FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Stories by Yurii Borisovich Rumer
Rumer, Yurii B.
2001-10-01
Yurii Borisovich Rumer (Yu B) was an excellent story-teller. Grateful listeners long remembered his stories about life in the first years after the 1917 Great Socialist Revolution in Russia, about the Göttingen School, about Albert Einstein, about Soviet physicists, about the years he spent in prison and in the secret research institution where all researchers and staff were prisoners. Unfortunately, nobody was perceptive enough to record these stories for posterity. Yu B himself would not agree to it as after the many years of his gruesome prison experience he was always cautious and carefully censored his stories himself according to the audience and the political climate of the period. The few reminiscences published in his lifetime also exhibit evidence of such self-censorship. M P Kemoklidze made detailed records but she says she destroyed them after publishing the book Quantum age (1989) for which they were intended. Here we are publishing a transcript of the tape recording made by Anna Livanova in 1962 when Yu B visited her in Moscow (she knew him from her days as a student of the Physics Department of Moscow State University). When Livanova was on a business trip to the Novosibirsk Academy Town she attended a talk given by Yu B to the students of Novosibirsk University at which they asked him to tell of the most important occasion in his life. He said it was his meeting with Einstein. In Moscow Livanova recorded an extended version of that talk. Livanova used the recording for writing the essays ''Academy Town in Siberia'' (Znamya magazine, No. 11, 12, 1962) and ''Physicists about Physicists'' (in the book Roads to the Unknown — Writers Telling about Science in which a section was entitled 'Meeting with Einstein'), and her book 'Physicists about Physicists' (Moscow: 'Molodaya Gvardiya' Publishers, 1968) which also included a section on Rumer's meeting with Einstein. The publications were significantly edited and only a part of the recording transcript
Haapasalo, M; Kerosuo, E; Lounatmaa, K
1990-12-01
The hydrophobicities of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and Bacteroides buccae, B. oris, B. oralis, B. veroralis, B. buccalis, B. heparinolyticus, B. intermedius, B. denticola, B. loescheii, B. melaninogenicus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. endodontalis, Wolinella recta, and Eubacterium yurii were studied by the hexadecane method. The majority of the strains were equally or less hydrophobic than the PMNLs. Only in the case of E. yurii and the only strain of B. buccalis were all strains more hydrophobic than the PMNLs. However, some strains of B. intermedius, B. oris, B. denticola, and P. gingivalis were also more hydrophobic than the PMNLs. With the exception of B. intermedius and species with a crystalline surface protein layer (S-layer), the strains of all other species with a thick capsule were more hydrophilic than the strains with little or no extracellular polymeric material. All strains of the S-layer species were either quite hydrophilic or hydrophobic depending on the species, totally irrespective of the presence of the capsule. The results suggest that the S-layers of oral anaerobic bacteria may be important determinants of cell surface hydrophobicity.
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frommert, Mona; Durrer, Ruth; Michaud, Jérôme
2012-01-01
We investigate the statistics of the cosmic microwave background using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We show that, when we correctly de-correlate the data, the partition function of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter is compatible with the Kolmogorov distribution and, contrary to previous claims, the CMB data are compatible with Gaussian fluctuations with the correlation function given by standard ΛCDM. We then use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to derive upper bounds on residual point source power in the CMB, and indicate the promise of this statistics for further datasets, especially Planck, to search for deviations from Gaussianity and for detecting point sources and Galactic foregrounds
Neutrino decay catalyzed by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raghavan, R.S.; He, X.; Pakvasa, S.
1988-01-01
A new mechanism for neutrino (ν) decay in the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) regime of weak mixing and small ν mass differences is pointed out. Even though electron-neutrinos (ν/sub e/) in this regime are practically stable, in solar matter, conversion of the ν/sub e/ to a ''heavier'' flavor by the MSW effect can catalyze ν decay. MSW+ν decay into Majorons can lead to a strong solar antineutrino signal in proposed experiments, directly probing ν-Majoron couplings ∼700 times smaller than the present laboratory bound of g 2 <4.5 x 10/sup -5/
Exact analytic solutions for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein level crossings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noetzold, D.
1987-01-01
An exact formula for the transition probability in level-crossing phenomena is derived for a general case, ranging from adiabatic to sudden crossings. This is done in the context of neutrino flavor oscillations for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, where hitherto only numerical or approximate solutions were obtained. The matter density or level splitting is assumed to be governed by a hyperbolic-tangent function which, however, can change arbitrarily fast between two constant values. For example, in context of the MSW effect this furnishes a nice fit to the solar density determining the level crossing of solar neutrinos. In the quasiadiabatic limit the exact Landau-Zener factor can be read off, correcting some expressions obtained so far. Even in the opposite limit of a sudden level crossing a conversion is found, which can have far-reaching consequences for neutrino detection on Earth
A multidimensional version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasano, G.; Franceschini, A.
1987-01-01
A generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, which is suitable to analyse random samples defined in two or three dimensions is discussed. This test provides some improvements with respect to an earlier version proposed by a previous author. In particular: (i) it is faster, by a factor equal to the sample size, n, and then usable to analyse quite sizeable samples; (ii) it fully takes into account the dependence of the test statistics on the degree of correlation of data points and on the sample size; (iii) it allows for a generalization to the three-dimensional case which is still viable as regards computing time. Supported by a larger number of Monte Carlo simulations, it is ensured that this test is sufficiently distribution-free for any practical purposes. (author)
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for spatially correlated data
Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky-Glahn, V.
2009-01-01
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is a convenient method for investigating whether two underlying univariate probability distributions can be regarded as undistinguishable from each other or whether an underlying probability distribution differs from a hypothesized distribution. Application of the test requires that the sample be unbiased and the outcomes be independent and identically distributed, conditions that are violated in several degrees by spatially continuous attributes, such as topographical elevation. A generalized form of the bootstrap method is used here for the purpose of modeling the distribution of the statistic D of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The innovation is in the resampling, which in the traditional formulation of bootstrap is done by drawing from the empirical sample with replacement presuming independence. The generalization consists of preparing resamplings with the same spatial correlation as the empirical sample. This is accomplished by reading the value of unconditional stochastic realizations at the sampling locations, realizations that are generated by simulated annealing. The new approach was tested by two empirical samples taken from an exhaustive sample closely following a lognormal distribution. One sample was a regular, unbiased sample while the other one was a clustered, preferential sample that had to be preprocessed. Our results show that the p-value for the spatially correlated case is always larger that the p-value of the statistic in the absence of spatial correlation, which is in agreement with the fact that the information content of an uncorrelated sample is larger than the one for a spatially correlated sample of the same size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.
Solar neutrinos and the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethe, H.A.; Bahcall, J.N.
1991-01-01
The observation of solar neutrinos by Kamiokande shows that the solar-neutrino problem cannot be solved by changing the solar model. In combination with the observations with a chlorine detector, it makes the nonadiabatic form of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein theory most likely, and determines Δm 2 sin 2 θ=1.0x10 -8 eV 2 . Probably all neutrinos go through the resonance in the Sun, those from 8 B nonadiabatically, all others adiabatically. The latter emerge from the Sun in the higher-mass eigenstate ν 2 and have a probability sin 2 θ to be detected as ν e . The gallium experiments, when done with sufficient accuracy, will be able to determine Δm 2 =m 2 (ν μ )-m 2 (ν e ) within fairly close limits. If the day-night effect can be measured, it will further constrain these limits. The small value of Δm 2 sin 2 θ explains why the oscillation from ν e to ν μ has not been observed in the laboratory. From existing experiments, the temperature at the center of the Sun can be determined to be within about 6% of that derived from the standard solar model; future neutrino experiments may determine it to within 1%
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José Calvo González
2011-01-01
Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la figura del eminente jurista ruso Anatoliĭ Fedorovich Koni, representativa de la corriente jurídica liberal-moderada en la etapa prerevolucionaria de Rusia. Recupera en su obra su interés por el gran mentor de la literatura rusa moderna, Pushkin, que vincula al programa de modernización inaugurado con las reformas judiciales de 1864. Detalla igualmente las relaciones personales con escritores contemporáneos, entre los que aparecen Chéjov, Dostoiesvki y Tolstói. Sobre esta base proyecta las imbricaciones Derecho y Literatura en una doble dirección, incluyendo las reflexiones jurídicas a partir de textos literarios así como las potencialidades de las categorías jurídicas en la creación literaria. Finalmente, inserta ambas construcciones en el ambiente de una cultura literaria y jurídica que estaba prefigurando el modernismo literario y (efímero y fallido modernismo jurídico.
Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieczorek, W.
2004-01-01
We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)
Solar Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect with Three Generations of Neutrinos
Osland, P; Osland, Per; Wu, Tai Tsun
2000-01-01
Under the assumption that the density variation of the electrons can beapproximated by an exponential function, the solar Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfensteineffect is treated for three generations of neutrinos. The generalizedhypergeometric functions that result from the exact solution of this problemare studied in detail, and a method for their numerical evaluation ispresented. This analysis plays a central role in the determination of neutrinomasses, not only the differences of their squares, under the assumption ofuniversal quark-lepton mixing.
An extra contribution to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein potential in a CP-nonsymmetric plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvat, R.
1991-01-01
Owing to matter-induced electromagnetic properties of neutrinos, v L e - → v L e - electromagnetic scattering in a plasma becomes possible even in the standard model with massless left-handed neutrinos. Electric-charge screening in a plasma causes the contribution to the external potential for a left-handed neutrino field to be the same as the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein potential. (orig.)
Solar Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect with Three Generations of Neutrinos
Osland, P; Wu Tai Tsun
1999-01-01
Under the assumption that the density variation of the electrons can be approximated by an exponential function, the solar Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect is treated for three generations of neutrinos. The generalized hypergeometric functions that result from the exact solution of this problem are studied in detail, and a method for their numerical evaluation is presented. This analysis plays a central role in the determination of neutrino masses, not only the differences of their squares...
Evidence for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects in solar neutrino flavor transitions
G. L. FogliU. of Bari and INFN, Bari; E. Lisi(U. of Bari and INFN, Bari); A. Marrone(U. of Bari and INFN, Bari); A Palazzo(U. of Bari and INFN, Bari)
2015-01-01
We point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. More precisely, one can safely reject the null hypothesis of no MSW interaction energy in matter, despite the fact that the interaction amplitude (formally treated as a free parameter) is still weakly constrained...
Matter oscillations and solar neutrinos: A review of the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.
1986-07-16
We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, in which matter oscillations can greatly enhance ''in vacuo'' neutrino oscillations, and we examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the ..delta..m/sup 2/-sin/sup 2/2THETA parameter space for the /sup 37/Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the /sup 71/Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. We also comment on the three-flavor case.
Matter oscillations and solar neutrinos: A review of the MSW [Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein] effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.
1986-01-01
We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, in which matter oscillations can greatly enhance ''in vacuo'' neutrino oscillations, and we examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the Δm 2 -sin 2 2Θ parameter space for the 37 Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the 71 Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. We also comment on the three-flavor case
Neutrinos from supernova explosion and the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Suzuki, H.
1987-01-01
It is shown that by taking the effect of the Earth into account the possible observation of electron neutrinos from the supernova SN1987A at the Kamiokande II is compatible with the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. The authors' scenario requires relatively large mixing angles sin/sup 2/ 2θ>≥0.3 and, most probably, Δm/sup 2/ of the order of 10/sup -6/ -- 10/sup -5/(eV)/sup 2/. The implications of possible observation in other neutrino detectors are briefly discussed
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in electron-neutrino scattering experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahcall, J.N.; Gelb, J.M.; Rosen, S.P.
1987-01-01
We calculate the influence of resonant neutrino scattering [the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect] in the Sun and in the Earth on measurable quantities in solar-neutrino--electron scattering experiments. The MSW effect reduces the expected rate for 8 B-neutrino--electron scattering by a factor that ranges from --0.8 to --0.2 if resonant scattering is the correct explanation for the discrepancy between observation and calculation in the /sup 37/Cl experiment. The Earth can produce a significant diurnal effect for certain values of the neutrino mixing angle and mass difference
Solar Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect with three generations of neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osland, Per; Wu, Tai Tsun
2000-01-01
Under the assumption that the density variation of the electrons can be approximated by an exponential function, the solar Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect is treated for three generations of neutrinos. The generalized hypergeometric functions that result from the exact solution of this problem are studied in detail, and a method for their numerical evaluation is presented. This analysis plays a central role in the determination of neutrino masses, not only the differences of their squares, under the assumption of universal quark-lepton mixing. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Monte Carlo exploration of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar neutrino problem
Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.; Bahcall, J. N.
1992-01-01
The paper explores the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution by calculating the allowed MSW solutions for 1000 different solar models with a Monte Carlo selection of solar model input parameters, assuming a full three-family MSW mixing. Applications are made to the chlorine, gallium, Kamiokande, and Borexino experiments. The initial GALLEX result limits the mixing parameters to the upper diagonal and the vertical regions of the MSW triangle. The expected event rates in the Borexino experiment are also calculated, assuming the MSW solutions implied by GALLEX.
Stage of the Analysis of the Crimean Khanate Sources: V.D. Smirnov »
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A.A. Nepomnyashchiy
2015-09-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a substantial body of archival documents of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the little-known publications, the author has restored laborious work of professor of St. Petersburg University Vasiliy Dmitrievich Smirnov who collected, organized and preserved in the central archival repositories sources for the history of the Crimean Khanate. The author has reconstructed the main events in his life and his activities in the Imperial Public Library related to the concentration in this store of the Crimean Tatar documents (article also contains a short list of his main works. Not limited to the literary sources of Turkey and Russia, Vasiliy Dmitrievich repeatedly worked in the libraries of Budapest, Vienna, London, and Paris. In the 1880’s, he continued to develop the theme of his doctoral thesis and combined literary studies and work in the archives with archaeological researches in the Crimea. The author has analyzed the process of creating of the largest work on the history of the Crimean Khanate, which remains hitherto an unrivaled. V.D. Smirnov managed to summarize Turkish sources (medieval Ottoman and Crimean “chronicles”, most of which have not yet been translated and historiography. This work continues to constitute a historiographical interest in the present. He widely covered, in the first place, the political history of the Crimean Khanate. The author have reviewed the research trip of V.D. Smirnov to the Crimea, his work in local archives, and communication with experts in the Crimean Tatar and Ottoman history. The author has considered the epistolary heritage of the scholar and, on this basis, discovered his academic contacts with leading researchers of Crimea of that time. The author found that he corresponded with such researchers as A.I. Markevich, N.A. Sultan Krym Giray, Z.A. Firkovich, S.M. Shapshal. To V.D. Smirnov belong a comprehensive source study on the history of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langacker, P.; Petcov, S.T.; Steigman, G.; Toshev, S.
1987-01-01
Mikheyev and Smirnov have recently proposed a novel and plausible solution of the solar neutrino problem, based on the resonant amplification of the neutrino oscillations in matter. We comment on several aspects of this mechanism. (i) For the values of neutrino masses and mixing angles predicted by the seesaw model of grand unified theories, the MSW effect may take place naturally in the Sun, leading to a considerable reduction of the flux of solar electron neutrinos, with the dominant transition being ν e →ν τ (rather than ν e →ν μ ). (ii) Oscillations between the ordinary neutrinos (ν e ,ν μ ,ν τ ) can affect primordial nucleosynthesis, but the effect is small (i.e., the abundance of 4 He is predicted to change by less than 1.3x10 -3 ). (iii) A comparison of some of the general properties of neutrino oscillations in matter and in vacuum is given. (orig.)
Evidence for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects in solar neutrino flavor transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Palazzo, A.
2004-01-01
We point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. More precisely, one can safely reject the null hypothesis of no MSW interaction energy in matter, despite the fact that the interaction amplitude (formally treated as a free parameter) is still weakly constrained by the current phenomenology. Such a constraint can be improved, however, by future data from the KamLAND experiment. In the standard MSW case, we also perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos
Hint of nonstandard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein dynamics in solar neutrino conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palazzo, Antonio
2011-01-01
Motivated by the recent low-threshold measurements of the solar 8 B neutrino spectrum performed by Borexino, Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory--all now monitoring the transition regime between low-energy (vacuumlike) and high-energy (matter-dominated) flavor conversions--we consider the role of subdominant dynamical terms induced by new flavor-changing interactions. We find that the presence of such perturbations with strength ∼10 -1 G F is now favored, offering a better description of the anomalous behavior suggested by the new results, whose spectrum shows no sign of the typical low-energy upturn predicted by the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism. Our findings, if interpreted in a 2-flavor scheme, provide a hint of such new interactions at the ∼2σ level, which is rather robust with respect to 3-flavor effects possibly induced by nonzero θ 13 .
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect with flavor-changing neutrino interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roulet, E.
1991-01-01
We consider the effect that flavor-nondiagonal neutrino interactions with matter have on the resonant ν oscillations. It is shown that, even in the absence of ν mixing in a vacuum, an efficient conversion of the electron neutrinos from the Sun to another ν flavor can result if the strength of this interaction is ∼10 -2 G F . We show how this can be implemented in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity breaking. Here, the L-violating couplings induce neutrino masses, mixings, and the flavor-nondiagonal neutrino interactions that can provide a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-like solution to the solar-neutrino problem even for negligible vacuum mixings
Evidence for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects in solar neutrino flavor transitions
Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Palazzo, A.
2004-03-01
We point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. More precisely, one can safely reject the null hypothesis of no MSW interaction energy in matter, despite the fact that the interaction amplitude (formally treated as a free parameter) is still weakly constrained by the current phenomenology. Such a constraint can be improved, however, by future data from the KamLAND experiment. In the standard MSW case, we also perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos.
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect as a probe of the solar interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L.H.; Cheng, Q.L.; Zhang, H.Q.; Peng, Q.H.
1997-01-01
We relate the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect to the effective absorption of the electronic collective motion energy by retaining the imaginary part of the index of refraction associated with the charged-current scattering and show that the small angle MSW solution to the solar neutrino anomaly can be used as a probe of the physical conditions of the solar interior if it is correct. We find that the constraint on the absorption imposed by the small angle MSW solution and the theoretical estimate of the absorption by the Boltzmann kinetic theory are consistent, which shows that a consistent theoretical picture can be developed when plasma absorption processes are taken into account. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Hint of nonstandard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein dynamics in solar neutrino conversion
Palazzo, Antonio
2011-05-01
Motivated by the recent low-threshold measurements of the solar B8 neutrino spectrum performed by Borexino, Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory—all now monitoring the transition regime between low-energy (vacuumlike) and high-energy (matter-dominated) flavor conversions—we consider the role of subdominant dynamical terms induced by new flavor-changing interactions. We find that the presence of such perturbations with strength ˜10-1GF is now favored, offering a better description of the anomalous behavior suggested by the new results, whose spectrum shows no sign of the typical low-energy upturn predicted by the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism. Our findings, if interpreted in a 2-flavor scheme, provide a hint of such new interactions at the ˜2σ level, which is rather robust with respect to 3-flavor effects possibly induced by nonzero θ13.
Sequential detection of influenza epidemics by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
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Closas Pau
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a well known and common human respiratory infection, causing significant morbidity and mortality every year. Despite Influenza variability, fast and reliable outbreak detection is required for health resource planning. Clinical health records, as published by the Diagnosticat database in Catalonia, host useful data for probabilistic detection of influenza outbreaks. Methods This paper proposes a statistical method to detect influenza epidemic activity. Non-epidemic incidence rates are modeled against the exponential distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimate for the decaying factor λ is calculated. The sequential detection algorithm updates the parameter as new data becomes available. Binary epidemic detection of weekly incidence rates is assessed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on the absolute difference between the empirical and the cumulative density function of the estimated exponential distribution with significance level 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. Results The main advantage with respect to other approaches is the adoption of a statistically meaningful test, which provides an indicator of epidemic activity with an associated probability. The detection algorithm was initiated with parameter λ0 = 3.8617 estimated from the training sequence (corresponding to non-epidemic incidence rates of the 2008-2009 influenza season and sequentially updated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test detected the following weeks as epidemic for each influenza season: 50−10 (2008-2009 season, 38−50 (2009-2010 season, weeks 50−9 (2010-2011 season and weeks 3 to 12 for the current 2011-2012 season. Conclusions Real medical data was used to assess the validity of the approach, as well as to construct a realistic statistical model of weekly influenza incidence rates in non-epidemic periods. For the tested data, the results confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect the start and the end of epidemic periods. In general, the proposed test could
Huang, Shuguang; Yeo, Adeline A; Li, Shuyu Dan
2007-10-01
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is a statistical method often used for comparing two distributions. In high-throughput screening (HTS) studies, such distributions usually arise from the phenotype of independent cell populations. However, the K-S test has been criticized for being overly sensitive in applications, and it often detects a statistically significant difference that is not biologically meaningful. One major reason is that there is a common phenomenon in HTS studies that systematic drifting exists among the distributions due to reasons such as instrument variation, plate edge effect, accidental difference in sample handling, etc. In particular, in high-content cellular imaging experiments, the location shift could be dramatic since some compounds themselves are fluorescent. This oversensitivity of the K-S test is particularly overpowered in cellular assays where the sample sizes are very big (usually several thousands). In this paper, a modified K-S test is proposed to deal with the nonspecific location-shift problem in HTS studies. Specifically, we propose that the distributions are "normalized" by density curve alignment before the K-S test is conducted. In applications to simulation data and real experimental data, the results show that the proposed method has improved specificity.
A Kolmogorov-Smirnov Based Test for Comparing the Predictive Accuracy of Two Sets of Forecasts
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Hossein Hassani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a complement statistical test for distinguishing between the predictive accuracy of two sets of forecasts. We propose a non-parametric test founded upon the principles of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS test, referred to as the KS Predictive Accuracy (KSPA test. The KSPA test is able to serve two distinct purposes. Initially, the test seeks to determine whether there exists a statistically significant difference between the distribution of forecast errors, and secondly it exploits the principles of stochastic dominance to determine whether the forecasts with the lower error also reports a stochastically smaller error than forecasts from a competing model, and thereby enables distinguishing between the predictive accuracy of forecasts. We perform a simulation study for the size and power of the proposed test and report the results for different noise distributions, sample sizes and forecasting horizons. The simulation results indicate that the KSPA test is correctly sized, and robust in the face of varying forecasting horizons and sample sizes along with significant accuracy gains reported especially in the case of small sample sizes. Real world applications are also considered to illustrate the applicability of the proposed KSPA test in practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.
2009-01-01
Motivated by slow-roll inflationary cosmology we study a scalar unparticle weakly coupled to a Higgs field in the broken symmetry phase. The mixing between the unparticle and the Higgs field results in a seesaw type matrix and the mixing angles feature a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect as a consequence of the unparticle field being noncanonical. We find two (MSW) resonances for small and large spacelike momenta. The unparticlelike mode features a nearly flat potential with spinodal instabilities and a large expectation value. An effective potential for the unparticlelike field is generated from the Higgs potential, but with couplings suppressed by a large power of the small seesaw ratio. The dispersion relation for the Higgs-like mode features an imaginary part even at ''tree level'' as a consequence of the fact that the unparticle field describes a multiparticle continuum. Mixed unparticle-Higgs propagators reveal the possibility of oscillations, albeit with short coherence lengths. The results are generalized to the case in which the unparticle features a mass gap, in which case a low energy MSW resonance may occur for lightlike momenta depending on the scales. Unparticle-Higgs mixing leads to an effective unparticle potential of the new-inflation form. Slow-roll variables are suppressed by seesaw ratios and the anomalous dimensions and favor a red spectrum of scalar perturbations consistent with cosmic microwave background data.
Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.
2009-04-01
Motivated by slow-roll inflationary cosmology we study a scalar unparticle weakly coupled to a Higgs field in the broken symmetry phase. The mixing between the unparticle and the Higgs field results in a seesaw type matrix and the mixing angles feature a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect as a consequence of the unparticle field being noncanonical. We find two (MSW) resonances for small and large spacelike momenta. The unparticlelike mode features a nearly flat potential with spinodal instabilities and a large expectation value. An effective potential for the unparticlelike field is generated from the Higgs potential, but with couplings suppressed by a large power of the small seesaw ratio. The dispersion relation for the Higgs-like mode features an imaginary part even at “tree level” as a consequence of the fact that the unparticle field describes a multiparticle continuum. Mixed unparticle-Higgs propagators reveal the possibility of oscillations, albeit with short coherence lengths. The results are generalized to the case in which the unparticle features a mass gap, in which case a low energy MSW resonance may occur for lightlike momenta depending on the scales. Unparticle-Higgs mixing leads to an effective unparticle potential of the new-inflation form. Slow-roll variables are suppressed by seesaw ratios and the anomalous dimensions and favor a red spectrum of scalar perturbations consistent with cosmic microwave background data.
Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.
2015-06-01
The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durato, M V; Nawang, S A; Albano, A M; Rapp, P E
2015-01-01
The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. (paper)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi
2004-01-01
Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.
Gelb, James M.; Kwong, Waikwok; Rosen, S. P.
1992-01-01
We compare the implications for Be-7 and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of two. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelb, J.M.; Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.
1992-01-01
We compare the implications for 7 Be and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of 2. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtz, S.E.; Fields, D.E.
1983-10-01
The KSTEST code presented here is designed to perform the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. The code may be used as a stand-alone program or the principal subroutines may be excerpted and used to service other programs. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test is a nonparametric goodness-of-fit test. A number of codes to perform this test are in existence, but they suffer from the inability to provide meaningful results in the case of small sample sizes (number of values less than or equal to 80). The KSTEST code overcomes this inadequacy by using two distinct algorithms. If the sample size is greater than 80, an asymptotic series developed by Smirnov is evaluated. If the sample size is 80 or less, a table of values generated by Birnbaum is referenced. Valid results can be obtained from KSTEST when the sample contains from 3 to 300 data points. The program was developed on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 computer using the FORTRAN-10 language. The code size is approximately 450 card images and the typical CPU execution time is 0.19 s.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Yunming; Lu Tan
2009-01-01
We investigate redshift distributions of three long burst samples, with the first sample containing 131 long bursts with observed redshifts, the second including 220 long bursts with pseudo-redshifts calculated by the variability-luminosity relation, and the third including 1194 long bursts with pseudo-redshifts calculated by the lag-luminosity relation, respectively. In the redshift range 0-1 the Kolmogorov-Smirnov probability of the observed redshift distribution and that of the variability-luminosity relation is large. In the redshift ranges 1-2, 2-3, 3-6.3 and 0-37, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov probabilities of the redshift distribution from lag-luminosity relation and the observed redshift distribution are also large. For the GRBs, which appear both in the two pseudo-redshift burst samples, the KS probability of the pseudo-redshift distribution from the lag-luminosity relation and the observed reshift distribution is 0.447, which is very large. Based on these results, some conclusions are drawn: i) the V-L iso relation might be more believable than the τ-L iso relation in low redshift ranges and the τ-L iso relation might be more real than the V-Liso relation in high redshift ranges; ii) if we do not consider the redshift ranges, the τ-L iso relation might be more physical and intrinsical than the V-L i so relation. (research papers)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.
1986-01-01
Mikheyev and Smirnov have observed that neutrino oscillations in the Sun can be greatly enhanced through the mechanism of Wolfenstein matter oscillations. We develop a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon in the small-mixing-angle limit and carry out extensive calculations in order to apply it to the solar-neutrino problem. Our simple theoretical model agrees remarkably well with the calculations. After determining those values of Δm 2 and sin 2 2theta in the small-mixing-angle limit for which the 8 B plus 7 Be neutrino capture rate in /sup 37/Cl is suppressed by a factor 2--4, we predict the corresponding capture rate for pp plus 7 Be neutrinos in /sup 71/Ga. The gallium capture rate can range from no reduction to a factor of 10 reduction. We also determine the modified spectrum of 8 B neutrinos arriving at Earth and discuss the importance of this spectrum as a means of choosing between oscillations and the solar model as the cause of the solar-neutrino problem, and also as a means of distinguishing between different sets of oscillation parameters
Van Bockstaele, Femke; Janssens, Ann; Piette, Anne; Callewaert, Filip; Pede, Valerie; Offner, Fritz; Verhasselt, Bruno; Philippé, Jan
2006-07-15
ZAP-70 has been proposed as a surrogate marker for immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IgV(H)) mutation status, which is known as a prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The flow cytometric analysis of ZAP-70 suffers from difficulties in standardization and interpretation. We applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistical test to make analysis more straightforward. We examined ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometry in 53 patients with CLL. Analysis was performed as initially described by Crespo et al. (New England J Med 2003; 348:1764-1775) and alternatively by application of the KS statistical test comparing T cells with B cells. Receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC)-curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values for ZAP-70 measured by the two approaches. ZAP-70 protein expression was compared with ZAP-70 mRNA expression measured by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) and with the IgV(H) mutation status. Both flow cytometric analyses correlated well with the molecular technique and proved to be of equal value in predicting the IgV(H) mutation status. Applying the KS test is reproducible, simple, straightforward, and overcomes a number of difficulties encountered in the Crespo-method. The KS statistical test is an essential part of the software delivered with modern routine analytical flow cytometers and is well suited for analysis of ZAP-70 expression in CLL. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the letters of officer/orientalist and military oriental scholar, officer in the Intelligence Section of the Staff of the Caucasian Military District, Staff Captain Konstantin Nikolayevich Smirnov, sent by him from the Turkish and Iranian sectors of the Caucasian front to his wife Kseniya Karlovna Smirnova (Kester over the period 1914–1917. Depending on changes in the deployment of Russian troops fighting against the Turkish army, as well as the German-Turkish block, both in the north-eastern part of Turkey and in the north-west of Iran, K.N. Smirnov had sent those letters from Kamarli, Diadin, Iğdır, Beyazıt, Trebizond, Kazvin, Kermanshah, Kerind, Qasr-e Shirin, Ava now to Tiflis and now to Sevastopol, Hamadan, and Kazvin, where his wife was staying at that particular point in time. K.N. Smirnov’s surviving letters, just like their fragments, give us an idea of the military/political situation along the line of contact with the enemy on the Caucasian front, as well as many aspects of the activity of officers from the Expeditionary Corps of General N.N. Baratov in Iran over the period 1915–1917. Of interest is his characterization of the personal qualities of many Russian officers, such as General N.N. Baratov, the immediate superior of Staff Captain Smirnov, who at the time headed the reconnaissance unit of the Expeditionary Corps, Colonel N.F. Ern, Chief of Staff, and other officers of the corps. The letters also bring to light the character of activity by K.N. Smirnov as a ―political officer‖. K.N. Smirnov’s letters contain extremely rare information on the episode of short-term Anglo-Russian military cooperation on the Caucasian front intended to coordinate actions against Turkish troops in Mesopotamia.
"Dozhdja" ne budjet / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2007-01-01
Narva linnavõimud ei väljastanud Narva kolledzhi uue hoone ehitusluba projekti "Vihm" järgi. Oma õigusi peab ülikool kaitsma kohtus. Kolledzhihoone ehitamise ettevalmistust kommenteerivad kolledzhi haldusjuht Jaanus Villiko ja Narva volikogu esimees Mihhail Stalnuhhin
Ekonomija tsenoi "Dozhdja" / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2008-01-01
Tartu Ülikooli Narva kolledzhi uue õppehoone projektist "Vihm" ja eriarvamustest selle sobivuse kohta raekoja kõrvale. Kolledzhi ja Narva linnavalitsuse vahelisest kohtuasjast ning nendevahelise hea tahte lepingu allkirjastamisest, millega Narva linn väljastab kolledzhi uue õppehoone ehitusloa ja mis lõpetab kohtuvaidluse
Narva v transe / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2007-01-01
Eesti Raudtee tarned, eriti Tallinn-Narva lõigul, on tunduvalt vähenenud, ettevõte kavandab koondada aasta lõpuks ligemale 200 töötajat. Vt. samas: Eesti Raudtee andmed vähenenud kaubaveoste kohta; Venemaa Oktoobri raudtee remondist
Narva "istutati" pulmapuu / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2008-01-01
Narva linnuse lähistele paigaldati Rashid Shamsutdinovi sepistatud pulmapuu. Selle metallokste külge saab noorpaar pulmapäeval kinnitada sepistatud lehekese, millele on graveeritud abiellujate nimed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur
2005-01-01
Xu et al. (2003) presented results of a reaction-transport model for calcite deposition in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, and compared the model results to measured abundances in core from a surface-based borehole. Marshall et al. (2003) used the calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff to estimate past seepage into lithophysal cavities as an analog for seepage into the potential repository waste emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada (USA). Dublyansky and Smirnov (2005) wrote a commentary paper to Marshall et al. (2003) and Xu et al. (2003), containing two points: (1) questionable phenomenological model for the secondary mineral deposits and (2) inappropriate thermal boundary conditions. In this reply we address primarily the modeling approach by showing results of a sensitivity simulation regarding the effect of an elevated temperature history that approximates the temperature history inferred from fluid inclusions by Wilson et al. (2003). Modeled calcite abundances using the time-varying temperature history are similar to the results for the steady-state ambient temperature profile (Xu et al., 2003), and are still consistent with the measured abundances at the proposed repository horizon
V Narve demontirovali pamjatnik kommunaram / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2008-01-01
Narva vanalinnas raekoja kõrval seisva Eestimaa Töörahva Kommuunile pühendatud mälestusmärgi demonteerimisest. Mälestusmärk viidi Narva Muuseumi kunstigaleriisse ja selle bareljeef kavatsetakse välja panna galerii tagaõues
Podarok k Rozhdestvu - zarplata / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2007-01-01
AS-i Narva Vesi ja Kreenholmi Valduse AS-i vahelisest konfliktist. Juristid ja ettevõtte rahandusosakond proovib teha omalt poolt kõik, et ettevõtte pangaarved ei oleks külmutatud ja töötajad saaksid kätte oma töötasu. Vt. samas: Suuromanik Mats Gabrielssoni kommentaarid
Narvskaja voda opassna dlja zdorovja / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2007-01-01
AS Narva Vesi joogivees esinevad jääkkloorist tingitud kõrvalproduktid sellise kontsentratsiooniga, et linnaelanikel soovitatakse juua pudelivett. Ettevõtte juht ja linnajuhid vett ohtlikuks ei pea
Avtor listovok "Hail Stalnuhhin" opravdan / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2007-01-01
2005. aasta kohalike valimiste eel süüdistati Narva volikogu saadikut Gennadi Afanasjevit poliitilist vaenu õhutavate lendlehtede levitamises. Viru maakohtu otsusest ja Riigikogu liikme Mihhail Stalnuhhini arvamusest
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect on neutrino decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou Chihkang; Chou Marty; National Central Univ., Chung-li
2001-01-01
It has early been pointed out by R. S. Raghavan et al. that in solar matter, conversion of the electron neutrino to a ''heaver'' flavor by the MSW effect can catalyze neutrino decay in the small mixing angle MSW solution. Since recent results on solar neutrinos provide hints that the large mixing angle MSW solution could be correct, we present a detailed study of the MSW effect with neutrino decay for both small and large mixing angles. The lower limit for the lifetime of 10 MeV neutrinos is estimated to be τ(10 MeV) >or∼ 10 3 s. (orig.)
Narva energeetikute palk tõuseb 20 protsenti / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2008-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Nedelja 5. apr. lk. 2. Severnoje Poberezhje 4. apr., lk. 3. Balti ja Eesti elektrijaama ametiühinguorganisatsioonid sõlmisid AS-i Narva Elektrijaamad juhtkonnaga algavaks majandusaastaks laiendatud kollektiivlepingu
Mikheyev-smirnov-wolfenstein effects in vacuum oscillations
Friedland
2000-07-31
We point out that for solar neutrino oscillations with the mass-squared difference of Deltam(2) approximately 10(-10)-10(-9) eV(2), i.e., in the so-called vacuum oscillation range, the solar matter effects are non-negligible, particularly for the low energy pp neutrinos. One consequence of this is that the values of the mixing angle straight theta and pi/2-straight theta are not equivalent, making it necessary to consider the entire physical range of the mixing angle 0
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect for linear electron density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmann, H.; Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva
2001-01-01
When the electron density is a linear function of distance, it is known that the MSW equations for two neutrino species can be solved in terms of known functions. It is shown here that more generally, for any number of neutrino species, these MSW equations can be solved exactly in terms of single integrals. While these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of known functions, some of their simple properties are obtained. Application to the solar neutrino problem is briefly discussed. (orig.)
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect for Linear Electron Density
Lehmann, H; Wu Tai Tsun; Lehmann, Harry; Osland, Per; Wu, Tai Tsun
2001-01-01
When the electron density is a linear function of distance, it is known that the MSW equations for two neutrino species can be solved in terms of known functions. It is shown here that more generally, for any number of neutrino species, these MSW equations can be solved exactly in terms of single integrals. While these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of known functions, some of their simple properties are obtained. Application to the solar neutrino problem is briefly discussed.
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effects in Vacuum Oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedland, Alexander
2000-01-01
We point out that for solar neutrino oscillations with the mass-squared difference of Δm 2 ∼10 -10 - 10 -9 eV 2 , i.e., in the so-called vacuum oscillation range, the solar matter effects are non-negligible, particularly for the low energy pp neutrinos. One consequence of this is that the values of the mixing angle θ and π/2-θ are not equivalent, making it necessary to consider the entire physical range of the mixing angle 0≤θ≤π/2 when determining the allowed values of the neutrino oscillation parameters. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Estonija ne privlekatelna dlja zarubezhnõhh investorov / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2007-01-01
Mäos avati ehituslike kuivsegude tehas Sakret OÜ. Läti investeeringu tähtsusest, Eesti ja Läti majandussuhetest ja koostööst. Tehase rajamisel arvestati eelkõige ekspordiga ida turule, kuid Venemaa ja Eesti pingestatud suhted võivad seda olulisel mõjutada
No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing
Harrison, P. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Scott, W. G.
1996-01-01
We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect for Linear Electron Density
Lehmann, H; Osland, P; Wu Tai Tsun
2000-01-01
When the electron density is a linear function of distance, it is known that the MSW equations for two neutrino species can be solved in terms of known functions. It is shown here that more generally, for any number of neutrino species, these MSW equations can be solved exactly in terms of single integrals. While these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of known functions, some of their simple properties are obtained. Application to the solar neutrino problem is briefly discussed.
Iskopajemõje tshlenistonogije v pomoshtsh japontsam / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2008-01-01
Eesti suurim põlevkivitöötleja AS Viru Keemia Grupp plaanib avada Ukrainas põlevkivi ümbertöötlemise kompleksi ja saada arvestatavaks ettevõtteks juuksevärvikomponentide tootmises. Kommenteerivad: Enno Reinsalu, Jaanus Purga ja Janek Parkman. Vt. samas: Viru Keemia Grupp
X-ray diagnosis of mutilating arthritis in patients with psoriatic arthritis Smirnov A.V.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Smirnov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The typical X-ray symptoms of psoriatic arthritis (PsA in joints of hands and distal sections of feet (asymmetric lesions; isolated lesion of distal interphalangeal joints (DIJ of hands with no changes in other small joints of hands; axial lesion of three joints in a single finger; transverse lesion of joints of the hand at the same level; destruction of distal phalanges; narrowing of the distal epiphysis of hand finger phalanges and metacarpal bones; cup-shaped deformity of the proximal portion of hand finger phalanges and narrowing of distal epiphysis; osseous ankyloses; multiple osteolytic lesions and destruction of bone epiphysis and joint deformities; inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints; and typical degenerative changes in the spine are described. It is especially important to know X-ray manifestations of PsA when there are no typical cutaneous manifestations of psoriasis.
Narva energeetikud nõuavad suurt palgatõusu / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2007-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 19. apr. 2007, lk. 1. Narva energeetikud nõuavad jätkuvalt 40%-list palgatõusu. Ametiühing hoiatas elektrijaamade administratsiooni, et algab kogenud spetsialistide lahkumine, mis ähvardab kaasa tuua töökatkestusi ja avariisid
Narva piirkonnast võiks saada Läänemere Las Vegas / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2008-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Nedelja 31. mai lk. 5. OÜ Investment Agency projektijuht Teet Kuusmik tõstatas Ida-Virumaa arengukonverentsil mõtte, et Narvast ja Narva-Jõesuust võiks saada USA-s Nevada kõrbes asuva Las Vegasega sarnanev turismimeka
"Ironija sudbõ" zavlekla v kino novogo zritelja / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2008-01-01
Kunagisele Eldar Rjazanovi kultusfilmile "Saatuse iroonia ehk Hüva leili!" (1975) valminud järg "Saatuse iroonia : lugu läheb edasi", režissöör Timur Bekmambetov. Filmilevist Eestis, eelkõige Narva kinos Forum Cinemas Astri
Smirnov, Ilja
2007-01-01
Narva linna Kaubandus-Tööstuskoda alustas ѕauhindadeؤ väljaandmist kõige parema ja kõige halvema teo sooritanud Narva ärimehele. ѕParima teo tegijale antakse skulptor Aivar Simsoni poolt valmistatud pronkskuju ѕLendav Kalevipoegؤ ja halvima teo tegijale jääb ѕSittuv koerؤ
Kreenholm kavatseb osta pankrotti läinud konkurendi seadmed / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2007-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 12. jaan. 2007, lk. 4; Narvskaja Nedelja, 13. jaan. 2007, lk. 3. Tekstiiliettevõte Kreenholm kavatseb osta eelmisel aastal suletud viimistlusettevõtte Polytex.ee.Printing seadmed
Moskva ärimehed müüvad Narva ettevõtte / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2006-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 18. aug. lk. 4. Moskva omanikele kuuluva ja kangaste viimistlemisega tegeleva Narva ettevõtte, AS-i Polytex.ee.Printing töö on täielikult peatatud ning algab massiline koondamine
Two New Species of the Genus Stenamoeba Smirnov, Nassonova, Chao et Cavalier-Smith, 2007
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Pecková, Hana
2010-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 3 (2010), s. 245-251 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Stenamoeba amazonica * Stenamoeba limacina * new species * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2010
Narva-Jõesuusse kerkivasse kõrghoonesse tuleb spaa-hotell / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2006-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 22. juuli lk. 1, Narvskaja Nedelja 29. juuli lk. 2. Narva-Jõesuu linnavalitsus väljastas firmale Egeria Kinnisvara ehitusloa Narva-Jõesuusse 200-kohalise spaa-hotelli rajamiseks
Venemaa firma hakkab uuendama Narva Elektrijaama tuhaärastussüsteemi / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2006-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 1. juuli lk. 3. Eesti Elektrijaamas toimus pidulik nurgakivi paigaldamine, millega tähistati tuhaärastussüsteemi pilootseadme ehitustööde algust. Vene firma Engineering Centre of Urals Energetic peadirektor Arkadi Jegorov ehitatavast pilootseadmest
Georgi Ignatov : "Narva arengu juhtimine pole rutiinne töö" / Georgi Ignatov ; interv. Ilja Smirnov
Ignatov, Georgi
2008-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Nedelja 7. juuni lk. 5. Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 24. mai, lk. 3. Linnaarenduse ja ökonoomika ameti direktor Narva arengust, projektidest, lõppenud Ida-Virumaa arengukonverentsist, ettevõtlusest. Lisa: CV. Ajal. Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota ka Narva linnavolikogu esimehe Mihhail Stalnuhhini kommentaar
Välisminister Urmas Paeti soovitus narvalastele : "Jälgige erinevaid infokanaleid!" / Kirill Smirnov
Smirnov, Kirill
2008-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 4. sept., lk. 1. Narvas viibinud välisminister Urmas Paet kutsus piirilinlasi üles neile ajalehtedes ja televisioonis pakutavasse informatsiooni kriitiliselt suhtuma. Välisministri Narva-visiidi ajendiks oli Eesti eeslaste ja venelaste erinev suhtumine Gruusia-Osseetia konflikti
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvat, R.
1993-01-01
One-loop photonic corrections to the electron-neutrino (ν e ) charged-current medium induced self-energy are examined using finite temperature field theory. It is shown that irrespective of computing radiative corrections at finite temperature and density, there are no O(α) corrections to the charged-current contribution of the ν e 's dispersion relation
Electrostatic corrections to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein potential of a neutrino in the sun
Horowitz, C. J.
2002-01-01
This paper is being withdrawn. The electic filed effects should be interpreted as a correction to the electron density. Therefore the original MSW potential calculated in terms of the full electron density is correct.
Narvas näidatakse filme Tšetšeenia sõjast / Ilja Smirnov
Smirnov, Ilja
2004-01-01
Narvas toimub rahvusvaheline dokumentaalfilmide festival "Tšetšeenia", kuhu kavatsetakse kutsuda ka Riigikogu liige Andres Herkel. A. Herkeli sõnul pole küll praeguses Riigikogus Tšetšeenia probleemide tundmaõppimisega tegelevat rühma, kuid sellest ei tasu järeldada, nagu ei huvitaks selles piirkonnas toimuv Eesti parlamendiliikmeid
Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium.
Itoh, U; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, H; Namikawa, I
1995-02-01
The cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium species were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. brachy and E. lentum contained mainly branched-chain fatty acids, whereas the others contained straight-chain acids. E. brachy, E. lentum, E. yurii ssp. yurii, E. yurii spp. margaretiae, E. limosum, E. plauti and E. aerofaciens also contained aldehydes with even carbon numbers. In addition to species-specific components, the compositional ratios of fatty acids and aldehydes characterized each individual species. The 10 species tested were divided into 5 groups by the principal component analysis. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes would be chemical markers for interspecies differentiation of oral Eubacterium.
McDonald, A. David; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer
1998-01-01
Estimation of parameters in the drift and diffusion terms of stochastic differential equations involves simulation and generally requires substantial data sets. We examine a method that can be applied when available time series are limited to less than 20 observations per replication. We compare and contrast parameter estimation for linear and nonlinear first-order stochastic differential equations using two criterion functions: one based on a Chi-square statistic, put forward by Hurn and Lin...
Review of the book by A.A. Kudryavtsev, A.S. Smirnov, and L.D. Tsendin “Physics of Glow Discharge”
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raizer, Yu. P.
2011-01-01
A new voluminous book on gas-discharge physics is reviewed. It is emphasized that the authors consistently follow a nontraditional approach based on the electron distribution function with allowance for its nonlocal character. This opens new, sometimes unexpected, issues of the well-known phenomena, which is illustrated by the reviewer by using the positive column of a low-pressure glow discharge as an example.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fenchel, Tom
2010-01-01
The polymorphic life history of the marine naked amoeba Flabellula baltica was studied. It can be interpreted in terms of adaptations to an environment that is patchy in time and space and it represents trade-off between longevity during starvation and the ability to initiate multiplication soon ...
Cluster processes in gases and plasmas
Smirnov, Boris M
2009-01-01
Boris M. Smirnov received his Ph.D. in physics from Leningrad State University in 1968. After working in different research positions, he finally accepted a post as head of one of the divisions of the Institute for High Temperatures at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in 1986. Professor Smirnov is the author and co-author of approximately 50 books as well as 400 research articles in plasma physics, atomic physics, and atomic clusters. He is Vice Chairman of the National Council for Low Temperature Plasma and Chairman ofa Section on Elementary Processes in Plasma. Professor Smirnov`s r
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Y. Medianyk
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on one aspect of the economic history of Ukraine at the end of XIX – the beginning XX century. The stages of entrepreneurial activity of brightest representative of the business world of the South Ukraine Nikolai Fedorovich von Ditmar are namely investigated. The factors which facilitated on the attracting of N. F. von Ditmar to business entourage were should be called the rapid development of industry and support the engineering business by Vitte’s government. It has significantly contributed to an active inflow of technical personnel into branch of trade and industry. Following research methods were used to achieve the scientific purpose. Among them: 1 historicalgenetic method (it makes it possible to analyze the evolution of N. F. von Ditmar business; 2 historicalcomparative method allows you to draw parallels between Ditmar’s plant and other industrial enterprises of Kharkov province; 3 prosopography method helps to explore the socioeconomic history of Ukraine through the prism of von Ditmar’ business. During research process, we identified three stages of von Ditmar’s private enterprise such as I (1893–1904, II (1904–1914, III (1914–1917. The first period of Ditmar’s business is characterized by foundation in Kharkov small technical company, which was closely connected with his scientific and practical activity in geology. The specialization of Ditmar’s company was associated with the geological fieldwork and water supply. For example, technical office engaged in drilling wells of railway stations and cities. At the same time, the mechanical workshop produced tool for these works. The achievement of a mining engineer in this period was the use of mechanical equipment instead of manual. In the second stage of von Ditmar’s business there were organizational transformation, which resulted in the creation of the “Kharkov N. F. von Ditmar’s Metal Plant”. At this time, the company took the
"Artek" v serdtse Tallinna / Irina Butjajeva
Butjajeva, Irina
2007-01-01
Tallinna Vene kultuurikeskuse laste kunstistuudiost "Artec" ning selle õpilaste tööde näitustest Vene kultuurikeskuse galeriides. Kunstistuudio "Artec" tekkis kunstistuudiote "Valeris" (Valeri Smirnov) ja "5+5" (Valeri Laur) ühinemisel. Maalistuudiot juhatab Valeri Laur ja graafikastuudiot Valeri Smirnov
Resonant amplification of neutrino transitions in the Sun: exact analytical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toshev, S.; Petkov, P.
1988-01-01
We investigate in detail the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein explanation of the solar neutrino puzzle using analytical expressions for the neutrino transition probabilities in matter with exponentially varying electron number density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannheim, P.D.
1988-01-01
We derive the standard formalism of Mikheyev, Smirnov, and Wolfenstein for the oscillation of neutrinos in matter taking into account the Lorentz and second-quantized structure of the neutrino fields. We consider neutrinos with Dirac or Majorana masses
Application of survival analysis methodology to the quantitative analysis of LC-MS proteomics data
Tekwe, C. D.; Carroll, R. J.; Dabney, A. R.
2012-01-01
positive, skewed and often left-censored, we propose using survival methodology to carry out differential expression analysis of proteins. Various standard statistical techniques including non-parametric tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon
Neutrino burst from SN1987A and the solar-neutrino puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arafune, J.; Fukugita, M.; Yanagida, T.; Yoshimura, M.
1987-01-01
The prompt ν/sub e/ signal from the supernova explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud presumably detected by Kamiokande II does not necessarily mean that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect on the solar-neutrino flux is not operative. The electron neutrino, once rotated to a different-flavor neutrino in the progenitor star, can come back via the matter-oscillation effect in the Earth, or a residual ν/sub e/ flux from the progenitor can directly hit the detector, saving the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein explanation of the solar-neutrino problem for a range of mixing parameters
Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsiao William WL
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections. Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals.
Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.
Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur
2012-01-01
Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brzhesky VV
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Vladimir Vsevolodovich Brjesky,1 Yury Fedorovich Maychuk,2 Alexey Vladimirovich Petrayevsky,3 Peter Gerrievich Nagorsky41Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric State Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, 2Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, 4Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Institute MNTK Eye Microsurgery, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, RussiaAbstract: Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak® (marketed as Hyabak® in Europe, a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale® in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn’s test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients.Keywords: dry eye, eye drops, artificial tears, hyaluronic acid, Hylabak®, preservative-free
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dariusz Kołodziejczyk
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The author examines the different ways, by which foreign borrowings were adopted in the Office of the Crimean Khanate. On the one hand, Tatars adopted specimens from the Moscow and Polish-Lithuanian Chancelleries (e.g. pendant seal, on the other hand, they sought to maintain and even restore ancient terminology related to the Genghisid and Central Asian tradition. Baysa with inscription providing certain rights and privileges on behalf of the ruler was used in the Genghisid Empire and ulus of Jochi. The first Crimean Tatar document, where we meet the term baysa, is a Charter of Shert sent by khan Mehmed III Giray to tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov in September 1624. In 1634, Janibek Giray also wrote about the “golden baysa” apparently as a synonym of seal. Until the mid–17th century, mention of baysa occurs only in the text of the Crimean Charters of Shert sent to Moscow. From 1654, charters with a golden baysa was sent to the Polish king as well. A new form of solemn khan’s charters began to change under the influence of the development of office practice in Moscow and Warsaw. In the same period in the khan’s intitulation appears the formula “the great Padishah of Tat ve Tavgach” – new elements related to the Genghisid and ancient Turkic tradition of Central Asia. Consequently, according to the author, the latter change could be associated with the activities of Shahin Giray and his stay in Persia, or this innovation was imported from the Siberian Khanate.
Fluorescence of Er3+:AlN Polycrystalline Ceramic
2012-01-01
Refractive Index of Air,” Metrologia 2(2), 71–80 (1966). 31. V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D...sieve and stored in a vacuum desiccator. The size distribution of the powders was measured using a Horiba LA -910 Light Scattering Particle Size
Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
modifier gene of Om in the B6 background. [Tan J., Song ... should be half the rate of those from the normal crosses,. B6 (+/+) ... the genetic background of the B6 strain. The purpose of .... Smirnov test (P > 0.05) and the reproductive rate of N2.
Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Smirnov statistical goodness test is used to justify the identification of the peaks. This test is used to .... 0 , where ∆vx is the half-width at full-maxima of the central peak f(vx). The separation of the .... random background. The reasoning behind ...
Découpage automatique de la vidéo en plans | Maredj | Revue d ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Revue d'Information Scientifique et Technique ... Temporal segmentation is a necessary first step to indexing digital video for browsing and retrieval. ... This paper describes an original approach for temporal segmentation algorithm of video based on Kolmogorve-Smirnov statistical test and using double thresholds to detect ...
Dostojevski bez nakipi / Anna Moleva
Moleva, Anna
2002-01-01
Fjodor Dostojevski romaani "Idioot" järgi filmitud 10-osalise samanimelise Venemaa draamaseriaali valmimisest : režissöör Vladimir Bortko. Oma arvamust avaldavad produtsent Valeri Todorovski, näitlejad Oleg Basilashvili, Vladimir Mashkov, Jevgeni Mironov, Andrei Smirnov, Mihhail Bojarski, Maria Kisseljova, Sasha Lazarev
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chun, E. J.; Cvetič, G.; Dev, P. S.B.
2018-01-01
The focus of this paper lies on the possible experimental tests of leptogenesis scenarios. We consider both leptogenesis generated from oscillations, as well as leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. As the Akhmedov-Rubakov-Smirnov (ARS) mechanism allows for heavy neutrinos in the GeV range...
Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is observed that Johnson SB function is the best continuous distribution function in explaining the histogram of infrared brightness temperatures of the convective clouds. The best fit is confirmed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic. Johnson SB's distribution of histogram of infrared brightness temperatures clearly ...
Matter effects in neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dass, G.V.
1989-01-01
After a review of the relevant aspects of neutrino oscillations for propagation in vacuum and in material media, this paper discuss the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism and its application to a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. The elementary level of the talk is suitable to people not working in neutrino physics
New possibilities in supernova accretion phase from dense matter effect
Chakraborty, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Saviano, N.
2012-07-01
We carry out a detailed analysis of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase (at post-bounce times tpb Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the likely case that the mixing angle θ13 is not very small.
Energy dependence of solar-neutrino--electron scattering as a test of neutral currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.
1992-01-01
The energy dependence of ν-e scattering of solar neutrinos is investigated in the framework of neutrino oscillations and the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. It is shown that, with sufficient data, it will be possible to establish unambiguously whether neutrino oscillations are actually occurring and whether the electron neutrino oscillates into active or inactive (sterile) neutrino flavors
Introductory talk. 6. Moriond workshop massive neutrinos in particle physics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.
1986-01-01
We review the concepts of Majorana and Dirac neutrinos from an operational point of view and survey the experimental search for neutrino mass. We also review the work of Mikheyev and Smirnov on the enhancement of neutrino oscillations via the mechanism of Wolfenstein matter oscillations. Results of an extensive computation of MSW effects in the sun are described. 39 refs., 6 figs
On Analytic Solution of resonant Mixing for Solar Neutrino Oscillations
Masatoshi, ITO; Takao, KANEKO; Masami, NAKAGAWA; Department of Physics, Meijo University; Department of Physics, Meijo University; Department of Physics, Meijo University
1988-01-01
Behavior of resonant mixing in matter-enhancing region for solar neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism, is reanalyzed by means of an analytic treatment recently proposed. We give solutions in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions, which agree with "exact" solutions of coupled differential equations.
Resonant amplification of neutrino spin rotation in matter and the solar-neutrino problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, E.Kh.
1988-01-01
It is shown that in the presence of matter there can occur resonant amplification of the flavor-changing neutrino spin rotation in transverse magnetic fields, which is roughly analogous to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in neutrino oscillations. Possible consequences for solar neutrinos are briefly discussed. (orig.)
Shear Bond Strength of a Novel Porcelain Repair System for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2018-04-04
Apr 4, 2018 ... Each fracture type was examined under a stereomicroscope .... fracture types. Statistical analysis. The normal distribution of data was examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Shear bond strength data of repaired CAD/CAM .... adhesives to enamel, dentine, and porcelain surfaces can be compared.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette
2014-01-01
Abstract We discuss the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics in the context of gene set analysis and review corresponding null and alternative hypotheses. Especially, we show that, when enhancing the impact of highly significant genes in the calculation of the test statistic, the co...
Massive neutrinos in particle physics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.
1986-01-01
The concepts of Majorana and Dirac neutrinos are reviewed from an operational point of view and survey the experimental search for neutrino mass. Also reviewed are the work of Mikheyev and Smirnov on the enhancement of neutrino oscillations via the mechanism of Wolfenstein matter oscillations. Results of an extensive computation of MSW effects in the sun are described. 41 refs., 6 figs
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Owner
mRNA levels were expressed in relative copy number normalised against GADPH mRNA.This normalisation against the housekeeping gene is possible if both PCR (HO-1 gene +housekeeping gene) present in the same efficiency. All data are expressed as the mean value and its standard deviation. Kolmogorov smirnov to ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hutchinson D
2018-01-01
Full Text Available David Hutchinson,1,2 Judith Müller,3 Joseph E McCarthy,4 Yurii K Gun’ko,4,5 Navin Kumar Verma,6 Xuezhi Bi,7 Luisana Di Cristo,8 Laura Kickham,8 Dania Movia,8 Adriele Prina-Mello,5,8 Yuri Volkov5,8,9 1Royal Cornwall Hospital NHS Trust, Treliske, 2University of Exeter Medical School Cornwall, UK; 3University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4School of Chemistry, 5Advanced Materials for BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 7Bioprocessing Technology Institute, A*STAR Graduate Academy, Singapore; 8Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 9International Laboratory of Magnetically Controlled Nanosystems for Theranostics of Oncological and Cardiovascular Diseases, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the cadmium-derived materials induce intracellular protein citrullination. Methods: Human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to cadmium in soluble and nanoparticulate forms represented by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 and cadmium oxide (CdO, respectively, and their combinations with ultrafine carbon black (ufCB produced by high temperature combustion, imitating cigarette burning. Protein citrullination in cell lysates was analyzed by Western immunoblotting and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Target citrullinated proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Results: CdO, ufCB and its combination with CdCl2 and CdO after high temperature combustion induced protein citrullination in cultured human lung epithelial cells, as detected by immunoblotting with anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Cytokeratins of type II (1, 2, 5, 6A, 6B and 77 and type I (9, 10 were identified as major intracellular citrullination targets. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the localization of citrullinated proteins both in the
Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang
2018-02-01
The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.
Scientific heritage of L.D. Faddeev. Survey of papers
Takhtajan, L. A.; Alekseev, A. Yu; Aref'eva, I. Ya; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, M. A.; Sklyanin, E. K.; Smirnov, F. A.; Shatashvili, S. L.
2017-12-01
This survey was written by students of L.D. Faddeev under the editorship of L.A. Takhtajan. Sections 1.1, 1.2, 2-4, and 6 were written by Takhtajan, §§1.3 and 1.4 by F.A. Smirnov, §§5.1 and 5.2 by E.K. Sklyanin, §§5.3-5.6 by Sklyanin, Smirnov, and Takhtajan, §7.1 by M.A. Semenov-Tian-Shansky, §§7.2-7.6 by Takhtajan and S.L. Shatashvili, §7.7 by A.Yu. Alekseev and Shatashvili, and §8 by I.Ya. Aref'eva. Bibliography: 130 titles.
Spectral split in a prompt supernova neutrino burst: Analytic three-flavor treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G.
2008-01-01
The prompt ν e burst from a core-collapse supernova is subject to both matter-induced flavor conversions and strong neutrino-neutrino refractive effects. For the lowest-mass progenitors, leading to O-Ne-Mg core supernovae, the matter density profile can be so steep that the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effects occur within the dense-neutrino region close to the neutrino sphere. In this case a ''split'' occurs in the emerging spectrum, i.e., the ν e flavor survival probability shows a steplike feature. We explain this feature analytically as a spectral split prepared by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In a three-flavor treatment, the steplike feature actually consists of two narrowly spaced splits. They are determined by two combinations of flavor-lepton numbers that are conserved under collective oscillations
Spectral split in a prompt supernova neutrino burst: Analytic three-flavor treatment
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G.
2008-06-01
The prompt νe burst from a core-collapse supernova is subject to both matter-induced flavor conversions and strong neutrino-neutrino refractive effects. For the lowest-mass progenitors, leading to O-Ne-Mg core supernovae, the matter density profile can be so steep that the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effects occur within the dense-neutrino region close to the neutrino sphere. In this case a “split” occurs in the emerging spectrum, i.e., the νe flavor survival probability shows a steplike feature. We explain this feature analytically as a spectral split prepared by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In a three-flavor treatment, the steplike feature actually consists of two narrowly spaced splits. They are determined by two combinations of flavor-lepton numbers that are conserved under collective oscillations.
Innovative ways of special endurance of skaters in the competition period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.O. Kugayevskiy
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study – to propose innovative methods to improve special endurances of the skaters in the competition period. The state of the matter in the practice of preparation of the skaters is considered. It is marked metabolic modes competitive programs skaters on the principle of selective M.R. Smirnov. This is an indicative plan of training microcycle training dancing couple. It is shown that the use of the principle of selective metabolic mode M.R. Smirnov in practice allows comprehensive training skaters to influence the level of development of functional capabilities athlete. It was found that the use of this technique allows us to make training process more manageable by monitoring training loads. It is offered prospects of further studies to optimize the training process of the skaters in the annual cycle of training.
Pestman, Wiebe R
2009-01-01
This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandr M. Pashkov
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Author deals with 19th century intellectuals of Olonets Karelian origin who started to be interested in local language, culture and ways of life. They started to compile and publish corresponding texts and it meant the beginning of ethnic mobilization of Karelians. Author starts with a brief overview of local historical background and continues with activities of three intellectuals of Karelian origin (I. V. Kondratyev, M. N. Smirnov, N. F. Leskov.
See-saw enhancement of neutrino mixing due to the right-handed phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanimoto, M.
1994-11-01
We study the see-saw enhancement mechanism in presence of the right-handed phases of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix and the Majorana mass matrix. The enhancement condition given by Smirnov is modified. We point out that the see-saw enhancement could be obtained due to the right-handed phases even if the Majorana matrix is proportional to the unit matrix. We show a realistic Dirac mass matrix which causes the see-saw enhancement. (author)
A review of matter oscillations and solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.
1986-01-01
We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, and examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the Δ 2 -sin 2 2Θ parameter space for the 37 Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the 71 Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. 18 refs
Otvlekajas na zhizn / Tatjana Poznjak
Poznjak, Tatjana
2000-01-01
Vene kirjaniku Ivan Bunini (1870-1953) elulõpu armastusloost tehtud filmis "Tema naise päevik" ("Dnevnik jego zhenõ") on Bunini rollis Andrei Smirnov. Näitleja räägib oma suhtest rolliga ning artikli autor avaldab mõtteid kirjaniku elu ja iseloomu üle. Ka ajalehes Vesti : Nedelja pljuss, 15. detsember, lk. 32-33
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinicius Alexandre Sikora de Souza
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou estimar a função Intensidade-Duração-Frequência (IDF de eventos pluviométricos extremos a partir dos dados de precipitação das estações pluviométricas instaladas no estado de Rondônia, de modo que posteriormente tais informações possam ser utilizadas no dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas. Utilizou-se 41 estações pluviométricas com séries históricas acima de 10 anos, disponibilizadas pela Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA. Essas séries passaram inicialmente pelo teste de aderência Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS, a fim de verificar o ajuste das mesmas as distribuições: Normal, Log-Normal, Exponencial, Gama, Gumbel, Weibull e Logística. O trabalho denotou que o teste de aderência Kolmogorov-Smirnov de forma geral forneceu uma expressiva aceitação na maioria das distribuições estatística testadas. Analysis of fitness for extreme rainfall events in western amazon in static models: state Rondônia ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the Intensity - Duration - Frequency (IDF function extreme rainfall events from the data of precipitation of rainfall stations located in the State of Rondônia, so that such information can be later used in hydraulic structures. We used 41 rainfall stations with historical series over 10 years, provided by the National Water Agency (ANA. These series originally started by adherence Kolmogorov -Smirnov (KS in order to check the fit of the same distributions: Normal, Log- Normal, Exponential, Gamma, Gumbel, Weibull and Logistics. Work denoted that the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test of adherence generally provided a significant acceptance in most of the tested statistical distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, K.; Lim, C.S.; Ogure, K.
2003-01-01
We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario
Babu; Barr
2000-08-07
A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m(&mgr;)/m(tau)) = 3(m(s)/m(b)) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10). This new relation is (m(nu(&mgr;))/m(nu(tau))) = 16(m(c)/m(t)), which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem.
Hasegawa, K.; Lim, C. S.; Ogure, K.
2003-09-01
We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario.
Hasegawa, K.; Lim, C. S.; Ogure, K.
2003-01-01
We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario.
Effects of resonant matter oscillation in earth on solar neutrino detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiroi, Shinichi; Sakuma, Hiroko; Yanagida, Tsutomu; Yoshimura, Motohiko.
1987-01-01
A systematic study of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect in earth is carried out on the solar neutrino flux from 8 B decay. In Kamiokande type detectors day-night difference of rates, seasonal variation and recoil electron spectrum are found to be good indicators of the earth effect for a range of mixing parameters around δm 2 = 3 x 10 -6 ev 2 and sin 2 2θ = 0.2. (author)
Three-neutrino oscillations in matter: Analytical results in the adiabatic approximaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petcov, S.T.; Toshev, S.
1987-01-01
Analytical expressions for the probabilities of the transitions between different neutrino flavours in matter in the case of three lepton families and small vacuum mixing angles are obtained in the adiabatic approximation. A brief discussion of the characteristic features of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the system of the three neutrino flavours ν e , ν μ and ν τ is also given. (orig.)
Acquire information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos
Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin
2010-01-01
We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ and neutrino masses ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.
2000-01-01
A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m μ /m τ ) =3(m s /m b ) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10) . This new relation is (m ν μ /m ν τ )=16(m c /m t ) , which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Neutrino mixing and big bang nucleosynthesis
Bell, Nicole
2003-04-01
We analyse active-active neutrino mixing in the early universe and show that transformation of neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries between flavours is unavoidable when neutrino mixing angles are large. This process is a standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein flavour transformation, modified by the synchronisation of momentum states which results from neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. The new constraints placed on neutrino asymmetries eliminate the possibility of degenerate big bang nucleosynthesis.Implications of active-sterile neutrino mixing will also be reviewed.
A Short Guide to Experimental Design and Analysis for Engineers
2014-04-01
2011) Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel 2010. Indianapolis, Que Publishing Coakes, S. J. and Ong, C. (2011) SPSS : Analysis without Anguish ...of 0. UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1291 UNCLASSIFIED 24 Figure 6: Box and whisker plot of the batch data produced with SPSS . A closer look at Figure...Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk statistics is used to confirm this requirement (Coakes and Ong, 2011). Employing SPSS produces significance values of 0.2
Measurement of Hubble constant: non-Gaussian errors in HST Key Project data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Meghendra [Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, 226021 India (India); Gupta, Shashikant; Pandey, Ashwini [Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon, Haryana, 122413 India (India); Sharma, Satendra, E-mail: meghendrasingh_db@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: shashikantgupta.astro@gmail.com, E-mail: satyamkashwini@gmail.com, E-mail: ssharma_phy@yahoo.co.uk [Yobe State University, Damaturu, Yobe State (Nigeria)
2016-08-01
Assuming the Central Limit Theorem, experimental uncertainties in any data set are expected to follow the Gaussian distribution with zero mean. We propose an elegant method based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test the above; and apply it on the measurement of Hubble constant which determines the expansion rate of the Universe. The measurements were made using Hubble Space Telescope. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties in the above measurement are non-Gaussian.
Uncertainty Analysis of Power Grid Investment Capacity Based on Monte Carlo
Qin, Junsong; Liu, Bingyi; Niu, Dongxiao
By analyzing the influence factors of the investment capacity of power grid, to depreciation cost, sales price and sales quantity, net profit, financing and GDP of the second industry as the dependent variable to build the investment capacity analysis model. After carrying out Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, get the probability distribution of each influence factor. Finally, obtained the grid investment capacity uncertainty of analysis results by Monte Carlo simulation.
Võ k nam, a mõ k vam... / Nelli Kuznetsova
Kuznetsova, Nelli
2008-01-01
Vene Kunstnike Ühenduse 10. aastapäevale pühendatud kevadnäitus toimus Würthi galeriis ja Kohtla-Järve Linnagaleriis. Filmi näituste avamistest, eksponeeritud töödest ja aruteludest näidati Vene kultuurikeskuses. Slava Semerikovi, Anatoli Strahhovi ja Valeri Smirnovi maalidest. Vene Kunstnike Ühenduse tegemisi kommenteerib Valeri Smirnov
Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.
2010-01-01
Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2ν2β) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2ν2β data on 100 Mo to both the ground state and excited states in 100 Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratnasari Dwi Ade Chandra
2017-03-01
before using flashcard visual media data showed that significant value Kolmogorov Smirnov is 0,014 and value significant of Shapiro-Wilk is 0,041. Normality test results indicate that significant value is greater than the minimum limit is sig ≥ 0.05 : meaning that the data obtained is a normal distribution. Data normality test results after using visual media flashcard data showed that the significant value of 0.063 Kolmogorov Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk significant value of 0.06. Data normality test results after using visual media flashcard data showed that the significant value of 0.063 Kolmogorov Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk significant value of 0.06. Normality test results indicate that significant value is greater than the minimum limit is ≤ 0.05 sig: meaning that the data obtained normal distribution. the results of paired samples t test, t test (t of -9.255 and significance value (sig of 0.000. Value t test (t is greater than t table criteria that is -3.120. Significant value paired sample t-tes is smaller than the specified limit is 0.05 (sig <0.05. It can be concluded if there are significant differences on early childhood cognitive ability before and after visual media flashcard (Ha acceptable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raynal, J.
1976-01-01
Closed formulae and recurrence relations for the transformation of a two-body harmonic oscillator wave function to the hyperspherical formalism are given. With them Moshinsky or Smirnov coefficients are obtained from the transformation coefficients of hyperspheric harmonics. For these coefficients the diagonalization method of Talman and Lande reduces to simple recurrence relations which can be used directly to compute them. New closed formulae for these coefficients are also derived: they are needed to compute the two simplest coefficients which determine the sign for the recurrence relation. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, B.
1990-01-01
We show that the algebraic structure encountered first in conformal QFT 2 corresponds to the multiciplicity-free parastatistics description of H. Green of 1953. We give arguments in favour of the dictum that QFT, in contradistinction to Quantum Mechanics, does not have to rely on quantization but rather allows for a formulation and classification in terms of intrinsic quantum principles. We interpret the Karowski-Weisz-Smirnov form-factor program in this light and comment on some properties of anyons and plektons which may be relevant for condensed matter physics (the enigma of Non-Fermi-Liquid-States)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olesov, A V
2014-01-01
New inequalities are established for analytic functions satisfying Meiman's majorization conditions. Estimates for values of and differential inequalities involving rational trigonometric functions with an integer majorant on an interval of length less than the period and with prescribed poles which are symmetrically positioned relative to the real axis, as well as differential inequalities for trigonometric polynomials in some classes, are given as applications. These results improve several theorems due to Meiman, Genchev, Smirnov and Rusak. Bibliography: 27 titles
Probability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes
Olofsson, Peter
2012-01-01
This book provides a unique and balanced approach to probability, statistics, and stochastic processes. Readers gain a solid foundation in all three fields that serves as a stepping stone to more advanced investigations into each area. The Second Edition features new coverage of analysis of variance (ANOVA), consistency and efficiency of estimators, asymptotic theory for maximum likelihood estimators, empirical distribution function and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, general linear models, multiple comparisons, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Brownian motion, martingales, and
Statistical analysis applied to safety culture self-assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macedo Soares, P.P.
2002-01-01
Interviews and opinion surveys are instruments used to assess the safety culture in an organization as part of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme. Specific statistical tools are used to analyse the survey results. This paper presents an example of an opinion survey with the corresponding application of the statistical analysis and the conclusions obtained. Survey validation, Frequency statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric test, Student (T-test) and ANOVA means comparison tests and LSD post-hoc multiple comparison test, are discussed. (author)
Uncertainties in estimating working level months
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.R.
1978-11-01
A statistical procedure is presented that can be used to estimate the number of Working Level (WL) measurements that are required to calculate the average WL to any required precision, at given confidence levels. The procedure assumes that the WL measurements have a normal distribution. WL measurement from Canadian Uranium mines are used to illustrate a procedure of insuring that estimated Working Level Months can be calculated to the required precision. An addendum reports the results of tests of normality of the WL data using the W-test and the Kolmagornov-Smirnov test. (author)
MSW regeneration of solar and supernova V in the earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cribier, M.; Lagage, P.O.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vignaud, D.
1987-01-01
We discuss the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect for different radiochemical and real-time neutrino experiments taking into account the effects of the passage through the earth for solar and supernova neutrinos. We emphasize that V e regeneration in the earth can lead to measurable increases in counting rates and to a time dependent V e energy spectrum. Such observations would verify the presence of the MSW effect and lead to a restriction on the allowed values of neutrino mass differences and mixing angles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janilson Pinheiro de Assis
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o ajuste de 12 séries históricas de pressão atmosférica mensal (milibar no período de 1970 a2007, em Mossoró, RN, à sete modelos de distribuição densidade de probabilidade Normal, Log-Normal, Beta, Gama, Log-Pearson (Tipo III, Gumbel e Weibull, através dos testes Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Qui-Quadrado, Cramer Von-Mises, Anderson Darling e Kuiper a 10 % de probabilidade e utilizando-se o Logaritmo da Máxima Verossimilhança. Verificou-se a superioridade do ajustamento da distribuição de probabilidade Normal, quando comparada com as outras seis distribuições. No geral, os critérios de ajuste concordaram com a aceitação da hipótese H0, no entanto, deve-se salientar que o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov apresenta um nível de aprovação de uma distribuição sob teste muito elevado, gerando insegurança aos critérios do teste, porém, como neste estudo os dados são aproximadamente simétricos, esse é o mais recomendado.Probability distributions for historic series of monthly atmospheric pressure in city of Mossoró-RNAbstract: The aim of this study was to determine the set of 12 time series of monthly atmospheric pressure (millibars in the period 1970-2007, in Natal, RN, the seven models of the probability density distribution Normal, Log-Normal, Beta, Gamma, Log -Pearson (Type III, Gumbel and Weibull, through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Chi-Square, Cramer-von Mises, Anderson Darling and Kuiper 10 probability and using the logarithm of the maximum likelihood. It is the superiority of adjusting the normal probability distribution compared to the other six distributions. Overall, the fit criteria agreed with the acceptance of the hypothesis, however, it should be noted that the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows a level of approval of a distribution under test very high, which creates some uncertainty to the criteria of test, but in this study as the data are roughly symmetrical it is the most recommended.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, B.
1992-01-01
After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)
A Poisson process approximation for generalized K-5 confidence regions
Arsham, H.; Miller, D. R.
1982-01-01
One-sided confidence regions for continuous cumulative distribution functions are constructed using empirical cumulative distribution functions and the generalized Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance. The band width of such regions becomes narrower in the right or left tail of the distribution. To avoid tedious computation of confidence levels and critical values, an approximation based on the Poisson process is introduced. This aproximation provides a conservative confidence region; moreover, the approximation error decreases monotonically to 0 as sample size increases. Critical values necessary for implementation are given. Applications are made to the areas of risk analysis, investment modeling, reliability assessment, and analysis of fault tolerant systems.
Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics (in Geology)
Vermeesch, Pieter
2009-11-01
According to Karl Popper's epistemology of critical rationalism, scientists should formulate falsifiable hypotheses rather than produce ad hoc answers to empirical observations. In other words, we should predict and test rather than merely explain [Popper, 1959]. Sometimes, statistical tests such as chi-square, t, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used to make deductions more “objective.” Such tests are used in a wide range of geological subdisciplines [see Reimann and Filzmoser, 2000; Anderson and Johnson, 1999; Lørup et al., 1998; Sircombe and Hazelton, 2004].
Some conclusions about the concrete strength of the bored piles of Angra 2 nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomaz, E.C.S.; Joia, L.A.
1984-01-01
The concrete of the bored piles of Angra 2 was submitted to a deep control, so more than five thousand core samples were analyzed to verify the quality of the concrete. Based on these samples and using statistics regression theory some conclusions could be done. It was analyzed the dependence of the concrete strength upon the depth of the pile. Also based on these samples some probability distribution functions that could simulate the concrete strength were studied applying the Kolmogorov - Smirnov fitness test. Finally, a method for evaluating a confidence interval of one of the probability function (Weibull distribution) was developed adopting the Monte Carlo simulation technique. (Author) [pt
An Overall Perspective of Machine Translation with its Shortcomings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Akbari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials. In this connection, Machine translation is of great importance in translation. The term “Machine Translation” was first proposed by George Artsrouni and Smirnov Troyanski (1933 to design a storage design on paper tape. This paper sought to investigate an overall perspective of Machine Translation models and its metrics in detail. Finally, it scrutinized the ins and outs shortcomings of Machine Translation.
Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele
2011-01-01
LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holloway, D.
1993-01-01
In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb
Investigating the effects of counseling programs on runaway youth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Iravani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of counseling programs on reducing the runaway youth in Iran. The study selects a sample of 30 students and divides them into two groups of control and experiment. The first group is kept under eight sessions of social skills training and a questionnaire consists of various questions including confidence items is distributed among both groups after the training ends. The implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov has revealed that both pre and post-test data are normally distributed. In addition, the result of ANOVA test has revealed that training program could significantly improve runaway youth’s confidence.
Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy
M. Sharifdoost; N. Nematollahi; E. Pasha
2009-01-01
To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes...
Cubillos Vásquez, Sandra M.; Jáuregui Nieto, Germán; Aristizábal Rodríguez, Jeimy P; Gómez Martínez, Claudia Y.; Rodríguez Romero, Edna T; Pacheco Durán, Pedro N
2011-01-01
Antecedentes. Diferentes estudios refieren que los patrones internacionales de crecimiento son impropios a las características de la población latinoamericana y que existe limitado sustento que garantice su aplicabilidad.Objetivo. Proponer el uso de una metodología estadística que permita comparar y predecir los valores antropométricos de una población objeto a partir de una población base.Material y métodos. Prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov para establecer si existen diferencias significativas e...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colomo, F.; Mussardo, G.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors compute the S matrix of the tricritical Ising model perturbed by the subleading magnetic operator using Smirnov's RSOS reduction of the Izergin-Korepin model. The massive model contains kink excitations which interpolate between two degenerate asymmetric vacua. As a consequence of the different structure of the two vacua, the crossing symmetry is implemented in a nontrivial way. The authors use finite-size techniques to compare their results with the numerical data obtained by the truncated conformal space approach and find good agreement
Nonparametric statistics a step-by-step approach
Corder, Gregory W
2014-01-01
"…a very useful resource for courses in nonparametric statistics in which the emphasis is on applications rather than on theory. It also deserves a place in libraries of all institutions where introductory statistics courses are taught."" -CHOICE This Second Edition presents a practical and understandable approach that enhances and expands the statistical toolset for readers. This book includes: New coverage of the sign test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test in an effort to offer a logical and natural progression to statistical powerSPSS® (Version 21) software and updated screen ca
Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources
Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin
2016-07-01
After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the “beta fit” distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020, 11275025, 11575023)
Dual practitioners are as engaged in their primary job as their senior colleagues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Socha, Karolina; Bech, Mickael
2012-01-01
are not involved in dual practice (single practitioners). This paper compares work behaviour of dual and single practitioners in the public hospitals. We focus on senior physicians in anaesthesiology and surgery. Material and methods: Data were collected in a survey of public hospital physicians in Denmark....... Bivariate analyses – two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Fisher’s exact tests – were used to test for differences between dual and single practitioners. Results: The sample represents 45% of senior public hospital physicians in 2008. Dual and single practitioners did not differ significantly in terms...
MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating
Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2003-10-01
We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.
Neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samuel, S.
1993-01-01
We consider oscillations of neutrinos under conditions in which the neutrino density is sufficiently large that neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot be neglected. A formalism is developed to treat this highly nonlinear system. Numerical analysis reveals a rich array of phenomena. In certain gases, a self-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect occurs in which electron neutrinos are resonantly converted into muon neutrinos. In another relatively low-density gas, an unexpected parametric resonant conversion takes place. Finally, neutrino-neutrino interactions maintain coherence in one system for which a priori one expected decoherence
Coherent Active-Sterile Neutrino Flavor Transformation in the Early Universe
Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.
2006-10-01
We solve the problem of coherent Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonant active-to-sterile neutrino flavor conversion driven by an initial lepton number in the early Universe. We find incomplete destruction of the lepton number in this process and a sterile neutrino energy distribution with a distinctive cusp and high energy tail. These features imply alteration of the nonzero lepton number primordial nucleosynthesis paradigm when there exist sterile neutrinos with rest masses ms˜1eV. This could result in better light element probes of (constraints on) these particles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, A.
1994-01-01
Recent observations of the space distribution of quasars indicate a very notable peak in space density at a redshift of 2 to 3. It is pointed out in this article that this may be the result of a phase transition which has a critical temperature of roughly a few meV (in the cosmological units h=c=k=1). It is further pointed out that such a phase transition is natural in the context of massive neutrinos. In fact, the neutrino masses required for quasar production and those required to solve the solar neutrino problem by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism are consistent with each other
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fogli, Gianluigi; Lisi, Eligio
2004-01-01
Recent solar and reactor neutrino data have convincingly established that electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are subject to flavour transitions driven by neutrino masses and mixing. In addition, such data can be used to prove that the interaction of neutrinos in matter modifies the flavour transition pattern with respect to the case of propagation in vacuum, as predicted long ago by Mikheyev, Smirnov and Wolfenstein (MSW). We present a brief review of how the current evidence for MSW solar neutrino transitions has developed in recent years, and how it has been strengthened by the latest reactor neutrino data presented at the Neutrino 2004 Conference
Supernova Neutrino-Process and Implication in Neutrino Oscillation
Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Fujiya, W.; Mathews, G. J.; Yoshida, T.; Shaku, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hayakawa, T.
2012-08-01
We studied the supernova nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and many others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process in core-collapse supernovae. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy simultaneously from the supernova neutrino-process, combined with the r-process for heavy-element synthsis and the Galactic chemical evolution on light nuclei.
Díaz, M.; Hirsch, M.; Porod, W.; Romão, J.; Valle, J.
2003-07-01
We give an analytical calculation of solar neutrino masses and mixing at one-loop order within bilinear R-parity breaking supersymmetry, and compare our results to the exact numerical calculation. Our method is based on a systematic perturbative expansion of R-parity violating vertices to leading order. We find in general quite good agreement between the approximate and full numerical calculations, but the approximate expressions are much simpler to implement. Our formalism works especially well for the case of the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution, now strongly favored by the recent KamLAND reactor neutrino data.
Detecting supernova neutrinos in Daya Bay Neutrino Laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Mingyang; Guo Xinheng; Yang Binglin
2011-01-01
While detecting supernova neutrinos in the Daya Bay neutrino laboratory, several supernova neutrino effects need to be considered, including the supernova shock effects, the neutrino collective effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, and the Earth matter effects. The phenomena of neutrino oscillation is affected by the above effects. Using some ratios of the event numbers of different supernova neutrinos, we propose some possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and neutrino masses. (authors)
MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2003-01-01
We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario
Solar neutrinos and the MSW effect for three-neutrino mixing
Shi, X.; Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
Researchers considered three-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mixing, assuming m sub 3 is much greater than m sub 2 is greater than m sub 1 as expected from theoretical consideration if neutrinos have mass. They calculated the corresponding mixing parameter space allowed by the Cl-37 and Kamiokande 2 experiments. They also calculated the expected depletion for the Ga-71 experiment. They explored a range of theoretical uncertainty due to possible astrophysical effects by varying the B-8 neutrino flux and redoing the MSW mixing calculation.
Chaotic inflation and baryogenesis by right-handed sneutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murayama, H.; Suzuki, H.; Yanagida, T.; Yokoyama, J.i.
1993-01-01
We present a model of chaotic inflation driven by the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino (N R ). This model gives the correct magnitude of the density perturbation observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer satellite with a right-handed neutrino mass congruent 10 13 GeV, which is also preferred by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. The reheating process is the dacay of the coherently oscillating N R . This decay process also generates lepton asymmetry via CP violation, which will be converted to baryon asymmetry thanks to the electroweak anomaly. This model can incorporate the τ-neutrino mass congruent 10 eV
Neutrino coherent forward scattering and its index of refraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.
1992-01-01
It is pointed out that, if neutrinos are to maintain coherence over the required distance for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar-neutrino problem, effects arising from neutrino multiple scattering must be considered. We give a simple derivation for the neutrino index of refraction that takes into account this effect. The same method is also shown to be useful for situations with varying matter densities and neutrino mixing. We also examine the question whether the coherence of propagating neutrinos in matter will be affected by switching on an external magnetic field, assuming neutrinos have a large magnetic moment
Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.
2005-01-01
The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis
Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C.
2003-08-01
In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.
Flavor Oscillations in the Supernova Hot Bubble Region: Nonlinear Effects of Neutrino Background
Pastor, Sergio; Raffelt, Georg
2002-10-01
The neutrino flux close to a supernova core contributes substantially to neutrino refraction so that flavor oscillations become a nonlinear phenomenon. One unexpected consequence is efficient flavor transformation for antineutrinos in a region where only neutrinos encounter a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance or vice versa. Contrary to previous studies we find that in the neutrino-driven wind the electron fraction Ye always stays below 0.5, corresponding to a neutron-rich environment as required by r-process nucleosynthesis. The relevant range of masses and mixing angles includes the region indicated by LSND, but not the atmospheric or solar oscillation parameters.
Adiabatic resonant oscillations of solar neutrinos in three generations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, C.W.; Sze, W.K.
1987-01-01
The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein model of resonant solar-neutrino oscillations is discussed for three generations of leptons. Assuming adiabatic transitions, bounds for the μ- and e-neutrinos mass-squared difference Δ/sub 21,0/ are obtained as a function of the e-μ mixing angle theta 1 . The allowed region in the Δ/sub 21,0/-theta 1 plot that would solve the solar-neutrino problem is shown to be substantially larger than that of the two-generation case. In particular, the difference between the two- and three-generation cases becomes significant for theta 1 larger than --20 0
Can the Sun shed light on neutrino gravitational interactions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halprin, A.; Leung, C.N.
1991-01-01
We have examined the effects of a large gravitational field on the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations as contemplated in the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that the Sun's gravitational field would amplify any small breakdown in the universality of the gravitational coupling by many orders of magnitude. A breakdown of only 1 part in 10 14 would still make the gravitational effect comparable to the conventional weak interaction. The differing energy dependences of the two level-crossing mechanisms can therefore be used as a very sensitive tool to test the conventional universality hypothesis
Collective neutrino oscillations and r-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae
Duan, Huaiyu
2012-10-01
Neutrinos can oscillate collectively in a core-collapse supernova. This phenomenon can occur much deeper inside the supernova envelope than what is predicted from the conventional matter-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, and hence may have an impact on nucleosynthesis. The oscillation patterns and the r-process yields are sensitive to the details of the emitted neutrino fluxes, the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, the modeling of neutrino oscillations and the astrophysical conditions. The effects of collective neutrino oscillations on the r-process will be illustrated using representative late-time neutrino spectra and outflow models.
Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter
Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.
2005-01-01
The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis.
Fogli, Gianluigi; Lisi, Eligio
2004-10-01
Recent solar and reactor neutrino data have convincingly established that electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are subject to flavour transitions driven by neutrino masses and mixing. In addition, such data can be used to prove that the interaction of neutrinos in matter modifies the flavour transition pattern with respect to the case of propagation in vacuum, as predicted long ago by Mikheyev, Smirnov and Wolfenstein (MSW). We present a brief review of how the current evidence for MSW solar neutrino transitions has developed in recent years, and how it has been strengthened by the latest reactor neutrino data presented at the Neutrino 2004 Conference.
Earth effect in the MSW analysis of the solar neutrino experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, N.; Langacker, P.
1993-01-01
We consider the Earth effect in the combined Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein analysis of the solar neutrino experiments including theoretical uncertainties. Using the time-averaged data, the allowed large-angle region extends to much smaller angles than when the Earth effect is ignored. However, the additional constraint from the Kamiokande II day-night data excludes the parameter space most sensitive to the Earth effect, leaving only a small large-angle region close to maximal mixing at 90% C.L. The nonadiabatic solution remains unaffected by the Earth effect and is still preferred
MSW regeneration of solar νe in the earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cribier, M.; Rich, J.
1986-01-01
The MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect is discussed for a variety of radiochemical and real-time solar neutrino experiments taking into account the effects of neutrino passage through the sun and earth. It is emphasized that during the night ν e regeneration in the earth can lead to measurable increases in counting rates and to a time-dependent ν e energy spectrum. Such observations would verify the presence of the MSW effect and lead to a restriction on the allowed values of neutrino mass differences and mixing angles. (orig.)
Active-sterile neutrino conversion: consequences for the r-process and supernova neutrino detection
Fetter, J.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Balantekin, A. B.; Fuller, G. M.
2003-02-01
We examine active-sterile neutrino conversion in the late time post-core-bounce supernova environment. By including the effect of feedback on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion potential, we obtain a large range of neutrino mixing parameters which produce a favorable environment for the r-process. We look at the signature of this effect in the current generation of neutrino detectors now coming on line. We also investigate the impact of the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering-induced potential on the MSW conversion.
Resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrino and the solar neutrino problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Bychuk, O.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow
1989-01-01
Resonant amplification of spin-flavor precession of neutrinos in solar matter is considered. Some possible consequences of the process are discussed. It is shown that resonant spin-flavor neutrino precession may account for the deficit of solar neutrinos in Davis' experiment and the anticorrelation between the rate of neutrino counting and solar activity. Experiments are considered which should make it possible to distinguish between spin-flavor neutrino precession and the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. A new restriction on the usual spin precession of solar neutrinos is derived
Remarks on the first two events in the supernova burst observed by Kamiokande II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.
1988-01-01
We examine the possibility, remote but not totally improbable, that one of the first two supernova events observed in the Kamiokande II detector consists of an electron neutrino scattering from an electron. From arguments of timing we show that this possibility can be realized only for the first event, and that it requires the electron-neutrino mass to be less than 2.5 eV. The occurrence of such an event means that, of the various Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar-neutrino problem, the nonadiabatic one is likely to be correct
Acquiring information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos
Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin
2010-08-01
We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle θ13, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about θ13 and neutrino masses by detecting supernova neutrinos. We apply these methods to some current neutrino experiments.
E sub 6 leptoquarks and the solar neutrino problem
Roulet, Esteban
1991-01-01
The possibility that non-conventional neutrino oscillations take place in the superstring inspired E sub 6 models is considered. In this context, the influence of leptoquark mediated interactions of the neutrinos with nucleons in the resonant flavor conversion is discussed. It is shown that this effect can be significant for v sub e - v sub tau oscillations if these neutrinos have masses required in the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and may lead to a solution of the solar neutrino problem even in the absence of vacuum mixings. On the other hand, this model cannot lead to a resonant behavior in the sun if the neutrinos are massless.
Neutrino oscillations in the Earth suggest a terrestrial test of solution to solar neutrino problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dar, A.; Mann, A.; Technicon-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Space Research Inst.)
1987-01-01
The verification of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of the solar neutrino problem is discussed. One verification experiment concerns the detection of sizeable oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos in the earth, which can be detected with the massive underground proton decay detectors. Diurnal and seasonal modulations of the solar neutrino flux can perhaps be detected by the radiochemical Cl and Ga detectors. Moreover, neutrino oscillations in the Earth may modify the values of the oscillation parameters which can solve the solar neutrino problem and help determine their values. (UK)
Three neutrino flavors: Oscillations, mixing, and the solar-neutrino problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pantaleone, J.
1991-01-01
An analytical, quantitative description of solar-neutrino propagation is presented which includes three flavors, matter dependence, and long-wavelength effects. Using the derived expression for the electron-neutrino survival probability, it is demonstrated that mixing is possible between the two-flavor Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein and two-flavor long-wavelength solutions to the solar-neutrino problem. However, adiabatic conversion of a neutrino mass eigenstate tends to suppress all subsequent long-wavelength effects such as ''seasonal'' variations in the solar-neutrino flux
Consequences of a 17-keV neutrino
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldwell, D.O.; Langacker, P.
1991-01-01
If the controversial 17-keV neutrino exists, laboratory, astrophysical and cosmological bounds, unless significantly weakened, require that (1) it be a Majorana neutrino and mainly ν τ ; (2) it not be the dark matter of the universe, although its existence would rule out dominant hot dark matter; (3) the ν μ be a heavy Majorana neutrino of mass 17 keV or in the range 170--270 keV; and (4) the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar-neutrino problem involve ν e conversion to a light sterile [SU(2)-singlet] neutrino
Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe
Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.
2016-06-01
This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.
A model of radiative neutrino masses. Mixing and a possible fourth generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu, K.S.; Ma, E.; Pantaleone, J.
1989-01-01
We consider the phenomenological consequences of a recently proposed model with four lepton generations such that the three known neutrinos have radiatively induced Majorana masses. Mixing among generations in the presence of a heavy fourth neutrino necessitates a reevaluation of the usual experimental tests of the standard model. One interesting possibility is to have a τ lifetime longer than predicted by the standard three-generation model. Another is to have neutrino masses and mixing angles in the range needed for a natural explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle in terms of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. (orig.)
Solar neutrino observations and neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, T.K.; Pantaleone, J.
1990-01-01
The results of recent Kamiokande-II and 37 Cl solar-neutrino experiments are quantitatively analyzed assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar-neutrino problem. It is found that the parameter region known as the ''large mass'' solution to the solar-neutrino problem is disfavored by a little more than 1 σ while the ''small mass'' and ''large angle'' solutions are in good agreement at this level. The implications on this analysis from time variations in the data are discussed
Coherent Active-Sterile Neutrino Flavor Transformation in the Early Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.
2006-01-01
We solve the problem of coherent Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonant active-to-sterile neutrino flavor conversion driven by an initial lepton number in the early Universe. We find incomplete destruction of the lepton number in this process and a sterile neutrino energy distribution with a distinctive cusp and high energy tail. These features imply alteration of the nonzero lepton number primordial nucleosynthesis paradigm when there exist sterile neutrinos with rest masses m s ∼1 eV. This could result in better light element probes of (constraints on) these particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Kheirandish
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Understanding obstacles in front of communication system has turned into a critical task executed by managers. Present study analyzes major vulnerabilities to organizational communication from structural, behavioral and contextual aspects. The statistical population includes employees and managers in the headquarters of National Iranian Oil Company. After assessing the validity and reliability of a conceptual model, we used Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, T-test and F-test for analyzing our data. The results show that priority of communication barriers are as follows: structural elements like centrality and formality. Contextual elements like cultural and technical barriers and finally behavioral elements like perceptual and human barriers.
Modified Anderson-Darling tests with selective power improvement
Cabaña Nigro, Alejandra
2001-01-01
Transformed empirical processes (TEPs) have been used by the authors in a previous paper to construct consistent and selectively efficient goodness-of-fit tests of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov type. A straightforward application of the same ideas to the construction of tests of the Cramér-von-Mises type with the same properties leads to cumbersome computations. This short note of the incovenients encountered, and introduces a new family of quadratic statistics of the Cramér-von Mises type, in order...
Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and Duke University Department of Physics, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)
2010-11-01
Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2{nu}2{beta}) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2{nu}2{beta} data on {sup 100}Mo to both the ground state and excited states in {sup 100}Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.
Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C G
2003-08-15
In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellasio, R [Enviroware s.r.l., Agrate Brianza, Milan (Italy). Centro Direzionale Colleoni; Lanzani, G; Ripamonti, M; Valore, M [Amministrazione Provinciale, Como (Italy)
1998-04-01
This work illustrates the possibility to interpolate the measured concentrations of CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} during one year (1995) at the 13 stations of the air quality monitoring station network of the Provinces of Como and Lecco (Italy) by means of a log-normal distribution. Particular attention was given in choosing the method for the determination of the log-normal distribution parameters among four possible methods: I natural, II percentiles, III moments, IV maximum likelihood. In order to evaluate the goodness of fit a ranking procedure was carried out over the values of four indices: absolute deviation, weighted absolute deviation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov index and Cramer-von Mises-Smirnov index. The capability of the log-normal distribution to fit the measured data is then discussed as a function of the pollutant and of the monitoring station. Finally an example of application is given: the effect of an emission reduction strategy in Lombardy Region (the so called `bollino blu`) is evaluated using a log-normal distribution. [Italiano] In questo lavoro si discute la possibilita` di interpolare le concentrazioni misurate di CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} durante un anno solare (il 1995) nelle 13 stazioni della Rete di Rilevamento della qualita` dell`aria delle Provincie di Como e di Lecco mediante una funzione log-normale. In particolare si discute quale metodo e` meglio usare per l`individuazione dei 2 parametri caratteristici della log-normale, tra 4 teoreticamente possibili: I naturale, II dei percentili, III dei momenti, IV della massima verosimiglianza. Per valutare i risultati ottenuti si usano: la deviazione assoluta, la deviazione pesata, il parametro di Kolmogorov-Smirnov e quello di Cramer-von Mises-Smirnov effettuando un ranking tra i metodi in funzione degli inquinanti e della stazione di misura. Ancora in funzione degli inquinanti e delle diverse stazioni di misura si discute poi la capacita` della funzione log-normale di
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi
2012-01-01
This study investigated the stochastic distribution of the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) which is a critical element for estimating slip probability. Fifty participants walked under four walking conditions. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test indicate that 76% of the RCOF data showed a difference in distribution between both feet for the same participant under each walking condition; the data from both feet were kept separate. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test indicate that most of the distribution of the RCOF appears to have a good match with the normal (85.5%), log-normal (84.5%) and Weibull distributions (81.5%). However, approximately 7.75% of the cases did not have a match with any of these distributions. It is reasonable to use the normal distribution for representation of the RCOF distribution due to its simplicity and familiarity, but each foot had a different distribution from the other foot in 76% of cases. The stochastic distribution of the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was investigated for use in a statistical model to improve the estimate of slip probability in risk assessment. The results indicate that 85.5% of the distribution of the RCOF appears to have a good match with the normal distribution.
Utility of Reference Change Values for Delta Check Limits.
Ko, Dae-Hyun; Park, Hae-Il; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Shin, Dong Hoon
2017-10-01
To assess the utility of reference change values (RCVs) as delta check limits. A total of 1,650,518 paired results for 23 general chemistry test results from June 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, were analyzed. The RCVs for each analyte were calculated from the analytical imprecision and within-subject biological variation. The percent differences between two consecutive results in one patient were categorized into one of four groups: outpatients, inpatients, emergency care, and general health care. For each, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values were computed and compared with their RCVs. The distributions were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Most of the estimated limits were larger than the corresponding RCVs and, furthermore, with notable differences across the groups. Patients in the emergency care group usually demonstrated larger delta percent values than those in the other groups. None of the distributions of the percent differences passed tests of normality when subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis. Comparison of estimated RCVs and real-world patient data revealed the pitfalls of applying RCVs in clinical laboratories. Laboratory managers should be aware of the limitations of RCVs and exercise caution when using them. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Best Statistical Distribution of flood variables for Johor River in Malaysia
Salarpour Goodarzi, M.; Yusop, Z.; Yusof, F.
2012-12-01
A complex flood event is always characterized by a few characteristics such as flood peak, flood volume, and flood duration, which might be mutually correlated. This study explored the statistical distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume at Rantau Panjang gauging station on the Johor River in Malaysia. Hourly data were recorded for 45 years. The data were analysed based on water year (July - June). Five distributions namely, Log Normal, Generalize Pareto, Log Pearson, Normal and Generalize Extreme Value (GEV) were used to model the distribution of all the three variables. Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the best fit. Goodness-of-fit tests at 5% level of significance indicate that all the models can be used to model the distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume. However, Generalize Pareto distribution is found to be the most suitable model when tested with the Anderson-Darling test and the, Kolmogorov-Smirnov suggested that GEV is the best for peakflow. The result of this research can be used to improve flood frequency analysis. Comparison between Generalized Extreme Value, Generalized Pareto and Log Pearson distributions in the Cumulative Distribution Function of peakflow
The boundary value problem for discrete analytic functions
Skopenkov, Mikhail
2013-06-01
This paper is on further development of discrete complex analysis introduced by R.Isaacs, J.Ferrand, R.Duffin, and C.Mercat. We consider a graph lying in the complex plane and having quadrilateral faces. A function on the vertices is called discrete analytic, if for each face the difference quotients along the two diagonals are equal.We prove that the Dirichlet boundary value problem for the real part of a discrete analytic function has a unique solution. In the case when each face has orthogonal diagonals we prove that this solution uniformly converges to a harmonic function in the scaling limit. This solves a problem of S.Smirnov from 2010. This was proved earlier by R.Courant-K.Friedrichs-H.Lewy and L.Lusternik for square lattices, by D.Chelkak-S.Smirnov and implicitly by P.G.Ciarlet-P.-A.Raviart for rhombic lattices.In particular, our result implies uniform convergence of the finite element method on Delaunay triangulations. This solves a problem of A.Bobenko from 2011. The methodology is based on energy estimates inspired by alternating-current network theory. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Statistical application of groundwater monitoring data at the Hanford Site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Hodges, F.N.
1993-09-01
Effective use of groundwater monitoring data requires both statistical and geohydrologic interpretations. At the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state such interpretations are used for (1) detection monitoring, assessment monitoring, and/or corrective action at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act sites; (2) compliance testing for operational groundwater surveillance; (3) impact assessments at active liquid-waste disposal sites; and (4) cleanup decisions at Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act sites. Statistical tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test are used to test the hypothesis that chemical concentrations from spatially distinct subsets or populations are identical within the uppermost unconfined aquifer. Experience at the Hanford Site in applying groundwater background data indicates that background must be considered as a statistical distribution of concentrations, rather than a single value or threshold. The use of a single numerical value as a background-based standard ignores important information and may result in excessive or unnecessary remediation. Appropriate statistical evaluation techniques include Wilcoxon rank sum test, Quantile test, ''hot spot'' comparisons, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov types of tests. Application of such tests is illustrated with several case studies derived from Hanford groundwater monitoring programs. To avoid possible misuse of such data, an understanding of the limitations is needed. In addition to statistical test procedures, geochemical, and hydrologic considerations are integral parts of the decision process. For this purpose a phased approach is recommended that proceeds from simple to the more complex, and from an overview to detailed analysis
Numerical evaluation of tensor Feynman integrals in Euclidean kinematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gluza, J.; Kajda [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, T.; Yundin, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2010-10-15
For the investigation of higher order Feynman integrals, potentially with tensor structure, it is highly desirable to have numerical methods and automated tools for dedicated, but sufficiently 'simple' numerical approaches. We elaborate two algorithms for this purpose which may be applied in the Euclidean kinematical region and in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions. One method uses Mellin-Barnes representations for the Feynman parameter representation of multi-loop Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. Our Mathematica package AMBRE has been extended for that purpose, and together with the packages MB (M. Czakon) or MBresolve (A. V. Smirnov and V. A. Smirnov) one may perform automatically a numerical evaluation of planar tensor Feynman integrals. Alternatively, one may apply sector decomposition to planar and non-planar multi-loop {epsilon}-expanded Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. We automatized the preparations of Feynman integrals for an immediate application of the package sectordecomposition (C. Bogner and S. Weinzierl) so that one has to give only a proper definition of propagators and numerators. The efficiency of the two implementations, based on Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decompositions, is compared. The computational packages are publicly available. (orig.)
On Wasserstein Two-Sample Testing and Related Families of Nonparametric Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaditya Ramdas
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nonparametric two-sample or homogeneity testing is a decision theoretic problem that involves identifying differences between two random variables without making parametric assumptions about their underlying distributions. The literature is old and rich, with a wide variety of statistics having being designed and analyzed, both for the unidimensional and the multivariate setting. Inthisshortsurvey,wefocusonteststatisticsthatinvolvetheWassersteindistance. Usingan entropic smoothing of the Wasserstein distance, we connect these to very different tests including multivariate methods involving energy statistics and kernel based maximum mean discrepancy and univariate methods like the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, probability or quantile (PP/QQ plots and receiver operating characteristic or ordinal dominance (ROC/ODC curves. Some observations are implicit in the literature, while others seem to have not been noticed thus far. Given nonparametric two-sample testing’s classical and continued importance, we aim to provide useful connections for theorists and practitioners familiar with one subset of methods but not others.
A KST framework for correlation network construction from time series signals
Qi, Jin-Peng; Gu, Quan; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ping
2018-04-01
A KST (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and T statistic) method is used for construction of a correlation network based on the fluctuation of each time series within the multivariate time signals. In this method, each time series is divided equally into multiple segments, and the maximal data fluctuation in each segment is calculated by a KST change detection procedure. Connections between each time series are derived from the data fluctuation matrix, and are used for construction of the fluctuation correlation network (FCN). The method was tested with synthetic simulations and the result was compared with those from using KS or T only for detection of data fluctuation. The novelty of this study is that the correlation analyses was based on the data fluctuation in each segment of each time series rather than on the original time signals, which would be more meaningful for many real world applications and for analysis of large-scale time signals where prior knowledge is uncertain.
SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P.; Oliveira, I.N.S.
2010-05-22
This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.
Numerical computation of solar neutrino flux attenuated by the MSW mechanism
Kim, Jai Sam; Chae, Yoon Sang; Kim, Jung Dae
1999-07-01
We compute the survival probability of an electron neutrino in its flight through the solar core experiencing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect with all three neutrino species considered. We adopted a hybrid method that uses an accurate approximation formula in the non-resonance region and numerical integration in the non-adiabatic resonance region. The key of our algorithm is to use the importance sampling method for sampling the neutrino creation energy and position and to find the optimum radii to start and stop numerical integration. We further developed a parallel algorithm for a message passing parallel computer. By using an idea of job token, we have developed a dynamical load balancing mechanism which is effective under any irregular load distributions
Pathology of knowledge strategy barriers in organization: a case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Kheirandish
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Knowledge management plays an important role on the success of organizations but there are several reasons that many organizations fail to talk a full advantage of the benefits of knowledge management implementation. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation on supreme audit court organization of Iran. The survey uses a standard questionnaire and distributes 116 questionnaires among 228 people who worked for this organization. Cronbach alpha yields 0.817, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test has been performed to examine the normality of the data and yields 1.71 for management attributes, 1.78 is for resource factors and 1.73 for environment factors and P-value for all three factors is 0.000. The preliminary results of our survey indicate that management is the first important factor followed by resources and environment factors.
Angraini, L. M.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Dahlan, J. A.
2018-05-01
This study aims to see the enhancement of mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the university students through concept attainment model learning based on overall and Prior Mathematical Knowledge (PMK) and interaction of both. Quasi experiments with the design of this experimental-controlled equivalent group involved 54 of second semester students at the one of State Islamic University. The instrument used is pretest-postest. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, t test, two-way ANOVA test were used to analyse the data. The result of this study includes: (1) The enhancement of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the learning of concept attainment model is better than the enhancement of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the conventional learning as a whole and based on PMK; (2) There is no interaction between the learning that is used and PMK on enhancing mathematical analogical reasoning ability.
Earthworms as biomarkers for detecting soil pollution around swine farms in Timiș County
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crina L. Moșneang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available By using several samples collected from different farms distances it can be determined the degree of farms pollution and their effects on ecosystems. In order to avoid any error the soil samples were tested in comparison with a control soil sample, used as a reference, considered animal waste pollution free. The registration of survival rate for each testing recipient and for each soil along five repeats was a critical control point of testing. The 11 identified soil types were tested in comparison with a clean reference soil, by using 275 test earthworms and 55 control earthworms. According to normality Kolmogorov- Smirnov test the mortality was analyzed and results were significant (p=0.046.
Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA
1994-04-01
We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shibatta Oscar A.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The standard length of 7610 specimens of 43 species from eight streams of rio Tibagi basin was obtained in order to analyze the means of fish sizes. The higher mean size was observed in Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (165,5 mm and the smaller, in Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 (16,25 mm. Some fish like Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1836, Gymnotus carapo Linneus, 1758 and Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 can reach big or medium size when adults but were collected only young, evidencing they use some streams in beginning of life. The mean size of total species was 49,81mm, what shows the small size composition of fishes in the streams. The Kolmogov-Smirnov test comparing the mean size of all streams showed significant similar size both in upstream and downstream regions, independent to the different environmental conditions.
Riveli, N.; Suroto, B. J.
2018-05-01
We are investigating the behavioural changes of the Indonesian financial systems in the last 20 years. Changes in the financial system behaviour were indicated by differences in the statistical properties of the daily log return distribution in two adjacent time windows. To measure how likely two distributions are differ, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) Test was applied. We have found that we can divide our time series data into five segments, where the KS probability values between two adjacent segments are maximum. This finding can be used to study the effect on the financial system imposed by, for example, the socio-economy and political policy by the government, by studying the changes in such factors in the identified time periods.
Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Sallaberry, C.J.; Storlie, C.B.
2006-01-01
Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (i) definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs (ii) generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs (iii) propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis (iv) presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (v) determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition
Genetic disease in India and the West compared: provisional analysis of population dynamics.
Mitchison, Nicholas; Mitchison, Timothy
2018-03-01
The Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) survey human populations that have different climate histories. Comparison of the two shows an outstanding difference in the relative frequency of recessive disease genes. Several of the diseases mediated at least in part by recessive gene mutations in India are not so mediated in the Western populations covered by OMIM, or are so mediated to a lesser extent. This we attribute to climate history, where population fall leading to inbreeding in the last ice age appears to have reduced the frequency of recessive disease genes in the Western world. This 'ice age benefit' hypothesis is further confirmed, partially by Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis.
Microcomputer-based system for registration of oxygen tension in peripheral muscle.
Odman, S; Bratt, H; Erlandsson, I; Sjögren, L
1986-01-01
For registration of oxygen tension fields in peripheral muscle a microcomputer based system was designed on the M6800 microprocessor. The system was designed to record the signals from a multiwire oxygen electrode, MDO, which is a multiwire electrode for measuring oxygen on the surface of an organ. The system contained patient safety isolation unit built on optocopplers and the upper frequency limit was 0.64 Hz. Collected data were corrected for drift and temperature changes during the measurement by using pre- and after calibrations and a linear compensation technique. Measure drift of the electrodes were proved to be linear and thus the drift could be compensated for. The system was tested in an experiment on pig. To study the distribution of oxygen statistically mean, standard deviation, skewness and curtosis were calculated. To see changes or differences between histograms a Kolmogorv-Smirnov test was used.
Application of X-ray methods to assess grain vulnerability to damage resulting from multiple loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlobecki, A.
1995-01-01
The aim of the work is to describe wheat grain behavior under multiple dynamic loads with various multipliers. The experiments were conducted on Almari variety grain. Grain moisture was 11, 16, 21 and 28%. A special ram stand was used for loading the grain. The experiments were carried out using an 8 g weight, equivalent to impact energy of 4,6 x 10 -3 [J]. The X-ray method was used to assess damage. The exposure time was 8 minutes with X-ray lamp voltage equal to 15 kV. The position index was used as the measure of the damage. The investigation results were elaborated statistically. Based on the results of analysis of variance, regression analysis, the d-Duncan test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the damage number was shown to depend greatly on the number of impacts for the whole range of moisture of the grain loaded. (author)
Solar neutrino and 51Cr results from SAGE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrin, V.N.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Girin, S.V.
1997-01-01
The Russian-American solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) has carried out measurements of the capture rate of solar neutrinos on metallic gallium in a radiochemical experiment at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory during the period January 1990 to December 1994. The measured capture rate on 71 Ga is 72+12/-10 (stat) +5/-7 (syst) SNU. This represents only 53-59 % of the predicted Standard Solar Model (SSM) rates. Taken together with the measurements of the other solar neutrino experiments, this deficit would appear to be best interpreted as due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein neutrino oscillations. A measurement of the production rate of 71 Ge by an intense 51 Cr source to test the overall operation of the experiment showed the extraction efficiency was 0.95 ± 0.11 (stat) +0.05/-0.08 (syst), indicating that the experiment is operating as expected. (orig.)
The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowles, T.J.
1994-01-01
Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Iranshahi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation to assess the relationship between female employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction within organization. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among employees who work in city of Qom, Iran and after analyzing the responses by SPSS software program, the relationships between variables are assessed by Pearson test after confirming the normality of the data using Kolmogrov-Smirnov test. The results of the studies reflect a strong relationship between citizen-organization behavior of female employees and job satisfaction. In addition, the survey examines six sub-hypotheses and confirms that there are positive and meaningful relationships between female employees’ custom, altruism, work consciousness, mutual coordination, fairness and courtesy on one side and job satisfaction on the other side.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Movahedi
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In today’s leading organizations, employees’ empowerment is considered as a significant issue in human resource management cycle and it has become a central theme of management functions and practices. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between empowerment of staffs and organizational commitment with organizational health mediation. The results showed that there is a relationship between staffs empowerment and organizational commitment, and the aspects of empowerment (competence, effectiveness, autonomy, trust, choice right are also associated with organizational commitment and that the variable of organizational health plays a mediation role in the relationship between staffs’ empowerment and organizational commitment in the office of revenue recognition and collection in Tehran Municipality. This research is of descriptive type. To analyze the data, initially the normality of data was examined by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and then assumptions were evaluated by using the model of structural equations and LISREL software.
Scattering matrices for Φ1,2 perturbed conformal minimal models in absence of kink states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koubek, A.; Martins, M.J.; Mussardo, G.
1991-05-01
We determine the spectrum and the factorizable S-matrices of the massive excitations of the nonunitary minimal models M 2,2n+1 perturbed by the operator Φ 1,2 . These models present no kinks as asymptotic states, as follows from the reduction of the Zhiber-Mikhailov-Shabat model with respect to the quantum group SL(2) q found by Smirnov. We also give the whole set of S-matrices of the nonunitary minimal model M 2,9 perturbed by the operator Φ 1,4 , which is related to a RSOS reduction for the Φ 1.2 operator of the unitary model M 8,9 . The thermodynamical Bethe ansatz and the truncated conformal space approach are applied to these scattering theories in order to support their interpretation. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bondarenko, Sergey; Prygarin, Alex [Physics Department, Ariel University,Ariel 40700, territories administered by (Israel)
2016-07-15
We discuss a residual freedom of the next-to-leading BFKL eigenvalue that originates from ambiguity in redistributing the next-to-leading (NLO) corrections between the adjoint BFKL eigenvalue and eigenfunctions in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) Theory. In terms of the remainder function of the Bern-Dixon-Smirnov (BDS) amplitude this freedom is translated to reshuffling correction between the eigenvalue and the impact factors in the multi-Regge kinematics (MRK) in the next-to-leading logarithm approximation (NLA). We show that the modified NLO BFKL eigenvalue suggested by the authors in ref. http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.00589 can be introduced in the MRK expression for the remainder function by shifting the anomalous dimension in the impact factor in such a way that the two and three loop remainder function is left unchanged to the NLA accuracy.
The mobilisation model and parameter sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blok, B.M.
1993-12-01
In the PRObabillistic Safety Assessment (PROSA) of radioactive waste in a salt repository one of the nuclide release scenario's is the subrosion scenario. A new subrosion model SUBRECN has been developed. In this model the combined effect of a depth-dependent subrosion, glass dissolution, and salt rise has been taken into account. The subrosion model SUBRECN and the implementation of this model in the German computer program EMOS4 is presented. A new computer program PANTER is derived from EMOS4. PANTER models releases of radionuclides via subrosion from a disposal site in a salt pillar into the biosphere. For uncertainty and sensitivity analyses the new subrosion model Latin Hypercube Sampling has been used for determine the different values for the uncertain parameters. The influence of the uncertainty in the parameters on the dose calculations has been investigated by the following sensitivity techniques: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients, Partial Rank Correlation Coefficients, Standardised Rank Regression Coefficients, and the Smirnov Test. (orig./HP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yilmaz, Şeyda, E-mail: seydayilmaz@ktu.edu.tr; Bayrak, Erdem, E-mail: erdmbyrk@gmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: bayrak@ktu.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı (Turkey)
2016-04-18
In this study we examined and compared the three different probabilistic distribution methods for determining the best suitable model in probabilistic assessment of earthquake hazards. We analyzed a reliable homogeneous earthquake catalogue between a time period 1900-2015 for magnitude M ≥ 6.0 and estimated the probabilistic seismic hazard in the North Anatolian Fault zone (39°-41° N 30°-40° E) using three distribution methods namely Weibull distribution, Frechet distribution and three-parameter Weibull distribution. The distribution parameters suitability was evaluated Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We also compared the estimated cumulative probability and the conditional probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes for different elapsed time using these three distribution methods. We used Easyfit and Matlab software to calculate these distribution parameters and plotted the conditional probability curves. We concluded that the Weibull distribution method was the most suitable than other distribution methods in this region.
Characterizing and Modeling Citation Dynamics
Eom, Young-Ho; Fortunato, Santo
2011-01-01
Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well. PMID:21966387
Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.
1995-01-01
We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle, quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs the quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the nonuniversality of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the Sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can place stringent bounds on the violation of the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10 15 --10 16 if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem
DETECTION OF BARCHAN DUNES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Azzaoui
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden’s J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John H.R. Burns
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Please see the research article, “Investigating the spatial distribution of Growth Anomalies affecting Montipora capitata corals in a 3-dimensional framework” (J.H.R. Burns, T. Alexandrov, E. Ovchinnikova, R.D. Gates, M. Takabayashi, 2016 [1], for further interpretation and discussion of the data.
Evaluation of statistical distributions to analyze the pollution of Cd and Pb in urban runoff.
Toranjian, Amin; Marofi, Safar
2017-05-01
Heavy metal pollution in urban runoff causes severe environmental damage. Identification of these pollutants and their statistical analysis is necessary to provide management guidelines. In this study, 45 continuous probability distribution functions were selected to fit the Cd and Pb data in the runoff events of an urban area during October 2014-May 2015. The sampling was conducted from the outlet of the city basin during seven precipitation events. For evaluation and ranking of the functions, we used the goodness of fit Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. The results of Cd analysis showed that Hyperbolic Secant, Wakeby and Log-Pearson 3 are suitable for frequency analysis of the event mean concentration (EMC), the instantaneous concentration series (ICS) and instantaneous concentration of each event (ICEE), respectively. In addition, the LP3, Wakeby and Generalized Extreme Value functions were chosen for the EMC, ICS and ICEE related to Pb contamination.
The Comparison of Body Image Between Athletes and Non-Athletes Postmenopausal Females
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdollah Ghasemi
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare and contrastthe sub-scale of the body image of the athletes and nonathlete menopaused females. Methods & Materials: The subjects of the research comprise 60 individuals who were between 43-53 years old. In this study the personalinformation questionnaire and PSDQ test were used.The Personal information questionnaire included the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body appearance and, body activity. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov and T test used to analys data . Results: The results showed that the body image of the athletes in all of the sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and whole body was significantly better than individuals who were not athletes. Conclusion: It seems that participation in physical activity programs have a positive effect on menopausal negative side effects.
de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Gonçalves, Leonardo Cantanhede de Oliveira; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Alves, Vanessa; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist
2016-01-01
To compare cleaning effectiveness by histological analysis of a reciprocating single-file system with ProTaper rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted teeth. A total of 40 root canals with curvatures ranging between 20 - 40 degrees were divided into two groups of 20 canals. Canals were prepared to the following apical sizes: Reciproc size 25 (n=20); ProTaper: F2 (n=20). The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for the test (Mann-Whitney U test, P .05) between the two groups. The application of reciprocating motion during instrumentation did not result in increased debris when compared with continuous rotation motion, even in the apical part of curved canals. Both instruments resulted in debris in the canal lumen, irrespective of the movement kinematics applied.
Possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle
Bethe, H. A.
1986-01-01
A new derivation of the Mikheyev and Smirnov (1985) mechanism for the conversion of electron neutrinos into mu neutrinos when traversing the sun is presented, and various hypotheses set forth. It is assumed that this process is responsible for the detection of fewer solar neutrinos than expected, with neutrinos below a minimum energy, E(m), being undetectable. E(m) is found to be about 6 MeV, and the difference of the squares of the respective neutrino masses is calculated to be 6 X 10 to the - 5th sq eV. A restriction on the neutrino mixing angle is assumed such that the change of density near the crossing point is adiabatic. It is predicted that no resonance conversion of neutrinos will occur in the dense core of supernovae, but conversion of electron neutrinos to mu neutrinos will occur as they escape outward through a density region around 100.
Life prediction for white OLED based on LSM under lognormal distribution
Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yu; Wu, Helen; Zhu, Wenqing; Wu, Wenli; Wu, Liang
2012-09-01
In order to acquire the reliability information of White Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED), three groups of OLED constant stress accelerated life tests (CSALTs) were carried out to obtain failure data of samples. Lognormal distribution function was applied to describe OLED life distribution, and the accelerated life equation was determined by Least square method (LSM). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to verify whether the white OLED life meets lognormal distribution or not. Author-developed software was employed to predict the average life and the median life. The numerical results indicate that the white OLED life submits to lognormal distribution, and that the accelerated life equation meets inverse power law completely. The estimated life information of the white OLED provides manufacturers and customers with important guidelines.
PENGGUNAAN TEKNIK MODELING TERHADAP PERENCANAAN KARIR SISWA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
author Sofwan Adiputra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to lead stdents in order to they are able to plan career by comprehending their interest and potential toward a task at the first grade of senior high school Yasmida Ambarawa. This study employed quassi-experimental method with the non-equivalent control group. Purposive sampling technique was used to determine the simple. This study used non-parametric statistic analysis with level test (uji jenjang signed ranks test and smirnov-kolmogorof method for dable sample group. Based on the finding, it can be concluded that career planning which applied earlier will develop responsibility attitude for students so they are able to develop their abaility as maximum as possible, and not to do deviation toward development duty. The use of modeling technique was effective to improve students career planning at the first grade of senior high school Yasmida Ambarawa.Keywords: Group Counseling, Modeling Techniques, Career Planning
Single bunch beam breakup in linacs and BNS damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toyomasu, Takanori
1991-12-01
We study a single-bunch beam breakup (BBU) problem by a macro-particle model. We consider both the BBU solution and the Landau damping solution which includes the Balakin-Novokhatsky-Smirnov (BNS) damping. In the BBU solution, we get an analytic solution which includes both the Chao-Richter-Yao solution and the two-particle model solution and which agrees well with simulation. The solution can also be used in a multi-bunch case. In the Landau damping solution, we can be see the mechanism of Landau damping formally and can get some insights into BNS damping. We confirm that a two-particle model criterion for BNS damping is a good one. We expect that the two-particle model criterion is represented by the first order interaction in Landau damping solution of a macro-particle model. (author)
Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sharifdoost
2009-06-01
Full Text Available To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes. We compare this new statistic with the classical test statistics X 2 , G 2 , and Tn by some simulation studies. We conclude that the new statistic is more sensitive than the usual statistics to the rejection of distributions which are almost closed to the desired distribution. Also for testing independence, a new test statistic based on mutual information is introduced
Sneath, P. H. A.
A BASIC program is presented for significance tests to determine whether a dendrogram is derived from clustering of points that belong to a single multivariate normal distribution. The significance tests are based on statistics of the Kolmogorov—Smirnov type, obtained by comparing the observed cumulative graph of branch levels with a graph for the hypothesis of multivariate normality. The program also permits testing whether the dendrogram could be from a cluster of lower dimensionality due to character correlations. The program makes provision for three similarity coefficients, (1) Euclidean distances, (2) squared Euclidean distances, and (3) Simple Matching Coefficients, and for five cluster methods (1) WPGMA, (2) UPGMA, (3) Single Linkage (or Minimum Spanning Trees), (4) Complete Linkage, and (5) Ward's Increase in Sums of Squares. The program is entitled DENBRAN.
EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Csongor CSŐSZ
2014-06-01
Full Text Available At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities in Romania and Hungary, respectively the differences between medium and large entities regarding de evaluation methods for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. For this empirical study the questionnaire is used – as research technique, and to demonstrate the significant differences between the evaluation methods we used the Kolmogorov – Smirnov Z test.
Hübner, Kerstin; Gonzalez-Wanguemert, Mercedes; Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A
2013-01-01
Sexual selection theory predicts that, in organisms with reversed sex roles, more polyandrous species exhibit higher levels of sexual dimorphism. In the family Syngnathidae (pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons), males provide all parental care by carrying developing embryos on their ventral surfaces, and females develop secondary sex characters. Syngnathids exhibit a variety of genetic mating patterns, making them an ideal group to test predictions of sexual selection theory. Here, we describe the mating system of the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, using 4 highly variable microsatellites to analyze parentage of 102 embryos. Results revealed that 1) both sexes mate multiple times over the course of a pregnancy (polygynandrous mating system), 2) eggs are spatially segregated by maternity within each brood pouch, and 3) larger females have higher mating success (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; P sexual dimorphism.
An investigation of the role of job satisfaction in employees' organizational citizenship behavior.
Talachi, Rahil Kazemi; Gorji, Mohammad Bagher; Boerhannoeddin, Ali Bin
2014-06-01
Job satisfaction, as an integral part of organizational environment, can affect organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, the present paper aimed at determination of the relationship between these two factors among the employees to provide an appropriate model. The population of this study consisted of all employees of Golestan Province industry, mine and trade organization (Iran), the number of whom is 154, out of which, 120 employees were selected as a sample by the simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, two questionnaires of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior were applied, and the obtained data was analyzed using the statistical methods of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman's correlation, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Regression analysis, F-test and T-test. From the results, it was found that the variable of job satisfaction had a significant positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior and one unit increase in organizational citizenship behavior is resulted from 0.622 unit increase in job satisfaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkas, R.R.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.
1998-03-01
Energy-dependent solar neutrino flux reduction caused by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is applied to the Exact Parity Model. Several scenarios are possible, depending on the region of parameter space chosen. The interplay between intergenerational MSW transitions and vacuum 'intragenerational' ordinary-mirror neutrino oscillations is discussed. Expectations for the ratio of charged to neutral current event rates at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) are estimated. The implications of the various scenarios for the Boron neutrino energy spectrum and BOREXINO are briefly discussed. The consequences of MSW-induced solar neutrino depletion within the Exact Parity Model differ in interesting ways from the standard ν e ↔ ν μ,τ and ν e ↔ ν s cases. The physical causes of these differences are determined. (authors)
Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.
2012-07-01
We discuss the modification of the Kapteyn multiplicative process using the q-product of Borges [E.P. Borges, A possible deformed algebra and calculus inspired in nonextensive thermostatistics, Physica A 340 (2004) 95]. Depending on the value of the index q a generalisation of the log-Normal distribution is yielded. Namely, the distribution increases the tail for small (when q1) values of the variable upon analysis. The usual log-Normal distribution is retrieved when q=1, which corresponds to the traditional Kapteyn multiplicative process. The main statistical features of this distribution as well as related random number generators and tables of quantiles of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance are presented. Finally, we illustrate the validity of this scenario by describing a set of variables of biological and financial origin.
Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing
2018-01-01
The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distri......The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG....... The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The blackouts data in China were used...
Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising Audit As Marketing Communication Tool: Advertising Ethics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Selma KARABAŞ
2013-06-01
Full Text Available One of the methods used by companies, which want to forest all the arrivals, is use effective advertisements aiming to bring out the properties of the product. Advertisement on consumers’ behaviors is one of the effective methods in creating demand for the product. It is a tool used in order to be distinguished in all respects of competition becoming widespread day by day. This study discusses advertisement ethics especially the ads on TV. Advertisement, by its nature, may have a have a misleading hidden character and cause unfair competition. The approach developed by consumers against such kinds of advertisements has been studied via data obtained by survey method. Consumers’ opinions on advertisement ethics were taken via Likert scale. The methods used for evaluating these surveys are Kolmogorov Smirnov test and One-Sample t-test.
Order parameter fluctuations at a critical point - an exact result about percolation -
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botet, Robert
2011-01-01
The order parameter of the system in the critical state, is expected to undergo large non-Gaussian fluctuations. However, almost nothing is known about the mathematical forms of the possible probability distributions of the order parameter. A remarkable exception is the site-percolation on the Bethe lattice, for which the complete order-parameter distribution has been recently derived at the critical point. Surprisingly, it appears to be the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution, well known in very different areas of mathematical statistics. In the present paper, we explain first how this special distribution could appear naturally in the context of the critical systems, under the assumption (still virtually unstudied) of the exponential distribution of the number of domains of a given size. In a second part, we present for the first time the complete derivation of the order-parameter distribution for the critical percolation model on the Bethe lattice, thus completing a recent publication announcing this result.
Modelos de distribuição de diâmetros utilizando a função log gama
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência da função log gama para a descrição da estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos equiâneos, bem como propor um modelo de distribuição diamétrica utilizando esta função. A função foi ajustada a dados de parcelas permanentes de inventário, mensuradas em seis idades. A aderência da função aos dados foi comprovada pelo teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov. A análise gráfica de resíduos não apresentou tendenciosidade para os modelos construídos. A função log gama pode ser utilizada para a construção de modelos de distribuição diamétrica de eucalipto.
Sensitivity studies on TIME2 Version 1.0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-03-01
The results of a sensitivity analysis of Version 1.0 of the TIME2 computer code to certain aspects of the input data set are presented. Parameters evaluated were: river dimensions, the density and grain size of sediment carried by the river, human intrusion data, sea level rise rate, erosion factors and meander modelling data. The sensitivity of the code to variation of single value parameters was evaluated by means of graphical comparisons. For parameters specified as probability density functions (pdf's), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. The study assists in the specification of data for TIME2 by identifying parameters to which the models used are particularly sensitive and also suggests that some input currently specified as pdf's could be replaced with single values without affecting the quality of the results obtained. (author)
Ancient science of yogic life for academic excellence in university students.
Tikhe, Sham Ganpat; Nagendra, H R; Tripathi, Neeraj
2012-01-01
Academic excellence is essential to provide opportunities for students to work together to improve their understanding of concepts in their academic core. Academic excellence helps students to teach problem-solving and collaborative learning strategies. The objective of this study was to assess Guna (personality traits) in students undergoing Yoga Instructor's Course (YIC). In all, 68 YIC students with a mean age of 28.03 ± 9.38 years participated in this single group pre-post study. The Personality Inventory data were collected before (pre) and after (post) the YIC. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 11.33% decrease (P balanced personality trait) scores. This study suggests that YIC can result in the improvement of Sattva Guna (balance personality trait) among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence.
Identification of mine waters by statistical multivariate methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mali, N [IGGG, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
1992-01-01
Three water-bearing aquifers are present in the Velenje lignite mine. The aquifer waters have differing chemical composition; a geochemical water analysis can therefore determine the source of mine water influx. Mine water samples from different locations in the mine were analyzed, the results of chemical content and of electric conductivity of mine water were statistically processed by means of MICROGAS, SPSS-X and IN STATPAC computer programs, which apply three multivariate statistical methods (discriminate, cluster and factor analysis). Reliability of calculated values was determined with the Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests. It is concluded that laboratory analysis of single water samples can produce measurement errors, but statistical processing of water sample data can identify origin and movement of mine water. 15 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vendramini, Elisa Zanuncio
1986-10-01
The theoretical model of wind speed distributions allow valuable information about the probability of events relative to the variable in study eliminating the necessity of a new experiment. The most used distributions has been the Weibull and the Rayleigh. These distributions are examined in the present investigation, as well as the exponential, gamma, chi square and lognormal distributions. Three years of hourly averages wind data recorded from a anemometer setting at the city of Ataliba Leonel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used. Using wind speed distribution the theoretical relative frequency was calculated from the distributions which have been examined. Results from the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test allow to conclude that the lognormal distribution fit better the wind speed data, followed by the gamma and Rayleigh distributions. Using the lognormal probability density function the yearly energy output from a wind generator installed in the side was calculated. 30 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sipri Paramita
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine: (1 the level of service in the provision of subsidized fertilizer cooperatives of farmers on the timeliness, accuracy number, precision type, right quality, right place and the right price, (2 factors that affect the level of service cooperatives in the procurement of subsidized fertilizer at the farm level. Descriptively and purposive of the 90 samples taken at random, were analyzed with analysis of the test sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the proportion of single test, and correlation analysis. Obtained results: (1 service cooperatives in the procurement of subsidized fertilizer at the farm level right time, right quantity, right price, right quality and the right target is good, (2 service cooperatives have an inverse correlation with the presence of other distributors. Other factors not directly affect the effectiveness of the service cooperatives
Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi
2016-07-01
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.
Geometrical neutrino mass hierarchy and a 17-keV ντ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu, K.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.
1991-01-01
We present an extension of the singlet majoron gauge model which realizes a novel scheme of geometrical neutrino mass hierarchy proposed recently by Glashow, wherein ν e and ν μ are Majorana particles with m νe ∼m νμ ∼10 -3 eV while ν τ is a Dirac particle with a mass of 17 keV. Our model explains the solar-neutrino deficit via the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism and accounts for the recently reported anomaly in beta-decay spectra in a natural manner without any undesirable fine tuning of parameters. An interesting consequence of the model is that ν τ is short lived with a lifetime of ∼10 -3-- 10 -1 sec
Low Energy 8 B Solar Neutrinos with the Wideband Intelligent Trigger at Super-Kamiokande
Elnimr, Muhammad; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration
2017-09-01
The water Cherenkov experiment Super-Kamiokande (SK) has accumulated a sample of ˜ 90k solar neutrino data in the past two decades. Currently, the detector measures recoil electrons from solar 8 B neutrino-electron scattering above a kinetic energy of ˜ 3.5 MeV, limited by the capacity of the software trigger, although electrons as low as 2.5 MeV can be reconstructed. The next frontier for the low energy program at Super-K is the current operation of the Wideband Intelligent Trigger (WIT) to push the trigger threshold to the event reconstruction limit of 2.5 MeV. This opens up the possibility to explore the lower energy edge of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect in the sun. In this work we will present the prelimiary analysis of the accumlated WIT data taken so far as well as future prospects.
Physical region for three-neutrino mixing angles
Latimer, D. C.; Ernst, D. J.
2005-01-01
We derive a set of symmetry relations for the three-neutrino mixing angles, including the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) matter effect. Though interesting in their own right, these relations are used to choose the physical region of the mixing angles such that oscillations are parametrized completely and uniquely. We propose that the preferred way of setting the bounds on the mixing angles should be θ12∈[0,π/2], θ13∈[-π/2,π/2], θ23∈[0,π/2], and δ∈[0,π). No CP violation then results simply from setting δ=0. In the presence of the MSW effect, this choice of bounds is a new result. Since the size of the asymmetry about θ13=0 is dependent on the details of the data analysis and is a part of the results of the analysis, we argue that the negative values of θ13 should not be ignored.
The singular seesaw mechanism with hierarchical Dirac neutrino mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chikira, Y.; Mimura, Y.
2000-01-01
The singular seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the atmospheric neutrino deficit by maximal oscillations between ν μ L and ν μ R . This mechanism can also induce three different scales of the neutrino mass squared differences, which can explain the neutrino deficits of three independent experiments (solar, atmospheric, and LSND) by neutrino oscillations. In this paper we show that realistic mixing angles among the neutrinos can be obtained by introducing a hierarchy in the Dirac neutrino mass. In the case where the Majorana neutrino mass matrix has rank 2, the solar neutrino deficit is explained by vacuum oscillations between ν e and ν τ . We also consider the case where the Majorana neutrino mass matrix has rank 1. In this case, the matter enhanced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solar neutrino solution is preferred as the solution of the solar neutrino deficit. (orig.)
Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)
2014-05-02
Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.
Precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino rate and absence of day-night asymmetry in Borexino
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davini, S.
2011-01-01
Borexino, in data taking since May 2007, is the only experiment capable to perform the measurement of low-energy solar-ν. Borexino has performed the first direct measurement of the 7 Be solar-ν rate with accuracy better than 5%. The absence of day-night asymmetry of the 7 Be solar-ν rate was measured with a total uncertainty of 1%. Borexino results alone reject the Low Δm 2 (LOW) region of solar-ν oscillation parameters at more than 8.5 σ CL. Combined with the other solar-ν data, Borexino measurements isolate the Large Mixing Angle (LMA)- Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of neutrino oscillations without assuming CPT invariance in the neutrino sector.
Sterile neutrinos and indirect dark matter searches in IceCube
Argüelles, Carlos A.; Kopp, Joachim
2012-07-01
If light sterile neutrinos exist and mix with the active neutrino flavors, this mixing will affect the propagation of high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun. In particular, new Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances can occur, leading to almost complete conversion of some active neutrino flavors into sterile states. We demonstrate how this can weaken IceCube limits on neutrino capture and annihilation in the Sun and how potential future conflicts between IceCube constraints and direct detection or collider data might be resolved by invoking sterile neutrinos. We also point out that, if the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section and the allowed annihilation channels are precisely measured in direct detection and collider experiments in the future, IceCube can be used to constrain sterile neutrino models using neutrinos from the dark matter annihilation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fogli, G.
1998-01-01
The paper presents an analysis of the solar neutrino problem in terms of both Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) and vacuum neutrino oscillations, with the inclusion of the data collected by the SuperKamiokande experiment during 306.3 days of operation. In particular, the observed energy spectrum of the recoil electrons from 8 B neutrino scattering is discussed in detail and used to constrain the mass-mixing parameter space. Going to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, the paper performs both a two- and three-flavor analysis of the most recent SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The variations of the zenith distributions of ν events in the presence of flavor oscillations are investigated. It is seen that fits to the SK data, with and without the addition of the CHOOZ constrains, strongly limit the parameter space. Detailed bounds in triangle graphs are reported
Atmospheric, Long Baseline, and Reactor Neutrino Data Constraints on θ13
Roa, J. E.; Latimer, D. C.; Ernst, D. J.
2009-08-01
An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on θ13. The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For L/Eν≳104km/GeV, we previously found significant linear in θ13 terms. This analysis finds θ13 bounded from above by the atmospheric data while bounded from below by CHOOZ. The origin of this result arises from data in the previously mentioned very long baseline region; here, matter effects conspire with terms linear in θ13 to produce asymmetric bounds on θ13. Assuming CP conservation, we find θ13=-0.07-0.11+0.18 (90% C.L.).
Oscillation effects and time variation of the supernova neutrino signal
Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Brockman, Justin
2008-02-01
The neutrinos detected from the next galactic core-collapse supernova will contain valuable information on the internal dynamics of the explosion. One mechanism leading to a temporal evolution of the neutrino signal is the variation of the induced neutrino flavor mixing driven by changes in the density profile. With one and two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations we identify the behavior and properties of prominent features of the explosion. Using these results we demonstrate the time variation of the neutrino crossing probabilities due to changes in the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) neutrino transformations as the star explodes by using the S-matrix—Monte Carlo—approach to neutrino propagation. After adopting spectra for the neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star we calculate for a galactic supernova the evolution of the positron spectra within a water Cerenkov detector and find that this signal allows us to probe of a number of explosion features.
Constraints on decay plus oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem
Joshipura, Anjan S.; Massó, Eduard; Mohanty, Subhendra
2002-12-01
We examine the constraints on the nonradiative decay of neutrinos from the observations of solar neutrino experiments. The standard oscillation hypothesis among three neutrinos solves the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems. The decay of a massive neutrino mixed with the electron neutrino results in the depletion of the solar neutrino flux. We introduce neutrino decay in the oscillation hypothesis and demand that decay does not spoil the successful explanation of solar and atmospheric observations. We obtain a lower bound on the ratio of the lifetime over the mass of ν2, τ2/m2>22.7 s/MeV for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution of the solar neutrino problem and τ2/m2>27.8 s/MeV for the vacuum oscillation solution (at 99% C.L.).
Large Extra Dimensions, Sterile Neutrinos and Solar Neutrino Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldwell, D. O.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Yellin, S. J.
2001-01-01
Solar, atmospheric, and LSND neutrino oscillation results require a light sterile neutrino, ν B , which can exist in the bulk of extra dimensions. Solar ν e , confined to the brane, can oscillate in the vacuum to the zero mode of ν B and via successive Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein transitions to Kaluza-Klein states of ν B . This new way to fit solar data is provided by both low and intermediate string scale models. From average rates seen in the three types of solar experiments, the Super-Kamiokande spectrum is predicted with 73% probability, but dips characteristic of the 0.06 mm extra dimension should be seen in the SNO spectrum
Suppression of Self-Induced Flavor Conversion in the Supernova Accretion Phase
Sarikas, Srdjan; Raffelt, Georg G.; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas
2012-02-01
Self-induced flavor conversions of supernova (SN) neutrinos can strongly modify the flavor-dependent fluxes. We perform a linearized flavor stability analysis with accretion-phase matter profiles of a 15M⊙ spherically symmetric model and corresponding neutrino fluxes. We use realistic energy and angle distributions, the latter deviating strongly from quasi-isotropic emission, thus accounting for both multiangle and multienergy effects. For our matter and neutrino density profile we always find stable conditions: flavor conversions are limited to the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In this case one may distinguish the neutrino mass hierarchy in a SN neutrino signal if the mixing angle θ13 is as large as suggested by recent experiments.
Atmospheric, Long Baseline, and Reactor Neutrino Data Constraints on θ13
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roa, J. E.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.
2009-01-01
An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on θ 13 . The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For L/E ν > or approx. 10 4 km/GeV, we previously found significant linear in θ 13 terms. This analysis finds θ 13 bounded from above by the atmospheric data while bounded from below by CHOOZ. The origin of this result arises from data in the previously mentioned very long baseline region; here, matter effects conspire with terms linear in θ 13 to produce asymmetric bounds on θ 13 . Assuming CP conservation, we find θ 13 =-0.07 -0.11 +0.18 (90% C.L.).
Helicity coherence in binary neutron star mergers and nonlinear feedback
Chatelain, Amélie; Volpe, Cristina
2017-02-01
Neutrino flavor conversion studies based on astrophysical environments usually implement neutrino mixings, neutrino interactions with matter, and neutrino self-interactions. In anisotropic media, the most general mean-field treatment includes neutrino mass contributions as well, which introduce a coupling between neutrinos and antineutrinos termed helicity or spin coherence. We discuss resonance conditions for helicity coherence for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. We explore the role of these mean-field contributions on flavor evolution in the context of a binary neutron star merger remnant. We find that resonance conditions can be satisfied in neutron star merger scenarios while adiabaticity is not sufficient for efficient flavor conversion. We analyze our numerical findings by discussing general conditions to have multiple Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-like resonances, in the presence of nonlinear feedback, in astrophysical environments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsirigotis, A. G. [Physics Laboratory, Hellenic Open University (Greece); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration
2014-11-18
With the measurement of a non zero value of the θ{sub 13} neutrino mixing parameter, interest in neutrinos as source of the baryon asymmetry of the universe has increased. Among the measurements of a rich and varied program in near future neutrino physics is the determination of the mass hierarchy. We present the status of a study of the feasibility of using a densely instrumented undersea neutrino detector to determine the mass hierarchy, utilizing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect on atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The detector will use technology developed for KM3NeT. We present the systematic studies of the optimization of a detector in the required 5–10 GeV energy regime. These studies include new tracking and interaction identification algorithms as well as geometrical optimizations of the detector.
A flavor symmetry model for bilarge leptonic mixing and the lepton masses
Ohlsson, Tommy; Seidl, Gerhart
2002-11-01
We present a model for leptonic mixing and the lepton masses based on flavor symmetries and higher-dimensional mass operators. The model predicts bilarge leptonic mixing (i.e., the mixing angles θ12 and θ23 are large and the mixing angle θ13 is small) and an inverted hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum. Furthermore, it approximately yields the experimental hierarchical mass spectrum of the charged leptons. The obtained values for the leptonic mixing parameters and the neutrino mass squared differences are all in agreement with atmospheric neutrino data, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution of the solar neutrino problem, and consistent with the upper bound on the reactor mixing angle. Thus, we have a large, but not close to maximal, solar mixing angle θ12, a nearly maximal atmospheric mixing angle θ23, and a small reactor mixing angle θ13. In addition, the model predicts θ 12≃ {π}/{4}-θ 13.
Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution
Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.
2008-10-01
We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.
Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star
Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.
2014-05-01
Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.
Large extra dimensions, sterile neutrinos and solar neutrino data.
Caldwell, D O; Mohapatra, R N; Yellin, S J
2001-07-23
Solar, atmospheric, and LSND neutrino oscillation results require a light sterile neutrino, nu(B), which can exist in the bulk of extra dimensions. Solar nu(e), confined to the brane, can oscillate in the vacuum to the zero mode of nu(B) and via successive Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein transitions to Kaluza-Klein states of nu(B). This new way to fit solar data is provided by both low and intermediate string scale models. From average rates seen in the three types of solar experiments, the Super-Kamiokande spectrum is predicted with 73% probability, but dips characteristic of the 0.06 mm extra dimension should be seen in the SNO spectrum.
Flavor hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories via 5-dimensional wave-function localization
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun
2003-06-01
A mechanism to generate fermion-mass hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories is considered. We find that the lopsided family structure, which is suitable to the large angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to solar neutrino oscillation, is realized without introducing extra matter fields if the hierarchy originates from the wave-function profile in an extra dimension. Unlike the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, the SO(10) breaking effect may directly contribute to the source of the hierarchy, i.e., the bulk mass terms. It naturally explains the difference of the hierarchical patterns between the quark and the lepton sectors. We also find the possibility of horizontal unification, in which three generations of matter fields are unified to a 3-dimensional representation of an SU(2) gauge group.
Precision Measurement of the Be7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino
Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.
2011-09-01
The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV Be7 solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst)counts/(day·100ton). This corresponds to a νe-equivalent Be7 solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×109cm-2s-1 and, under the assumption of νe transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φpp=6.06-0.06+0.02×1010cm-2s-1 and ΦCNOMikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.
Treatment of solar neutrino-oscillations in solar matter. The MSW effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Messiah, A.
1986-01-01
Mikheyev and Smirnov, following Wolfenstein's theory of neutrino oscillations in the presence of matter, have found that the change of flavour of solar neutrinos may be spectacularly enhanced in the presence of solar matter, when the parameters of the neutrino mass operator fall in a suitable range (MSW effect). It is shown that this effect can be readily deduced from the adiatic solution of the equation of flavour evolution. A complete study of the two-flavour case is given, permitting to calculate, for any set of values of the mass operator parameters, the ν e suppression factor at the site of detection on earth. The adiabatic approximation holds over a wide range of the parameters, leading to especially simple expressions. Our calculations cover the whole range, including domains where the adiabatic approximation is no longer valid. Some of the results, presented in a form most suited for an analysis of solar neutrino experiments, are displayed for illustration and discussed. 7 refs
Decoherence, matter effect, and neutrino hierarchy signature in long baseline experiments
Coelho, João A. B.; Mann, W. Anthony
2017-11-01
Environmental decoherence of oscillating neutrinos of strength Γ =(2.3 ±1.1 )×10-23 GeV can explain how maximal θ23 mixing observed at 295 km by T2K appears to be nonmaximal at longer baselines. As shown recently by R. Oliveira, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effect for neutrinos is altered by decoherence: in normal (inverted) mass hierarchy, a resonant enhancement of νμ(ν¯ μ)→νe(ν¯ e) occurs for 6
An accurate analytic description of neutrino oscillations in matter
Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Niro, Viviana
2008-12-01
A simple closed-form analytic expression for the probability of two-flavour neutrino oscillations in a matter with an arbitrary density profile is derived. Our formula is based on a perturbative expansion and allows an easy calculation of higher order corrections. The expansion parameter is small when the density changes relatively slowly along the neutrino path and/or neutrino energy is not very close to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance energy. Our approximation is not equivalent to the adiabatic approximation and actually goes beyond it. We demonstrate the validity of our results using a few model density profiles, including the PREM density profile of the Earth. It is shown that by combining the results obtained from the expansions valid below and above the MSW resonance one can obtain a very good description of neutrino oscillations in matter in the entire energy range, including the resonance region.
Effect of Impurities on the Josephson Current through Helical Metals: Exploiting a Neutrino Paradigm
Ghaemi, Pouyan; Nair, V. P.
2016-01-01
In this Letter we study the effect of time-reversal symmetric impurities on the Josephson supercurrent through two-dimensional helical metals such as on a topological insulator surface state. We show that, contrary to the usual superconducting-normal metal-superconducting junctions, the suppression of the supercurrent in the superconducting-helical metal-superconducting junction is mainly due to fluctuations of impurities in the junctions. Our results, which are a condensed matter realization of a part of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect for neutrinos, show that the relationship between normal state conductance and the critical current of Josephson junctions is significantly modified for Josephson junctions on the surface of topological insulators. We also study the temperature dependence of the supercurrent and present a two fluid model which can explain some of the recent experimental results in Josephson junctions on the edge of topological insulators.
No Collective Neutrino Flavor Conversions during the Supernova Accretion Phase
Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta; Tomàs, Ricard
2011-10-01
We perform a dedicated study of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase, using results from recent neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In contrast to what was expected in the presence of only neutrino-neutrino interactions, we find that the multiangle effects associated with the dense ordinary matter suppress collective oscillations. The matter suppression implies that neutrino oscillations will start outside the neutrino decoupling region and therefore will have a negligible impact on the neutrino heating and the explosion dynamics. Furthermore, the possible detection of the next galactic SN neutrino signal from the accretion phase, based on the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the case that the mixing angle θ13 is not very small.
Cosmological lepton asymmetry, primordial nucleosynthesis and sterile neutrinos
Abazajian, Kevork; Bell, Nicole F.; Fuller, George M.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
2005-09-01
We study post weak decoupling coherent active-sterile and active-active matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe. We show that flavor conversion efficiency at Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances is likely to be high (adiabatic evolution) for relevant neutrino parameters and energies. However, we point out that these resonances cannot sweep smoothly and continuously with the expansion of the Universe. We show how neutrino flavor conversion in this way can leave both the active and sterile neutrinos with nonthermal energy spectra, and how, in turn, these distorted energy spectra can affect the neutron-to-proton ratio, primordial nucleosynthesis, and cosmological mass/closure constraints on sterile neutrinos. We demonstrate that the existence of a light sterile neutrino which mixes with active neutrinos can change fundamentally the relationship between the cosmological lepton numbers and the primordial nucleosynthesis He4 yield.
First Evidence of pep Solar Neutrinos by Direct Detection in Borexino
Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.
2012-02-01
We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.1±0.6stat±0.3systcounts/(day·100ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×108cm-2s-1 and <7.7×108cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the high and low metallicity standard solar models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.
Atmospheric, long baseline, and reactor neutrino data constraints on theta_{13}.
Roa, J E; Latimer, D C; Ernst, D J
2009-08-07
An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on theta_{13}. The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For L/E_{nu} greater, similar 10;{4} km/GeV, we previously found significant linear in theta_{13} terms. This analysis finds theta_{13} bounded from above by the atmospheric data while bounded from below by CHOOZ. The origin of this result arises from data in the previously mentioned very long baseline region; here, matter effects conspire with terms linear in theta_{13} to produce asymmetric bounds on theta_{13}. Assuming CP conservation, we find theta_{13} = -0.07_{-0.11};{+0.18} (90% C.L.).
Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances
Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong
2016-01-01
In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.
Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations and matter effects with PINGU
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coenders, Stefan; Euler, Sebastian; Krings, Kai; Vehring, Markus; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). III. Physikalisches Inst.; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration
2013-07-01
With IceCube's low-energy extension DeepCore the first significant effects of atmospheric neutrino oscillations have been observed. The planned ''Precision Icecube Next Generation Upgrade'' (PINGU) inside DeepCore will lower the energy threshold to a few GeV, where matter effects of neutrino oscillations have to be taken into account. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect modifies the mixing between flavor and mass eigenstates of the neutrinos, resulting in stronger oscillations. Furthermore, neutrinos when passing through the Earth core experience parametric enhancement due to multiple discontinuities in the electron density. In this talk the effects of matter oscillations and the capabilities to measure these effects with PINGU are investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayatollah Saadatian
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The current paper explores the relationship between power distribution and organizational conflict in the country office of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad. It fits within the category of descriptive research, and its population consisted of all staff in the governor office of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, i.e. 180 individuals 65 of whom were selected as research participants. Research instruments utilized included standardized power distribution and organizational conflict questionnaires whose reliabilities were estimated at 0.93 and 0.75 respectively through Cronbach's alpha. Obviously, both reliability coefficients were satisfactory. The data were analyzed and described through SPSS. To describe them, descriptive statistics and to analyze them referential statistics, including Pearson's rank-order correlation coefficient and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were performed. In light of the results, autocratic and persuasive management styles increased organizational conflict.
Drewes, M.; Hernandez, P.; Kekic, M.; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Salvado, J.; Teresi, D.
2018-02-28
We review the current status of the leptogenesis scenario originally proposed by Akhmedov, Rubakov and Smirnov (ARS). It takes place in the parametric regime where the right-handed neutrinos are at the electroweak scale or below and the CP-violating effects are induced by the coherent superposition of different right-handed mass eigenstates. Two main theoretical approaches to derive quantum kinetic equations, the Hamiltonian time evolution as well as the Closed-Time-Path technique are presented, and we discuss their relations. For scenarios with two right-handed neutrinos, we chart the viable parameter space. Both, a Bayesian analysis, that determines the most likely configurations for viable leptogenesis given different variants of flat priors, and a determination of the maximally allowed mixing between the light, mostly left-handed, and heavy, mostly right-handed, neutrino states are discussed. Rephasing invariants are shown to be a useful tool to classify and to understand various distinct contributions to...
Inference for Local Distributions at High Sampling Frequencies: A Bootstrap Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.
of "large" jumps. Our locally dependent wild bootstrap (LDWB) accommodate issues related to the stochastic scale and jumps as well as account for a special block-wise dependence structure induced by sampling errors. We show that the LDWB replicates first and second-order limit theory from the usual...... empirical process and the stochastic scale estimate, respectively, as well as an asymptotic bias. Moreover, we design the LDWB sufficiently general to establish asymptotic equivalence between it and and a nonparametric local block bootstrap, also introduced here, up to second-order distribution theory....... Finally, we introduce LDWB-aided Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests for local Gaussianity as well as local von-Mises statistics, with and without bootstrap inference, and establish their asymptotic validity using the second-order distribution theory. The finite sample performance of CLT and LDWB-aided local...
Two-dimensional goodness-of-fit testing in astronomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, J.A
1983-01-01
This paper deals with the techniques available to test for consistency between the empirical distribution of data points on a plane and a hypothetical density law. Two new statistical tests are developed. The first is a two-dimensional version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, for which the distribution of the test statistic is investigated using a Monte Carlo method. This test is found in practice to be very nearly distribution-free, and empirical formulae for the confidence levels are given. Secondly, the method of power-spectrum analysis is extended to deal with cases in which the null hypothesis is not a uniform distribution. These methods are illustrated by application to the distribution of quasar candidates found on an objective-prism plate of the Virgo Cluster. (author)
Integrating Multiple Microarray Data for Cancer Pathway Analysis Using Bootstrapping K-S Test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bing Han
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Previous applications of microarray technology for cancer research have mostly focused on identifying genes that are differentially expressed between a particular cancer and normal cells. In a biological system, genes perform different molecular functions and regulate various biological processes via interactions with other genes thus forming a variety of complex networks. Therefore, it is critical to understand the relationship (e.g., interactions between genes across different types of cancer in order to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer. Here we propose an integrative method based on the bootstrapping Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and a large set of microarray data produced with various types of cancer to discover common molecular changes in cells from normal state to cancerous state. We evaluate our method using three key pathways related to cancer and demonstrate that it is capable of finding meaningful alterations in gene relations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mary Luz Barrios-Hernández
2014-09-01
Como principal resultado se obtuvo que la formulación que mejoró las propiedades estudiadas del poliducto fue la mezcla de diferentes productos de Polietileno de Baja Densidad postconsumo, para un total de 10 repeticiones con 95% de confianza en la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, concluyendo que este producto supera las propiedades de resistencia en elongación y flexión y que necesita la optimización de las características para resistencia al impacto modo IZOD. Además, la prueba de calorimetría diferencial de barrido demostró la ausencia de agentes externos en la muestras y el análisis termogravimétrico reveló cambios de temperatura de descomposición semejantes al ducto y mayores a las otras mezclas.
A Statistical Toolkit for Data Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donadio, S.; Guatelli, S.; Mascialino, B.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pia, M.G.; Ribon, A.; Viarengo, P.
2006-01-01
The present project aims to develop an open-source and object-oriented software Toolkit for statistical data analysis. Its statistical testing component contains a variety of Goodness-of-Fit tests, from Chi-squared to Kolmogorov-Smirnov, to less known, but generally much more powerful tests such as Anderson-Darling, Goodman, Fisz-Cramer-von Mises, Kuiper, Tiku. Thanks to the component-based design and the usage of the standard abstract interfaces for data analysis, this tool can be used by other data analysis systems or integrated in experimental software frameworks. This Toolkit has been released and is downloadable from the web. In this paper we describe the statistical details of the algorithms, the computational features of the Toolkit and describe the code validation
Rigoni,Patrícia Aparecida Gaion; Costa,Luciane Cristina Arantes da; Belem,Isabella Caroline; Passos,Patricia Carolina Borsato; Vieira,Lenamar Fiorese
2012-01-01
O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a orientação de vida de universitários em função de comportamentos de risco para a saúde. Participaram 403 acadêmicos do curso de Educação Física, de uma universidade do Noroeste do Paraná. Como instrumentos foram utilizados Teste de Orientação de Vida, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey e ficha com dados sociodemográficos. Para análise dos dados aplicou-se o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e teste U de Mann-Whitney (p...
Goodness-of-fit tests with dependent observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2011-01-01
We revisit the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Cramér–von Mises goodness-of-fit (GoF) tests and propose a generalization to identically distributed, but dependent univariate random variables. We show that the dependence leads to a reduction of the 'effective' number of independent observations. The generalized GoF tests are not distribution-free but rather depend on all the lagged bivariate copulas. These objects, that we call 'self-copulas', encode all the non-linear temporal dependences. We introduce a specific, log-normal model for these self-copulas, for which a number of analytical results are derived. An application to financial time series is provided. As is well known, the dependence is to be long-ranged in this case, a finding that we confirm using self-copulas. As a consequence, the acceptance rates for GoF tests are substantially higher than if the returns were iid random variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouvea, Andre de; Murayama, Hitoshi
2003-01-01
'Anarchy' is the hypothesis that there is no fundamental distinction among the three flavors of neutrinos. It describes the mixing angles as random variables, drawn from well-defined probability distributions dictated by the group Haar measure. We perform a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistical test to verify whether anarchy is consistent with all neutrino data, including the new result presented by KamLAND. We find a KS probability for Nature's choice of mixing angles equal to 64%, quite consistent with the anarchical hypothesis. In turn, assuming that anarchy is indeed correct, we compute lower bounds on vertical bar U e3 vertical bar 2 , the remaining unknown 'angle' of the leptonic mixing matrix
Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Jay Dean; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .); Storlie, Curt B. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO)
2006-06-01
Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (1) Definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs, (2) Generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs, (3) Propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis, (4) Presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (5) Determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition.
Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.
Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X
2014-11-01
In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi
2016-01-01
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar_e+p→n+e"+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar_e flux with the ν-bar_x (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.
Flavor hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories via 5-dimensional wave-function localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li Tianjun
2003-01-01
A mechanism to generate fermion-mass hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories is considered. We find that the lopsided family structure, which is suitable to the large angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to solar neutrino oscillation, is realized without introducing extra matter fields if the hierarchy originates from the wave-function profile in an extra dimension. Unlike the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, the SO(10) breaking effect may directly contribute to the source of the hierarchy, i.e., the bulk mass terms. It naturally explains the difference of the hierarchical patterns between the quark and the lepton sectors. We also find the possibility of horizontal unification, in which three generations of matter fields are unified to a 3-dimensional representation of an SU(2) gauge group
A.N. Kolmogorov's defence of Mendelism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan Stark
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In 1939 N.I. Ermolaeva published the results of an experiment which repeated parts of Mendel's classical experiments. On the basis of her experiment she concluded that Mendel's principle that self-pollination of hybrid plants gave rise to segregation proportions 3:1 was false. The great probability theorist A.N. Kolmogorov reviewed Ermolaeva's data using a test, now referred to as Kolmogorov's, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov, test, which he had proposed in 1933. He found, contrary to Ermolaeva, that her results clearly confirmed Mendel's principle. This paper shows that there were methodological flaws in Kolmogorov's statistical analysis and presents a substantially adjusted approach, which confirms his conclusions. Some historical commentary on the Lysenko-era background is given, to illuminate the relationship of the disciplines of genetics and statistics in the struggle against the prevailing politically-correct pseudoscience in the Soviet Union. There is a Brazilian connection through the person of Th. Dobzhansky.
Chun, E.J.; Dev, P.S.B.; Drewes, M.; Fong, C.S.; Garbrecht, B.; Hambye, T.; Harz, J.; Hernández, P.; Kim, C.S.; Molinaro, E.; Nardi, E.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Zamora-Saa, J.
2018-02-28
The focus of this chapter lies on the possible experimental tests of leptogenesis scenarios. We consider both leptogenesis generated from oscillations, as well as leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. As the Akhmedov-Rubakov-Smirnov (ARS) mechanism allows for heavy neutrinos in the GeV range, this opens up a plethora of possible experimental tests, e.g. at neutrino oscillation experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay, and direct searches for neutral heavy leptons at future facilities. In contrast, testing leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays is a quite difficult task. We comment on the necessary conditions for having successful leptogenesis at the TeV-scale. We further discuss possible realizations and their model specific testability in extended seesaw models, models with extended gauge sectors, and supersymmetric leptogenesis. Not being able to test high-scale leptogenesis directly, we present a way to falsify such scenarios by focusing on their washout processes. This is discussed specific...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakhmi Ayu Zulvina
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Merger is a decision to combine or merge two or more companies into one new company. One of the merged company in Indonesia is PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk with PT Knorr Indonesia in 2004. To identify and analyze it, EVA and MVA method is used, then the results of the calculations tested using normality test statistical tool kolmogorov smirnov, and carried out by means of differential test paired samples T-test.The increase of EVA before and after the merger worth 125.30%. While the increase in MVA before and after the merger worth 227.33%. Increasing the value of MVA was more due to the company's market value, which is reflected in the share price and listed share, although not free from invested capital in the company
The mass-hierarchy puzzle and the 17-keV neutrino in the context of a universal seesaw model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papageorgiu, E.; Ranfone, S.
1991-06-01
In the light of renewed evidence for the existence of a 17 keV neutrino, we study the possible mass patterns for the charged and the neutral leptons, in the context of a generalized ''seesaw''-type of model, which implements a horizontal U(1) A Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Under some general assumptions concerning the structure of the mass matrix we find that the mass hierarchy between the first two generations of charged leptons and the third one is explained in terms of the natural scales of the model. At the same time, with the additional assumption of the proportionality of Majorana- and Dirac-type couplings, the spectrum of the neutral leptons contains two very light Majorana neutrinos, such as required by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein interpretation of the solar neutrino deficit, and the 17 keV ''Simpson'' neutrino. A cosmologically consistent decay mode of this neutrino is into a ν e and the axion. (author)
[Metabolism of serotonin in autism in children].
Bursztejn, C; Ferrari, P; Dreux, C; Braconnier, A; Lancrenon, S
1988-01-01
In this controlled study of 22 autistic children and 22 normal controls matched for age and sex, the frequency of hyperserotonemia in infantile autism was confirmed. Platelet serotonin was elevated in patients. Comparative to controls, serotonin was also high in urine of autistic patients, while, on the contrary there was no difference for the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA. No difference was observed either for serotonin uptake and efflux or for MAO activity, in isolated platelets. The elevation of plasma free tryptophan - significant only with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test - suggests that 5-HT biosynthesis might be enhanced. In the group of patient reported in this study, disorders of serotonin metabolism are associated with disturbances of platelet catecholamines, and also with elevated immunoglobulins and enhanced cellular immunity reactions.
On spherical harmonic representation of transient waves in dispersive media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, Victor V
2003-01-01
Axisymmetric transient solutions to the inhomogeneous telegraph equation are constructed in terms of spherical harmonics. Explicit solutions of the initial-value problem are derived in the spacetime domain by means of the Smirnov method of incomplete separation of variables and the Riemann formula. The corresponding Riemann function is constructed with the help of the Olevsky theorem. Solutions for some source distributions on a sphere expanding with a velocity greater than the wavefront velocity are obtained. This allows an analogous solution in the case of a circle belonging to a sphere expanding with the wavefront velocity to be written at once. Application of the scalar solution to a description of electromagnetic waves is also discussed
Comparison of Geant4-DNA simulation of S-values with other Monte Carlo codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
André, T.; Morini, F.; Karamitros, M.; Delorme, R.; Le Loirec, C.; Campos, L.; Champion, C.; Groetz, J.-E.; Fromm, M.; Bordage, M.-C.; Perrot, Y.; Barberet, Ph.
2014-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of S-values have been carried out with the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 toolkit. The S-values have been simulated for monoenergetic electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 keV up to 20 keV, in liquid water spheres (for four radii, chosen between 10 nm and 1 μm), and for electrons emitted by five isotopes of iodine (131, 132, 133, 134 and 135), in liquid water spheres of varying radius (from 15 μm up to 250 μm). The results have been compared to those obtained from other Monte Carlo codes and from other published data. The use of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test has allowed confirming the statistical compatibility of all simulation results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ro, Chul-Un; Hoornaerta, S.; Griekena, R. van
2002-01-01
Particulate samples of a candidate reference material are evaluated on their homogeneity from bottle to bottle using electron probe X ray microanalysis technique. The evaluation on the homogeneity is done by the utilization of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics to the processing of the quantitative electron probe X ray microanalysis data. Due to a limitation, existing even in computer controlled electron probe X ray microanalysis, in terms of analysis time and expenses, the number of particles analyzed is much smaller compared to that in the sample. Therefore, it is investigated whether this technique provides representative analysis results for the characteristics of the sample, even though a very small portion of the sample is really analyzed. Furthermore, the required number of particles for the analysis, to insure a certain level of reproducibility, e.g. 5% relative standard deviation, is determined by the application of the Ingamells sampling theory. (author)
Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut
2015-01-01
The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrej Kastrin
Full Text Available Concept associations can be represented by a network that consists of a set of nodes representing concepts and a set of edges representing their relationships. Complex networks exhibit some common topological features including small diameter, high degree of clustering, power-law degree distribution, and modularity. We investigated the topological properties of a network constructed from co-occurrences between MeSH descriptors in the MEDLINE database. We conducted the analysis on two networks, one constructed from all MeSH descriptors and another using only major descriptors. Network reduction was performed using the Pearson's chi-square test for independence. To characterize topological properties of the network we adopted some specific measures, including diameter, average path length, clustering coefficient, and degree distribution. For the full MeSH network the average path length was 1.95 with a diameter of three edges and clustering coefficient of 0.26. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test rejects the power law as a plausible model for degree distribution. For the major MeSH network the average path length was 2.63 edges with a diameter of seven edges and clustering coefficient of 0.15. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test failed to reject the power law as a plausible model. The power-law exponent was 5.07. In both networks it was evident that nodes with a lower degree exhibit higher clustering than those with a higher degree. After simulated attack, where we removed 10% of nodes with the highest degrees, the giant component of each of the two networks contains about 90% of all nodes. Because of small average path length and high degree of clustering the MeSH network is small-world. A power-law distribution is not a plausible model for the degree distribution. The network is highly modular, highly resistant to targeted and random attack and with minimal dissortativity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lincoln Eloi de Araújo
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada na bacia hidrográfica do rio Paraíba com a finalidade de identificar a variação espacial e temporal das chuvas intensas de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 dias. Os resultados obtidos mostraram concentração de valores máximos da variação espacial das chuvas intensas no leste da sub-bacia do Baixo Paraíba, Sul da sub-bacia do rio Taperoá e centro-norte da sub-bacia do Alto Paraíba. A análise da variação temporal revelou que os meses de maiores ocorrências de chuvas intensas na bacia em estudo são: janeiro, fevereiro, março e abril. Em seguida, as chuvas intensas foram ajustadas à função distribuição de probabilidade de Gumbel. O teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov foi utilizado para verificar a qualidade desses ajustes.This research was accomplished in the Paraíba river basin for to identify the space and temporal variability of the rains intense of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. The obtained results showed concentration of maximum values of the space variation of the rains intense in the east of the subbasin of Low Paraíba, south of the subbasin of the river Taperoá and center-north of the subbasin of High Paraíba. The analysis of the temporal variation did reveal that the months of larger occurrences of rains intense in the basin in study are: January, February, March and April. Soon after, the rains intense they were adjusted to the probability distribution function of Gumbel. The test Kolmogorov-Smirnov was used to verify the quality of those fittings.
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Alberto Cargnelutti Filho
2004-12-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o ajuste das séries de dados de radiação solar global média decendial, de 22 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, às funções de distribuições de probabilidade normal, log-normal, gama, gumbel e weibull. Aplicou-se o teste de aderência de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, nas 792 séries de dados (22 municípios x 36 decêndios de radiação solar global média decendial, para verificar o ajuste dos dados às distribuições normal, log-normal, gama, gumbel e weibull, totalizando 3.960 testes. Os dados decendiais de radiação solar global média se ajustam às funções de distribuições de probabilidade normal, log-normal, gama, gumbel e weibull, e apresentam melhor ajuste à função de distribuição de probabilidade normal.The objective of this work was to verify the adjustment of data series for average global solar radiation to the normal, log-normal, gamma, gumbel and weibull probability distribution functions. Data were collected from 22 cities in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied in the 792 series of data (22 localities x 36 periods of ten days of average global solar radiation to verify the adjustment of the data to the normal, log-normal, gamma, gumbel and weibull probability distribution functions, totalizing 3,960 tests. The data of average global solar radiation adjust to the normal, log-normal, gamma, gumbel and weibull probability distribution functions, and present a better adjustment to the normal probability function.
Vindras, Philippe; Desmurget, Michel; Baraduc, Pierre
2012-01-01
In science, it is a common experience to discover that although the investigated effect is very clear in some individuals, statistical tests are not significant because the effect is null or even opposite in other individuals. Indeed, t-tests, Anovas and linear regressions compare the average effect with respect to its inter-individual variability, so that they can fail to evidence a factor that has a high effect in many individuals (with respect to the intra-individual variability). In such paradoxical situations, statistical tools are at odds with the researcher's aim to uncover any factor that affects individual behavior, and not only those with stereotypical effects. In order to go beyond the reductive and sometimes illusory description of the average behavior, we propose a simple statistical method: applying a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess whether the distribution of p-values provided by individual tests is significantly biased towards zero. Using Monte-Carlo studies, we assess the power of this two-step procedure with respect to RM Anova and multilevel mixed-effect analyses, and probe its robustness when individual data violate the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity. We find that the method is powerful and robust even with small sample sizes for which multilevel methods reach their limits. In contrast to existing methods for combining p-values, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has unique resistance to outlier individuals: it cannot yield significance based on a high effect in one or two exceptional individuals, which allows drawing valid population inferences. The simplicity and ease of use of our method facilitates the identification of factors that would otherwise be overlooked because they affect individual behavior in significant but variable ways, and its power and reliability with small sample sizes (<30-50 individuals) suggest it as a tool of choice in exploratory studies.
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Philippe Vindras
Full Text Available In science, it is a common experience to discover that although the investigated effect is very clear in some individuals, statistical tests are not significant because the effect is null or even opposite in other individuals. Indeed, t-tests, Anovas and linear regressions compare the average effect with respect to its inter-individual variability, so that they can fail to evidence a factor that has a high effect in many individuals (with respect to the intra-individual variability. In such paradoxical situations, statistical tools are at odds with the researcher's aim to uncover any factor that affects individual behavior, and not only those with stereotypical effects. In order to go beyond the reductive and sometimes illusory description of the average behavior, we propose a simple statistical method: applying a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess whether the distribution of p-values provided by individual tests is significantly biased towards zero. Using Monte-Carlo studies, we assess the power of this two-step procedure with respect to RM Anova and multilevel mixed-effect analyses, and probe its robustness when individual data violate the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity. We find that the method is powerful and robust even with small sample sizes for which multilevel methods reach their limits. In contrast to existing methods for combining p-values, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has unique resistance to outlier individuals: it cannot yield significance based on a high effect in one or two exceptional individuals, which allows drawing valid population inferences. The simplicity and ease of use of our method facilitates the identification of factors that would otherwise be overlooked because they affect individual behavior in significant but variable ways, and its power and reliability with small sample sizes (<30-50 individuals suggest it as a tool of choice in exploratory studies.
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Lenamar Fiorese Vieira
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Questionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instruments used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p < 0.05. There was a significant and negative correlation between the dimensions of burnout and coping strategies. For the dimensions of burnout, just ranking obtained significant difference, while for coping strategies, gender, category, ranking and practice time showed significant differences. It was concluded that the higher burnout, fewer beach volleyball athletes use coping strategies.
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Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti Torman
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Introdução: Os principais testes estatísticos têm como suposição a normalidade dos dados, que deve ser verificada antes da realização das análises principais. Objetivo: Revisar as técnicas de verificação da normalidade dos dados e comparar alguns testes de aderência à normalidade para diferentes distribuições de origem e tamanho amostral. Metodologia: Através da simulação de cinco distribuições (Normal, t-student, Qui-Quadrado, Gama e Exponencial e seis tamanhos amostrais (10, 30, 50, 100, 500 e 1000 foram simulados 5000 amostras de cada par distribuição-tamanho amostral e realizados os testes Qui-quadrado, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors, Shapiro-Wilk, Shapiro-Francia, Cramer-von Mises, Anderson-Darling e Jarque-Bera. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos mostram uma clara superioridade dos testes Shapiro-Francia e Shapiro-Wilk, com percentuais de acerto de 72,41% e 72,15%, respectivamente. Entre os piores resultados encontramos o Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Qui-Quadrado, com percentual de acerto de 44,78% e 61,58%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Para amostras pequenas recomenda-se que sejam utilizados procedimentos não paramétricos diretamente para a análise, em função da baixa performance dos testes de aderência à normalidade, dado o baixo percentual de acertos. Para amostras maiores, recomenda-se o uso dos testes Shapiro-Francia ou Shapiro-Wilk.
Analytic treatments of matter-enhanced solar-neutrino oscillations
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Haxton, W.C.
1987-01-01
Mikheyev and Smirnov have pointed out that flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos could be greatly enhanced. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism depends on the effective electron neutrino mass that arises from charged-current scattering off solar electrons, a phenomenon first discussed by Wolfenstein. Two analytic treatments, the adiabatic approximation and Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, have been used in studies of this mechanism. I discuss a simple extension of the LZ approximation that merges naturally with the adiabatic approximation and is free of certain troublesome pathologies that arise in the conventional treatment. In this extension the solar density is approximated as in the conventional treatment, except that the starting and ending densities are the physical ones. Results of this finite LZ approximation are compared to those from the standard LZ approximation, the adiabatic approximation, and ''exact'' numerical integrations. The new approximation is virtually exact regardless of the point of origin of the neutrino in the solar core. This approximation is used to efficiently calculate the solar-neutrino capture rates for /sup 37/Cl, /sup 71/Ga, and /sup 98/Mo. The spatial extent of the solar core, the contributions of minor neutrino species, and the effects of 8 B neutrino capture to excited nuclear states are treated with care. Limits imposed on δm 2 and sin 2 2theta/sub v/ by the nonzero /sup 37/Cl capture rate are derived by considering the expected uncertainties in standard-solar-model flux estimates. Those oscillation parameters are determined that could account for the /sup 37/Cl puzzle and yet lead to a /sup 71/Ga counting rate above the minimum astronomical value
Giner, Anna; Aldaba, Mikel; Arjona, Montserrat; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume
2015-10-01
To evaluate the usefulness of an infrared open-field autorefractor as a predictor of the refractive error when fitting multifocal contact lenses (MCL). Objective and subjective measurements of the non-cycloplegic distance refractive error were compared in patients wearing MCL. We used the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor for the objective measurements. Three commercially available MCL were tested. Twenty-one eyes of sixteen healthy adults were included in the study. Over-refraction was evaluated in terms of spherical equivalent (SE) and astigmatic vectors (J0 and J45). The mean difference±SD of each parameter was calculated. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the normal distribution. Pearson's correlation, Bland and Altman plot and paired sample t test were used to compare the results obtained with both methods. The mean difference between objective and subjective results of the SE over-refraction was 0.13±0.42D; for astigmatic vectors J0 and J45 were 0.03±0.32D and -0.00±0.17D, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a normal distribution for all parameters. The highest Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for the SE with values of 0.98 without MCL and 0.97 with MCL. The lowest were obtained for J45 with values of 0.65 without MCL and 0.75 with MCL. Significant correlations were obtained for each parameter. The paired sample t test failed to show significant differences in analyzed parameters except for J0 without MCL. The Grand Seiko WAM-5500 can be used as a screening method of over-refraction in the clinical fitting of MCL. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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E. Sgnaolin
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMs is a chronic widespread pain condition that can negatively impact on all aspects of patient’s life. The purpose of this study was: first, to evaluate illness perception (IP, quality of life (QoL and affective-emotive variables (EAV of patients with FM; and second, to compare these variables to different pain conditions. Methods: Consecutive 34 women (mean age 47.4±8.3 years affected by FM were enrolled for the study from December 2009 to May 2011. IP was evaluated by means of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, QoL through Nottigham Health Profile and EAV through the Beck Depression Inventory. Scores were compared with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (n=20; mean age 53±12.8 years and low back pain (LBP (n=20; 51.3±7.8 years groups. Results: FM patients scored higher than RA and LBP groups on IP (Identity scale mean: FM=8.8±2.3, AR=5.5±3.3, LBP=4.1±2.9; Kruskal-Wallis=24.42. Moreover FM patients show higher EAV (mean FM=21±9.6, AR=8.9±5.6, LBP=14.9±6.5; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=2.17 and QoL (Pain scale mean: FM=74.2±24.1; AR=35.7±19.9; LBP=56.5±20.4; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=2.27; Energy scale mean: FM=86.2±28.5; AR=46.8±35.4; LBP=61.6 ±63.7; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=1.98 than RA group. Conclusions: Our study highlighted dysfunctional IP, low QoL, high EAV scores in FM patients and the significant relations between these variables. Research results provided support for relevance of a multidisciplinary approach to the management of FM, including psychological interventions, according to a biopsychosocial perspective.Objective: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMs is a chronic widespread pain condition that can negatively impact on all aspects of patient’s life. The purposes of this study were: i to evaluate illness perception (IP, quality of life (QoL and affective-emotive variables (EAV of patients with FM; and ii to compare these variables to different pain conditions. Methods: Consecutive 34 women (mean age
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Solange Mattos Melegario
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar se existem diferenças no grau de flexibilidade nas fases do ciclo menstrual de mulheres adultas jovens praticantes de ginástica de academia. A amostra intencional foi composta de 20 mulheres, com idade de 18 a 35 anos (25,8 ± 6,06, com o ciclo menstrual regular (28 até 32 dias e que não faziam uso de anticoncepcional oral. Dados referentes ao ciclo menstrual e atividade física habitual foram obtidos através da aplicação de um questionário. A flexibilidade foi aferida através da goniometria, utilizando-se oito movimentos, em três fases do ciclo menstrual. Os sujeitos foram submetidos a um teste hormonal, em que foram verificadas as taxas de estrona, estradiol e progesterona. O tratamento estatístico foi feito através de análise descritiva e inferencial (teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e ANOVA. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa (p Este estudio ha tenido por objetivo investigar si existen diferencias en el grado de flexibilidad en las fases del ciclo menstrual de mujeres adultas jóvenes practicantes de gimnasia de academia. La muestra intencional fue compuesta de 20 mujeres, con edades entre 18 a 35 años (25,8 ± 6,06, con ciclo menstrual regular (28 a 32 días y que no hacían uso de anticonceptivo oral. Datos referentes al ciclo menstrual y actividad física habitual fueron obtenidos a través de una encuesta. La flexibilidad fue medida a través de la goniometría, utilizándose ocho movimientos, en tres fases del ciclo menstrual. Los individuos fueron sometidos a un test hormonal, en donde se verificaron la tasa de estrona, estradiol y progesterona. El tratamiento estadístico fue hecho a través del análisis descriptivo y de inferencia (test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y ANOVA. Los resultados encontrados mostraron que no hubo diferencia significativa (p This study aims to verify if there are differences in the degree of flexibility in the phases of
La pluviométrie au Pérou pendant les phases ENSO et LNSO
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1998-01-01
Full Text Available Les données mensuelles (1960-1990 de précipitations de 21 stations situées dans les trois domaines physiques du Pérou (côte, Andes et plaine amazonienne sont analysées lors des phases ENSO et LNSO de lOscillation Australe du Pacifique. Ce nest quà Piura, dans la région côtière du Nord, que les excédents sont significatifs en phase ENSO (test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov mais les volumes précipités sont très différents dun événement à lautre. Ailleurs, napparaît pas de différence significative entre les pluies des phases ENSO (ou LNSO et celles des périodes normales. Toutefois, la pluviométrie est souvent déficitaire dans les Andes en phase ENSO en période LNSO, elle est également déficitaire au Sud des Andes, mais plus souvent excédentaire au Nord. Dans la plaine amazonienne, la variabilité spatio-temporelle est trop importante lors des deux phases pour que soit esquissé un comportement général. LA PLUVIOMETRÍA EN EL PERÚ DURANTE LAS FASES ENSO Y LNSO. Los datos mensuales (1960-1990 de precipitación de 21 estaciones ubicadas en la Costa, la Sierra y la Selva de Perú son estudiados durante las fases ENSO y LNSO de la Oscilación del Sur del Pacífico. Las lluvias de Piura, en el norte de la Costa, son las únicas que presentan excesos significativos (test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov durante la fase ENSO pero los volúmenes cambian mucho de un evento a otro. No hay, en otros lugares, diferencia significativa entre las lluvias de las fases ENSO (o LNSO y las lluvias de años normales. Pero, muchas veces, la pluviosidad es deficitaria en los Andes durante los ENSO durante los eventos LNSO, las lluvias son también deficitarias en los Andes del Sur, pero más veces hay excesos en el Norte. En la Selva Amazónica, la variabilidad espacio-temporal es demasiado grande para dibujar un comportamiento general. RAINFALL IN PERU DURING THE ENSO AND LNSO PHASES. Monthly rainfall data (1960-1990 taken from 21 stations in three
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Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos
2008-06-01
Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar o custo mensal do uso de dispositivos e adjuvantes por estomizados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, realizada em dois Ambulatórios de Especialidades, em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em 635 prontuários de pacientes estomizados adultos, atendidos em junho de 2005. Os valores dos dispositivos e adjuvantes foram obtidos em registros eletrônicos e publicações oficiais da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e seus resultados foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni e Spearman. A maioria dos indivíduos era do sexo feminino (51%, idade > 60anos, com colostomia provisória (64,5%. O custo individual mensal médio foi R$ 137,72, maior para os urostomizados, com estomas definitivos, com neoplasias de vias urinárias e atendidos no serviço que possui enfermeiro especialista. Houve correlação estatisticamente significativa e positiva entre o custo mensal e o tempo de estomia. Este estudo contribuiu para a avaliação do custo do estomizado no Estado de São Paulo.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar el costo mensual del uso de dispositivos y adjuvantes por ostomizados. Se trata de una investigación retrospectiva, realizada en dos Consultorios externos de Especialidades, en Sao Paulo. Los datos fueron recolectados en 635 historias clínicas de pacientes adultos ostomizados, atendidos en junio del 2005. Los valores de los dispositivos y adjuvantes fueron obtenidos en registros electrónicos y publicaciones oficiales de la Secretaría de Estado de la Salud de Sao Paulo y sus resultados fueron sometidos a los tests de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni y Spearman. La mayoría de los individuos era del sexo femenino (51%, edad >60 años, con colostomía provisional (64,5%. El costo individual mensual promedio fue de R$ 137,72, mayor para los urostomizados, con esto mas definitivos, con neoplasias de vías urinarias
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Israel Teoldo da Costa
2013-03-01
Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva identificar a possível influência do Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH e da data de nascimento (DN na ascensão de jogadores ao alto nível de rendimento. A amostra integra os 643 jogadores que disputaram o Campeonato Brasileiro Série A de 2010. Foram coletados dados referentes à data e ao local de nascimento juntamente com seu IDH. Foi utilizada a estatística descritiva e os testes Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Qui-quadrado, Kruskall-Wallis e coeficiente de corelação de Pearson. O nível de significância adotado foi de α=0,05. Os resultados sugerem que jogadores nascidos em cidades com valores populacionais inferiores a 100 mil habitantes, com IDH médio (entre 0,501-0,800 e, nascidos nos primeiros meses do ano, apresentam maiores chances de atingir a elite. Afigura-se plausível concluir que a DN e o IDH são fatores que associados podem determinar a ascensão de jogadores ao alto rendimento.The present study verifies the possible influence of the human development index (HDI and the birth-date (BD on the climb up to higher performance in sports, considering Brazilian football context. The sample comprised all 643 players from 20 teams of the Premier Football League in Brazil. The data were collected from official website of Brazilian National Federation, United Nations Development Programme and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Descriptive analysis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, chi-square test (c ², Pearson correlation and Kruskall-Wallis H test were carried out. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. The results suggested that contextual factors associated with size and HDI of birth-place and birth-date contribute to the achievement of the Premier Football League. Thus, players were born in the first months of the year and in cities with medium or higher HDI had more conditions to climb up the elite level of Brazilian Football.
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Hidayati Hidayati
2012-09-01
Full Text Available AbstrakGingivitis kehamilan adalah gingivitis yang terjadi pada wanita hamil. Gingivitisdisebabkan oleh iritasi bakteri yang ada dalam plak dan kalkulus. Plak dan kalkulus merupakanindikator kebersihan mulut yang buruk. Selama kehamilan, hormon estrogen dan progesteroneakan mengalami peningkatan yang menyebabkan jaringan gingiva merespon secara berlebihanterhadap iritasi lokal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kebersihan rongga mulutdan status gingivitis ibu hamil serta hubungan antara tingkat kebersihan rongga mulut denganstatus gingivitis pada ibu hamil. Jenis penelitian ini adalah anayitic correlation denganpendekatan cross sectional, sampel diambil menggunakanteknik accidental sampling dengan ujistatistik Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Subjek adalah 70 wanita hamil di Puskesmas wilayah kerjaAndalas Padang Timur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tingkat kebersihan mulut ibu hamil diwilayah kerja Puskesmas Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur sebagian besar adalah sedang(57,1% dan sebagian besar ibu hamil yang diperiksa mengalami gingivitis sedang (70%. Semuaibu yang diperiksa mengalami gingivitis, baik itu ibu dengan tingkat kebersihan mulut yang baik,sedang maupun buruk. Disarankan kepada ibu hamil untuk selalu menjaga kebersihan dankesehatan rongga mulutnya.Kata Kunci : gingivitis kehamilan, estrogen, progesteron, tingkat kebersihan rongga mulut,gingivitisAbstractPregnancy gingivitis is gingivitis that occurs in pregnant women. Gingivitis caused by theirritation of bacteria in plaque and calculus. Plaque and calculus is indicator of poor oral hygiene.During pregnancy, estrogen and progesterone will increase that causes excessive gingival tissueresponse to local irritation. This study aims to determine oral hygiene level and gingivitis statusin pregnant women and relationship between oral hygiene level with gingivitis status in pregnantwomen. The kind of this research is analyitic correlation with cross sectional study, sampleswere taken with
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Ying Chen
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular and timely monitoring of blood glucose (BG levels in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus is crucial to optimizing inpatient glycaemic control. However, methods to quantify timeliness as a measurement of quality of care are lacking. We propose an analytical approach that utilizes BG measurements from electronic records to assess adherence to an inpatient BG monitoring protocol in hospital wards. Methods We applied our proposed analytical approach to electronic records obtained from 24 non-critical care wards in November and December 2013 from a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. We applied distributional analytics to evaluate daily adherence to BG monitoring timings. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (1S-KS test was performed to test daily BG timings against non-adherence represented by the uniform distribution. This test was performed among wards with high power, determined through simulation. The 1S-KS test was coupled with visualization via the cumulative distribution function (cdf plot and a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (2S-KS test, enabling comparison of the BG timing distributions between two consecutive days. We also applied mixture modelling to identify the key features in daily BG timings. Results We found that 11 out of the 24 wards had high power. Among these wards, 1S-KS test with cdf plots indicated adherence to BG monitoring protocols. Integrating both 1S-KS and 2S-KS information within a moving window consisting of two consecutive days did not suggest frequent potential change from or towards non-adherence to protocol. From mixture modelling among wards with high power, we consistently identified four components with high concentration of BG measurements taken before mealtimes and around bedtime. This agnostic analysis provided additional evidence that the wards were adherent to BG monitoring protocols. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of our proposed analytical approach as a monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, R; Chisela, W; Dorbu, G
2016-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate clinical usefulness of AlignRT (Vision RT Ltd., London, UK) in reducing patient positioning errors in breast irradiation. Methods: 60 patients undergoing whole breast irradiation were selected for this study. Patients were treated to the left or right breast lying on Qfix Access breast board (Qfix, Avondale, PA) in supine position for 28 fractions using tangential fields. 30 patients were aligned using AlignRT by aligning a breast surface region of interest (ROI) to the same area from a reference surface image extracted from planning CT. When the patient’s surface image deviated from the reference by more than 3mm on one or more translational and rotational directions, a new reference was acquired using AlignRT in-room cameras. The other 30 patients were aligned to the skin marks with room lasers. On-Board MV portal images of medial field were taken daily and matched to the DRRs. The magnitude and frequency of positioning errors were determined from measured translational shifts. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate statistical differences of positional accuracy and precision between AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients. Results: The percentage of port images with no shift required was 46.5% and 27.0% in vertical, 49.8% and 25.8% in longitudinal, 47.6% and 28.5% in lateral for AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients, respectively. The percentage of port images requiring more than 3mm shifts was 18.1% and 35.1% in vertical, 28.6% and 50.8% in longitudinal, 11.3% and 24.2% in lateral for AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients, respectively. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that there were significant differences between the frequency distributions of AlignRT and non-AlignRT in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral shifts. Conclusion: As confirmed by port images, AlignRT-assisted patient positioning can significantly reduce the frequency and magnitude of patient setup errors in breast irradiation compared to the use of lasers and skin marks.
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Fabíola Maria Gomes de Melo
2007-09-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a modificação da aeração nasal após a realização de manobras de massagem e limpeza nasal. MÉTODOS: vinte crianças na faixa etária de quatro a onze anos com diagnóstico de rinite alérgica foram submetidas à avaliação da aeração nasal com o auxílio do espelho milimetrado de Altmann. Inicialmente houve a marcação do ar expirado na placa metálica, posteriormente foram realizadas manobras de massagem e limpeza nasal para retirada da secreção, havendo uma nova marcação para a comparação dos resultados. Foi aplicado o teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov para observar a suposição de normalidade dos dados e o teste t-student para amostras pareadas, sendo todas as conclusões tomadas ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: pode-se observar que as médias obtidas da quantificação da aeração nasal após as manipulações e limpeza na região foram significativas pPURPOSE: to identify the modification of nasal aeration after the accomplishment of maneuvers of massage and nasal cleanness. METHODS: twenty children aging from four to eleven years with diagnosis of allergic rhinitis have been submitted to evaluation of nasal aeration with the Altmann's milimetric mirror. Initially, we was marked the air exhaled on the metallic plate, afterwards we made a massage and nasal cleanness for removing of the secretion, having a new benchmark to compare the results. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to test the assumption of normality for the data and t-student test for paired samples. All conclusions were taken under 5% significance. RESULTS: it was observed that the obtained averages of the nasal aeration after the manipulations and cleanness in the region were significant: p<0,001. CONCLUSION: from the results obtained in this research it was possible to observe a significant increase in the nasal aeration after the massage and nasal cleanness.
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Carlos Ricardo Fietz
1998-03-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a precipitação pluviométrica esperada, em diferentes níveis de probabilidade, na região de Dourados, MS. O estudo, realizado para períodos decendiais, quinzenais e mensais, baseou-se em dados diários de precipitação de 17 anos. As séries foram ajustadas a uma distribuição mista e a aderência dos dados verificada pelo teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os parâmetros da distribuição gama foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança. Houve ajuste dos dados para todos os períodos. Através da distribuição acumulada mista foram gerados valores de precipitação esperada para períodos de retorno de 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12 e 17 anos. Os resultados obtidos permitem que se adotem valores criteriosos de precipitação no dimensionamento de sistemas de irrigação implantados na região de Dourados. O uso da precipitação média para este fim não é recomendado, pois pode resultar em projetos subdimensionados.The aim of this work was to determine the dependable rainfall using different levels of probability in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This study was conducted for intervals of 10, 15 and 30 days, based on daily data of rainfall for 17 years. Series were adjusted to a mixed distribution and a non-parametric test Kolmogorov-Smirnov was used . The parameters of gama distribution were estimated by the method maximum likelihood. Data were adjusted to all periods. Based on the accumulated mixed distribution were generated values of rainfall for periods return of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12 and 17 years. Results allow irrigation personal to adopt criterions values of rainfall for designing irrigation projects near Dourados-MS. The average rainfall should not be used because it may result in under estimation of the rainfall.
The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression
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Hanoem EH
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling
INTERRELATED PROCESSES OF DIGITALIZATION OF THE MODERN RUSSIAN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION
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S. I. Nekrasov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The article was prepared in continuation of the discussion of the topical aspects of the reform of science and education in the Russian Federation, considered in the article by Professor I. P. Smirnov [1].The aim of the publication is to express criticism about the management methods in the Russian science and education.Methodology and research methods. The methods involve comparative analysis, generalization and synthesis.Results.The background of the “digitized society” formation is considered from the positions of educational practice. On the basis of specific examples, the author confirms the conclusions drawn by I. P. Smirnov about inadequacy of administratively imposed formalized qualimetric apparatus for objective assessment of the work of scientists and teachers, and that “digital indicators” (first of all – number of publications and the index of citing set the false orientations which seriously prevent performance of scientific studies demanded by economy and society. The author provides a basis for a skeptical attitude towards the application of similar digitized technologies in education management. The possibility of operating with digital data at different levels does not enable to estimate the real educational results necessary for correction and planning of educational processes and, in general, for educational development. The consequences of introduction of quantitative criteria for measurement of scientific and pedagogical activity outcomes into science and education are shown. It is highlighted that it is important to take into account the opinions of scientists, teachers and the general public about the appropriateness of the commitment to the nationalization and administrative management of science and education.Practical significance. A number of proposals concerning the changes of existing approaches to the reform of science and education in the Russian Federation are brought forward: a revision of
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Wulan Prisilla Prisilla
2016-01-01
Full Text Available AbstrakAsma merupakan penyakit yang didasari oleh reaksi inflamasi pada saluran napas yang dapat dicegah dengan kortikosteroid inhalasi. Asma sukar disembuhkan, sehingga tujuan penatalaksanaan asma adalah asma terkontrol. Penilaian tingkat kontrol asma dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner Asthma Control Test (ACT yang bersifat subjektif tetapi validitasnya telah diuji. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan keteraturan penggunaan kortikosteroid inhalasi dengan tingkat kontrol asma pasien berdasarkan ACT di Poliklinik Paru RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Penelitian cross sectional analytic ini telah dilakukan dari September hingga Desember 2013. Populasi adalah pasien berusia ≥14 tahun yang didiagnosis asma oleh dokter. Jumlah subjek penelitian sebanyak 96 orang. Data yang diperoleh diolah dan dianalisis menggunakan uji Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Insiden terbanyak asma berada pada kelompok usia lanjut (60,4%. Sebagian besar pasien tidak teratur menggunakan kortikosteroid inhalasi (63,5% dan pasien dengan asma tidak terkontrol memiliki proporsi tertinggi (59,4% . Analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara keteraturan penggunaan kortikosteroid inhalasi dengan tingkat kontrol asma pasien berdasarkan ACT di Poliklinik Paru RSUP Dr. M. Djamil (p=0,002.Kata kunci: kortikosteroid inhalasi, ACT, tingkat control asma AbstractAsthma is a disease caused by an inflammatory reaction in the patient airways that can be prevented with inhaled corticosteroids. It is known that there is no cure for asthma, so the goal of asthma management is to obtain controlled asthma. The level of asthma control can be assessed by using Asthma Control Test (ACT questionnaire, this method is subjective but its validity has been tested. The objective of this study was to determine the association between regularity of inhaled corticosteroids application and patient’s level of asthma control based on ACT in the Lung Clinic of Dr
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Ítalo Nunes Silva
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Foram analisadas sete distribuições de probabilidade Exponencial, Gama, Log-normal, Normal, Weibull, Gumbel e Beta para a chuva mensal e anual na região Centro-Sul do Ceará, Brasil. Para verificação dos ajustes dos dados às funções densidade de probabilidade foi utilizado o teste não-paramétrico de Kolmogorov-Smirnov com nível de 5% de significância. Os dados de chuva foram obtidos da base de dados da SUDENE registrados durante o período de 1913 a 1989. Para a chuva total anual teve ajuste satisfatório dos dados às distribuições Gama, Gumbel, Normal e Weibull e não ocorreu ajuste às distribuições Exponencial, Log-normal e Beta. Recomenda-se o uso da distribuição Normal para estimar valores de chuva provável anual para a região, por ser um procedimento de fácil aplicação e também pelo bom desempenho nos testes. A distribuição de frequência Gumbel foi a que melhor representou os dados de chuva para o período mensal, com o maior número de ajustes no período chuvoso. No período seco os dados de chuva foram melhores representados pela distribuição Exponencial.Seven probability distributions were analysed: Exponential, Gamma, Log-Normal, Normal, Weibull, Gumbel and Beta, for monthly and annual rainfall in the south-central region of Ceará, Brazil. In order to verify the adjustments of the data to the probability density functions, the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used with a 5% level of significance. The rainfall data were obtained from the database at SUDENE, recorded from 1913 to 1989. For the total annual rainfall, adjustment of the data to the Gamma, Gumbel, Normal and Weibull distributions was satisfactory, and there was no adjustment to the Exponential, Log-normal and Beta distributions. Use of Normal distribution is recommended to estimate the values of probable annual rainfall in the region, this being a procedure of easy application, performing well in the tests. The Gumbel frequency
Role stress among auxiliary nurses midwives in Gujarat, India.
Purohit, Bhaskar; Vasava, Paul
2017-01-23
Understanding Role Stress is important as health service providers, especially nurses experience high levels of Role Stress which is linked to burnout, poor quality of care and high turnover. The current study explicates the concept of Role Stress and assesses the Role Stress experienced by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) working with rural government health centres from Gujarat, India. The study included 84 ANMs working with government health centres from one district in India. A structured instrument with established reliability and validity was used to measure 10 dimensions of Role Stress namely: Inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role erosion: role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self-role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study instrument was based on 5 point Likert rating scale that contained 50 unidirectional negative statements, 5 for each dimension. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were carried out to assess if the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test was carried out to assess reliability of the instrument. The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mainly using mean scores with higher scores indicating higher Role Stress and vice versa. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test indicated values of 0.852 suggesting high reliability of the tool. The highest Role Stress among ANMs was experienced for resource inadequacy. Role overload, role stagnation and inter-role distance were among the other important role stressors for ANMs. The study results suggests that ANMs frequently feel that: they do not have adequate amount of resources, facilities and financial support from the high levels authorities; people have too many expectations from their roles and as result they are overloaded with work and have very limited opportunities for
Plaqueta e leptina em adolescentes com obesidade Platelet and leptin in obese adolescents
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Denis Foschini
2008-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a influência de obesidade na contagem de células imunológicas e na concentração dos hormônios cortisol e leptina, a fim de estabelecer uma relação entre as variáveis analisadas. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutados 27 adolescentes obesos [índice de massa corporal (IMC ≥ percentil 95[ e 21 não-obesos (IMC ≤ percentil 75, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos, na fase pós-púbere. O IMC foi calculado através da divisão do peso pela altura ao quadrado e a composição corporal foi estimada por pletismografia no sistema Bod PodTM. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise de leucócitos, neutrófilos, linfócitos, monócitos, plaquetas, cortisol e leptina. O teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov foi utilizado, seguido pelo teste t de Student independente supondo distribuição normal. O nível de significância estabelecido foi p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of obesity status on immune cell count and concentration of the hormones cortisol and leptin, in order to establish a relationship among the variables analyzed. METHODS: We recruited 27 obese [body mass index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile[ and 21 non-obese (BMI ≤ 75th percentile adolescent boys and girls, aged 15-19 years at the post-pubertal stage. BMI was calculated as body weight divided by height squared, and body composition was estimated by plethysmography in the Bod PodTM system. Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, cortisol, and leptin. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed, followed by the independent Student t test in case of normal distribution. Significance values were set at p < 0.05 and expressed as means ± standard deviation. The statistical package SPSS for Windows version 12.0 was used. RESULTS: There was no difference between obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and cortisol serum concentrations. The group of obese
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Wayan Ardhana
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Latar belakang. Perawatan ortodontik pada kasus-kasus gigi berjejal dan protusif sering membutuhkan pencabutan gigi premolar untuk penyediaan ruang agar gigi berjejal dapat dirapikan dan gigi depan yang protusif dapat diundurkan. Gigi insisivus sentral merupakan salah satu gigi yang paling banyak mengalami pergerakan selama proses retrusi. Pergerakan gigi insisivus mengakibatkan terjadinya perubahan pada puncak tulang alveolar selama perawatan yang mungkin akan mempengaruhi tinggi tulang maksila dan mandibula pasca perawatan. Tujuan penelitian. Membandingkan tinggi tulang maksila dan mandibula di daerah interdental gigi insisivi sentral pada foto panoramic antara pra dan pasca perawatan maloklusi dengan pencabutan ke empat gigi premolar pertama. Metode penelitian. Digunakan 30 pasang foto panoramic pra dan pasca perawatan yang dipilih sesuai dengan kriteria penelitian dari pasien-pasien peneliti yang telah selesai mendapat perawatan aktif dengan teknik edgewise. Analisis Kolmogorov-Smirnov dan Shaviro-Wilk digunakan untuk uji normalitas dan Student t-test data berpasangan digunakan untuk menguji perbedaan tinggi tulang maksila dan mandibula antara pra dan pasca perawatan. Hasil Penelitian. Tidak didapatkan perbedaan (p>0,05 tinggi tulang maksila dan amndibula antara pra dan pasca perawatan ortodontik dengan pencabutan keempat gigi premolar pertama. Background. In orthodontic treatment, premolar extractions are often needed in crowding and prostrusive cases to provide space for the teeth can be aligned and retracted to their desire position. Central incisor teeth are the teeth that mostly undergone more movement during retrusion. The change of the alveolar bone crest in this incisors might affect the maxillary and mandibular bone height post-treatment. Research objectives. The present study aimed to compare the bone height in the interdental maxillary and mandibular central incisors regions before and after orthodontic treatment with four
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J. Peixer
Full Text Available The Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is the most captured fish species in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, and since 1994, its maximum sustainable yield had already been exceeded. Its capture is carried out only by hooks, as mesh gears are forbidden either for professional or for recreational fishing. The aim of this study was to determine selectivity for different hook sizes used in P. mesopotamicus fishing and to verify which sizes capture only adults. Data were collected in the rivers Miranda, Aquidauana, and Vermelho, in January, March, and April 2002. Six longlines with eight hook sizes were used and we adopted the hook opening as a measure related to selectivity. Different hooks captured individuals of the same length and their medians were similar, evidencing the great overlap among sizes. Regression results showed no significant relationship between ln[c2 (l/c1 (l] and total length of captured individuals. In addition, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test also did not detect significant differences in the size of captured fish. Several hypotheses, such as the selectivity models, shape of selection curves, scarcity of large fishes, and behavior are used in order to explain the absence of hook selectivity for this species. Size of recruitment for this gear was 28 cm of total length, when individuals are still immature.
Effect of Job Specialization on the Hospital Stay and Job Satisfaction of ED Nurses.
Shamsi, Vahid; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Sirati Nir, Masoud; Babatabar Darzi, Hosein
2016-02-01
In recent decades, the increasing crowdedness of the emergency departments has posed various problems for patients and healthcare systems worldwide. These problems include prolonged hospital stay, patient dissatisfaction and nurse burnout or job dissatisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emergency department (ED) nurses' job specialization on their job satisfaction and the length of patient stay in the ED. This before-after quasi-experimental study was conducted from April to May 2014 at the Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Initially, 35 patients were recruited as controls and the length of their stay in the ED was measured in minutes via a chronometer; Moreover, nurses' job satisfaction was evaluated using the Mohrman-Cooke-Mohrman job satisfaction scale. Then, a job specialization intervention was developed based on the stabilization model. After that, 35 new patients were recruited to the treatment group and received specialized care services. Accordingly, the length of their stay in the ED was measured. Moreover, the same nurses' job satisfaction was re-evaluated after the study. The study intervention lasted one month. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20 and statistical tests such as the Kolmogrov-Smirnov, the paired and the independent t, and chi-square tests. There was a significant difference between the two groups of patients concerning the length of their stay in the ED (P nurses had greater job satisfaction after the study (P job specialization intervention can improve nurses' satisfaction and relieve the crowdedness of the EDs.
Horuz, Dilek; Kurcer, Mehmet Ali; Erdoğan, Zeynep
This interventional study was carried out to determine the effect of music therapy on anxiety and the various physical findings in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the pulmonary diseases service. Ninety-six patients (28 females, 68 males) of 114 adult patients who were hospitalized between November 10, 2013, and March 10, 2014, were included in the study. Ninety-six patients were separated in 3 groups. The data for the study were collected from a questionnaire form of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, a patient follow-up form, and the Beck Anxiety Scale. SPPS 11.5 was used for data analysis. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test was used to determine whether the data showed normal distribution. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test was used to determine the differences between mean anxiety scores on day 0, day 5, and day 15, and the differences in physiological findings on day 0, day 5, and day 15. There was a significant decrease in anxiety level average on day 5 (P ≤ .0001) and day 15 (P ≤ .0001) of the study in both the Western classical music and Turkish classical music groups compared with control group. There was also a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure averages in both music groups compared with control group (P ≤ .005). There was no significant difference in heart rates and respiration rate average between the Western classical music and Turkish classical music groups compared with the control group (P > .05).
Data re-arranging techniques leading to proper variable selections in high energy physics
Kůs, Václav; Bouř, Petr
2017-12-01
We introduce a new data based approach to homogeneity testing and variable selection carried out in high energy physics experiments, where one of the basic tasks is to test the homogeneity of weighted samples, mainly the Monte Carlo simulations (weighted) and real data measurements (unweighted). This technique is called ’data re-arranging’ and it enables variable selection performed by means of the classical statistical homogeneity tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, or Pearson’s chi-square divergence test. P-values of our variants of homogeneity tests are investigated and the empirical verification through 46 dimensional high energy particle physics data sets is accomplished under newly proposed (equiprobable) quantile binning. Particularly, the procedure of homogeneity testing is applied to re-arranged Monte Carlo samples and real DATA sets measured at the particle accelerator Tevatron in Fermilab at DØ experiment originating from top-antitop quark pair production in two decay channels (electron, muon) with 2, 3, or 4+ jets detected. Finally, the variable selections in the electron and muon channels induced by the re-arranging procedure for homogeneity testing are provided for Tevatron top-antitop quark data sets.
Statistical homogeneity tests applied to large data sets from high energy physics experiments
Trusina, J.; Franc, J.; Kůs, V.
2017-12-01
Homogeneity tests are used in high energy physics for the verification of simulated Monte Carlo samples, it means if they have the same distribution as a measured data from particle detector. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, χ 2, and Anderson-Darling tests are the most used techniques to assess the samples’ homogeneity. Since MC generators produce plenty of entries from different models, each entry has to be re-weighted to obtain the same sample size as the measured data has. One way of the homogeneity testing is through the binning. If we do not want to lose any information, we can apply generalized tests based on weighted empirical distribution functions. In this paper, we propose such generalized weighted homogeneity tests and introduce some of their asymptotic properties. We present the results based on numerical analysis which focuses on estimations of the type-I error and power of the test. Finally, we present application of our homogeneity tests to data from the experiment DØ in Fermilab.
Assessment of surface hardness of acrylic resins submitted to accelerated artificial aging.
Tornavoi, D C; Agnelli, J A M; Lepri, C P; Mazzetto, M O; Botelho, A L; Soares, R G; Dos Reis, A C
2012-06-01
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the surface hardness of acrylic resins. The following three commercial brands of acrylic resins were tested: Vipi Flash (autopolymerized resin), Vipi Wave (microwave heat-polymerized resin) and Vipi Cril (conventional heat-polymerized resin). To perform the tests, 21 test specimens (65x10x3 mm) were made, 7 for each resin. Three surface hardness readings were performed for each test specimen, before and after AAA, and the means were submitted to the following tests: Kolmogorov-Smirnov (P>0.05), Levene Statistic, Two-way ANOVA, Tukey Post Hoc (Paging, the autopolymerized acrylic resin Vipi Flash showed lower hardness values when compared with the heat-polymerized resin Vipi Cril (P=0.001). After aging, the 3 materials showed similar performance when compared among them. The Vipi Cril was the only one affected by AAA and showed lower hardness values after this procedure (Pp=0.003). It may be concluded that accelerated artificial aging influenced surface hardness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin Vipi Cril.
Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.
Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.
Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites
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Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.
Using Maps of City Analogues to Display and Interpret Climate Change scenarios and their uncertainty
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Kopf, S.; Minh, Ha-Duong; Hallegatte, St.
2008-02-01
We describe a method to represent the results of climate simulation models with analogues. An analogue to a city A is a city B whose climate today represents A's simulated future climate. Climates were characterized and compared non-parametrically, using the 30-years distribution of three indicators: Aridity Index, Heating Degree Days and Cooling Degree Days. Analogy was evaluated statistically with the two-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, generalized to 3 dimensions. We looked at the climate of 12 European cities at the end of the century under an A2 climate change scenario. We used two datasets produced with high-resolution regional climate simulation models from the Hadley Center and Meteo France. Climate analogues were generally found southward of present locations, a clear warming trend even if much model and scenario uncertainty remains. Climate analogues provide an intuitive way to show the possible effects of climate change on urban areas, offering a holistic approach to think about how cities adapt to different climates. Evidence of its communication value comes from the reuse of our maps in teaching and in several European mass-media. (authors)
Shahbazian, Nahid; Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Mohammadjafari, Razieh; Mousavi, Mahsan
2013-01-01
Introduction: If the blood pressure of a pregnant woman is ≥140/90 mmHg at the clinic, but her ambulatory blood pressure is less coat hypertension. Objectives: To evaluate the value of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Imam-Khomeini hospital of Ahwaz, Iran between 2011 to 2012. A total of 105 pregnant women who had blood pressure of higher than 140/90 mmHg during the third trimester of pregnancy were monitored. Thirty five women with white coat hypertension, 35 women with gestational hypertension and 35 women with normal blood pressure were followed. The data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of white coat hypertension was 31.3%. The maternal and neonatal outcomes and laboratory examinations in white coat hypertension were similar to the normal blood pressure, but the frequency of caesarean section was more than the other two groups. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate the efficacy of 24 hour holter monitoring of blood pressure and using it more comprehensively , compared to the limited visits.
Survey the effect of Zumba training on sleep quality in overweight girls
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A. Zar
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Background: Poor quality sleep impairs the function of different parts of the body. Some studies have shown that physical activity can effect on the quality of sleep. Objective: The aim of study was to investigate the effect of Zumba training on sleep quality in obese girls. Methods: This cross - sectional study was conducted on 30 volunteered overweight girls participated in Zumba training in Shiraz Arta Club in summer 2016. Information via demographic characteristics questionnaire and standard questionnaire Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were collected. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and independent t-test (α=0.05 were used to analyze the data. Findings: The results showed that active overweight girls compared to inactive were in a better position in measures of sleep quality (P=0.01, delays in falling asleep (P=0.02, go to sleep duration (P=0.02, effective sleep (P=0.03, sleep disorders (P=0.01, the hypnotic drug consumption (P=0.04, dysfunction in the morning (P=0.03, the overall quality of sleep (P=0.01. Conclusion: In general, this study showed that Zumba training improves the quality of sleep in overweight girls. Therefore, the use of zumba training for overweight girls is recommended as a non-drug therapy to improve sleep quality.
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Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Rogalla, Patrik; Hilbig, Andreas
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences. (orig.)
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Saeed Kosari
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on gross motor activities of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study out of 120 students with ADHD who were studying under supervision of Tehran Department of Education of Exceptional Children, a number of 20 children (8.8±0.7 years old with ADHD were selected randomly and based on pre-test. The measuring tool was the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. The selected motor program (SPARK physical education program including reinforcement activities, playing and sporting for children was repeated for 18 sessions by our subjects. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test was used to check normal data distribution and the correlative t-test and independent t-test were used to compare mean values. Results: Eighteen sessions of the selected motor activities for the experiment group made significant differences in all variables of the study, but it was not the case for the control group. The experiment group’s differences were running speed and agility (p=0.001, balance (p=0.001, bilateral coordination (p=0.001 and strength (p=0.001.Conclusion: With regard to results of the study, it can be claimed that the selected physical education program which has been inspired by Spark physical education program is able to improve gross motor skills in children with ADHD.
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Piña-Osuna, Karina; Leal-Moreno, Ana María; López-Cárdenas, Adriana; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M
2004-01-01
1. To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with coccidioidomycosis (CM) who died from 1983-2000 at a hospital in northeastern Mexico, and 2, to know distribution of number of deaths due to CM per year and month. From 4598 autopsies, 31 cases of CM were selected. Clinical chart and autopsy protocols were examined. Distribution of cases was analyzed by contingence table and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. There were 10 women and 21 men (aged 4 months to 60 years). In women, pregnancy was present in 40% of cases. In men, chronic renal failure (CRF) (38%) and AIDS (19%) were the pathologic conditions most frequently observed. Variation in distribution of cases throughout 18 years was not observed (p > 0.05). Mortality due to CM was 0.67% and variation in number of deaths was not found. In this endemic area, CM must be included in differential diagnosis of patients with risk factors such as pregnancy, CRF, and AIDS, especially if associated with pneumonia with miliary pattern or septicemia with splenomegaly.
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Rosinta Ria Panggabean
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Income smoothing is the way that used by management to reduce fluctuation in reported earnings to fit the desired target. Income smoothing action is considered as a common action done by management to achieve certain purposes. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of determinant factors of income smoothing (net earnings, total asset, total sales, leverage, and operating profit margin toward stock return. Thesample used in this research is 48 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange selected by purposive sampling method. Eckel Index is used in this research as the assumption of income smoothing. The data analysis methods that been used are classical assumption test that included test of normality with One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, multicollinearity test, autocorrelation test, and heteroskedastisity test withscatterplot. Moreover, data are also analyzed using regression test with f test and t test.Based on the result of this research, it is shown that only the net earnings which have a significant influence on stock returns. While, total assets, total sales, leverage, and operating profit margin have no influence on stock returns. Result of this research which conducted by f test (simultaneous test showed that all independent variables (net earnings, total assets, total sales, leverage, and operating profit margin, together have a significant influence on stock returns.
Fibroblast response to initial attachment and proliferation on titanium and zirconium surfaces.
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Araceli Meza-Rodríguez
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, dental implants have become one of the best options for comprehensive dental restoration; their placement is a multidisciplinary task that requires a solid understanding of biological, periodontal, surgical and prosthetic principles. Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify in vitro the adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF response on titanium (Ti and zirconia (Zr surfaces. Methodology: Samples of Ti and Zr were observed under atomic force microscopy (AFM. HGFs were inoculated in each sample to determine adhesion and cell proliferation. The reagent MTT was mixed with medium DMEM and inoculated in each plate; formazan was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed at 540nm in a microplate spectrophotometer. The test was performed with three independent experiments. Data were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (Lilliefors, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney test comparisons. Results: Topography of the Zr plates showed greater roughness (Ra=0.39μm than Ti (Ra=0.049μm. Quantification of HGF adhesion was significantly higher (p<0.05 in Ti, while proliferation showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion: It is noteworthy that, even though Ti initially showed increased cell adhesion on the surface, after 24h Zr samples showed similar proliferation; this demonstrates that both surfaces have a comparable biological response.
Survival prognosis in plantations of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barrett & Golfari
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Ouorou Ganni Mariel Guera
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of obtaining regression equations and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for the prognosis of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea survival in Macurije Forest Company, province of Pinar del Río - Cuba. The data used in the modeling comes from the measurement of the variables age (years and survival (density in circular permanent plots of 500 m² established in P. caribaea var. caribaea plantations. The study was divided into three stages: i Adjustment of survival traditional regression models; ii Training of ANNs for survival prognosis, including categorical variables «site» and «Basic Units of Forest Production»; iii Comparison of regression equations performance with those of ANNs in survival prognosis. The best models and ANNs were selected based on: adjusted determination coefficient - R2aj (%, square root of the mean square error - RMSE (% and residue distribution analysis. The evaluation of the models goodness of fit also included the verification of the assumptions of normality, homocedasticity and absence of serial autocorrelation in the residues by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, White and Durbin-Watson tests, respectively. The model of Pienaar and Shiver (1981 turned out to be the best fit in survival prognosis. The ANN MLP 13-10-1 was the one with the best generalization capacity and presented a performance similar to that of Pienaar and Shiver equation.
Barrón, Verónica; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Cuadra, Ivonne; Flores, Carolina; Sandoval, Paulina
Social participation by older adults is a health-protective element that promotes a normal nutritional status through the intake of appropriate nutrients that favour successful aging. A cross-sectional analytical study was performed on a sample of 118 older adults. Food intake was measured using a 24-h recall questionnaire. The body mass index was used to evaluate the nutritional status. The information was analysed using uni- and bivariate descriptive statistics. Given the abnormal distribution of the responses, the Mann-Whitney and Kolgomorov-Smirnov statistical test were used to compare data at the significance level α=0.05. More than half (55%) of the women and 61% of men had a normal nutritional status. The calories and macronutrient intake were within the recommended ranges and unrelated to the nutritional status (P>.05). The micronutrients showed significant differences in relation to the nutritional status, broken down by gender and age, in the majority of vitamins and minerals. (P>.01). The group between 75-90 years old accomplished the recommended dietary allowance in every case. The active participation in organised community groups, the educational level of the older adults, and higher income, could be key factors to explain the good nutritional status of the group, and appears to be a good indicator of healthy aging. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi
2012-01-01
The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion is the maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was introduced to estimate the probability of slip by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction, assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents an investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of quarry tiles under dry, water and glycerol conditions. One hundred friction measurements were performed on a walkway under the surface conditions of dry, water and 45% glycerol concentration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF appears to fit the normal and log-normal distributions better than the Weibull distribution for the water and glycerol conditions. However, no match was found between the distribution of ACOF under the dry condition and any of the three continuous distributions evaluated. Based on limited data, a normal distribution might be more appropriate due to its simplicity, practicality and familiarity among the three distributions evaluated.
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Rodrigo Santos
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo objetiva comparar a amplitude de circulação da bola da seleção espanhola de futebol na Copa do Mundo Fifa® 2010, pelo número de variações de corredor (NVC em diferentes status das partidas. A amostra englobou 850 sequências ofensivas dos sete jogos da equipe na competição. Para coleta de dados, usou-se a observação de partidas televisionadas. Os dados foram registrados no Excel 2007. Fez-se análise descritiva para NVC. O teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov foi usado para verificar a distribuição dos dados. Usou-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 para comparar o NVC entre os status das partidas. Não houve diferença significativa de NVC nos status das partidas (p = 0,328. Conclui-se que o status da partida não influenciou a amplitude de circulação da bola da Espanha.
Erosive rainfall in the Rio do Peixe Valley: Part III - Risk of extreme events
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Álvaro J. Back
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the risks of extreme events related to soil erosion is important for adequate dimensioning of erosion and runoff control structures. The objective of this study was to determine the rainfall erosivity with different return periods for the Valley of the Rio do Peixe in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Daily pluviographic data series from 1984 to 2014 from the Campos Novos, and Videira meteorological stations and from 1986 to 2014 from the Caçador station were used. The data series of maximum annual rainfall intensity in 30 min, maximum annual erosive rainfall, and total annual erosivity were analyzed for each station. The Gumbel-Chow distributions were adjusted and their adhesions were evaluated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test at a significance level of 5%. The Gumbel-Chow distribution was adequate for the estimation of all studied variables. The mean annual erosivity corresponds to the return period of 2.25 years. The data series of the annual maximum individual rainfall erosivity coefficients varied from 47 to 50%.
Obesity and worsening of chronic venous disease and joint mobility.
Belczak, Cleusa Ema Quilici; de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Belzack, Sergio Quilici; Ramos, Rubiana Neves; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto
2014-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between obesity and decreased mobility of the talocrural joint and in turn chronic venous disease. One hundred obese patients recruited at Hospital Santa Casa de Maringa, Parana were enrolled by order of arrival at the hospital in a randomized quantitative cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria were patients with a body mass index above 30 kg/m(2) and the exclusion criteria were infectious conditions that would interfere with the assessment. Patients were graded according to the clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathophysiological classification. Talocrural goniometry was performed to assess the degree of mobility of the legs. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's Multiple comparison test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis tests with an alpha error of 5% being considered acceptable. The increase in body mass index is correlated to the reduction in joint mobility (Kruskal-Wallis test: p-value Kruskal-Wallis test: p-value <0.0001). Obesity is associated with deterioration in joint mobility and worsening of chronic venous disease. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Effect of Home Bleaching on the Translucency of CAD/CAM Systems.
Karci, Muhammet; Demir, Necla
2017-11-10
To evaluate the effect of a home bleaching agent (Opalescence PF) on the translucency of CAD/CAM ceramic systems. The 28 sintered ceramic specimens (IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; 15 mm long, 10 mm wide, 1 mm thick) were divided into two subgroups as control and bleaching groups (n = 7). Carbamide peroxide (CP), 16%, home bleaching agent was applied onto the surface of each specimen for 6 hours per day for 7 days. A spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance) was used to measure the CIE L * a * b * coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of the specimens on white and black backgrounds. The translucency parameter (TP), contrast ratio (CR), and opalescence parameter (OP) of the specimens were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistically significant differences in the TP values after 16% CP bleaching treatment were observed (p ˂ 0.05); however, no significant differences were found in the OP and CR values after the surface treatment (p ˃ 0.05). According to our study, patients who have all-ceramic restorations in their mouths should be careful when using home bleaching agents, because whitening agents can affect the translucency of all-ceramic restorations such as e.max CAD and Empress CAD. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque; Meziri, Mahmoud; Laugier, Pascal
2006-05-01
This work studied the periodicity of in vitro healthy and pathologic liver tissue, using backscattered ultrasound (US) signals. It utilized the mean scatterer spacing (MSS) as a parameter of tissue characterization, estimated by three methods: the spectral autocorrelation (SAC), the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and the quadratic transformation method (SIMON). The liver samples were classified in terms of tissue status using the METAVIR scoring system. Twenty tissue samples were classified in four groups: F0, F1, F3 and F4 (five samples for each). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (applied on group pairs) resulted as nonsignificant (p > 0.05) for two pairs only: F1/F3 (for SSA) and F3/F4 (for SAC). A discriminant analysis was applied using as parameters the MSS mean (MSS) and standard deviation (sigmaMSS), the estimates histogram mode (mMSS), and the speed of US (mc(foie)) in the medium, to evaluate the degree of discrimination among healthy and pathologic tissues. The better accuracy (Ac) with SAC (80%) was with parameter group (MSS, sigmaMSS, mc(foie)), achieving a sensitivity (Ss) of 92.3% and a specificity (Sp) of 57.1%. For SSA, the group with all four parameters showed an Ac of 75%, an Ss of 78.6% and an Sp of 66.70%. SIMON obtained the best Ac of all (85%) with group (MSS, mMSS, mc(foie)), an Ss of 100%, but with an Sp of 50%.
Analisa Distribusi Curah Hujan di Area Merapi Menggunakan Metode Aritmatika Dan Poligon
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Lashari
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Watershed (DAS at the peak of Merapi is very interesting to examine in case of the relation with debris flow due to vomit material from Mount Merapi. In this article reveals the pattern of rainfall distribution, the difference in precipitation every month, rainfall for the period of 5 years, 10 years, 25 years, and 50 years in the area of Merapi and its effect on the behavior of a watershed in the Merapi area. In this study, the rainfall data validity test was conducted by RAPS (rescaled Adjusted Partial Sums. Analysis of the region rain is calculated using arithmetic method or average Algebra and Thiessen Polygon. While Gumbel Distribution, Normal Distribution, Log-Normal Distribution and Distribution Log-Pearson III was used to analyze the pattern of rainfall distribution. Furthermore, to determine the appropriate distribution patterns were analyzed using the chi-squared test and test-Kolmogorof Smirnov. Calculate the intensity of rainfall at a specific time duration using the formula Mononobe.
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SEbrahim Hosseini
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats, that were randomly divided into 4 groups including non diabetic control, diabetic control and two experimental groups receiving doses 60mg/kg of cinnamon extract for 3 and 6 weeks. At the end, by phlebotomizing of rats' heart, blood glucose and insulin were measured and using HOMA score insulin resistance was measured. To be normal data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and data analyzed by SPSS-20 software and ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving the cinnamon extract, glycemic and insulin indexes were significantly adjusted. Conclusion: Cinnamon is probably due to have flavonoid and antioxidant compounds with antioxidant by increasing glucose uptake via the different body cells and due to reduction of oxidative stress level led to adjust glycemic and insulin indexes of blood
Finding new genes for non-syndromic hearing loss through an in silico prioritization study.
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Matteo Accetturo
Full Text Available At present, 51 genes are already known to be responsible for Non-Syndromic hereditary Hearing Loss (NSHL, but the knowledge of 121 NSHL-linked chromosomal regions brings to the hypothesis that a number of disease genes have still to be uncovered. To help scientists to find new NSHL genes, we built a gene-scoring system, integrating Gene Ontology, NCBI Gene and Map Viewer databases, which prioritizes the candidate genes according to their probability to cause NSHL. We defined a set of candidates and measured their functional similarity with respect to the disease gene set, computing a score ( S S M avg that relies on the assumption that functionally related genes might contribute to the same (disease phenotype. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, comparing the pair-wise distribution on the disease gene set with the distribution on the remaining human genes, provided a statistical assessment of this assumption. We found at a p-value 0.99. The twenty top-scored genes were finally examined to evaluate their possible involvement in NSHL. We found that half of them are known to be expressed in human inner ear or cochlea and are mainly involved in remodeling and organization of actin formation and maintenance of the cilia and the endocochlear potential. These findings strongly indicate that our metric was able to suggest excellent NSHL candidates to be screened in patients and controls for causative mutations.
Linear stability analysis of collective neutrino oscillations without spurious modes
Morinaga, Taiki; Yamada, Shoichi
2018-01-01
Collective neutrino oscillations are induced by the presence of neutrinos themselves. As such, they are intrinsically nonlinear phenomena and are much more complex than linear counterparts such as the vacuum or Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein oscillations. They obey integro-differential equations, for which it is also very challenging to obtain numerical solutions. If one focuses on the onset of collective oscillations, on the other hand, the equations can be linearized and the technique of linear analysis can be employed. Unfortunately, however, it is well known that such an analysis, when applied with discretizations of continuous angular distributions, suffers from the appearance of so-called spurious modes: unphysical eigenmodes of the discretized linear equations. In this paper, we analyze in detail the origin of these unphysical modes and present a simple solution to this annoying problem. We find that the spurious modes originate from the artificial production of pole singularities instead of a branch cut on the Riemann surface by the discretizations. The branching point singularities on the Riemann surface for the original nondiscretized equations can be recovered by approximating the angular distributions with polynomials and then performing the integrals analytically. We demonstrate for some examples that this simple prescription does remove the spurious modes. We also propose an even simpler method: a piecewise linear approximation to the angular distribution. It is shown that the same methodology is applicable to the multienergy case as well as to the dispersion relation approach that was proposed very recently.
Storm surge evolution and its relationship to climate oscillations at Duck, NC
Munroe, Robert; Curtis, Scott
2017-07-01
Coastal communities experience increased vulnerability during storm surge events through the risk of damage to coastal infrastructure, erosion/deposition, and the endangerment of human life. Policy and planning measures attempt to avoid or mitigate storm surge consequences through building codes and setbacks, beach stabilization, insurance rates, and coastal zoning. The coastal emergency management community and public react and respond on shorter time scales, through temporary protection, emergency stockpiling, and evacuation. This study utilizes time series analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Pearson's correlation, and the generalized extreme value (GEV) theorem to make the connection between climate oscillation indices and storm surge characteristics intra-seasonally to inter-annually. Results indicate that an El Niño (+ENSO), negative phase of the NAO, and positive phase of the PNA pattern all support longer duration and hence more powerful surge events, especially in winter. Increased surge duration increases the likelihood of extensive erosion, inland inundation, among other undesirable effects of the surge hazard.
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Gustavo Adolfo Giraldo
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation have low levels of thyroid hormones due to multiple factors. Objective: To evaluate levels of thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH in the program congenital hypothyroidism (CH newborn screening in a sample of preterm infants in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The Secretaría de Salud Distrital screening protocol for CH (blood sample is collected from the umbilical cord in all the newborns remeasured the serum TSH and heel TSH when preterm infants completed 37 weeks of gestation. Results: A total of 59 preterm neonates were rescreened, of which 2 neonates had elevated levels of TSH and 1 neonate had transient hypothyroxinemia. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample/bilateral statistical test was used to compare the neonatal TSH levels of preterm and full-term newborns, which do not follow the same distribution. Conclusion: In our pilot study, 2 of the rescreened infants presented high levels of TSH and 1 had transient hyperthyrotropinemia, suggesting the need for rescreening of preterm infants. Additionally, a larger study should be performed to determine the screening cutoff values for preterm newborns.
Effect of Transformational Leadership on the Creativity of Employees: An Empirical Investigation
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K. Teymournejad
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Considering the accelerated pace of developments and advancements in the current era, organizations which have innovative, change-oriented managers and leaders with a long-term vision are more likely to survive the competitive environment. Undoubtedly, leadership behavior and style considering creativity and innovativeness of employees within the organization as an incentive of organizational change considerably influence employee needs and knowledge. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of transformational leadership involving idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and individualized considerations on organizational creativity of employees in the Maskan Bank in Tehran. This study is an applied research using descriptive data analysis. Data is collected by questionnaires. Correlation is used to analyze the hypotheses. The studied population includes all managers and employees of the Maskan Bank in Tehran Province. Using Cochran formula, 127 employees are selected as a sample. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire are calculated by using expert opinion and Cronbach Alpha. The normal distribution of variables is determined by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and confirmatory factor analysis; hypotheses are tested by using linear structured relationships. All hypotheses are confirmed; that is, transformational leadership as a whole and each of its dimensions, such as idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation have a significant and positive effect on creativity of Maskan Bank employees.
Abedi, G; Molazadeh-Mahali, Q A; Mirzaian, B; Nadi-Ghara, A; Heidari-Gorji, A M
2016-01-01
Todays people are spending most of their time life in their workplace therefore investigation for job satisfaction related factors is necessities of researches. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of manager's personality traits on employee job satisfaction. The present study is a descriptive and causative-comparative one utilized on a statistical sample of 44 managers and 119 employees. It was examined and analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics of Student's t -test (independent T), one-way ANOVA, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Findings showed that the managers and supervisors with personality traits of extraversion, eagerness to new experiences, adaptability, and dutifulness had higher subordinate employee job satisfaction. However, in the neurotic trait, the result was different. The results showed that job satisfaction was low in the aspect of neurosis. Based on this, it is suggested that, before any selection in managerial and supervisory positions, candidates receive a personality test and in case an individual has a neurotic trait, appropriate interference takes place both in this group and the employees' one.
Using Graph and Vertex Entropy to Compare Empirical Graphs with Theoretical Graph Models
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Tomasz Kajdanowicz
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Over the years, several theoretical graph generation models have been proposed. Among the most prominent are: the Erdős–Renyi random graph model, Watts–Strogatz small world model, Albert–Barabási preferential attachment model, Price citation model, and many more. Often, researchers working with real-world data are interested in understanding the generative phenomena underlying their empirical graphs. They want to know which of the theoretical graph generation models would most probably generate a particular empirical graph. In other words, they expect some similarity assessment between the empirical graph and graphs artificially created from theoretical graph generation models. Usually, in order to assess the similarity of two graphs, centrality measure distributions are compared. For a theoretical graph model this means comparing the empirical graph to a single realization of a theoretical graph model, where the realization is generated from the given model using an arbitrary set of parameters. The similarity between centrality measure distributions can be measured using standard statistical tests, e.g., the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of distances between cumulative distributions. However, this approach is both error-prone and leads to incorrect conclusions, as we show in our experiments. Therefore, we propose a new method for graph comparison and type classification by comparing the entropies of centrality measure distributions (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. We demonstrate that our approach can help assign the empirical graph to the most similar theoretical model using a simple unsupervised learning method.
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Erica Kusuma Rahayu Sudarsono
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia has reached 25.8%; Yogyakarta is the third largest prevalence in Indonesia, and hypertension in Seyegan sub-district is ranked first most diagnosed. Hypertension can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. Knowledge related to hypertension of residents, especially youth is still quite low. Youth is provided with education and training on how to measure blood pressure and basic knowledge related to hypertension. The education was done by discussion using Focus Group Discussion (FGD method, then youth made program to overcome hypertension problem. Conducted blood pressure screening and interviews about the lifestyle of residents to determine the cause of hypertension. Blood pressure screening and interviews were analyzed by chi square or fisher, increased youth knowledge from pre-test and post-test analyzed with kolmogorov-smirnov and analyzed by paired T test with 95% confidence level. There was no significant effect between BMI, education and exercise on blood pressure, but there was a significant influence between smoking and consumption of foods high in salt and fat to blood pressure. The results of pre-test and post-test showed an increase in youth knowledge from the beginning only 5.27 to 7.37 with p-value 0.000 (p <0.05. Provision of education to youth increases the level of knowledge related to hypertension.
Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique
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Somchit Boonthiem
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improvement of the Minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, lognormal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PHtransform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the Minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the Minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the Minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged
ALMA’s Polarized View of 10 Protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud
Cox, Erin G.; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Yang, Haifeng; Tobin, John J.; Stephens, Ian
2018-03-01
We present 870 μm ALMA dust polarization observations of 10 young Class 0/I protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. At ∼0.″35 (80 au) resolution, all of our sources show some degree of polarization, with most (9/10) showing significantly extended emission in the polarized continuum. Each source has incredibly intricate polarization signatures. In particular, all three disk-candidates have polarization vectors roughly along the minor axis, which is indicative of polarization produced by dust scattering. On ∼100 au scales, the polarization is at a relatively low level (≲1%) and is quite ordered. In sources with significant envelope emission, the envelope is typically polarized at a much higher (≳5%) level and has a far more disordered morphology. We compute the cumulative probability distributions for both the small (disk-scale) and large (envelope-scale) polarization percentage. We find that the two are intrinsically different, even after accounting for the different detection thresholds in the high/low surface brightness regions. We perform Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Anderson–Darling tests on the distributions of angle offsets of the polarization from the outflow axis. We find disk-candidate sources are different from the non-disk-candidate sources. We conclude that the polarization on the 100 au scale is consistent with the signature of dust scattering for disk-candidates and that the polarization on the envelope-scale in all sources may come from another mechanism, most likely magnetically aligned grains.
Tygert, Mark
2010-09-21
We discuss several tests for determining whether a given set of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) draws does not come from a specified probability density function. The most commonly used are Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, particularly Kuiper's variant, which focus on discrepancies between the cumulative distribution function for the specified probability density and the empirical cumulative distribution function for the given set of i.i.d. draws. Unfortunately, variations in the probability density function often get smoothed over in the cumulative distribution function, making it difficult to detect discrepancies in regions where the probability density is small in comparison with its values in surrounding regions. We discuss tests without this deficiency, complementing the classical methods. The tests of the present paper are based on the plain fact that it is unlikely to draw a random number whose probability is small, provided that the draw is taken from the same distribution used in calculating the probability (thus, if we draw a random number whose probability is small, then we can be confident that we did not draw the number from the same distribution used in calculating the probability).
In vitro wear assessments of fixed and mobile UHMWPE total knee replacement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Affatato, Saverio; Bracco, Pierangiola; Sudanese, Alessandra
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► In this study we examined the wear behaviour of total knee UHMWPE menisci. ► We used two different knee designs: mobile and fixed menisci. ► We used a knee simulator and FTIR analyses to evaluate the wear behaviour. ► Our conclusions are that the two designs had a different wear behaviour. - Abstract: This work discusses the wear behaviour of two different ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene tibial component designs. Mobile and fixed bearings were tested on a knee wear simulator for 5 million cycles using bovine calf serum as lubricant. We correlated the wear results with the chemical characterisation of the investigated materials: Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy analyses, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and cross-link density measurements were used to assess the chemical features of this polyethylene. Mobile and fixed polyethylene inserts showed a different wear behaviour: the mobile designs components showed lower weight losses than the fixed components (109 ± 6 mg and 163 ± 80 mg, respectively). Significant statistical differences were observed in wear rate (P = 0.035, Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test for two samples). From a molecular point of view, typical radiation-induced oxidation profiles were observed in all the tested polyethylene samples, but the overall degradation was more significant in the fixed bearing inserts and this is likely to play a role on the wear performances
Implications of the GALLEX determination of the solar neutrino flux
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anselmann, P.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Pernicka, E.; Plaga, R.; Roenn, U.; Sann, M.; Schlosser, C.; Wink, R.; Wojcik, M. (Max-Pland-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)); Ammon, R. von; Ebert, K.H.; Henrich, E. (Inst. fuer Heisse Chemie, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Balata, M.; Bellotti, E.; Ferrari, N.; Lalla, H.; Stolarczyk, T. (INFN, L' Aquila (Italy) Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy)); Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Zanotti, L. (Dipt di Fisica, Univ. Milan (Italy) INFN, Milan (Italy)); Feilitzsch, F. von; Moessbauer, R.; Schanda, U. (Physik Dept. E15, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E. (Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Dept. Cassini, 06 - Nice (France) DASGAL, Batiment Copernic, Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)); Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I. (Dept. of Environmental and Energy Research, Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Bacci, C.; B; GALLEX Collaboration
1992-07-16
The GALLEX result 83{+-}19(stat.){+-}8(syst.) SNU is two standard deviations below the predictions of stellar model calculations (124-132 SUN). To fit this result together with those of the chlorine and Kamiokande experiments requires severe stretching of solar models but does not rule out such a procedure, leaving the possibility of massless neutrinos. It clearly implies that the pp neutrinos have been detected. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism provides a good fit, and the GALLEX result fixes the {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta} parameters in two very confined ranges (around {Delta}m{sup 2}=6x10{sup -6} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}=7x10{sup -3} and around {Delta}m{sup 2}=8x10{sup -6} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}=0.6). Explanations of the solar neutrino problem based on the decay or magnetic interactions of neutrinos are disfavoured. (orig.).
[City Academy: a health promotion service in the healthcare network of the Unified Health System].
Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Santos, Luana Caroline Dos; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Alves, Marília; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
2013-01-01
This is an analysis of the health and nutritional profile of users of the Unified Health System admitted to a City Academy in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais during a triennium. It is a cross-sectional study with users> 20 years and socio-demographic characteristics, health habits, food intake and anthropometrics were gathered. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square and Fisher exact test were applied. There was a high prevalence of hypertensive subjects (41.6%), overweight (70.6%) and metabolic risks associated with obesity (67.6%). About 40% of entrants had 1-3 chronic diseases and over 65% used medication daily. There was an imbalance in daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (75.3%), fatty meat (72.4%) and sweetened drinks (54.2%). They had low education and income, and inadequate eating habits and high prevalence of hypertension, overweight and metabolic risks associated with obesity, which suggests users seeking health care services for treatment of diseases. This illustrates the perceived quest for cure, further demonstrating the lack of healthcare initiatives in the population. This reveals the need to review the actions at different levels of health care, to promote greater comprehensiveness of care provided.
Statistical and trend analysis of water quality and quantity data for the Strymon River in Greece
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V. Z. Antonopoulos
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Strymon is a transboundary river of Greece, Bulgaria and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM in southeastern Europe. Water quality parameters and the discharge have been monitored each month just 10 km downstream of the river’s entry into Greece. The data of nine water quality variables (T, ECw, DO, SO42-, Na++K+, Mg2+ , Ca2+, NO3‾, TP and the discharge for the period 1980-1997 were selected for this analysis. In this paper a the time series of monthly values of water quality parameters and the discharge were analysed using statistical methods, b the existence of trends and the evaluation of the best fitted models were performed and c the relationships between concentration and loads of constituents both with the discharge were also examined. Boxplots for summarising the distribution of a data set were used. The ◈-test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to select the theoretical distribution which best fitted the data. Simple regression was used to examine the concentration-discharge and the load-discharge relationships. According to the correlation coefficient (r values the relation between concentrations and discharge is weak (r 0.902. Trends were detected using the nonparametric Spearman’s criterion upon the data for the variables: Q, ECw, DO, SO42-, Na++K+ and NO3‾ on which temporal trend analysis was performed. Keywords: Strymon river, water quality, discharge, concentration, load, statistics, trends
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Kowsar Esfandeh
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Attention has causal role in speech and language processing. Studies are limited about relation between attention and language development. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the difference shifting attention function in children with developmental stuttering and fluent speech.Methods: Thirty children who stutter (21 boys and 9 girls and thirty children who did not stutter (21 boys and 9 girls were evaluated. Shifting attention function was investigated using Wisconsin card sorting test. The data were analyzed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent t, and Mann-Whitney U-tests.Results: Between group analysis showed significant differences for all of the indexes in Wisconsin card sorting test . The number of categories completed in children who stutter was significantly less than that control group (p<0.05. But preservative errors, total errors, total tries, time of test performance and try for first pattern in children who stutter was more than in the control group and data differences were significant for all of the indexes (p<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that children with and without stuttering are different in shifting attention function and children who stutter have weaker function in shifting attention. The findings were linked to emerging theoretical frameworks of stuttering development and that were taken to suggest a possible role for attention processes in developmental stuttering.
Long term test-retest reliability of Oswestry Disability Index in male office workers.
Irmak, Rafet; Baltaci, Gul; Ergun, Nevin
2015-01-01
The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common condition specific outcome measures used in the management of spinal disorders. But there is insufficient study on healthy populations and long term test-retest reliability. This is important because healthy populations are often used for control groups in low back pain interventions, and knowing the reliability of the controls affects the interpretation of the findings of these studies. The purpose of this study is to determine the long term test-retest reliability of ODI in office workers. Participants who have no chronic low back pain history were included in study. Subjects were assessed by the Turkish-ODI 2.0 (e-forms) on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 15th, 30th days to determine the stability of ODI scores over time. The study began with 58 (12 female, 46 male) participants. 36 (3 female, 33 male) participated for the full 30 days. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Friedman tests were used. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by using nonparametric statistics. All tests were done by using SPSS-11. There was no statistically significant difference among the median scores of each day. (χ= 6.482, p > 0.05). The difference between median score of the days with 1st day was neither statistically nor clinically significant. ODI has long term test re-test reliability in healthy subjects over a 1 month time interval.
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Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD are the most common disorders of the jaw, and despite their clinical importance, they are not completely understood. This study was aimed to evaluate the changes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images in disc displacement vs. osteoarthritis of the TMJ. Methods: In this study, 45 patients, including 37 women and 8 men (13-89 years of age, were examined. The patients were selected based on RDC/TMD criteria and group I disorders were excluded from the study. Accordingly, group II consisted of 43 joints with jaw clicking or displaced discs, and group III comprised 46 joints with crepitus. CBCT images in sagittal, coronal, and axial sections were examined to assess osseous changes in terms of flattening, sclerosis, erosion, resorption, and osteophyte formation. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests with the confidence interval of 95%. Results: Mann-Whitney test for the comparison of mean age between groups II and III was not statistically significant (p value=0.06. A significant differences was found between two (RDC/TMD groups according to the prevalence of condylar erosion, resorption, and osteophyte (p
Do physical maturity and birth date predict talent in male youth ice hockey players?
Sherar, Lauren B; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Faulkner, Robert A; Russell, Keith W
2007-06-01
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among biological maturity, physical size, relative age (i.e. birth date), and selection into a male Canadian provincial age-banded ice hockey team. In 2003, 619 male ice hockey players aged 14-15 years attended Saskatchewan provincial team selection camps, 281 of whom participated in the present study. Data from 93 age-matched controls were obtained from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-1997). During the initial selection camps, birth dates, heights, sitting heights, and body masses were recorded. Age at peak height velocity, an indicator of biological maturity, was determined in the controls and predicted in the ice hockey players. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance, logistic regression, and a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The ice hockey players selected for the final team were taller, heavier, and more mature (P born in the months January to June. In conclusion, team selectors appear to preferentially select early maturing male ice hockey players who have birth dates early in the selection year.
The relative age effect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams.
Augste, Claudia; Lames, Martin
2011-06-01
The aim of the study was to determine whether there is empirical evidence for advantages in performance of soccer teams because of their relative age. The practice of selecting youth players according to their momentary performance leads to relative age effects, which in turn lead to inefficient talent selection. We used the median of the birth dates as a measure of the effect size of the relative age effect and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess its significance. For the 2008-2009 season, birth dates in the three German U-17 first leagues for soccer were examined (911 players). More than half of the 41 teams differed significantly from the distribution of the corresponding German cohort. There was a significant correlation between the relative age effect and success defined by teams' final rankings (Spearman's ρ = 0.328, P = 0.036). Regression analyses revealed that with a median of birth dates one month earlier the team is expected to finish 1.035 ranks better. Accordingly, selecting early born athletes is an important aspect of success in youth soccer. However, teams with no relative age effect are able to compete in the league, having the benefit to promote players with a better perspective for long and successful careers at an adult age.
The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players.
Helsen, Werner F; Starkes, Janet L; Van Winckel, Jan
1998-01-01
The consistent asymmetry in the birth-date distribution of senior professional soccer players has led us to investigate whether similar asymmetries emerge throughout youth categories in soccer. Birth dates were considered for professional players, national youth teams, youth players transferred to top teams, and regular youth league players. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between month of birth and number of participants at various levels of play in soccer. Results indicated that youth players born from August to October (the early part of the selection year), beginning in the 6-8 year age group, are more likely to be identified as talented and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching. Eventually, these players are more likely to be transferred to top teams, to play for national teams, and to become involved professionally. In comparison, players born late in the selection year tended to dropout as early as 12 years of age. Recommendations suggest a review of the 24-month age band and current methods for talent detection and selection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10:791-798, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe.
Helsen, Werner F; van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark
2005-06-01
The potential asymmetries in the birth-date distributions of youth soccer players across ten European countries (2175 age citations) were considered. First, we examined the birth-dates of players representing national youth teams in international competitions. Second, the birth-dates of players representing professional club teams in international youth tournaments were analysed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to assess differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between month of birth and number of players in the different samples. The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year (from January to March) for all the national youth selections at the under-15 (U-15), U-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup. Players with a greater relative age are more likely to be identified as "talented" because of the likely physical advantages they have over their "younger" peers. Some options for reducing the relative age effect are offered.
Effect of a change in selection year on success in male soccer players.
Helsen, Werner F.; Starkes, Janet L.; Van Winckel, Jan
2000-11-01
Since 1997 and following the guidelines of the International Football Association, the Belgian Soccer Federation has used January 1st as the start of the selection year. Previously, August 1 was the start. This shift prompted an investigation of changes in birth-date distributions throughout youth categories for 1996-1997 compared to the 1997-1998 competitive years. Birth dates were considered for national youth league players, ages 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, and 16-18 years. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between month of birth and number of participants both before and after the August to January shift. Results indicated that from 1996 to 1997, youth players born from January to March (the early part of the new selection year) were more likely to be identified as "talented" and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching. In comparison, players born late in the new selection year (August to October) were assessed as "talented" in significantly lower proportions. Specific suggestions are presented to reduce the relative age effect. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:729-735, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, O. R.; Bennett, K.; Much, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Blom, J. J.; Ryan, J.
1997-01-01
The maximum likelihood-ratio method is frequently used in COMPTEL analysis to determine the significance of a point source at a given location. In this paper we do not consider whether the likelihood-ratio at a particular location indicates a detection, but rather whether distributions of likelihood-ratios derived from many locations depart from that expected for source free data. We have constructed distributions of likelihood-ratios by reading values from standard COMPTEL maximum-likelihood ratio maps at positions corresponding to the locations of different categories of AGN. Distributions derived from the locations of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable, according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, from those obtained from ''random'' locations, but differ slightly from those obtained from the locations of flat spectrum radio loud quasars, OVVs, and BL Lac objects. This difference is not due to known COMPTEL sources, since regions near these sources are excluded from the analysis. We suggest that it might arise from a number of sources with fluxes below the COMPTEL detection threshold
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Orgeta Gjermëni
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This article aims to provide new results about the intraday degree sequence distribution considering phone call network graph evolution in time. More specifically, it tackles the following problem. Given a large amount of landline phone call data records, what is the best way to summarize the distinct number of calling partners per client per day? In order to answer this question, a series of undirected phone call network graphs is constructed based on data from a local telecommunication source in Albania. All network graphs of the series are simplified. Further, a longitudinal temporal study is made on this network graphs series related to the degree distributions. Power law and log-normal distribution fittings on the degree sequence are compared on each of the network graphs of the series. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters of the distributions, and a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test associated with a p-value is used to define the plausible models. A direct distribution comparison is made through a Vuong test in the case that both distributions are plausible. Another goal was to describe the parameters’ distributions’ shape. A Shapiro-Wilk test is used to test the normality of the data, and measures of shape are used to define the distributions’ shape. Study findings suggested that log-normal distribution models better the intraday degree sequence data of the network graphs. It is not possible to say that the distributions of log-normal parameters are normal.
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Mahdokht Taheri
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the fact that motivation is linked directly to the learning process and educational achievement, this study endeavored to identify strategies to improve students’ educational achievement motivation at Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: To conduct this descriptive-analytical study, 368 students from Guilan University of Medical Sciences were selected using simple random sampling from 2013-2014. All of the Guilan University of Medical Sciences’ students met the general eligibility criteria except guest students. The questionnaire included five domains of economic, socio-cultural, educational, geo-regional, and personality factors in educational achievement motivation. Through using descriptive and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, the compiled data were analyzed at the significance level of 0.05. Results: Data analysis revealed that socio-cultural factors have the maximum score (64.14 ± 9.92 and geo-regional factors have the minimum score (19.01±3.63 on the participants’ educational achievement motivation. What is more, a significant difference was revealed between educational field and educational effective factors as well as educational level and educational effective factors (p<0.011, p<0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Given that the socio-cultural factors had the maximum score on the students’ educational achievement motivation, it is recommended that university officials take these factors into account, and attempt to plan to provide appropriate strategies to enhance their students’ motivation, specifically their educational achievement motivation.
Effectiveness of rotatory and reciprocating movements in root canal filling material removal
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Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal SILVA
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary techniques for removing gutta-percha and sealer from root canals. Forty straight and oval single-rooted premolars were prepared up to size 30, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and then randomly allocated to two experimental retreatment groups: ProTaper Retreatment System (PTRS and WaveOne System (WS. Procedural errors, time of retreatment and apically extruded material were recorded for all the roots. The roots were radiographed after retreatment. The percentage of residual material was calculated using image analysis software. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests, with a significance level set at 5%. No system completely removed the root filling material from the root canal. No significant differences were observed between the systems, in terms of residual filling material in any tested third (p > 0.05. WS was faster in removing filling material than PTRS (p< 0.05. Extrusion was observed in 4 cases in PTRS and in 5 cases in WS. No procedural errors were observed in either group. It can be concluded that although no differences were observed in the efficacy of PTRS and WS for removing root filling material, WS was faster than PTRS.
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Hung-Chung Huang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of genes with switch-like properties will facilitate discovery of regulatory mechanisms that underlie these properties, and will provide knowledge for the appropriate application of Boolean networks in gene regulatory models. As switch-like behavior is likely associated with tissue-specific expression, these gene products are expected to be plausible candidates as tissue-specific biomarkers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a systematic classification of genes and search for biomarkers, gene expression profiles (GEPs of more than 16,000 genes from 2,145 mouse array samples were analyzed. Four distribution metrics (mean, standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness were used to classify GEPs into four categories: predominantly-off, predominantly-on, graded (rheostatic, and switch-like genes. The arrays under study were also grouped and examined by tissue type. For example, arrays were categorized as 'brain group' and 'non-brain group'; the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and Pearson correlation coefficient were then used to compare GEPs between brain and non-brain for each gene. We were thus able to identify tissue-specific biomarker candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The methodology employed here may be used to facilitate disease-specific biomarker discovery.
The Relationship between Happiness and Fear of Childbirth in Nulliparous Women
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Farnaz Sadat Seyed Ahmadi Nejad
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Background & aim: Happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being. Happy individuals tend to interpret and process feeling in a positive way. Accordingly, the response to the pain may alter due to the effects of subjective elements on the pain perception. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the level of contentment and fear of childbirth (FOC in nulliparous women referring to the healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 370 nulliparous women who were selected through multistage sampling method from urban healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran, 2014. Data collected using demographic and obstetric questionnaire, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ (an instrument for measuring the FOC. Data analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent samples t-test, regression, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Tukey honest significant difference (HSD, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient tests with SPSS software version 11.5. Results: The mean levels of happiness and FOC were 123.97±18.82 and 45.80±7.57, respectively. There was a significant correlation between happiness and FOC (P
Application of In-Segment Multiple Sampling in Object-Based Classification
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Nataša Đurić
2014-12-01
Full Text Available When object-based analysis is applied to very high-resolution imagery, pixels within the segments reveal large spectral inhomogeneity; their distribution can be considered complex rather than normal. When normality is violated, the classification methods that rely on the assumption of normally distributed data are not as successful or accurate. It is hard to detect normality violations in small samples. The segmentation process produces segments that vary highly in size; samples can be very big or very small. This paper investigates whether the complexity within the segment can be addressed using multiple random sampling of segment pixels and multiple calculations of similarity measures. In order to analyze the effect sampling has on classification results, statistics and probability value equations of non-parametric two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and parametric Student’s t-test are selected as similarity measures in the classification process. The performance of both classifiers was assessed on a WorldView-2 image for four land cover classes (roads, buildings, grass and trees and compared to two commonly used object-based classifiers—k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM. Both proposed classifiers showed a slight improvement in the overall classification accuracies and produced more accurate classification maps when compared to the ground truth image.
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Y. Erfanifard
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Spatial pattern of trees in forests reveals how trees interact with each other and their environment. Spatial structure of trees in forest ecosystems is affected by environmental heterogeneity that leads to their heterogeneous distribution. This study was aimed to investigate the appropriate methods to analyze spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio woodlands in Zagros, Iran. A 40-ha pure stand of wild pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica Desf. was selected in Wild Pistachio Research Forest in Fars Province for this purpose. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov test of goodness-of-fit of inhomogeneous Poisson point process showed that the distribution of wild pistachio trees was significantly heterogeneous (α=0.05. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K-, L-, and G-functions were applied beside their homogeneous forms. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K- and L-functions showed that wild pistachio trees were primarily clumped and dispersedly distributed thereafter, while g(r not only showed these results but also well expressed the detailed changes in spatial scale. The results of inappropriate homogeneous functions in the study area showed that all three functions expressed the primary clumping of the trees more than it was and their dispersed pattern as clumped. In general, it was concluded that inhomogeneous functions should be applied to analyze the spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio trees in the study area and it is recommended to develop g(r applications due to its more detailed information
Sun, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Quan, Wei-Long; Song, Ting; Khenata, Rabah; Bin-Omran, Saad
2018-05-01
Using the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation based on first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory, the high-pressure structural phase transition of LiF is explored. From the analysis of Gibbs free energies, we find that no phase transition occurs for LiF in the presented pressure range from 0 to 1000 GPa, and this result is consistent with the theoretical prediction obtained via ab initio calculations [N.A. Smirnov, Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 014109]. Using the classical molecular dynamics technique with effective pair potentials which consist of the Coulomb, dispersion, and repulsion interaction, the melting phase diagram of LiF is determined. The obtained normalized volumes under pressure are in good agreement with our density functional theory results and the available experimental data. Meanwhile, with the help of the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phononic effects are considered, the thermodynamic properties of interest, including the volume thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal bulk modulus and its first and second pressure derivatives, heat capacity at constant volume, entropy, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameter of LiF are predicted systematically. All the properties of LiF with the stable NaCl-type structure in the temperature range of 0-4900 K and the pressure up to 1000 GPa are summarized.
Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students.
Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra
2014-01-01
Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
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Reza Sahraei
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Epigastric pain is a condition in which the increase of airway pressure to deal with partial or complete obstruction of airway during mechanical ventilation of lungs occurs or caused by the entrance of too much air to the stomach. This ventilation condition occurs with all methods of airway. In cases where laryngeal mask has not suitable placement can cause partial obstruction of airway and causes increased pressure of airway and the air entrance to the stomach. This research is a gradual randomized study was performed on 600 patients referred for cataract surgery. Data collection included questionnaire containing demographic information and questions about the epigastric pain. The data were analyzed by Chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Witheny tests and SPSS software. There is a significant relationship between epigastric disease history and epigastric pain in recovery, and between heartburn and the diameter of laryngeal mask (p-value < 0.05. There is a significant relationship between epigastric disease history and duration of the use of masks, air volume delivered to the patient, age and body weight of the patients (p-value < 0.05. There is a significant relationship between epigastric disease history and epigastric pain in recovery and history of heartburn.
Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Pietropaolo, E.
2014-01-01
We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.
Long-term statistics of extreme tsunami height at Crescent City
Dong, Sheng; Zhai, Jinjin; Tao, Shanshan
2017-06-01
Historically, Crescent City is one of the most vulnerable communities impacted by tsunamis along the west coast of the United States, largely attributed to its offshore geography. Trans-ocean tsunamis usually produce large wave runup at Crescent Harbor resulting in catastrophic damages, property loss and human death. How to determine the return values of tsunami height using relatively short-term observation data is of great significance to assess the tsunami hazards and improve engineering design along the coast of Crescent City. In the present study, the extreme tsunami heights observed along the coast of Crescent City from 1938 to 2015 are fitted using six different probabilistic distributions, namely, the Gumbel distribution, the Weibull distribution, the maximum entropy distribution, the lognormal distribution, the generalized extreme value distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution. The maximum likelihood method is applied to estimate the parameters of all above distributions. Both Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square error method are utilized for goodness-of-fit test and the better fitting distribution is selected. Assuming that the occurrence frequency of tsunami in each year follows the Poisson distribution, the Poisson compound extreme value distribution can be used to fit the annual maximum tsunami amplitude, and then the point and interval estimations of return tsunami heights are calculated for structural design. The results show that the Poisson compound extreme value distribution fits tsunami heights very well and is suitable to determine the return tsunami heights for coastal disaster prevention.
IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints
Esmaili, Arman; Kang, Sin Kyu; Dario Serpico, Pasquale
2014-12-01
In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events—even if astrophysical in origin—an important tool for astroparticle physics studies.
IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaili, Arman; Kang, Sin Kyu; Serpico, Pasquale Dario
2014-01-01
In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events—even if astrophysical in origin—an important tool for astroparticle physics studies
POSSIBILITIES TO EVALUATE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION BY VERIFYING THE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
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Alexandru BOROIU
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In the higher education, for the evaluation of education process it is of high interest to use some numeric indicators obtained from the database with the final results realized by the students on exams session. For this purpose could be used the following numeric indicators: proportion of students absent on final evaluation, proportion of non-promoted students, normality degree of passing marks distribution. In order to do this we realized an Excel calculation program that could be applied to each discipline. The inputs are concrete (students total, students present to final evaluation, marks absolute frequency and the outputs for the three indicators are binary (competent or noncompetent, in the last situation the verdict being: “Give explanations. Propose an action plan, with actions, responsible and terms”. To verify the imposed normality degree we elaborate a calculation program based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov concordance test. So, it was realized the increase of analyze objectivity and it was created the opportunity to apply corrective measures in order to improve the education process.
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Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)
2016-07-22
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.
Statistical Measures to Quantify Similarity between Molecular Dynamics Simulation Trajectories
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Jenny Farmer
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulation is commonly employed to explore protein dynamics. Despite the disparate timescales between functional mechanisms and molecular dynamics (MD trajectories, functional differences are often inferred from differences in conformational ensembles between two proteins in structure-function studies that investigate the effect of mutations. A common measure to quantify differences in dynamics is the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF about the average position of residues defined by C α -atoms. Using six MD trajectories describing three native/mutant pairs of beta-lactamase, we make comparisons with additional measures that include Jensen-Shannon, modifications of Kullback-Leibler divergence, and local p-values from 1-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. These additional measures require knowing a probability density function, which we estimate by using a nonparametric maximum entropy method that quantifies rare events well. The same measures are applied to distance fluctuations between C α -atom pairs. Results from several implementations for quantitative comparison of a pair of MD trajectories are made based on fluctuations for on-residue and residue-residue local dynamics. We conclude that there is almost always a statistically significant difference between pairs of 100 ns all-atom simulations on moderate-sized proteins as evident from extraordinarily low p-values.
Mamede-Neto, Iussif; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Oliveira, Durvalino; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Estrela, Carlos
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transportation and centralization of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. One hundred and twenty eight mandibular premolars were selected and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, Mtwo, BioRaCe and RaCe. CBCT imaging was performed before and after root canal preparation to obtain measurements of mesial and distal dentin walls and calculations of root canal transportation and centralization. A normal distribution of data was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, and results were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was set at 5%. ProTaper Gold produced the lowest canal transportation values, and RaCe, the highest. ProTaper Gold files also showed the highest values for centering ability, whereas BioRaCe showed the lowest. No significant differences were found across the different instruments in terms of canal transportation and centering ability (P > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, all instruments used for root canal preparation of mandibular premolars performed similarly with regard to canal transportation and centering ability.
Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard
2013-11-01
With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets.
Laterality as an indicator of emotional stress in ewes and lambs during a separation test.
Barnard, Shanis; Matthews, Lindsay; Messori, Stefano; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Ferri, Nicola
2016-01-01
We assessed motor laterality in sheep to explore species-specific brain hemi-field dominance and how this could be affected by genetic or developmental factors. Further, we investigated whether directionality and strength of laterality could be linked to emotional stress in ewes and their lambs during partial separation. Forty-three ewes and their singleton lambs were scored on the (left/right) direction of turn in a y-maze to rejoin a conspecific (laterality test). Further, their behavioural response (i.e. time spent near the fence, vocalisations, and activity level) during forced separation by an open-mesh fence was assessed (separation test). Individual laterality was recorded for 44.2% ewes (significant right bias) and 81.4% lambs (equally biased to the left and the right). There was no significant association in side bias between dams and offspring. The Chi-squared test revealed a significant population bias for both groups (p laterality may provide explanation for this decision-making process. Absolute strength of laterality (irrespective of side) was high (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, dams: D = 0.2; p laterality offer a potential novel non-invasive indicator of separation stress.
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Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This research surveys the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational indifference through a commitment. The study first presents theoretical models over the investigation then six hypotheses are developed based on the conceptual model for this opinion. Questionnaire contains 16 questions for organizational indifference and 20 questions for organizational commitment and 23 questions for emotional intelligence. The Cronbach's alpha of organizational indifference questionnaire is 0.938 and the Cronbach's alpha of organizational commitment questionnaire is equal to 0.802 and Emotional Intelligence questionnaire reliability coefficient is 0.961. Both questionnaires maintain sufficient reliability because their Cronbach alphas are more than 0.7. The sample size is chosen according KREJCIE and Morgan table and is equal to 235 people. Kolmongrov – Smirnov test is used for normality of the obtained data. Research hypothesis and the correlations between variables are tested by Spearman correlation test. The results imply approval of all research hypotheses and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational indifference.
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Habibeh Ayagh
2013-05-01
Full Text Available An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992 [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992. Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and chooses 255 employees for this study. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire and different tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson correlation test are used to examine different hypotheses of this survey. The results indicate there is positive and meaningful relationship between thinking style and emotional intelligence. We can also confirm that four thinking style’s components including functions, levels, scope and learning have meaningful impact on emotional intelligence when the level of significance is five or even one percent. However, forms did not have any meaningful impact on emotional intelligence.
A meta analysis of the variability in firm performance attributable to human resource variables
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Lloyd Kapondoro
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The contribution of Human Resource Management (HRM practices to organisation-wide performance is a critical aspect of the Human Resource (HR value proposition. The purpose of the study was to describe the strength of HRM practices and systems in influencing overall organisational performance. While research has concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between HRM practices or systems and an organisation’s market performance, the strength of this relationship has relatively not received much analysis in order to explain the degree to which HRM practices explain variance in firm performance. The study undertook a meta-analysis of published researches in international journals. The study established that HRM variables accounted for an average of 31% of the variability in firm performance. Cohen’s f2 calculated for this study as a meta effect size calculation yielded an average of 0.681, implying that HRM variables account for 68% of variability in firm performance. A one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the distribution of R2 is not normal. A major managerial implication of this study is that effective HRM practices have a significant business case. The study provides, quantitatively, the average variability in firm success that HRM accounts for.
Three-dimensional images contribute to the diagnosis of mucous retention cyst in maxillary sinus.
Donizeth-Rodrigues, Cleomar; Fonseca-Da Silveira, Márcia; Gonçalves-De Alencar, Ana-Helena; Garcia-Santos-Silva, Maria-Alves; Francisco-De-Mendonça, Elismauro; Estrela, Carlos
2013-01-01
To evaluate the detection of mucous retention cyst of maxillary sinus (MRCMS) using panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A digital database with 6,000 panoramic radiographs was reviewed for MRCMS. Suggestive images of MRCMS were detected on 185 radiographs, and patients were located and invited to return for follow-up. Thirty patients returned, and control panoramic radiographs were obtained 6 to 46 months after the initial radiograph. When MRCMS was found on control radiographs, CBCT scans were obtained. Cysts were measured and compared on radiographs and scans. The Wilcoxon, Spearman and Kolmorogov-Smirnov tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 5%. There were statistically significant differences between the two methods (p<0.05): 23 MRCMS detected on panoramic radiographs were confirmed by CBCT, but 5 MRCMS detected on CBCT images had not been identified by panoramic radiography. Eight MRCMS detected on control radiographs were not confirmed by CBCT. MRCMS size differences from initial to control panoramic radiographs and CBCT scans were not statistically significant (p= 0.617 and p= 0.626). The correlation between time and MRCMS size differences was not significant (r = -0.16, p = 0.381). CBCT scanning detect MRCMS more accurately than panoramic radiography.
Valizadeh, Rohollah; Hosseini Askarabadi, Siroos; Karampour, Sedigheh; Abdolhamid Tehrani, Mona
2014-01-01
The present study aims to consider the effect of 10 weeks resistance trainings on cholesterol and blood triglyceride (TG) levels of patients with having fatty liver, aged 50 to 60 in National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC). This research is practical and its plan has been done experimentally with pretest and post-test on experimental and control groups. In this study, 20 samples from 100 patients who referred to sonography clinic in NISOC with distinction of fatty liver were selected randomly and divided into two groups of control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Cholesterol and blood trigly-ceride were measured as pretest. Test of normality for TG was (p = 0/200) by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and (p = 0/070) for cholesterol by Shapiro-Wilk test. After 10 weeks resistance trainings, the analysis and resolution of data were done by computer and SPSS (16) software as well as the descriptive and statistical methods (t-test). Comparison between these two groups showed that 8 weeks resistance trainings with a ≤ 0.05 causes significant decrease in the amount of TG but did not any significant effect on cholesterol of fatty liver patients. How to cite this article: Valizadeh R, Askarabadi SH, Karampour S, Tehrani MA. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):64-65.
The R{sup ∗}-operation for Feynman graphs with generic numerators
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Herzog, Franz [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ruijl, Ben [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 1, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)
2017-05-08
The R{sup ∗}-operation by Chetyrkin, Tkachov, and Smirnov is a generalisation of the BPHZ R-operation, which subtracts both ultraviolet and infrared divergences of euclidean Feynman graphs with non-exceptional external momenta. It can be used to compute the divergent parts of such Feynman graphs from products of simpler Feynman graphs of lower loops. In this paper we extend the R{sup ∗}-operation to Feynman graphs with arbitrary numerators, including tensors. We also provide a novel way of defining infrared counterterms which closely resembles the definition of its ultraviolet counterpart. We further express both infrared and ultraviolet counterterms in terms of scaleless vacuum graphs with a logarithmic degree of divergence. By exploiting symmetries, integrand and integral relations, which the counterterms of scaleless vacuum graphs satisfy, we can vastly reduce their number and complexity. A FORM implementation of this method was used to compute the five loop beta function in QCD for a general gauge group. To illustrate the procedure, we compute the poles in the dimensional regulator of all top-level propagator graphs at five loops in four dimensional ϕ{sup 3} theory.
Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Dechichi, Paula
2010-10-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy in cortical bone channels network. Fourteen rabbits were divided in two groups and test group received single dose of 15 Gy cobalt-60 radiation in tibia, bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed and a segment of tibia was removed and histologically processed. Histological images were taken and had their bone channels segmented and called regions of interest (ROI). Images were analyzed through developed algorithms using the SCILAB mathematical environment, getting percentage of bone matrix, ROI areas, ROI perimeters, their standard deviations and Lacunarity. The osteocytes and empty lacunae were also counted. Data were evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann Whitney, and Student's t test (P < 0.05). Significant differences in bone matrix percentage, area and perimeters of the channels, their respective standard deviations and lacunarity were found between groups. In conclusion, the radiotherapy causes reduction of bone matrix and modifies the morphology of bone channels network. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.
Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-06-01
We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.
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Guilherme Moraes Balbim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This descriptive study was designed to analyze the level of group cohesion and pre-competitive psychological stress of adult volleyball athletes. The subjects consisted of 155 male and female athletes from the state of Parana who played in the JAPS/ 1st division (A, and 2nd division (B. The assessment instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ and the Volleyball Psychic Stress Test (V-PST. For data analysis, the following tools were used: Cronbach’s alpha, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, one-way Anova, and Tukey’s post hoc (p<0.05. The results revealed that athletes of division A were more negatively influenced by stress factors than the athletes of division B; in terms of individual attraction to the social group (p=0.014 and tasks (p=0016 athletes of division B had higher levels of group cohesion than athletes from division A; athletes with low social cohesion were negatively impacted by factors of "inappropriate physical conditioning" and "excessive nervousness;" athletes with low levels of cohesion for the task were negatively influenced by the factors of "Pressure from other people to win" and positively by the factor "Behavior of the fans in the game outside." It was concluded that group cohesion is demonstrated to be an intervening factor in pre-competitive stress thereby demonstrating that the higher the dispute level, the higher the negative influence of stress.
Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.
Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso
2016-06-07
Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.
Stress, coping and presenteeism in nurses assisting critical and potentially critical patients
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Juliane Umann
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Objective to verify the associations between stress, Coping and Presenteeism in nurses operating on direct assistance to critical and potentially critical patients. Method this is a descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted between March and April 2010 with 129 hospital nurses. The Inventory of stress in nurses, Occupational and Coping Questionnaire Range of Limitations at Work were used. For the analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, correlation coefficient of Pearson and Spearman, Chi-square and T-test were applied. Results it was observed that 66.7% of the nurses showed low stress, 87.6% use control strategies for coping stress and 4.84% had decrease in productivity. Direct and meaningful relationships between stress and lost productivity were found. Conclusion stress interferes with the daily life of nurses and impacts on productivity. Although the inability to test associations, the control strategy can minimize the stress, which consequently contributes to better productivity of nurses in the care of critical patients and potentially critical.
Examination of the Life Satisfactions Levels of Students Receiving Education in Sports Sciences
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Abdullah Bora ÖZKARA
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine of life satisfaction levels of students receiving education in sports science according to some variabl es. To this aim, individual info form and Turkish form of life satisfaction questionnaire , developed by Diener, Emmos, Larsen and Griffin (1985 and adapted to Turkish by Kokler (1991 4, were administered ,as a online, to 25 4 students from Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Afyon Kocatepe University, Dumlupınar University and Karadeniz Technical University with voluntary participation. Depending on the data on gender, smoking, universities,alchool using and family income were app lied Kolmogorov - Smirnov normality test. The tests results indicated that the data are not normally distributed. Depending on the data; for gender, smoking, alchool using Mann - Whitney U test, for universities and family income Kruskal - Wallis tests were use d at the level of α=0.05 significance.The result showed that there was no significant differences on genders ((Z 0.05 ; - 1,616; P>0.05, smoking (Z 0.05 ; - 1,556; P>0.05 and universities (X 2 (3; 0,.370; P>0.05 according to life satisfaction levels. On the o ther hand; alchool using (Z 0.05 ; - 2,008; P<0.05 and family income (X 2 (3; 10,257; P<0.05 scores were found significant depending on life satisfaction levels .
Domestic Violence Against Women Working in Four Educational Hospitals in Iran.
Sheikhbardsiri, Hojat; Raeisi, Ahmadreza; Khademipour, Gholamreza
2017-07-01
Domestic violence is a serious threat to the health of women in the world and derives from several factors. Therefore, due to the importance of this issue, this study aimed to determine domestic violence against women in four educational hospitals in Iran as a Muslim country. The study employed a cross-sectional design and was conducted in four educational hospitals supervised by the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Using a researcher-made questionnaire, we assessed factors associated with domestic violence in female employees using a census method ( N = 400). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean and SD and analytic statistics such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA, t test, and Pearson and multivariate regression tests using SPSS 16 and p ≤ .05. This study showed that most common types of violence against women are psychological/verbal (58%), physical (29.25%), and sexual (10%), respectively. There was a significant relationship between couples' age gap, forced marriage, husband addiction, income, and history of violence experienced by the husband with domestic violence against women. This study examines the basic prevalence of partner violence victimization among Iranian women who work in hospitals in southeast Iran. Findings suggest that national and local policies in Iran may need to examine factors that contribute to violence against women as well as focusing on how to reduce partner violence.
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Baharara Javad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Electromagnetic fields produce free radicals which might be teratogen. Camellia sinensis is rich in natural antioxidants and antioxidants can neutralize free radicals effects. In present research the effect of C. sinensis extract in reduction of teratogenicity induced by electromagnetic field with 50 gauss intensity was studied on bone marrow of Balb/C mice fetuses. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 Balb/C pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham exposed (off position, experimental 1 (electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity and experimental 2 (treatment by C. sinensis extract + electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity. After treatment period, the bone marrow aspirates of Balb/C mice embryos were prepared and studied by Giemsa. The quantitative data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov- Smirnov using SPSS16 software at the level of p<0.05. Results: The mean number of promyelocytes, myelocytes, erythrocytes, necrotic and apoptotic cells in experimental group1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant increase but the mean number of eosinophils in experimental group 1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant decrease. The mean number of promyelocyte and erythrocyte in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant decrease. The mean of necrotic and apoptotic cells, in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant increase. Conclusion: Usage of C. sinensis can decrease the damage due to teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field in some cells.
[Nutritional status and health-related life quality in school children from the southeast of Spain].
Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro
2014-11-30
Analyze the level of Life Quality (LQ) in relation to nutritional status in a sample of primary school children. Cross sectional study with 298 participants (53.35% female) of 8-12 years. LQ was assessed by the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire . Measures of weight and size were taken. The BMI (normal-weight, overweight and obesity) was categorized using standard criteria. To establish the relationship between the different statistical variables was performed the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test and analysis of variance. Nutritional status was significantly correlated with LQ (F = 5.096; p =, 007). School children with a normal- weight state showed higher LQ levels compared to those overweight (p = .015) and obese (p =, 013). The results show that nutritional status acts as a differentiating factor in LQ. Adopting active lifestyle behaviours that promote a healthy nutritional status not only can have benefits over health biological parameters (such as physical condition) but can also contribute to improve other LQ indicators and mental health . Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
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I.M. Mirgaleev
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We bring to attention of specialists an undated letter of Ottoman ruler Mehmed II Fatih to the Great Horde khan Ahmad from the collection of famous collector of Ottoman charters Feridun-bey [1, S. 289]. The addressee is the famous ruler of the Great Horde, khan Ahmad. Daulat Khan mentioned in the letter is Nur-Davlet. He was connected with khan Ahmad, and, as indicated by the letter, he had also set in close contact with the Ottomans whose ruler openly declares in a letter that “our sight of benevolence and patronage is directed toward him”. Thereby the Sultan made it clear to the “principal” Tatar khan Akhmad that Nur-Davlet was under the patronage of the Ottoman Empire. Considering the period of activity of Nur-Davlet in Crimea, presumably the letter was written in 1477. Famous researcher of the Crimean Khanate V.D. Smirnov had already examined the letter and the question of why Ahmad Khan was named the Crimean khan in the title of the letter [2, p. 221–222].
Reproducible segmentation of white matter hyperintensities using a new statistical definition.
Damangir, Soheil; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Vrenken, Hugo; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Spulber, Gabriela
2017-06-01
We present a method based on a proposed statistical definition of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which can work with any combination of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) sequences without depending on manually delineated samples. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, and PD sequences acquired at 1.5 Tesla from 119 subjects from the Kings Health Partners-Dementia Case Register (healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease) were used. The segmentation was performed using a proposed definition for WMH based on the one-tailed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The presented method was verified, given all possible combinations of input sequences, against manual segmentations and a high similarity (Dice 0.85-0.91) was observed. Comparing segmentations with different input sequences to one another also yielded a high similarity (Dice 0.83-0.94) that exceeded intra-rater similarity (Dice 0.75-0.91). We compared the results with those of other available methods and showed that the segmentation based on the proposed definition has better accuracy and reproducibility in the test dataset used. Overall, the presented definition is shown to produce accurate results with higher reproducibility than manual delineation. This approach can be an alternative to other manual or automatic methods not only because of its accuracy, but also due to its good reproducibility.
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Saeed zarandi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the use health smart card on the aspects quality of healthcare services in doctor martyr beheshti medical research center in qom . With regard to the measures taken in the context of the establishment of this card in Qom and the lack of previous experience in this province, one of the concerns of the authorities to investigate the performance and capabilities of the card and its effects on the quality of health services is affecting the present study is to respond to this concerns. This research method is descriptive and applied to the target population of physicians, nurses and medical record experts employed at the Medical Center have formed a martyr Beheshti Qom due to more awareness cognitive advantages associated with its use of smart cards have given. The population is equal to the number of 444 and 124 questionnaire for data analysis is used. The sampling method used in this research was stratified random sampling conducted in the respective classes. Spss software for data analysis & exploratory factor analysis & confirmed, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Wilcoxon Test & matrix of factors were used. The analysis results showed that Health Smart Cards for quality of health care services positive and significant effects on Dimension quality of the reliability & Tangibles . Analysis of demographic variables that influence opinions about the quality of health care Health Smart Cards significantly related to gender and education level, and also no experience discussed the variables significantly associated with age.
Larrañeta, M.; Moreno-Tejera, S.; Lillo-Bravo, I.; Silva-Pérez, M. A.
2018-02-01
Many of the available solar radiation databases only provide global horizontal irradiance (GHI) while there is a growing need of extensive databases of direct normal radiation (DNI) mainly for the development of concentrated solar power and concentrated photovoltaic technologies. In the present work, we propose a methodology for the generation of synthetic DNI hourly data from the hourly average GHI values by dividing the irradiance into a deterministic and stochastic component intending to emulate the dynamics of the solar radiation. The deterministic component is modeled through a simple classical model. The stochastic component is fitted to measured data in order to maintain the consistency of the synthetic data with the state of the sky, generating statistically significant DNI data with a cumulative frequency distribution very similar to the measured data. The adaptation and application of the model to the location of Seville shows significant improvements in terms of frequency distribution over the classical models. The proposed methodology applied to other locations with different climatological characteristics better results than the classical models in terms of frequency distribution reaching a reduction of the 50% in the Finkelstein-Schafer (FS) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test integral (KSI) statistics.
An investigation on how TQM influences employee performance: A case study of banking industry
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Saeed Hakami Nasab
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between employee performance and TQM. The proposed study of this paper designs two questionnaires for TQM and performance measurement and distributes them among some employees who worked for one of Iranian banks in city of Semnan, Iran. The result of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test confirms that all data are normally distributed and the study uses Pearson correlation to investigate the relationship between various components of the survey. The result of the implementation of Pearson correlation ratio indicates that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between employee performance and TQM components (r=4.6223, P-value=0.000. In addition, there are some positive and meaningful relationships between TQM components and employee performance. The highest correlation belongs to relationship between employee performance and feedback (r=4.6223, P-value=0.000 followed by training and development (r = 0.441, P-value = 0.000 and communication (r = 4.2861, P-value = 0.000.
A study on relationship of brand characteristics and customer satisfaction with brand loyalty
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Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Brands are considered as valuable assets of a company both economically and strategically. Thus, having customers who are loyal to a brand is one of the main goals of businesses companies. Identifying and anticipating the customers’ needs are vital to the enterprises gaining competitive advantage and market segmentation. Maintaining and enforcing customers’ loyalty is a strategic challenge for companies seeking to keep and promote their competitive status in the market. High brand loyalty of the customers generates competitive advantage for the company and it increases the income and decreases the costs of marketing. In addition to increasing the market share, loyalty allows to ask for higher prices compared with its competitors. This study seeks to investigate the factors influencing customer loyalty to sport brands. The statistical population of this research was Tehran city. Using simple cluster sampling, 502 customers of four known brand sports, i.e. Nike, Puma, Adidas, Reebok, and Fila were chosen. Furthermore, a questionnaire, which assessed seven variables including reputations, brand name, brand image, brand loyalty, customer satisfaction, promotion and the price was used and the hypotheses were analyzed using statistical tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test, Spearman correlation, simultaneous linear regression and binomial test. The findings suggested that the brand name has a strong correlation with brand loyalty. Moreover, variables such as reputation, brand image, customer satisfaction, price and promotions also have positive and significant effect on the brand loyalty.
Wahyuni, A.
2018-05-01
This research is aimed to find out whether the model of cooperative learning type Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) is more effective than cooperative learning type Think-Pair-Share in SMP Negeri 7 Yogyakarta. This research was a quasi-experimental research, using two experimental groups. The population of research was all students of 7thclass in SMP Negeri 7 Yogyakarta that consists of 5 Classes. From the population were taken 2 classes randomly which used as sample. The instrument to collect data was a description test. Measurement of instrument validity use content validity and construct validity, while measuring instrument reliability use Cronbach Alpha formula. To investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD and cooperative learning type TPS on the aspect of student’s mathematical method, the datas were analyzed by one sample test. Comparing the effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD and TPS in terms of mathematical communication skills by using t-test. Normality test was not conducted because the sample of research more than 30 students, while homogeneity tested by using Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The analysis was performed at 5% confidence level.The results show as follows : 1) The model of cooperative learning type STAD and TPS are effective in terms of mathematical method of junior high school students. 2). STAD type cooperative learning model is more effective than TPS type cooperative learning model in terms of mathematical methods of junior high school students.
[Health behaviour of doctors].
Németh, Anikó
2016-07-01
Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.
Xu, Xue; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Zheng, Qian; Yin, Heng; Li, Chenghao
2015-01-01
To address the question of whether one- or two-stage palatal treatment protocol has fewer detrimental effects on craniofacial growth in patients aged 5 years with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Forty patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLPs) who had received primary cleft lip repair at age 6-12 months and cleft palate repair at age 18-30 months were selected in this study. Eighteen UCCLP patients who received two-stage palate repair were selected as group 1, and 22 UCCLP patients who received one-stage palate repair were selected as group 2. The control group consisted of 20 patients with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL patients) whose age and gender matched with UCCLP patients. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to analyze the nature of data distribution. Bonferroni test and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used for multiple comparisons. Both case groups showed reduced maxillary sagittal length (ANS-PMP, A-PM, p palate repair had a reduced posterior maxillary vertical height (R-PMP, p palate repair. Vomer flap repair inhibited maxilla vertical growth. Delayed hard palate repair showed less detrimental effects on maxillary growth compared to early hard palate repair in UCCLP patients aged 5 years. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of Fiber Layers on the Fracture Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Composite Bridges
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A Fazel
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to introduce the fiber reinforced composite bridges and evaluate the most suitable site and position for placement of fibers in order to get maximum strength. Methods: The study included 20 second premolars and 20 second molars selected for fabricating twenty fiber reinforced composite bridges. Twenty specimens were selected for one fiber layer and the remaining teeth for two fiber layers. In the first group, fibers were placed in the inferior third and in the second group, fibers were placed in both the middle and inferior third region. After tooth preparation, the restorations were fabricated, thermocycled and then loaded with universal testing machine in the middle of the pontics with crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Data was analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Independent sample t test and Kaplan-Meier test. Mode of failure was evaluated using stereomicroscope. Results: Mean fracture resistance for the first and second groups was 1416±467N and 1349±397N, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the groups (P>0.05.In the first group, 5 specimens had delamintation and 5 specimens had detachment between fibers and resin composite. In the second group, there were 4 and 6 delaminations and detachments, respectively. There was no fracture within the fiber. Conclusion: In the fiber reinforced fixed partial dentures, fibers reinforce the tensile side of the connectors but placement of additional fibers at other sites does not increase the fracture resistance of the restoration.
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Rezvaneh Galdavi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apelin is secreted from visceral adipose tissue. However, the effect of resistance training and consequent detraining on the apelin level in obesity, has not yet been clearly determined. In the current research, the effect of 4 weeks of detraining after a period of resistance training, was investigated on the plasma apelin levels in overweight and obese girls. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 22 overweight and obese girls were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=12 and control (n=10. The experimental group exercised in an 8-week training program (4 sessions per week according to a training program with an intensity of 65-80% of one maximum repetition, and then experienced 4 weeks of detraining. Blood sampling was performed after a 12-h fasting in various phases and the level of apelin was measured. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, repeated measure ANOVA, post-hoc LSD, and independent t-tests at a significance level of α 0.05. Also, after 4 weeks of detraining a slight increase was seen in the levels of apelin, but was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, resistance training as a new non-drug therapy can be effective in reducing the levels of apelin. Also, apelin levels increases with discontinuation of exercise, which may lead to the emergence of inflammatory features in the cardiovascular system.
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Puspa Dila Rohmaniar
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Exposure of metals among dental technicians that come from the working environment can lead to the formation reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS can cause mutations in the p53 gene (p53. The mutation is transversion mutation GuanineThymine. p53 mutations can lead to low expression of the wild-type p53 protein (p53. Wild-type p53 involved in many biological processes such as regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, cell growth after DNA damage, and apoptosis. However, exposure to metals among dental technicians can be prevented through the use of personal protective equipment (PPE during work. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the use of personal protective equipment to wild-type p53 protein levels among dental technicians in Surabaya. Method: This study was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. 40 samples were taken by random sampling. Data were retrieved through interviews and observations. Wild-type p53 was analyzed from saliva with indirect ELISA method. Analysis of data used Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test and a Pearson correlation test. Value significance was p<0.05 (95% confidence level. Result: There was a significant association between the use of personal protective equipment with wild-type p53 levels with p=0.002 Conclusion: The use PPE properly is positively correlated with the wild-type p53 protein levels of dental technicians in Surabaya.
Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid
2016-01-01
Background: There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. Results: No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the students’ perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered. PMID:27683645
Comparative analysis through probability distributions of a data set
Cristea, Gabriel; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai
2018-02-01
In practice, probability distributions are applied in such diverse fields as risk analysis, reliability engineering, chemical engineering, hydrology, image processing, physics, market research, business and economic research, customer support, medicine, sociology, demography etc. This article highlights important aspects of fitting probability distributions to data and applying the analysis results to make informed decisions. There are a number of statistical methods available which can help us to select the best fitting model. Some of the graphs display both input data and fitted distributions at the same time, as probability density and cumulative distribution. The goodness of fit tests can be used to determine whether a certain distribution is a good fit. The main used idea is to measure the "distance" between the data and the tested distribution, and compare that distance to some threshold values. Calculating the goodness of fit statistics also enables us to order the fitted distributions accordingly to how good they fit to data. This particular feature is very helpful for comparing the fitted models. The paper presents a comparison of most commonly used goodness of fit tests as: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi-Squared. A large set of data is analyzed and conclusions are drawn by visualizing the data, comparing multiple fitted distributions and selecting the best model. These graphs should be viewed as an addition to the goodness of fit tests.
A Survey of Rotation Lightcurves of Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids in the L4 Cloud
French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert; Warner, Brian; James, David; Rohl, Derrick; Connour, Kyle
2017-10-01
Jovian Trojan asteroids are of interest both as objects in their own right and as possible relics of Solar System formation. Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, Jovian Trojan asteroids and cometary nuclei. Asteroid lightcurves give information about processes that have affected a group of asteroids including their density. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We have been carrying out a survey of Trojan lightcurve properties comparing small Trojan asteroids with comets (French et al 2015). We present new lightcurve information for 39 Trojans less than about 35 km in diameter. We report our latest results and compare them with results from the sparsely-sampled lightcurves from the Palomar Transient Factory (Waszazak et al., Chang et al. 2015). The minimum densities for objects with complete lightcurves are estimated and are found to becomparable to those measured for cometary nuclei. A significant fraction (~40%) of thisobserved small Trojan population rotates slowly (P > 24 hours), with measured periods as over 500 hours (Waszczak et al 2015). The excess of slow rotators may be due to the YORP effect. Results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggest that the distribution of Trojan rotation rates is dissimilar to those of Main Belt Asteroids of the same size.
High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Petrov, A.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Titkova, I.
2000-01-01
The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 μA/V 3/2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual)
Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião
2015-01-01
Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 104 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P 0.05). Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer. PMID:25878676
Examining 12-14 Age Secondary School Students’ Tendency to Violence doing Active Sport or not
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Pelin Aydın
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate secondary school students’ tendency to violence, doing active sport or not. The sampling group of the study was consisted of 101 girls and 99 boys in the total 200 secondary school students in Kütahya city center of whose ages differs between of 12-14. In the study tendency to violence scale, developed by Göka and colleagues, was used as data gathering tool. In the evaluation of the data SPSS package program for Windows was used and after reliability of the scale was assessed One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for if the obtained data was showing normal distribution and also as hypotheses tests Independent Samples t Test was applied for pairwise comparisons and One Way ANOVA test was applied for triple or more comparisons. As a result of the study there were no significant differences between students’ tendency to violence according to their ages and sport participation situations, on the other hand there were significant differences according to their class and perceived success in class. This study showed that class and perceived success in class are predictors of tendency to violence.
A study on the effect of board of directors on the rate of corporate transparency
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Iman Rezaei
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The main target of this study is to consider the effect of the combination of board of directors on the corporate transparency in some companies among selected ones in Tehran Stock Exchange Market over the period of 2007- 2010. In this research, the combination of board of directors is selected among some factors of corporate transparency such as structure of ownership and the rights of owners, financial information and statistics and structure and combination of board of directors and managers as a sub-indicator for corporate governance. Linear regression statistical method is used to test hypotheses of study. The size of α is considered as 5% and hypotheses are accepted or rejected by means of Durbin-Watson and Clemogrov-Smirnov tests and by comparing p-value with α. At last, by means of forward regression method, the effect of control variables is considered over each hypothesis. The results show that the members of board of directors have no effect on partnership transparency, but effect on financial data and information and structure and combination of board of directors.
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Rawid Banchuin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The novel probabilistic models of the random variations in nanoscale MOSFET's high frequency performance defined in terms of gate capacitance and transition frequency have been proposed. As the transition frequency variation has also been considered, the proposed models are considered as complete unlike the previous one which take only the gate capacitance variation into account. The proposed models have been found to be both analytic and physical level oriented as they are the precise mathematical expressions in terms of physical parameters. Since the up-to-date model of variation in MOSFET's characteristic induced by physical level fluctuation has been used, part of the proposed models for gate capacitance is more accurate and physical level oriented than its predecessor. The proposed models have been verified based on the 65 nm CMOS technology by using the Monte-Carlo SPICE simulations of benchmark circuits and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests as highly accurate since they fit the Monte-Carlo-based analysis results with 99% confidence. Hence, these novel models have been found to be versatile for the statistical/variability aware analysis/design of nanoscale MOSFET-based analog/mixed signal circuits and systems.
Effect of Music Practice on Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Dental Students.
Ghasemi, Mahmood; Lotfollahzadeh, Hana; Kermani-Ranjbar, Tahereh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad
2017-05-01
The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between music practice and level of stress in dental students. In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of music practice and 44 matched controls without music practice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression scores. The level of anxiety was higher in students who did not have music practice and this difference was significant (P0.05). But level of anxiety and depression was higher in students of universities with tuition fee compared to free public institutes (Pmusic practice can reduce anxiety and depression of dental students.
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Mahmood Najafian
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Background Flavonoids have been reported as mammalian alpha-amylase inhibitors, a property which could be useful in the management of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its related disorders. Objectives In the present study the inhibitory effect of aspalathin as a flavonoid on alpha amylase activity and levels of sugar and lipids in rats, has been investigated. Methods In this experimental study, type inhibition of aspalatin on amylase and in the part of in vivo, the effect of aspalathin orally doses 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight on sugar and lipids levels was tested in a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes and normal rats. The data were analyzed by one-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov, Levene and ANOVA tests through SPSS version 22. Results The results showed that aspalathin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with Ki = 37.0 μM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose levels and beneficial effect on dyslipidemia were observed in diabetic rats, as well as reduction of disturbing consequences of diabetes such as high urine volume and water intake. Aspalathin was observed to have a weight loss-inductive effect, alongside with a reduction in food intake. Conclusions It seems that, this compound could be proposed as an antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic agent in diabetes and potential therapeutic in obesity.
Investigation of the employees’ payment system in an educational institution - A case study
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Mojtaba Tabari
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, wage and salary system form the most important issues in any society, and its phenomenon takes dimensions with an expansion of a public organization and NGOs. Organizations provide employees satisfaction through different pay programs, which force them to work down more with higher quality. In this paper, we consider a survey of the payment system in an Iranian university as a case study. The population of this study consists of the existing documents, observations, working managers, supervisors and experts. This study is carried out from the desired community based on the data collected for a period of 18 months and the sample size is about 97 people. We use descriptive statistics to analyze the descriptive data. We also use the one-sample Kolmogorove-Smirnov test, t-test and Friedman test for the questions. The results of the existing payment system show that there is no any good condition and the employee's attitude towards this system are negative based on the collected data. Finally, some suggestions are recommended to improve the existing situation.
Yet another possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.; Walker, T.P.
1986-01-01
Mikheyev and Smirnov have shown that the interactions of neutrinos with matter can result in the conversion of electron neutrinos produced in the center of the sun to muon neutrinos. Bethe has exploited this and has pointed out that the solar-neutrino puzzle can be resolved if the mass difference squared of the two neutrinos is m 2 2 -m 2 1 approx.=6x10 -5 eV 2 , and the mixing angle satisfies sin THETAsub(v)>0.0065. We discuss a qualitatively different solution to the solar-neutrino puzzle which requires 1.0x10 -8 2 2 -m 2 1 )(sin 2 2THETAsub(v)/cos2THETAsub(v)) -8 eV 2 . Our solutions result in a much smaller flux of neutrinos from the p-p process than predicted by standard solar models, while Bethe's solution results in a flux of neutrinos from the p-p process that is about the same as standard solar models. (orig.)
Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival
2017-01-01
The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m 2 ) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm 2 ). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Liang, Shidong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Shujie; Hao, Lizhuang; Chai, Shatuo
2014-01-01
Estimating forage biomass yield remotely from space is still challenging nowadays. Field experiments were conducted and ground measurements correlated to remote sensing data to estimate the forage biomass yield of Alpine-cold meadow grassland during the grass and grass-withering period in Sanjiangyuan area in Yushu county. Both Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-tailed tests showed that the field training samples are normally distributed, the Spearman coefficient indicated that the parametric correlation analysis had significant differences. The optimal regression models were developed based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TM-NDVI) and the forage biomass field data during the grass and the grass-withering periods, respectively. Then an integration model was used to predict forage biomass yield of alpine-cold meadow in the grass-withering period. The model showed good prediction accuracy and reliability. It was found that this approach can not only estimate forage yield in large scale efficiently but also overcome the seasonal limitation of remote sensing inversion. This technique can provides valuable guidance to animal husbandry to resource more efficiently in winter
Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.
Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing
2015-01-01
In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.
Performance of the general circulation models in simulating temperature and precipitation over Iran
Abbasian, Mohammadsadegh; Moghim, Sanaz; Abrishamchi, Ahmad
2018-03-01
General Circulation Models (GCMs) are advanced tools for impact assessment and climate change studies. Previous studies show that the performance of the GCMs in simulating climate variables varies significantly over different regions. This study intends to evaluate the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) GCMs in simulating temperature and precipitation over Iran. Simulations from 37 GCMs and observations from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) were obtained for the period of 1901-2005. Six measures of performance including mean bias, root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), linear correlation coefficient (r), Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (KS), Sen's slope estimator, and the Taylor diagram are used for the evaluation. GCMs are ranked based on each statistic at seasonal and annual time scales. Results show that most GCMs perform reasonably well in simulating the annual and seasonal temperature over Iran. The majority of the GCMs have a poor skill to simulate precipitation, particularly at seasonal scale. Based on the results, the best GCMs to represent temperature and precipitation simulations over Iran are the CMCC-CMS (Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change) and the MRI-CGCM3 (Meteorological Research Institute), respectively. The results are valuable for climate and hydrometeorological studies and can help water resources planners and managers to choose the proper GCM based on their criteria.
Characterizing and modeling citation dynamics.
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Young-Ho Eom
Full Text Available Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well.
Adibsereshki, Narges; Nesayan, Abbas; Asadi Gandomani, Roghayeh; Karimlou, Masood
2015-01-01
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) tend to have problems in establishing and maintaining their social relationships. Some professionals believe this social impairment is the result of deficit in Theory of Mind (ToM). This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of ToM training on such children. A quasi-experimental method, pre- test, post-test with control group was used. The sample included of 12 girls and 12 boys with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Two instruments were used as follows: the Theory of Mind test and the social skills questionnaire (1). The samples were randomly placed in the experimental and control groups. The experimental groups had 15 sessions of ToM training and the control groups had just regular school program. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent t- and twoway- variance tests. The scores for social skills in the experimental group were significantly more than the control group. ToM training might improve the social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders.
Xenopoulos, M. A.; Vogt, R. J.
2014-12-01
There is now increasing evidence that non-linearity is a common response in ecological systems to pressures caused by human activities. There is also increasing evidence that exogenous environmental drivers, such as climate, induce spatial and temporal synchrony in a wide range of ecological variables. Using Moran's I and Pearson's correlation, we quantified the synchrony of dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and quality (DOM; e.g., specific UV absorbance, Fluorescence Index, PARAFAC), nutrients, discharge and temperature in 40 streams that span an agriculture gradient (0 to >70% cropland), over 10 years. We then used breakpoint regression, 2D-Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and significant zero crossings (SiZer) analyses to quantify the prevalence of nonlinearity and ecological thresholds (breakpoints) where applicable. There was a high degree of synchrony in DOM quality (r > 0.7) but not DOC (r < 0.4). The degree of synchrony was driven in part by the catchment's land use. With respect to the nonlinear analyses we found non-linearity in ~50% of bivariate datasets analyzed. Non-linearity was also driven in part by the catchment's land use. Breakpoints defined different DOM properties. Nonlinearity and synchronous behaviour in DOM are intimately linked to land use.
Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sensusiati, A D; Priya, T K S; Dachlan, Y P
2017-01-01
Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively. (paper)
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Mohammad velayatzadeh
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Background & Objective:Emission of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has an important role in increasing temperatures and, its higher concentration can effect on human health. Due to this issue, this study is aimed to measure the amount of the released carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in different part of Yadavaran Oil field and compare with international standards in 2017. Material & Methods:The present investigation was accomplished in Yadavaran oil field of Khuzestan province of Iran in 2017. In this study measurement of parameters including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, relative humidity and temperature was done in 64 stations with 3 replications using ALTAIR 4X and Trotec BZ30. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Moreover, Correlation analysis was performed using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Results:The results showed that concentration range of carbon dioxide and oxygen was 490-590 and 19-208ppm respectively. Also, the highest and lowest levels of carbon dioxide were 584.56±6.36 and 453.94±77.7 ppm in wet water camp and S10 wells (P 0.05 in the same order. Conclusion:Pearson and Spearman coefficient analysis showed no significant correlation between temperature, humidity, oxygen and carbon dioxide. According to the results, the concentration of carbon dioxide in different areas of the oil field of Yadavaran was acceptable.
Use on non-conjugate prior distributions in compound failure models. Final technical report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shultis, J.K.; Johnson, D.E.; Milliken, G.A.; Eckhoff, N.D.
1981-12-01
Several theoretical and computational techniques are presented for compound failure models in which the failure rate or failure probability for a class of components is considered to be a random variable. Both the failure-on-demand and failure-rate situation are considered. Ten different prior families are presented for describing the variation or uncertainty of the failure parameter. Methods considered for estimating values for the prior parameters from a given set of failure data are (1) matching data moments to those of the prior distribution, (2) matching data moments to those of the compound marginal distribution, and (3) the marginal maximum likelihood method. Numerical methods for computing the parameter estimators for all ten prior families are presented, as well as methods for obtaining estimates of the variances and covariance of the parameter estimators, it is shown that various confidence, probability, and tolerance intervals can be evaluated. Finally, to test the resulting failure models against the given failure data, generalized chi-squage and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests are proposed together with a test to eliminate outliers from the failure data. Computer codes based on the results presented here have been prepared and are presented in a companion report
A Cancer Gene Selection Algorithm Based on the K-S Test and CFS
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Qiang Su
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background. To address the challenging problem of selecting distinguished genes from cancer gene expression datasets, this paper presents a gene subset selection algorithm based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test and correlation-based feature selection (CFS principles. The algorithm selects distinguished genes first using the K-S test, and then, it uses CFS to select genes from those selected by the K-S test. Results. We adopted support vector machines (SVM as the classification tool and used the criteria of accuracy to evaluate the performance of the classifiers on the selected gene subsets. This approach compared the proposed gene subset selection algorithm with the K-S test, CFS, minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy (mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms. The average experimental results of the aforementioned gene selection algorithms for 5 gene expression datasets demonstrate that, based on accuracy, the performance of the new K-S and CFS-based algorithm is better than those of the K-S test, CFS, mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms. Conclusions. The experimental results show that the K-S test-CFS gene selection algorithm is a very effective and promising approach compared to the K-S test, CFS, mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms.
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Alireza Heidari
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Objectives: Pulpal inflammation is often associated with odontogenic pain. Dental pulp is abundantly innervated with sensory fibers encompassing neuropeptides. Neurokinin A (NKA and substance P (SP are important neuropeptides in the dental pulp that can cause neurogenic inflammation. Since no previous study has assessed dental pulp neuropeptides in children, this study aimed to compare the level of NKA and SP in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of sound and symptomatic carious primary teeth.Materials and Methods: Samples of GCF were obtained of 20 sound and 20 painful carious primary teeth. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to quantify neuropeptides in GCF. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and correlation coefficient test.Results: A significant difference was noted in the level of NKA in GCF of painful and sound teeth (2.23 pg/ml in painful, and 1.84 pg/ml in sound teeth, P<0.05. The difference between the two groups regarding SP was not significant (2.23 pg/ml in painful, and 2.02 pg/ml in sound teeth, P>0.05.Conclusions: The results showed that the level of NKA and SP was higher in GCF of painful teeth compared to that of sound teeth. This difference was statistically significant with regard to NKA. Thus, these neuropeptides can serve as indicators for pathological activities in teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.
The Choroid Plexus of the Lateral Ventricle As the Origin of CSF Pulsation Is Questionable.
Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Sano, Fumiya; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki
2018-01-15
The advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion, and new information about CSF motion has now been acquired. The driving force of the CSF has long been thought to be choroid plexus (CP) pulsation, but to investigate whether this phenomenon actually occurs, CSF motion was observed in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space using MRI. Eleven healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 23 to 58 years, participated in this study. The MRI sequences used were four-dimensional phase-contrast (4D-PC) and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (t-SLIP). The 4D-PC images included sagittal images in the cranial midline, coronal images focusing on the foramen of Monro (FOM), and oblique coronal images of the trigone to quantify CSF velocity and acceleration. These values were compared and analyzed as non-parametric data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Mann-Whitney U test. 4D-PC showed that the median CSF velocity was significantly lower in the posterior part of the lateral ventricle than in other regions. The quantitative analysis of velocity and acceleration showed that they were decreased around the CP in the trigone. Image analysis of both velocity mapping and t-SLIP showed suppressed CSF motion around the CP in the trigone. These findings cast doubt on CP pulsation being the driving force for CSF motion.
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Barbaros Serdar ERDOĞAN
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the correlation between the attitudes of young people who do sports and their self-esteem. The research group included 83 men and 117 women ( age=21,49 + 1,659, as a total 200, who make exercises at least 1 year in special gym center in Antalya and Konya . Self-esteem scale developed by Arıcak (1999 and Dealing with Stress Scales developed by Özbay (1993 were used to reach the aim of the study. Meaningfulness was acquired as P<0,05 by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t testand Pearson Correlation while commenting on the data. SPSS (Statistical package for social sciencesprogramme was used to evaluate the data. At the end of the research meaningful and direct correlation was acquired .01 (P<0,01 between sub dimensions active planning of dealing with stress and value of ego (r=497, self- confident (r=577, depressive emotion (r=531, self-sufficiency (r=572, succsess and productivity (r=476 As a general result different attitudes to cope with the stress were seen in the youth participants because of their gender’s characteristics and it was thought that the correlation between those attitudes and their self -esteem was at the medium and higher-up level.
Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes
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Šmela Pavel
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.
Duration-frequency relationships of heavy rainfall in Santa Catarina, Brazil
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Álvaro José Back
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adjust equations that establish relationships between rainfall events with different duration and data from weather stations in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this study, the relationships between different duration heavy rainfalls from 13 weather stations of Santa Catarina were analyzed. From series of maximum annual rainfalls, and using the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall for durations between 5 min and 24 h were estimated considering return periods from 2 to 100 years. The data fit to the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test at 5 % significance. The coefficients of Bell's equation were adjusted to estimate the relationship between rainfall duration t (min and the return period T (y in relation to the maximum rainfall with a duration of 1 hour and a 10 year return period. Likewise, the coefficients of Bell's equation were adjusted based on the maximum rainfall with a duration of 1 day and a 10 year return period. The results showed that these relationships are viable to estimate short-duration rainfall events at locations where there are no rainfall records.
Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil
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Álvaro José Back
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.
EMUDRA: Ensemble of Multiple Drug Repositioning Approaches to Improve Prediction Accuracy.
Zhou, Xianxiao; Wang, Minghui; Katsyv, Igor; Irie, Hanna; Zhang, Bin
2018-04-24
Availability of large-scale genomic, epigenetic and proteomic data in complex diseases makes it possible to objectively and comprehensively identify therapeutic targets that can lead to new therapies. The Connectivity Map has been widely used to explore novel indications of existing drugs. However, the prediction accuracy of the existing methods, such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic remains low. Here we present a novel high-performance drug repositioning approach that improves over the state-of-the-art methods. We first designed an expression weighted cosine method (EWCos) to minimize the influence of the uninformative expression changes and then developed an ensemble approach termed EMUDRA (Ensemble of Multiple Drug Repositioning Approaches) to integrate EWCos and three existing state-of-the-art methods. EMUDRA significantly outperformed individual drug repositioning methods when applied to simulated and independent evaluation datasets. We predicted using EMUDRA and experimentally validated an antibiotic rifabutin as an inhibitor of cell growth in triple negative breast cancer. EMUDRA can identify drugs that more effectively target disease gene signatures and will thus be a useful tool for identifying novel therapies for complex diseases and predicting new indications for existing drugs. The EMUDRA R package is available at doi:10.7303/syn11510888. bin.zhang@mssm.edu or zhangb@hotmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Test of Lorentz and CPT violation with short baseline neutrino oscillation excesses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Anderson, C.E. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bazarko, A.O. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bugel, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cao, J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Coney, L. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Conrad, J.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cox, D.C. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Curioni, A. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dharmapalan, R. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Finley, D.A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fleming, B.T. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Garvey, G.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grange, J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Green, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); and others
2013-01-29
The sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} appearance data is analyzed to search for evidence of Lorentz and CPT violation. An unbinned Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test shows both the {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} appearance data are compatible with the null sidereal variation hypothesis to more than 5%. Using an unbinned likelihood fit with a Lorentz-violating oscillation model derived from the Standard Model Extension (SME) to describe any excess events over background, we find that the {nu}{sub e} appearance data prefer a sidereal time-independent solution, and the {nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time-dependent solution. Limits of order 10{sup -20} GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients. These limits give the best limits on certain SME coefficients for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sup Macron }{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} oscillations. The fit values and limits of combinations of SME coefficients are provided.
The effect of education of health-promoting behaviors on lifestyle in hemodialysis patients
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Seyed Reza Borzou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Today improve lifestyle and health promotion is a basic requirement for human society and the need for more tangible factor in the increase in chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis process is followed. As life expectancy increases, due to the importance of promoting behavior change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health promoting behaviors was on the lifestyle of patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this study, 70 patients undergoing hemodialysis training centers - medical Hamadan were selected. That is because Hamedan only two dialysis centers, randomly one of them was selected as a test group and a control group. Of the patients referred to the center for sampling in each group 35 patients were studied. For groups of six 30-minute sessions on an individual basis during hemodialysis, held over three weeks in a row. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and statistical tests of Kolmogorov - Smirnov, T and T were analyzed with SPSS version 16. In the experimental group, health-promoting lifestyle scores before and after intervention showed significant statistical differences (001 / 0 < p. The mean scores of health-promoting lifestyle intervention and control groups after the intervention, there was a significant difference (p<0.05. Teaching with an emphasis on health-promoting behaviors, hemodialysis patients was improved lifestyle. Develop and implement training programs to improve lifestyle behaviors and health promoting effective step is hemodialysis patients.
2007-01-01
Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 28 November 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Manifest non-locality of bound electromagnetic fields in near zone of radiating sources: experimental observationby Dr R. Smirnov-Rueda, Complutense University, Madrid SpainStandard relativistic locality (causality) is referred as impossibility of superluminal propagation. The creation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) led to Bell’s theorem which in the most general form sorted out QM predictions of strong correlations between space-like separated systems from probabilities of measurement outcomes calculated on the basis of local realism. EPR-type experiments gave support to QM predictions, casting doubts on standard locality. Since then common view has it that the quantum realm involves some type of misterious non-locality because it...
Siwabessy, P. Justy W.; Tran, Maggie; Picard, Kim; Brooke, Brendan P.; Huang, Zhi; Smit, Neil; Williams, David K.; Nicholas, William A.; Nichol, Scott L.; Atkinson, Ian
2018-06-01
Spatial information on the distribution of seabed substrate types in high use coastal areas is essential to support their effective management and environmental monitoring. For Darwin Harbour, a rapidly developing port in northern Australia, the distribution of hard substrate is poorly documented but known to influence the location and composition of important benthic biological communities (corals, sponges). In this study, we use angular backscatter response curves to model the distribution of hard seabed in the subtidal areas of Darwin Harbour. The angular backscatter response curve data were extracted from multibeam sonar data and analysed against backscatter intensity for sites observed from seabed video to be representative of "hard" seabed. Data from these sites were consolidated into an "average curve", which became a reference curve that was in turn compared to all other angular backscatter response curves using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit. The output was used to generate interpolated spatial predictions of the probability of hard seabed ( p-hard) and derived hard seabed parameters for the mapped area of Darwin Harbour. The results agree well with the ground truth data with an overall classification accuracy of 75% and an area under curve measure of 0.79, and with modelled bed shear stress for the Harbour. Limitations of this technique are discussed with attention to discrepancies between the video and acoustic results, such as in areas where sediment forms a veneer over hard substrate.
A Comparison of emotional and behavioral problems in children with ADHD at home and school
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Mahnaz Eimani oshnari
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from the perspectives ofparents and teachers. Methods: In the present study, 55 children, who were 7-12 years of age, were diagnosed asADHD by qualified psychiatrists, and were receiving medication, were selected using convenient sampling method. Their fathers, mothers, and teachers filled out Conner’s TeacherRating Scale (39 items and Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (48 items. To analyze data,Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and analysis of variance with repeated measures were used. Results: The results indicated that conduct disorder symptoms are underestimated by parentsand symptoms of anxiety disorder are overestimated by teachers (α ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is concluded that using different sources for recognizingADHD and co-occurring disorders is necessary and prevents the labeling of children, overlooking the disorder, and enhances the accuracy of diagnosis.
Biomass Power Generation Industry Efficiency Evaluation in China
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Qingyou Yan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the properties of the traditional additive-based data envelopment analysis (hereafter, referred to as DEA models and propose two generalized DEA models, i.e., the big M additive-based DEA (hereafter, referred to as BMA model and the big M additive-based super-efficiency DEA (hereafter, referred to as BMAS model, to evaluate the performance of the biomass power plants in China in 2012. The virtues of the new models are two-fold: one is that they inherited the properties of the traditional additive-based DEA models and derived more new additive-based DEA forms; the other is that they can rank the efficient decision making units (hereafter, referred to as DMUs. Therefore, the new models have great potential to be applied in sustainable energy project evaluation. Then, we applied the two new DEA models to evaluate the performance of the biomass power plants in China and find that the efficiency of biomass power plants in the northern part of China is higher than that in the southern part of China. The only three efficient biomass power plants are all in the northern part of China. Furthermore, based on the results of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, there is a great technology gap between the biomass power plants in the northern part of China and those in the southern part of China.
Feature Selection based on Machine Learning in MRIs for Hippocampal Segmentation
Tangaro, Sabina; Amoroso, Nicola; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Chincarini, Andrea; Errico, Rosangela; Paolo, Inglese; Longo, Giuseppe; Maglietta, Rosalia; Tateo, Andrea; Riccio, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Roberto
2015-01-01
Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with structural changes in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can show these variations and therefore can be used as a supportive feature for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The hippocampus has been known to be a biomarker for Alzheimer disease and other neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it requires accurate, robust, and reproducible delineation of hippocampal structures. Fully automatic methods are usually the voxel based approach; for each voxel a number of local features were calculated. In this paper, we compared four different techniques for feature selection from a set of 315 features extracted for each voxel: (i) filter method based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; two wrapper methods, respectively, (ii) sequential forward selection and (iii) sequential backward elimination; and (iv) embedded method based on the Random Forest Classifier on a set of 10 T1-weighted brain MRIs and tested on an independent set of 25 subjects. The resulting segmentations were compared with manual reference labelling. By using only 23 feature for each voxel (sequential backward elimination) we obtained comparable state-of-the-art performances with respect to the standard tool FreeSurfer.
A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic
Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing
2016-01-01
Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364
Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid
2016-01-01
There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Based on the students' perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered.
Dimers in Piecewise Temperleyan Domains
Russkikh, Marianna
2018-03-01
We study the large-scale behavior of the height function in the dimer model on the square lattice. Richard Kenyon has shown that the fluctuations of the height function on Temperleyan discretizations of a planar domain converge in the scaling limit (as the mesh size tends to zero) to the Gaussian Free Field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We extend Kenyon's result to a more general class of discretizations. Moreover, we introduce a new factorization of the coupling function of the double-dimer model into two discrete holomorphic functions, which are similar to discrete fermions defined in Smirnov (Proceedings of the international congress of mathematicians (ICM), Madrid, Spain, 2006; Ann Math (2) 172:1435-1467, 2010). For Temperleyan discretizations with appropriate boundary modifications, the results of Kenyon imply that the expectation of the double-dimer height function converges to a harmonic function in the scaling limit. We use the above factorization to extend this result to the class of all polygonal discretizations, that are not necessarily Temperleyan. Furthermore, we show that, quite surprisingly, the expectation of the double-dimer height function in the Temperleyan case is exactly discrete harmonic (for an appropriate choice of Laplacian) even before taking the scaling limit.
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Indra A.S.L.P. Putri
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Submontane forest is considered as one of the biodiversity hotspot. Scientific information on bird diversity in this forest, however are lacking. The aim of this research was to find out submontane forest bird diversity and its conservation management. The research was carried out in three forests areas at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park submontane forest. Point Count method was used to observe bird population. Data were analyzed using Shannon-Weiner diversity index, Pielou Evenness index, Simpson dominance index, Margalef species richness index, and Sorensen Similarity index. The significance different between the number of individual bird was tested using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The result showed that submontane forest at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park is rich in bird diversity, bird endemic species and protected bird species. There was a significant different on the number of individual bird at several human disturbance levels. Based on these conditions, it is important to enhance understanding of the local people regarding zonation and develop cooperation with many stakeholders to increase the local community awareness concerning forest conservation. It is also necessary to ensure the sustainability of the National Park’s conservation program to maintain the submontane forest conservation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pigarov, Alexander
2012-01-01
This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.
A monitoring protocol for vegetation change on Irish peatland and heath
O'Connell, J.; Connolly, J.; Holden, N. M.
2014-09-01
Amendments to Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol have meant that detection of vegetation change may now form an interracial part of national soil carbon stocks. In this study multispectral multi-platform satellite data was processed to detect change to the surface vegetation of four peatland sites and one heath in Ireland. Spectral and spatial thresholds were used on difference images between master and slave data in the extraction of temporally invariant targets for multi-platform cross calibration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate any difference in the cumulative probability distributions of the master, slave and calibrated slave data as expressed by the D statistic, with values reduced by an average of 89.7% due to the cross calibration procedure. A change detection model was created which incorporated a spatial threshold of 9 pixels and a standard deviation (SD) spectral threshold. Kappa accuracy values for the five sites ranged from 80 to 97%, showing that 1.5 SD was the optimum spectral threshold for detecting vegetation change. Change detection results showed mean percentage change ranging from 2.11 to 3.28% of total area and cumulative change over the observed time period of between 15.24 and 49.27% of total area.
Comparisons of mandatory and discretionary lane changing behavior on freeways
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Matthew Vechione
2018-06-01
Full Text Available This research performs comparative analyses on drivers’ behavior during mandatory and discretionary lane changes. We do this by examining the statistical properties of four lane changing decision variables that describe the gaps between the subject vehicle and the surrounding vehicles. Mandatory and discretionary lane changes in NGSIM’s I-80 Freeway and U.S. Highway 101 data collection sites were identified. First, for each variable at the same site, descriptive statistics for the two types of lane changes were compared, and hypothesis tests on the difference between two means were conducted. Then, for each decision variable at the same site, the observed cumulative distributions between the mandatory and discretionary lane changes were compared by means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. This test was repeated for the fitted distributions of the same decision variable at the same site. The results show that, for the three decision variables associated with gaps in the target lane, the means and distributions between the two types of lane changes are not significantly different. The only variable found to have significant differences in means and distributions is the gap between the subject vehicle and the preceding vehicle in the original lane. This may be because this variable is not an important input in mandatory lane change decisions. This finding provides statistical justification for researchers to develop models with different inputs for mandatory and discretionary lane changes in driver assist systems, in autonomous vehicles, and in microscopic traffic simulation tools.
EVALUACIÓN DE UNA PRÁCTICA DE AGRICULTURA URBANA CON BOTELLAS PET EN EL MUNICIPIO DE POPAYÁN
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ANTONIO JOSE CHAGUENDO DORADO
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The investigation had as objective to assess three forms of planting in PET bottles as the practice of urban agriculture in the commune two of the municipality of Popayán. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial of 2x3, Where it is sought to find the interaction between the 2 factors that were the species or crops sown (1: Cilantro - Coriandrum sativum var. Patimorado; 2: Lettuce - Lactuca sativa var. Simpson and the degrees of inclination of the bottle (1 bottle: horizontal, 2 bottle: vertical, 3: bottle inclined 45°; planted two witnesses in pots to have the comparison of reference. Using the program SPSS 22, variables were analyzed agronomic characteristics such as height, coverage, force and biomass in the species planted. We applied three statistical tests; the first was to determine the homogeneity of the data by Kolmogorov - Smirnov; the second was Kruskal Wallis (p ≤ 0,05 to find differences between crops and finally the analysis of Mann Whitney of two independent samples (p ≤ 0,05. The results showed significant statistical differences (p ≤ 0,05 among the factors, evidencing best production in the bottle upright, which recorded higher values for force and fresh weight in the two species, due to the relationship between the size of the bowl and the root development - aerial biomass.
Biomechanical comparison of the four-strand cruciate and Strickland techniques in animal tendons
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Raquel Bernardelli Iamaguchi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare two four-strand techniques: the traditional Strickland and cruciate techniques. METHODS: Thirty-eight Achilles tendons were removed from 19 rabbits and were assigned to two groups based on suture technique (Group 1, Strickland suture; Group 2, cruciate repair. The sutured tendons were subjected to constant progressive distraction using a universal testing machine (Kratos®. Based on data from the instrument, which were synchronized with the visualized gap at the suture site and at the time of suture rupture, the following data were obtained: maximum load to rupture, maximum deformation or gap, time elapsed until failure, and stiffness. RESULTS: In the statistical analysis, the data were parametric and unpaired, and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the sample distribution was normal. By Student's t-test, there was no significant difference in any of the data: the cruciate repair sutures had slightly better mean stiffness, and the Strickland sutures had longer time-elapsed suture ruptures and higher average maximum deformation. CONCLUSIONS: The cruciate and Strickland techniques for flexor tendon sutures have similar mechanical characteristics in vitro.
Application of survival analysis methodology to the quantitative analysis of LC-MS proteomics data.
Tekwe, Carmen D; Carroll, Raymond J; Dabney, Alan R
2012-08-01
Protein abundance in quantitative proteomics is often based on observed spectral features derived from liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS experiments. Peak intensities are largely non-normal in distribution. Furthermore, LC-MS-based proteomics data frequently have large proportions of missing peak intensities due to censoring mechanisms on low-abundance spectral features. Recognizing that the observed peak intensities detected with the LC-MS method are all positive, skewed and often left-censored, we propose using survival methodology to carry out differential expression analysis of proteins. Various standard statistical techniques including non-parametric tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests, and the parametric survival model and accelerated failure time-model with log-normal, log-logistic and Weibull distributions were used to detect any differentially expressed proteins. The statistical operating characteristics of each method are explored using both real and simulated datasets. Survival methods generally have greater statistical power than standard differential expression methods when the proportion of missing protein level data is 5% or more. In particular, the AFT models we consider consistently achieve greater statistical power than standard testing procedures, with the discrepancy widening with increasing missingness in the proportions. The testing procedures discussed in this article can all be performed using readily available software such as R. The R codes are provided as supplemental materials. ctekwe@stat.tamu.edu.
Colletti, Thomas P; Salisbury, Helen; Hertelendy, Attila J; Tseng, Tina
2016-03-01
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physician assistant (PA) educational program length and PA programs' 5-year average Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE) first-time pass rates. This was a retrospective correlational study that analyzed previously collected data from a nonprobability purposive sample of accredited PA program Web sites. Master's level PA programs (n = 108) in the United States with published average PANCE scores for 5 consecutive classes were included. Provisional and probationary programs were excluded (n = 4). Study data were not normally distributed per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P = .00. There was no relationship between program length and PANCE pass rates, ρ (108) = -0.04, P = .68. Further analyses examining a possible relationship between program phase length (didactic and clinical) and PANCE pass rates also demonstrated no differences (ρ [107] = -0.05, P = .60 and ρ [107] = 0.02, P = .80, respectively). The results of this study suggest that shorter length PA programs perform similarly to longer programs in preparing students to pass the PANCE. In light of rapid expansion of PA educational programs, educators may want to consider these findings when planning the length of study for new and established programs.
Determining the Organizational Intelligence Level of Hospitals in Our Region
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Khayat Moghadam S
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Objectives: A new and unique tool for survival of organizations among their competitors is the use of organizational intelligence; Organizational intelligence means having a comprehensive knowledge of all the environmental factors that affect on the organization. This research is one of the few studies with the aim of determine the organizational intelligence level of hospitals and ranking of organizational intelligence components to enable administrators to provide more accurate identification of strengths and weaknesses and take more effective steps to improve service delivery. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical and applicable study performed in the 2012 at 12 General Hospital related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed by Albrecht organizational intelligence questionnaire. The data gathering tool was the questionnaire Albrecht Organizational Intelligence. The collected Data were analyzed using T-test and Smirnov test with SPSS-16 software. The significance level for all tests was considered 0.05. Results: All components of organizational intelligence were in the optimum status. Component of Shared fate gained the first rank and component of knowledge Deployment gained the last rank. Conclusion: Ranking of organizational intelligence components is different in hospitals of the province and the county; representing different features and conditions. Considering the importance of organizational intelligence role in the promotion of organization, hospital managers can take active steps to improve organizational intelligence based on done rankings.
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Fonseca Luis Miguel
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Due to the dynamic and inter-connected internal and external environments of the present digital age, organizations are faced with increased challenges to achieve enduring success. After reviewing the major management theories with an organizational focus, and the changes brought with the new ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management Systems International Standard Edition, the hypotheses that to succeed in the digital age organizations must monitor the organizational context, identify risks and opportunities, and manage change effectively, are presented. A worldwide survey was carried out among IRCA registered auditors concerning ISO 9001:2015 certified organizations, and by using a quantitative methodology (sample normality was confirmed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the hypothesis were tested by using Pearson correlation coefficient. The results of this research highlight the need to properly monitor the organizational (internal and external context and identify the key issues that affect the organizations ability to deliver quality products and satisfy their customers and key stakeholders, and to plan, design, implement and control change in an effective and timely manner. These results support the notion that organizations should adopt appropriate organizational models for the present digital age, with emphasis on knowledge management and horizontal customer perspectives, willing to scan the environment, identify risk and opportunities and take timely and suitable actions.
Connective tissue graft vs. emdogain: A new approach to compare the outcomes.
Sayar, Ferena; Akhundi, Nasrin; Gholami, Sanaz
2013-01-01
The aim of this clinical trial study was to clinically evaluate the use of enamel matrix protein derivative combined with the coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession compared to the subepithelial connective tissue graft by a new method to obtain denuded root surface area. Thirteen patients, each with two or more similar bilateral Miller class I or II gingival recession (40 recessions) were randomly assigned to the test (enamel matrix protein derivative + coronally positioned flap) or control group (subepithelial connective tissue graft). Recession depth, width, probing depth, keratinized gingival, and plaque index were recorded at baseline and at one, three, and six months after treatment. A stent was used to measure the denuded root surface area at each examination session. Results were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Wilcoxon, Friedman, paired-sample t test. The average percentages of root coverage for control and test groups were 63.3% and 55%, respectively. Both groups showed significant keratinized gingival increase (P 0.05). The results of Friedman test were significant for clinical indices (P < 0.05), except for probing depth in control group (P = 0.166). Enamel matrix protein derivative showed the same results as subepithelial connective tissue graft with relatively easy procedure to perform and low patient morbidity.
Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran
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M. Abdi Talarposht
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.
Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin
2015-12-01
Data distribution is usually skewed severely by the presence of hot spots in contaminated sites. This causes difficulties for accurate geostatistical data transformation. Three types of typical normal distribution transformation methods termed the normal score, Johnson, and Box-Cox transformations were applied to compare the effects of spatial interpolation with normal distribution transformation data of benzo(b)fluoranthene in a large-scale coking plant-contaminated site in north China. Three normal transformation methods decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the benzo(b)fluoranthene, and all the transformed data passed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test threshold. Cross validation showed that Johnson ordinary kriging has a minimum root-mean-square error of 1.17 and a mean error of 0.19, which was more accurate than the other two models. The area with fewer sampling points and that with high levels of contamination showed the largest prediction standard errors based on the Johnson ordinary kriging prediction map. We introduce an ideal normal transformation method prior to geostatistical estimation for severely skewed data, which enhances the reliability of risk estimation and improves the accuracy for determination of remediation boundaries.
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Shahram Hashemnia
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire, all components were within acceptable levels, and the implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were not normally distributed. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as regression techniques, the study has determined that while psychological stress influenced significantly on all three components of employee performance including interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance, the effect on job performance was greater than the other components. In addition, occupational stress only influences on organizational as well as interpersonal performance. Finally, employee burnout has no impact on any components of employee performance.
Comparison of Balance Abilities of Patients with Right and Left Hemiplegics Stroke
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Alireza Shamsoddini
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: Improvement of independence of hemiplegics patient especially in balance maintenance is most significant aim of such rehabilitation. Areas of brain lesions in hemiplegics patient and also function of their right and left brain hemispheres were different. We study balance abilities in this two groups of patients. Materials & Methods: In this comparative and cross sectional study 30 patients with brain stroke were selected with non probability and simple selection in two groups by right hemiplegics (16 objects and left hemiplegics (14 objects. Ranges of Their age were 30 – 58 years and 6 months passed of stroke. The patient balance ability evaluated by Berg Balance Scale (B.B.S and Forward Functional Reach (F.F.R and data were analyzed by use of statistical tests such as: Kolmogorov – Smirnov, Independent T and paired T test. Results: According to results, average difference of two groups in (B.B.S test was significant (P=0.030 but average of score of right group (38/36 was more than left group (28/90. But in (F.F.R test, average difference between two groups wasn’t significant (P=0.841. Conclusion: According to results, balance especially dynamic balance was related to the side of lesion but in static balance, there was no difference between two groups. According to such results, we can consider good rehabilitation program for improvement of balance of such patients.
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Angela Delfina Bittencourt Garrido
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS] on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG (culture medium without conditioning; Sealer 26 (S26 - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer. The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 10 4 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey′s test - P 0.05. Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer.
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Shayesteh Shirzadi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Problems caused by menstruation are common among women. Focus group discussions are a method of data collection in which a small group of participants discuss a specified topic or issue. This study mainly aimed to determine the effects of health education based on focus group discussions on the promotion of health behaviors of female adolescents residing boarding centers of the Welfare Organization (Tehran, Iran during their menstruation periods. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental interventional study recruited all eligible 12-19-year-old female residents (n=61 of the boarding centers affiliated to the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including demographic information and puberty health behaviors (health behaviors during the menstruation period. The questionnaires were completed through interviews before and one month after training. The educational intervention lasted for three months. Data were analyzed using paired t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests in SPSS16. Results: The mean scores of performance increased from 12.11±4.43 before the intervention to 16.50±2.79 after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Since the educational intervention based on focus group discussions had positive effects on the participants’ puberty health, such discussions are recommended to educate adolescent girls about puberty issues.
Irinyi, Tamás; Németh, Anikó; Lampek, Kinga
2017-02-01
Violence against health care providers is getting more awareness nowadays. This topic is in the focus of international scientific attention also, although in Hungary exact data is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the correlations between violent acts against health care workers and their effects with different sociodemographic and workplace-related factors. A quantitative cross-sectional online survey was conducted enrolling 1201 health care providers. Data were analysed trough chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, where appropriate. Verbal and physical aggression was experienced more frequently by nurses who were males, above the age of fifty, working in in-patient care or in 12 hours shifts or constant night shifts. The same groups of health care providers suffered more from the negative emotional consequences of violent acts. Aggression is a serious problem in the Hungarian health care system, therefore employees have to be prepared for these acts. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(6), 229-237.
Some analysis on the diurnal variation of rainfall over the Atlantic Ocean
Gill, T.; Perng, S.; Hughes, A.
1981-01-01
Data collected from the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was examined. The data were collected from 10,000 grid points arranged as a 100 x 100 array; each grid covered a 4 square km area. The amount of rainfall was measured every 15 minutes during the experiment periods using c-band radars. Two types of analyses were performed on the data: analysis of diurnal variation was done on each of grid points based on the rainfall averages at noon and at midnight, and time series analysis on selected grid points based on the hourly averages of rainfall. Since there are no known distribution model which best describes the rainfall amount, nonparametric methods were used to examine the diurnal variation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test if the rainfalls at noon and at midnight have the same statistical distribution. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test if the noon rainfall is heavier than, equal to, or lighter than the midnight rainfall. These tests were done on each of the 10,000 grid points at which the data are available.
ANALISIS KOMPARATIF KINERJA KEUANGAN PERBANKAN ASEAN SETELAH KRISIS GLOBAL
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I Gusti Ayu Purnamawati
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The globalization of world trade era presented a competitive challenge for the banking sector, especially thecountries that were members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN such as: Indonesia,Thailand, and Malaysia. The banking sector was very vulnerable to the economic turmoil that often occurred.The uncertainty in the global economic recovery resulted a high risk in the financial sector for the importanceof the bank’s financial performance assessment for the stakeholders. This study aimed to compare the financialperformance of the banking sector in Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia by using financial ratios. The samplewas limited to banks that fell into the category of 5 largest banks in Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia during2009-2012. The research data was secondary data obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The analysismethod used was Kolmogorov Smirnov test for data normality test and one-way ANOVA parametric test. Theresults showed that: (1 There were significant differences of indicators ROA, ROE and LDR in the financialperformance of banks in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia; (2 There was no difference of CAR indicator inbanking finance in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia.
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Yuri Martins COSTA
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT of the masseter and temporalis; b retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO; d Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1% were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5 and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005. Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors.
COSTA, Yuri Martins; PORPORATTI, André Luís; HILGENBERG-SYDNEY, Priscila Brenner; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a) Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) of the masseter and temporalis; b) retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c) Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO); d) Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1%) were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5) and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005). Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors. PMID:26814457
Zobin, Vyacheslav M.; Tellez, Armando; Aguilar, José E.; Cruz, Karla G.
2017-06-01
The 2010-2011 exogenous emplacement of a lava lobe during the 2007-2011 lava dome growth at andesitic Volcán de Colima, México, interrupted the previous endogenous regime and allowed us to obtain seismic signals associated with rockfalls triggered by both exogenous and endogenous growth. We analyzed a total of 410 seismic signals of rockfalls with durations from 50 to 150 s recorded during January-April 2010. Two characteristic populations of seismic signal peak frequencies were identified: a low frequency (LF) group (mean = 1.76 ± 0.44 Hz) and a high frequency (HF) group (mean = 3.13 ± 0.63 Hz), associated respectively with rockfalls caused by endogenous and exogenous growth in the crater. Application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed at the 0.01 significance level that the databases of LF and HF seismic signals of rockfalls belong to different groups of signals and may be considered as having different origins. The results show that the spectral properties of the seismic signals produced by rockfalls may serve as indicators of the origin of falling lava fragments and thus can be used to monitor effusive volcanic activity.
Methods of approaching decoherence in the flavor sector due to space-time foam
Mavromatos, N. E.; Sarkar, Sarben
2006-08-01
In the first part of this work we discuss possible effects of stochastic space-time foam configurations of quantum gravity on the propagation of “flavored” (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) neutral particles, such as neutral mesons and neutrinos. The formalism is not the usually assumed Lindblad one, but it is based on random averages of quantum fluctuations of space-time metrics over which the propagation of the matter particles is considered. We arrive at expressions for the respective oscillation probabilities between flavors which are quite distinct from the ones pertaining to Lindblad-type decoherence, including in addition to the (expected) Gaussian decay with time, a modification to oscillation behavior, as well as a power-law cutoff of the time-profile of the respective probability. In the second part we consider space-time foam configurations of quantum-fluctuating charged-black holes as a way of generating (parts of) neutrino mass differences, mimicking appropriately the celebrated Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects of neutrinos in stochastically fluctuating random media. We pay particular attention to disentangling genuine quantum-gravity effects from ordinary effects due to the propagation of a neutrino through ordinary matter. Our results are of interest to precision tests of quantum-gravity models using neutrinos as probes.
The influence of collective neutrino oscillations on a supernova r process
Duan, Huaiyu; Friedland, Alexander; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca
2011-03-01
Recently, it has been demonstrated that neutrinos in a supernova oscillate collectively. This process occurs much deeper than the conventional matter-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect and hence may have an impact on nucleosynthesis. In this paper we explore the effects of collective neutrino oscillations on the r-process, using representative late-time neutrino spectra and outflow models. We find that accurate modeling of the collective oscillations is essential for this analysis. As an illustration, the often-used 'single-angle' approximation makes grossly inaccurate predictions for the yields in our setup. With the proper multiangle treatment, the effect of the oscillations is found to be less dramatic, but still significant. Since the oscillation patterns are sensitive to the details of the emitted fluxes and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, so are the r-process yields. The magnitude of the effect also depends sensitively on the astrophysical conditions—in particular on the interplay between the time when nuclei begin to exist in significant numbers and the time when the collective oscillation begins. A more definitive understanding of the astrophysical conditions, and accurate modeling of the collective oscillations for those conditions, is necessary.
New neutrino physics and the altered shapes of solar neutrino spectra
Lopes, Ilídio
2017-01-01
Neutrinos coming from the Sun's core have been measured with high precision, and fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters have been determined with good accuracy. In this work, we estimate the impact that a new neutrino physics model, the so-called generalized Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillation mechanism, has on the shape of some of leading solar neutrino spectra, some of which will be partially tested by the next generation of solar neutrino experiments. In these calculations, we use a high-precision standard solar model in good agreement with helioseismology data. We found that the neutrino spectra of the different solar nuclear reactions of the pp chains and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle have quite distinct sensitivities to the new neutrino physics. The He P and 8B neutrino spectra are the ones in which their shapes are more affected when neutrinos interact with quarks in addition to electrons. The shapes of the 15O and 17F neutrino spectra are also modified, although in these cases the impact is much smaller. Finally, the impact in the shapes of the P P and 13N neutrino spectra is practically negligible.
Nonstandard neutrino interactions in supernovae
Stapleford, Charles J.; Väänänen, Daavid J.; Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Shapiro, Brandon T.
2016-11-01
Nonstandard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can significantly alter neutrino flavor evolution in supernovae with the potential to impact explosion dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and the neutrinos signal. In this paper, we explore, both numerically and analytically, the landscape of neutrino flavor transformation effects in supernovae due to NSI and find a new, heretofore unseen transformation processes can occur. These new transformations can take place with NSI strengths well below current experimental limits. Within a broad swath of NSI parameter space, we observe symmetric and standard matter-neutrino resonances for supernovae neutrinos, a transformation effect previously only seen in compact object merger scenarios; in another region of the parameter space we find the NSI can induce neutrino collective effects in scenarios where none would appear with only the standard case of neutrino oscillation physics; and in a third region the NSI can lead to the disappearance of the high density Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance. Using a variety of analytical tools, we are able to describe quantitatively the numerical results allowing us to partition the NSI parameter according to the transformation processes observed. Our results indicate nonstandard interactions of supernova neutrinos provide a sensitive probe of beyond the Standard Model physics complementary to present and future terrestrial experiments.
Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko
2003-01-01
We investigate resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversions of supernova neutrinos which are induced by the interaction of neutrino magnetic moment and supernova magnetic fields. From the formulation which includes all three-flavor neutrinos and antineutrinos, we give a new crossing diagram that includes not only ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance but also a magnetically induced RSF effect. With the diagram, it is found that four conversions occur in supernovae: two are induced by the RSF effect and two by the pure MSW effect. We also numerically calculate neutrino conversions in supernova matter, using neutrino mixing parameters inferred from recent experimental results and a realistic supernova progenitor model. The results indicate that until 0.5 sec after the core bounce, the RSF-induced ν¯e↔ντ transition occurs efficiently (adiabatic resonance), when μν≳10- 12μB(B0/5×109 G)-1, where B0 is the strength of the magnetic field at the surface of iron core. We also evaluate the energy spectrum as a function of μνB0 at the super-Kamiokande detector and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory using the calculated conversion probabilities, and find that the spectral deformation might have the possibility to provide useful information on the neutrino magnetic moment as well as the magnetic field strength in supernovae.
Supernova nucleosynthesis and the physics of neutrino oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2012-11-20
We studied the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and found that several isotopes of rare elements like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La, {sup 180}Ta and others are predominantly produced by the neutrino interactions with several abundant nuclei. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here first study how to know the suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the neutrino oscillation parameters, {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on {theta}{sub 13}, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.