates via Aza-Claisen Rearrangements of N-Allyl Ynamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A.; North, Troy D.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel thermal 3-aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-allyl ynamides for the synthesis of α-allyl imidates is described. Also, a sequential aza-Claisen, Pd-catalyzed Overman rearrangement is described for the synthesis of azapine-2-ones. PMID:21278848

  6. Formation of gas-phase π-allyl radicals from propylene over bismuth oxide and γ-bismuth molybdate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martir, W.; Lunsford, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Gas-phase π-allyl radicals were produced when propylene reacted over Bi 2 O 3 and γ-bismuth molybdate catalysts at 723 K. The pressure in the catalyst zone was varied between 5 x 10 -3 and 1 torr. The radicals were detected by EPR spectroscopy together with a matrix isolation technique in which argon was used as the diluent. The matrix was formed on a sapphire rod at 12 K which was located 33-cm downstream from the catalyst. Bismuth oxide was more effective in the production of gas-phase allyl radicals than γ-bismuth molybdate. By contrast α-bismuth molybdate was ineffective in forming allyl radicals and MoO 3 acted as a sink for radicals which were produced elsewhere in the system. Comparison of the π-allyl radical and the stable product concentrations over Bi 2 O 3 revealed that gas-phase radical recombination reactions served as a major pathway for the formation of 1,5-hexadiene. Addition of small amounts of gas-phase oxygen increased the concentration of allyl radicals, and at greater oxygen levels allyl peroxy radicals were detected. Because of the effect of temperature on the equilibrium between allyl and allyl peroxy radicals, the latter product must be formed in the cooler part of the system

  7. Regio- and Enantioselective N-Allylations of Imidazole, Benzimidazole, and Purine Heterocycles Catalyzed by Single-Component Metallacyclic Iridium Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Levi M.

    2010-01-01

    Highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed N-allylations of benzimidazoles, imidazoles, and purines have been developed. N-Allylated benzimidazoles and imidazoles were isolated in high yields (up to 97%) with high branched-to-linear selectivity (up to 99:1) and enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) from the reactions of benzimidazole and imidazole nucleophiles with unsymmetrical allylic carbonates in the presence of single component, ethylene-bound, metallacyclic iridium catalysts. N-Allylated purines were also obtained in high yields (up to 91%) with high N9:N7 selectivity (up to 96:4), high branched-to-linear selectivity (98:2), and high enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) under similar conditions. The reactions encompass a range of benzimidazole, imidazole, and purine nucleophiles, as well as a variety of unsymmetrical aryl, heteroaryl, and aliphatic allylic carbonates. Competition experiments between common amine nucleophiles and the heterocyclic nitrogen nucleophiles studied in this work illustrate the effect of nucleophile pKa on the rate of iridium-catalyzed N-allylation reactions. Kinetic studies on the allylation of benzimidazole catalyzed by metallacyclic iridium-phosphoramidite complexes, in combination with studies on the deactivation of these catalysts in the presence of heterocyclic nucleophiles, provide insight into the effects of the structure of the phosphoramidite ligands on the stability of the metallacyclic catalysts. The data obtained from these studies has led to the development of N-allylations of benzimidazoles and imidazoles in the absence of an exogenous base. PMID:19480431

  8. Theoretical Studies of [2,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangements of Allylic Selenoxides and Selenimides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Antony

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Density-functional theory is used to model the endo and exo transition states for [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allylic aryl-selenoxides and -selenimides. The endo transition state is generally preferred for selenoxides if there is no substitution at the 2 position of the allyl group. Based upon the relative energies of the endo and exo transition states, enantioselectivity of rearrangements is expected to be greatest for molecules with substitutions at the 1- or (E-3- position of the allyl group. Ortho substitution of a nitro group on the ancillary selenoxide phenyl ring reduces the activation barriers, increases the difference between the endo and exo activation barriers and shifts the equilibrium toward products.

  9. The effects of γ-irradiation on the garlic oil contents in garlic bulbs and the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Genshuan, Wang Guanghui; Yang Ruipu; Wu Jilan

    1995-01-01

    The study of the effects of γ-irradiation on the garlic oil contents in the garlic bulbs and the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide were carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant as stored for 10 months long. The main components of the garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3 C HOH radical into acetaldehyde, which causes that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited. (author)

  10. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Genshuan; Wang Guanghui; Yang Ruipu; Wu Jilan

    1996-01-01

    A study of the effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisufide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3 C . HOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited. (author)

  11. Z-Selective iridium-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylic carbonates and α-diazo esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bryce N; Moon, Patrick J; Yin, Shengkang; Brown, Alex; Lundgren, Rylan J

    2018-01-07

    A well-defined Ir-allyl complex catalyzes the Z -selective cross-coupling of allyl carbonates with α-aryl diazo esters. The process overrides the large thermodynamic preference for E -products typically observed in metal-mediated coupling reactions to enable the synthesis of Z , E -dieneoates in good yield with selectivities consistently approaching or greater than 90 : 10. This transformation represents the first productive merger of Ir-carbene and Ir-allyl species, which are commonly encountered intermediates in allylation and cyclopropanation/E-H insertion catalysis. Potentially reactive functional groups (aryl halides, ketones, nitriles, olefins, amines) are tolerated owing to the mildness of reaction conditions. Kinetic analysis of the reaction suggests oxidative addition of the allyl carbonate to an Ir-species is rate-determining. Mechanistic studies uncovered a pathway for catalyst activation mediated by NEt 3 .

  12. Tandem catalytic allylic amination and [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-08-24

    We have developed a catalytic allylic amination involving tertiary aminoesters and allylcarbonates, which is the first example of the use of tertiary amines as intermolecular nucleophiles in metal-catalyzed allylic substitution chemistry. This process is employed in a tandem ammonium ylide generation/[2,3]-rearrangement reaction, which formally represents a palladium-catalyzed Stevens rearrangement. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions are compatible with an unprecedented substrate scope for the ammonium ylide functionality, and products are generated in high yields and diastereoselectivities. Mechanistic studies suggested the reversible formation of an ammonium intermediate.

  13. Allylic azides as potential building blocks for the synthesis of nitrogenated compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá Marcus M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic potential of multifunctional allylic azides and imines in attempted intramolecular cyclizations to nitrogen-containing heterocycles was investigated. Tandem Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction of (E-3-aryl-2-(azidomethylpropenoates with triphenylphosphine and aldehydes yielded N-allylic imines in good yield. The (E-stereochemistry of C=C and C=N bonds was assigned based on NOESY experiments. AlCl3 mediated formation of 3-carbomethoxyquinoline from methyl (E-2-(azidomethyl-3-phenylpropenoate is also described.

  14. A dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus transforms (+)-valencene regio-specifically to (+)-nootkatone via a stereo-specific allylic hydroperoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, Sven; Krings, Ulrich; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G

    2010-01-01

    A selective and highly efficient allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone was achieved with lyophilisate of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. The catalytic reaction sequence was elucidated through the identification of intermediate, (+)-valencene derived hydroperoxides. A specific staining of hydroperoxides allowed the semi-preparative isolation of two secondary (+)-valencene hydroperoxides, 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-4(S)-yl-hydroperoxide and 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-2(R)-yl-hydroperoxide. Chemical reduction of the biotransformation products yielded a tertiary alcohol identified as 2(R)-Isopropenyl-8(R),8a(S)-dimethyl-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-4a(R)-ol. This suggested a lipoxygenase-type oxidation of (+)-valencene via secondary and tertiary hydroperoxides and confirmed homology data of the key enzyme obtained previously from amino acid sequencing.

  15. Crystal structure of 4′-allyl-4,5,6,7,2′,7′-hexachlorofluorescein allyl ester unknown solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 4′-allyl-4,5,6,7,2′,7′-hexachlorofluorescein allyl ester {systematic name: prop-2-en-1-yl 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-[2,7-dichloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-en-1-yl-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoate}, C26H14Cl6O5, accompanied by unknown solvate molecules, the dihedral angle between the xanthene ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å and the pentasubstituted benzene ring is 71.67 (9°. Both allyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites in statistical ratios. The scattering contributions of the disordered solvent molecules (both Ph2O and CHCl3, as identified by NMR were removed with the PLATON SQUEEZE algorithm [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. In the crystal, tetrameric supramolecular aggregates linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds occur; these further interact with neighboring aggregates through C—Cl...π interactions arising from the benzene rings, forming infinite two-dimensional sheets. Each C6Cl4 ring shifts in the direction perpendicular to the two-dimensional sheet, exhibiting a helical chain in which every C6Cl4 ring is utilized as both a donor and an acceptor of Cl...π contacts. Thus, these two-dimensional sheets pack in a helical fashion, constructing a three-dimensional network.

  16. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  17. Mechanistic Investigation of Palladium–Catalyzed Allylic C–H Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Jensen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism for the palladium–catalyzed allylic C–H activation was investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. A Hammett study revealed a buildup of a partial negative charge in the rate-determining step, while determination of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE...

  18. No metabolic effects of mustard allyl-isothiocyanate compared with placebo in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Tan, Chong Yew; Soeters, Maarten R.; Virtue, Samuel; Watson, Laura Pe; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Vidal-Puig, Santiago; Chatterjee, Krishna V.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Induction of nonshivering thermogenesis can be used to influence energy balance to prevent or even treat obesity. The pungent component of mustard, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), activates the extreme cold receptor transient receptor potential channel, subfamily A, member 1 and may thus

  19. Synthesis of Chromane Derivatives via Indium-mediated Intramolecular Allenylation and Allylation to Imines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Young; Yu, Yeon Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The results of preparing chromans by intramolecular allylation are shown in Table 2. The results indicated that the indium-mediated allylation was not as efficient as the allenylation. About 10-20% decrease in yields was observed. As mentioned above, in each case only a single isomer was observed, and the stereochemistry of the product was determined as cis by analysis of 1 H NMR and NOE spectra. There are, however, still some limitations in these transformations. Especially, in the case of allylation mixtures of cis and trans isomers are always produced in about 2 : 1 ratio (cis/trans). The ratio was not improved under the various reaction conditions we attempted. Since the indium-mediated addition to carbonyl groups has been successful, it occurred to us that it would be worthwhile to test the addition to carbon-nitrogen double bonds, that is, imine groups. We wish to report here the results of the investigations on allylation and allenylation to C=N bond to provide the chromane structures. The whole transformations

  20. Organocatalytic asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates of isatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of a Lewis base catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates derived from isatins afforded an electrophilic pathway to access multifunctional oxindoles bearing a C3-quaternary stereocenter, provided with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee and in high yields (up to 97%.

  1. In(OTf)3 catalyzed allylation reaction of imines with tetraallyltin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ning Wei; Ling Yan Liu; Bing Wang; Wei Xing Chang; Jing Li

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic amount of In(OTf)3 (10 mol%), a series of aldimines reacted with tetraallyltin in a 2:1 molar ratio to afford the corresponding homoallylic amines in good yields. The good atom efficiency was achieved under mild reaction conditions and a new protocol (allyl)4Sn/In(OTf)3 for simple imines was developed.

  2. Chalcogen-containing oxazolines in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Antonio L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study about the ability of chiral chalcogen-containing oxazolines to act as chiral ligands in the palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate with dimethyl malonate is reported. Differences in the catalytic performance are observed with sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues.

  3. The Defense Metabolite, Allyl Glucosinolate, Modulates Arabidopsis thaliana Biomass Dependent upon the Endogenous Glucosinolate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) play an important role in plants as direct mediators of biotic and abiotic stress responses. Recent work is beginning to show that the GSLs can also inducing complex defense and growth networks. However, the physiological significance of these GSL-induced responses and the molecular mechanisms by which GSLs are sensed and/or modulate these responses are not understood. To identify these potential mechanisms within the plant and how they may relate to the endogenous GSLs, we tested the regulatory effect of exogenous allyl GSL application on growth and defense metabolism across sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We found that application of exogenous allyl GSL had the ability to initiate changes in plant biomass and accumulation of defense metabolites that genetically varied across accessions. This growth effect was related to the allyl GSL side-chain structure. Utilizing this natural variation and mutants in genes within the GSL pathway we could show that the link between allyl GSL and altered growth responses are dependent upon the function of known genes controlling the aliphatic GSL pathway.

  4. Solvent-controlled regioselective protection of allyl-4,6-benzylidene glucopyranosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migaud Marie E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We wish to report a simple synthetic procedure, which permits the regiospecific mono-acylation, alkylation and silylation at the 2-position of allyl 4,6-O-benzylidene α-D-glucopyranoside in high yields and which does not require the use of catalysts.

  5. Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Phosphonates and Phosphine Oxides with Grignard Reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornillos, Valentin; Perez, Manuel; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    An efficient and highly enantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of phosphonates and phosphine oxides with Grignard reagents and Taniaphos or phosphoramidites as chiral ligands is reported. Transformation of these products leads to a variety of new phosphorus-containing chiral

  6. Enantioselective Allylation of Thiophene-2-carbaldehyde: Formal Total Synthesis of Duloxetine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Motloch, P.; Valterová, Irena; Kotora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 356, č. 1 (2014), s. 199-204 ISSN 1615-4150 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0587 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : aldehydes * allylation * Lewis bases * organocatalysis * synthetic methods Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.663, year: 2014

  7. 1-Allyl-3-amino-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ling Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H9N3O2, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 1-allyl-3-amino-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate. The crystal structure is stabilized by three types of intermolecular hydrogen bond (N—H...O, N—H...N and O—H...N.

  8. Combined experimental and theoretical mechanistic investigation of the Barbier allylation in aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    -determining step. For Zn, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi, an inverse secondary kinetic isotope effect was found (k(H)/k(D) = 0.75-0.95), which was compatible with the formation of a discrete organometallic species prior to allylation via a closed six-membered transition state. With Mg, a significantly larger build...

  9. Reactivity of olefin and allyl ligands in π-complexes of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    The data on reactivity of olefin and allyl ligands in transition metal (Ru, W) π-complexes, published up to 1984 are presented. Metal ion coordination of olefins causes their appreciable reactivity change. Transformations of π-olefin ligands into σ-alkyl ones, interaction of π-complexes with oxygen nucleophilic reagents, amines, halogenides and pseudohalogenides are considered

  10. Preparation of pyrrolizinone derivatives via sequential transformations of cyclic allyl imides: synthesis of quinolactacide and marinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Tasic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Predrag; Petkovic, Milos; Savic, Vladimir

    2018-03-28

    A facile synthetic route has been developed for the preparation of pyrrolizinone derivatives employing N-allyl imides as starting materials. The nucleophilic addition of a vinyl Grignard reagent/RCM/elimination sequence afforded pyrrolizinones in good yields and has been applied for the preparation of naturally occurring quinolactacide and marinamide.

  11. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Butenolides via Hetero-Allylic Alkylation and Ring Closing Metathesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Bin; Geurts, Koen; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Zijl, Anthoni W. van; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral γ-butenolides was developed based on the hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) in combination with ring closing metathesis (RCM). The synthetic potential of the h-AAA-RCM protocol was illustrated with the facile synthesis of (-)-whiskey

  12. Deconvoluting the memory effect in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation; effect of leaving group and added chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Hoppe, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of product distributions in the Tsuji-Trost reaction indicates that several instances of reported memory effects can be attributed to slow interconversion of the initially formed syn- and anti-[Pd(eta3-allyl)] complexes. Addition of chloride triggers a true memory effect, in which...... the allylic terminus originally bearing the leaving group has a higher reactivity. The latter effect, termed regioretention, can be rationalized by ionization from a palladium complex bearing a chloride ion, forming an unsymmetrically substituted [Pd(eta3-allyl)] complex. DFT calculations verify...

  13. Metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of S-allyl-L-cysteine in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hirotaka; Kazamori, Daichi; Itoh, Kenji; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    The metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an active key component of garlic supplements, were examined in rats and dogs. A single dose of SAC was administered orally or i.v. to rats (5 mg/kg) and dogs (2 mg/kg). SAC was well absorbed (bioavailability >90%) and its four metabolites-N-acetyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine (NAc-SAC), N-acetyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (NAc-SACS), S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (SACS), and l-γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine-were identified in the plasma and/or urine. Renal clearance values (l/h/kg) of SAC indicated its extensive renal reabsorption, which contributed to the long elimination half-life of SAC, especially in dogs (12 hours). The metabolism of SAC to NAc-SAC, principal metabolite of SAC, was studied in vitro and in vivo. Liver and kidney S9 fractions of rats and dogs catalyzed both N-acetylation of SAC and deacetylation of NAc-SAC. After i.v. administration of NAc-SAC, SAC appeared in the plasma and its concentration declined in parallel with that of NAc-SAC. These results suggest that the rate and extent of the formation of NAc-SAC are determined by the N-acetylation and deacetylation activities of liver and kidney. Also, NAc-SACS was detected in the plasma after i.v. administration of either NAc-SAC or SACS, suggesting that NAc-SACS could be formed via both N-acetylation of SACS and S-oxidation of NAc-SAC. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of SAC in rats and dogs is characterized by its high oral bioavailability, N-acetylation and S-oxidation metabolism, and extensive renal reabsorption, indicating the critical roles of liver and kidney in the elimination of SAC. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Cascade synthesis of dihydrobenzofuran via Claisen rearrangement of allyl aryl ethers using FeCl3/MCM-41 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S. Sakate

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrobenzofuran as one of the active ingredients of the naturally occurring motif is synthesized by using in situ generation of ortho allyl phenols. Aryl allyl ethers on reacting with catalytic amounts of non noble metal iron (III chloride supported on MCM-41 under moderate reaction conditions yield dihydrobenzofuran. First step via Claisen rearrangement gives ortho allyl phenol followed by its in situ cyclization to yield dihydrobenzofuran in very good yields. Both Lewis as well as Brønsted acidity of the catalyst as evidenced by Py-FTIR studies was found to catalyze the cascade synthesis of dihydrobenzofuran. The scope of the present strategy was successfully demonstrated for several substrates with varying electronic effects for the synthesis of corresponding dihydrobenzofuran with high yields in a range of 71–86%. Keywords: Claisen rearrangement, Dihydrobenzofuran, Aryl allyl ether, MCM-41, Ferric chloride

  15. Allylic chlorination of terpenic olefins using a combination of MoCl{sub 5} and NaOCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boualy, Brahim; Firdoussi, Larbi El; Ali, Mustapha Ait; Karim, Abdellah, E-mail: elfirdoussi@ucam.ac.m [Universite Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia. Lab. de Chimie de Coordination

    2011-07-01

    MoCl{sub 5} is applied as efficient agent in allylic chlorination of terpenic olefins in the presence of NaOCl as chlorine donor. Various terpenes are converted to the corresponding allylic chlorides in moderate to good yield under mild and optimized reaction conditions. Different molybdenum precursors are also studied. Among them, MoO{sub 3} gives good yield, but after a longer reaction time. (author)

  16. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-11-12

    We report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from (R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  17. Synthesis of praseodymium allyl iodide complex and its use in piperilene polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajlyunas, G.A.; Biktimirov, R.Kh.; Khajrullina, R.M.; Marina, N.G.; Manakov, Yu.B.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis, structure and catalytic properties of tetrahydrofuran praseodymium allyl iodine complex (1) are described and studied. Complex 1 is formed during interaction of allyl iodine with metal praseodymium (the molar ratio is 2:1) in THF at room temperature with 97% yield. It represents the solid powder-like substance of the light-brown colour with a pale green shade, being sensitive to moisture and oxygen and decomposing at temperature >120 deg. On the basis of the IR-spectroscopy data the supposition about the dimeric (or n-dimensional) complex structure is made. The complex prepared in combination with tributyl aluminium during piperylene polymerization gives a high-stereoregular and high-molecular polypiperylene

  18. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of β-methyl-γ- monofluoromethyl-substituted alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo

    2011-06-07

    Enanatiopure β-methyl-γ-monofluoromethyl alcohols were prepared from the allylic alkylation between fluorobis(phenylsulfonyl)methane with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates. The reaction was catalyzed by using the Cinchona alkaloid derivative, (DHQD)2AQN. The origin of the stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed stereoselectivity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Tether-directed synthesis of highly substituted oxasilacycles via an intramolecular allylation employing allylsilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Liam R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a silyl tether to unite an aldehyde electrophile and allylsilane nucleophile into a single molecule allows a subsequent Lewis-acid-mediated allylation to proceed in an intramolecular sense and therefore receive all the benefits associated with such processes. However, with the ability to cleave the tether post allylation, a product that is the result of a net intermolecular reaction can be obtained. In the present study, four diastereoisomeric β-silyloxy-α-methyl aldehydes, which contain an allylsilane tethered through the β-carbinol centre, have been prepared, in order to probe how the relative configuration of the two stereogenic centres affects the efficiency and selectivity of the intramolecular allylation. Results Syn-aldehydes, syn-4a and syn-4b, both react poorly, affording all four possible diastereoisomeric oxasilacycle products. In contrast, the anti aldehydes anti-4a and anti-4b react analogously to substrates that lack substitution at the α-site, affording only two of the four possible allylation products. Conclusion The outcome of the reaction with anti-aldehydes is in accord with reaction proceeding through a chair-like transition state (T.S.. In these systems, the sense of 1,3-stereoinduction can be rationalised by the aldehyde electrophile adopting a pseudoaxial orientation, which will minimise dipole-dipole interactions in the T.S. The 1,4-stereoinduction in these substrates is modest and seems to be modulated by the R substituent in the starting material. In the case of the syn-substrates, cyclisation through a chair T.S. is unlikely as this would require the methyl substituent α to the reacting carbonyl group to adopt an unfavourable pseudoaxial position. It is therefore proposed that these substrates react through poorly-defined T.S.s and consequently exhibit essentially no stereoselectivity.

  20. Antiviral activity of an N-allyl acridone against dengue virus

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucco, María Belén; Talarico, Laura Beatriz; Vatansever, Sezen; Carro, Ana Clara; Fascio, Mirta Liliana; D'Accorso, Norma Beatriz; Garcia, Cybele; Damonte, Elsa Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, is at present the most widespread causative agent of a human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite the increasing incidence of this pathogen, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines currently available for treatment or prevention. In a previous screening assay, we identified a group of N-allyl acridones as effective virus inhibitors. Here, the antiviral activity and mode of action targeted to viral RNA replication of one of...

  1. Surprisingly Mild Enolate-Counterion-Free Pd(0)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, David; Prestat, Guillaume; Martini, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylations of unsaturated EWG-activated amides can take place under phase-transfer conditions or in the presence of a crown ether. These new reaction conditions are milder and higher yielding than those previously reported. A rationalization for such an...... for such an unexpected result is put forth and validated by DFT-B3LYP calculations. The results suggest cyclization via a counterion-free (E)-enolate TS....

  2. Synthesis of a Novel Allyl-Functionalized Deep Eutectic Solvent to Promote Dissolution of Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs offer attractive options for the “green” dissolution of cellulose. However, the protic hydroxyl group causes weak dissolving ability of DESs, requiring the substitution of hydroxyl groups in the cation. In this study, a novel allyl-functionalized DES was synthesized and characterized, and its possible effect on improved dissolution of cellulose was investigated. The DES was synthesized by a eutectic mixture of allyl triethyl ammonium chloride ([ATEAm]Cl and oxalic acid (Oxa at a molar ratio of 1:1 and a freezing point of 49 °C. The [ATEAm]Cl-Oxa exhibited high polarity (56.40 kcal/mol, dipolarity/polarizability effects (1.10, hydrogen-bond donating acidity (0.41, hydrogen-bond basicity (0.89, and low viscosity (76 cP at 120 °C owing to the π-π conjugative effect induced by the allyl group. The correlation between temperature and viscosity on the [ATEAm]Cl-Oxa fit the Arrhenius equation well. The [ATEAm]Cl-Oxa showed low pseudo activation energy for viscous flow (44.56 kJ/mol. The improved properties of the [ATEAm]Cl-Oxa noticeably promoted the solubility (6.48 wt.% of cellulose.

  3. N-Boc Amines to Oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/Bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted Acid Co-Catalyzed Allylic C–H Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C–H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C–H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C–H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration. PMID:24999765

  4. N-Boc amines to oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid co-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J; White, M Christina

    2014-08-06

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C-H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C-H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration.

  5. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  6. Thermal aromatic Claisen rearrangement and Strecker reaction of alkyl(allyl-aryl ethers under green reaction conditions: Efficient and clean preparation of ortho-allyl phenols (naphthols and alkyl(allyloxyarene-based γ-amino nitriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheila N. Silgado-Gómez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical transformations of 13 diverse allyl(alkyl-aryl ethers, easily prepared using Williamson reaction of different hydroxyarenes and allyl bromide and alkyl (n-butyl, n-octyl bromides, were studied. Thermal aromatic Claisen rearrangement of allyl-aryl ethers to obtain ortho-allyl phenols (naphthols employing propylene carbonate as a nontoxic and biodegradable solvent was described for the first time. The use of this green solvent allowed to enhance notably product yields and reduce significantly the reaction time comparing with the use of 1,2-dichlorobenzene, toxic solvent, which is traditionally employed in this type of Claisen rearrangement. Three-component Strecker reaction of selected alkyl(allyl-aryl ethers with formyl function on aryl fragment and, piperidine and potassium cyanide in the presence of sulfuric acid supported on silica gel (SSA, SiO2-O-SO3H under mild reaction conditions was used in the preparation of new γ-amino nitriles, analogues of alkaloid girgensohnine [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-(piperidin-1-ylacetonitrile], a perspective biological model in the search for new insecticidal agrochemicals against Aedes aegypti. The use of SSA, an inexpensive and reusable solid catalyst, allowed to obtain new series of 2-[4-alkyl(allyloxyphenyl]-2-(piperidin-1-ylacetonitriles in short time at room temperature with good yields.

  7. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Allylic Sites by 3O2; Implications for Combustion Modeling and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Somers, Kieran P; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Curran, Henry J

    2017-03-09

    Hydrogen atom abstraction from allylic C-H bonds by molecular oxygen plays a very important role in determining the reactivity of fuel molecules having allylic hydrogen atoms. Rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction by molecular oxygen from molecules with allylic sites have been calculated. A series of molecules with primary, secondary, tertiary, and super secondary allylic hydrogen atoms of alkene, furan, and alkylbenzene families are taken into consideration. Those molecules include propene, 2-butene, isobutene, 2-methylfuran, and toluene containing the primary allylic hydrogen atom; 1-butene, 1-pentene, 2-ethylfuran, ethylbenzene, and n-propylbenzene containing the secondary allylic hydrogen atom; 3-methyl-1-butene, 2-isopropylfuran, and isopropylbenzene containing tertiary allylic hydrogen atom; and 1-4-pentadiene containing super allylic secondary hydrogen atoms. The M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory was used to optimize the geometries of all of the reactants, transition states, products and also the hinder rotation treatments for lower frequency modes. The G4 level of theory was used to calculate the electronic single point energies for those species to determine the 0 K barriers to reaction. Conventional transition state theory with Eckart tunnelling corrections was used to calculate the rate constants. The comparison between our calculated rate constants with the available experimental results from the literature shows good agreement for the reactions of propene and isobutene with molecular oxygen. The rate constant for toluene with O 2 is about an order magnitude slower than that experimentally derived from a comprehensive model proposed by Oehlschlaeger and coauthors. The results clearly indicate the need for a more detailed investigation of the combustion kinetics of toluene oxidation and its key pyrolysis and oxidation intermediates. Despite this, our computed barriers and rate constants retain an important internal consistency. Rate constants

  8. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  9. Genome wide association mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies novel genes involved in linking allyl glucosinolate to altered biomass and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL, may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 µM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. Photodissociaton of allyl-d2 iodide excited at 193 nm: Stability of highly rotationally excited H2CDCH2 radicals to C-D fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, D.E.; Liu, Y.; McCullagh, M.J.; Butler, L.J.; Shu, J.

    2003-01-01

    The photodissociation of allyl-d2 iodide (H2C=CDCH2I) and the dynamics of the nascent allyl-d2 radical (H2CCDCH2) were studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. A previous study found the allyl radical stable at internal energies up to 15 kcal/mol higher than the 60 kcal/mol barrier to allene + H formation as the result of a centrifugal barrier. The deuterated allyl radical should then also show a stability to secondary dissociation at internal energies well above the barrier due to centrifugal effects. A comparison in this paper shows the allyl-d2 radical is stable to allene + D formation at energies of 2-3 kcal/mol higher than that of the non-deuterated allyl radical following photolysis of allyl iodide at 193 nm. This is most likely a result of a combination of the slight raising of the barrier from the difference in zero-point levels and a reduction of the impact parameter of the dissociative fragments due to the decrease in frequency of the C-D bending modes, and the refore allene + D product orbital angular momentum. Integrated signal taken at m/e = 40 (allene) and m/e = 41 (allene-d1 and propyne-d3) shows a minor fraction of the allyl-d2 radicals isomerize to the 2-propenyl radical, in qualitative support of earlier conclusions of the domination of direct allene + H formation over isomerization

  12. Direct preparation of 14C-labelled 5-allyl- and 5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine from [2-14C]2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, J.L.; White, S.K.; Bergstrom, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    [2- 14 C]5-Allyl-2'-deoxyuridine was synthesized directly from [2- 14 C]2'-deoxyuridine using mercury, palladium, and 3-chloropropene. [2- 14 C]5-Propyl-2'-deoxyuridine was obtained by hydrogenation of the [ 14 C]5-allyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Advantages of the synthetic method and its application to the preparation of other radiolabeled 5-alkyl/alkenyl-2'-deoxyuridines are discussed. (author)

  13. catena-Poly[[bromidocopper(I)]-?-?2,?1-3-(2-allyl-2H-tetra?zol-5-yl)pyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [CuBr(C9H9N5)] n , has been prepared by the solvothermal treatment of CuBr with 3-(2-allyl-2H-tetra?zol-5-yl)pyridine. It is a new homometallic CuI olefin coord?ination polymer in which the CuI atoms are linked by the 3-(2-allyl-2H-tetra?zol-5-yl)pyridine ligands and bonded to one terminal Br atom each. The organic ligand acts as a bidentate ligand connecting two neighboring Cu centers through the N atom of the pyridine ring and the double bond of the allyl group. A three-...

  14. Design of the passive personal dosimeter for miners using an allyl diglycol carbonate plastic. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The report summarizes the results of the feasibility study on the design and development of a passive personal dosimeter incorporating an allyl diglycol carbonate plastic (CR39) detector, for use by uranium miners. Based upon the feasibility study, a passive personal dosimeter using a capacitor-type electrostatic enhancement device has been designed. Preliminary tests indicate that the prototype could be used in the mine environment to differentiate radon and thoron daughters with a detection efficiency comparable to that of a typical active device. Further study is required, however, into the possible influence in the mine environment of local variations in charged fraction, upon the calibration of this dosimeter

  15. Direct asymmetric allylic alkenylation of N-itaconimides with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo

    2012-08-03

    The asymmetric allylic alkenylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with N-itaconimides as nucleophiles has been developed using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid catalyst. A variety of multifunctional chiral α-methylene-β-maleimide esters were attained in moderate to excellent yields (up to 99%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). The origin of the regio- and stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed regio- and enantioselectivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Lanthanum triflate triggered synthesis of tetrahydroquinazolinone derivatives of N-allyl quinolone and their biological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardosh Hardik H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 24 derivatives of tetrahydroquinazolinone has been synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation reaction of N-allyl quinolones, cyclic β-diketones and (thiourea/N-phenylthiourea in presence of lanthanum triflate catalyst. This methodology allowed us to achieve the products in excellent yield by stirring at room temperature. All the synthesized compounds were investigated against a representative panel of pathogenic strains using broth microdilution MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration method for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Amongst these sets of heterocyclic compounds 5h, 6b, 6h, 5f, 5l, 5n and 6g found to have admirable activity.

  17. Neutron radiographic characteristics of MA-ND type (allyl-diglycol-carbonate) nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, R.; Rant, J.; Humar, M.; Somogyi, G.; Hunyadi, I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron radiographic properties of recently developed new nuclear track detectors (MA-ND/..cap alpha.., MA-ND/p and MA-ND/p1), manufactured from allyl diglycol carbonate, were studied. It was found that the quality of radiographic image has an optimum at a removed layer thickness of about 0.8 ..mu..m. The image obtained under this condition is characterized by high detection sensitivity to neutrons (approx. 8.10/sup -3/ tracks/nsub(th) when using B converter) and by excellent inherent unsharpness (approx. 5 ..mu..m) as well as high image contrast (maximum value of net optical density is approx. 1.4).

  18. Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyralozone from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HL) in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous-alcoholic solutions of the formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 was studied. Methyl, ethyl, n- and isopropyl, tert-butyl and allyl alcohol as well as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol were used as organic components of the mixed aqueous-organic phase. Their presence in some cases resulted in a synergic increase in the distribution ratio of hafnium. The increase is interpreted using the results of a slope analysis and measurements of the alcohol distribution and the relative permittivity of the organic phase. It is suggested that HfL 4 molecules were solvated by alcohol molecules in the organic phase. At high alcohol concentration synergism changed into antagonism. This was caused by changes in the distribution of HL and its interaction with the alcohol in the organic phase. (author)

  19. Alcohols as discriminating agents for genetic sexing in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva Francos, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The locus of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been used to develop a genetic sexing mechanism in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Previous work (1982-1984) has led to the isolation of a translocation linking a null mutant of this locus to the Y chromosome of the males. This strain, T-128, together with others showing different ADH electrophoretic patterns, have been assayed for their resistance to alcohols, such as allyl-alcohol, pentynol, ethanol and 2-propanol. The strains carrying the T-128 translocation show a differential, sex dependent survival to some of these alcohols. Part of this work is still in progress. The mutagenic ethyl methanesulphate (EMS) is being used to induce new ADH null mutants using the strain T-128 as a marker. Several hundred females have been treated with 0.04% EMS and then outcrossed to T-128 males. Their progeny is put through selective larval medium (0.08% allyl-alcohol) and the surviving F 1 individuals and subsequent F 2 are being analysed. Population studies have shown that the genetic sexing strain, T-128, is a double translocation with complete linkage between the Adh N allele (chromosome 2), and the Y chromosome, and incomplete linkage of the Y with the wild type allele of the apricot eye locus (ap + ) of chromosome 4. (author). 40 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  20. Iron complexes of tetramine ligands catalyse allylic hydroxyamination via a nitroso–ene mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II complexes of the tetradentate amines tris(2-pyridylmethylamine (TPA and N,N′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-N,N′-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (BPMEN are established catalysts of C–O bond formation, oxidising hydrocarbon substrates via hydroxylation, epoxidation and dihydroxylation pathways. Herein we report the capacity of these catalysts to promote C–N bond formation, via allylic amination of alkenes. The combination of N-Boc-hydroxylamine with either FeTPA (1 mol % or FeBPMEN (10 mol % converts cyclohexene to the allylic hydroxylamine (tert-butyl cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxycarbamate in moderate yields. Spectroscopic studies and trapping experiments suggest the reaction proceeds via a nitroso–ene mechanism, with involvement of a free N-Boc-nitroso intermediate. Asymmetric induction is not observed using the chiral tetramine ligand (+-(2R,2′R-1,1′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-2,2′-bipyrrolidine ((R,R′-PDP.

  1. Polymerizations of beta-substituted allylic arsonium ylides with catalytic amounts of organoboron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondiere, R.

    2004-01-01

    My Ph.D. work consisted in the generalization and optimization of a new polymerization reaction involving allylic arsonium ylides and catalytic amounts of various boron compounds. Thus, various β-substituted allylic arsonium salts were produced according to synthetic strategies that depended on the nature of the functional group born by the salt. These salts were converted in situ to the corresponding arsonium ylides which were then treated with boron compounds to yield polymers. Our new method of polymerization afforded either non conjugated polyenes that are functionalized every three atoms of carbon, or statistic copolymers, depending on the nature of the group R born on the β position of the ylide. These new polymers cannot be synthesized by usual methods of polymerization. Initial molar ratios of reactants were found to give molar mass control of the synthesized polymers. This controlled polymerization allowed us to produce several bloc copolymers. All the polymers were characterized by NMR techniques, by size exclusion chromatography and, for some of them, by mass spectrometry. Investigation of their physicochemical properties will need additional experiments. (author)

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy of Allyl Isothiocyanate Evaluated on N-Nitrosodiethylamine/Phenobarbitol induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thiyagarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA is a potential carcinogenic agent that induces liver cancer. To evaluate the chemotherapeutic effect of Allyl isothiocyanate in the experimental model, Wistar male rats were administered single dose of intraperitoneal (IP injection of NDEA. Two weeks after administration of NDEA, Phenobarbital at the concentration of 0.05% was incorporated in rat chow for up to 14 successive weeks to promote liver cancer. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC (2mg/kg body weight in addition with 0.5ml of corn oil was given orally on a daily basis. At the end of this experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were taken for biochemical studies. The levels of the marker enzymes for liver function were measured in serum. The results of the biochemical studies showed that NDEA administration followed by phenobarbital induces macro and microscopic liver tumors that increase the levels of marker enzymes and decreases the level of antioxidant in the serum in addition to loss of body weight. Conclusively, the administration of AITC as therapeutic treatment for hepatocarcinoma has significantly reduced the tumor development and counteracted all the biochemical effects induced by NDEA.

  3. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Repeated Exposure to Cruciferous Allyl Nitrile in Sensitizer-Induced Ear Edema in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Hideji; Sugitani, Kayo; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2016-02-29

    Skin sensitizers induce allergic reactions through the induction of reactive oxygen species. Allyl nitrile from cruciferous vegetables has been reported to induce antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes in various tissues. We assessed the effects of repeated exposure to allyl nitrile on sensitizer-induced allergic reactions. Mice were dosed with allyl nitrile (0-200 µmol/kg), and then received a dermal application of 1 of 3 sensitizers on the left ear or 1 of 2 vehicles on the right ear. Quantitative assessment of edema was carried out by measuring the difference in weight between the portions taken from the right and left ears. We tested enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ears. Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced edemas induced by glutaraldehyde and by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), but not by formaldehyde. The repeated exposure decreased levels of TBARS, a marker of oxidative stress, induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. Allyl nitrile elevated SOD levels for the 3 sensitizers, and CAT levels for formaldehyde and DNCB. Allyl nitrile also increased GPx levels for formaldehyde and DNCB, but not for glutaraldehyde. The reduced edemas were associated with changes in oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzymes. Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced allergic reactions induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. This reduction was associated with changes in ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  5. Aqueous protocol for allylic arylation of cinnamyl acetates with sodium tetraphenylborate using Bedford-type palladacycle catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorpade, Seema Arun; Sawant, Dinesh N; Renn, Dominik; Zernickel, Anna; Du, Weiyuan; Sekar, Nethi; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    Allylic arylation of cinnamyl acetates with sodium tetraphenylborate using 0.002 mol % of Bedford-type palladacycle catalyst is described. The developed methodology is applicable for wide range of cinnamyl acetates furnishing excellent yields up to 93%. Notably all reactions proceed smoothly under mild reaction conditions in water under air atmosphere.

  6. Isovanillin derived N-(un)substituted hydroxylamines possessing an ortho-allylic group: valuable precursors to bioactive N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulla, Balakrishna; Tangellamudi, Neelima D; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Yellanki, Swapna; Medishetti, Raghavender; Kumar Banote, Rakesh; Hari Chaudhari, Girish; Kulkarni, Pushkar; Iqbal, Javed; Reiser, Oliver; Pal, Manojit

    2014-04-28

    The intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of isovanillin derived N-aryl hydroxylamines possessing ortho-allylic dipolarophiles affords novel benzo analogues of tricyclic isoxazolidines that can be readily transformed into functionalized lactams, γ-aminoalcohols and oxazepines. The corresponding N-unsubstituted hydroxylamines give rise to tetrahydroisoquinolines. Anxiogenic properties of these compounds are tested in zebra fish.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  8. Mechanistic Dichotomy in the Asymmetric Allylation of Aldehydes with Allyltrichlorosilanes Catalyzed by Chiral Pyridine N-Oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malkov, A. V.; Stončius, S.; Bell, M.; Castelluzzo, F.; Ramírez-López, P.; Biedermannová, Lada; Langer, V.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Kočovský, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 28 (2013), s. 9167-9185 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : allylation * allylsilanes * calculations * organocatalysis * pyridine N-oxides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  9. A simple approach to unsymmetric atropoisomeric bipyridine N,N'-dioxides and their application in enantioselective allylation of aldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdina, R.; Valterová, Irena; Hodačová, Jana; Císařová, I.; Kotora, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 349, č. 6 (2007), s. 822-826 ISSN 1615-4150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0102; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : allylation * asymmetric catalysis * Lewis bases Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.977, year: 2007

  10. Aqueous protocol for allylic arylation of cinnamyl acetates with sodium tetraphenylborate using Bedford-type palladacycle catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorpade, Seema Arun

    2018-03-19

    Allylic arylation of cinnamyl acetates with sodium tetraphenylborate using 0.002 mol % of Bedford-type palladacycle catalyst is described. The developed methodology is applicable for wide range of cinnamyl acetates furnishing excellent yields up to 93%. Notably all reactions proceed smoothly under mild reaction conditions in water under air atmosphere.

  11. Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidations of Phthalimide Protected Allylic Amines : A New Catalytic Route to beta(3)-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Barbara; Baeza Garcia, Alejandro; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of B-3-amino acids is presented. Phthalimide protected allylic amines are oxidized under Wacker conditions selectively to aldehydes using PdCl2 and CuCl or Pd(MeCN)(2)Cl(NO2) and CuCl2 as complementary catalyst systems. The aldehydes are produced in excellent yields

  12. Olefination of Electron-Deficient Alkenes with Allyl Acetate: Stereo- and Regioselective Access to (2Z,4E)-Dienamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Yu, Chunbing; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Guofu

    2016-09-16

    A Ru-catalyzed direct olefination of electron-deficient alkenes with allyl acetate via C-H bond activation is disclosed. By using N,N-disubstituted aminocarbonyl as the directing group, this external oxidant-free protocol resulted in high reaction efficiency and good stereo- and regioselectivities, which opens a novel synthetic passway for access to (Z,E)-butadiene skeletons.

  13. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  14. Reprint of: Pendant allyl crosslinking as a tunable shape memory actuator for vascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boire, Timothy C; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Lee, Sue Hyun; Balikov, Daniel A; Kim, Kwangho; Bellan, Leon M; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) can be programmed to fit into small-bore incisions and recover their functional shape upon deployment in the body. This property is of significant interest for developing the next generation of minimally-invasive medical devices. To be used in such applications, SMPs should exhibit adequate mechanical strengths that minimize adverse compliance mismatch-induced host responses (e.g. thrombosis, hyperplasia), be biodegradable, and demonstrate switch-like shape recovery near body temperature with favorable biocompatibility. Combinatorial approaches are essential in optimizing SMP material properties for a particular application. In this study, a new class of thermo-responsive SMPs with pendant, photocrosslinkable allyl groups, x%poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-y%(α-allyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (x%PCL-y%ACPCL), are created in a robust, facile manner with readily tunable material properties. Thermomechanical and shape memory properties can be drastically altered through subtle changes in allyl composition. Molecular weight and gel content can also be altered in this combinatorial format to fine-tune material properties. Materials exhibit highly elastic, switch-like shape recovery near 37 °C. Endothelial compatibility is comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and 100%PCL in vitro and vascular compatibility is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating promising suitability for vascular applications. With the ongoing thrust to make surgeries minimally-invasive, it is prudent to develop new biomaterials that are highly compatible and effective in this workflow. Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) have great potential for minimally-invasive applications because SMP medical devices (e.g. stents, grafts) can fit into small-bore minimally-invasive surgical devices and recover their functional shape when deployed in the body. To realize their potential, it is imperative to devise

  15. Pendant allyl crosslinking as a tunable shape memory actuator for vascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boire, Timothy C; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Lee, Sue Hyun; Balikov, Daniel A; Kim, Kwangho; Bellan, Leon M; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2015-09-01

    Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) can be programmed to fit into small-bore incisions and recover their functional shape upon deployment in the body. This property is of significant interest for developing the next generation of minimally-invasive medical devices. To be used in such applications, SMPs should exhibit adequate mechanical strengths that minimize adverse compliance mismatch-induced host responses (e.g. thrombosis, hyperplasia), be biodegradable, and demonstrate switch-like shape recovery near body temperature with favorable biocompatibility. Combinatorial approaches are essential in optimizing SMP material properties for a particular application. In this study, a new class of thermo-responsive SMPs with pendant, photocrosslinkable allyl groups, x%poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-y%(α-allyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (x%PCL-y%ACPCL), are created in a robust, facile manner with readily tunable material properties. Thermomechanical and shape memory properties can be drastically altered through subtle changes in allyl composition. Molecular weight and gel content can also be altered in this combinatorial format to fine-tune material properties. Materials exhibit highly elastic, switch-like shape recovery near 37°C. Endothelial compatibility is comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and 100%PCL in vitro and vascular compatibility is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating promising suitability for vascular applications. With the ongoing thrust to make surgeries minimally-invasive, it is prudent to develop new biomaterials that are highly compatible and effective in this workflow. Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) have great potential for minimally-invasive applications because SMP medical devices (e.g. stents, grafts) can fit into small-bore minimally-invasive surgical devices and recover their functional shape when deployed in the body. To realize their potential, it is imperative to devise

  16. Alkynes as Allylmetal Equivalents in Redox-Triggered C–C Couplings to Primary Alcohols: (Z)-Homoallylic Alcohols via Ruthenium-Catalyzed Propargyl C–H Oxidative Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cationic ruthenium catalyst generated upon the acid–base reaction of H2Ru(CO)(PPh3)3 and 2,4,6-(2-Pr)3PhSO3H promotes the redox-triggered C–C coupling of 2-alkynes and primary alcohols to form (Z)-homoallylic alcohols with good to complete control of olefin geometry. Deuterium labeling studies, which reveal roughly equal isotopic compositions at the allylic and distal vinylic positions, along with other data, corroborate a catalytic mechanism involving ruthenium(0)-mediated allene–aldehyde oxidative coupling to form a transient oxaruthenacycle, an event that ultimately defines (Z)-olefin stereochemistry. PMID:25075434

  17. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Asymmetric Three-Component Coupling Reaction: Facile Synthesis of α-Fluoromethylated Tertiary Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Kondo, Daisuke; Honda, Kazuya; Mikami, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    A chiral dicationic palladium complex is found to be an efficient Lewis acid catalyst for the synthesis of α-fluoromethyl-substituted tertiary alcohols using a three-component coupling reaction. The reaction transforms three simple and readily available components (terminal alkyne, arene, and fluoromethylpyruvate) to valuable chiral organofluorine compounds. This strategy is completely atom-economical and results in perfect regioselectivities and high enantioselectivities of the corresponding tertiary allylic alcohols in good to excellent yields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thermal studies on unirradiated and γ-irradiated polymer of allyl diglycol carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.; Pandey, A.K.; Iyer, R.H.; Singh Mudher, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of unirradiated and γ-irradiated (5.93-15.5 MRad dose range) allyl diglycol carbonate polymer (trade name, CR-39) was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). These studies indicate four main decomposition steps in CR-39 polymer in air. Assessment of the influence of radiation dose on the above range shows that while the 5.93 MRad γ-irradiated polymer CR-39 degrades in three steps, the 15.5 MRad γ-irradiated polymer degrades in only two steps. The kinetics of the different stages of degradation were also evaluated from the TG curves. Irradiation enhances the decomposition rate and the effect increases further with increasing radiation dose. The activation energy values calculated for all the decomposition stages decrease on irradiation

  19. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-12-18

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Trifluoroethylation of Alkynes: Synthesis of Allylic-CF3 Compounds by Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geum-bee Roh; Naeem Iqbal; Eun Jin Cho

    2016-01-01

    Two types of allylic trifluoromethylated compounds were synthesized by reacting alkynes with CF3CH2I using visible-light photocatalysis.Subtle differences in the catalytic system controlled the selectivity of iodotrifluoroethylation and hydrotrifluoroethylation.The iodotrifluoroethylated products were obtained in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3]C12 and TMEDA in CH3CN under visible-light irradiation,whereas hydrotrifluoroethylated products were synthesized usingfac-[Ir(ppy)3] and a mixture of DBU and K2CO3 in DMF.The iodotrifluoroethylation reaction worked particularly well,even at gram-scale,and the synthetic utility of iodotrifluoroethylated products was proved by their coupling reactions,providing complex CF3-containing products.

  1. An Efficient Amide-Aldehyde-Alkene Condensation: Synthesis for the N-Allyl Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xi-Cun

    2016-02-01

    The allylamine skeleton represents a significant class of biologically active nitrogen compounds that are found in various natural products and drugs with well-recognized pharmacological properties. In this personal account, we will briefly discuss the synthesis of allylamine skeletons. We will focus on showing a general protocol for Lewis acid-catalyzed N-allylation of electron-poor N-heterocyclic amides and sulfonamide via an amide-aldehyde-alkene condensation reaction. The substrate scope with respect to N-heterocyclic amides, aldehydes, and alkenes will be discussed. This method is also capable of preparing the Naftifine motif from N-methyl-1-naphthamide or methyl (naphthalene-1-ylmethyl)carbamate, with paraformaldehyde and styrene in a one-pot manner. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Asymmetric Benzylic Allylic Alkylation Reaction of 3-Furfural Derivatives by Dearomatizative Dienamine Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Hui-Ru; Duan, Chuan-Qi; Han, Xu; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2018-04-20

    The dearomatizative dienamine-type ortho-quinodimethane species are smoothly generated between 2-alkyl-3-furfurals and chiral secondary amine catalysts, which undergo asymmetric benzylic allylic alkylation reactions with 2-nitroallylic acetates efficiently. A spectrum of densely functionalized 3-furfural derivatives are delivered in moderate to high yields with good to excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (up to 98 % yield, >19:1 d.r., >99 % ee). The latent transformations allow the facile production of some enantioenriched architectures, such as 1,1,2,2-tetraarylethanes and triarylmethanes, which are not easily available from other protocols. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cutting thin sheets of allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) with a CW CO2, laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreja, L.M.; Bhawalkar, D.D.; Basu, C.; Goswami, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Allyl Diglycol Carbonate, commercially known as CR-39 (the most sensitive among etch track detectors) can detect relativistic oxygen and other heavier nuclei. We are using large sheets of special grade CR-39 (DOP) in our experiment in Space Shuttle-Spacelab-3. As CR-39 is a highly brittle substance, special care is required to cut CR-39 shetts, especially in case of large sheets and circular cuts. A study of cutting of CR-39 sheets using laser light is described in this paper. It has been found that this method is sufficiently fast to handle large number of sheets and also equally safe for big sheets. A maximum speed up to 200 cm/min with a 5 x 10 4 W/cm 2 laser is obtained during the present study. This study also shows that laser cutting does not affect the track properties of CR-39. (orig.)

  4. Highly Diastereoselective Indium-Mediated Allylation of Proline-Derived Hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyender, Apuri; Jang, Doo Ok

    2013-01-01

    A highly diastereoselective indium-mediated addition reaction to L-proline-derived hydrazones has been developed. The method affords an efficient and general synthesis of homoallylic amines of high optically purity in high yields and diastereomeric ratios up to 98:2. It is well known that (S)-1-amino-2-methoxymethylpyrro-lidine and (S)-4-isopropyl- or (S)-4-phenylmethyl-oxa-zolidin-2-one-derived hydrazones have been used for metal-mediated diastereoselective allylation additions to produce chiral homoallylic amines. However, the optically pure hydrazine precursors are either commercially expensive and/or involve laborious synthetic procedures employing toxic reagents for their preparation. Thus, the design of novel classes of chiral hydrazines that would further broaden the scope of asymmetric synthesis to access optically pure homoallylic amines is highly desirable

  5. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2006-01-01

    As a continuation of previous work involving synthesis of an allyl-functionalized hyperbranched polyimide, AT-PAEKI, we have studied the use of this reactive polymer as a modifier of bisphenol-A based...

  6. Living catalyzed-chain-growth polymerization and block copolymerization of isoprene by rare-earth metal allyl precursors bearing a constrained-geometry-conformation ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhongbao; Cui, Dongmei; Hou, Zhaomin; Li, Xiaofang

    2010-05-07

    Aminophenyl functionalized cyclopentadienyl ligated rare-earth metal allyl mediated cationic systems display high cis-1,4 selectivity for the polymerization of isoprene, and living reversible and rapid chain transfer to aluminium additives.

  7. Oxidation reaction of 4-allyl-4-hydroperoxy-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone in the presence of potassium permanganate without a co-oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serdar Gültekin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 4-Allyl-4-hydroperoxy-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone (5 was synthesized by photooxygenation of commercially available Eugenol in the presence of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP as a singlet oxygen sensitizer. The brief and one-pot syntheses of some natural product skeletons were conducted using the corresponding allylic hydroperoxide at different temperatures (0 oC and room temperature with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 in mild condition at N 2(g atm.

  8. Isolation of two independent allyl alcohol resistant Adh-1 null mutants following selection of pollen and seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, E.; Ramanna, M.S.; Zabel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Adh-1 null mutant (B15-1-8) isolated previously was used to establish conditions that allow the selection of ADH-deficient pollen grains and seeds of tomato. New Adh-1 null mutants were then selected among the progenies derived from crosses between the genetically unstable tomato lines Yvms,

  9. Base-promoted isomerization of CF3-containing allylic alcohols to the corresponding saturated ketones under metal-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hamada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following to the computational expectation, our previously reported intriguing 1,3-proton shift of 4,4,4-trifluorobut-2-yn-1-ols was successfully extended to the 4,4,4-trifluorobut-2-en-1-ol system under metal-free conditions to afford the corresponding saturated ketones in high to excellent chemical yields using such a convenient and easy-to-handle base as DBU at the toluene refluxing temperature, and utilization of the corresponding optically active substrates unambiguously demonstrated that this transformation proceeded in a highly stereoselective fashion.

  10. Asymmetric allylation of α-ketoester-derived N-benzoylhydrazones promoted by chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides Lewis bases: highly enantioselective synthesis of quaternary α-substituted α-allyl-α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rangel, Gloria; Bandala, Yamir; García-Flores, Fred; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2013-09-01

    Chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides (R)-1 and (R,R)-2 are effective chiral promoters in the enantioselective allylation of α-keto ester N-benzoylhydrazone derivatives 3a-g to generate the corresponding N-benzoylhydrazine derivatives 4a-g, with enantiomeric excesses as high as 98%. Representative hydrazine derivatives 4a-b were subsequently treated with SmI2, and the resulting amino esters 5a-b with LiOH to obtain quaternary α-substituted α-allyl α-amino acids 6a-b, whose absolute configuration was assigned as (S), with fundament on chemical correlation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. One-pot synthesis of enantiomerically pure N-protected allylic amines from N-protected α-amino esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Silveira-Dorta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An improved protocol for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure allylic amines is reported. N-Protected α-amino esters derived from natural amino acids were submitted to a one-pot tandem reduction–olefination process. The sequential reduction with DIBAL-H at −78 °C and subsequent in situ addition of organophosphorus reagents yielded the corresponding allylic amines without the need to isolate the intermediate aldehyde. This circumvents the problem of instability of the aldehydes. The method tolerates well both Wittig and Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons organophosphorus reagents. A better Z-(diastereoselectivity was observed when compared to the previous one-pot method. The (diastereoselectivity of the process was affected neither by the reaction solvent nor by the amount of DIBAL-H employed. The method is compatible with the presence of free hydroxy groups as shown with serine and threonine derivatives.

  12. Formation of Ketenimines via the Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative π-Allylic Rearrangement of N-Alloc Ynamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Juliana R; Cook, Matthew J

    2017-11-03

    A new approach for the formation of ketenimines via a decarboxylative allylic rearrangement pathway that does not require strong stabilizing or protecting groups has been developed. The products can be readily hydrolyzed into their corresponding secondary amides or reacted with sulfur ylides to perform an additional [2,3]-Wittig process. Mechanistic studies suggest an outer-sphere process in which reductive alkylation is rate-limiting.

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine by selective heating under microwave irradiation used for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Binghui; Luan Zhaokun; Li Mingming

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine (ADA) by selective heating under microwave irradiation (MI) used for water treatment is investigated. The effect of MI, ultrasound irradiation (UI) and conventional heating on yield of ADA, reaction time and the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyl dimethylammunion chloride (PDADMAC) prepared form ADA were studied. The results show that by selective heating at low temperature, MI not only increases yield of ADA and reduces reaction time, but also greatly enhances the flocculation efficiency of PDADMAC

  14. Oxidant-free Rh(III)-catalyzed direct C-H olefination of arenes with allyl acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Feng, Daming; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2013-07-19

    Rh(III)-catalyzed direct olefination of arenes with allyl acetate via C-H bond activation is described using N,N-disubstituted aminocarbonyl as the directing group. The catalyst undergoes a redox neutral process, and high to excellent yields of trans-products are obtained. This protocol exhibits a wide spectrum of functionality compatibility because of the simple reaction conditions employed and provides a highly effective synthetic method in the realm of C-H olefination.

  15. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  18. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  19. Nickel-Catalyzed Phosphine Free Direct N-Alkylation of Amides with Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jagadish; Banerjee, Debasis

    2018-03-16

    Herein, we developed an operational simple, practical, and selective Ni-catalyzed synthesis of secondary amides. Application of renewable alcohols, earth-abundant and nonprecious nickel catalyst facilitates the transformations, releasing water as byproduct. The catalytic system is tolerant to a variety of functional groups including nitrile, allylic ether, and alkene and could be extended to the synthesis of bis-amide, antiemetic drug Tigan, and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Itopride. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed the participation of a benzylic C-H bond in the rate-determining step.

  20. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.

    2009-12-07

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  1. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.; Bagdanoff, Jeffreyâ T.; Ferreira, Ericâ M.; McFadden, Ryanâ M.; Caspi, Danielâ D.; Trend, Raissaâ M.; Stoltz, Brianâ M.

    2009-01-01

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  3. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  4. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  6. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)

    2012-12-10

    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  7. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  8. On the X-ray reflectivity by poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaly, M. El

    2011-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity via the poly allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39 polymer sheet) was investigated. X-ray reflectivity was measured for a pristine and a chemically etched CR-39 detector in 6.25N NaOH at (70 ± 0.5) .deg. C for different durations. Far from the spectral peak, the reflectivity of the CR-39 polymer sheet has a wide peak at 2θ = 20.1 .deg. , and its intensity is decreased by increasing the etching time. Moreover, the integrated counts under the peaks, C(t e ), vary linearly as a function of the etching time t e . Data are fitted using a linear function C(t e ) = A+Bt e , with fitting parameters A = (3271 ± 170) and B = (- 960 ± 84). The reflectivity deterioration is attributed to the increase of CR-39 surface's roughness due to the chemical etching. The rocking curves of X-ray reflectivity were measured for a pristine and an etched CR-39 polymer sheet. Specular reflections are observed, as well as Yoneda wings, which broaden and move away from the specular reflections due to the increase in the CR-39 surface's roughness.

  9. Biological distribution of iodo-allyl Gabapentin and iodo-Gabapentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akat, H.; Yildirim, Y.; Balcan, M.; Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Yilmaz, O.; Duman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) is an anticonvulsant and is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy. In this study, GBP and an allyl derivative of GBP were radioiodinated with 131 I using the iodogen method; then their radiopharmaceutical potential in rats and rabbits was investigated. The radiochemical purity of 131 I-GBP and its derivatives was determined by RTLC. The labeling yield was 95±2%. Biological evaluation was performed in normal rats and rabbits. Labeled compounds were intravenously injected into two rabbits via the ear vein after anesthetizing. The dynamic and static scintigrams were obtained using a gamma camera at different time. Then the labeled compounds were administered intravenously into the rats. The distribution was studied by counting the radioactivity in the removed organs. The results of biodistribution in the rats showed the clearance of 131 IALGBP was faster than 131 I-GBP. On the other hand, the uptake of 131 I-ALGBP in the brain was higher than 131 I-GBP at 60 minutes. (author)

  10. Immobilization/hybridization of amino-modified DNA on plasma-polymerized allyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihong; Feng Chuanliang

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of chloride-derivatized polymer coatings prepared by continuous wave (cw) plasma polymerization as adhesion layers in DNA immobilization/hybridization. The stability of plasma-polymerized allyl chloride (ppAC) in H 2 O was characterized by variation of the thickness of polymer films and its wettability was examined by water contact angle technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study polymer matrix properties and oligonucleotide/DNA binding interaction. With the same carrier gas rate and process pressure, plasma polymers deposited at different input powers show various comparable immobilization properties; nevertheless, low input power plasma-polymerized films gives a lower sensitivity toward DNA binding than that from high input power plasma-deposited films. The following DNA immobilization on chloride-functionalized surfaces was found dependence on the macromolecular architecture of the plasma films. The hybridization between probe DNA and total mismatch target DNA shows no non-specific adsorption between target and ppAC

  11. Increased presevation of sliced mozzarella cheese by antimibrobial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clarissa dos Santos Pires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing tendency to add natural antimicrobials of plant origin into food. The objective of this work was to develop a microbial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT, a volatile compound of plant origin, and to test its efficiency against growth of yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus sp. and psychrotrophic bacteria on sliced mozzarella cheese. Another objective was to quantify the concentration of AIT in the headspace of cheese packaging. A reduction of 3.6 log cycles was observed in yeasts and molds counts in the mozzarella packed with the antimicrobial sachet over 15-day storage time. The sachet also showed an antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus sp., reducing 2.4 log cycles after 12-day storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria species were the most resistant to the antimicrobial action. The highest concentration of AIT (0.08µg.mL-1 inside the active packaging system was observed at the 6-day of storage at 12 ºC ± 2 ºC. At the end of the storage time, AIT concentration decreased to only 10% of the initial concentration. Active packaging containing antimicrobial sachet has a potential use for sliced mozzarella, with molds and yeasts being the most sensitive to the antimicrobial effects.

  12. Sustainable and Low Viscous 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate + PEG Solvent for Cellulose Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airong Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing sustainable, low viscous and efficient solvents are always advantageous to the processing/fabricating of cellulose materials in practical applications. To this end, in this work novel solvents were developed; ([Amim][CH3COO]/PEG by dissolving polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG-200 in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Amim][CH3COO]. The solubilities of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvents were determined as a function of temperature, and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent was investigated. The novel solvent exhibits outstanding advantages for good dissolution capacity of cellulose, such as low viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, and recycling capability. The [CH3COO]− anion and the [Amim]+ cation of [Amim][CH3COO] in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG-10 are the driving force for cellulose dissolution verified by the 13C NMR spectra. In addition, the regenerated cellulose films from [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to estimate their morphologies and structures.

  13. Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by quaternary ammonium perrhenates in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhou, Mingdong; Yuan, Yuguo; Zhang, Quan; Fang, Xiangchen; Zang, Shuliang

    2015-12-01

    Quaternary ammonium perrhenates were applied as catalyst to promote the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). The quaternary ammonium perrhenates displayed good catalytic performance for cellulose hydrolysis. Water was also proven to be effective to promote cellulose hydrolysis. Accordingly, 97% of total reduced sugar (TRS) and 42% of glucose yields could be obtained under the condition of using 5mol% of tetramethyl ammonium perrhenate as catalyst, 70μL of water, ca. 0.6mmol of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and 2.0g of [Amim]Cl as solvent under microwave irradiation for 30min at 150°C (optimal conditions). The influence of quaternary ammonium cation on the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis was examined based on different cation structures of perrhenates. The mechanism on perrhenate catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis is also discussed, whereas hydrogen bonding between ReO4 anion and hydroxyl groups of cellulose is assumed to be the key step for depolymerization of cellulose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asermely, K.E.; O'Neill, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37 0 C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 μM 0.124 μC/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10 -5 M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10 -4 M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K + -ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue 3 H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period

  15. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asermely, K.E.; O' Neill, J.J.

    1986-03-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37/sup 0/C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 ..mu..M 0.124 ..mu..C/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10/sup -5/ M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10/sup -4/ M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K/sup +/-ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue /sup 3/H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period.

  16. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  17. Elucidation of the regio- and chemoselectivity of enzymatic allylic oxidations with Pleurotus sapidus – conversion of selected spirocyclic terpenoids and computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Weidmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Allylic oxidations of olefins to enones allow the efficient synthesis of value-added products from simple olefinic precursors like terpenes or terpenoids. Biocatalytic variants have a large potential for industrial applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Herein we report efficient biocatalytic allylic oxidations of spirocyclic terpenoids by a lyophilisate of the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus. This ‘’mushroom catalysis’’ is operationally simple and allows the conversion of various unsaturated spirocyclic terpenoids. A number of new spirocyclic enones have thus been obtained with good regio- and chemoselectivity and chiral separation protocols for enantiomeric mixtures have been developed. The oxidations follow a radical mechanism and the regioselectivity of the reaction is mainly determined by bond-dissociation energies of the available allylic CH-bonds and steric accessibility of the oxidation site.

  18. Mechanism of copper(I)-catalyzed allylic alkylation of phosphorothioate esters: influence of the leaving group on α regioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wenhao; Wang, Mian; Lein, Matthias; Jiang, Linbin; Wei, Wanxing; Wang, Jianyi

    2013-10-11

    The mechanism of Cu(I) -catalyzed allylic alkylation and the influence of the leaving groups (OPiv, SPiv, Cl, SPO(OiPr)2 ; Piv: pivavloyl) on the regioselectivity of the reaction have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT). A comprehensive comparison of many possible reaction pathways shows that [(iPr)2 Cu](-) prefers to bind first oxidatively to the double bond of the allylic substrate at the anti position with respect to the leaving group, and this is followed by dissociation of the leaving group. If the leaving group is not taken into account, the reaction then undergoes an isomerization and a reductive elimination process to give the α- or γ-selective product. If OPiv, SPiv, Cl, or SPO(OiPr)2 groups are present, the optimal route for the formation of both α- and γ-substituted products changes from the stepwise elimination to the direct process, in which the leaving group plays a stabilizing role for the reactant and destabilizes the transition state. The differences to the energy barrier for the α- and γ-substituted products are 2.75 kcal mol(-1) with SPO(OiPr)2 , 2.44 kcal mol(-1) with SPiv, 2.33 kcal mol(-1) with OPiv, and 1.98 kcal mol(-1) with Cl, respectively; these values show that α regioselectivity in the allylic alkylation follows a SPO(OiPr)2 >SPiv>OPiv>Cl trend, which is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental findings. This trend mainly originates in the differences between the attractive electrostatic forces and the repelling steric interactions of the SPO(OiPr)2 , SPiv, OPiv, and Cl groups on the Cu group. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Facile Preparation of (2Z,4E)-Dienamides by the Olefination of Electron-deficient Alkenes with Allyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liyuan; Yu, Chunbing; Zhao, Zhenqiang; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Guofu

    2017-06-21

    Direct cross-coupling between two alkenes via vinylic C-H bond activation represents an efficient strategy for the synthesis of butadienes with high atomic and step economy. However, this functionality-directed cross-coupling reaction has not been developed, as there are still limited directing groups in practical use. In particular, a stoichiometric amount of oxidant is usually required, producing a large amount of waste. Due to our interest in novel 1,3-butadiene synthesis, we describe the ruthenium-catalyzed olefination of electron-deficient alkenes using allyl acetate and without external oxidant. The reaction of 2-phenyl acrylamide and allyl acetate was chosen as a model reaction, and the desired diene product was obtained in 80% isolated yield with good stereoselectivity (Z,E/Z,Z = 88:12) under optimal conditions: [Ru(p-cymene) Cl2]2 (3 mol %) and AgSbF6 (20 mol %) in DCE at 110 ºC for 16 h. With the optimized catalytic conditions in hand, representative α- and/or β-substituted acrylamides were investigated, and all reacted smoothly, regardless of aliphatic or aromatic groups. Also, differently N-substituted acrylamides have proven to be good substrates. Moreover, we examined the reactivity of different allyl derivatives, suggesting that the chelation of acetate oxygen to the metal is crucial for the catalytic process. Deuterium-labeled experiments were also conducted to investigate the reaction mechanism. Only Z-selective H/D exchanges on acrylamide were observed, indicating a reversible cyclometalation event. In addition, a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 3.2 was observed in the intermolecular isotopic study, suggesting that the olefinic C-H metalation step is probably involved in the rate-determining step.

  20. Hydrogen-Bond Directed Regioselective Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation: The Construction of Chiral α-Amino Acids with Vicinal Tertiary and Quaternary Stereocenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuan; Liu, Delong; An, Qianjin; Zhang, Wanbin

    2015-12-04

    A Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of azlactones with 4-arylvinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ones was developed, providing "branched" chiral α-amino acids with vicinal tertiary and quaternary stereocenters, in high yields and with excellent selectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the formation of a hydrogen bond between the Pd-allylic complex and azlactone isomer is responsible for the excellent regioselectivities. This asymmetric alkylation can be carried out on a gram scale without a loss of catalytic efficiency, and the resulting product can be further transformed to a chiral azetidine in two simple steps.

  1. S-Allyl cysteine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats via regulation of hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Kodai, Shintaro; Shinkawa, Hiroji; Tsukioka, Takuma; Okada, Shigeru; Azuma, Hideki; Kubo, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    It is important to prevent and improve diabetes mellitus and its complications in a safe and low-cost manner. S-Allyl cysteine, an aged garlic extract with antioxidant activity, was investigated to determine whether S-allyl cysteine can improve type 2 diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used and were divided into two groups at 29 weeks of age....

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  3. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  4. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Armoracia rusticana essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate and related compounds to Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jun-Ran; Hwang, Kumnara; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    The toxicity to adult Dermatophagoides farinae of allyl isothiocyanate identified in horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, oil and another 27 organic isothiocyanates was evaluated using contact + fumigant and vapour-phase mortality bioassays. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and dibutyl phthalate. Horseradish oil (24 h LC(50), 1.54 µg cm(-2)) and allyl isothiocyanate (2.52 µg cm(-2)) were highly toxic. Benzyl isothiocyanate (LC(50) , 0.62 µg cm(-2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by 4-chlorophenyl, 3-bromophenyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl, cyclohexyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and 2-bromophenyl isothiocyanates (0.93-1.41 µg cm(-2)). All were more effective than either benzyl benzoate (LC(50) , 4.58 µg cm(-2)) or dibutyl phthalate (24.49 µg cm(-2)). The structure-activity relationship indicates that types of functional group and chemical structure appear to play a role in determining the isothiocyanate toxicities to adult D. farinae. In the vapour-phase mortality bioassay, these isothiocyanates were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments, the horseradish oil-derived compounds and the isothiocyanates described herein merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of house dust mite populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on ultra-structure and the activities of four enzymes in adult Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Xue-ru; Yu, Dong-dong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Jun-tao

    2014-02-01

    Rarefaction and vacuolization of the mitochondrial matrix of AITC-treated (allyl isothiocyanate-treated) adult Sitophilus zeamais were evident according to the ultra-structural by TEM. Four important enzymes in adult S. zeamais were further studied after fumigation treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) extracted from Armoracia rusticana roots and shoots. The enzymes were glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), cytochrome c oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results indicated that the activities of the four enzymes were strongly time and dose depended. With prolonged exposure time, treatment with 0.74μg/mL AITC inhibited the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT, but induced the activity of GST. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT were remarkably induced at a low AITC dosage (0.25μg/mL), but were restrained with increased AITC dosage. The activity of GST was inhibited at a low AITC dosage (0.5μg/mL), but was induced at a high AITC dosage (1.5μg/mL). According to the results of TEM, toxic symptoms and enzymes activities, it suggested that mitochondrial maybe the one site of action of AITC against the adult S. zeamais and it also suggested that cytochrome c oxidase maybe one target protein of AITC against the adult S. zeamais, which need to further confirmed by protein function tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Highly Practical Copper(I)/TEMPO Catalyst System for Chemoselective Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O2 as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)CuI/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  7. Direct Olefination of Alcohols with Sulfones by Using Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Touchy, Abeda Sultana; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) were found to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the direct Julia olefination of alcohols in the presence of sulfones and KOtBu under oxidant-free conditions. Primary alcohols, including aryl, aliphatic, allyl, and heterocyclic alcohols, underwent olefination with dimethyl sulfone and aryl alkyl sulfones to give terminal and internal olefins, respectively. Secondary alcohols underwent methylenation with dimethyl sulfone. Under 2.5 bar H2, the same reaction system was effective for the transformation of alcohol OH groups to alkyl groups. Structural and mechanistic studies of the terminal olefination system suggested that Pt(0) sites on the Pt metal particles are responsible for the rate-limiting dehydrogenation of alcohols and that KOtBu may deprotonate the sulfone reagent. The Pt/C catalyst was reusable after the olefination, and this method showed a higher turnover number (TON) and a wider substrate scope than previously reported methods, which demonstrates the high catalytic efficiency of the present method. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  9. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura; Nicioli da Silva, Glenda; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  10. An Expeditious Synthesis of [1,2]Isoxazolidin-5-ones and [1,2]Oxazin-6-ones from Functional Allyl Bromide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Beltaïef

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of allyl bromide (Z-1 and (Z-2 with N-substituted hydroxylamine hydrochlorides in presence of tert-butoxide in tert-butanol at reflux provides a short and effective route to [1,2]isoxazolidin-5-ones 3 and [1,2]oxazin-6-ones 4.

  11. γ‐ and δ-Lactams through Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis, NMR Investigation, and DFT Rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantreil, Xavier; Prestat, Guillaume; Moreno, Aitor

    2011-01-01

    the cyclization reactions to take place in up to 94:6 enantiomeric ratio. A model Pd-allyl complex has been prepared and studied through NMR spectroscopic analysis, which provided insight into the processes responsible for the observed enantiomeric ratios. DFT studies were used to characterize the diastereomeric...

  12. Titanocene Dichloride Complexes Bonded to Carbosilane Dendrimers Via a Spacer of Variable Length – Molecular Dynamics Calculations and Catalysis of Allylic Coupling Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Jaroschik, F.; Malý, M.; Čermák, Jan; Sýkora, Jan; Fajgar, Radek; Karban, Jindřich; Harakat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 409, SI (2014), s. 137-146 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Grant - others:UJEP(CZ) GA13-06989S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : metallodendrimers * titanocene dichloride * allylic homocoupling * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2014

  13. Syntheses of the hexahydroindene cores of indanomycin and stawamycin by combinations of iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Martin; Satyanarayana, Gedu; Förster, Sebastian; Helmchen, Günter

    2013-01-02

    Short and concise syntheses of the hexahydroindene cores of the antibiotics indanomycin (X-14547 A) and stawamycin are presented. Key methods used are an asymmetric iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation, a modified Julia olefination, a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pyridine synthesis by reactions of allyl amines and alkynes proceeding through a Cu(OAc)2 oxidation and Rh(III)-catalyzed N-annulation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Su; Park, Jung-Woo; Jun, Chul-Ho

    2012-11-28

    A new methodology has been developed for the synthesis of pyridines from allyl amines and alkynes, which involves sequential Cu(II)-promoted dehydrogenation of the allylamine and Rh(III)-catalyzed N-annulation of the resulting α,β-unsaturated imine and alkyne.

  15. Synthesis of New Chiral 2,2'-bipyridine ligands and their application in copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic oxidation and cyclopropanation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malkov, A. V.; Pernazza, D.; Bell, M.; Bella, M.; Massa, A.; Teplý, Filip; Meghani, P.; Kočovský, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2003), s. 4727-4742 ISSN 0022-3263 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : optically-active bipyridine * enantioselective cyclopropanation * allylic oxidation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.297, year: 2003

  16. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  17. Protection of Grain Products from Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Contamination by Anti-Insect Pest Repellent Sachet Containing Allyl Mercaptan Microcapsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Na, Ja Hyun; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an anti-insect pest repellent sachet to prevent Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) contamination in grain packaging. The anti-insect pest activities of essential oils (EOs) from garlic (Allium Sativum), ginger (Zingiber Officinalis), black pepper (Piper nigrum), onion (Allium cepa), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) as well as major compounds (allyl disulfide, AD; allyl mercaptan, AM) isolated from of garlic and onion (AD and AM) were measured against S. oryzae. The results revealed that garlic EO, onion EO, AD, and AM showed strong fumigant insecticidal activities. Among these, AM showed the highest acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition rate, indicating that the fumigation insecticidal efficacy of AM is related with its AChE inhibition ability. Subsequently, the microcapsules were produced with a high efficiency (80.02%) by using AM as a core material and rice flour as a wall material. Finally, sachet composed of rice flour microcapsule containing 2% AM (RAM) was produced. Repellent assay was performed to measure anti-insect pest ability of the RAM sachet, showed remarkable repelling effect within 48 h both in the presence or absence of attractant. In a release profile of RAM sachet, it was expected to last over 20 mo during the distribution period of brown rice. Moreover, RAM sachet showed no undesirable changes to the sensory properties of the rice both before and after cooking. Taken together, these results suggest that the newly developed RAM sachet could be used as a packaging material to protect grain products from S. oryzae contamination. The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), causes damages to stored products and its contamination in grain products has become a major problem in cereal market. To preserve brown rice, an anti-insect pest repellent sachet containing 2% allyl mercaptan was newly developed and it showed remarkable repellent abilities against S. oryzae. It

  18. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  19. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  20. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  1. Comparative studies on mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes of Sitophilus zeamais treated with allyl isothiocyanate and calcium phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Hua; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    With Sitophilus zeamais as the target organism, the present study for the first time attempted to elucidate the comparative effects between allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and calcium phosphide (Ca3P2), exposure on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) complex I & IV and their downstream effects on enzymes relevant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vivo, both AITC and Ca3P2 inhibited complex I and IV with similar downstream effects. In contrast with Ca3P2, the inhibition of complex I caused by AITC was dependent on time and dose. In vitro, AITC inhibited complex IV more significantly than complex I. These results indicate that mitochondrial complex IV is the primary target of AITC, and that complex I is another potential target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Practical synthesis, anticonvulsant, and antimicrobial activity of N-allyl and N-propargyl di(indolyl)indolin-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Chandrasekaran; Ayyanar, Asairajan; Perumal, Paramasivan Thirumalai

    2011-07-01

    An operation friendly protocol for the synthesis of novel di(indolyl)indolin-2-ones via Cu(OTf)(2) catalyzed bis-addition of N-allyl and N-propargyl indole with isatin was developed. This methodology allowed us to achieve the products in excellent yields without requiring purification technique like column chromatography. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock test. Six compounds showed maximum activity compared to the standard drug phenytoin. The scope of the new molecules as antimicrobial agents were tested against two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  4. Gold(I)-assisted catalysis - a comprehensive view on the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freindorf, Marek; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-03-01

    The unified reaction valley approach (URVA) combined with the local mode, ring puckering and electron density analysis is applied to elucidate the mechanistic differences of the non-catalysed and the Au[I]-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysed [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allyl acetate. Using a dual-level approach (DFT and DLPNO-CCSD(T)), the influence of solvation, counter-ions, bulky and electron withdrawing/donating substituents as well as the exchange of the Au[I]-NHC with a Au[I]-phosphine catalyst is investigated. The catalyst breaks up the rearrangement into two steps by switching between Au[I]-π and Au[I]-σ complexation, thus avoiding the energy-consuming CO cleavage in the first step. Based on local stretching force constants ka(C=C), we derive for the first time a quantitative measure of the π-acidity of the Au[I] catalyst; in all catalysed reactions, the bond order n(C=C) drops from 2 to 1.65. The ring puckering analysis clarifies that all reactions start and end via a six-membered ring with a boat form. All Au[I]-σ-complex intermediates show a considerable admixture of the chair form. The non-catalysed [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement goes through a maximum of charge separation between the allyl and acetate units at the transition state, while all catalysed reactions proceed via a minimum of charge separation reached in the region of the Au[I]-σ-complex.

  5. Mechanistic Insights into Solvent and Ligand Dependency in Cu(I)-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation with gem-Diborylalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Bing; Liu, Jia-Qin; Fu, Yao; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2018-01-19

    The recent Cu-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction between gem-diboryalkane and allyl electrophiles shows intriguing solvent and ligand-controlled regioselectivity. The α-alkylation product was obtained in DMF solvent, while γ-alkylation product was obtained in dioxane solvent and the dioxane and NHC ligand situation. In the present study, density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the reaction mechanism and origin of the regioselectivity. For both dioxane and DMF, γ-alkylation undergoes successive oxidative addition (CH 2 Bpin trans to leaving group) and direct Cγ-C reductive elimination. The α-alkylation is found to undergo oxidative addition (CH 2 Bpin trans to leaving group), isomerization, and Cα-C reductive elimination rather than the previously proposed oxidative addition (-CH 2 Bpin cis to the leaving group) and Cα-C reductive elimination. The γ-alkylation and α-alkylation is, respectively, favorable for dioxane and DMF solvent, which is consistent with the γ- and α-selectivity in experiment. The solvent interferes the isomerization step, thereby affects the relative facility of the α- and γ-alkylation. Further investigation shows that η 1 -intermediate formation promoted by solvent is the rate-determining step of the isomerization. The stronger electron-donating ability of DMF than dioxane facilitates the η 1 -intermediate formation and finally results in the easier isomerization in DMF. For dioxane and NHC situation, in the presence of neutral NHC ligand, the -PO 4 Et 2 group tightly coordinates with the Cu center after the oxidative addition, preventing the isomerization process. The regioselectivity is determined by the relative facility of the oxidative addition step. Therefore, the favorable oxidative addition (in which -CH 2 Bpin trans to the leaving group) results in the facility of γ-alkylation.

  6. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  7. Comparative Studies on Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Homoallylic Alcohol Derivatives Linked to Sulfonyl Dibenzene Moiety in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Mady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel homoallylic alcohols incorporating sulfone moieties were synthesized by the treatment of different carbonyl compounds with allylic bromides in aqueous media via sonochemical Barbier-type reaction conditions. Sulfonation of α-bromoketones with sodium benzenesulfinate in presence of CuI/2,6-lutidine rapidly gave β-keto-sulfones in good yields. In general, ultrasound irradiation offered the advantages of high yields, short reaction times, and simplicity compared to the conventional methods. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral data.

  8. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  9. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  10. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  11. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  12. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  13. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  15. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  16. A Divergent Mechanistic Course of Pd(0)-Catalyzed Aza-Claisen Rearrangement and Aza-Rautenstrauch-Type Cyclization of N-Allyl-Ynamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A.; Hsung, Richard P.; Lohse, Andrew G.; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    A fascinating mechanistic study of ynamido-palladium-π-allyl complexes is described that features isolation of a unique silyl-ketenimine via aza-Claisen rearrangement, which can be accompanied by an unusual thermal N-to-C 1,3-Ts shift in the formation of tertiary nitriles, and a novel cyclopentenimine formation via a palladium catalyzed aza-Rautenstrauch-type cyclization pathway. PMID:20337418

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound from garlic, by Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yu; Lo, Huei-Fen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lin, Min-Guan; Lin, Long-Liu; Chi, Meng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the practical application of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (BlGGT), we describe a straightforward enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (GSAC), a naturally occurring organosulfur compound found in garlic, based on a transpeptidation reaction involving glutamine as the γ-glutamyl donor and S-allyl-L-cysteine as the acceptor. With the help of thin layer chromatography technique and computer-assisted image analysis, we performed the quantitative determination of GSAC. The optimum conditions for a biocatalyzed synthesis of GSAC were 200 mM glutamine, 200 mM S-allyl-L-cysteine, 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), and BlGGT at a final concentration of 1.0 U/mL. After a 15-h incubation of the reaction mixture at 60 °C, the GSAC yield for the free and immobilized enzymes was 19.3% and 18.3%, respectively. The enzymatic synthesis of GSAC was repeated under optimal conditions at 1-mmol preparative level. The reaction products together with the commercially available GSAC were further subjected to an ESI-MS/MS analysis. A significant signal with m/z of 291.1 and the protonated fragments at m/z of 73.0, 130.1, 145.0, and 162.1 were observed in the positive ESI-MS/MS spectrum, which is consistent with those of the standard compound. These results confirm the successful synthesis of GSAC from glutamine and S-allyl-L-cysteine by BlGGT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYL)ETHANONE N(4)-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilii GRAUR; Serghei SAVCIN; Victor TSAPKOV; Aurelian GULEA

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone N(4)-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L) and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 ce...

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of 4-Substituted Isoxazolidin-5-ones: Straightforward Access to β2,2 -Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento de Oliveira, Marllon; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2018-04-03

    We report here an unprecedented and highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation applied to 4-substituted isoxazolidin-5-ones. Ultimately, the process provides a straightforward access to β 2,2 -amino acids bearing an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center in great yields and a high degree of enantioselectivity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of three 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols on inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kharchouf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols P1−P3 synthesized from carvone P are tested as corrosion inhibitors of steel in 1 M HCl using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The addition of 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols reduced the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of inhibitors does not change the mechanism of hydrogen evolution and that they act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols tested adsorb on the steel surface according to Langmuir isotherm. From the adsorption isotherm some thermodynamic data for the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. EIS measurements show the increase of the charge-transfer resistance with the inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency (92% is obtained for P1 at 3 g/L. The corrosion rate decreases with the rise of temperature. The corresponding activation energies are determined.

  1. Perfluoro Allyl Fluorosulfate (FAFS: A Versatile Building Block for New Fluoroallylic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marchionni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we will present and discuss both the synthesis of CF2=CFCF2OSO2F (perfluoroallyl fluorosulfate, FAFS, focusing in particular on the important role of C3F6/SO3 ratio, reaction temperature and boron catalyst/SO3 ratio on FAFS’ yield and selectivity, as well as a wide variety of ionic and radical reactions possible with FAFS. We focused our attention on reactions of FAFS with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, acyl halides, halides, H2O2, ketones and radicals whose synthesis and reaction mechanisms will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to the novel diallyl-fluoroalkyl peroxide obtained. Factors such as pKa and Lowry and Pearson’s Hard/Soft Acid-Base Theory which determine the selectivity between Addition/Elimination vs. Nucleophilic Substitution reaction mechanisms on FAFS will also be presented and discussed.

  2. Products and mechanism of the reaction of Cl atoms with unsaturated alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana; Soto, Amparo; Bravo, Iván; Diaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Notario, Alberto; Aranda, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    The products of the chlorine atom initiated oxidation of different unsaturated alcohols were determined at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, in a 400 L teflon reaction chamber using GC-FID and GC-MS for the analysis. The major products detected (with molar yields in brackets) are: chloroacetaldehyde (50 ± 8%) and acrolein (27 ± 2%) from allyl alcohol; acetaldehyde (77 ± 11%), chloroacetaldehyde (75 ± 18%), and methyl vinyl ketone (17 ± 2%) from 3-buten-2-ol; acetone (55 ± 4%) and chloroacetaldehyde (59 ± 8%) from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol; chloroacetone (18 ± 1%) and methacrolein (8 ± 1%) from 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol; acetaldehyde (20 ± 1%), crotonaldehyde (6 ± 3%), 3-choloro-4-hydroxy-2-butanone (2 ± 2%) and 2-chloro-propanal (4 ± 5%) from crotyl alcohol; and acetone (24 ± 3%) from 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol. The experimental data suggests that addition of Cl to the double bond of the unsaturated alcohol is the dominant reaction pathway compared to the H-abstraction channel.

  3. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  4. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  5. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  6. Correlation of quinone reductase activity and allyl isothiocyanate formation among different genotypes and grades of horseradish roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A; Kushad, Mosbah M

    2015-03-25

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its ground root tissue is used in condiments because of the pungency of the glucosinolate (GS)-hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, respectively. Horseradish roots are sold in three grades: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 2 according to the USDA standards. These grading standards are primarily based on root diameter and length. There is little information on whether root grades vary in their phytochemical content or potential health promoting properties. This study measured GS, GS-hydrolysis products, potential anticancer activity (as quinone reductase inducing activity), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities from different grades of horseradish accessions. U.S. Fancy showed significantly higher sinigrin and AITC concentrations than U.S. No. 1 ,whereas U.S. No. 1 showed significantly higher concentrations of 1-cyano 2,3-epithiopropane, the epithionitrile hydrolysis product of sinigrin, and significantly higher total phenolic concentrations than U.S. Fancy.

  7. Brown seaweed (Saccharina japonica) as an edible natural delivery matrix for allyl isothiocyanate inhibiting food-borne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Evi Amelia; Pendleton, Phillip; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The edible, brown seaweed Saccharina japonica was prepared as powder in the size range 500-900 μm for the desorption release of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Powders were used as raw (containing lipids) and as de-oiled, where the lipid was removed. In general, de-oiled powders adsorbed larger masses of AITC after vapour or solution contact. Mass adsorbed due to solution contact exceeded vapour contact. Larger particles adsorbed more than smaller particles. No chemical bonding between AITC and the powder surface occurred. Release from vapour deposited particles reached 70-85% available within 72 h; solution deposited reached 70-90% available at 192 h. The larger amounts of AITC adsorbed via solution deposition resulted in greater vapour-phase concentrations at 72 h for antimicrobial activity studies. No loss of activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium or Bacillus cereus. Only a nominal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated. S. japonica powder could be used as an edible, natural vehicle for AITC delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alleviative effects of s-allyl cysteine and s-ethyl cysteine on MCD diet-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-che; Yin, Mei-chin; Liu, Wen-hu

    2008-11-01

    Alleviative effects of s-allyl cysteine (SAC) and s-ethyl cysteine (SEC) upon methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced hepatotoxicity in mice were examined. SAC or SEC at 1g/L was added into drinking water for 7 weeks with MCD diet. MCD feeding significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and elevated the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (P MCD feeding significantly lowered serum and hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) formation, and suppressed the activity and mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (P MCD feeding significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and collagen-alpha1 (P MCD-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Allyl isothiocyanate that induces GST and UGT expression confers oxidative stress resistance on C. elegans, as demonstrated by nematode biosensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hasegawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenous products from oxidative stresses induce the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, which form a large family within the phase II enzymes over both animal and plant kingdoms. The GSTs thus induced in turn detoxify these external as well as internal stresses. Because these stresses are often linked to ageing and damage to health, the induction of phase II enzymes without causing adverse effects would be beneficial in slowing down ageing and keeping healthy conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested this hypothesis by choosing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, a functional ingredient in wasabi, as a candidate food ingredient that induces GSTs without causing adverse effects on animals' lives. To monitor the GST induction, we constructed a gst::gfp fusion gene and used it to transform Caenorhabditis elegans for use as a nematode biosensor. With the nematode biosensor, we found that AITC induced GST expression and conferred tolerance on the nematode against various oxidative stresses. We also present evidence that the transcription factor SKN-1 is involved in regulating the GST expression induced by AITC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show the applicability of the nematode biosensor for discovering and evaluating functional food substances and chemicals that would provide anti-ageing or healthful benefits.

  10. Structural Changes of Bagasse dusring the Homogeneous Esterification with Maleic Anhydride in Ionic Liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The maleation of bagasse could greatly increase the compatibility between bagasse and composite matrixes, and the percentage of substitution (PS of bagasse maleates could be regulated in the homogeneous system. However, due to the complicated components and the linkages of bagasse, it was difficult to control the reaction behaviors of each component. In this paper, the detailed structural changes of bagasse during the homogeneous maleation in ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl were comparatively investigated with the three main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin from bagasse. The PS of the maleated bagasse was 12.52%, and the PS of the maleated cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin were 13.50%, 10.89%, and 14.03%, respectively. Fourier translation infrared (FT-IR and NMR analyses confirmed that the three main components were all involved in the homogeneous maleation. 1H-13C HSQC analysis indicated that the predominant monoesterification of cellulose, diesterification of hemicelluloses and lignin, and the degradation of the three main components simultaneously occurred. Besides, the quantitative analysis from 1H-13C HSQC revealed the relative PS of reactive sites in each component. 31P NMR results showed that the reactivity of lignin aliphatic hydroxyls was higher than that of phenolic ones, and the reactivity of phenolic hydroxyls followed the order of p-hydroxyphenyl hydroxyls > guaiacyl hydroxyls > syringyl hydroxyls.

  11. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and Cyclopolymerzation of N-Aryl Di ‎AllylAmins As Antioxidants for Lubricant's Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firyal M. Ali ‎

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research many new N-aryl substituted di allylAmins were  synthesized [ A1-A2 ] which were Polymerized by free radically mechanism by using Ammonium per sulfate  as an initiator at 700C .The new hindered   amines   as  cyclo  polymers  were  characterized  by FTIR  and  H-NMR Spectroscopies ,Physical   and   chemical properties were measured  using TGA and DSC to   study   the thermal stability  of   prepared  cyclopolymers  . These   prepared  N-aromatic  substituted di allylamins cyclopolymers [ A3 - A4 ]  were  used  as  antioxidants  for  lubricant  oil  .   which   give    high stability   when  comparing  with standard  antioxidant . The oxidation stability of base  oil with (1% additive  were  examined according to Institute of Petroleum testing method IP280 

  13. Synthesis and Cyclopolymerzation of N-Aryl Di ‎AllylAmins As Antioxidants for Lubricant's Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firyal M. Ali ‎

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research many new N-aryl substituted di allylAmins were  synthesized [ A1-A2 ] which were Polymerized by free radically mechanism by using Ammonium per sulfate  as an initiator at 700C .The new hindered   amines   as  cyclo  polymers  were  characterized  by FTIR  and  H-NMR Spectroscopies ,Physical   and   chemical properties were measured  using TGA and DSC to   study   the thermal stability  of   prepared  cyclopolymers  . These   prepared  N-aromatic  substituted di allylamins cyclopolymers [ A3 - A4 ]  were  used  as  antioxidants  for  lubricant  oil  .   which   give    high stability   when  comparing  with standard  antioxidant . The oxidation stability of base  oil with (1% additive  were  examined according to Institute of Petroleum testing method IP280

  14. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  15. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  16. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  17. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  18. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  20. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  1. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the regulatory environment (national ... Predicting and evaluating policy impact. PA. N ... constrain the use of a holistic approach engaging ... alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, ... Alcohol and Other Drugs, 2003.

  2. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  3. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  4. Incorporating allylated lignin-derivatives in thiol-ene gel-polymer electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Elyse A; Stanzione, Joseph F

    2018-07-01

    Growing environmental and economic concerns as well as the uncertainty that accompanies finite petrochemical resources contributes to the increase in research and development of bio-based, renewable polymers. Concurrently, industrial and consumer demand for smaller, safer, and more flexible technologies motivates a global research effort to improve electrolytic polymer separators in lithium-ion batteries. To incorporate the aromatic structural advantages of lignin, a highly abundant and renewable resource, into gel-polymer electrolytes, lignin-derived molecules, vanillyl alcohol and gastrodigenin are functionalized and UV-polymerized with multi-functional thiol monomers. The resulting thin, flexible, polymer films possess glass transition temperatures ranging from -42.1°C to 0.3°C and storage moduli at 25°C ranging from 1.90MPa to 10.08MPa. The crosslinked polymer films swollen with electrolyte solution impart conductivities in the range of 7.04×10 -7 to 102.73×10 -7 Scm -1 . Thiol molecular weight has the most impact on the thermo-mechanical properties of the resulting films while polymer crosslink density has the largest effect on conductivity. The conducting abilities of the bio-based gel-polymer electrolytes in this study prove the viability of lignin-derived feedstock for use in lithium-ion battery applications and reveal structurally and thermally desirable traits for future work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and Comparison of the Substrate Scope of Pd-Catalysts for the Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mitchell J.; Hamilton, Steven S.; Jensen, David R.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    Three catalysts for aerobic oxidation of alcohols are discussed and the effectiveness of each is evaluated for allylic, benzylic, aliphatic, and functionalized alcohols. Additionally, chiral nonracemic substrates as well as chemoselective and diastereoselective oxidations are investigated. In this study, the most convenient system for the Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols is Pd(OAc)2 in combination with triethylamine. This system functions effectively for the majority of alcohols tested and uses mild conditions (3 to 5 mol % of catalyst, room temperature). Pd(IiPr)(OAc)2(H2O) (1) also successfully oxidizes the majority of alcohols evaluated. This system has the advantage of significantly lowering catalyst loadings but requires higher temperatures (0.1 to 1 mol % of catalyst, 60 °C). A new catalyst is also disclosed, Pd(IiPr)(OPiv)2 (2). This catalyst operates under very mild conditions (1 mol %, room temperature, and air as the O2 source) but with a more limited substrate scope. PMID:15844968

  6. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  7. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  8. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  9. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  10. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  11. Z-Selective iridium-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylic carbonates and α-diazo esters† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full procedures, computational details and characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04283c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bryce N.; Moon, Patrick J.; Yin, Shengkang; Brown, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A well-defined Ir–allyl complex catalyzes the Z-selective cross-coupling of allyl carbonates with α-aryl diazo esters. The process overrides the large thermodynamic preference for E-products typically observed in metal-mediated coupling reactions to enable the synthesis of Z,E-dieneoates in good yield with selectivities consistently approaching or greater than 90 : 10. This transformation represents the first productive merger of Ir–carbene and Ir–allyl species, which are commonly encountered intermediates in allylation and cyclopropanation/E–H insertion catalysis. Potentially reactive functional groups (aryl halides, ketones, nitriles, olefins, amines) are tolerated owing to the mildness of reaction conditions. Kinetic analysis of the reaction suggests oxidative addition of the allyl carbonate to an Ir-species is rate-determining. Mechanistic studies uncovered a pathway for catalyst activation mediated by NEt3. PMID:29629093

  12. Synthesis of prostanoids; enantiomeric purity of alcohols by a 31P NMR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    The enone, 2,2-diemthyl-3aβ, 6aβ-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta-1,3-dioxol-4-one, has been synthesized in six steps from cyclopentadiene, resolved using sulfoximine chemistry, and converted into (-)-prostaglandin E 2 methyl ester in three steps. Introduction of the optically pure omega side-chain using a conjugate addition of a stabilized organocopper reagent, followed by direct alkylation of the enolate with the α side-chain allylic iodide in the presence of hexamethylphosphoramide, afforded a trans, vicinally disubstituted cyclopentanone. Deprotection of the C-15 alcohol, followed by aluminum amalgam reduction of the C-10/oxygen bond, provided (-)-PGE 2 methyl ester in 47% overall yield from the enone. In an extension of previously described work, 2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-sulfide, prepared from l-ephedrine and thiophosphoryl chloride, was used to determine the enantiomeric excess of chiral alcohols in conjunction with 31 P NMR. Chiral primary and secondary alcohols added quantitatively to the phospholidine to give diastereomers which could be analyzed by 31 P NMR and HPLC. A number of other phosphorus heterocycles were also explored as potential chiral derivatizing reagents

  13. Synthesis and characterization of sulfolane-based amino alcohols: A combined experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykov, Vitalii A.; Zarovnaya, Iryna S.; Tretiakov, Serhii V.; Reshetnyak, Alyona V.; Omelchenko, Iryna V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.; Okovytyy, Sergiy I.

    2018-04-01

    Aminolysis of 3,4-epoxysulfolane in aqueous media leads to a very complex mixture of products with unresolved stereochemistry. Herein, we report a detailed theoretical and experimental mechanistic investigation of this reaction along with extensive spectroscopic characterization of the resulting amino alcohols, using 1D and 2D NMR techniques (1H, 13C, NOE, NOESY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC) as well as XRD analysis. In addition to simple amines such as ammonia and benzylamine, our study also employed the more sterically hindered endo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ylmethanamine. The mechanism of the aminolysis of 3,4-epoxysulfolane by aqueous ammonia was studied in more detail using quantum chemical calculations at the M06-2X/6-31++G** level of theory. The computational results led us to conclude that the most probable way of initial epoxide transformation is base-catalyzed rearrangement to a corresponding allylic alcohol. Subsequent formation of vicinal amino alcohols and diols proceeds via addition of ammonia or hydroxy-anions to activated double Cdbnd C bond with some preference of a cis-attack. Detailed analytical data obtained in the course of our work will be useful for the stereochemical identification of new sulfolane derivatives.

  14. Structural analysis by reductive cleavage with LiAlH4 of an allyl ether choline-phospholipid, archaetidylcholine, from the hyperthermophilic methanoarchaeon Methanopyrus kandleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Nishihara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A choline-containing phospholipid (PL-4 in Methanopyrus kandleri cells was identified as archaetidylcholine, which has been described by Sprott et al. (1997. The PL-4 consisted of a variety of molecular species differing in hydrocarbon composition. Most of the PL-4 was acid-labile because of its allyl ether bond. The identity of PL-4 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by positive staining with Dragendorff-reagent and fast-atom bombardment–mass spectrometry. A new method of LiAlH4 hydrogenolysis was developed to cleave allyl ether bonds and recover the corresponding hydrocarbons. We confirmed the validity of the LiAlH4 method in a study of the model compound synthetic unsaturated archaetidic acid (2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol-1-phosphate. Saturated ether bonds were not cleaved by the LiAlH4 method. The hydrocarbons formed following LiAlH4 hydrogenolysis of PL-4 were identified by gas–liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Four kinds of hydrocarbons with one to four double bonds were detected: 47% of the hydrocarbons had four double bonds; 11% had three double bonds; 14% had two double bonds; 7% had one double bond; and 6% were saturated species. The molecular species composition of PL-4 was also estimated based on acid lability: 77% of the molecular species had two acid-labile hydrocarbons; 11% had one acid-labile and one acid-stable hydrocarbon; and 11% had two acid-stable hydrocarbons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific chemical degradation method for the structural analysis of allyl ether phospholipid in archaea.

  15. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  17. A theoretical study of the reaction of O(3P) with an allyl radical C3H5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Hohjai; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2003-11-01

    Ab initio calculations of the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen [O(3P)] with an allyl radical (C3H5) have been carried out using the density functional method and the complete basis set model. On the calculated lowest doublet potential energy surface, the barrierless association of O(3P) to C3H5 forms three energy-rich addition intermediates, which are predicted to undergo subsequent isomerization and decomposition steps leading to various products: C3H4O+H, CH2O+C2H3, C2H4+CHO, C2H2O+CH3, C2H5+CO, C3H4+OH, and C2H4O+CH. The respective reaction mechanisms through the three addition intermediates are presented, and it has been found that the barrier height, reaction enthalpy, and the number of intermediates involved along the reaction coordinate are of extreme importance in understanding such reactive scattering processes. With the aid of Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations, the major reaction pathway is predicted to be the formation of acrolein (C3H4O)+H, which is consistent with the previous gas-phase bulk kinetic experiment performed by Gutman et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 94, 3652 (1990)]. For the minor C3H4+OH channel, which has been newly found in the recent crossed beam investigations, a second barrierless, direct H-atom abstraction from the central carbon of C3H5 is calculated to compete with the addition process due to the little C-H bond dissociation energy and the formation of a stable allene product. The dynamic and kinetic characteristics of the reaction mechanism are discussed on the basis of the comparison of prior statistical calculations to the nascent internal distributions of the observed OH product.

  18. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  19. Synthesis of 2-(2-R1-Hydrazino-5-(R2-benzyl-2-thiazolines on the Basis of Meerweins Arylation Products of Allyl Isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Ganushchak

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available 3-Aryl-2-chloropropylisothiocyanates (1 are formed by interaction of arenediazonium chlorides with allyl isothiocyanate. Adducts 1 react with monoacylhydrazines to form 1-acyl-4-(3-aryl-2-chloropropylthiosemicarbazides (2a–d. Thiosemicarbazides 2a–d in the presence of bases selectively transform into 2-(2-R1-hydrazino-5-(R2-benzyl-2-thiazolines (3a–d.

  20. Substituent Effects on Regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder Reactions: Reactions of 10-Allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene with 2-Chloroacrylonitrile, 1-Cyanovinyl Acetate and Phenyl Vinyl Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb A. Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diels-Alder reaction of 10-allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene (3 with 2-chloroacrylonitrile (4 and 1-cyanovinyl acetate (5 gives exclusively the ortho isomer while its reaction with phenyl vinyl sulfone (10 yields a mixture of two isomeric adducts with priority to ortho isomer. The reactions proceeded under microwave condition in xylene. Configurations of these isomers have been assigned with the help of NMR spectra. The results indicated that the steric effect is dominating toward the isomer regioselectivity in the Diels-Alder reaction of the present compounds.

  1. Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric N-H Functionalization of Quinazolinones with Allenes and Allylic Carbonates: The First Enantioselective Formal Total Synthesis of (-)-Chaetominine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yirong; Breit, Bernhard

    2017-12-22

    An unprecedented asymmetric N-H functionalization of quinazolinones with allenes and allylic carbonates was successfully achieved by rhodium catalysis with the assistance of chiral bidentate diphosphine ligands. The high efficiency and practicality of this method was demonstrated by a low catalyst loading of 1 mol % as well as excellent chemo-, regio-, and enantioselectivities with broad functional group compatibility. Furthermore, this newly developed strategy was applied as key step in the first enantioselective formal total synthesis of (-)-chaetominine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  3. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  4. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  5. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  6. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  7. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  9. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  10. Poly(allyl methacrylate) functionalized hydroxyapatite nanocrystals via the combination of surface-initiated RAFT polymerization and thiol-ene protocol: a potential anticancer drug nanocarrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2013-03-15

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HAP NCs) were encapsulated by poly(allyl methacrylate) (PolyAMA) employing controlled surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization of allyl methacrylate to afford HAP-PolyAMA nanohybrids. The subsequent thiol-ene coupling of nanohybrids with 2-mercaptosuccinic acid resulted HAP-Poly(AMA-COOH) possessing multicarboxyl group. The formation of the nanohybrids was confirmed by FT-IR and EDS analyses. The TGA and FE-SEM investigation were further suggested the grafting of PolyAMA onto HAP NCs. The utility of the HAP-PolyAMA nanohybrid as drug carrier was also explored. The pendant carboxyl groups on the external layers of nanohybrids were conjugated with anticancer drug cisplatin to afford HAP-Poly(AMA-COOH)/Pt complex. The formation of the complex was confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and FE-SEM. In vitro evaluation of the synthesized complex as nanomedicine revealed its potential chemotherapeutic efficacy against cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  12. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  13. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  14. Investigation of the O+allyl addition/elimination reaction pathways from the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, Benjamin L.; Lau, K.-C.; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, S.-H.; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2008-01-01

    These experiments study the preparation of and product channels resulting from OCH 2 CHCH 2 , a key radical intermediate in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction. The data include velocity map imaging and molecular beam scattering results to probe the photolytic generation of the radical intermediate and the subsequent pathways by which the radicals access the energetically allowed product channels of the bimolecular reaction. The photodissociation of epichlorohydrin at 193.3 nm produces chlorine atoms and c-OCH 2 CHCH 2 radicals; these undergo a facile ring opening to the OCH 2 CHCH 2 radical intermediate. State-selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection resolves the velocity distributions of ground and spin-orbit excited state chlorine independently, allowing for a more accurate determination of the internal energy distribution of the nascent radicals. We obtain good agreement detecting the velocity distributions of the Cl atoms with REMPI, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization at 13.8 eV, and electron bombardment ionization; all show a bimodal distribution of recoil kinetic energies. The dominant high recoil kinetic energy feature peaks near 33 kcal/mol. To elucidate the product channels resulting from the OCH 2 CHCH 2 radical intermediate, the crossed laser-molecular beam experiment uses VUV photoionization and detects the velocity distribution of the possible products. The data identify the three dominant product channels as C 3 H 4 O (acrolein)+H, C 2 H 4 +HCO (formyl radical), and H 2 CO (formaldehyde)+C 2 H 3 . A small signal from C 2 H 2 O (ketene) product is also detected. The measured velocity distributions and relative signal intensities at m/e=27, 28, and 29 at two photoionization energies show that the most exothermic product channel, C 2 H 5 +CO, does not contribute significantly to the product branching. The higher internal energy onset of the acrolein+H product channel is consistent with the relative barriers en route to

  15. Investigation of the O+allyl addition/elimination reaction pathways from the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin L.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2008-08-01

    These experiments study the preparation of and product channels resulting from OCH2CHCH2, a key radical intermediate in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction. The data include velocity map imaging and molecular beam scattering results to probe the photolytic generation of the radical intermediate and the subsequent pathways by which the radicals access the energetically allowed product channels of the bimolecular reaction. The photodissociation of epichlorohydrin at 193.3 nm produces chlorine atoms and c-OCH2CHCH2 radicals; these undergo a facile ring opening to the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate. State-selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection resolves the velocity distributions of ground and spin-orbit excited state chlorine independently, allowing for a more accurate determination of the internal energy distribution of the nascent radicals. We obtain good agreement detecting the velocity distributions of the Cl atoms with REMPI, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization at 13.8 eV, and electron bombardment ionization; all show a bimodal distribution of recoil kinetic energies. The dominant high recoil kinetic energy feature peaks near 33 kcal/mol. To elucidate the product channels resulting from the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate, the crossed laser-molecular beam experiment uses VUV photoionization and detects the velocity distribution of the possible products. The data identify the three dominant product channels as C3H4O (acrolein)+H, C2H4+HCO (formyl radical), and H2CO (formaldehyde)+C2H3. A small signal from C2H2O (ketene) product is also detected. The measured velocity distributions and relative signal intensities at m/e=27, 28, and 29 at two photoionization energies show that the most exothermic product channel, C2H5+CO, does not contribute significantly to the product branching. The higher internal energy onset of the acrolein+H product channel is consistent with the relative barriers en route to each of these product channels

  16. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Transition state region in the A-Band photodissociation of allyl iodide—A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacherjee, Aditi, E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu; Attar, Andrew R., E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R., E-mail: srl@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-harmonic generation source is used to study the 266 nm induced A-band photodissociation dynamics of allyl iodide (CH{sub 2} =CHCH{sub 2}I). The photolysis of the C—I bond at this wavelength produces iodine atoms both in the ground ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}, I) and spin-orbit excited ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, I*) states, with the latter as the predominant channel. Using XUV absorption at the iodine N{sub 4/5} edge (45–60 eV), the experiments constitute a direct probe of not only the long-lived atomic iodine reaction products but also the fleeting transition state region of the repulsive n{sub I}σ{sup ∗}{sub C—I} excited states. Specifically, three distinct features are identified in the XUV transient absorption spectrum at 45.3 eV, 47.4 eV, and 48.4 eV (denoted transients A, B, and C, respectively), which arise from the repulsive valence-excited nσ{sup ∗} states and project onto the high-lying core-excited states of the dissociating molecule via excitation of 4d(I) core electrons. Transients A and B originate from 4d(I) → n(I) core-to-valence transitions, whereas transient C is best assigned to a 4d(I) →σ{sup ∗}(C—I) transition. The measured differential absorbance of these new features along with the I/I* branching ratios known from the literature is used to suggest a more definitive assignment, albeit provisional, of the transients to specific dissociative states within the A-band manifold. The transients are found to peak around 55 fs–65 fs and decay completely by 145 fs–185 fs, demonstrating the ability of XUV spectroscopy to map the evolution of reactants into products in real time. The similarity in the energies of transients A and B with analogous features observed in methyl iodide [Attar et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 5072, (2015)] together with the new observation of transient C in the present work provides a more complete picture of the valence electronic

  18. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  19. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  20. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  2. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  3. Alcohol and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  5. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  6. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  7. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  8. A Modular Approach to Aryl-C-ribonucleosides via the Allylic Substitution and Ring-Closing Metathesis Sequence. A Stereocontrolled Synthesis of All Four alpha-/beta- and D-/L-C-Nucleoside Stereoisomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štambaský, J.; Kapras, V.; Štefko, Martin; Kysilka, O.; Hocek, Michal; Malkov, A. V.; Kočovský, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 19 (2011), s. 7781-7803 ISSN 0022-3263 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C-nucleosides * allylic substitution * metathesis * dihydroxylation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.450, year: 2011

  9. Mechanism of the Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction Mediated by [Pd(NHC)(allyl)Cl] Precatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Meconi, Giulia Magi; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Luque-Urrutia, Jesú s Antonio; Belanzoni, Paola; Nolan, Steven P.; Jacobsen, Heiko; Cavallo, Luigi; Solà , Miquel; Poater, Albert

    2017-01-01

    (IPr); R = H (1), Me (2), gem-Me2 (3), Ph (4), X = Cl, Br). Next, we have investigated the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction for the active catalyst species IPr-Pd(0) using 4-chlorotoluene and phenylboronic acid as substrates and isopropyl alcohol as a

  10. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  12. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  13. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  14. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  15. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  16. Quantification of allyl hexanoate in pineapple beverages and yogurts as a case study to characterise a source of uncertainty in dietary exposure assessment to flavouring substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, A; D'Aloise, A; Magrì, A D; Leclercq, C

    2012-01-01

    One source of uncertainty in the estimation of dietary exposure to flavouring substances is the uncertainty in the occurrence and concentration levels of these substances naturally present or added to foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to assess the variability of concentration levels of allyl hexanoate, considered as a case study, in two main food categories to which it is often added: pineapple juice-based beverages and yogurts containing pineapple. Thirty-four beverages and 29 yogurts, with pineapple fruit or juice and added flavourings declared as ingredients on the package, were purchased from the local market (in Rome) and analysed. Analytical methods based on the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique for the isolation of the target analyte, and on GC-MS analysis for final determination, were developed for the two food categories. In beverages, allyl hexanoate concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 16.71 mg l(-1), whereas in yogurts they ranged from 0.02 to 89.41 mg kg(-1). Average concentrations in beverages and yogurts with pineapple as the main fruit ingredient (1.91 mg l(-1) for beverages, 9.61 mg kg(-1) for yogurts) were in fair agreement with average use level data reported from industry surveys for the relevant food categories (4.5 and 6.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Within the group of yogurts a single product was found to contain a level of allyl hexanoate more than 10-fold higher than the average reported use level. The screening techniques developed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) using use level data provided by industry gave estimates of exposure that were of the same order of magnitude as the estimates obtained for regular consumers who would be loyal to the pineapple yogurt and beverage products containing the highest observed concentration of the substance of interest. In this specific case the uncertainty in the results obtained with the use of standard screening techniques for exposure assessment based on industry

  17. Alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A process for ethanol production from whey is described. The lactose is fermented into alcohol via glucose and galactose of yeast. The whey must be pasteurized before fermentation in order to reduce the concentration of microorganisms in the protein fraction. The protein is separated by ultrafiltration. The whey, which is now rather free of bacteria, is introduced into the fermentation unit where yeast cultures are added to it. After fermentation, the yeast slurry is separated and processed into feeding yeast while the mash is passed on to the distillation unit. The alcohol thus produced is of very high quality and may be added to alcoholic beverages.

  18. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  19. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  20. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  1. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  2. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders (FASDs) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Last Updated: November 21, 2017 This article was ... about pre-pregnancy planning, including tips on nutrition, exercise and healthy habits. About Support Us Copyright & Permissions ...

  4. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  5. Alcohol and radionuclide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ethanol administration on the deposition and retention of polymeric 239 Pu and 241 Am citrate was studied in the rat. Only in the case of polymeric Pu was there an effect of alcohol administration

  6. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  7. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  8. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...

  9. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  10. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  11. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol and Cirrhosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  12. Alcohol and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  14. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  15. Non alcoholic steatohepatitis - Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter L. M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an underdiagnosed liver disease characterized by steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. This disease may eventually develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is highly prevalent among obese individuals and among patients with diabetes

  16. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  17. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  18. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  19. [Alcohol and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, E; Chapelon, E; Bué, M; Garnier-Lengliné, H; Lebeaux-Legras, C; Loudenot, A; Lejeune, C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major cause of mental retardation in Western countries. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is mainly characterized by pre- and postnatal stunted growth, neurocognitive disorders, and facial dysmorphism. It compromises the intellectual and behavioral prognosis of the child. Prevention tools exist, through better information of health professionals, for optimal care of high-risk women before, during, and after pregnancy, which would decrease the incidence of SAF in the future.

  20. Time-resolved fluorescence sensing of pesticides chlorpyrifos, crotoxyphos and endosulfan by the luminescent Eu(III)-8-allyl-3-carboxycoumarin probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Khairy, Gasser M.; Kamel, Rasha M.

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the application of time resolved fluorescence in microtiter plates for investigating the interactions of europium-allyl-3-carboxycoumarin with pesticides chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and crotoxyphos. Stern-Volmer studies at different temperatures for chlorpyrifos and crotoxyphos shows dynamic and static quenching mechanisms respectively. Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence variations of the probe in solution. The detection limits are 6.53, 0.004, 3.72 μmol/L for chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and crotoxyphos, respectively. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters of the pesticides with probe were evaluated. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction is spontaneous with negative ΔG. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different types of water samples (tap, mineral, and waste water).

  1. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  2. Neuroprotective effect of S-allyl-l-cysteine derivatives against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cytotoxicity is independent of calpain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Toru; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Uchiyama, Taketo; Wada, Taira; Shimba, Shigeki; Ishige, Kumiko; Miyairi, Shinichi; Makishima, Makoto; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) is known to have neuroprotective properties. We synthesized various SAC derivatives and tested their effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons (HPNs). Among the compounds tested, S-propyl-l-cysteine (SPC) exhibited the strongest neuroprotective activity in HPNs, followed by S-ethyl-l-cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl-l-cysteine (SMC). Unlike SAC and SMC, SPC and SEC did not have inhibitory activity on μ-calpain, suggesting that the mechanism underlying the protective activity of SPC and SEC differs from that of SAC. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DFT Mechanistic Study of the Selective Terminal C-H Activation of n-Pentane with a Tungsten Allyl Nitrosyl Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2017-01-17

    Mechanistic insights into the selective C-H terminal activation of n-pentane with tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex reported by Legzdins were gained by employing density functional theory with B3LYP hybrid functional. Using Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM) analysis on the elementary steps of the hydrogen transfer process, TS1 and TS2, it was observed that the calculated H-transfer models were closely similar to Hall’s metal-assisted σ-bond metathesis through bond critical point (BCP) comparisons. One distinguishable feature was the fact that the formal oxidation state of the W changed in the concerted H-transfer process. To better differentiate, we term these processes as ‘Formal Reductive Hydrogen Transfer’ (FRHT) for TS1 and ‘Formal Oxidative Hydrogen Transfer’ (FOHT) for TS2.

  4. Density Functional Calculation of the 0.5ML-Terminated Allyl Mercaptan/Si(100)-(2 × 1) Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Mei, Tang; Kai-Ming, Deng; Xuan, Chen; Chuan-Yun, Xiao; Yu-Zhen, Liu; Qun-Xiang, Li

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the 0.5 ML-terminated allyl mercaptan (ALM)/Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface are studied using the density functional method. The calculated absorption energy of the ALM molecule on the 0.5 ML-terminated ALM/Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface is 3.36 eV, implying that adsorption is strongly favorable. The electronic structure calculations show that the ALM/Si(100)-(2 × 1), the clean Si(100)-(2 × 1), and the fully-terminated H/Si(100)-(2 × 1) surfaces have the nature of an indirect band gap semiconductor. The highest occupied molecular orbital is dominated by the ALM, confirming the mechanism proposed by Hossain for its chain reaction. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  5. DFT Mechanistic Study of the Selective Terminal C-H Activation of n-Pentane with a Tungsten Allyl Nitrosyl Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond; Tan, Davin; Liu, Chaoli; Li, Huaifeng; Guo, Hao; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic insights into the selective C-H terminal activation of n-pentane with tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex reported by Legzdins were gained by employing density functional theory with B3LYP hybrid functional. Using Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM) analysis on the elementary steps of the hydrogen transfer process, TS1 and TS2, it was observed that the calculated H-transfer models were closely similar to Hall’s metal-assisted σ-bond metathesis through bond critical point (BCP) comparisons. One distinguishable feature was the fact that the formal oxidation state of the W changed in the concerted H-transfer process. To better differentiate, we term these processes as ‘Formal Reductive Hydrogen Transfer’ (FRHT) for TS1 and ‘Formal Oxidative Hydrogen Transfer’ (FOHT) for TS2.

  6. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  7. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  8. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  10. Fluorinated benzamide neuroleptics--III. Development of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide as an improved dopamine D-2 receptor tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Zhiying, Yang; Das, Malay K; Brown, Terry

    1995-04-01

    We have prepared five new analogs (n-propyl, iso-propyl, allyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl) of the dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, FPMB which result from modifications of the ethyl group at the pyrrolidine nitrogen in FPMB. As expected, all new derivatives showed higher apparent lipophilicity (log k{sub w}), with iso-butyl being the most lipophilic (log k{sub w} = 2.52), followed by the allyl derivative (log k{sub w} = 2.43). The allyl group showed the largest increase in affinity (from 0.26 nM for the ethyl substituent to 0.03 nM for the allyl substituent, almost 10-fold), followed by the n-propyl substituent which showed approximately five-fold better affinity than did the ethyl substituent. Radiosynthesis of S-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide ([{sup 18}F]fallypride) was carried out by nucleophilic substitution reaction of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-tosyloxypropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide with no carrier added {sup 18}F{sup -}. [{sup 18}F]Fallypride was obtained in approximately 20-40% yields (EOS/EOB, decay corrected) in specific activities of 900-1700 Ci/mmol after reverse phase HPLC purification in 60 min from EOB. High striatal uptake (upto 2.5% injected dose/g) of [{sup 18}F]fallypride in rats was observed with striatal/cerebellar ratios of 17, 42, 63 and 122 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min post-injection, respectively. PET experiments with [{sup 18}F]fallypride in a cebus monkey showed a brain uptake of 0.10% injected dose/cc. In rhesus monkeys [{sup 18}F]fallypride showed rapid specific uptake in the striata (0.04-0.06% injected dose/cc) with striata/cerebellum ratios of approx. 3.0 at 14 min, 5.0 at 35 min and 8 at 70 min post-injection. Specifically bound [{sup 18}F]fallypride was displaced with haloperidol (1 mg/kg) with a half-life of 18 min in the rhesus monkey.

  11. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  12. Alcohol and the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, S; Montalvo, R

    1998-01-01

    Alcoholic pancreatitis may be one of the most serious adverse consequences of alcohol abuse. Its diagnosis, as it has for many years, depends primarily on clinical acumen in interpreting properly the symptoms and signs of abdominal distress, buttressed by elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase and lipase). More recently, the use of computerized tomography (CT) in selected situations has been both of confirmatory and prognostic value. Severity of abnormality by CT correlates reasonably well with a variety of clinical-laboratory clusters (APACHE system, Ranson's criteria, etc.) and aids in therapy. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is not fully defined. The ultimate picture is one of tissue autolysis by activated proteolytic enzymes. The triggers for such activation, however, are still not known. They are represented by three main theories: (1) large duct obstruction and/or increased permeability relative to pancreatic secretion, (2) small duct obstruction due to proteinaceous precipitates, and (3) a direct toxic-metabolic effect of ethanol on pancreatic acinar cells. While not mutually exclusive, we favor the last hypothesis as being most consistent with the effects of ethanol on other organ systems. The direct effects of ethanol and/or its metabolites may be mediated, at least in part, via oxidative stress or the generation of fatty acid ethyl esters. Autolysis (regardless of proximate mechanism(s)) leads to inflammation likely mediated via release of various cytokines. It also should be appreciated that "acute" pancreatitis (the topic of this chapter) likely represents an acute process within a chronic pancreatic exposure and injury from alcoholic abuse. The key question of why pancreatitis develops in only a small number of alcohol abusers is not resolved. Therapy depends on the severity of alcoholic pancreatitis, which is defined by clinical-laboratory and often CT criteria. Mild pancreatitis usually resolves acutely with alcohol abstention and supportive

  13. Acrolein toxicity involves oxidative stress caused by glutathione depletion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek-Mirek, M; Bednarska, S; Bartosz, G; Biliński, T

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of yeast cells to allyl alcohol results in intracellular production of acrolein. The toxicity of so formed acrolein involves oxidative stress, as (1) strains deficient in antioxidant defense are hypersensitive to allyl alcohol, (2) exposure to allyl alcohol increases the level of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances and decreases glutathione level in the cells, (3) hypoxic and anoxic atmosphere and antioxidants protect against allyl alcohol toxicity, and (4) allyl alcohol causes activation of Yap1p. No increased formation of reactive oxygen species was detected in cells exposed to allyl alcohol, so oxidative stress is due to depletion of cellular thiols and thus alteration in the redox state of yeast cells.

  14. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  16. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  17. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  18. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  19. Distribution of motor-alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1996-10-01

    The study is made on the assumption that Sweden, as a first step, will substitute alcohol fuels for five percent of the gasoline and diesel consumption, i.e. 700-900,000 m 3 alcohol/year, and later increase the alcohol share. Alcohol will be mixed into all gasoline, and one new fuel quality (85 percent alcohol) will be introduced during a ten year period. The cost for adapting the distribution system to alcohol fuels, and for building new service stations etc are also estimated. 15 refs

  20. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  1. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  2. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of the binary systems of 1,1-dimethylethyl methyl ether with allyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and vinyl acetate at T = (298.15 and 308.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniak, Jaime; Peralta, Rene D.; Infante, Ramiro; Cortez, Gladis

    2005-01-01

    Densities of the binary systems of 1,1-dimethylethyl methyl ether (MTBE) with allyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and vinyl acetate have been measured as a function of the composition, at 298.15 and 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure, using an Anton Paar DMA 5000 oscillating U-tube densimeter. The calculated excess molar volumes were correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation and with a series of Legendre polynomials. The excess molar volumes are negative for the binaries of MTBE + methacrylates; the system MTBE with vinyl acetate presents near ideal behavior. The excess coefficient of thermal expansion is positive for all the systems studied here; the value of the coefficient for the system MTBE + allyl methacrylate is at least three times larger than that for the other systems

  3. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  5. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. The definition of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J S

    1993-11-01

    Formulations of alcohol dependence are continuously refreshed, in line with changing concepts and altered needs. Two new descriptions have been prepared: the revised WHO criteria for substance use disorders and an educative definition of alcoholism. The major sets of diagnostic criteria provided by WHO and by the American Psychiatric Association are moving closer together but have not solved all the semantic problems. More refined assessments are also available to quicken fulfillment of the long-awaited hope that treatments can be matched to patients.

  7. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  8. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  10. Conformational analysis of a Chlamydia-specific disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution and bound to a monoclonal antibody: Observation of intermolecular transfer NOEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Tobias; Haselhorst, Thomas; Scheffler, Karoline [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Weisemann, Ruediger [Bruker Analytik GmbH, Silberstreifen (Germany); Kosma, Paul [Institut fuer Chemie der Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria); Brade, Helmut; Brade, Lore [Forschungszentrum Borstel, Zentrum fuer Medizin und Biowissenschaften Parkallee 22 (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany)

    1998-07-15

    The disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo (Kdo: 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) represents a genus-specific epitope of the lipopolysaccharide of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia. The conformation of the synthetically derived disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl was studied in aqueous solution, and complexed to a monoclonal antibody S25-2. Various NMR experiments based on the detection of NOEs (or transfer NOEs) and ROEs (or transfer ROEs) were performed. A major problem was the extensive overlap of almost all {sup 1}H NMR signals of {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. To overcome this difficulty, HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-trNOESY experiments were employed. Spin diffusion effects were identified using trROESY experiments, QUIET-trNOESY experiments and MINSY experiments. It was found that protein protons contribute to the observed spin diffusion effects. At 800 MHz, intermolecular trNOEs were observed between ligand protons and aromatic protons in the antibody binding site. From NMR experiments and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution exists as a complex conformational mixture. Upon binding to the monoclonal antibody S25-2, only a limited range of conformations is available to {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. These possible bound conformations were derived from a distance geometry analysis using transfer NOEs as experimental constraints. It is clear that a conformation is selected which lies within a part of the conformational space that is highly populated in solution. This conformational space also includes the conformation found in the crystal structure. Our results provide a basis for modeling studies of the antibody-disaccharide complex.

  11. Conformational analysis of a Chlamydia-specific disaccharide α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→O)-allyl in aqueous solution and bound to a monoclonal antibody: Observation of intermolecular transfer NOEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, Tobias; Haselhorst, Thomas; Scheffler, Karoline; Weisemann, Ruediger; Kosma, Paul; Brade, Helmut; Brade, Lore; Peters, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The disaccharide α-Kdo-(2 → 8)-α-Kdo (Kdo: 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) represents a genus-specific epitope of the lipopolysaccharide of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia. The conformation of the synthetically derived disaccharide α-Kdo-(2 → 8)-α-Kdo-(2 → O)-allyl was studied in aqueous solution, and complexed to a monoclonal antibody S25-2. Various NMR experiments based on the detection of NOEs (or transfer NOEs) and ROEs (or transfer ROEs) were performed. A major problem was the extensive overlap of almost all 1 H NMR signals of α-Kdo-(2 → 8)-α-Kdo-(2 → O)-allyl. To overcome this difficulty, HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-trNOESY experiments were employed. Spin diffusion effects were identified using trROESY experiments, QUIET-trNOESY experiments and MINSY experiments. It was found that protein protons contribute to the observed spin diffusion effects. At 800 MHz, intermolecular trNOEs were observed between ligand protons and aromatic protons in the antibody binding site. From NMR experiments and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that α-Kdo-(2 → 8)-α-Kdo-(2 → O)-allyl in aqueous solution exists as a complex conformational mixture. Upon binding to the monoclonal antibody S25-2, only a limited range of conformations is available to α-Kdo-(2 → 8)-α-Kdo-(2 → O)-allyl. These possible bound conformations were derived from a distance geometry analysis using transfer NOEs as experimental constraints. It is clear that a conformation is selected which lies within a part of the conformational space that is highly populated in solution. This conformational space also includes the conformation found in the crystal structure. Our results provide a basis for modeling studies of the antibody-disaccharide complex

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit American College of Nurse-Midwives – Alcohol and Pregnancy The Arc’s FASD Prevention Project NIH’s National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) NIH/NIAAA Fact Sheet: Fetal Alcohol Exposure ...

  13. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  14. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  15. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  16. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Characterization of Allylic Derivatives of 6-Amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]-triazin-8(7H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Hsiang Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 1-Allyl- (2 and 7-allyl-6-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]triazin-8(7H-one (3 were obtained via the 18-crown-6-ether catalyzed room temperature reactionof 6-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]triazin-8(7H-one (1 with potassiumcarbonate and allyl bromide in dry acetone. The structures of these two derivatives wereverified by 2D-NMR measurements, including gHSQC and gHMBC measurements. Theminor compound 2 may possess aromatic character. A single crystal X-ray diffractionexperiment indicated that the major compound 3 crystallizes from dimethyl sulfoxide in themonoclinic space group P21/n and its molecular structure includes an attached dimethylsulfoxide molecule, resulting in the molecular formula C10H16N6O2S. Molecular structuresof 3 are linked by extensive intermolecular N-H···N hydrogen bonding [graph set C 1 (7]. 1Each molecule is attached to the dimethyl sulfoxide oxygen via N-H···O intermolecularhydrogen bonding. The structure is further stabilized by π-π stacking interactions.

  17. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  18. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  19. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  20. Alcohol and the Hispanic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States, a standard drink is one that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ...

  1. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  2. Poly(furfuryl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that ...

  3. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Alcohol - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 16 April 2018

  4. Alcohol and retinoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabb, D.W.; Pinairs, J.; Hasanadka, R.

    2001-01-01

    , M. Fang, and David W. Crabb; (2) Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: Adverse interactions, by M. A. Leo and Charles S. Lieber; (3) Retinoic acid, hepatic stellate cells, and Kupffer cells, by Hidekazu Tsukamoto, K. Motomura, T. Miyahara, and M. Ohata; (4) Retinoid storage and metabolism in liver...

  5. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  6. Alcohol en verkeersveiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV

    1967-01-01

    A review is given on the participation in traffic by consumers of alcoholic beverages and tbe number of "drunken accidents". The investigations and results of these are endorsed with critical comments. A survey is given of the measures that have been and are being considered. The most important

  7. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  8. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  9. Stability of trapped electrons in thermally modified alcohol-alcohol and alcohol-water glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlebosz, G.; Kalecinski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption spectra of e t - , DTA and dielectric losses measurements of frozen irradiated matrices of different composition of alcohol-water and alcohol-alcohol have been studied as a function of temperature. In ethylene glycol-water and glycerol-water systems irregularity of e t - decay might be caused by inhomogeneity of the glasses. (author)

  10. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-11-02 Alcohol Induced Metabolic and Hepatic...: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  11. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  12. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  13. Micro-structure, Mechanical Properties and Dielectric Properties of Bisphenol A Allyl Compound-Bismaleimide Modified by Super-Critical Silica and Polyethersulfone Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Wang, Botao; Li, Fangliang; Teng, Chengjun

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A allyl compound-bismaleimide (MBAE) composite modified by SCE-SiO2 and polyethersulfone (PES) resin has been prepared and researched. SCE-SiO2 was modified by super-critical ethanol and PES thermoplastic resin used as modifiers. The composite was prepared via the hot melting method. The FT-IR measurements indicated that ethanol molecular had adsorbed on the nano-SiO2 surface. SEM images showed that the composite had a multiphase structure, PES and SCE-SiO2 existed as a dispersed phase, and the interaction of the three phases affected each other, such that the bending fracture behavior transformed from brittle fracture to ductile fracture, and the modifiers of SCE-SiO2 and PES resin could improve the mechanical properties. The impact and the bending strength of the composite was 16.5 kJ/mm2 and 150.4 MPa, improved by 68.3% and 56.7% compared with those of the MBAE matrix, respectively, when the content of SCE-SiO2 was 2 wt.% and PES 5 wt.%. The dielectric constant ( ɛ) of the composites was less than 3.9 and decreased with increasing frequency, and the dielectric loss was less than 9 × 10-3 for frequencies between 102 Hz and 105 Hz. These properties could meet the requirement of insulating material.

  14. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225-4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), and moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999-29.497 mg kg -1 ) and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300-47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates that AITC significantly improved plant vigor. Field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both ∼ 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both ∼ 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30-50 g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Extraction of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and its fumigant insecticidal activity on four stored-product pests of paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Guo-An; Zeng, Shuiyun; Lin, Kai-chun

    2009-09-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., May & Scherb. have been shown previously to have insecticidal activity. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a major component of ITCs with high volatility, was therefore extracted using different methods and tested as a fumigant against four major pest species of stored products, maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (F.), Tribolium ferrugineum (F.) and book louse Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein). Whereas there was no significant difference between hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction in extraction rate for AITC from A. rusticana, both methods resulted in higher extraction efficiency than water extraction. AITC fumigation showed strong toxicity to the four species of stored-product pests. Adult mortality of 100% of all four pest species, recorded after 72 h exposure to AITC fumes at an atmospheric concentration of 3 microg mL(-1), showed no significant difference from that of insects exposed to phosphine at 5 microg mL(-1), the recommended dose for phosphine. The results suggest good insecticidal efficacy of AITC against the four stored-product pests, with non-gaseous residuals on stored products. AITC obtained from A. rusticana may be an alternative to phosphine and methyl bromide against the four pest species. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Novel N-allyl/propargyl tetrahydroquinolines: Synthesis via Three-component Cationic Imino Diels-Alder Reaction, Binding Prediction, and Evaluation as Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yeray A; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Ramírez, David; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Bernal, Cristian C; Güiza, Fausto M; Romero Bohórquez, Arnold R

    2016-10-01

    New N-allyl/propargyl 4-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines derivatives were efficiently synthesized using acid-catalyzed three components cationic imino Diels-Alder reaction (70-95%). All compounds were tested in vitro as dual acetylcholinesterase and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitors and their potential binding modes, and affinity, were predicted by molecular docking and binding free energy calculations (∆G) respectively. The compound 4af (IC50 = 72 μm) presented the most effective inhibition against acetylcholinesterase despite its poor selectivity (SI = 2), while the best inhibitory activity on butyryl-cholinesterase was exhibited by compound 4ae (IC50 = 25.58 μm) with considerable selectivity (SI = 0.15). Molecular docking studies indicated that the most active compounds fit in the reported acetylcholinesterase and butyryl-cholinesterase active sites. Moreover, our computational data indicated a high correlation between the calculated ∆G and the experimental activity values in both targets. © 2016 The Authors Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Toxic effects of a horseradish extract and allyl isothiocyanate in the urinary bladder after 13-week administration in drinking water to F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Cho, Young-Man; Ueda, Makoto; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic toxicity of a horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and other isothiocyanates, was investigated with administration at concentrations of 0, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05% of HRE in drinking water for 13 weeks to male and female F344 rats. For comparison, treatment with 0.0425% of AITC was similarly performed. Body weight gain was reduced in the 0.05% HRE and AITC males as compared to the 0% controls, and the cause was considered at least partly related to decreased water consumption due to the acrid smell of the test substance and decreased food consumption. Serum biochemistry demonstrated increased urea nitrogen in 0.025 and 0.05% HRE and AITC males and 0.0125-0.05% HRE and AITC females, along with decreased total cholesterol in 0.0125-0.05% HRE females. On histopathological assessment, papillary/nodular hyperplasia of bladder mucosa was observed in 0.05% HRE and AITC males and females, in addition to simple mucosal hyperplasia found in all treated groups. Based on the above findings, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were estimated to be below 0.0125% of HRE for both males and females, corresponding to 9.4 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and there appeared to be comparable toxicological properties of HRE to AITC, such as the inductive effect of significant proliferative lesions in the urinary bladder.

  18. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  19. Alcohol advertising and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2002-04-01

    Considerable research now exists that the media may exert a powerful influence on adolescents' drug-taking behavior. Teens view an average of 2,000 beer and wine ads per year in the US. In addition, television shows, movies, and music videos contain considerable amounts of alcohol use. This article will discuss the available research and offers suggestions to make the media healthier for teenagers.

  20. Genetics, systems, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, G E

    1993-03-01

    Under a variety of rubrics (e.g., complexity, self-constructing systems, dissipative structures), interest has recently burgeoned in applying principles of complex systems to a wide variety of scientific issues. A major concern is with emergent properties of systems not derivable from the properties of components of the systems. In this paper, some elementary aspects of "systems" considerations are applied to phenomena of alcohol pharmacogenetics. It is likely that whole new families of informative phenotypes can be generated by this approach.

  1. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-01-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis. (orig.) [de

  2. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-12-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis.

  3. [Nationwide survey of alcohol drinking and alcoholism among Japanese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Matsushita, Sachio; Shirasaka, Tomonobu; Hiro, Hisanori; Higuchi, Susumu

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the characteristics of alcohol use among Japanese adults and prevalence of alcohol dependence in Japan, we conducted a nationwide survey on alcohol drinking behavior and alcohol dependence among Japanese adults using a representative sampling method. We sampled 3500 adults from throughout the entire country using a stratified random sampling method with two-step stratification, and carried out a home visit interview survey. A total of 2547 people (72.8%) responded to the survey. The survey period was June, 2003. The questionnaire contained questions about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, 'hazardous use of alcohol' and 'alcohol dependence' according to the ICD-10 definition, several screening scales on problem use of alcohol (CAGE, KAST, AUDIT), life-time prevalence of 24 alcohol related diseases, smoking status, dysgryphia, and nightcap drinking. The number of respondents was, 1184 males, and 1363 females. Lifetime alcohol drinking, and weekly drinking, and daily drinking rates were 95.1%, 64.4%, and 36.2% for males, 79.0%, 27.5%, and 7.5% for females, respectively. Average daily alcohol consumption was 3.7 units for males, and 2.0 units for females (1 unit = 10 g pure alcohol). The proportion of drinkers who drank alcohol 4 units or more daily was 28.9% for males, and 7.6% for females, and that for 6 units or more was 12.7% for males, and 3.4% for females. The proportion of flasher was 41.2% for males, and 35.0% for females. Among screening questions, problem drinking was most frequently identified using AUDIT (score 12 points or more, 150 persons), followed by KAST (2 points or more, 100 persons) and CAGE (2 points or more, 98 persons). The number of subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence was 24, while the number who engaged in hazardous alcohol use was 64. This study revealed that problem drinking and alcohol dependence are a serious problem in Japanese general population. The problem of females drinking may be

  4. [Non alcoholic steatohepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, E; Findor, J A; Avagnina, A; de Elizalde, S; Elsner, B

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study of 21 patients with the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was carried out. All patients had hepatomegaly and in 10 (48%) image studies were consistent with steatosis and/or fibrosis. Biochemically, there was increase of AST, ALT and cholesterol in 48%, of GGT in 52% and of alkaline phosphatase in 38%. 18 patients were obese, 2 of them diabetic, 2 others had a history of exposure to drugs (amiodarone and isopropilic alcohol) and the last one presented hypothyroidism. Liver biopsies were studied using a semiquantitative scale to evaluate the degree of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in a scale from 1 to 3. Results showed a medium score of 2.6 for steatosis, 1.5 for inflammation and 1.8 for fibrosis. Four patients had cirrhosis and Mallory bodies were found in 11 cases (52%). NASH is an oligosymptomatic disease that can be found in different clinical conditions, mainly obesity, and is more frequent in women. It is histologically indistinguishable from alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is frequently underdiagnosed clinically and must be taken into account as a possible cause of cryptogenetic cirrhosis.

  5. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time.

  8. A3.5 Unrecorded alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Clara; Urbano, Cláudia; Balsa, Casimiro; Österberg, Esa

    2016-01-01

    UID/SOC/04647/2013 Drinking alcohol is an important public health problem. It is an even more important problem when there are many different ways of acquiring the substance. The amounts of alcohol acquired from some sources are recorded and published in official alcohol consumption statistics. Alcohol consumption figures may be based on data on alcohol taxation or data from formal off- and on-premise alcohol sales, while other ways of acquiring alcohol go beyond these official statistics,...

  9. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  10. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  11. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  12. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  13. The Alcohol Environment Protocol: A new tool for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Morojele, Neo; Williams, Petal Petersen; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Gordon, Ross; Gray-Philip, Gaile; Viet Cuong, Pham; MacKintosh, Anne-Marie; Halliday, Sharon; Railton, Renee; Randerson, Steve; Parry, Charles D H

    2018-01-04

    To report data on the implementation of alcohol policies regarding availability and marketing, and drink driving, along with ratings of enforcement from two small high-income to three high-middle income countries, and one low-middle income country. This study uses the Alcohol Environment Protocol, an International Alcohol Control study research tool, which documents the alcohol policy environment by standardised collection of data from administrative sources, observational studies and interviews with key informants to allow for cross-country comparison and change over time. All countries showed adoption to varying extents of key effective policy approaches outlined in the World Health Organization Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol (2010). High-income countries were more likely to allocate resources to enforcement. However, where enforcement and implementation were high, policy on availability was fairly liberal. Key Informants judged alcohol to be very available in both high- and middle-income countries, reflecting liberal policy in the former and less implementation and enforcement and informal (unlicensed) sale of alcohol in the latter. Marketing was largely unrestricted in all countries and while drink-driving legislation was in place, it was less well enforced in middle-income countries. In countries with fewer resources, alcohol policies are less effective because of lack of implementation and enforcement and, in the case of marketing, lack of regulation. This has implications for the increase in consumption taking place as a result of the expanding distribution and marketing of commercial alcohol and consequent increases in alcohol-related harm. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related

  15. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  16. Alcohol and malnutrition in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M A

    1980-02-01

    In this study, the morphology and the catecholamine levels of the myocardium in both well-nourished and malnourished alcohol-fed rats were examined. Alcohol has been administered to rats for 16 weeks. Rats fed a diet containing alcohol corresponding to 40 per cent. of total calorific intake and inadequate amounts of calories and nutrients developed morphological changes in the heart, while the controls did not. In addition, an increase in cardiac noradrenaline concentration and heart: body weight ratio could be observed. There were no differences in myocardial morphology and catecholamine concentration between well-nourished rats fed alcohol as 35 per cent. of the calorific intake and pair-fed controls. A dispute exists about whether alcohol is directly toxic to the heart or indirectly injurious due to associated dietary deficiency. The present results, taken together, make the theory of cardiotoxicity of alcohol an unlikely one, at least in the case of the rat; and they offer considerable support for the hypothesis that the association between chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages and cardiomyopathy is a result of a primary multifactorial nutritional deficiency, resulting from displacement of nutrient-associated calories by the "empty" calories--devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals--of alcohol, and/or a secondary nutritional deficiency due to injurious effects of alcohol on the liver, pancreas and intestine. It is suggested that continued exposure to high levels of catecholamine, directly related to malnutrition, may play a role in the development of myocardial pathology.

  17. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  18. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  19. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  1. Construct validation of the scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : The attitudes toward issues related to alcohol and alcoholism have been noted as important predictors of the quantity and quality of care provided to individuals who have problems related to alcohol use. The Scale of Attitudes toward Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholics (EAFAAA (Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e à pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool – EAFAAA has been widely used among students in health-related fields. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested among professionals. Objective : The goal of this study was to determine the construct validity of the EAFAAA for use among health professionals. Methods : A preliminary version of the EAFAAA was distributed to a sample of health care professionals (n = 1,025. For the construct validation of the scale, the data were subjected to a factorial analysis, and the internal consistency was examined; the cutoff score of the instrument was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results : The exploratory factor analysis and the refinement of the EAFAAA items resulted in a final version consisting of 50 items divided into four factors: (1 Work and interpersonal relationships with patients with alcohol use disorders, (2 The individual with an alcohol use disorder, (3 Etiology of alcoholism and (4 Alcoholic beverages and their use. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (Cronbach’s α > 0.80, and the instrument cutoff score was set at 3.15. Discussion : The results suggest that the instrument is valid for identifying attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders among health professionals.

  2. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  3. Stimulation of appetite by alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, M. M.; Cameron, F.; Wallis, D. J.; Pirie, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake, 26 males attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion, they were given a standard breakfast. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger, desire to eat and fullness (appetite ratings) were recorded from before breakfast until their return to the laboratory for lunch. Thirty minutes before lunch, subjects either rested (baseline), were given 330 ml of a no-alcohol lager (264 kJ: no-alcohol condition) or 330 m...

  4. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    last 10 years.12 Apart from the cost of medical care, the cost of alcohol use can also be associated with absenteeism and property damage. Alcohol...related harms cost British industry approximately £2 billion a year13 and the NHS about £1.7 billion a year14. Alcohol affects labour and productivity...Harmful drinking, Factsheet, June (2007). 15 “ Absenteeism due to drink”, Healthcare Today Magazine, September 19th, 2007. (Accessed on 19/09/07, at

  5. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical ...

  6. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  7. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  8. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to the...

  9. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  10. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  11. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  12. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  14. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  15. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatics with unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Sivakumar, Ganesan; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2016-08-18

    A cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatic and heteroaromatic amides with unactivated alkenes, allyl acetates and allyl alcohols is described. This method offers an efficient route for the synthesis of vinyl and allyl benzamides in a highly stereoselective manner. It is observed that the ortho substituent on the benzamide moiety is crucial for the observation of allylated products in unactivated alkenes.

  16. Thermochemical study of deuterium exchange reactions in water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurma, J.R.; Fenby, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Molar excess enthalpies of water-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give equilibrium constants and enthalpies of the reactions 2ROH + D 2 O = 2ROD + H 2 O (R = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , n-C 3 H 7 ). The equilibrium constants are significantly greater than the ''random'' value. Molar excess enthalpies of alcohol-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give enthalpies of reactions ROH + R'OD = ROD + R'OH. The enthalpies of water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol exchange reactions form a self-consistent set and are in good agreement with values from earlier studies. Molar excess enthalpies at 298.15 K are reported for n-C 3 H 7 OH and n-C 3 H 7 OD with H 2 O, D 2 O, CH 3 OH, CH 3 OD, C 2 H 5 OH, and C 2 H 5 OD

  17. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  18. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...

  19. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  20. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol Resource Grant Applications. Date: April 6...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  1. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...

  2. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  3. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  4. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center Grants--Parent Committee. Date: August 10, 2012...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  5. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Program Projects on Alcohol-Related Research. August...: Richard A Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  6. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol related hepatocellular liver injury was assessed using aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels. A combination of CAGE score ≥2 and De Ritis ratio ≥2 defined alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and viral hepatitis B and C serologies were evaluated in all ...

  7. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the C-C bond fission channels from an O(3P)+allyl radical intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, Benjamin L.; Alligood, Bridget W.; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2010-01-01

    This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c-(H 2 COCH)CH 2 Cl. The three dominant photoproduct channels analyzed are c-(H 2 COCH)CH 2 +Cl, c-(H 2 COCH)+CH 2 Cl, and C 3 H 4 O+HCl. In the second channel, the c-(H 2 COCH) photofission product is a higher energy intermediate on C 2 H 3 O global potential energy surface and has a small isomerization barrier to vinoxy. The resulting highly vibrationally excited vinoxy radicals likely dissociate to give the observed signal at the mass corresponding to ketene, H 2 CCO. The final primary photodissociation pathway HCl+C 3 H 4 O evidences a recoil kinetic energy distribution similar to that of four-center HCl elimination in chlorinated alkenes, so is assigned to production of c-(H 2 COC)=CH 2 ; the epoxide product is formed with enough vibrational energy to isomerize to acrolein and dissociate. The paper then analyzes the dynamics of the C 3 H 5 O radical produced from C-Cl bond photofission. When the epoxide radical photoproduct undergoes facile ring opening, it is the radical intermediate formed in the O( 3 P)+allyl bimolecular reaction when the O atom adds to an end C atom. We focus on the HCO+C 2 H 4 and H 2 CO+C 2 H 3 product channels from this radical intermediate in this report. Analysis of the velocity distribution of the momentum-matched signals from the HCO+C 2 H 4 products at m/e=29 and 28 shows that the dissociation of the radical intermediate imparts a high relative kinetic energy, peaking near 20 kcal/mol, between the products. Similarly, the energy imparted to relative kinetic energy in the H 2 CO+C 2 H 3 product channel of the O( 3 P)+allyl radical intermediate also peaks at high-recoil kinetic energies, near 18 kcal/mol. The strongly forward-backward peaked angular distributions and the high kinetic energy release result from tangential recoil during the dissociation of highly rotationally excited nascent radicals formed photolytically in this experiment

  8. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the C-C bond fission channels from an O(3P)+allyl radical intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Benjamin L.; Alligood, Bridget W.; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c-(H2COCH)CH2Cl. The three dominant photoproduct channels analyzed are c-(H2COCH)CH2+Cl, c-(H2COCH)+CH2Cl, and C3H4O+HCl. In the second channel, the c-(H2COCH) photofission product is a higher energy intermediate on C2H3O global potential energy surface and has a small isomerization barrier to vinoxy. The resulting highly vibrationally excited vinoxy radicals likely dissociate to give the observed signal at the mass corresponding to ketene, H2CCO. The final primary photodissociation pathway HCl+C3H4O evidences a recoil kinetic energy distribution similar to that of four-center HCl elimination in chlorinated alkenes, so is assigned to production of c-(H2COC)=CH2; the epoxide product is formed with enough vibrational energy to isomerize to acrolein and dissociate. The paper then analyzes the dynamics of the C3H5O radical produced from C-Cl bond photofission. When the epoxide radical photoproduct undergoes facile ring opening, it is the radical intermediate formed in the O(P3)+allyl bimolecular reaction when the O atom adds to an end C atom. We focus on the HCO+C2H4 and H2CO+C2H3 product channels from this radical intermediate in this report. Analysis of the velocity distribution of the momentum-matched signals from the HCO+C2H4 products at m/e=29 and 28 shows that the dissociation of the radical intermediate imparts a high relative kinetic energy, peaking near 20 kcal/mol, between the products. Similarly, the energy imparted to relative kinetic energy in the H2CO+C2H3 product channel of the O(P3)+allyl radical intermediate also peaks at high-recoil kinetic energies, near 18 kcal/mol. The strongly forward-backward peaked angular distributions and the high kinetic energy release result from tangential recoil during the dissociation of highly rotationally excited nascent radicals formed photolytically in this experiment. The data also reveal substantial branching to an HCCH+H3

  9. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  10. Noxious heat threshold temperature and pronociceptive effects of allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil) in TRPV1 or TRPA1 gene-deleted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Horváth, Ádám; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Bölcskei, Kata; Boros, Melinda; Pintér, Erika; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Pethő, Gábor; Szolcsányi, János

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in baseline and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-evoked nociceptive responses by comparing wild-type and gene-deficient mice. In contrast to conventional methods of thermonociception measuring reflex latencies, we used our novel methods to determine the noxious heat threshold. It was revealed that the heat threshold of the tail measured by an increasing-temperature water bath is significantly higher in TRPV1(-/-), but not TRPA1(-/-), mice compared to respective wild-types. There was no difference between the noxious heat thresholds of the hind paw as measured by an increasing-temperature hot plate in TRPV1(-/-), TRPA1(-/-) and the corresponding wild-type mice. The withdrawal latency of the tail from 0°C water was prolonged in TRPA1(-/-), but not TRPV1(-/-), mice compared to respective wild-types. In wild-type animals, dipping the tail or paw into 1% AITC induced an 8-14°C drop of the noxious heat threshold (heat allodynia) of both the tail and paw, and 40-50% drop of the mechanonociceptive threshold (mechanical allodynia) of the paw measured by dynamic plantar esthesiometry. These AITC-evoked responses were diminished in TRPV1(-/-), but not TRPA1(-/-), mice. Tail withdrawal latency to 1% AITC was significantly prolonged in both gene-deleted strains. Different heat sensors determine the noxious heat threshold in distinct areas: a pivotal role for TRPV1 on the tail is contrasted with no involvement of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 on the hind paw. Noxious heat threshold measurement appears appropriate for preclinical screening of TRP channel ligands as novel analgesics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYLETHANONE N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenylethanone N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells was determined. It was established that the substitution of hydrogen atom with methyl group in the azomethinic fragment leads to the growth of antitumor activity.SINTEZA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTITUMORALĂ A COMPUŞILOR COMPLECŞI AI CUPRULUI, NICHELULUI ŞI COBALTULUI CU N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONA 1-(2-HIDROXIFENILETANONEILucrarea conţine descrierea sintezei N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonei 1-(2-hidroxifeniletanonei (H2L şi a şase compuşi coordinativi ai cuprului, nichelului şi cobaltului cu acest ligand. Structura tiosemicarbazonei H2L a fost stabilită în baza datelor spectroscopiei RMN 1H şi 13C. Compuşi coordinativi au fost studiaţi cu ajutorul analizei elementale, analizei gravimetrice a conţinutului de apă, conductivitaţii molare şi magnetochimiei. Pentru H2L a fost determinată activitatea antitumorală faţă de celulele leucemiei umane HL-60 şi ale cancerului cervical HeLa. S-a stabilit că înlocuirea atomului de hidrogen cu o grupare metil în fragmentul azomethinic conduce la creşterea activitaţii antitumorale.

  12. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  13. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  14. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  15. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  16. An association study between polymorphism of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... factors which include alcohol metabolizing genes and ... Association research proves that c2 allele is a risk factor for ..... polymorphism in alcohol liver cirrhosis and alcohol chronic pancreatitis among Polish individuals.S cand ...

  17. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  18. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  19. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  20. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085