WorldWideScience

Sample records for young football players

  1. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2018-02-01

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  2. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  3. OPINIONS OF YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS ABOUT THE COACH, TEAM-MATES AND FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Osmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the authors used a questionnaire of 8 questions of closed type, and 2 questions of open type. The basic aim of the research is to understand what young football players feel about their coach, team-mates and football as a sports game. Methods: The research involved 54 male football players who have active trainings in football clubs FC “2 korrik” in Prishtina. They are at the age between 14 and 16 and have active training experience of 2 years at least. After explaining the point of the research to the respondents, the inquiry that was of an anonymous type began. Answers to the questions in the questionnaire are presented basic statistic indexes: central and dominant value. Opinions of the respondents are represented through frequencies by chi-square test. Results: The results of the answers are represented in 2 tables and for better exposition they are presented in 8 graphics. The received answers indicate that it is the positive feeling that prevails among the football players with regard to their coach, team-mates and the football game. Particularly interesting answers are given to the two questions of open type. Discussion: On the base of the obtained answers, the results of this research show that the inquired football players have a positive opinion about the coach – his regularity, professional work and proper treatment of the players. Their opinion is positive towards their team-mates as well (coming on time for training, collaboration and friendship. In addition, the football players have a positive attitude towards football – desire for training, contests and expectation for a high success. References: Creswell JW (2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. Sage. Miller TI, Miller KM (2000. Ankete za gra¬đa¬ne: Kako anketirati građane, kako se služiti anketama i što one znače. ICMA, Wash¬ing¬ton. Murphy-Black T (2000. Questionnaire. The Research Process

  4. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for talented young Danish football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

      Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how youn...... of completing a youth education is manifest and associated with significant personal concerns, lower examinations results, stress, drop-out and mental breakdown....

  5. Suitability of FIFA's "The 11" Training Programme for Young Football Players - Impact on Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. "The 11 "injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA's medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of "The 11 "for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed "The 11 "training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players' perceptions of "The 11". No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to "The 11 "should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children.The 11 "improves essential physical performance characteristics and has the potential to reduce the risk of injury.It may be prudent to implement a 'child-friendly' version of "The 11", to enhance long-term programme adherence and to ensure progressive physical development of players.

  6. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  7. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hagman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD, as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35 aged 65–80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35 aged 18–30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35 and young (UY, n = 35 men. All participants underwent a regional dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1, procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP, and sclerostin were measured. Results: FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05 BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft, and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05 BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001 BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05 leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001 whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001 leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01, respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion: BMD of the proximal femur and whole-body BMD are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65–80 years and young elite football players aged 18–30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football

  8. SOME DIFFERENCES IN SPORTS MOTIVATION OF YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS FROM RUSSIA, SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Marjanović; Marijana Mladenović

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the conceptual framework of self-determination theory, sports motivation in this research was operationalized as intrinsic motivation (to know, to accomplish and to experience stimulation), extrinsic motivation (by identification, introjection and external regulation) and amotivation for sport (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The aim of this exploratory research was to test such concept of sports motivation on a sample of young football players from different countries (Russia, Serbia,...

  9. Use of mobile and educational games in the sports training of young football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Naumchuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games in the process of sports training for young football players. Material & Methods: analysis, synthesis and generalization of scientific information on the problem of research, educational and methodological literature and Internet sources, pedagogical observations. Results: it is established that the effectiveness of the use of mobile and educational games should be ensured not only through their appropriate selection in accordance with the pedagogical conditions and due organizational and methodical decision, but also by determining the optimal sequence of their implementation in the training process, adapting their content and structure to the contingent students and a specific pedagogical situation. The generalized sequence of application of these games in the process of sports training of young football players is considered, on a specific example their approximate content is revealed. Conclusion: the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games are determined by methodological provisions that provide for the primary solution of the tasks of the individual side of the training of young football players with the subsequent resolution of interrelations in its limits. After that, those tasks of a certain side of sports training that can be solved by means of another are realized. In the future, the relationship and integration of two or more parties of long-term training is carried out in control games and official competitions.

  10. Profile of Physical Fitness of Young Football Players at SDN Cibeusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subashini Periasamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related physical fitness components are important in hypokinetic disease prevention and good sports performance. The aim of this research is to evaluate the physical fitness profile of the SDN Cibeusi young football players based on Fitnessgram. Methods: This study was participated by 20 subjects ranging from 10 to 12 years old boys who played for the school football team in SDN Cibeusi. This descriptive study was conducted in the school field in the month of November 2012. Physical fitness components that were tested are aerobic capacity,V02 max using the one-mile run test, muscle endurance by performing push-up and curl-up test, flexibility using the flexometer and body composition by measuring the body mass index and fat fold measurement. The mean and standard deviation of the results were tabulated. Results: Aerobic capacity and percentage of body fat showed 100% of them scored in the category of healthy fitness zone. For body mass index, 55% scored in healthy fitness zone, 25% ni-some risk, and 10% each for ni-high risk and very lean. For push-up test and curl-up test, 80% and 65% scored in the healthy fitness zone while the remaining 20% and 35% respectively scored in the not healthy fitness zone. For flexibility, 75% of them scored in healthy fitness zone and 25% scored in not healthy fitness zone. Conclusions: The physical fitness level in these young football players is mostly in healthy fitness zone.

  11. Motivational patterns as an instrument for predicting success in promising young football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Claudia; Zibung, Marc; Conzelmann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Psychological characteristics are crucial to identifying talents, which is why these are being incorporated in today's multidimensional talent models. In addition to multidimensionality, talent studies are increasingly drawing on holistic theories of development, leading to the use of person-oriented approaches. The present study adopts such an approach by looking at the influence that motivational characteristics have on the development of performance, in a person-oriented way. For this purpose, it looks at how the constructs achievement motive, achievement goal orientation and self-determination interact with one another, what patterns they form and how these patterns are linked to subsequent sports success. Ninety-seven top young football players were questioned twice. Another year later, it was enquired which of these players had been selected for the U15 national team. At both measuring points, four patterns were identified, which displayed a high degree of structural and individual stability. As expected, the highly intrinsically achievement-oriented players were significantly more likely to move up into the U15 national team. The results point to the importance of favourable patterns of motivational variables in the form of specific types, for medium-term performance development among promising football talents, and thus provide valuable clues for the selection and promotion of those.

  12. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p 001) whole-body BMD and 18.2...... men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35) aged 65-80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35) aged 18-30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  13. RELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCURACY OF KICKING A BALL BY YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Andrašić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball with foot or head are the basic elements of football, which can raise the efficiency of the game in terms of speed of action in terms of scoring goals. This is also the reason why the shot needs to be performed in a timely manner, usefully, and also quickly. The most commonly used kick in football is a inner-side instep kick, which is also the most accurate and the most used among the players (Cabri, De Prof, Dufour, & Clarys, 1998. Success in performing precise actions largely depends on the precision of locating targets in space, and therefore the role of our receptors is crucial for a successful precision (Szekeres, Santrač, Radosav, Toplak, Miljanić, 1994. The research problem was establishing the predictive impacts of morphological characteristics on the elevation accuracy of hitting the ball in young players. The subjects of the study were morphological characteristics and accuracy of the players. Aim of the paper was to determine the relation between morphological characteristics and precision of players aged 13-14 years from the Municipality of Loznica. Method: 50 players of the FK “Kabel” from Novi Sad, aged 13-14 years, were subjected to testing. Measurement of morphological characteristics was conducted. Specific (elevation accuracy of hitting the ball towards the vertical and horizontal objective was also tested. By using the statistical analysis firstly the basic descriptive statistics of variables were determine. In order to determine the size of the impact of anthropometric characteristics on motor skills – precision, linear regression analysis was used. Results: Regression analysis showed that there was no statistically significant effect of the predictor system of morphological variables on the criterion variables tested: Precision of kicking the ball towards a horizontal target and Precision of kicking the ball towards a vertical target. The results pointed to the fact that some other characteristics and

  14. Body Composition Evaluation Issue among Young Elite Football Players: DXA Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Leão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of body composition is an important issue among athletes. Different methodologies generate controversial results, leading to a deep uncertainty on individual exercise prescriptions. Thus, this study aims to identify the differences between field methods, such as bioelectrical impedance (BIA and skinfold assessment, with a clinical method, highly accurate, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, among elite young football players. Thirty-eight male football players with a mean (sd age of 16.7 (0.87 years, involved in the Portuguese national competition of U16 (n = 13 and U19 (n = 25, were evaluated and objective measures of body composition, muscle strength and football skills were collected by trained specialists. Body composition was assessed using BIA (Tanita BC-418, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan, in agreement with all the evaluation premises. Additionally, all athletes were evaluated using the clinical method DXA (Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA, USA. Among the U19 athletes, three skinfold sites (SKF were assessed: chest, abdomin and thigh. The Spearman correlation coefficients and the mean difference between methods were calculated. The agreement between both methods was analyzed using Bland-Altman plots. Among the evaluated athletes, lower mean values of body fat % were found using BIA as a method of body composition assessment compared with DXA (12.05 vs. 15.58 for U16; 11.97 vs. 14.16 for U19. Despite the moderate correlation between methods (r = 0.33 to estimate the percentage of total fat, the median of the difference (DXA vs. BIA was relevant in clinical terms, with 2.90% and 1.47% for U16 and U19 athletes, respectively. Stronger correlations were found between the sum of the SKF and DXA fat estimation (r = 0.68. The Bland-Altman plots showed a clear underestimation in the evaluations using the BIA, namely among athletes with better body composition profiles (8%–12% of fat. Using BIA, an underestimation of body fat

  15. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess water and salt balance in young football players in training during Ramadan. Measurements were made in 92 young male football players before and during the month of Ramadan. Fifty-five participants were observing Ramadan fasting, while the other 37 participants were eating and drinking without restriction. In week 3 of Ramadan, water and salt balance measures were made during a training session of 60-70 min duration that was performed at an ambient temperature of 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50-53%. Body mass was recorded before and after training. Fluid intake was assessed in non-fasting players by weighing drink bottles before and after training, and the volume of any urine output was recorded. Sweat composition was estimated from absorbent patches applied to four skin sites for the duration of training. Mean sweat loss of players amounted to 1.41 litres (s = 0.36) in fasting players and 1.61 litres (s = 0.51) in non-fasting players (P = 0.038). Mean fluid intake during training in non-fasting players was 1.92 litres (s = 0.66). Sweat sodium concentration was 20 mmol . l(-1) (s = 8) in fasting players and 17 mmol . l(-1) (s = 7) in non-fasting players, and total sweat sodium loss during training was 0.67 g (s = 0.41) and 0.65 g (s = 0.37) [corresponding to a salt loss of 1.7 g (s = 1.1) and 1.7 g (s = 0.9)] respectively, with no difference between fasting and non-fasting players. Sweat sodium loss was not related to estimated dietary sodium intake (r = -0.07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals.

  16. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for young football talents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2008-01-01

      Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career...... in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. Aims The study aimed to examine young (aged 15-19) male football players´ subjective experience and biographic memories of life as a football talent. An emphasis was placed on daily life...... experiences, especially the difficulties of submitting to the demands of both football training and education. Methods The study was a qualitative inquiry into the young football players´ subjective experiences of balancing football and education. The study used focus group interviews with 6-8 players from 4...

  17. Influence of non-preferred foot technical training in reducing lower limbs functional asymmetry among young football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, José; Garganta, Júlio; Graça, Amândio; Seabra, André

    2015-01-01

    The functional asymmetry of the lower limbs has been regarded as a relevant factor of the performance of football players. We purposed to ascertain whether a specific technical training programme for the non-preferred foot has implications in the increasing utilisation rate of the respective member during the game. Young football players (n = 71) were randomly divided into experimental group (N = 35; 14.37 ± 1.94 years) and control group (N = 36; 14.50 ± 1.81 years). The study was developed into three stages: first, assessment of the index utilisation of both limbs during the game; second, application of a technical training programme that includes the drilling of specific motor skills exclusively directed to the non-preferred foot; and third, assessment of the new rate of both limbs' utilisation after the predefined six months. The main findings were: (1) the use of the non-preferred foot increased significantly with the technical training programme in the experimental group and remained constant in the control group; (2) the use of the preferred foot decreased significantly in the experimental group and remained similar in control group. We concluded that a systematic and specific technical training for the non-preferred foot increases its use and reduces functional asymmetry in game situation, consequently improving the player's performance.

  18. Bone geometry in young male and female football players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Berges, Gabriel; Matute-Llorente, Ángel; Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; González-Agüero, Alex; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Casajús, José A

    2018-05-08

    The present study shows that football practice during growth may improve bone geometry in male and female football players. However, only females had better bone strength in comparison with controls. The aim of this study was to compare bone geometry in adolescent football players and controls. A total of 107 football players (71 males/36 females; mean age 12.7 ± 0.6/12.7 ± 0.6 years) and 42 controls (20 males/22 females; mean age 13.1 ± 1.4/12.7 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. Total and trabecular volumetric bone mineral content (Tt.BMC/Tb.BMC), cross-sectional area (Tt.Ar/Tb.Ar), and bone strength index (BSI) were measured at 4% site of the non-dominant tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Moreover, Tt.BMC, cortical BMC (Ct.BMC), Tt.Ar, cortical Ar (Ct.Ar), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), fracture load in X-axis, and polar strength strain index (SSIp) were measured at 38% site of the tibia. Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to compare bone pQCT variables between football players and controls using the tibia length and maturity offset as covariates. Female football players demonstrated 13.8-16.4% higher BSI, Ct.Th, fracture load in X-axis, and SSIp than controls (p  .0036). In relation to bone mineral content and area, male football players showed 8.8% higher Tt.Ar and Tb.Ar at the 4% site of the tibia when compared to controls; whereas 13.8-15.8% higher Tt.BMC, Ct.BMC, and Ct.Ar at the 38% site of the tibia were found in female football players than controls (p female adolescent football players presented better bone geometry and strength values than controls. In contrast, only bone geometry was higher in male football players than controls.

  19. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  20. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  1. Suitability of FIFA’s “The 11” Training Programme for Young Football Players – Impact on Physical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. “The 11 ”injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA’s medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of “The 11 ”for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed “The 11 ”training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players’ perceptions of “The 11”. No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to “The 11 ”should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children.The 11 ”improves essential physical performance characteristics and has the potential to reduce the risk of injury.It may be prudent to implement a ‘child-friendly’ version of “The 11”, to enhance long-term programme adherence and to ensure progressive physical development of players. PMID:24149898

  2. Effects of special exercise programs on functional movement screen scores and injury prevention in preprofessional young football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Engin; Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Bulat, Muge; Erten, Yunus Turgay; Bayraktar, Bülent

    2017-10-01

    To increase movement capacity and to reduce injury risk in young soccer players by implementing a special functional exercise program based on functional movement screen (FMS) and correctives. 67 young male athletes 14-19 years of age from a Super League Football Club Academy participated in the study. Functional movement patterns were evaluated with FMS assessment protocol. Deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability were examined in FMS. Considering the FMS scores the number of intervention and control groups were defined as 24 and 43, respectively. Intervention program was composed of 1 hr twice a week sessions in total of 12 weeks with 4 weeks of mobility, 4 weeks of stability, and 4 weeks of integration exercises. At the end of 12-week intervention and control groups were re-evaluated with FMS protocol. Contact and noncontact sports injuries recorded during one season. In intervention group there was statistically significant difference in increase in total FMS scores ( P effective injury prevention.

  3. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacek TP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Shipeng Yu, Shahnaz Rehman, Blair P Grubb, Daniel Kosinski, Cherian Verghese, Ehab A Eltahawy, Shafiq Qaiser Department of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction (MI due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140% was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor

  4. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  5. Osgood Schlatter’s disease - A burst in young football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Domingues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Football is the most popular sport in the world. Like any contact sport it is susceptible to various kinds of injuries. It is referred the link between methodology of training and the prevention of overuse injuries in youth as it relates to maladaptive sport programs. There is an increasing awareness to growth related conditions and the relation of musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions. This article examines one specific injury sustained by children and adolescents who play football, Osgood Schlatter disease, and the main mechanisms whereby such injury occur. The aethology is complex and the risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  6. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  7. Injuries in youth football: national emergency department visits during 2001-2005 for young and adolescent players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michael J; Myers, Richard; Christian, Jennifer B; Palmisciano, Lynne; Linakis, James G

    2009-03-01

    Limited research exists describing youth football injuries, and many of these are confined to specific regions or communities. The authors describe U.S. pediatric football injury patterns receiving emergency department (ED) evaluation and compare injury patterns between the younger and older youth football participants. A retrospective analysis of ED data on football injuries was performed using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. Injury risk estimates were calculated over a 5-year period (2001-2005) using participation data from the National Sporting Goods Association. Injury types are described for young (7-11 years) and adolescent (12-17 years) male football participants. There were an estimated total of 1,060,823 visits to U.S. EDs for males with football-related injuries. The most common diagnoses in the younger group (7-11 years) were fracture/dislocation (29%), sprain/strain (27%), and contusion (27%). In the older group (ages 12-17 years), diagnoses included sprain/strain (31%), fracture/dislocation (29%), and contusion (23%). Older participants had a significantly higher injury risk of injury over the 5-year study period: 11.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.2 to 12.8) versus 6.1 (95% CI = 4.8 to 7.3) per 1,000 participants/year. Older participants had a higher injury risk across all categories, with the greatest disparity being with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 0.8 (95% CI = 0.6 to 1.0) versus 0.3 (95% CI = 0.2 to 0.4) per 1,000 participants/year. National youth football injury patterns are similar to those previously reported in community and cohort studies. Older participants have a significantly higher injury risk, especially with TBI.

  8. Aortic properties and atrial electrophysiology in the young and old football players Propriedades da aorta e electrofisiologia atrial em futebolistas profissionais ativos e aposentados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Hasdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between P wave dispersion, aortic elastic properties and transthoracic echocardiographic findings in the young and old football players compared to control groups in order to asses the influence of regular sportive activity on aortic distensibility and its potential effect on atrial electrophysiology. METHODS : We recruited 42 young football players with a training history of many years. The control group was formed by 27 healthy sedentary men. Twenty-three healthy retired football players of a professional football club aged over 50 years were included in the study as old group and 18 subjects over 50 year old who did not perform regular exercise when they were young were included in the control group of old subjects. RESULTS: The heart rate and ejection fraction were decreased in the young football players. There were no significant differences in the aortic elastic parameters and P wave dispersion between young football players and control group. But in old subjects with sustained participation in regular sportive activity, the significant difference of left ventricular dimension, wall thickness and systolic functions detected in the young group disappeared while increase in the left atrial diameter became significant. CONCLUSION: Potential effect of aortic elastic properties which changes with age, on atrial electrophysiology through increasing P wave dispersion was shown.OBJETIVO: Com este estudo pretendeu-se levar a cabo um ensaio clínico que permitisse investigar as diferenças entre a dispersão da onda P (DOP, as propriedades elásticas da aorta e os resultados da ecocardiografia transtorácica em futebolistas profissionais ativos e reformados, face a grupos de controle, de modo a avaliar a influência da atividade desportiva regular na distensibilidade aórtica e o seu potencial efeito na electrofisiologia atrial. MÉTODOS: Para este estudo foram recrutados 42

  9. Low back pain in young elite field hockey players, football players and speed skaters: Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hilst, Jony; Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; Kuilman, Miriam C.; F M Kuijer, P. Paul; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) hampers performance and experiencing an episode of LBP is strongly associated with recurrent episodes. The prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors among young elite athletes in popular sports in the Netherlands were studied. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was

  10. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  11. Management Of The Critically Injured Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Francis

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation and treatment of a football player who has sustained life-threatening injuries is a rare but significant challenge for the sports medicine team. Early recognition and intervention in these injuries is crucial. Helmets and shoulder pads complicate management of these patients. In this article, I present a rapid and simple assessment method used by paramedics for trauma patients. Treatment focuses on when football equipment should be removed and how the equipment complicates Advanced...

  12. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  13. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  14. Features of physiological responses on organism of football players aged 10-12 years in exercise using different training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Abdula

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the effect of various special exercises football players’ organism in different modes. Material : The study involved 24 young players aged 10-12 years. Results : There is a large range of load parameters for elite athletes, which necessitates evaluation exercise intensity football for young players. Found that depending on the method chosen football special exercises have different effects on the body force young players. Conclusions : It was found that by using the method of competitive gaming and heart rate and energy increases with increasing number of players. The analysis shows the existence of significant differences in terms of heart rate for game and interval method.

  15. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman, Everett J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic...

  16. Caffeine supplementation does not affect match activities and fatigue resistance during match play in young football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Svein Arne; Krustrup, Peter; Bendiksen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on match activities and development of fatigue during a football match. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over design, two experimental football games separated by 7 days were organised between the junior teams of two professional footba...

  17. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  18. The Muslim football player and Ramadan: current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerguini, Yacine; Ahmed, Qanta A; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic faith characterised by devotional orthopraxy. The actions expected of followers of Islam are closely prescribed in the Qur'an. Muslims understand Ramadan as a mandatory requirement, excused only in the event of illness, infirmity or extremes of age. Due to the increasing popularity of football among Muslims, more and more Muslim football players of all levels make the decision to follow the Ramadan fast while they need to practise and compete. Sports medicine clinicians and scientists have the responsibility to provide them with the knowledge and evidence on how exactly Ramadan fasting impacts on their performance and how to optimise their eating, drinking and sleeping in order to minimise negative effects of their religious practice, should any have been demonstrated. The first International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) study concluded that biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male national level players who followed Ramadan fasting in a controlled environment. Match performance was however not measured and the study did not include elite level players, leading to the Ramadan consensus meeting in order to answer the remaining questions. The conclusions and recommendations published in this supplement suggest that the best coping strategies will remain individual - as is the choice to fast.

  19. Shoulder instability in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.

  20. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF ADOLESCENT ATHLETES' MOTIVATION: BASKETBALL PLAYERS VS. FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolom\\u00E9 J. Almagro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of an athlete is determinant for the athletic engagement of the adolescent. The present study attempts to analyze the motivation of adolescent basketball and football players from the perspectives of Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1989 and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985. The study's sample was composed of 248 athletes from 12 to 17 years of age. Half were from basketball and half were from football. The instruments that were utilized were: the Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS (Núñez, Martín-Albo, Navarro, & González, 2006, the Spanish version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMSCQ-2 (Balaguer, Mayo, Atienza, & Duda, 1997, and the adapted Spanish translation (Moreno, Moreno, & Cervelló, 2007 of the Intention to be Physically Active Scale (IPAS by Hein, Müür, and Koka (2004. The comparison of the means of the variables between football and basketball players was done utilizing the student t-test for independent samples. Significant differences were found for variables such as: intrinsic motivation (IM toward accomplishment, external regulation, amotivation, task, ego, and Self-Determination Index (SDI. Basketball players obtained higher values in the SDI, in task, and in IM toward accomplishment than football players. The search for premature performance in football and coaches' educations can help to explain these differences. The importance of these differences reside in the relationship between these motivational variables and the adherence to athletic practice. In conclusion, basketball demonstrated better values in motivational variables, which demonstrates that training sessions are more oriented toward task than ego, that players have more intrinsic and self-determined motivation, and therefore, the adherence of the young athletes will be greater in this sport.

  1. High School Football Players' Knowledge and Attitudes About Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A; Mann, Jessica K; Cyriac, RoseAnn L; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2016-05-01

    To assess high school (HS) football players' knowledge of concussions and to determine whether increased knowledge is correlated with better attitudes toward reporting concussion symptoms and abstaining from play. Two survey tools were used to assess athletes' knowledge and attitudes about concussions. Surveys collected information about demographics, knowledge about concussions, and attitudes about playing sports after a concussion. All athletes present completed one of the 2 surveys. A knowledge and attitude score for each survey was calculated. Frequencies and mean values were used to characterize the population; regression analysis, analysis of variance, and t tests were used to look for associations. A football camp for HS athletes in the Cincinnati area. Male HS football players from competitive football programs in the Cincinnati area. None. Scores on knowledge and attitude sections; responses to individual questions. One hundred twenty (100%) athletes were enrolled although not every athlete responded to every question. Thirty (25%) reported history of a concussion; 82 (70%) reported receiving prior concussion education. More than 75% correctly recognized all concussion symptoms that were asked, except "feeling in a fog" [n = 63 (53%)]. One hundred nine (92%) recognized a risk of serious injury if they return to play too quickly. Sixty-four (54%) athletes would report symptoms of a concussion to their coach; 62 (53%) would continue to play with a headache from an injury. There was no association between knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.08). Despite having knowledge about the symptoms and danger of concussions, many HS football athletes in our sample did not have a positive attitude toward reporting symptoms or abstaining from play after a concussion. Physicians should be aware that young athletes may not report concussion symptoms.

  2. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  3. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  4. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  5. Psychological and Anthropometric Characteristics of a Hungarian Elite Football Academy’s Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csáki István

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that neither physical nor physiological and anthropometric differences in adolescents can serve as definitive differentiating factors in terms of choosing successful and non-successful players, coaches are encouraged to focus more on thepsychological characteristics ofyoung players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine football players’ psychological skills in an elite football academy as related to age and position. Every young player at one of the most successful football academies in the country participated in this study (N=119, M=16.44±1.17. The sample was divided into four age groups according to the championship system (U16, U17, U18, U21, and into specific football positions (goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, and striker. Basedonthe results, the young academy football players had a low level ofamotivation (1.45±0.68, a high level of extrinsic motivation (5.96±0.64, and can be characterized with a higher level task (4.02±0.62 than ego orientation (3.01±0.62. All of the results for coping skills were in the mid-range (M=3.00-3.41. There were no differences in motivation, perceived motivational climate, and coping among the football players regarding their positions. However, there were significant differences among the age groups in perceived motivation and coping skills. Older players were more egooriented and had a higher level of peaking under pressure, while younger players demonstrated higher level task, ego, and coach ability levels. Football coaches need to focus less on positions and more on age differences when dealing with motivation, perceived motivation, and coping.

  6. The Epidemiology of Overuse Conditions in Youth Football and High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kevin; Simon, Janet E; Grooms, Dustin R; Starkey, Chad; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

      High-intensity sport training at the youth level has led to increased concern for overuse conditions. Few researchers have examined overuse conditions in youth sports.   To examine the rates, risks, and distributions of overuse conditions between youth and high school football players.   Descriptive epidemiologic study.   Youth and high school football teams.   The Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS) investigated youth football athletes from age 5 to 14 years. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) focused on high school football athletes 14 to 18 years old. The YFSS data consisted of 210 team-seasons, and the NATION data consisted of 138 team-seasons.   Athletic trainers collected football injury and exposure data during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Injury rates, risks, and distributions were calculated, with injury rate ratios, risk ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing youth and high school football players.   The YFSS reported 1488 injuries, of which 53 (3.6%) were overuse conditions. The NATION reported 12 013 injuries, of which 339 (2.8%) were overuse conditions. The overuse condition rate did not differ between high school and youth football (3.93 versus 3.72/10 000 athlete-exposures; injury rate ratio = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.79, 1.41). However, the 1-season risk of overuse condition was higher in high school than in youth football players (2.66% versus 1.05%; risk ratio = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.47). Compared with high school football players, youth football players had greater proportions of overuse conditions that were nontime loss (ie, football players. However, differences existed between the 2 levels of competition. Although additional research on the incidence of overuse conditions across all youth and high school sports is needed, these findings may highlight the need for programming that is specific to competition level.

  7. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  8. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  9. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  10. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Everett J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic head injuries. Beginning about 10 years ago, a growing concern developed among neurologists and researchers about the long-term effects that playing professional football has on the neurologic health of the players. Autopsy-based studies identified a pathologically distinct neurodegenerative disorder, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, among athletes who were known to have experienced concussive and subconcussive blows to the head during their playing careers. Football players have been well represented in these autopsy findings. A mortality study of a large cohort of retired professional football players found a significantly increased risk of death from neurodegeneration. Further analysis found that non-line players were at higher risk than line players, possibly because of an increased risk of concussion. Although the results of the studies reviewed do not establish a cause effect relationship between football-related head injury and neurodegenerative disorders, a growing body of research supports the hypothesis that professional football players are at an increased risk of neurodegeneration. Significant progress has been made in the last few years on detecting and defining the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, less progress has been made on other factors related to the progression of those diseases in football players. This review identifies three areas for further research: (a) quantification of exposure - a consensus is needed on the use of clinically

  11. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  12. Effectiveness of a stress management pilot program aimed at reducing the incidence of sports injuries in young football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Zafra, Aurelio; Rubio, Victor J; Ortega, Enrique; García-Mas, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis. Seventy-four male soccer players from four National Youth league teams voluntarily participated. Teams were randomly assigned to either treatment/non-treatment group. Injury protocol, Self-monitoring cards, Athletes' satisfaction and commitment survey, Coaches' interview. Group main effect and Time-Group interaction effect were both statistically significant, F(1,60) = 8.30, p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.121, with the average number of injuries larger in the post-treatment phase of non-treatment group (p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.077). There was a significant decrease in the average number of injuries for the intervention group before and after implementing the program (p youth soccer sport injuries, with a high level of satisfaction and commitment from the athletes, as well as high acceptance from the coaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  14. What is the Safest Sprint Starting Position for American Football Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bonnechere, Benoit Beyer, Marcel Rooze, Jan Serge Van Sint

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of three different sprint start patterns to determine the safest position in term of neck injury and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC. The second objective was to collect data on the learning process effect between football players and non-players. Three different sprint initial positions adopted by football players were studied (i.e., 4-, 3- and 2-point positions. Twenty five young healthy males, including 12 football players, participated to this study. A stereophotogrammetric system (i.e., Vicon was used to record motion patterns and body segments positions. Various measurements related to head and trunk orientation, and player field-of-view were obtained (e.g., head height, trunk bending, time to reach upright position, head speed (vertical direction and body speed (horizontal direction. Learning process was found to have no influence on studied parameters. Head redress is also delayed when adopting a 4-point position leading to a reduce field-of-view during the start and increasing therefore the probability of collision. Concerning the three different positions, the 4-point position seems to be the more dangerous because leading to higher kinetic energy than the 2- and 3-point start positions. This study proposes a first biomechanical approach to understand risk/benefit balance for athletes for those three different start positions. Results suggested that the 4-point position is the most risky for football players.

  15. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  16. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  17. Cultural Differences, Assimilation and Behavior: Player Nationality and Penalties in Football

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on violence on the football field of southern European and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more football penalties than their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially higher number of football penalties incurred by southern European players converges towards the local average, the longe...

  18. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...

  19. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (pfootball players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  20. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  1. The nutritional and anthropometric status of Gaelic football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Collins, Kieran

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intakes and anthropometric profiles of county and club Gaelic football players and compare them to soccer players and control subjects. Seven-day dietary records were analyzed and anthropometric measurements were taken midway through the Gaelic football competitive season. The county group with a mean height of 1.82 +/- 0.04 m were significantly taller (p soccer players and 159 +/- 8 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the controls, with 57 +/- 4% and 44.9 +/- 5% of their energy from carbohydrate. The nature of Gaelic football demands a balanced diet, rich in energy and carbohydrate and with adequate calcium is consumed; the subjects needed to increase these dietary components in order to meet the energetic demands of competition and training. Additional nutritional counseling was provided on an individual basis.

  2. Análisis de la relación entre el Yo-Yo Test y el consumo máximo de oxígeno en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol. [Analysis of the relationship between Yo-Yo Test and maximum oxygen uptake in young football players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez-Oliva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to examine the validity of the Yo-Yo Endurance Test Level 1 to estimate the maximum oxygen uptake in football players. Participants were 15 male football players, ranging in age from 17 to 19 years old (M = 17,9; DT = 0,67, who developed a laboratory test until exhaustion and Yo-Yo Test Level 1. Results showed significant differences in the values directly and indirectly obtained, being the values lower in the oxygen uptake estimated with Yo-Yo Test. Furthermore, Yo-Yo Test performance was not related with maximum oxygen uptake relative to weight on laboratory, showing that Yo-Yo Endurance Test Level 1, through the equation described by Bangsbo, Iaia, and Krustrup (2008 is not a valid test to estimate maximum oxygen uptake in young football players.

  3. Nutrition practices and knowledge among NCAA Division III football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Elizabeth Lea; Wright, Cynthia Joy; Kirkpatrick, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Participation in collegiate American football is physically demanding and may have long-term health implications, particularly in relation to cardiovascular and neurological health. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III (DIII) football players are a relatively unstudied population, particularly in terms of their dietary habits and knowledge. The aim of the present study was to descriptively evaluate the dietary intake of DIII football players including a subset of linemen and assess the nutritional knowledge and sources of information of these athletes. The study sample was 88 DIII football players including a subset of nine linemen. All participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, and a nutritional knowledge questionnaire that included a quiz and questions about their main sources of nutrition information. Heights and body masses were also recorded. The linemen submitted written 3-day diet records for assessment of their dietary intake. Of the 88 participants, >50% reported consuming starches/grains, meat and dairy daily, but football players had dietary habits that may both mitigate and increase their risk of chronic diseases. These athletes have room to improve their nutrition knowledge. Their reliance on athletic team staff for nutrition guidance highlights the importance of nutrition education for both athletes and staff and the potential role of a registered dietitian nutritionist.

  4. Measuring of sport specific skills of football players

    OpenAIRE

    Koltai, Miklós; Wallner, Dietmar; Gusztafik, Ádám; Sáfár, Zoltán; Dancs, Henriette; Simi, Helmut; Hagenauer, Marcel; Buchgraber, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Sport Science at the University of West-Hungary, and the FH-Joanneum – together with students majoring in sport science – started a collaborative international research aimed at assessing the sport-specific skills of football players. The study closely monitored football players – from leagues at different levels – in terms of choice reaction time, short and long pass skills and agility skills with and without a ball. The most modern device available, the SmartSpeed – a photo...

  5. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  6. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  7. Head Impact Exposure in Junior and Adult Australian Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hecimovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measured and compared the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by junior and adult Australian football players, respectively, and between player positions over a season of games. Twelve junior and twelve adult players were tracked using a skin-mounted impact sensor. Head impact exposure, including frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts, was quantified using previously established methods. Over the collection period, there were no significant differences in the impact frequency between junior and adult players. However, there was a significant increase in the frequency of head impacts for midfielders in both grades once we accounted for player position. A comparable amount of head impacts in both junior and adult players has implications for Australian football regarding player safety and medical coverage as younger players sustained similar impact levels as adult players. The other implication of a higher impact profile within midfielders is that, by targeting education and prevention strategies, a decrease in the incidence of sports-related concussion may result.

  8. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index, "t"(244)…

  9. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  10. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  11. Factors associated with playing football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältström, A; Hägglund, M; Kvist, J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether player-related factors (demographic, personality, or psychological factors) or the characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were associated with the return to playing football in females after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We also compared current knee function, knee related quality of life and readiness to return to sport between females who returned to football and those who had not returned. Females who sustained a primary ACL rupture while playing football and underwent ACLR 6-36 months ago were eligible. Of the 460 contacted, 274 (60%) completed a battery of questionnaires, and 182 were included a median of 18 months (IQR 13) after ACLR. Of these, 94 (52%) returned to football and were currently playing, and 88 (48%) had not returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two factors associated with returning to football: short time between injury and ACLR (0-3 months, OR 5.6; 3-12 months OR 4.7 vs reference group > 12 months) and high motivation. Current players showed higher ratings for current knee function, knee-related quality of life, and psychological readiness to return to sport (P football after ACLR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Women's football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martínez-Lagunas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women's football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review was more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12–27 years, body height (155–174 cm, body mass (48–72 kg, percent body fat (13%–29%, maximal oxygen uptake (45.1–55.5 mL/kg/min, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780–1379 m, maximum heart rate (189–202 bpm, 30 m sprint times (4.34–4.96 s, and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28–50 cm vary mostly according to the players' competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia that may affect players' football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance

  13. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  14. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.

  15. Effect of Concussion on Performance of National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Nicole; Hayward, Rodney A; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Burke, James F

    2017-09-01

    Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury. Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007-2010. Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders' calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player's contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player's baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models. The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report. On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.

  16. Analysis of football player's motion in view of fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Clemente, Filipe M.; Martins, Fernando M. L.

    2013-06-01

    Accurately retrieving the position of football players over time may lay the foundations for a whole series of possible new performance metrics for coaches and assistants. Despite the recent developments of automatic tracking systems, the misclassification problem ( i.e., misleading a given player by another) still exists and requires human operators as final evaluators. This paper proposes an adaptive fractional calculus (FC) approach to improve the accuracy of tracking methods by estimating the position of players based on their trajectory so far. One half-time of an official football match was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach under different sampling periods of 250, 500 and 1000 ms. Moreover, the performance of the FC approach was compared with position-based and velocity-based methods. The experimental evaluation shows that the FC method presents a high classification accuracy for small sampling periods. Such results suggest that fractional dynamics may fit the trajectory of football players, thus being useful to increase the autonomy of tracking systems.

  17. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  18. Time-Loss and Non–Time-Loss Injuries in Youth Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Dompier, Thomas P; Powell, John W; Barron, Mary J; Moore, Marguerite T

    2007-01-01

    Context: Estimates suggest that more than 5.5 million youths play football annually, and 28% of youth football players (age range = 5 to 14 years) are injured each year, resulting in more than 187 000 emergency room visits.

  19. Outrunning Asthma: Football Player Rashad Jennings Battled Childhood Asthma with Exercise and Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us Outrunning Asthma Football player Rashad Jennings battled childhood asthma with exercise and determination Photo: ABC National Football ... Dancing with the Stars” champion Rashad Jennings battled childhood asthma with grit and determination. He has partnered with ...

  20. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  1. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  2. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  3. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  4. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  5. Evaluating Motoric Performance of 10 - 12 Age Group Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KUMARTAŞLI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate motoric perfromance of 10 - 12 age group football players. Akdeniz University tiny football team joined as experiment group and 80. Yıl Cumhuriyet Grammar School football team joined to the study as control group. An exercise programme with educational game format considering physical capacities and develeopment features was applied to the student as 8 weeks, 3 days a week. Standing long jump, flexibilty, 20 m. speed, handgrip strength, arm pull, vert ical jump, 10x5 shuttle run and leg strength tests were applied to the students. Handled data were compared at SPSS 10 statistic programme by using Independent Sample t Test. Students’ lenght and weight measurements were calculated. As a result of measurem ents, there were not found diffrences between experimental and control group’s standing long jump, flexibilty, 20 m. speed, handgrip strength, a vertical jump, 10x5 shuttle run and leg strength tests (p>0,05; but in arm pull test, statistically difference was found (p<0,01. While evaluating the physical performance in cihldren and adolescents, growth process is had to be considered. The results of football players that exercise regularly from small ages at physical and physiologic measurements have an importance according to their age. Performance observed in children is sudden and temporary. There are a few studies in the literature about negative psycological effects of starting trainings in early ages.

  6. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE. PMID:26414478

  7. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L.; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. Purpose To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). Conclusion In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. PMID:27474382

  8. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Raquel C.; Hess, Christopher P.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sou...

  9. Cultural Differences, Behavior and Assimilation: Player Nationality and Penalties in Football

    OpenAIRE

    Schokkaert, Jeroen; De Luca, Giacomo; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on the aggressiveness level of southern and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more yellow and red cards as compared to their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially more aggressive football violent behavior displayed by southern European players coverges towards the local average, the lo...

  10. Dynamic Balance Performance and Noncontact Lower Extremity Injury in College Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Robert J.; Lehr, Michael E.; Fink, Michael L.; Kiesel, Kyle B.; Plisky, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Field expedient screening tools that can identify individuals at an elevated risk for injury are needed to minimize time loss in American football players. Previous research has suggested that poor dynamic balance may be associated with an elevated risk for injury in athletes; however, this has yet to be examined in college football players. Hypothesis: To determine if dynamic balance deficits are associated with an elevated risk of injury in collegiate football players. It was hy...

  11. Reliability of concussion history in former professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-03-01

    The reliability of athletes to recall and self-report a concussion history has never been quantified. This study examined the reliability of the self-report concussion history measure and explored determinants of recall in the number of self-reported concussions in a group of retired professional football players. In 2001, a short questionnaire was administered to a cohort of former professional football players to ascertain the number of self-reported concussions they sustained during their professional playing careers. In 2010, the same instrument was readministered to a subset (n = 899) of the original cohort to assess reliability. Overall reliability was moderate (weighted Cohen κ = 0.48). The majority (62.1%) reported the same number of concussions in both administrations (2001 and 2010); 31.4% reported more concussions in the second administration. Compared with the "same number reported" group, the "greater number reported" group had more deficits in the second administration in their Short Form 36 physical health (composite score combining physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health) and mental health (e.g., composite score combining vitality, social functioning, role emotional) scales. The self-reported concussion history had moderate reliability in former professional football players, on the basis of two administrations of the same instrument, 9 yr apart. However, changes in health status may be differentially associated with recall of concussions.

  12. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  13. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  14. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  15. The health status of retired American football players: Super Bowl III revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Stephen J; Nicholas, James A; Nicholas, Calvin; Diecchio, Jennifer R; McHugh, Malachy P

    2007-10-01

    Despite a perception that retired professional football players have poor health, there are little supporting data. Retired football players have poor health compared with age-matched population norms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Thirty-six of 41 members of the 1969 Super Bowl winning team were contacted 35 years after that event (3 were deceased, and no contact information was available for 2). Players completed an SF-36 health survey and a medical history and football-specific questionnaire. Each player's football-related injury history before 1969 was documented from medical records. It was estimated that there was 80% power to detect a 10% difference in physical and mental health scores between the retired football players (age, 62 +/- 3 y) and population norms (n = 741) at an alpha level of 0.05. SF-36 scores for physical and mental health were not different from age-matched norms (physical health P = .69; mental health P = .49). The most prevalent medical conditions were arthritis (24 of 36 players), hypertension (13 of 36 players), and chronic low back pain (13 of 36 players). SF-36 physical health scores were 21% lower in players with arthritis (P football for 8.3 +/- 3.8 years, and 33 players (94%) reported having had "very fulfilling" (n = 24) or "somewhat fulfilling" (n = 9) careers. These professional football players had long and fulfilling careers with no apparent long-term detrimental effects on physical or mental health scores despite a high prevalence of arthritis.

  16. Investigation of the Effects of Teaching Core Exerciseson Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Aysegül

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching core exercises on some motoric parameters in young soccer players. 32 amateur male football players from Afjet Afyonspor and Muglaspor football team; 16 experimental group (average age 13.75 ± 0.46 years; mean body height 1.65.± 0.09 cm; mean body mass 52.88 ± 8.04 kg) and 16…

  17. Video-analysis of player's kinematics in running out of boundaries in association football fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzotti, A.; Costabile, G.; Annino, G.; Amodeo, G.; Odenwald, S.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of injury following a player's impact with objects in sport facilities is a growing problem, as shown by serious accidents that happen when players have head impacts with obstacles and barriers installed around the play area. At present, no experimental data are available about the kinematics of football (soccer) players during a running-out of playing areas scenario. Experimental tests on a sample of 14 skilled football players, aged between 17 and 19 years, were conducted to invest...

  18. Impact locations and concussion outcomes in high school football player-to-player collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Mihalik, Jason P; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-09-01

    Little research has examined concussion outcomes in terms of impact location (ie, the area on the head in which the impact occurred). This study describes the epidemiology of concussions resulting from player-to-player collision in high school football by impact location. National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study data (2008/2009-2012/2013) were analyzed to calculate rates and describe circumstances of football concussion (eg, symptomology, symptom resolution time, return to play) resulting from player-to-player collisions by impact location (ie, front-, back-, side-, and top-of-the-head). Most concussions resulting from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head (44.7%) and side-of-the-head (22.3%) impacts. Number of symptoms reported, prevalence of reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and length of time to return to play were not associated with impact location. However, a larger proportion of football players sustaining concussions from top-of-the-head impacts experienced loss of consciousness (8.0%) than those sustaining concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (3.5%) (injury proportion ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.2; P = .008). Players had their head down at the time of impact in a higher proportion of concussions caused by top-of-the-head impacts (86.4%) than concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (24.0%) (injury proportion ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.0; P impact location. Recommended strategies for reducing the proportion of top-of-the-head impacts include improved education regarding tackling with proper "head-up" technique. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football "Heads Up Football" Player Safety Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Dalton, Sara L; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-05-01

    In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football's Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The "education only" group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Findings support the PSC as an effective method of injury mitigation in high school football. Future research

  20. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (free soft tissue mass [FFSTM], fat mass, and bone mineral content) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, upper-body strength (bench press and bench pull), and lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump with 20 kg). A 1-way analysis of variance assessed differences between the playing levels in these measures, whereas relationships between anthropometry and performance were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The elite senior and sub-elite senior players were older and heavier than the elite junior players (p ≤ 0.05). Both elite playing groups had greater total FFSTM than both the sub-elite and junior elite players; however, there were only appendicular FFSTM differences between the junior elite and elite senior players (p squat performance measures (r = 0.33-0.55). Australian Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  1. A qualitative vision of artificial turf football fields: Elite players and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the most important parameters for the design and safety of artificial turf football fields according to professional footballers and coaches. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted. The sample consisted of 32 professional players and 25 professional coaches. The players and coaches emphasised ...

  2. Predicting Player Position for Talent Identification in Association Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    This paper is set to introduce a new framework from the perspective of Computer Science for identifying talents in the sport of football based on the players’ individual qualities; physical, mental, and technical. The combination of qualities as assessed by coaches are then used to predict the players’ position in a match that suits the player the best in a particular team formation. Evaluation of the proposed framework is two-fold; quantitatively via classification experiments to predict player position, and qualitatively via a Talent Identification Site developed to achieve the same goal. Results from the classification experiments using Bayesian Networks, Decision Trees, and K-Nearest Neighbor have shown an average of 98% accuracy, which will promote consistency in decision-making though elimination of personal bias in team selection. The positive reviews on the Football Identification Site based on user acceptance evaluation also indicates that the framework is sufficient to serve as the basis of developing an intelligent team management system in different sports, whereby growth and performance of sport players can be monitored and identified.

  3. “You’re Not Born with Talent” Talented Girls’ and Boys’ Perceptions of Their Talents as Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Stig Arve Sæther; Ingar Mehus

    2016-01-01

    Generally in sports, there is a strong assumption of a connection between skill level in young age and adulthood. Studies have mainly focused on the coaches’ understanding and role in identifying and developing talent. In this article we turn our attention towards the athletes’ perspectives, interviewing talented young football players (five boys and five girls) about their perceptions of their own talent and development. The objective of the article is to investigate how boys and girls perce...

  4. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S. [Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, University Milano-Bicocca, Department of Radiology, Bergamo (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)

  5. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S.

    2017-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)

  6. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, G; Querques, G; Pecorelli, A; Nani, R; Sironi, S

    2017-11-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the "return to play" (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP.

  7. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.

  8. Lifetime prevalence of injuries in incoming division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Nikolas; Haynes, William; Pedroza, Angela; Kaeding, Christopher; Borchers, James

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the lifetime prevalence of past injuries in incoming first year football players in a Division 1 college football team. Pre-participation questionnaires from 605 first-year football players over 20 years (1996-2015) were examined to determine the prevalence of concussions, stingers, fractures, and musculoskeletal surgeries sustained before playing at the collegiate level. Players were grouped by position: wide receiver and defensive back (WR/DB), offensive and defensive linemen (OL/DL), all other positions (OP), and unknown (UKN). Prevalence of injuries by year and position was compared using Pearson's χ 2 Test (p football injuries are on the rise. Under reporting is a significant concern as players may fear disqualification or that they are evaluated by the coaching staff based on their medical history. More research is needed to confirm lifetime injury prevalence and evaluate differences over time among football players.

  9. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Training (HIIT and Consumption of Probiotic Supplement on Immune Cells, C – reactive Protein, and IgA in Young Football Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahani Ghaeh Ghashlagh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: High intensity exercise weakens the immune system and causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Probiotic supplements reduce the incidence of infections. In the present study, the effect of 8-week high-intensity intermittent training along with probiotic yogurt consumption, was investigated on immune cells, CRP, and IgA in young football players. Methods: In this quasi-experimental and applied study, 36 healthy young men (16 to 19 years were randomly divided into two groups of supplement–training (ST and training (T, with a mean height of 172±0.77 cm, weight of 66.76±5.87, and BMI of 21.27±2.09. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after 8-week training and after aerobic and anaerobic capacity tests. The subjects performed three 90-minute sessions of training, and the experimental group had probiotic yogurt (400ml twice a day. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U test and repeated measurements at the significance level of p>0.05. Results: After training program, in the experimental group, lymphocytes, neutrophils, IgA, and C-reactive protein significantly increased, and no URTI case was observed. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that training and consumption of probiotic supplement improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity and strengthen, immune system, and reduce the risk of URTI in ST group, therefore its daily consumption is recommended in athletes who perform intense physical training. Keywords: Reactive protein C; Immunoglobulin A; Probiotics; Immune cells; Respiratory tract infections.

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in University Rugby Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nirengi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves various metabolic disturbances. The effect of physical activity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been defined, particularly in athletes who are able to consume a diet to increase body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD and associated factors of NAFLD among male university rugby football players [n = 69, 37 forwards (FW and 32 backs (BK], relative to age-matched controls (CON; n = 29. For FW players exercise consists of physical contact play, such as ruck, mall, scrum, and tackle. For BK players exercise consists of sprints and endurance running. Liver function tests and bioimpedance analysis to assess body composition were performed. Subjects consuming ≤ 20 g/day of ethanol and exhibiting an aspartate transaminase (AST level ≥ 33 U/L, and/or alanine transaminase (ALT level ≥ 43 U/L, were considered to have NAFLD. The PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The body mass index, body fat mass, and lean body mass were significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK and CON groups (P < 0.05. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the FW group than in the CON group (P < 0.05. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK group and CON group (18.9, 8.6, and 0.0%, respectively, whereas there were non-significant between-group differences in the frequency of the PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes. These findings indicate that rugby football players, especially those in the FW position, are at higher risk of developing NAFLD, which emphasizes the role of diet and exercise in the development of NAFLD.

  11. Physical qualities and activity profiles of sub-elite and recreational Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Josh G; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Dawson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical qualities and match activity profiles of recreational Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Forty players from three recreational Australian football teams (Division One, Two and Three) underwent a battery of fitness tests (vertical jump, 10 and 40 m sprint, 6 m × 30 m repeated sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level Two and 2-km time trial). The activity profiles of competitive match-play were quantified using 10-Hz Global Positioning System units. Division One players possessed greater maximum velocity, Yo-Yo level Two and 2-km time trial performances than Division Two and Three players. In addition, Division One players covered greater relative distance, and relative distances at moderate- and high-intensities during match-play than Division Two and Three players. Division Two players had better 2-km time trial performances than Division Three players. Positive associations (P football players competing at a higher level exhibit greater physical qualities and match-play activity profiles than lesser-skilled recreational players. Acceleration and maximum velocity, 2-km time trial and Yo-Yo level Two performances discriminate between players of different playing levels, and are related to physical match performance in recreational Australian football. The development of these qualities is likely to contribute to improved match performance in recreational Australian football players. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Awareness among Indian professional football players about injury prevention strategies: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rohit; Rajasekar, Sannasi; Abraham, Allan; Samuel, Asir John

    2018-03-01

    To determine the awareness and application of the injury prevention strategies by professional Indian football players through Standard Questionnaire Based Survey. Descriptive Epidemiological Study. Professional football clubs in India. Among 150 professional footballers playing in India, 109 football players participated.. The online questionnaire was made in the Google drive application. An online URL (www.tinyurl.com/futbolscptrc) was made in Google accounts by Google drive. 150 professional footballers playing in India were identified and invited to participate in this descriptive epidemiological online survey. All duly filled questionnaire responses were automatically reached in the Google drive inbox. Descriptive analysis was used for the data analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 professional players at nine Indian League clubs. 109 players responded, which represents a response rate of 73%. The player age and number of years as a professional footballers were 25 (4) years (range 18-38 years) and 6 (4) years (range 1-16 years) respectively. The players were from one Premier (9), two Division One (6 and 16), and two Division Two (9 and 15) teams. Most of the professional Indian football players are aware about the injury prevention strategies. However, the application of these strategies is consistently followed by Premier division players.

  13. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury.

  14. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  15. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...... out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P ...

  16. RELATION BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH FOOTBALL PLAYERS FROM 14 TO 16 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Football is one of the most famous games that man has invented. It is a complex of collective organization and individual ingenuity. No doubt, top results in sport require a serious base of scientific researches and skills. Certainly, modern top results that have been achieved can be analyzed scientifically. It is exactly the scientific approach that is to establish the characteristics of basic importance to provide success in football. It is in favor of top football game to regularly conduct researches, which, as elements of special interest, would cover the basic motoric and specific motoric abilities with football players.The subject of the research is the motoric and specific motoric abilities with young football players aged from 14 to 16. The goal of the research is to establish how the explosive power influences the dribbling skills. The sample of respondents in the research consists of 39 school children at the age of 14 to 16, who play at FC ”Gjilani” and have attended the club for at least two years. They underwent three tests for assessing the explosive power: 1. Standing long jump; 2. 20-meter running and 3. Sargent test. Along with it, two tests for assessing the specific motorics: 1. Dribbling 20 metres with start from the place and 2. Dribbling 20 metres - fly start. The data obtained from the applied five tests is worked out with basic statistic parameters. The relation between motoric and specific motoric abilities is determined through linear regressive analyzes in manifest space. The results suggest that there is a positive and significant relation between the applied motoric and specific motoric abilities. This confirms the close relation between the explosive power and specific motorics of football players expressed through dribbling. Similar results are obtained in the researches of the following authors: Christou et all., 2006, Kraemer et al., 1998, and Young et al., 2001.

  17. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT GAMING POSITIONS BASED ON SOME BASIC AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tomić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the structure competition activities, and its character can be defined as a hypothetical model of the anthropological characteristics of football players of different gaming positions. Based on hypothetical models of different football players' position can make a division into two groups of players based on game systems that are commonly used in modern football, which is 4-4-2, and the common anthropological characteristics, structure and nature of activities carried out by during the game, so the first group consists of players with smaller volumes of engagement in the game (goalkeeper, two central defenders and two strikers and the second group 190 CRNOGORSKA SPORTSKA AKADEMIJA, „Sport Mont“ časopis br. 31,32,33. consists of players with greater scope to engage in the game (two foreign players and four defensive midfielder (midfielder . The aim is to determine the difference between players of different players' positions on the basis of some basic and specific motor abilities. The sample of 206 football players aged 18 ± 0.5 years is divided into 5 subsamples according to examinees gaming position: forwarders (45, midfield players (47, defenders (41, central defenders (44 and goalkeepers (29. The battery of 16 tests (in which the results are expressed in distance and time - metric. It can be concluded that there are differences between players of different players' positions on the team in relation to the basic and specific motor skills.

  18. Norwegian Football Academy Players-Players Self-Assessed Competence, Perfectionism, Goal Orientations and Motivational Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Nerland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory and perfectionism theory, the purpose of this study was to examine how self-assessed perceived abilities covariance these variables among Norwegian football academy players. 140 adolescent football players participated, representing three football academies. Perceived competence was reported as equivalent to or better than others. Perfectionism scores showed personal standards as the highest of the dimensions of perfectionism, while perceived parental pressure was lowest. In contrast, mean task orientation and perceived mastery climate were higher than ego orientation and perceived performance climate. The correlation analysis showed that perceived competence correlated positively with personal standards. Personal standards correlated positively with the rest of the perfectionism dimensions as well as ego orientation, perceived mastery- and performance climate. Concern over mistakes was positively correlated with ego-orientation. Overall, findings suggested that personal standards correlate with perceived competence, while these variables also relate to other perfectionism dimensions, goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Therefore, coaches should highlight the importance of high personal standards, as a potentially maladaptive function on talent development.

  19. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods: In a sample of 196 subjects average age of 12.45 ± 0.03 years, made a comparison of motor abilities. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC "Red Star" from Belgrade and the other 114 primary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of 9 tests of motor abilities were: long jump from the place, running 20 m, 60 m running, bend straddle the gray, endurance in pull-ups, polygon backwards, slalom with three balls, hand tapping and lifting troops. Comparison of motor abilities of young players and pupils of primary schools was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: An analysis of motor abilities between young players and primary school pupils were found statistically significant differences in all tested variables. Discussion: The research has shown that speed, endurance, coordination and muscle strength of the lower leg predominantly responsible for the success of matching the target foot at a distance, which is an integral part of the training process (Smajic and Molnar, 2007. It is also proven that there is a statistically significant correlation between the explosive and repetitive strength as a predictor of outcome-success rate for jumping in the air at youth players (Stankovic, 2011. References: Kuleš, B., Jerkovic, S. Maric, J. (1991. Influence of running different intentiteta to success in football. Kinesiology, 23 (1-2, 60-65. Malacko, J. (2000. Fundamentals of sports training - a quarter-supplemented and

  20. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  1. Anterior Hip Dislocation in a Football Player: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schuh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip dislocations during sporting activities represent only 2%–5% of all hip dislocations. Most hip dislocations in sports can be categorised as “less complicated traumatic hip dislocations” by the Stewart-Milford classification due to the fact that minimal force is involved. The incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head greatly increases if the time to reduction is more than six hours. We report the case of a 38-year-old football player who suffered hip dislocation while kicking the ball with the medial aspect of the right foot in an external rotated manner of the right hip. Closed reduction was performed within 2 hours; postoperative follow-up was uneventful. Six months later the patient is out of any complaints; there is no sign of AVN of the femoral head.

  2. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  3. Variability of aerobic abilities of football players during competition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are differences in VO2max during one season in a team of semi-professional football players. This study will also determine the differences between groups, in relation to their position in the team, as well as in relation between the first team and the reserves. This study was conducted on a male football team, between 16 and 28 years of age and with no health problems, competing in a third-tier league. The technique employed is testing and the instrument is the Shuttle Run test that estimated their aerobic capacity. The testing was conducted indirectly during field tests at the beginning of the preparatory period, at the beginning of the competing period and at the end of the season. After a statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there are significant differences between the initial testing, control testing, and final testing. The initial testing was done at the beginning of the preparatory period and the results of the test ranged from 41.50 to 58.10 ml/kg/min. Then after six weeks, which was also right before the start of the competitive part of the season, the control testing was conducted and the results ranged from 46.90 to 62.30 ml/kg/min. Finally, at the end of the season, after all league matches had been played, the final testing was carried out and the results were obtained ranging from 43.80 to 62.00 ml/kg/min. All the testing was conducted on a sample of 31 players, where no relation was discovered between the status of the players at any of the three time points. However, there were some statistically significant differences from the aspect of the players' position but that is due to the goalkeepers being statistically different from the rest of the team. The cause of the differences in the obtained results are differences in intensity, volume and type of training depending on the stage of the season, as well as the specificity of training for the various positions in

  4. The effects of perceived managerial support on organizational commitment: An example of professional football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan ADİLOĞULLARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the support from managers that the professional footballers perceive in their commitment to their teams. Material and Methods: In this study, 641 professional football players were randomly participated from the professional football leagues organized by Turkish Football Federation in the season of 2015-2016. Data were collected by administrating the “Perceived Managerial Support Questionnaire” developed by Giray and Sahin (2012 and the “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire” which developed by Meyer and Allen (1997 and adapted to Turkish language by Wasti (2000 that has three subscales and 18 items. The data obtained in the study were evaluated by the Mann Withney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the regression analyses as well as the percent-frequency analyses via SPSS programme. Results: Results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the level of organizational commitment and managerial support of professional football players that they perceive from their managers. In relation to perceived managerial support of football players, there was a significant difference between the groups according to league category and educational status of football players who participated in the present study. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the level of organizational commitment among the groups according to football players’ age, level of league, educational status and duration of professional football career. Conclusion: According to results of this study that the professional football players’ commitment of their teams is predicted by the perceived managerial support from their managers is considered as an important conclusion. In this premise, results of the present study shed light on our understanding of the organizational management in football to be aware of football player’s expectations from their managers and provide such awareness in

  5. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Smajić; Dejan Javorac; Slavko Molnar; Aleksandar Huba Barašić; Bogdan Tomić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods:...

  6. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  7. Stress fracture risk factors in female football players and their clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Stuart J; Creaby, Mark W; Bryant, Adam L; Crossley, Kay M

    2007-08-01

    A stress fracture represents the inability of the skeleton to withstand repetitive bouts of mechanical loading, which results in structural fatigue, and resultant signs and symptoms of localised pain and tenderness. Reports of stress fractures in female football players are not prevalent; however, they are probably under-reported and their importance lies in the morbidity that they cause in terms of time lost from participation. By considering risk factors for stress fractures in female football players it may be possible to reduce the impact of these troublesome injuries. Risk factors for stress fractures in female football players include intrinsic risk factors such as gender, endocrine, nutritional, physical fitness and neuromusculoskeletal factors, as well as extrinsic risk factors such as training programme, equipment and environmental factors. This paper discusses these risk factors and their implications in terms of developing prevention and management strategies for stress fractures in female football players.

  8. Comparison of Some Biomotoric Properties and Anthropometric Measurements of Male Basketball and Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turna, Bülent; Kilinç, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare some biomotoric properties and anthropometric measurements of Antalya Muratpasa High School Boys' Basketball Team and Football Team. Thirty volunteering players from Antalya Muratpasa High School Boys' Basketball and Football Teams participated in the study. Fifteen of the participants were…

  9. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  10. EFFECT OF MUSIC THERAPY ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, PHYSICAL SELF EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...

  11. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  12. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072

  13. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  14. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  15. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise.

  16. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kelly, Paul B. Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J. Snow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min, high intensity, interval training (HIIT in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc (n = 7 or Control (Con group (n = 7. The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH, whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH. Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% VO2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-], heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05 during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007 after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited.

  17. Three types of transnational players: differing women's football mobility projects in core and developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Clara Tiesler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile players in men's football are highly skilled professionals who move to a country other than the one where they grew up and started their careers. They are commonly described as migrants or expatriate players. Due to a much less advanced stage of professionalism and production of the game in women's football mobility projects are different. At describing the cases of Brazil, Equatorial Guinea, Mexico, Colombia and Portugal, the aim of this paper is to conceptualise an umbrella category for mobile players that can include current realities in the women's game, namely the transnational player who has gained and displays transnational football experience in different countries and socio-culturally contexts. Furthermore, analyses allow introducing two new subcategories besides the “expatriate”, namely diaspora players and new citizens.

  18. Dynamic balance performance and noncontact lower extremity injury in college football players: an initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert J; Lehr, Michael E; Fink, Michael L; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J

    2013-09-01

    Field expedient screening tools that can identify individuals at an elevated risk for injury are needed to minimize time loss in American football players. Previous research has suggested that poor dynamic balance may be associated with an elevated risk for injury in athletes; however, this has yet to be examined in college football players. To determine if dynamic balance deficits are associated with an elevated risk of injury in collegiate football players. It was hypothesized that football players with lower performance and increased asymmetry in dynamic balance would be at an elevated risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-nine collegiate American football players volunteered for this study. Demographic information, injury history, and dynamic balance testing performance were collected, and noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded over the course of the season. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated based on performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), including composite score and asymmetry, to determine the population-specific risk cut-off point. Relative risk was then calculated based on these variables, as well as previous injury. A cut-off point of 89.6% composite score on the SEBT optimized the sensitivity (100%) and specificity (71.7%). A college football player who scored below 89.6% was 3.5 times more likely to get injured. Poor performance on the SEBT may be related to an increased risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury over the course of a competitive American football season. College football players should be screened preseason using the SEBT to identify those at an elevated risk for injury based upon dynamic balance performance to implement injury mitigation strategies to this specific subgroup of athletes.

  19. Comprehensive profile of hip, knee and ankle ranges of motion in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valenciano, Alejandro; Ayala, Francisco; Vera-García, Francisco J; de Ste Croix, Mark; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; Ruiz-Pérez, Iñaki; Cejudo, Antonio; Santonja, Fernando

    2017-10-31

    Limited ranges of motion (ROM) have been considered as a primary risk factor for some football injuries, but only a few studies have analysed differences in lower extremity joints. The main purposes were (a) to describe the lower extremity ROM profile in professional football players; and (b) to examine differences between goalkeepers and outfield players. 82 professional male football players from 4 teams were measured in the 2013 pre-season. Measures of passive hip (flexion with knee flexed [PHFKF] and extended [PHFKE], extension [PHE], abduction [PHA], external [PHER] and internal [PHIR] rotation), knee (flexion [PKF]) and ankle (dorsiflexion with knee flexed [ADFKF] and extended [ADFKE]) ROMs were taken. Magnitude-based inferences exploring differences between player position and limb were made. 46% of all participants showed restricted PHFKE and/or around 30% showed restricted ADFKF ROM values. Contrarily, most players reported normal PHFKF, PHE, PHIR and PHER as well as PKF ROM scores with percentage values close to 100%. Bilateral meaningful differences for PHA, PHIR and PHER were found in approximately 30% of outfield players and goalkeepers. Statistical analysis found trivial differences between players for PHFKE, PHE, PHIR, PHER, ADFKE and ADFKF. However, moderate differences between players were found for PHFKF, PHA and PKF, with goalkeepers demonstrating higher values than outfield players. The findings of this study reinforce the necessity of prescribing exercises aimed at improving PHFKE and ADFKF ROM within everyday football training routines. In addition, as some bilateral deficits were observed, unilateral training should be considered where appropriate.

  20. Incidence and variance of foot and ankle injuries in elite college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Jost, Patrick W; Honkamp, Nicholas; Norwig, John; West, Robin; Bradley, James P

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a study on the risk for foot and ankle injuries in college football players on the basis of injury type and player position. In February 2006, we evaluated 320 intercollegiate football players at the National Football League Combine. All pathologic conditions and surgical procedures of the foot and ankle were recorded, and data were analyzed by player position to detect any trends. Seventy-two percent (n = 231) of the players had a history of foot and ankle injuries, with a total of 287 foot and ankle injuries (1.24 injuries/player injured). The most common injuries were lateral ankle sprain (n = 115), syndesmotic sprain (50), metatarsophalangeal dislocation/turf toe (36), and fibular fracture (25). Foot and ankle injuries were most common in kickers/punters (100% incidence), special teams (100%), running backs (83%), wide receivers (83%), and offensive linemen (80%). Lateral ankle sprains, the most common injuries, were treated surgically only 2.6% of the time. Offensive linemen were most likely to have had syndesmotic sprains (32%), and quarterbacks had the highest incidence of fibular fractures (16%). Foot and ankle injuries are common in collegiate football players, affecting 72% of players. Thirteen percent underwent surgical treatment. Trends are seen in the types of injuries for the different player positions.

  1. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  2. Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J; Gersic, Christine M

    2016-10-01

    There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A cohort of 3439 NFL players with at least 5 credited playing seasons between 1959 and 1988 was assembled for statistical analysis. The vital status for this cohort was updated through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths, and 95% CIs were computed for the cohort; 95% CIs that excluded unity were considered statistically significant. For internal comparison purposes, standardized rate ratios were calculated to compare mortality results between players stratified into speed and nonspeed position types. Suicide among this cohort of professional football players was significantly less than would be expected in comparison with the United States population (SMR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82). There were no significant differences in suicide mortality between speed and nonspeed position players. There is no indication of elevated suicide risk in this cohort of professional football players with 5 or more credited seasons of play. Because of the unique nature of this cohort, these study results may not be applicable to professional football players who played fewer than 5 years or to college or high school players. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  4. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Tatar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™ and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1 A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2 An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3 A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™ (p = 0.000. Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000. In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards.

  5. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.

  6. Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Players of American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mez, Jesse; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Kiernan, Patrick T; Abdolmohammadi, Bobak; Alvarez, Victor E; Huber, Bertrand R; Alosco, Michael L; Solomon, Todd M; Nowinski, Christopher J; McHale, Lisa; Cormier, Kerry A; Kubilus, Caroline A; Martin, Brett M; Murphy, Lauren; Baugh, Christine M; Montenigro, Phillip H; Chaisson, Christine E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Kowall, Neil W; Weuve, Jennifer; McClean, Michael D; Cantu, Robert C; Goldstein, Lee E; Katz, Douglas I; Stern, Robert A; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C

    2017-07-25

    Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded. Online questionnaires ascertained athletic and military history. Participation in American football at any level of play. Neuropathological diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases, including CTE, based on defined diagnostic criteria; CTE neuropathological severity (stages I to IV or dichotomized into mild [stages I and II] and severe [stages III and IV]); informant-reported athletic history and, for players who died in 2014 or later, clinical presentation, including behavior, mood, and cognitive symptoms and dementia. Among 202 deceased former football players (median age at death, 66 years [interquartile range, 47-76 years]), CTE was neuropathologically diagnosed in 177 players (87%; median age at death, 67 years [interquartile range, 52-77 years]; mean years of football participation, 15.1 [SD, 5.2]), including 0 of 2 pre-high school, 3 of 14 high school (21%), 48 of 53 college (91%), 9 of 14 semiprofessional (64%), 7 of 8 Canadian Football League (88%), and 110 of 111 National Football League (99%) players. Neuropathological severity of CTE was distributed across the highest level of play, with all 3 former high school players having mild pathology and the majority of former college (27 [56%]), semiprofessional (5 [56%]), and professional (101 [86%]) players having severe pathology. Among 27 participants with mild CTE pathology, 26 (96%) had behavioral or mood symptoms or both, 23 (85%) had cognitive symptoms, and 9 (33%) had signs of dementia. Among 84 participants with severe CTE pathology, 75 (89

  7. Prediction of Lateral Ankle Sprains in Football Players Based on Clinical Tests and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Terada, Masafumi; Beard, Megan Q; Kosik, Kyle B; Lepley, Adam S; McCann, Ryan S; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Thomas, Abbey C

    2016-02-01

    The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is the most common injury suffered in sports, especially in football. While suggested in some studies, a predictive role of clinical tests for LAS has not been established. To determine which clinical tests, focused on potentially modifiable factors of movement patterns and body mass index (BMI), could best demonstrate risk of LAS among high school and collegiate football players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 539 high school and collegiate football players were evaluated during the preseason with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Functional Movement Screen as well as BMI. Results were compared between players who did and did not suffer an LAS during the season. Logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios were used to determine which measures predicted risk of LAS. The LAS group performed worse on the SEBT-anterior reaching direction (SEBT-ANT) and had higher BMI as compared with the noninjured group (P football players. BMI was also significantly higher in football players who sustained an LAS. Identifying clinical tools for successful LAS injury risk prediction will be a critical step toward the creation of effective prevention programs to reduce risk of sustaining an LAS during participation in football. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Characteristics of sprint performance in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2010-05-01

    To investigate sprinting strategy, acceleration and velocity patterns were determined in college football players (n = 61) during performance of a 9.1-, 36.6-, and 54.9-m sprints. Acceleration and velocity were determined at 9.1-m intervals during each sprint. Lower-body strength and power were evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, power clean, jerk, vertical jump, standing long jump, and standing triple jump. Sprint times averaged 1.78 +/- 0.11 seconds (9.1 m), 5.18 +/- 0.35 seconds (36.6 m), and 7.40 +/- 0.53 seconds. Acceleration peaked at 9.1 m (2.96 +/- 0.44 m x s(-2)), was held constant at 18.3 m (3.55 +/- 0.0.94 m x s(-2)), and was negative at 27.4 m (-1.02 +/- 0.72 m x s(-2)). Velocity peaked at 18.3 m (8.38 +/- 0.65 m x s(-2)) and decreased slightly, but significantly at 27.4 m (7.55 +/- 0.66 m x s(-2)), associated with the negative acceleration. Measures of lower-body strength were significantly related to acceleration, velocity, and sprint performance only when corrected for body mass. Lower-body strength/BM and power correlated highest with 36.6-m time (rs = -0.55 to -0.80) and with acceleration (strength r = 0.67-0.49; power r = 0.73-0.81) and velocity (strength r = 0.68-0.53; power r = 0.74-0.82) at 9.1 m. Sprint times and strength per body mass were significantly lower in lineman compared with linebackers-tight ends and backs. The acceleration and velocity patterns were the same for each position group, and differences in sprint time were determined by the magnitude of acceleration and velocity at 9.1 and 18.3 m. Sprint performance in football players is determined by a rapid increase in acceleration (through 18.3 m) and a high velocity maintained throughout the sprint and is independent of position played. The best sprint performances (independent of sprint distance) appear to be related to the highest initial acceleration (through 18.3 m) and highest attained and maintained velocity. Strength relative to body mass and power appears to

  9. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 1...

  10. Differences in regional muscle distribution in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in regional distribution of muscle mass between a dominant and a non-dominant side and between an injured and an uninjured side. The study involved 31 participant with the following characteristics: aged 22±5 years, body height (TV 184±13 cm, body weight (TM 80±13 kg, average body fat weight (BF 14,35 kg, body mass index (BMI 24,8±4, and average percentage of body fat 15,5% (PBF. Of the total number of participants, 16 players (TIM 1 are playing football in the Croatian Second Division and 15 players (TIM 2 are playing in the Second County League. Measurements of muscle mass were conducted in two ways - measurements with bioelectrical impedance (BIA and anthropometric measurements. The girth was measured at eight different places - left and right forearm and upper arm, left and right leg and thigh. Additionally, the skin folds were measured on each side of the body: the skin fold on posterior side of the upper arm (triceps, on lateral side of the forearm, on anterior side of the thigh and on medial side of the lower leg. Data on muscle mass of individual segments of the left and right sides of the body were obtained with GAIA 359 device. The results of the statistical test showed a statistically significant difference among all groups except the differences between the dominant and non-dominant hand in TIM-1. In TIM-2, the average value of difference in muscle mass for arms is 0,012 kg and for legs 0,268 kg, both values in favor of the dominant hand. In TIM-1, the average value of difference in muscle mass is 0,087 kg in favor of non-dominant leg; the reason could be in a greater number of injuries on the dominant side. When it comes to injuries, both teams have seven players who suffered different injuries, of that number all the injuries were on the dominant leg in the TIM-1, whereas only two injuries were on the dominant side in TIM-2. The difference between the

  11. Influencia de la densidad de jugadores sobre la frecuencia cardíaca y respuestas técnicas en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol. [Influence of the density of players on their heart rate and its technical implications on young football players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Febré

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue conocer la repercusión sobre los aspectos fisiológicos y técnicos de tres situaciones diferentes de juegos en espacios reducidos (JR en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol. Las diferentes situaciones estudiadas fueron 3 vs 3, 4 vs 4 y 5 vs 5 en un espacio de 30x30, donde participaron 10 jugadores jóvenes de fútbol varones (edad 9.3 ± 0.7 años; altura 138.5 ± 10.5 cm y peso de 41.9 ± 6 kg y una experiencia de 2.2 ± 1.4 años. Las acciones técnicas se cuantificaron a partir de las grabaciones en vídeo y la respuesta fisiológica fue medida a través de la frecuencia cardíaca (%Fcmed y %Fcmáx y de la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (PSE. Los resultados del análisis de varianza (ANOVA reflejan diferencias significativas en las siguientes variables: pases buenos, pases malos, %Fcmed, %Fcmáx, tiempo entre 70-79 % y > 90 %Fcmáx y PSE. Los resultados encontrados ponen de relieve que la manipulación de la densidad en las tareas tiene efectos a diferentes niveles y por tanto debe ser tenido en cuenta por parte de los técnicos deportivos que trabajan con jugadores jóvenes a la hora de diseñar tareas de entrenamiento. La conclusión principal es que la utilización del formato 3 vs 3 parece ser más demandante tanto a nivel técnico como cardíaco. Abstract The purpose of this research was to find out the impact of the physiological and technical aspects of three different situations of small-sided games (SSG on young football players. The different situations considered were 3 vs 3, 4 vs 4 and 5 vs 5 in a space of 30x30 m, implemented by 10 young male football players (age 9.3 ± 0.7; height 138.5 ± 10.5 cm, weight 41.9 ± 6 kg and 2.2 ± 1.4 years' experience. The technical actions were quantified out of video recordings and the physiological performance of the exercise was measured through the heart rate (%Fcmed and %Fcpico, and the subject perception of effort (PSE. The results of variance analysis

  12. Brachial neuropraxia in Canadian Atlantic University sport football players: what is the incidence of "stingers"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca M E; McVeigh, Sonja A; Thompson, Kara

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers. Retrospective. Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league. Two hundred forty-four players. Two written questionnaires. Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season. The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P football and are underreported to medical staff. Education of players at increased risk is needed.

  13. Frostbite in an adolescent football player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Michael; King, Marnie; Kruse, Richard; Ilyas, Asif M

    2014-01-01

    To present the case of vascular compromise of a finger from a confluent circumferential blister due to an inappropriately applied commercial cold pack in a high school athlete and to describe the mechanism of iatrogenic injury, acute surgical management, rehabilitation, and pathophysiology of frostbite and constriction injuries. A 17-year-old male football player presented with a frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger secondary to prolonged use of a cooling pack after a mild traumatic injury to the digit. He developed a prolonged sensory deficit from thermal injury, as well as acute vascular compromise requiring urgent operative intervention. Frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger. Emergency surgical decompression and occupational therapy. Frostbite injuries can occur iatrogenically because of inappropriate use of cooling devices or gel packs. Fingers are commonly injured extremities that are particularly susceptible to frostbite and compression injuries. To our knowledge, no case of vascular compromise from the blister constriction of digits has been reported. Patients and their caregivers must be educated about how to properly use cooling devices. Clinicians need to fully evaluate patients with iatrogenic frostbite injuries, giving particular attention to neurovascular status, and must recognize the need for surgical release of constriction syndrome to prevent substantial morbidity.

  14. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  15. Improving the technical preparation of football players on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing combinations of techniques during a game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitova Olena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the issue of improving the technical preparation of football players during initial basic training. A special attention is paid to the development and experimental substantiation of the methods of technical preparation of young football players in an annual cycle at the stage of initial basic training on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing inseparable combinations of techniques during a game. An attempt was made to uncover the underlying causes of a low technical preparedness of football players at different stages of multi-year training and to implement an integrated scientific approach to improvement of the process of technical preparation of 10-11 years old football players in an annual cycle at the stage of initial basic training on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing inseparable combinations of techniques during competitive activity, along with the peculiarities of psychophysical condition and a level of development of physical qualities. This approach in teaching technical skills will be of interest to specialists and coaches in football, since the pedagogical experiment has determined the effectiveness of the developed methodology.

  16. Causal Attributions of Success and Failure and Mood States in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepaniak Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the causal attributions of success and failure in a football match in a group of football players, as well as to investigate the association of the players’ attributions with their level of achievement and the relationships between their causal attributions and affective states. Material and methods. The study involved 75 football players, including 44 players from the first league and 31 players from the third league. The research was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS by D.M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L.F. Droppleman and a specially designed questionnaire concerning the causal attributions of success and failure. Results. It was found that the football players who participated in the study tended to attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes. More frequent use of external attributions most likely had an adverse impact on the mood state of the players. Conclusion. Information concerning the attributions that a given player makes can be useful for coaches, as it can help them develop the athlete’s mental abilities more effectively. Beliefs related to attributions can be modified. It is worth considering the benefits of encouraging internal attributions in the case of success and external attributions in situations of failure.

  17. Association between recurrent concussion and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; Bailes, Julian; McCrea, Michael; Cantu, Robert C; Randolph, Christopher; Jordan, Barry D

    2005-10-01

    Cerebral concussion is common in collision sports such as football, yet the chronic neurological effects of recurrent concussion are not well understood. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between previous head injury and the likelihood of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease in a unique group of retired professional football players with previous head injury exposure. A general health questionnaire was completed by 2552 retired professional football players with an average age of 53.8 (+/-13.4) years and an average professional football playing career of 6.6 (+/- 3.6) years. A second questionnaire focusing on memory and issues related to MCI was then completed by a subset of 758 retired professional football players (> or = 50 yr of age). Results on MCI were then cross-tabulated with results from the original health questionnaire for this subset of older retirees. Of the former players, 61% sustained at least one concussion during their professional football career, and 24% sustained three or more concussions. Statistical analysis of the data identified an association between recurrent concussion and clinically diagnosed MCI (chi = 7.82, df = 2, P = 0.02) and self-reported significant memory impairments (chi = 19.75, df = 2, P = 0.001). Retired players with three or more reported concussions had a fivefold prevalence of MCI diagnosis and a threefold prevalence of reported significant memory problems compared with retirees without a history of concussion. Although there was not an association between recurrent concussion and Alzheimer's disease, we observed an earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease in the retirees than in the general American male population. Our findings suggest that the onset of dementia-related syndromes may be initiated by repetitive cerebral concussions in professional football players.

  18. Predictors of perceptions of mental illness and averseness to help: a survey of elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffanie-Victoria

    2016-10-01

    Hypermasculinity may impact elite football players' willingness to seek help for mental health problems. This quantitative study sought to identify what set of characteristics, including hypermasculinity, best predicts elite football players' mental health attitudes. The Attitude Scale for Mental Illness, Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services, and Athlete's Perception of Masculinity Scale were self-administered to 112 football players from the NFLPA and the Washington, DC metro area. Canonical correlation analysis was used to develop a regression model that best predicts elite football players' mental health attitudes. This study found that though the athletes have high levels of hypermasculinity (x = 19.66, SD = 7.43), other factors, including marital status and sport level lessen the effects of hypermasculinity and facilitate positive perceptions of mental illness and receptivity to help. Predictors suggest that therapeutic efforts targeted toward family and support networks, as well as intervention strategies for decreasing mental illness stigma are essential to encourage positive mental health attitudes in elite football players.

  19. Profile of Self-Reported Problems with Executive Functioning in College and Professional Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745

  20. Profile of self-reported problems with executive functioning in college and professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.

  1. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  2. Predictive value of prior injury on career in professional American football is affected by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Lyman, Stephen; Chehab, Eric L; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2009-04-01

    The National Football League holds an annual combine where individual teams evaluate college football players The abstract goes here and covers two columns. likely to be drafted for physical skills, review players' medical history and imaging studies, and perform a physical examination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of specific diagnoses and surgical procedures on the likelihood of playing and length of career in the league by position. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database for all players reviewed at the annual National Football League Combine by the medical staff of 1 National Football League team from 1987 to 2000 was created, including each player's orthopaedic rating, diagnoses, surgical procedures, number of games played, and number of seasons played in the National Football League. Athletes were grouped by position as follows: offensive backfield, offensive receiver, offensive line, quarterback, tight end, defensive line, defensive secondary, linebacker, and kicker. The percentage of athletes who played in the National Football League was calculated by position for each specific diagnosis and surgery. The effect of injury on the likelihood of playing in the league varied by position. Anterior cruciate ligament injury significantly lowered the likelihood of playing in the league for defensive linemen (P = .03) and linebackers (P = .04). Meniscal injury significantly reduced the probability of playing (P history of spondylolysis had a significant effect for running backs (P = .01). Miscellaneous injuries (eg. acromioclavicular joint, knee medial collateral ligament, carpal fractures) had isolated position-specific effects. The significant injuries and diagnoses appear congruent with the position-specific demands placed on the athletes. This information is useful to physicians and athletic trainers caring for college football athletes as well as those assessing these athletes at the National Football League Combine.

  3. Race differences in ventricular remodeling and function among college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Francois; Peter, Shanon; Hulme, Olivia; Liang, David; Schnittger, Ingela; Puryear, Josephine; Gomari, Fatemeh A; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor; Garza, Daniel; Ashley, Euan A

    2013-07-01

    Athletic training is associated with increases in ventricular mass and volume. Recent studies have shown that left ventricular mass increases proportionally in white athletes with a mass/volume ratio approaching unity. The objective of this study was to compare the proportionality in ventricular remodeling and ventricular function in black versus white National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. From 2008 to 2011, football players at Stanford University underwent cardiovascular screening with a 12-point history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and focused echocardiography. Compared with white players, black players had on average higher left ventricular mass indexes (77 ± 11 vs 71 ± 11 g/m(2), p = 0.009), higher mass/volume ratios (1.18 ± 0.16 vs 1.06 ± 0.09 g/ml, p 1.2. Mass/volume ratio was inversely related to early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity e' (r = -0.50, p football players exhibit more concentric ventricular remodeling, lower early diastolic annular velocities, and increased ventricular voltage compared with white players. Ventricular mass increases proportionally to volume in white players but not in black players. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. “You’re Not Born with Talent” Talented Girls’ and Boys’ Perceptions of Their Talents as Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally in sports, there is a strong assumption of a connection between skill level in young age and adulthood. Studies have mainly focused on the coaches’ understanding and role in identifying and developing talent. In this article we turn our attention towards the athletes’ perspectives, interviewing talented young football players (five boys and five girls about their perceptions of their own talent and development. The objective of the article is to investigate how boys and girls perceive their talent and to discuss how various perceptions influence coaching practice in talent development. We introduce the following questions: (a do the players use a static or dynamic perception of their own talent and (b do the players consider specific or general skills to be most important in their skill development? Results show that the boys have a more static perception of talent compared to the girls. Furthermore, the boys in this study stress the importance of highly specified skills. The girls have a more balanced view on what is important, but tend to stress the importance of basic skills. The study suggests two potential implications. First, the coaches should be aware of the possible vulnerability following players’ static perception of talent. Second, an exclusive focus on specified skills might make for less optimal preparation for the changing demands young players meet when moving through the different levels of play on their way to high level football. In future research it would be interesting to investigate how players with a lower skill level, not yet regarded as talent, perceive their talent and skill development.

  5. Morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Petra Mandić; Katić, Ratko; Jelaska, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the structure of morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players and their impact on the estimated quality of the players. According to the goal of the research, a sample consisted of 70 Croatian first league female football players. Participants were measured in 18 tests for assessing morphological characteristics, a set of 12 basic motor abilities tests and a set of 7 tests for assessing football-specific motor abilities. Exploratory factor analysis strategy was applied separately to all measured tests: morphological, basic motor abilities and football specific motor abilities. Factor analysis of morphological tests has shown existence of 3 significant latent dimensions that explain 64% of the total variability. Factors are defined as transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and voluminosity (35%), subcutaneous fat tissue (16%) and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton (13%). In the area of basic motor abilities, four factors were extracted. The first factor is responsible for the integration of agility and explosive power of legs, i.e. a factor of movement regulation (agility/lower body explosiveness) (23%), the second one defines muscle tone regulation (15%), the third one defines the frequency of leg movements (12%), while the fourth one is recognized as responsible for the manifestation of basic strength, particularly of basic core strength (19%). Two factors were isolated in the space of football-specific motor abilities: football-specific efficiency (53%) and situational football coordination (27%). Furthermore, by use of factor analysis on extracted latent dimensions (morphological, basic and football specific motor abilities) two higher order factors (explaining 87% of common variability) were extracted. They were named morphological-motor factor (54%) and football-specific motor abilities factor (33%). It is assumed that two extracted higher-order factors fully

  6. Does Game Participation Impact Cognition and Symptoms in Elite Football Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazik, Martin; Naidu, Dhiren; Manning, David E; Brooks, Brian L

    2016-09-01

    To measure neurocognitive functioning in college and professional football players after game participation. Retrospective, cross-sectional cohort design. Ninety-four male university and professional football players. All participants completed Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing at baseline, and either at postconcussion (group 1) or postgame (group 2) participation. Results from the 5 ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Reaction Time and Impulse Control) and Total Symptom Score. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect for time (improvements) in 3 of 5 domains for the postconcussion group, but no improvements in the postgame group. The postconcussion group presented with significantly improved results on 4 of 5 ImPACT domains compared with the postgame group at the follow-up time interval. Participation in a football game with potential cumulative head contacts did not yield increased symptoms or cognitive impairment. However, the absence of improvement in cognitive functioning in noninjured football players, which was found in those players who were returned to play after an injury, may suggest that there is a measureable impact as a result of playing football.

  7. Associations between BMI Change and Cardiometabolic Risk in Retired Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Defreese, J D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2018-04-01

    Elevated rates of cardiometabolic diseases have been observed in former American football players. The current study sought to determine whether change in body mass index (ΔBMI) after retirement influences the prevalence of CHD, diabetes, or high blood pressure (HBP) in former professional football players. Retired professional football players (n = 3729) were sent a survey with questions regarding health status, playing history, and demographic information. Self-reported BMI at the time of retirement was subtracted from current self-reported BMI to calculate ΔBMI. Prevalence of CHD, diabetes, and HBP were determined by asking participants if they had ever been diagnosed by a health care professional. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation was used to compute crude prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each outcome. Adjusted PR values were calculated by adjusting for BMI at the time of retirement, age, years of football experience, race, exercise habits, alcohol use, steroid history, smoking history, and playing position. Complete data were available for 2062 respondents. Prevalence of CHD increased 25%-31% for each five-point increase in ΔBMI after retirement (crude PR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.03-1.52, P = 0.026; adjusted PR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.11-1.55, P = 0.001). Diabetes prevalence increased 69%-88% for each five-point ΔBMI increase (crude = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.45-2.44, P football players.

  8. Comparison of the Anaerobic Power of Brazilian Professional Football Players Grouped by Tactical Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Renato Cruz dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Football is characterized as a predominately aerobic modality, however, during a match; the most important actions performed by the players are in short duration and high intensity. In addition, this sport presents to have some particularities, such as, highlights differences of each tactical position. Thus, this study aimed to compare the anaerobic power of professional football players grouped by different tactical positions. Thirty professional football players separated in three groups, goal¬keep¬ers+fullbacks, sideways+DMF (defensive middlefields and OMF (offensive middlefields+forwards, performed two anaerobic po¬wer tests, Running anaerobic sprint test and Sargent jump test Goalkeepers+fullbacks showed higher values of body mass index and absolute anaerobic power (w, using Sargent jump test than the others, but when analyzed the RAST results, this same group presented lower values (p<0.05 of relative AP (w∙kg-1. OMF+forwards showed to have the best Pmed and Pmax values (p<0.05, when compared with defensive players. These results suggest the use of running anaerobic sprint test and sargent jump test toge¬ther when is proposed to measure the anaerobic power of football players, and also a anthropometric evaluation, so the training can be more specific e efficient to each tactical position and athlete.

  9. body injury rates in adolescent female football players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All football injuries requiring medical attention (including stiffness, strains, contusions and sprains) and/or the removal from a session, leading to training restriction, were .... This was a descriptive pilot study based on the results of the high-.

  10. Prediction of core and lower extremity strains and sprains in collegiate football players: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Giles, Jessica L; Seibel, Dustin K

    2012-01-01

    Poor core stability is believed to increase vulnerability to uncontrolled joint displacements throughout the kinetic chain between the foot and the lumbar spine. To assess the value of preparticipation measurements as predictors of core or lower extremity strains or sprains in collegiate football players. Cohort study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. All team members who were present for a mandatory physical examination on the day before preseason practice sessions began (n = 83). Preparticipation administration of surveys to assess low back, knee, and ankle function; documentation of knee and ankle injury history; determination of body mass index; 4 different assessments of core muscle endurance; and measurement of step-test recovery heart rate. All injuries were documented throughout the preseason practice period and 11-game season. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify dichotomized predictive factors that best discriminated injured from uninjured status. The 75th and 50th percentiles were evaluated as alternative cutpoints for dichotomization of injury predictors. Players with ≥2 of 3 potentially modifiable risk factors related to core function had 2 times greater risk for injury than those with football injury risk factors that can be identified on preparticipation screening. These predictors need to be assessed in a prospective manner with a larger sample of collegiate football players.

  11. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female football players don't have balls

    OpenAIRE

    Lippe, Gerd von der

    2008-01-01

    Original in Norwegian. Translation by Ine Gundersveen. First published in Samtiden, 4/2007. Original in Norwegian. Translation by Ine Gundersveen. First published in Samtiden, 4/2007. You need balls to play football. So it is obvious that being a girl just won't do as far as the guys are concerned, says Gerd von der Lippe in a devastating critique of the state of affairs in the reporting and support of women's football in Norway.

  13. Correlating cumulative sub-concussive head impacts in football with player performance - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Goforth, Mike W; Dietter, Dave; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duma, Stefanan M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cumulative sub-concussive head impacts on football player performance. The helmets of three Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with a six accelerometer sensor capable of measuring head acceleration. Helmets were instrumented for every game during the 2006 and 2007 football seasons. Each time the head was impacted during a game, the sensor recorded the impact and wirelessly transmitted the data to a sideline computer. Furthermore, the coaching staff at Virginia Tech reviewed post-game film and evaluated each player's performance based on strict criteria. Players were awarded positive points for good plays and negative points for bad plays. Their performance scores were then normalized to a per play basis. Correlations of player performance with cumulative peak linear acceleration and cumulative head injury criterion (HIC) were evaluated. No consistent head acceleration-based measure showed a strong correlation with significance. In addition, relationship trends varied on a position basis. There are many factors other than head impacts that can affect a player's performance and more research is needed to further quantify such effects.

  14. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening does not distress professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, E E; Bjørnstad, T H; Andersen, T E; Ekeberg, Ø

    2012-06-01

    It has been debated whether cardiovascular screening of athletes creates negative psychological reactions in those being screened. Neither the athletes' level of distress towards, nor their opinion about screening has actually been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of distress among Norwegian elite male football players and their experiences of screening. After screening, players completed a 10-item scale assessing their experience on a Likert scale. Their level of distress was measured with the intrusion sub-scale of Impact of Event Scale (IES) (7 items) on a six-point scale (grade 0-5). A sum score of ≥19 indicates a clinical stress problem. Twenty-five out of 28 teams, 441 of 591 players (75%, mean age 26 [18-39] years) consented to participate. Sixty-four percent felt more confident when playing football and 88% were satisfied having completed the screening. The majority (77%) felt a need for the screening and 84% would strongly recommend it to others. Sixteen percent were afraid that the screening result might have consequences for their own health, and 13% were afraid of losing their license to play football. Less than 3% experienced distress (IES ≥ 19). The majority of the players were satisfied having completed the screening, felt more confident and would recommend it to other players. Only a marginal proportion of the players were distressed by the screening, but were at least as likely to recommend it.

  15. Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Caumo, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; La Torre, Antonio; Battaglini, Claudio L; Carandente, Franca

    2016-10-01

    Vitale, JA, Caumo, A, Roveda, E, Montaruli, A, La Torre, A, Battaglini, CL, and Carandente, F. Physical attributes and NFL Combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2802-2808, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine anthropometric measurements and the results of a battery of performance tests administered during the National Football League (NFL) Combine between American football players who were declared eligible to participate in the NFL Combine and football players of a top Italian team (Rhinos Milan). Participants (N = 50) were categorized by position into 1 of 3 groups based on playing position: skill players (SP) included wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs; big skill players (BSP) consisted of fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends; lineman (LM) included centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used for comparisons between Italian players by playing position. Ninety-five percent CIs were used for comparisons between American and Italian football for the NFL Combine performance tests. Significant differences for all the variables between the 3 playing categories were observed among the Italian players; LM had higher anthropometric and body composition values than SP (p football players presented significantly higher anthropometric values and test performance scores when compared with Italian players. Administrators of professional football teams in Italy need to improve the player's physical attributes, so the gap that currently exists between American and Italian players can be reduced, which could significantly improve the quality of American football in Italy.

  16. Vertical and Horizontal Jump Capacity in International Cerebral Palsy Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Raúl; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Sabido, Rafael; Campayo-Piernas, Maria; Yanci, Javier

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of vertical and horizontal jump tests in football players with cerebral palsy (FPCP) and to analyze the jump performance differences between current International Federation for Cerebral Palsy Football functional classes (ie, FT5-FT8). A total of 132 international parafootballers (25.8 [6.7] y; 70.0 [9.1] kg; 175.7 [7.3] cm; 22.8 [2.8] kg·m -2 ; and 10.7 [7.5] y training experience) participated in the study. The participants were classified according to the International Federation for Cerebral Palsy Football classification rules, and a group of 39 players without cerebral palsy was included in the study as a control group. Football players' vertical and horizontal jump performance was assessed. All the tests showed good to excellent relative intrasession reliability scores, both in FPCP and in the control group (intraclass correlation = .78-.97, SEM jump, standing broad jump, 4 bounds for distance, and triple hop for distance dominant leg and nondominant leg. The control group performed higher/farther jumps with regard to all the FPCP classes, obtaining significant differences and moderate to large effect sizes (ESs) (.85 jump tests than players in the lower classes (ES = moderate to large, P jump tests performed in this study could be applied to the classification procedures and protocols for FPCP.

  17. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Safe Tackling Skills to Youth Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Sharayah S. M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2017-01-01

    With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six…

  18. Mental health in retired professional football players: 12-month incidence, adverse life events and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of

  19. A Study of Pacific Islander Scholarship Football Players and Their Institutional Experience in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Monica K.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the theories of social and cultural capital and introduces athletic capital in order to gain an understanding of Polynesian scholarship football players and their experiences at an institution of higher education. Additionally, theories of student identity development and student-athlete development are also utilized to gain a…

  20. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  1. Who Is Whistling Vivaldi? How Black Football Players Engage with Stereotype Threats in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In light of the impact of negative stereotypes on student-athlete academic performance, the purpose of this paper was to conduct a qualitative study that examined how Black American male football players engage and cope with negative stereotypes at a predominantly White institution. Data were collected and analyzed from semi-structured interviews…

  2. Sports Biographies of African American Football Players: The Racism of Colorblindness in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…

  3. Comparison of physical activities of female football players in junior high school and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuri; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test, the three-steps bounding test and three-steps hopping tests, agility test 1 (Step 50), agility test 2 (Forward run), curl-up test for 30 seconds and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were performed. [Results] The high school group was only significantly faster than the junior high school group in the 40-m linear sprint time and in the agility tests. The distance of the bounding test in the high school group was longer than that in the junior high school group. [Conclusion] Agility and speed increase with growth; however, muscle strength and balance do not develop alongside. This unbalanced development may cause a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school football players.

  4. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  5. Thirty Percent of Female Footballers Terminate Their Careers Due to Injury - A Retrospective Study Among Former Polish Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Jurga, Paulina; Piontek, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Honorata; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-09-27

    Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women's team sports discipline around the world. The Women's Football Committee in Polish Football Association (WFC_PFA) has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls' participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. On-line questionnaire was filled out by on-line access. Ninety-three former female footballers. factors leading to career termination. Participants completed the on-line questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to two groups: "injury group" - in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and "other group" - in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27 percent (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10 percent (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in sport was reported by 9.2%(n=6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to non-injury reasons. The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.

  6. Quantification of Competitive Game Demands of NCAA Division I College Football Players Using Global Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual data sets (n = 295) from players were divided into offensive and defensive teams and subsequent position groups. Movement profile characteristics, including total, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint running distances (m), sprint counts, and acceleration and deceleration efforts, were assessed during games. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical analysis were used to determine differences in movement profiles between each position group within offensive and defensive teams. For both offensive and defensive teams, significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences exist between positional groups for game physical performance requirements. The results of the present study identified that wide receivers and defensive backs completed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total distance, high-intensity running, sprint distance, and high-intensity acceleration and deceleration efforts than their respective offensive and defensive positional groups. Data from the present study provide novel quantification of position-specific physical demands of college football games and support the use of position-specific training in the preparation of NCAA Division I college football players for competition.

  7. High league bench players and starters: differences in group interactions, group cohesion, role acceptance and self-confidence in football teams

    OpenAIRE

    Simonenkova Irina Petrovna

    2015-01-01

    Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.

  8. Use of Nutritional Supplements by High School Football and Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Melanie A; Giza, Matthew; Clayton, Lori; Lonning, Jim; Wilkerson, Rick D

    2001-01-01

    The known use of performance enhancing agents by athletes has occurred throughout history. In the 1960s and 1970s steroids and amphetamines were the supplements most often used. Now athletes are turning to supplements that are either natural or stimulate the release of natural hormones. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of use of nutritional supplements among high school football and volleyball players. This study surveyed 495 male football players and 407 female volleyball players from 20 high schools in Northwest Iowa. These athletes completed anonymous surveys and returned them to their coaches. Results showed that 8% of the male athletes and 2% of the female athletes were using supplementation. Supplements used included creatine, androstiendione, HMB, amino acids, DHEA, phosphogen, weight gainer 1850, Tribulus, muscle plus, multivitamins, calcium, GABA, and Shaklee Vita Lea and Physique. PMID:11813950

  9. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  10. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Williams

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  11. Match score affects activity profile and skill performance in professional Australian Football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-05-01

    To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. Prospective, longitudinal. Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: 19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p14.5 km h(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all pProfessional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Marchi

    Full Text Available The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers. None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57; the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games. A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10. Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes.

  13. Consequences of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvenna, Vikram; Janigro, Mattia; Ghosh, Chaitali; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhu, Tong; Blackman, Eric; Stewart, Desiree; Ellis, Jasmina; Butler, Robert; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes. PMID:23483891

  14. Social Talent Scouting: A New Opportunity for the Identification of Football Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicchi Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the diffusion of digital technologies within the football talent scouting process. A qualitative exploration based on open discussions and unstructured interviews with professionals involved in the football system (coaches, scouts, players’ agents, etc. provides insights about how new technologies are used for recruiting athletes. The findings, which are mainly in the context of Italian football, indicate a cultural and generational gap in the use of new digital tools that creates a mismatch between young promising athletes (demand side and “senior” team professionals (supply side.

  15. Recurrent concussion and risk of depression in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; Bailes, Julian; McCrea, Michael; Harding, Herndon P; Matthews, Amy; Mihalik, Johna Register; Cantu, Robert C

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between prior head injury and the likelihood of being diagnosed with clinical depression among retired professional football players with prior head injury exposure. A general health questionnaire, including information about prior injuries, the SF-36 (Short Form 36), and other markers for depression, was completed by 2552 retired professional football players with an average age of 53.8 (+/-13.4) yr and an average professional football-playing career of 6.6 (+/-3.6) yr. A second questionnaire focusing on mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-related issues was completed by a subset of 758 retired professional football players (50 yr and older). Two hundred sixty-nine (11.1%) of all respondents reported having prior or current diagnosis of clinical depression. There was an association between recurrent concussion and diagnosis of lifetime depression (chi2=71.21, df=2, Pdiabetes. Our findings suggest a possible link between recurrent sport-related concussion and increased risk of clinical depression. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding potential neurological consequences of recurrent concussion.

  16. Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Stefan M; Manoogian, Sarah J; Bussone, William R; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Goforth, Mike W; Donnenwerth, Jesse J; Greenwald, Richard M; Chu, Jeffrey J; Crisco, Joseph J

    2005-01-01

    To measure and analyze head accelerations during American collegiate football practices and games. A newly developed in-helmet 6-accelerometer system that transmits data via radio frequency to a sideline receiver and laptop computer system was implemented. From the data transfer of these accelerometer traces, the sideline staff has real-time data including the head acceleration, the head injury criteria value, the severity index value, and the impact location. Data are presented for instrumented players for the entire 2003 football season, including practices and games. American collegiate football. Thirty-eight players from Virginia Tech's varsity football team. Accelerations and pathomechanics of head impacts. : A total of 3312 impacts were recorded over 35 practices and 10 games for 38 players. The average peak head acceleration, Gadd Severity Index, and Head Injury Criteria were 32 g +/- 25 g, 36 g +/- 91 g, and 26 g +/- 64 g, respectively. One concussive event was observed with a peak acceleration of 81 g, a 267 Gadd Severity Index, and 200 Head Injury Criteria. Because the concussion was not reported until the day after of the event, a retrospective diagnosis based on his history and clinical evaluation suggested a mild concussion. The primary finding of this study is that the helmet-mounted accelerometer system proved effective at collecting thousands of head impact events and providing contemporaneous head impact parameters that can be integrated with existing clinical evaluation techniques.

  17. Hydration and Fluid Replacement Knowledge, Attitudes, Barriers, and Behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Kumley, Roberta F; Bellar, David M; Pike, Kim L; Pierson, Eric E; Weidner, Thomas; Pearson, David; Friesen, Carol A

    2016-11-01

    Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams

  18. Oculomotor Cognitive Control Abnormalities in Australian Rules Football Players with a History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Meaghan; Mutimer, Steven; Wright, David K; Tsang, Adrian; Costello, Daniel M; Gardner, Andrew J; Stanwell, Peter; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Sun, Mujun; Brady, Rhys D; McDonald, Stuart J; Webster, Kyria M; Johnstone, Maddison R; Semple, Bridgette D; Agoston, Denes V; White, Owen B; Frayne, Richard; Fielding, Joanne; O'Brien, Terence J; Shultz, Sandy R

    2018-03-01

    This study used oculomotor, cognitive, and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures to assess for neurological abnormalities in current asymptomatic amateur Australian rules footballers (i.e., Australia's most participated collision sport) with a history of sports-related concussion (SRC). Participants were 15 male amateur Australian rules football players with a history of SRC greater than 6 months previously, and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched athlete control subjects that had no history of neurotrauma or participation in collision sports. Participants completed a clinical interview, neuropsychological measures, and oculomotor measures of cognitive control. MRI investigation involved structural imaging, as well as diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI sequences. Despite no group differences on conventional neuropsychological tests and multi-modal MRI measures, Australian rules football players with a history of SRC performed significantly worse on an oculomotor switch task: a measure of cognitive control that interleaves the response of looking towards a target (i.e., a prosaccade) with the response of looking away from a target (i.e., an antisaccade). Specifically, Australian footballers performed significantly shorter latency prosaccades and found changing from an antisaccade trial to a prosaccade trial (switch cost) significantly more difficult than control subjects. Poorer switch cost was related to poorer performance on a number of neuropsychological measures of inhibitory control. Further, when comparing performance on the cognitively more demanding switch task with performance on simpler, antisaccade/prosaccades tasks which require a single response, Australian footballers demonstrated a susceptibility to increased cognitive load, compared to the control group who were unaffected. These initial results suggest that current asymptomatic amateur Australian rules football players with a history of SRC may have persisting

  19. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for c...

  20. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  1. Variation in the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA genes in Lithuanian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineviciene, Valentina; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Tubelis, Linas; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ACE (I/D), PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms on footballers performance among 199 Lithuanian professional footballers and 167 sedentary, healthy men (controls). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods on DNA from leucocytes. Results revealed that the angiotensin-1-coverting enzyme gene (ACE) genotype distribution was significantly different between total football players group (II 23.6%, ID 46.7% and DD 29.6%) and the controls (II 24.6%, ID 29.9% and DD 45.5%; P=0.002). Although investigating PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms no significant results were obtained in the total football players group, however, significant differences were determined between forwards and controls [PPARGC1A: GG 54.6%, GA 29.5%, AA 15.9% vs. GG 49.7%, GA 44.3% and AA 6.0% (P = 0.044); PPARA: GG 52.3%, GC 40.9%, CC 6.8% vs. GG 72.4%, GC 24.6% and CC 3.0% (P = 0.034)]. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio of the genotype [ACE ID + PPARA GG] being a footballer was 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.74), and of [ACE ID + PPARGC1A GG] 1.93 (95% CI 1.10-3.37) and of [ACE II + PPARA GC] 2.83 (95% CI 1.02-7.91) compared to controls. It was revealed that ACE ID genotype together with PPARA GG and PPARGC1A GG as well as ACE II genotype with PPARA GC is probably the 'preferable genotype' for footballers. Summing up, the present study suggests that the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA polymorphisms genotypes are associated, separately and in combination, with Lithuanian footballers' performance.

  2. Suicide in professional American football players in the past 95 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webner, David; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    To examine publicly-available information on all identified cases of suicide in active or former American professional football players between 1920 and the spring of 2015. Retrospective cohort study. Professional American Football in the US. A cohort of 26 702 athletes who had died, retired or were currently playing in the NFL from nfl.com since 1920 was identified. Internet queries identifying 26 professional football players who completed suicide. Obituaries and news reports were reviewed. The primary outcome measures included mortality, demographic characteristics and life circumstances in professional American football players completing suicide. From 1920-2015, the median age of the 26 men who completed suicide was 39.5 years (range = 23-85). The median number of years after retirement was 6.5 (range = 0-63). Most of the deaths since 1920 have occurred in the past 15 years (58.7%) and a large percentage have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). Most of the men suffered from multiple life stressors prior to their deaths, such as retirement from sport, loss of steady income, divorce, failed business ventures, estrangement from family members and medical, psychiatric and/or substance abuse problems. A disproportionate number of completed suicides in current and former professional football players have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). It is well established in the literature that the causes of depression and suicidality are diverse, often multifactorial and treatable. Providing at-risk retired athletes with mental health treatment will likely reduce their suffering and improve their quality-of-life.

  3. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  4. Determination and Comparison of Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Football Players in the U10-17 Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksu, Omercan; Yüksek, Selami

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine some motoric characteristics of children football players in the 10-17 age group and to compare them according to their playing positions. The study was carried out with voluntary participation of a total of 190 licensed athletes in Turkey Football Federation "U" category playing in Çeliktepe,…

  5. Comparison of dynamic balance in collegiate field hockey and football players using star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-09-01

    The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instructed to maintain a stable single leg stance with the test leg with shoes off and to reach for maximal distance with the other leg in each of the 8 directions. A pencil was used to point and read the distance to which each subject's foot reached. The normalized leg reach distances in each direction were summed for both limbs and the total sum of the mean of summed normalized distances of both limbs were calculated. There was no significant difference in all the directions of star excursion balance test scores in both the groups. Additionally, composite reach distances of both groups also found non-significant (P=0.5). However, the posterior (P=0.05) and lateral (P=0.03) normalized reach distances were significantly more in field hockey players. Field hockey players and football players did not differ in terms of dynamic balance.

  6. Wearable nanosensor system for monitoring mild traumatic brain injuries in football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  7. Room for Improvement in Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Male Football (Soccer) Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.

  8. The Assessment of Airway Maneuvers and Interventions in University Canadian Football, Ice Hockey, and Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Troutman, Tracy; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University sports medicine clinic. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players. Intervention(s): Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained. Main Outcome Measure(s): The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale. Results: All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players. Conclusions: Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited. PMID:21391796

  9. Interchange rotation factors and player characteristics influence physical and technical performance in professional Australian Rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick A; Kempton, Thomas; Ryan, Samuel; Hocking, Joel; Coutts, Aaron J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on activity profile and technical performance during rotations in professional Australian football. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system data and player rating scores were collected from 33 professional Australian football players during 15 Australian football League matches. Player rating scores were time aligned with their relative total and high-speed running (HSR) distance (>20kmh -1 ) for each on ground rotation. Individual players' maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) was determined from a two-kilometre trial. A multilevel linear mixed model was used to examine the influence of rotations on physical activity profiles and skill execution during match play. Rotation duration and accumulated distance resulted in a trivial-to-moderate reduction in relative total and HSR distances as well as relative rating points. The number of disposals in a rotation had a small positive effect on relative total and HSR distances and a large positive effect on relative rating points. MAS was associated with a moderate-to-large increase in relative total distance, but had a large negative effect on relative rating points. Previous rotation time, stoppages and the number of rotations in the quarter had a trivial-to-small negative effect on relative total and HSR distances. A greater speed (mmin -1 ) was associated with a trivial increase in rating points during a rotation, while there was a trivial decrease in relative total distance as rating points increased. The complex relationship between factors that influence activity profile and technical performance during rotations in Australian football needs to be considered when interpreting match performance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Injuries in Portuguese Amateur Youth Football Players: A Six Month Prospective Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Miguel; Laiginhas, Rita; Ramos, José; Costa, Ovídio

    2017-12-29

    This study analyzed the incidence and characteristics of injuries sustained by amateur youth football players in Portugal during season 2015 - 2016. This is an observational descriptive study. We analyzed Portuguese youth football players' injuries over six months of a season. A total of 529 players were divided according to their age in two groups (Under-17 and Under-19). Data on injuries were collected. Throughout all 62 062.0 hours of exposure recorded, 248 injuries were reported in 173 different players. The average incidence of injury was 3.87 (95% CI = 2.81; 4.94) per 1000 hours of football exposure. There was a significantly higher average incidence of injury during matches - 14.22 (95% CI = 10.35; 18.09) per 1000 hours of exposure - when compared to the average incidence of injury during training - 2.06 (95% CI = 1.22; 2.90) per 1000 hours of exposure. This significance was also observed when the comparison was made within each age group. A traumatic mechanism was involved in 76.6% of all the injuries, while overuse was reported in 12.9%. The most common type was the injury that affected muscles and tendons (52.8%). The body location most commonly affected by injuries was the thigh (24.6%). Even though is essential a better characterization of Portuguese athletes of younger age groups such as those discussed in this study, the results of the studied population are in agreement with the existing literature. However, this study provides more information that may be important to better target the Portuguese athletes' training for injury prevention. This study provides descriptive data on injuries developed in a subpopulation of Portuguese amateur youth football players that could represent a focus for future prevention.

  11. Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury in Professional American Football Players: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Bodil C; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for the consequences Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on cognitive, psychological, physical, and sports-related functioning in professional American Football players. We performed a systematic search in 2 databases, PubMed and SPORTDiscus, to obtain literature from January 1990 to January 2015. To be eligible for inclusion, a study had to examine the relationship between TBI and the consequences for several aspects of functioning in professional American football players older than 18 years. Methodological quality was assessed using a 5-item checklist which assessed selection bias, information bias, and correct reporting of the population and exposure characteristics. The search yielded 21 studies that met our inclusion criteria. An evidence synthesis was performed on the extracted data and resulted in 5 levels of evidence. The evidence synthesis revealed that there is strong evidence that concussions are associated with late-life depression and short-term physical dysfunctions. Evidence for the relationship between concussion and impaired sports-related function, prolonged reaction time, memory impairment, and visual-motor speed was inconclusive. Moderate evidence was found for the association between TBI and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and limited evidence was found for the association between TBI and executive dysfunction. There is strong evidence that a history of concussion in American football players is associated with depression later in life and short-term physical dysfunctions. Also cognitive dysfunctions such as MCI are seen in older players with a history of TBI. These results provide input for actions to prevent TBI and their consequences in (retired) American football players.

  12. The Importance of Coaches' Autonomy Support in the Leisure Experience and Well-Being of Young Footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Cuevas, Ricardo; Atienza, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on the self-determination framework, the study examined the effect of coaches' autonomy support on the leisure experience of young male football players. Specifically, a model was tested analyzing the long-term predictive power of the players' perceptions of the coaches' autonomy support at the beginning of the season on the subjective vitality of young football players at the end of the season, through needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation (IM). Moreover, we tested whether the effects of coaches' autonomy support on the aforementioned variables (needs satisfaction, IM, and subjective vitality) at the end of the season remained at the beginning of the following season. Because the coach in the second season was not the same one as in the first season, the perception of coaches' autonomy support at the beginning of the second season was used as a control variable. Three hundred and sixty football players ( M age = 12.60 years; SD = 0.52) completed a questionnaire on the variables of interest at the beginning of the first season (T1), at the end of the first season (T2), and at the beginning of the second season (T3). The results of the path analyses showed that players' perceptions of coaches' autonomy support at the beginning of the season (T1) positively predicted needs satisfaction at the end of the first season (T2), which in turn predicted IM at the end of the first season (T2). Additionally, IM significantly and positively predicted subjective vitality at the end of the first season (T2). Finally, needs satisfaction, IM, and subjective vitality at the end of the second season (T2) positively predicted these same variables at the beginning of the second season (T3). Results emphasized the importance of the autonomy support offered by the coach in promoting the quality of young people's leisure experience playing football and its benefits for their well-being.

  13. Dynamics of tactical behaviour in association football when manipulating players' space of interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ric

    Full Text Available The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively. The game was played under three spatial constraints: a players were not allowed to move out of their allocated zones, except for the player in possession of the ball; b players were allowed to move to an adjacent zone, and; c non-specific spatial constraints. Positional data was captured using a 5 Hz interpolated GPS tracking system and used to define the configuration states of players for each second in time. The configuration state comprised 37 categories derived from tactical actions, distance from the nearest opponent, distance from the target and movement speed. Notational analysis of players in possession of the ball allowed the mean time of ball possession and the probabilities of passing the ball between players to be calculated. The results revealed that the players' long-term exploratory behaviour decreased and their short-term exploration increased when restricting their space of interaction. Relaxing players' positional constraints seemed to increase the speed of ball flow dynamics. Allowing players to move to an adjacent sub-area increased the probabilities of interaction with the full-back during play build-up. The instability of the coordinative state defined by being free from opponents when players had the ball possession was an invariant feature under all three task constraints. By allowing players to move to adjacent sub-areas, the

  14. Incidence of Concussion During Practice and Games in Youth, High School, and Collegiate American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Hainline, Brian; Snook, Erin M; Hayden, Ross; Simon, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    .80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.96). Youth football had the lowest 1-season concussion risks in 2012 (3.53%) and 2013 (3.13%). The 1-season concussion risk was highest in high school (9.98%) and college (5.54%) in 2012. Football practices were a major source of concussion at all 3 levels of competition. Concussions during practice might be mitigated and should prompt an evaluation of technique and head impact exposure. Although it is more difficult to change the intensity or conditions of a game, many strategies can be used during practice to limit player-to-player contact and other potentially injurious behaviors.

  15. Football Players' Head-Impact Exposure After Limiting of Full-Contact Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Steven P; Williams, Richelle M; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Goldstick, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Sporting organizations limit full-contact football practices to reduce concussion risk and based on speculation that repeated head impacts may result in long-term neurodegeneration. To directly compare head-impact exposure in high school football players before and after a statewide restriction on full-contact practices. Cross-sectional study. High school football field. Participants were varsity football athletes from a single high school. Before the rule change, 26 athletes (age = 16.2 ± 0.8 years, height = 179.6 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 81.9 ± 13.1 kg) participated. After the rule change, 24 athletes (age = 15.9 ± 0.8 years, height = 178.3 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 76.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated. Nine athletes participated in both years of the investigation. Head-impact exposure was monitored using the Head Impact Telemetry System while the athletes participated in football games and practices in the seasons before and after the rule change. Head-impact frequency, location, and magnitude (ie, linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and Head Impact Telemetry severity profile [HITsp], respectively) were measured. A total of 15 398 impacts (592 impacts per player per season) were captured before the rule change and 8269 impacts (345 impacts per player per season) after the change. An average 42% decline in impact exposure occurred across all players, with practice-exposure declines occurring among linemen (46% decline); receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (41% decline); and tight ends, running backs (including fullbacks), and linebackers (39% decline). Impact magnitudes remained largely unchanged between the years. A rule change limiting full-contact high school football practices appears to have been effective in reducing head-impact exposure across all players, with the largest reduction occurring among linemen. This finding is likely associated with the rule modification, particularly because the coaching staff and offensive scheme remained consistent, yet how

  16. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  17. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P

    2016-05-01

    There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ABILITY AND TECHNICAL PREPARATION FOR THE GROWTH OF YOUNG FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Raičković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical preparation of young footballers significantly difers from that of adult footballers. Young footballers,while growing and maturing,go through sensitive phases,namely periods, when it is the most convenient to influence on the development of certain characteristics and abilities. Physical abilities include motor and functional abilities. Motor abilities are:strength, speed, endurance, elacticity and coordination. Functional abilities include aerobic and anaerobic organism capacity. Football technique is the basic instrument of organising the football game. Technique has individual character. Technical preparation mainly covers training and improvement of basic football game techniques, namely, moving with and without ball and bringing technique to perfection

  19. Effects of different re-warm up activities in football players' performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Abade

    Full Text Available Warm up routines are commonly used to optimize football performance and prevent injuries. Yet, official pre-match protocols may require players to passively rest for approximately 10 to 15 minutes between the warm up and the beginning of the match. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of different re-warm up activities on the physical performance of football players. Twenty-Two Portuguese elite under-19 football players participated in the study conducted during the competitive season. Different re-warm up protocols were performed 6 minutes after the same standardized warm up in 4 consecutive days in a crossover controlled approach: without, eccentric, plyometric and repeated changes of direction. Vertical jump and Sprint performances were tested immediately after warm up and 12 minutes after warm up. Results showed that repeated changes of direction and plyometrics presented beneficial effects to jump and sprint. Different practical implications may be taken from the eccentric protocol since a vertical jump impairment was observed, suggesting a possibly harmful effect. The absence of re-warm up activities may be detrimental to players' physical performance. However, the inclusion of re-warm up prior to match is a complex issue, since the manipulation of volume, intensity and recovery may positively or negatively affect the subsequent performance. In fact, this exploratory study shows that eccentric exercise may be harmful for physical performance when performed prior a football match. However, plyometric and repeated changes of direction exercises seem to be simple, quick and efficient activities to attenuate losses in vertical jump and sprint capacity after warm up. Coaches should aim to develop individual optimal exercise modes in order to optimize physical performance after re warm activities.

  20. Observations on the treatment of lumbar disk disease in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A L; Friedman, W A; Indelicato, P A

    1987-01-01

    Over a 4 year period, 12 college players were treated for diskogenic injury. The most common position affected was down-lineman. Symptoms consisted of low back and/or radicular pain. No players could recall the onset of symptoms relative to football activity; weightlifting was associated with symptoms in three cases. Tentative clinical diagnosis was herniated disk disease. Method of diagnosis in the athletic population is presented along with results of surgical treatment. Percutaneous diskectomy appears to be successful for disk herniations occurring at the L4-5 space or higher.

  1. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed...... and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21...

  2. Protective equipment and player characteristics associated with the incidence of sport-related concussion in high school football players: a multifactorial prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.

  4. Research on the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın İlimdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players based upon the importance of motivation on the athletes’ successes. The research group comprises 243 voluntary amateur football players who actively participated in the competitions during 2016-2017 season in Elazig. In the study, “Sports-Specific Achievement Motivation Scale” that was developed by Willis (1982 and adapted to Turkish by Tiryaki and Godelek (1997 was used. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 22 programme. The margin of error was accepted as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha value was found as ,78. Consequently; when the subscales of achievement motivation of the amateur soccer players participating in the study were analyzed with some variables, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those aged 22-24 years and those aged 25-27 years in approach success. In the team playing year variable, the statistical significance was found between the ones who have 1 year football history in the team and those who are 5 years or more in the approach success. It was observed the approach to achievement motivation increased as the experience of playing for a team increased. As for the year of working with a trainer variable, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those who had 1 year past with coach and those who had 2 years past with the motivation to avoid failure.

  5. Position specific player load during match-play in a professional football club.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baptista

    Full Text Available There is a rapid growing body of knowledge regarding physical aspects of a football match due to studies using computer-assisted motion analysis. The present study used time-motion analysis and triaxial-accelerometers to obtain new insights about differences in physical profiles of elite football players across playing-positions. Player performance data in 23 official home matches from a professional football club, during two seasons were collected for analysis. Eighteen players from five different playing positions (central backs: n = 3; full-backs: n = 5; central midfielders: n = 6; wide midfielders: n = 3; and central forwards: n = 4, performing a total of 138 observations. A novel finding was that central backs and central midfielders had significantly lower work-rate in sprints, decelerations and accelerations than full-backs, wide midfielders and central forwards (p90° than central backs. The most common distance covered in high-intensity runs (≥19.8 km·h-1 for central backs, central midfielders, wide midfielders and central forwards was 1-5 m, but for full-backs was 6-10 m. This may help coaches in developing individualized training programs to meet the demands of each position in match-play.

  6. Perceived motivational factors for female football players during rehabilitation after sports injury - a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Malin; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Compliance with a rehabilitation program is significant among athletes following a sports injury. It is also one of the main factors that influence the rehabilitation process; moreover, the outcome is also influenced by the athlete's motivation. It is primarily an autonomous motivation, resulting in rehabilitation adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived motivation of female football players during rehabilitation after a sports injury and the extent to which these motivating factors were autonomous. Qualitative interviews, based on a semistructured interview guide with injured female football players undergoing rehabilitation, were analyzed using content analysis. The motivational factors that were described were their set goals, social support as well as external and internal pressures during rehabilitation. The perceived autonomy varied somewhat but overall, they experienced external motivation; therefore, the behavior was not entirely self-determined. Results are expected to provide a better understanding of women football players' motivation in relation to their rehabilitation; hence, physiotherapists and coaches who are part of the rehabilitation process can contribute by increasing the autonomous motivation, thus, improving the compliance and outcome of the rehabilitation.

  7. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  8. Drinking by professional Australian Football League (AFL) players: prevalence and correlates of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul M; Fitzgerald, John L; Jenkinson, Rebecca A

    2008-11-03

    To examine self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and experience of alcohol-related harms among professional Australian Football League (AFL) players. Cross-sectional survey of player alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol-related harms among members of all 16 professional AFL clubs. Data relating to the 2006 football year were collected between 25 July and 30 August 2006 at regular football training sessions using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Risky/high-risk drinking for long- and short-term harm at different times of the year; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score. 582 AFL players completed the questionnaire (an 83% response rate). Alcohol consumption varied at different times of the year. During the playing season (approximately 22 weeks), the level of risky/high-risk consumption for long-term harm in AFL players (11/564 [2%]) was typically lower than in age-matched Australian men in the general population (15%). However, risky/high-risk consumption for long-term harm was higher in AFL players during the end-of-season period (approximately 2 weeks) (303/561 [54%]) and vacation period (6-8 weeks) (231/559 [41%]) than in age-matched Australian men. Risky/high-risk drinking for short-term harm on a monthly basis was frequent at all times of the year (eg, 395/560 [71%] in the pre-season period). The mean AUDIT score was 8.8 (95% CI, 8.4 to 9.1; range, 0 to 36). Reports of harmful effects of drinking and negative consequences, such as getting involved in a fight (physical or verbal) while drinking (146/556 [26%]), were common. Risky/high-risk consumption for short-term harm on a monthly basis was associated with a variety of player characteristics, such as usually drinking in public locations (odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.02 to 2.35]). AUDIT score was associated with variables such as marital status, with married players scoring more than two points lower (95% CI, - 3.58 to - 0.58) than single players. Formal club rules

  9. MRI of the wrist is not recommended for age determination in female football players of U-16/U-17 competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, P M; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Zubler, V

    2016-03-01

    Age determination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist is a reliable method in male football players to evaluate their eligibility to participate in Under 17 tournaments. MRI of the wrist was performed in 487 female volunteers aged 13-19 years from Brazil, Germany, Malaysia, and Tanzania, and in 139 female football players participating in Under-16 and Under-17 football tournaments. A previously validated method for grading fusion of the distal radial epiphysis in male adolescent was used. Moderate correlation of chronological age and epiphyseal fusion was found in the normative control group (r = .59) and weak correlation in female football players (r = .27). Complete fusion of the distal radial epiphysis was observed in two 15-year-old volunteers of the control group (1.7%) and in 17.6% (3 of 17) of 14-year-old football players. Up to 10.8% (47 of 437) in the control group and 14.4% (20 of 139) of the football players 17 years or younger had complete fused epiphysis. Because of earlier osseous maturity in female adolescents, the grade of fusion of the distal radial epiphysis on MRI is not recommended for pretournament age determination for the age of 17 and younger in female. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Do Australian Football players have sensitive groins? Players with current groin pain exhibit mechanical hyperalgesia of the adductor tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael K; Lovell, Gregory; Palsson, Thorvaldur S; Chiarelli, Pauline E; Osmotherly, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity, clinical classifications and prevalence of groin pain in Australian football players. Case-control. Professional (n=66) and semi-professional (n=9) Australian football players with and without current or previous groin injuries were recruited. Diagnoses were mapped to the Doha Agreement taxonomy. Point and career prevalence of groin pain was calculated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at regional and distant sites using handheld pressure algometry across four sites bilaterally (adductor longus tendon, pubic bone, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior muscle). To assess the relationship between current groin pain and fixed effects of hyperalgesia of each site and a history of groin pain, a mixed-effect logistic regression model was utilised. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve were determined for the model. Point prevalence of groin pain in the preseason was 21.9% with a career prevalence of 44.8%. Adductor-related groin pain was the most prevalent classification in the pre-season period. Hyperalgesia was observed in the adductor longus tendon site in athletes with current groin pain (OR=16.27, 95% CI 1.86 to 142.02). The ROC area under the curve of the regression model was fair (AUC=0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83). Prevalence data indicates that groin pain is a larger issue than published incidence rates imply. Adductor-related groin pain is the most common diagnosis in pre-season in this population. This study has shown that hyperalgesia exists in Australian football players experiencing groin pain indicating the value of assessing mechanical pain sensitivity as a component of the clinical assessment. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    1997-03-01

    To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population.

  12. Efectos de un programa basado en juegos reducidos sobre la condición física de jóvenes jugadores de fútbol. [Effects of a program based on small-sided games on the physical condition in young football players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arrieta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available La metodología de entrenamiento en fútbol ha evolucionado en gran medida en los últimos años, incluyendo tareas cada vez más específicas, y adquiriendo los juegos reducidos (JR un protagonismo destacado. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos sobre la condición física de jóvenes futbolistas de un programa de seis semanas basado en JR. Participaron 22 futbolistas de dos grupos de edad diferente: U16 (n= 11, edad: 15,8±0,3 años y U18 (n= 11, edad: 18,5±0,5 años. Los jugadores fueron evaluados tanto al principio como al final de la intervención con las siguientes pruebas: salto con contramovimiento (CMJ, test de velocidad en 40m (V40m y test de resistencia University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT. Los resultados mostraron mejoras significativas del pre- al post- test en el CMJ (ES=1,05±0,13, 100%,0%,0%, V40m(ES=-0,29±0,15,0%,16%,84% y UMTT (ES=0,30±0,20,79%,21%,0% p<0,05. Con dichos resultados podemos concluir que un programa basado en JR, con una secuencia progresiva y con variedad en los formatos de juego en cuanto a dimensiones y número de jugadores por equipo, puede mantener y/o mejorar la condición física de los futbolistas. Una de las aplicaciones prácticas derivada del estudio es que los entrenadores pueden implementar JR para entrenar mediante tareas jugadas sin descuidar el aspecto condicional de los jugadores. Abstract Football training methodology has evolved greatly in recent years, including more increasingly specialized drills, with small-side games (SSG taking on a prominent role. The objective of the current study was to analyze the effects that SSGs have on the physical condition of young football players during a six-week program. The study included 22 football players of two different age groups: U16 (n= 11, age: 15.8±0.3 years and U18 (n= 11, age: 18.5±0.5 years. The participants were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the intervention with the following tests: counter

  13. Nutrition for young soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña Alvarado, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    El artículo también se encuentra escrito en español. The growing participation of young people in soccer is a motivation so that the trainers, physical educators and parents know which are the special requirements to practice this sport in a safe manner, specially the nutritional requirements. The present revision includes generalities on the physiological demands of soccer, the differences between young people and adults when making prolonged exercise, the necessities ...

  14. Olfactory Function and Associated Clinical Correlates in Former National Football League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L.; Jarnagin, Johnny; Tripodis, Yorghos; Platt, Michael; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Professional American football players incur thousands of repetitive head impacts (RHIs) throughout their lifetime. The long-term consequences of RHI are not well characterized, but may include olfactory dysfunction. RHI has been associated with changes to brain regions involved in olfaction, and olfactory impairment is common after traumatic brain injury. Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent early sequelae of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and RHI is associated with the neurodegenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We examined olfaction, and its association with clinical measures, in former National Football League (NFL) players. Ninety-five former NFL players (ages 40–69) and 28 same-age controls completed a neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric evaluation as part of a National Institutes of Health–funded study. The Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) assessed olfaction. Principal component analysis generated a four-factor structure of the clinical measures: behavioral/mood, psychomotor speed/executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Former NFL players had worse B-SIT scores relative to controls (p = 0.0096). A B-SIT cutoff of 11 had the greatest accuracy (c-statistic = 0.61) and specificity (79%) for discriminating former NFL players from controls. In the former NFL players, lower B-SIT scores correlated with greater behavioral/mood impairment (p = 0.0254) and worse psychomotor speed/executive functioning (p = 0.0464) after controlling for age and education. Former NFL players exhibited lower olfactory test scores relative to controls, and poorer olfactory test performance was associated with worse neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric functioning. Future work that uses more-comprehensive tests of olfaction and structural and functioning neuroimaging may improve understanding on the association between RHI and olfaction. PMID:27430424

  15. Olfactory Function and Associated Clinical Correlates in Former National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Jarnagin, Johnny; Tripodis, Yorghos; Platt, Michael; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2017-02-15

    Professional American football players incur thousands of repetitive head impacts (RHIs) throughout their lifetime. The long-term consequences of RHI are not well characterized, but may include olfactory dysfunction. RHI has been associated with changes to brain regions involved in olfaction, and olfactory impairment is common after traumatic brain injury. Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent early sequelae of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and RHI is associated with the neurodegenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We examined olfaction, and its association with clinical measures, in former National Football League (NFL) players. Ninety-five former NFL players (ages 40-69) and 28 same-age controls completed a neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric evaluation as part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study. The Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) assessed olfaction. Principal component analysis generated a four-factor structure of the clinical measures: behavioral/mood, psychomotor speed/executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Former NFL players had worse B-SIT scores relative to controls (p = 0.0096). A B-SIT cutoff of 11 had the greatest accuracy (c-statistic = 0.61) and specificity (79%) for discriminating former NFL players from controls. In the former NFL players, lower B-SIT scores correlated with greater behavioral/mood impairment (p = 0.0254) and worse psychomotor speed/executive functioning (p = 0.0464) after controlling for age and education. Former NFL players exhibited lower olfactory test scores relative to controls, and poorer olfactory test performance was associated with worse neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric functioning. Future work that uses more-comprehensive tests of olfaction and structural and functioning neuroimaging may improve understanding on the association between RHI and olfaction.

  16. Balance Regularity Among Former High School Football Players With or Without a History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julianne D; Terry, Douglas P; Ko, Jihyun; Newell, Karl M; Miller, L Stephen

    2018-02-01

      Subclinical postural-control changes may persist beyond the point when athletes are considered clinically recovered postconcussion.   To compare postural-control performance between former high school football players with or without a history of concussion using linear and nonlinear metrics.   Case-control study.   Clinical research laboratory.   A total of 11 former high school football players (age range, 45-60 years) with 2 or more concussions and 11 age- and height-matched former high school football players without a history of concussion. No participant had college or professional football experience.   Participants completed the Sensory Organization Test. We compared postural control (linear: equilibrium scores; nonlinear: sample and multiscale entropy) between groups using a 2 × 3 analysis of variance across conditions 4 to 6 (4: eyes open, sway-referenced platform; 5: eyes closed, sway-referenced platform; 6: eyes open, sway-referenced surround and platform).   We observed a group-by-condition interaction effect for medial-lateral sample entropy ( F 2,40 = 3.26, P = .049, η p 2 = 0.140). Participants with a history of concussion presented with more regular medial-lateral sample entropy values (0.90 ± 0.41) for condition 5 than participants without a history of concussion (1.30 ± 0.35; mean difference = -0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.74, -0.06; t 20 = -2.48, P = .02), but conditions 4 (mean difference = -0.11; 95% CI: -0.37, 0.15; t 20 = -0.86, P = .40) and 6 (mean difference = -0.25; 95% CI: -0.55, 0.06; t 20 = -1.66, P = .11) did not differ between groups.   Postconcussion deficits, detected using nonlinear metrics, may persist long after injury resolution. Subclinical concussion deficits may persist for years beyond clinical concussion recovery.

  17. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  18. Depression in Danish and Swedish elite football players and its relation to perfectionism and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Ivarsson, Andreas; Fallby, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of perfectionism and anxiety to depressive symptoms in Danish and Swedish male elite football players. Additionally, the relationship between age and the study variables, and differences between elite junior and professional players...... were examined. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to survey 323 A-squad and U19 players (M age = 22.08 years, SD = 5.15). The survey included biographical information as well as measures of depressive symptoms, perfectionism (strivings and concerns), competitive anxiety, and social...... phobia. Results. Results revealed an overall prevalence rate for depressive symptoms among the participants of 16.7%. Moreover, correlation analyses showed evidence of the relationships between depression and perfectionistic concerns, competitive anxiety and social phobia. The results of a mediation...

  19. Study of trunk flexibility and body composition between football and badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANDALAL SINGH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was an attempt to compare the flexibility (trunk flexibility and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat, total body fat and lean body mass between inter-college level malefootball and badminton players. Fifty (50 male inter-college level football players (N=25 and badmintonplayers (N=25 ranging between 17 to 25years were selected randomly from different colleges of PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh for this study. To compare the mean differences between the inter-college level footballand badminton players,t tests were computed using SPSS Software. Flexibility (trunk flexibility, and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat and total body fat were not found to be statistically significant

  20. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D

    2011-04-01

    Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.

  1. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A.; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R. Dawn; Boden, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Hypothesis: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Results: Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P < 0.001); had more symptoms (5.34 vs 4.54, P = 0.004); and had longer symptom duration (P = 0.04). Athletes with helmets lined with an air bladder had greater rates of sensitivity to light (RR, 1.13; P = 0.02), sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.25; P = 0.009), and longer symptom duration (P = 0.004) compared with foam or gel liners. Conclusion: An improperly fitted football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder–lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Clinical Relevance: Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. PMID:27005467

  2. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max of players, the treadmill protocol was used as recommended by Wilmore and Costill (2007. This was a maximal test. Results: an average VO2max of 57.71 ml/kg/min ± 8.8 was found; however, no statistically significant differences were found (p = .752 between positions. Conclusion: there were no differences in VO2max by positions.

  3. Just like the lottery? Player behaviour and anomalies in the market for football pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Pérez, Levi

    2015-06-01

    Football pools were an antecedent to lotto in providing a long-odds, high-prize gambling opportunity for a mass market in Europe. Even after lotto has become well established, pools games continue to occupy a significant niche in the gaming market in several jurisdictions, most notably Spain. This paper employs 23 years of sales data from the national pools game in Spain to investigate similarities between the behaviour of lotto players and pools players. It observes similar phenomena as have been noted in lotto sales studies, including strong sensitivity of sales to the size of jackpot on offer, significant habit effects, a halo effect whereby there is some short-term persistence in increased sales whenever a high jackpot is offered (even after jackpot size has returned to normal), and a tendency to jackpot fatigue (over time, the size of the jackpot has to be increased to more than before to stimulate the same increase in sales). Notwithstanding that the football pools are marketed as based on knowledge and understanding of sport whereas lotto is a pure numbers game, modelling sales of the pools therefore yields findings very similar to those reported in the literature on lotto. This suggests that both sets of players share common psychological and cognitive traits and economic motivation. Those responsible for promoting pools should therefore be able to draw on findings from the much more extensive literature on lotto when formulating strategy in terms of game design and marketing.

  4. Age differences in change-of-direction performance and its subelements in female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Norikazu; Nakahori, Chikako

    2015-05-01

    To describe cross-sectional age differences in change-of-direction performance (CODp) in female football players and investigate the relationship between CODp and linear-sprint speed, muscle power, and body size. A sample of 135 well-trained female football players was divided into 8 age groups. Anthropometry (height, body mass, and lean body mass) and athletic performance (10-m sprint speed, 10-m×5-CODp, and 5-step bounding distance) were compared to determine interage differences using ANOVA. Then, the participants were divided into 3 age groups: 12- to 14-y-olds, 15- to 17-y-olds, and ≥18 y-olds. Simple- and multiple-regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between CODp and the other measurement variables in each age group. Age-related differences were found for CODp (F=10.41, Pfemale players. Linear-sprint speed, muscle power, and body size were weakly correlated with the age differences in CODp.

  5. Femoroacetabular Impingement in Professional Football Players: Return to Play and Predictors of Career Length After Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Travis J; Bhatia, Sanjeev; McNamara, Shannen C; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have shown hip arthroscopy to be a highly effective treatment for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in a wide range of athletes; however, the rate of return to play and length of career after hip arthroscopy in professional football players are unknown. To determine how many athletes returned to professional football and the number of seasons they played after surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-one professional football players (60 hips) underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI between 2000 and 2014 by a single surgeon. Return to play was defined as competing in a preseason or regular season professional football game after surgery. Data were retrospectively obtained for each player from NFL.com , ESPN.com , individual team websites, and/or CFL.ca . We found that 87% (52/60) of the arthroscopic procedures allowed professional football players to return to play in a preseason or regular season game. Athletes who returned played an average of 38 games during 3.2 seasons after arthroscopy, with an average total career length of 7.4 seasons. Ninety-two percent (48/52) of players who returned had a minimum total career length of 3 years. When participants were analyzed by position, linemen were less likely to return after hip arthroscopy compared with other players (odds ratio 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-35; P = .04). All quarterbacks and tight ends returned to play after surgery. No significant difference in return to play rate was found between athletes who underwent microfracture and those who did not (25% vs 38%, P = .698). Hip arthroscopy for treatment of FAI and associated pathologic abnormalities in professional football players resulted in a high rate of return to play. The study's findings demonstrate that 87% of the arthroscopic procedures allowed professional football players to return to play, linemen were less likely to return compared with other positions, and the presence of microfracture did not significantly affect the return

  6. Epidemiology of Knee Sprains in Youth, High School, and Collegiate American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Onate, James A; Schussler, Eric; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-05-01

      Variations in knee-sprain incidence among competition levels are unclear but may help inform prevention strategies in American football players.   To describe the epidemiology of knee sprains in youth, high school, and collegiate football players.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were collected from 3 injury-surveillance programs at the youth, high school, and collegiate competition levels.   Data from 310 youth, 184 high school, and 71 collegiate football team-seasons were collected during the 2012 through 2014 seasons.   Knee-sprain rates and risks were calculated for each competition level. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and risk ratios (RRs) compared knee-sprain rates by competition level. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) compared differences in surgery needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level.   Knee-sprain rates in youth, high school, and collegiate football were 0.16/1000 AEs, 0.25/1000 AEs, and 0.69/1000 AEs, respectively. Knee-sprain rates increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: IRR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 2.30; collegiate versus high school: IRR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.38, 3.96). Knee-sprain risk was highest in collegiate (4.3%), followed by high school (2.0%) and youth (0.5%) athletes. Knee-sprain risk increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: RR = 3.73; 95% CI = 2.60, 5.34; collegiate versus high school: RR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.83, 2.51). Collegiate football had the lowest proportion of knee sprains that were noncontact injuries (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.95; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.79) and the lowest proportion that occurred while being tackled (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.98).   Knee-sprain incidence was highest in collegiate football

  7. Fatal Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football Players: The Need for Regional Heat-Safety Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew J; Hosokawa, Yuri; Casa, Douglas J

    2018-01-01

      Weather-based activity modification in athletics is an important way to minimize heat illnesses. However, many commonly used heat-safety guidelines include a uniform set of heat-stress thresholds that do not account for geographic differences in acclimatization.   To determine if heat-related fatalities among American football players occurred on days with unusually stressful weather conditions based on the local climate and to assess the need for regional heat-safety guidelines.   Cross-sectional study.   Data from incidents of fatal exertional heat stroke (EHS) in American football players were obtained from the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research and the Korey Stringer Institute.   Sixty-one American football players at all levels of competition with fatal EHSs from 1980 to 2014.   We used the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and a z-score WBGT standardized to local climate conditions from 1991 to 2010 to assess the absolute and relative magnitudes of heat stress, respectively.   We observed a poleward decrease in exposure WBGTs during fatal EHSs. In milder climates, 80% of cases occurred at above-average WBGTs, and 50% occurred at WBGTs greater than 1 standard deviation from the long-term mean; however, in hotter climates, half of the cases occurred at near average or below average WBGTs.   The combination of lower exposure WBGTs and frequent extreme climatic values in milder climates during fatal EHSs indicates the need for regional activity-modification guidelines with lower, climatically appropriate weather-based thresholds. Established activity-modification guidelines, such as those from the American College of Sports Medicine, work well in the hotter climates, such as the southern United States, where hot and humid weather conditions are common.

  8. Direct and indirect measurement of neuromuscular fatigue in Canadian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nick; Farthing, Jonathan P; Lanovaz, Joel L; Krentz, Joel R

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of a fatiguing game simulation (G-Sim) on the balance of collegiate Canadian football players. The purpose of the study was to evaluate postural control as a potential tool for monitoring neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) in collision-based team sports. Fifteen male Canadian football players were recruited (mean±SD: age 21.8±1.6 years, weight 97.6±14.7 kg). Indirect NMF measures (postural sway and countermovement jump (CMJ)) were performed 24 h before (TBase), immediately before (TPre) and after (TPost), and 24 h (T24) and 48 h after (T48) a Canadian football G-Sim. Peak isometric knee extensor torque of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electrically evoked tetani at 20 Hz (P20) and 80 Hz (P80) were also recorded as direct NMF measures at TBase, TPre, TPost, and T48. At TPost, we observed significant declines in MVC, P20, and the MVC/P80 ratio (-15.3%, -15.7%, and -12.1%, respectively; n=12) along with reductions in CMJ takeoff velocity and peak power (-6.9% and -6.5%, respectively; n=12) and larger area of the center of pressure trajectory (95.2%; n=10) during a 60-s postural sway task. All variables were no longer different than baseline by T48. Acute neuromuscular impairment in this cohort is likely attributable to alterations in excitation-contraction coupling due to structural damage and central activation failure. Congruency between the direct and indirect measures of NMF suggests monitoring postural sway has the potential to identify both neuromuscular and somatosensory alterations induced by acute game-induced fatigue in collision-based team sports players.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 4 WEEKS OF DYNAMIC B ALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM IN COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYERS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Balance is highly integrative dynamic process involving coordination of multiple neurological pathways that allows for the maintenance of the COG over BOS . Football players often perform lower extremity passing , shooting , twisting , cutting and dribbling skills while wearing shoes , these actions require body to be in the equilibrium position to perform the task . This leads to t he conclusion of the great importance of the ability of balance in football . AIMS: 1 . To study the effect of 4 week multidirectional balance board training on dynamic balance in football players . 2 . To study the effect of 4 week Both Sides Up ball training on dynamic balance in football players . 3 . To compare the effect of multidirectional balance board training program and BOSU ball training program on dynamic balance in football players . STUDY DESIGN: Randomized Clinical trial . METHODS: Total of 60 competitive badminton players with age group between18 - 25 were recruited in this study . The participants were allocated into 2 groups viz ., Group A (multidirectional balance board training and Group B (BOSU ball Training for a period of 4 we eks . Participants were test for SEBT and vertical jump test on first day and after 4 weeks of balance training . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student t test , Chi - Square Test . RESULTS: The data analysis and statistical inference showed that , after 4 weeks of balanc e training there was improvement in dynamic balance in both the groups but there was no significant difference in dynamic balance between two groups . As seen by difference in the SEBT and VJT scores pre and post training with p<0 . 001 . CONCLUSION: 4 weeks balance training using BOSU and multidirectional balance board is effective in improving dynamic balance and vertical jump performance in football players and also can be used as a component of multifaceted training to improve dynamic balance and game skills

  10. STRUCTURE OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS AT THE AGE OF 10-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a research carried out on the sample of 256 football players at the age of 10-12, using a 20-test battery for evaluation of basic motor abilities, and according to factor analysis, it may generally be concluded that five latent dimensions of structure of basic motor abilities have been isolated, which have been named as: FACTOR OF SPEED-POWER STAMINA, FACTOR OF SPEED OF ALTERNATIVE MOVEMENTS OF LOWER EXTREMITIES AND REPETITIVE STRENGTH OF ARMS, SHOULDERS AND STOMACH MUSCLES, FACTOR OF SUPPLENESS, FACTOR OF STATIC BALANCE, FACTOR OF DYNAMIC BALANCE AND AGILITY

  11. Changes in the level of motor skills of football players "Flisak" Złotoria club after the period of special preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pabianek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to analyze and assess the changes in motor skill level of football players after the period of special preparation. This goal was accomplished by discussing theoretical information on the above issues as well as the results of a study conducted jointly with a group of 54 trainers at Flisak Złotoria Club (18 football players aged 11-12, 13-17 and over 17 years. In the course of the research it was shown that the football training at Flisak Złotoria in the special subperiod contributed to a slight improvement in general level and special fitness. Irregularities have been observed in young men's swing and seniors' swing, but due to the marginal nature of negative changes they should not cause a negative assessment of the quality of training in the examined club (though an in-depth analysis of training programs is required for the preparatory period. It also seems reasonable to look for solutions that will increase the efficiency of special fitness training. There was no constant correlation between the age of the respondents and the results of the training. In the course of the research conducted among youngsters, juniors and seniors, it was stated above all that the special preparation sub-period had a very limited but positive impact on the overall fitness level of football players, as confirmed by the improvement in the average scores obtained in 7 out of 9 Exercises. The fact that, as the empirical data show, the marginal reduction of the Seniors' speed over short distances (a decrease of the average running time of 15 meters by 0.21% and the youthfulness (decrease of the length of the jump by 0.99 %.

  12. Participation in Pre-High School Football and Neurological, Neuroradiological, and Neuropsychological Findings in Later Life: A Study of 45 Retired National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Lovell, Mark R; Sills, Allen K

    2016-05-01

    A recent study found that an earlier age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football was associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in retired National Football League (NFL) players. To assess the association between years of exposure to pre-high school football (PreYOE) and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures in a different sample of retired NFL players. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-five former NFL players were included in this study. All participants prospectively completed extensive history taking, a neurological examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. To measure the associations between PreYOE and these outcome measures, multiple regression models were utilized while controlling for several covariates. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, none of the neurological, neuroradiological, or neuropsychological outcome measures yielded a significant relationship with PreYOE. A second Bonferroni-corrected analysis of a subset of these athletes with self-reported learning disability yielded no significant relationships on paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests but did result in a significant association between learning disability and computerized indices of visual motor speed and reaction time. The current study failed to replicate the results of a prior study, which concluded that an earlier AFE to tackle football might result in long-term neurocognitive deficits. In 45 retired NFL athletes, there were no associations between PreYOE and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Childhood football play and practice in relation to self-regulation and national team selection; a study of Norwegian elite youth players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstad, Martin K; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Haugen, Tommy

    2018-03-09

    Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses. The results revealed that high self-regulated players were more likely to be selected for national initiatives, and increased their involvement in peer-led football practice and adult-led football practice during childhood, compared to players with lower levels of self-regulation. While national level players reported higher levels of peer-led football play in childhood, the interaction effect suggest that the regional level players increased their involvement in peer-led play during childhood compared to national level players. In conclusion, the findings indicate that childhood sport participation may contribute to later differences in self-regulation, and highlights the importance of childhood engagement in football-specific play and practice in the development of Norwegian youth football players.

  14. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  15. Injuries in male and female semi-professional football (soccer) players in Nigeria: prospective study of a National Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Fapojuwo, Oluwaseun Akinleye; Badru, Oluwaseun Abdulganiyu; Babalola, Anike Rasheedat

    2017-03-21

    Research on the epidemiology of football injuries in Africa is very sparse despite its importance for injury prevention planning in a continent with limited sports medicine resources. The vast majority of studies available in literature were conducted in Europe and only a very few studies have prospectively reported the pattern of football injury in Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and pattern of injuries in a cohort of male and female semi-professional football players in Nigeria. A prospective cohort design was conducted, in which a total of 756 players with an age range of 18-32 years (356 males and 300 females) from 22 different teams (12 male and 10 female teams), were prospectively followed in a National Football Tournament. Physiotherapists recorded team exposure and injuries. Injuries were documented using the consensus protocol for data collection in studies relating to football injury surveillance. An overall incidence of 113.4 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 93.7-136.0) equivalent to 3.7 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 15.6 injuries/1000 h were recorded for male players and 65.9 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 48.9-86.8) equivalent to 2.2 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 7.9 injuries/1000 h were recorded for female players. Male players had a significantly higher risk of injuries [IRR = 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.45)]. Injuries mostly affected the lower extremity for both genders (n = 81, 70% and n = 31, 62% for males and females respectively). Lower leg contusion (n = 22, 19%) and knee sprain (n = 9, 18%) were the most common specific injury types for male and female players respectively. Most of the injuries were as a result of contact with another player (n = 102, 88%-males; n = 48, 96%-females). Time-loss injuries were mostly estimated as minimal (n = 11, 69%) for male players and severe (n = 4, 66%) for female players. The overall incidence of injuries among Nigerian semi-professional football

  16. The effect of laryngoscope handle size on possible endotracheal intubation success in university football, ice hockey, and soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a standard long-handle laryngoscope and a short-handle laryngoscope on ease of possible intubation in football, ice hockey, and soccer players. Prospective crossover study. University Sport Medicine Clinic. Sixty-two university varsity football (62 males), 45 ice hockey (26 males and 19 females), and 39 soccer players (20 males, 19 females). Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three different physicians then assessed the use of laryngoscopes of different handle sizes in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while in-line cervical spine immobilization was maintained. The ease of passage of a laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx of a supine athlete was assessed using both a standard long-handle and a short-handle laryngoscope. Use of a short-handle laryngoscope was easier for all physicians in all sports as compared with a standard-sized laryngoscope. Passage of a laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx of a supine athlete was easiest in soccer players and most difficult in football and ice hockey players for both sizes of laryngoscope. Interference from chest or shoulder pads was a common cause for difficulty in passing the laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx for football and ice hockey players. In the rare instances that an endotracheal intubation is to be attempted on an unconscious athlete, a short-handle laryngoscope may provide the best chance for successful intubation.

  17. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games.

  18. Conservative Management for Stable High Ankle Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.

  19. Discriminating talent-identified junior Australian football players using a video decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group.

  20. COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY: IMPACT OF POSITIVE SELF TALK TRAINING ON JUNIOR LEVEL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam Kanniyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, coaches and athletes from a wide variety of sports have begun to realize the importance of the mental side of athletic performance. Sport specialists agree that athletic performance is influenced not only by physical skills but also by psychological ones. In order to achieve peak performance athletes need a “total package” including physical skills, psychological skills, fitness and injury prevention (Singh 2011. Study was aimed to examine the effect of Positive Self-Talk training on the Competition anxiety and self-confidence of junior level football players. 36 junior level football players, aged 18.7 ± 2.8 years, were randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 was used to assess cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Positive Self-Talk training was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks. Results of ANOVA revealed significant difference between the pre- test and post test scores of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self- confidence in the experimental group while no significant difference in the control group.

  1. Using network metrics to investigate football team players' connections: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Manuel Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of football teams. These metrics were organized on "meso" and "micro" analysis levels. Five official matches of the same team on the First Portuguese Football League were analyzed. An overall of 577 offensive plays were analyzed from the five matches. From the adjacency matrices developed per each offensive play it were computed the scaled connectivity, the clustering coefficient and the centroid significance and centroid conformity. Results showed that the highest values of scaled connectivity were found in lateral defenders and central and midfielder players and the lowest values were found in the striker and goalkeeper. The highest values of clustering coefficient were generally found in midfielders and forwards. In addition, the centroid results showed that lateral and central defenders tend to be the centroid players in the attacking process. In sum, this study showed that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches to understanding the specific team's properties, thus supporting decision-making and improving sports training based on match analysis.

  2. Examining postconcussion symptoms of dizziness and imbalance on neurocognitive performance in collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Lester, Houston F; Patterson, Jessie N; Jones, Sherri M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of symptom reports of dizziness and imbalance on cognitive function in concussed collegiate football players. Retrospective, descriptive. University athletic medicine facility. Twenty-seven collegiate football players were included in the final analysis: 16 with symptoms of dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion and 11 without dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline, at 1 to 2 days postconcussion and 5 to 7 days postconcussion. The ImPACT neurocognitive assessment consists of 6 modules, yielding 4 composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor processing speed, and reaction time. In addition, it includes a postconcussion symptom scale total score. Results revealed that participants with reports of dizziness and imbalance had significantly lower scores on the ImPACT composite scores; however, these individuals also had an overall higher symptom inventory. When accounting for the additional postconcussion symptoms, time was the only significant effect. Dizziness and imbalance are common symptoms postconcussion; however, these symptoms did not predict performance on acute ImPACT scores. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms causing postconcussion symptoms, including symptoms of dizziness and imbalance, and influence on outcomes postconcussion.

  3. Virus activation and immune function during intense training in rugby football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, R; Shimizu, K; Kimura, F; Takemura, M; Suzuki, K; Akama, T; Kono, I; Akimoto, T

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that highly trained athletes are more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) compared with the general population. Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) often appear as either primary invasion of pathogenic organisms and/or reactivation of latent viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EBV reactivation and the appearance of URS during intensive training in collegiate rugby football players. We evaluated EBV-DNA expression in saliva and examined the relationship between onset of URS and daily changes in EBV-DNA as well as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels among 32 male collegiate rugby football players during a 1-month training camp. The EBV-DNA expression tended to be higher in subjects who exhibited sore throat (p=0.07) and cough (p=0.18) than that of those who had no symptoms, although their differences were not significant. The SIgA level was significantly lower 1 day before the EBV-DNA expression (p<0.05). The number of URS increased along with the EBV-DNA expression and decrease of SIgA levels. These results suggest that the appearance of URS is associated with reactivation of EBV and reduction of SIgA during training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Constraints on dynamic stability during forward, backward and lateral locomotion in skilled football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of speed and plane of motion on stability during locomotion in skilled football players. Ten male national-level football players participated in this study to run forward, backward and in lateral directions on a treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speeds. The coordinate data of passive reflective markers attached to body segments were recorded using motion capture systems. Time series data obtained from the ankle marker were used for further analyses. The largest finite-time Lyapunov exponent and maximum Floquet multiplier were adopted to quantify local and orbital dynamic stabilities, respectively. Results showed that speed did not significantly change local and orbital dynamic stabilities in any of running patterns. However, both local and orbital dynamic stability were significantly higher in the secondary plane of progression. Data revealed that in running, unlike walking, stability in the direction perpendicular to the direction of running is significantly higher, implying that less active control is required in the secondary plane of progression. The results of this study could be useful in sports training and rehabilitation programmes where development of fundamental exercise programmes that challenge both speed and the ability to maintain stability might produce a tangible enhancement of athletic skill level.

  5. Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2018-01-01

    We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.

  6. Coordination analysis of players' distribution in football using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; van Emmerik, Richard E A; Santana, Juliana Exel; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Barros, Ricardo Machado Leite de; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination between teams spread during football matches using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. Using a video-based tracking system, we obtained the trajectories of 257 players during 10 matches. Team spread was calculated as functions of time. For a general coordination description, we calculated the cross-correlation between the signals. Vector coding was used to identify the coordination patterns between teams during offensive sequences that ended in shots on goal or defensive tackles. Cross-correlation showed that opponent teams have a tendency to present in-phase coordination, with a short time lag. During offensive sequences, vector coding results showed that, although in-phase coordination dominated, other patterns were observed. We verified that during the early stages, offensive sequences ending in shots on goal present greater anti-phase and attacking team phase periods, compared to sequences ending in tackles. Results suggest that the attacking team may seek to present a contrary behaviour of its opponent (or may lead the adversary behaviour) in the beginning of the attacking play, regarding to the distribution strategy, to increase the chances of a shot on goal. The techniques allowed detecting the coordination patterns between teams, providing additional information about football dynamics and players' interaction.

  7. Football Players' Perceptions of Future Risk of Concussion and Concussion-Related Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Kiernan, Patrick T; Mendel, David; Meehan, William P

    2017-02-15

    Concussion is increasingly recognized as a risk of participation in contact and collision sports. There have been few examinations of athletes' perceptions of their susceptibility to concussion or concussion-related health consequences. We examine college football players' perceptions of their risk of sustaining a concussion and concussion-related health consequences in their future, whether these perceptions change over time, and how concussion history is related to perceived future risk of concussion and concussion-related health consequences. A survey was administered to National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes on 10 teams in 2013 and to nine of those teams in 2014. Athletes answered questions assessing their perceptions of concussion and potential concussion-related health consequences. Approximately 40% of athletes believed there was a strong possibility that they would sustain a concussion in the future, while approximately one-in-four thought a concussion would make them miss a few games. About one-in-10 athletes predicted dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy would develop from concussions. These beliefs were stronger among athletes who had sustained previous concussions. Across the two years studied, athletes' perceptions of the risk of concussion and missing a few games because of concussion decreased significantly. Overall, a substantial proportion of college football players believe they will have long-term health consequences as a result of sustaining sport-related concussions. The true incidence and prevalence of many of these outcomes are unknown. Further research is needed to determine whether athletes have an accurate perception of the risks of these outcomes developing.

  8. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and soft tissue infection among high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; McCord, Gary; Peiffer, Jeffrey; Watkins, Richard R; Parikh, Arpan; Warrington, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections have been documented with increasing frequency in both team and individual sports in recent years. It also seems that the level of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections in the general population has increased. One hundred ninety athletes from 6 local high school football teams were recruited for this prospective observational study to document nasal colonization and the potential role this plays in skin and soft tissue infections in football players and, in particular, MRSA infections. Athletes had nasal swabs done before their season started, and they filled out questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for skin and soft tissue infections. Those enrolled in the study were then observed over the course of the season for skin and soft tissue infections. Those infected had data about their infections collected. One hundred ninety of 386 available student athletes enrolled in the study. Forty-four of the subjects had nasal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none were colonized with MRSA. There were 10 skin and soft tissue infections (8 bacterial and 2 fungal) documented over the course of the season. All were treated as outpatients with oral or topical antibiotics, and none were considered serious. Survey data from the preseason questionnaire showed 21% with skin infection, 11% with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none with MRSA infection during the past year. Three reported a remote history of MRSA infection. We documented an overall skin infection rate of 5.3% among high school football players over a single season. Our results suggest that skin and soft tissue infection may not be widespread among high school athletes in northeast Ohio.

  9. Emergent Access to the Airway and Chest in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Al-Darraji, Sossan; Bric, Justin

    2015-07-01

    American football has the highest rate of fatalities and catastrophic injuries of any US sport. The equipment designed to protect athletes from these catastrophic events challenges the ability of medical personnel to obtain neutral spine alignment and immobilization during airway and chest access for emergency life-support delivery. To compare motion, time, and difficulty during removal of American football helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads. Quasi-experimental, crossover study. Controlled laboratory. We recruited 40 athletic trainers (21 men, 19 women; age = 33.7 ± 11.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 80.7 ± 17.1 kg, experience = 10.6 ± 10.4 years). Paired participants conducted 16 trials in random order for each of 4 helmet, face-mask, and shoulder-pad combinations. An 8-camera, 3-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record head motion in live models wearing properly fitted helmets and shoulder pads. Time and perceived difficulty (modified Borg CR-10). Helmet removal resulted in greater motion than face-mask removal, respectively, in the sagittal (14.88°, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.72°, 16.04° versus 7.04°, 95% CI = 6.20°, 7.88°; F(1,19) = 187.27, P football players must eventually be removed for imaging and medical treatment. Our results fill a gap in the evidence to support current recommendations for prehospital emergent management in patients wearing protective football equipment. Helmet face masks and shoulder pads with quick-release designs allow for clinically acceptable removal times without inducing additional motion or difficulty.

  10. Caught between passion for the game and the need for education: a study of elite-level female football players in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Hansen, Marianne; Ottesen, Laila

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the passion of Danish elite-level female football players for the game and the challenges they face. How do they manage to combine the tough demands of a football life with the need for education? A quantitative survey (2010) was sent out to female players in the Danish 3F...... by Victor Pestoff, we may be operating with a different form of elite in women’s football in Denmark. Future focal points for clubs and the Danish Football Association are to continue supporting the players’ passion for the game and Team Denmark’s focus on ‘the whole human being’ in athletes....... Ligaen and Danish national team players. The findings indicate challenges faced by players in pursuing their passion, as they struggle to combine everyday life, education and work with a football career, either as amateurs or on a playing contract. In the light of the Scandinavian sport model inspired...

  11. High prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement in elite junior Australian Football players assessed using the Functional Movement Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Chalmers, Samuel; Debenedictis, Thomas A; Townsley, Samuel; Lynagh, Matthew; Gleeson, Cara; Zacharia, Andrew; Thomson, Stuart; Magarey, Mary

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement in junior Australian Football players using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Cross-sectional study. Elite junior male Australian Football players (n=301) aged 15-18 years completed pre-season FMS testing. The FMS consists of 7 sub-tests: deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up (TSPU) and rotary stability. The shoulder mobility, TSPU, and rotary stability tests were combined with an accompanying clearing test to assess pain. Each sub-test was scored on an ordinal scale from 0 to 3 and summed to give a composite score out of 21. Composite scores ≤14 were operationally defined as indicating dysfunctional movement. Players scoring differently on left and right sides were considered asymmetrical. Players reported whether they missed any games due to injury in the preceding 22 game season. Sixty percent of players (n=182) had composite scores ≤14, 65% of players (n=196) had at least one asymmetrical sub-test, and 38% of players (n=113) had at least one painful sub-test. Forty-two percent of players (n=126) missed at least one game in the previous season due to injury. Previous injury did not influence composite score (p=0.951) or asymmetry (p=0.629). Players reporting an injury during the previous season were more likely to experience pain during FMS testing (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.23-3.18; p=0.005). Junior Australian Football players demonstrate a high prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement during FMS testing. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Christer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. Aim To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Methods Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. Results This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2 after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. Conclusion We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated

  13. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyami, Masoud; Rolf, Christer

    2009-05-07

    Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2) after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively) however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated by MRI and a modified knee function score occurred between 5 to 7

  14. Continuity, change and complexity in the performance of masculinity among elite young footballers in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven; Anderson, Eric; Magrath, Rory

    2017-06-01

    Following recent research evidencing that young men are redefining the essential components of what it is to be a man, this paper draws on qualitative interviews with 22 elite-level, English Premier League academy level football (soccer) players to investigate their performances and understandings of masculinity in relation to decreasing homohysteria. Even in this gender-segregated, near-total institution, these working-class, non-educationally aspiring adolescents evidence an attenuated performance of 'maleness' and improved attitudinal disposition toward homosexuality. Congruent with insights developed by inclusive masculinity scholars, respondents maintained emotional closeness and physical tactility with male teammates and friends. These more inclusive attitudes and homosocial behaviours were, however, slightly more conservative than in other recent research. We close by explaining this variation with reference to theoretical apparatus' provided by Goffman and Bourdieu to advance theoretical debates about social class and masculinities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  15. The acute effect of match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility in elite youth football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, M; Thorborg, K; Pizzari, T

    2017-01-01

    . Competitive football match play has a significant acute and transient effect on isometric hamstring strength and associated pain levels during resisted knee flexion in male international youth players. Range of motion measures appear to remain relatively unaffected by match play. Isometric hamstring strength......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of competitive football match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. Fifteen male international youth football players were included. Hamstring strength and associated pain ratings, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension...... and flexion range of motion were evaluated immediately post-match and at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h post-match. Strength significantly reduced post-match (P

  16. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  17. At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate

  18. Factors Related to the Academic Success and Failure of College Football Players: The Case of the Mental Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gale; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines variables used to predict the academic success or failure of college football players. Valid predictors include the following: (1) high school grades; (2) repeating a year in school; (3) feelings towards school; (4) discipline history; (5) mother's education; and (6) high school background. (FMW)

  19. Relationship Between Preseason Training Load and In-Season Availability in Elite Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nick B; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the proportion of preseason training sessions completed and load and injury during the ensuing Australian Football League season. Single-cohort, observational study. Forty-six elite male Australian football players from 1 club participated. Players were divided into 3 equal groups based on the amount of preseason training completed (high [HTL], >85% sessions completed; medium [MTL], 50-85% sessions completed; and low [LTL], technology was used to record training and game loads, with all injuries recorded and classified by club medical staff. Differences between groups were analyzed using a 2-way (group × training/competition phase) repeated-measures ANOVA, along with magnitude-based inferences. Injury incidence was expressed as injuries per 1000 h. The HTL and MTL groups completed a greater proportion of in-season training sessions (81.1% and 74.2%) and matches (76.7% and 76.1%) than the LTL (56.9% and 52.7%) group. Total distance and player load were significantly greater during the first half of the in-season period for the HTL (P = .03, ES = 0.88) and MTL (P = .02, ES = 0.93) groups than the LTL group. The relative risk of injury for the LTL group (26.8/1000 h) was 1.9 times greater than that for the HTL group (14.2/1000 h) (χ 2 = 3.48, df = 2, P = .17). Completing a greater proportion of preseason training resulted in higher training loads and greater participation in training and competition during the competitive phase of the season.

  20. Longitudinal Body Composition Changes in NCAA Division I College Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Mann, J. Bryan; Ivey, Pat A.; Hirsch, Katie R.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Many athletes seek to optimize body composition to fit the physical demands of their sport. American football requires a unique combination of size, speed, and power. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in body composition in Division I collegiate football players. For 57 players (Mean ± SD; Age=19.5 ± 0.9 yrs; Height=186.9 ± 5.7 cm; Weight=107.7 ± 19.1 kg), body composition was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the off-season (March-Pre), end of off-season (May), mid-July (Pre-Season), and the following March (March-Post). Outcome variables included weight, body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), android (AND) and gynoid (GYN) fat, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone density (BMD). For a subset of athletes (n=13 out of 57), changes over a 4-year playing career were evaluated with measurements taken every March. Throughout a single year, favorable changes were observed for BF% (Δ=−1.3 ± 2.5%), LM (Δ=2.8 ± 2.8 kg), GYN (Δ=−1.5 ± 3.0%), BMC (Δ=0.06 ± 0.14 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.015 ± 0.027g·cm−2; all pfootball players at high levels of competition can achieve favorable changes in body composition, even late in the career, which may confer benefits for performance and injury prevention. PMID:28005635

  1. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  2. Growth hormone deficiency and central hypogonadism in retired professional football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor László Kovács

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the possible impact of multiple mild head traumas sustained during a long-term football career on the presence of central hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH deficiency. Methods: Twenty-seven retired, former professional male football players were investigated. All subjects were assessed for serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, luteinizing hormone (LH and total testosterone (TT. Quality of life was quantified using the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA questionnaire. Results: Subjects had a median age of 48.0 (42.0 – 53.0 years and a median football career of 29.0 years (22.0 – 32.0. One subject had central hypogonadism and none had growth hormone deficiency. Nine subjects reported sport-related head injuries. We found a negative correlation between sport-related head injuries and serum LH (p = -0.459, P = 0.016. Subjects with a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 3.3 U/L (2.7 – 3.6, while those without a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 4.1 (U/L (3.6 – 5.7, P = 0.017. However, there were no differences in other hormones between the two groups. Moreover, we did not find any correlation between the duration of the player’s career nor their field position with hormone profiles or QoL-AGHDA. Conclusion: Although retired footfall players with a history of sport-related head injury had lower LH levels, we did not find strong evidence of an increased prevalence of central hypogonadism or GH deficiency in these patients. Our results suggest that a long-term football career, which includes headings and repetitive mild head traumas, does not damage the most vulnerable anterior pituitary cells.

  3. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p bench press strength after short-term training.

  4. Quantification of Accelerometer Derived Impacts Associated With Competitive Games in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-02-01

    Wellman, AD, Coad, SC, Goulet, GC, and McLellan, CP. Quantification of accelerometer derived impacts associated with competitive games in National Collegiate Athletic Association division I college football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 330-338, 2017-The aims of the present study were to (a) examine positional impact profiles of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I college football players using global positioning system (GPS) and integrated accelerometry (IA) technology and (b) determine if positional differences in impact profiles during competition exist within offensive and defensive teams. Thirty-three NCAA division I Football Bowl Subdivision players were monitored using GPS and IA (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual player data sets (n = 294) were divided into offensive and defensive teams, and positional subgroups. The intensity, number, and distribution of impact forces experienced by players during competition were recorded. Positional differences were found for the distribution of impacts within offensive and defensive teams. Wide receivers sustained more very light and light to moderate (5-6.5 G force) impacts than other position groups, whereas the running backs were involved in more severe (>10 G force) impacts than all offensive position groups, with the exception of the quarterbacks (p ≤ 0.05). The defensive back and linebacker groups were subject to more very light (5.0-6.0 G force) impacts, and the defensive tackle group sustained more heavy and very heavy (7.1-10 G force) impacts than other defensive positions (p ≤ 0.05). Data from the present study provide novel quantification of positional impact profiles related to the physical demands of college football games and highlight the need for position-specific monitoring and training in the preparation for the impact loads experienced during NCAA division I football competition.

  5. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H.; Gorelik, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  6. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  7. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  8. DISCRIMINATIVE MODEL OF CERTAIN MOTOR INDICATORS OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS AS SELECTION CRITERIA FOR TEAM POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vučković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed and implemented selection is one of the important prerequisites for achieving the expected results in the modern competitive sport at all levels. The aim of this work was to determine how the selection was made for Serbian League players, on the basis of their certain motor parameters and the positions in the team. A sample of 25 senior players of a football team competing in the Serbian League is divided into four sub-samples, based on team positions. For assessment of motor characteristics following tests were used: long jump (LJ, Abalac test (AT; 10 seconds push-ups (PU, 30 seconds trunk bends (TB, 20 meter flying start running (20FSR, 20 meter high start running (20HSR, 50 meter high start running (50HSR and Cooper test (CT . Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that there are significant differences for variable 20FSR and variable CT (F = 3754, 9835, p = .027, .000, respectively. Three canonical discriminant functions were singled out, where the first explained even 84.6%, the second 14.5% and the third only 1% of the total variance, or in summary first two functions explained 99.0% of the variance. It can be concluded that the selected players, in terms of the position in the team, distinguished first by performing on the Cooper test, followed by the result of 20 meter flying start running, 20 meter high start running, 50 meter high start running, trunk bends, and finally by Abalac test, push-ups and long jump. Observed as a function of certain motor characteristics, it could be concluded that in the selection of players in terms of the playing position confidence level was 72.0% in general level, with the most reliable for goalkeepers (100%, midfielders (71.4% and defensive players (70.0%, while the smallest was at strikers (50%.

  9. Operative shoulder instability injury management in Australian Football League players: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Manson, Brent; Bowe, Steven J; Gill, Stephen; Seward, Hugh; Hoy, Greg; Page, Richard

    2017-11-27

    The purpose of this study was to review the surgical management procedures of shoulder instability injuries in Australian Football League (AFL) players, and determine outcomes regarding return to sport and injury recurrence. Retrospective cohort study. Elite AFL players with shoulder instability resulting in surgery were assessed in a retrospective cohort design (72 players/77 shoulders). Type of initial injury, surgical management, return to sport and injury recurrence were obtained. The mean follow-up period post-surgery was 2.9 years. Return to sport outcomes were compared between arthroscopic and open surgery using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine associations between injury recurrence, type of injury, participant age and method of surgery. Shoulder instability injuries occurred most frequently during tackling (40%). Arthroscopic surgery was preferred for primary shoulder instability. Nine (16%) recurrences occurred in those who underwent arthroscopic surgery compared to two (9%) following open surgery. Return to the elite level was slightly but significantly (2 weeks, p=0.049) longer for open compared to arthroscopic surgery. Recurrence was 5 times more likely if the primary injury was a dislocation and more likely in players who were younger at the time of surgery. Tackling was the predominant mechanism for shoulder instability injuries in AFL players and arthroscopic surgery was more commonly performed for primary injuries. Sustaining a dislocation as the primary injury and younger age increased the likelihood of recurrent instability. Careful consideration should be given to the operative management of these individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  11. DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVEL OF SITUATIONAL –MOTOR ABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT LEVEL COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 170 subjects, football players - senior citizens, aged 18-27 years from the territory of Montenegro.Utilizes a system of 16 variables, situational-motor abilities. Our aim was to determine the discriminatory ability of their rank according to the modalities of which belong to the players tested (second and third league competitions. Results of canonical discriminant analysis of the players in situational-motor variables that belong to different ranks of the competitions, significant at the .00 level. Therefore, we can speak of two quantitatively and qualitatively different groups of patients.

  12. Effects of Video-Based Visual Training on Decision-Making and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Nimmerichter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the trainability of decision-making and reactive agility via video-based visual training in young athletes. Thirty-four members of a national football academy (age: 14.4 ± 0.1 years were randomly assigned to a training (VIS; n = 18 or a control group (CON; n = 16. In addition to the football training, the VIS completed a video-based visual training twice a week over a period of six weeks during the competition phase. Using the temporal occlusion technique, the players were instructed to react on one-on-one situations shown in 40 videos. The number of successful decisions and the response time were measured with a video-based test. In addition, the reactive-agility sprint test was used. VIS significantly improved the number of successful decisions (22.2 ± 3.6 s vs. 29.8 ± 4.5 s; p < 0.001, response time (0.41 ± 0.10 s vs. 0.31 ± 0.10 s; p = 0.006 and reactive agility (2.22 ± 0.33 s vs. 1.94 ± 0.11 s; p = 0.001 pre- vs. post-training. No significant differences were found for CON. The results have shown that video-based visual training improves the time to make decisions as well as reactive agility sprint-time, accompanied by an increase in successful decisions. It remains to be shown whether or not such training can improve simulated or actual game performance.

  13. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT RANKS TOWARDS TRAINING EXERCISES OF RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.

  14. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  15. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  16. The Effects of the Training in the Preparation Period on the Repetitive Strength Transformation with Cadet Level Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gardašević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research was to identify a level of quantitative changes of the repetitive strength with fifteen years old football players under the influence of the programmed football training of a six weeks preparation period. The training programme covered forty-four training units. The research was made on a sample of 120 cadet level football players. To estimate the repetitive strength three tests have been used: Lying-sed for 30 seconds, Push-ups and Lifting upper body while lying on stomach. In the area of comparative statistics, we used discriminant parametric procedure t-test for big paired samples. It can be concluded that there are statistically significant differences in all three variables to estimate the repetitive strength. This confirmed the hypothesis that the expected significant positive quantitative changes of basic-motor abilities influenced by the proposed model of training in preparation period with fifteen years old football players. The authors were guided by the fact that this kind of training program in preparation period is very effective in terms of raising the repetitive strength level with fifteen years old. The obtained results can be directed towards innovation plans and programs in the preparation period, and the adaptation of the same needs of the respective population.

  17. A PROBABILITY BASED APPROACH FOR THE ALLOCATION OF PLAYER DRAFT SELECTIONS IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bedford

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team's list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team's finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an additional early round priority draft pick. Much criticism has been levelled at the existing system since it rewards losing teams and does not encourage poorly performing teams to win matches once their season is effectively over. We propose a probability-based system that allocates a score based on teams that win 'unimportant' matches (akin to Carl Morris' definition of importance. We base the calculation of 'unimportance' on the likelihood of a team making the final eight following each round of the season. We then investigate a variety of approaches based on the 'unimportance' measure to derive a score for 'unimportant' and unlikely wins. We explore derivatives of this system, compare past draft picks with those obtained under our system, and discuss the attractiveness of teams knowing the draft reward for winning each match in a season

  18. FMRI hypoactivation during verbal learning and memory in former high school football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Douglas P; Adams, T Eric; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Multiple concussions before the age of 18 may be associated with late-life memory deficits. This study examined neural activation associated with verbal encoding and memory retrieval in former athletes ages 40-65 who received at least two concussions (median = 3; range = 2-15) playing high school football and a group of former high school football players with no reported history of concussions matched on age, education, and pre-morbid IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during a modified verbal paired associates paradigm indicated that those with concussive histories had hypoactivation in left hemispheric language regions, including the inferior/middle frontal gyri and angular gyrus compared with controls. However, concussive history was not associated with worse memory functioning on neuropsychological tests or worse behavioral performance during the paradigm, suggesting that multiple early-life concussions may be associated with subtle changes in the verbal encoding system that limits one from accessing higher-order semantic networks, but this difference does not translate into measurable cognitive performance deficits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. IS A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL BIOFEEDBACK INTERVENTION USEFUL TO REDUCE INJURY RISK IN JUNIOR FOOTBALL PLAYERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Edvardsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old were divided into one experiment (n = 13 and one control group (n = 14. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale, history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28 in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14 = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study, to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given

  20. THE EFFECTS OF 30 HOURS SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON BASIC FOOTBALL SKILLS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hefzollesan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of sleep deprivation on the passing and shooting skills of football players. To this end, 18 students of Sahand University, with age range 20 to 24 years performed basic soccer skills (shoot and pass in the pre-test and post test stages. In this study to assess these skills, the test "Mor - Christian" has been used. In the first step, subjects conducted the shoot and pass test as pre-test after 8 hours sleep a night. 10 days later, to ensure the validity of tests and test results on the learning effect, subjects did the same test again after 8 hours sleep a night. In the third stage, 30 hours of sleep deprivation as an independent variable imposed on the subjects and then the test was repeated and experimental test results were compared as recorded using paired t-test. The findings showed that 30 hour sleep deprivation decreases passing and shooting skills implementation skills (p <0.001. Therefore, the findings showed that sleep deprivation can be a devastating effect on basic football skills.

  1. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT SPORTS EXPERIENCE ON THE ALLOWED MEANS OF STIMULATING RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Allowed stimulating means of recovery are considered substances and physiological processes that act through the increase in performance athletes and to more efficient recovery and improvement of sports results, which are very difficult to achieve the usual training methods of training, and it can be considered useful until used as a supplement to training. If the rational use, it significantly increases the resistance of the organism in Training athletes and competition loads and favorably affect the elimination of general and local fatigue. The aim of the research consists of testing and analyzing the attitudes of different sports experience on the allowed means of stimulating recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different sports experience (I group (62 – 4-8 years of sports experience, II group (58 – 9-14 years of sports experience. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal categories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been applied. Generally it can be concluded that players with less experience attach less importance to some of the allowed recovery stimulus, and that the level of information increases with sports experience.

  2. Influence of Ramadan fasting on physiological and performance variables in football players: summary of the F-MARC 2006 Ramadan fasting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri; Maughan, Ronald J; Leiper, John B; Bartagi, Zakia; Kirkendall, Donald T; Al-Riyami, Masoud; Junge, Astrid

    2008-12-01

    The timing of food and liquid intake depends on the times of sunset and sunrise during the month of Ramadan. The current body of knowledge presents contradicting results as to the effect of Ramadan fasting on body mass, body composition and metabolic changes. The main objective of the present investigation was to gain additional information and scientific data in conformity with the philosophical background of Islam to allow optimisation of the daily training and dietary regimen in relation to the mental and physical performance of football players. The four teams, along with their coaches and trainers, attended a residential training camp at training centre 3 weeks before the start of Ramadan and throughout the study. Energy intake was relatively stable in the fasting group, but there was a small, albeit significant, decrease of approximately 0.7 kg in body mass. Water intake increased on average by 1.3 l/day in line with the greater energy intake in the non-fasting group in Ramadan. Daily sodium intake fell during Ramadan in the fasting players but increased slightly in the non-fasting group. Fasting players trained on average 11 h after their last food and drink, and reported that they felt slightly less ready to train during the Ramadan fast. None of the assessed performance variables was negatively affected by fasting while nearly all variables showed significant improvement at the third test session, indicating a training effect. Heart rate measurements in one training session during the third week of Ramadan appeared to suggest that the training load during training was marginally greater for the fasting than for the non-fasting players. However, the overall exercise load measures indicated that there was no biologically significant difference between the fasting and non-fasting groups. In the present study, biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male football players who followed

  3. Effect of turf toe on foot contact pressures in professional American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Gamradt, Seth C; Ellis, Scott J; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hillstrom, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between turf toe and plantar foot pressures has not been extensively studied. Two hypotheses were tested in a cohort of professional American football players: first, that a history of turf toe is associated with increased peak hallucal and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) plantar pressures; second, that decreased range of motion (ROM) of the first MTP correlates with increased peak hallucal and first MTP plantar pressures. Forty-four athletes from one National Football League (NFL) team were screened for a history of turf toe during preseason training. Dorsal passive MTP ROM and dynamic plantar pressures were measured in both feet of each player. Anatomical masking was used to assess peak pressure at the first MTP and hallux. First MTP dorsiflexion was significantly lower in halluces with a history of turf toe (40.6 +/- 15.1 degrees versus 48.4 +/- 12.8 degrees, p = 0.04). Peak hallucal pressures were higher in athletes with turf toe (535 +/- 288 kPa versus 414 +/- 202 kPa, p = 0.05) even after normalizing for athlete body mass index (p = 0.0003). Peak MTP pressure was not significantly different between the two groups tested. First MTP dorsiflexion did not correlate with peak hallucal or first MTP pressures. This study showed that turf toe is associated with decreased MTP motion. In addition, increased peak hallucal pressures were found. Further study is warranted to determine whether these pressures correlate with the severity of symptoms or progression of turf toe to first MTP arthritis.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE RE LATIONSHIP BETWEEN L EG STRENGTH AND VELOCITY VALUES IN AMATEUR FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail G Ö K H A N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between conditional parameters ( leg strength, back strength, velocity 30 Mt, flexibility by measuring some physical (height, body w eight and physiological (systole, diastole, KAH characteristics of male football players of Karakopru Belediyespor and Harran University. According to the results obtained from the measurements, mean age was 23, 46±3,50 /years; as a part of physical cha racteristics ,mean height was 176,20±5,10 (cm and mean body weight was 70,16±5,21 (kg . As a part of physiological characteristics, mean Systolic Blood Pressure was 123,87±14,23 (mmhg , mean Diastolic Blood Pressure was 73,60±16,42 (mmhg and mean Resting Heart Rate was 64,50±10,48 (beats/min . As a part of conditional parameters, mean leg strength was 101,83±40,48 (kg, back strength was 75,83±19,43 (kg, flexibility was 34,16±6,65 (cm and mean velocity in 30 Mt. was 4,15± 0,20 (sec. It was observed that there was a relationship between 30 meters velocity and leg strength parameters (r= - , 407 . There was no relationship between 30 meters velocity and back strength parameters (r=, 429; and between 30 meters velocity and flexibility param eters (r=, 659 . As a result, while the relationship between velocity and back strength values of the amateur football players was not significant (p>0.05 ; the relationship between velocity and leg strength values was found to be significant (p<0.05.

  5. Reliability of externally fixed dynamometry hamstring strength testing in elite youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Martin; Purdam, Craig; Drew, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    To investigate inter and intra-tester reliability of an externally fixed dynamometry unilateral hamstring strength test, in the elite sports setting. Reliability study. Sixteen, injury-free, elite male youth football players (age=16.81±0.54 years, height=180.22±5.29cm, weight 73.88±6.54kg, BMI=22.57±1.42) gave written informed consent. Unilateral maximum isometric peak hamstring force was evaluated by externally fixed dynamometry for inter-tester, intra-day and intra-tester, inter-week reliability. The test position was standardised to correlate with the terminal swing phase of the gait running cycle. Inter and intra-tester values demonstrated good to high levels of reliability. The intra-class coefficient (ICC) for inter-tester, intra-day reliability was 0.87 (95% CI=0.75-0.93) with standard error of measure percentage (SEM%) 4.7 and minimal detectable change percentage (MDC%) 12.9. Intra-tester, inter-week reliability results were ICC 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-0.93), SEM% 5.0 and MDC% 14.0. This study demonstrates good to high inter and intra-tester reliability of isometric externally fixed dynamometry unilateral hamstring strength testing in the regular elite sport setting involving elite male youth football players. The intra-class coefficient in association with the low standard error of measure and minimal detectable change percentages suggest that this procedure is appropriate for clinical and academic use as well as monitoring hamstring strength in the elite sport setting. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of the FASH (Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries) questionnaire for German-speaking football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-10-24

    The FASH (Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries) questionnaire has been recently developed as a disease-specific self-administered questionnaire for use in Greek, English, and German languages. Its psychometric qualities (validity and reliability) were tested only in Greek-speaking patients mainly representing track and field athletes. As hamstring injuries represent the most common football injury, we tested the validity and reliability of the FASH-G (G = German version) questionnaire in German-speaking footballers suffering from acute hamstring injuries. The FASH-G questionnaire was tested for reliability and validity, in 16 footballers with hamstring injuries (patients' group), 77 asymptomatic footballers (healthy group), and 19 field hockey players (at-risk group). Known-group validity was tested by comparing the total FASH-G scores of the injured and non-injured groups. Reliability of the FASH-G questionnaire was analysed in 18 asymptomatic footballers using the intra-class coefficient. Known-group validity was demonstrated by significant differences between injured and non-injured participants (p hamstring injuries in German footballers.

  7. The National Football League Combine: performance differences between drafted and nondrafted players entering the 2004 and 2005 drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierer, S Patrick; Battaglini, Claudio L; Mihalik, Jason P; Shields, Edgar W; Tomasini, Nathan T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences between drafted and nondrafted athletes (N = 321) during the 2004 and 2005 National Football League (NFL) Combines. We categorized players into one of 3 groups: Skill, Big skill, and Linemen. Skill players (SP) consisted of wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs. Big skill players (BSP) included fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends. Linemen (LM) consisted of centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. We analyzed player height and mass, as well as performance on the following combine drills: 40-yard dash, 225-lb bench press test, vertical jump, broad jump, pro-agility shuttle, and the 3-cone drill. Student t-tests compared performance on each of these measures between drafted and nondrafted players. Statistical significance was found between drafted and nondrafted SP for the 40-yard dash (P ready themselves for the NFL Combine.

  8. Change in indicators of physical development of young footballers with different strength of the nervous system according to the excitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy Polevoy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research problem is connected with the search for new ways to improve the educational and training process of young footballers that would strengthen or improve the physical development of the athletes involved and enhance the result of competition and gaming activities. The purpose of this article is to get and synthesize data, which were obtained in the course of the study, namely the change in indicators of physical development of football players aged 11-12 who have different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The leading approaches to the study of this problem are pedagogical experiment, theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature and methods of mathematical statistics. The research resulted in the change in the indicators of physical development of children at the age of 11-12 years old playing football due to the methodology of differentiated development of 11- and 12-year-old footballers’ coordination abilities with different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The article can be useful for updating the content of professional training of football coaches and be used in the educational and training process of football players of different ages and fitness level.

  9. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a National Football League Player: Case report and emerging medicolegal practice questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omalu, Bennet I; Hamilton, Ronald L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; DeKosky, Steven T; Bailes, Julian

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a retired National Football League (NFL) Player with autopsy findings, apolipoprotein E genotype, and brain tissue evidence of chronic brain damage. This 44-year-old retired NFL player manifested a premortem history of cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment, which included in part, chronic depression, suicide attempts, insomnia, paranoia, and impaired memory before he finally committed suicide. A full autopsy was performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction-based analyses of his blood to determine the apolipoprotein genotype. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on topographical gross sections of the brain. Autopsy confirmed a fatal gunshot wound of the head. The apolipoprotein E genotype was E3/E3 and the brain tissue revealed diffuse cerebral taupathy (Neurofibrillary Tangles and Neuritic Threads). This will be the third case of CTE in a national football player, which has been reported in the medical literature. Omalu et al., reported the first two cases in 2005 and 2006. This case series manifested similar premortem history of neuropsychiatric impairment with autopsy evidence of cerebral taupathy without any neuritic amyloidopathy. For a definitive diagnosis of CTE to be made, and for medicolegal purposes, a full autopsy must be performed with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of the brain to identify the presence of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs) and Neuritic Threads (NTs). Further longitudinal prospective studies are required to confirm the common denominators and epidemiology of CTE in professional American football players, which have been identified by this case series.

  10. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football “Heads Up Football” Player Safety Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective

  11. Knee function among elite handball and football players 1-6 years after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, G; Bahr, R; Nilstad, A; Steffen, K

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe objective and self-reported knee function for athletes who have returned to elite handball and football play after an ACL injury, comparing these to non-injured players at the same level. A total of 414 handball and 444 football players completed baseline tests from 2007 through 2014, examining lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee laxity, and knee function (KOOS questionnaire). Measures were compared between injured and non-injured legs and between injured legs and legs of controls. Eighty (9.3%) of the 858 players reported a previous ACL injury, 1-6 years post-injury (3.5±2.5 years), 49 handball (61.3%) and 31 football players (38.7%). We found no difference in strength or dynamic balance between previously ACL-injured (N=80) and non-injured players legs (N=1556). However, lower quadriceps (6.3%, 95% CI: 3.2-9.2) and hamstrings muscle strength (6.1%, 95% CI: 3.3-8.1) were observed in previously ACL-injured legs compared to the non-injured contralateral side (N=80). ACL-injured knees displayed greater joint laxity than the contralateral knee (N=80, 17%, 95% CI: 8-26) and healthy knees (N=1556, 23%, 95% CI: 14-33). KOOS scores were significantly lower for injured knees compared to knees of non-injured players. ACL-injured players who have successfully returned to elite sport have comparable strength and balance measures as their non-injured teammates. Subjective perception of knee function is strongly affected by injury history, with clinically relevant lower scores for the KOOS subscores Pain, Function, Sport, and Quality Of Life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 30 among high school football players--Los Angeles County, California, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Civen, Rachel; Keough, Kathleen; Ngo, Van; Marutani, Amy; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    On August 4, 2014, the Acute Communicable Disease Control Program of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health received a report of three aseptic meningitis cases among football players at a county high school. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of the outbreak, identify potential exposures, and recommend control measures. An outbreak-associated aseptic meningitis case was defined as an illness of any team or family member with onset during July 28-August 11 with 1) cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and negative bacterial culture or 2) an emergency department visit with headache, fever, and stiff neck. Ten cases were identified; nine in males, and one in a female; patient ages ranged from 13 to 17 years. All the patients sought care at an emergency department, and five were hospitalized, resulting in 12 total hospital days. All 10 patients have recovered. Eight patients were football players, and two were siblings of football players. The most affected subgroup was the junior varsity football team, with seven cases out of 57 players (attack rate = 12.3%); the relative risk for aseptic meningitis was higher among players who were linemen than among those who were not linemen (relative risk = 5.4 [p = 0.03]). Of the 10 patients, eight tested positive by polymerase chain reaction for enterovirus, and two were not tested. Echovirus testing was performed at the California Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Of the eight specimens testing positive for enterovirus, seven tested positive for echovirus 30, and one specimen could not be typed because of insufficient quantity.

  13. Sports-specific concerns in the young athlete: football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, J D

    1999-10-01

    There are over 1.5 million males playing American football at all levels in the United States. American football is the most common participant sport among high-school-aged males. Owing to its high rate of injury per exposure hour, American football injuries are commonly treated in the emergency department during the autumn sports season. This article will review the history, epidemiology, and specific injury patterns seen in American football, with a focus on head and shoulder injuries.

  14. No association between static and dynamic postural control and ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players: a prospective study of 838 players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Krosshaug, Tron; Pasanen, Kati; Killingmo, Aleksander; Bahr, Roald

    2017-02-01

    Research on balance measures as potential risk factors for ACL injury is limited. To assess whether postural control was associated with an increased risk for ACL injuries in female elite handball and football players. Premier league players were tested in the preseason and followed prospectively for ACL injury risk from 2007 through 2015. At baseline, we recorded player demographics, playing experience, ACL and ankle injury history. We measured centre of pressure velocity in single-leg stabilisation tests and reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test. To examine the stability of postural control measures over time, we examined their short-term and long-term reproducibility. We generated logistic regression models, 1 for each of the proposed risk factors. A total of 55 (6.6%) out of 838 players (age 21±4 years; height 170±6 cm; body mass 66±8 kg) sustained a non-contact ACL injury after baseline testing (1.8±1.8 years). When comparing normalised balance measures between injured and uninjured players in univariate analyses, none of the variables were statistically associated with ACL injury risk. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of the selected variables was poor. Players with a previous ACL injury had a 3-fold higher risk of sustaining a new ACL injury compared with previously uninjured players (OR 2.9, CI 1.4 to 5.7). None of postural control measures examined were associated with increased ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players. Hence, as measured in the current investigation, the variables included cannot be used to predict ACL injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Distinct cut task strategy in Australian football players with a history of groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzi; Brooke, Hiram C; Cook, Jill L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences in the magnitude of movement variability and strategies utilized during an unanticipated cut task between players with and without a history of groin pain. Cross-sectional design. Biomechanics laboratory. Male Australian football players with (HISTORY; n = 7) or without (CONTROL; n = 10) a history of groin pain. Three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematics were recorded during 10 successful trials of an unanticipated cut task, and isokinetic hip adduction and abduction strength. Between-group differences were determined using independent-samples t-tests and the coefficient of variation (CV). Key substantial between-group differences identified were that the HISTORY group displayed decreased knee flexion and hip internal rotation, increased knee internal rotation and T12-L1 right rotation, and higher GRFs during the cut task. They also utilized three invariant systems (ankle, knee and T12-L1 joints), while being connected by a segment (hip and L5-S1 joints) that displayed increased lumbopelvic movement during the cut task, and decreased adductor muscle strength. This identifies the need for clinical management of the lower limb and thoracic segment to improve functional movement patterns in athletes with a history of a groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Richard M; Arabas, Jana L; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1-2% for circumferences to 4-9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CVbench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press.

  17. Association Between History of Multiple Concussions and Health Outcomes Among Former College Football Players: 15-Year Follow-up From the NCAA Concussion Study (1999-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Thomas, Leah C; Simon, Janet E; McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has examined associations between concussion history and adverse health outcomes among former professional football players. Less is known about the potential effects of concussion among former college football players without additional exposure at the professional level. To examine the association between concussion and adverse health outcomes in a cohort of former college football players without exposure to professional football, 15 years after their playing careers ended. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A sample of 204 former collegiate football players (23.4% of eligible athletes with available contact information)-all of whom played at least 1 season of football from 1999 to 2001 in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and had no professional football exposure-completed a general health survey that assessed lifetime concussion history and included the following: the Veterans RAND 36 Item Health Survey, containing a physical composite score (PCS) and mental composite score (MCS); the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire; and the 4-item CAGE alcohol dependence questionnaire (for "cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers"). Multivariable binomial regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs while controlling for demographics and playing history covariates through forward selection model building. Most participants reported a concussion history (84.3%). Overall, 22.1% and 39.2% of participants reported a PCS and an MCS history of multiple concussions and adverse health outcomes were found among former collegiate football players without professional football exposure but were limited to those reporting ≥3 prior concussions. Because only 23.4% of eligible athletes responded to the survey, the possibility of ascertainment bias exists, and our findings should thus be interpreted with some caution. Continued examination within nonprofessional

  18. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC CAPABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN RELATION WITH LENGTH OF THEIR SPORTS ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general objective of this research is to determine how much influence the length of sports engagement has on anaerobic endurance of the football players, as well as on the maximum sprint ability of the players. In addition to the primary objective, the research seeks to determine the maximum power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in players of cadet age group. Methods: The total sample of respondents in this study is made of 60 players of cadet age group (14-16 years of age, divided in relation to length of their sports engagement, into groups of up to 5 years (11 respondents, 6-7 years (21 respondents and from 8 to 10 years (28 respondents. The study used field RAST test. The RAST test was designed for sports where running is a basic form of movement. According to the protocol of the test respondents have ten minutes to warm up and five minutes to recover. That is followed by the performance of the test, which is composed of six 35-meter sprints at maximum speed. Between sprints respondent is allowed to pause for 10 seconds, intended primarily for turning and preparing for the next section. Based on the obtained time results from six 35-meter sprints, power is calculated for each run and then the following parameters are determined: maximum power (the highest value; minimum power (the lowest value ; average power (the sum of all six values/six and fatigue index which indicates the extent to which strength decreases for each respondent. This paper shall present a descriptive parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as measure of asymmetry, kurtosis as measure of flatness and value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Multivariate procedures MANOVA and discriminant analysis shall be used. Out of univariate procedures ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. Results: Results obtained by multivariate analysis of

  20. Interseason variability in isokinetic strength and poor correlation with Nordic hamstring eccentric strength in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, N; Witvrouw, E; Bahr, R

    2018-04-25

    In elite sport, the use of strength testing to establish muscle function and performance is common. Traditionally, isokinetic strength tests have been used, measuring torque during concentric and eccentric muscle action. A device that measures eccentric hamstring muscle strength while performing the Nordic hamstring exercise is now also frequently used. The study aimed to investigate the variability of isokinetic muscle strength over time, for example, between seasons, and the relationship between isokinetic testing and the new Nordic hamstring exercise device. All teams (n = 18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Qatar. Isokinetic strength was investigated for measurement error, and correlated to Nordic hamstring exercise strength. Of the 529 players included, 288 players had repeated tests with 1/2 seasons between test occasions. Variability (measurement error) between test occasions was substantial, as demonstrated by the measurement error (approximately 25 Nm, 15%), whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons. Considering hamstring injuries, the same pattern was observed among injured (n = 60) and uninjured (n = 228) players. A poor correlation (r = .35) was observed between peak isokinetic hamstring eccentric torque and Nordic hamstring exercise peak force. The strength imbalance between limbs calculated for both test modes was not correlated (r = .037). There is substantial intraindividual variability in all isokinetic test measures, whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons, irrespective of injury. Also, eccentric hamstring strength and limb-to-limb imbalance were poorly correlated between the isokinetic and Nordic hamstring exercise tests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON DIFFERENT POSITIONS, USING THE CONCONI TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Requirements and needs of properly programmed training process, especially in the pre-season, look for a precise definition of the functional parameters of all the players. The level of anaerobic threshold, as well as research on the same, may be a good indicator of proper dosage of loading. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in running speed and heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold in relation to the position of the player. Methods: Age of the respondents in this study included boys from 14 to 16 years of age (60 football players. The sample of respondents was divided according to playing position, as follows: center-backs (12 players, wing-backs (15 players, midfielders (14 players, forwarders (13 players and goalkeepers (6 goalkeepers. An estimation of maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold was performed using the Conconi test – (Conconi et al. 1996. Prior to testing players had ten minutes to warm up and after a few minutes of rest the testing began. Players started with jogging test (10 km/h and after every 200 m running speed was increased by 0.5 km/h. Within certain sections the load is constant which is achieved by increasing speed after each 200 m, and then maintaining that speed until the end of the section. After processing the results within the particular software (“Polar Precision Performance SW” the values needed for this research were collected. Multivariate methods MANOVA and discriminant analysis will be applied in the paper. Regarding the univariate procedures, ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. The descriptive parameters, mean value, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as the measures of asymmetry, kurtosis as the measure of flatness and the value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, shall be presented. Results: By using the multivariate analysis of variance and based on the

  2. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate american football player after preventive cold-water immersion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Wasik, Mitchell; Alvey, Thurman

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate American football player after preventive coldwater immersion. A healthy man (19 years old) participated in full-contact football practice followed by conditioning (2.5 hours). After practice, he entered a coach-mandated postpractice cold-water immersion and had no signs of heat illness before developing leg cramps, for which he presented to the athletic training staff. After 10 minutes of repeated stretching, massage, and replacement of electrolyte-filled fluids, he was transported to the emergency room. Laboratory tests indicated a creatine kinase (CK) level of 2545 IU/L (normal range, 45-260 IU/L), CK-myoglobin fraction of 8.5 ng/mL (normal football practice as tolerated. Two months after the incident, his CK level remained high (1900 IU/L). The athlete demonstrated no signs of heat illness upon entering the cold-water immersion but experienced severe leg cramping after immersion, resulting in a diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Previously described cases have not linked cold-water immersion with the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis. In this football player, CK levels appeared to be a poor indicator of rhabdomyolysis. Our patient demonstrated no other signs of the illness weeks after the incident, yet his elevated CK levels persisted. Cold-water immersion immediately after exercise should be monitored by the athletic training staff and may not be appropriate to prevent muscle damage, given the lack of supporting evidence.

  3. An index predictive of cognitive outcome in retired professional American Football players with a history of sports concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.

  4. Performance aspects of an injury prevention program: a ten-week intervention in adolescent female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K; Bakka, H M; Myklebust, G; Bahr, R

    2008-10-01

    The injury rate in football is high, and effective injury prevention methods are needed. An exercise program, the "11," has been designed to prevent the most common injury types in football. However, the effect of such a program on performance is not known. The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to investigate the effect of the "11" on performance after a 10-week training period. Thirty-four adolescent female football players were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=18) or a control group (n=16). The "11" is a 15-min program consisting of ten exercises for core stability, lower extremity strength, balance and agility. Performance tests included isokinetic and isometric strength protocols for the quadriceps and hamstrings, isometric hip adduction and abduction strength, vertical jump tests, sprint running and soccer skill tests. There was no difference between the intervention and control groups in the change in performance from the pre- to post-test for any of the tests used. In conclusion, no effect was observed on a series of performance tests in a group of adolescent female football players using the "11" as a structured warm-up program.

  5. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  6. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players: Are There Differences in Cognitive Functioning and Symptom Reporting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Change indicators of miotonometry under the influence of physical rehabilitation programs for football players with anterior cruciate ligament damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Mohammadreza.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation program designed to include physiotherapy, special proprioceptive exercises and functional training, aimed at restoring stability and mobility in the joint, muscle tone, intermuscular coordination, proprioception of the knee joint and the prevention of recurrent injuries in football players after ACL reconstruction. The data miotonometry quadriceps injured extremity surveyed 58 players. Found that decreasing physical activity leads to trophic changes and decrease in muscle tone of the injured extremity. The use of the physical rehabilitation program possible to state its high efficiency.

  8. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches.

  9. Operative Outcomes of Grade 3 Turf Toe Injuries in Competitive Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth; Waldrop, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Turf toe is a term used to describe a hyperextension injury to the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Although the vast majority of turf toe injuries can be treated successfully without operative intervention, there are instances where surgery is required to allow the athlete to return to play. Although there is a plethora of literature on turf toe injuries and nonoperative management, there are currently few reports on operative outcomes in athletes. We obtained all cases of turf toe repair according to the ICD-10 procedural code. The inclusion criteria included: age greater than 16, turf toe injury requiring operative management and at least a varsity level high school football player. The charts were reviewed for age, BMI, level of competition, injury mechanism, football position, setting of injury and playing surface. In addition, we recorded the specifics of the operative procedure, a listing of all injured structures, the implants used and the great toe range of motion at final follow-up visit. The AOFAS Hallux score and VAS was used postoperatively as our outcome measures. Our patient population included 15 patients. The average follow-up time was 27.5 months. The average patient was 19.3 years old with a body mass index of 32.3. The average playing time missed was 16.5 weeks. The average dorsiflexion range of motion at the final follow-up was 42.3 degrees. At final follow-up, the average AOFAS Hallux score was 91.3. The average VAS pain score was 0.7 at rest and 0.8 with physical activity. Complete turf toe injuries are often debilitating and may require operative management to restore a pain-free, stable, and functional forefoot. This study represents the largest cohort of operatively treated grade 3 turf toe injuries in the literature and demonstrates that good clinical outcomes were achieved with operative repair. Level IV, case series.

  10. Absence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in retired football players with multiple concussions and neurological symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Tartaglia, Maria C.; Diamandis, Phedias; Davis, Karen D.; Green, Robin E.; Wennberg, Richard; Wong, Janice C.; Ezerins, Leo; Tator, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the term coined for the neurodegenerative disease often suspected in athletes with histories of repeated concussion and progressive dementia. Histologically, CTE is defined as a tauopathy with a distribution of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that is distinct from other tauopathies, and usually shows an absence of beta-amyloid deposits, in contrast to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the connection between repeated concussions and CTE-type neurodegeneration has been recently proposed, this causal relationship has not yet been firmly established. Also, the prevalence of CTE among athletes with multiple concussions is unknown. Methods: We performed a consecutive case series brain autopsy study on six retired professional football players from the Canadian Football League (CFL) with histories of multiple concussions and significant neurological decline. Results: All participants had progressive neurocognitive decline prior to death; however, only 3 cases had post-mortem neuropathological findings consistent with CTE. The other 3 participants had pathological diagnoses of AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the CTE cases showed co-morbid pathology of cancer, vascular disease, and AD. Discussion: Our case studies highlight that not all athletes with history of repeated concussions and neurological symptomology present neuropathological changes of CTE. These preliminary findings support the need for further research into the link between concussion and CTE as well as the need to expand the research to other possible causes of taupathy in athletes. They point to a critical need for prospective studies with good sampling methods to allow us to understand the relationship between multiple concussions and the development of CTE. PMID:23745112

  11. Absence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in retired football players with multiple concussions and neurological symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili-Naz eHazrati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is the term coined for the neurodegenerative disease often suspected in athletes with histories of repeated concussion and progressive dementia. Histologically, CTE is defined as a tauopathy with a distribution of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles that is distinct from other tauopathies, and usually shows an absence of beta-amyloid deposits, in contrast to Alzheimer’s disease. Although the connection between repeated concussions and CTE-type neurodegeneration has been recently proposed, this causal relationship has not yet been firmly established. Also, the prevalence of CTE among athletes with multiple concussions is unknown. Methods: We performed a consecutive case series brain autopsy study on six retired professional football players from the Canadian Football League with histories of multiple concussions and significant neurological decline. Results: All participants had progressive neurocognitive decline prior to death; however, only 3 cases had post-mortem neuropathological findings consistent with CTE. The other 3 participants had pathological diagnoses of Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the CTE cases showed co-morbid pathology of cancer, vascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Discussion: Our case studies highlight that not all athletes with history of repeated concussions and neurological symptomalogy present neuropathological changes of CTE. These preliminary findings support the need for further research into the link between concussion and CTE as well as the need to expand the research to other possible causes of taupathy in athletes. They point to a critical need for prospective studies with good sampling methods to allow us to understand the relationship between multiple concussions and the development of CTE.

  12. Neural network modelling and dynamical system theory: are they relevant to study the governing dynamics of association football players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Button, Chris; Robins, Anthony; Bartlett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have explored the organization of player movements in team sports using a range of statistical tools. However, the factors that best explain the performance of association football teams remain elusive. Arguably, this is due to the high-dimensional behavioural outputs that illustrate the complex, evolving configurations typical of team games. According to dynamical system analysts, movement patterns in team sports exhibit nonlinear self-organizing features. Nonlinear processing tools (i.e. Artificial Neural Networks; ANNs) are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the coordination of participants in sports competitions. ANNs are well suited to describing high-dimensional data sets with nonlinear attributes, however, limited information concerning the processes required to apply ANNs exists. This review investigates the relative value of various ANN learning approaches used in sports performance analysis of team sports focusing on potential applications for association football. Sixty-two research sources were summarized and reviewed from electronic literature search engines such as SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Scirus, ScienceDirect and Elsevier. Typical ANN learning algorithms can be adapted to perform pattern recognition and pattern classification. Particularly, dimensionality reduction by a Kohonen feature map (KFM) can compress chaotic high-dimensional datasets into low-dimensional relevant information. Such information would be useful for developing effective training drills that should enhance self-organizing coordination among players. We conclude that ANN-based qualitative analysis is a promising approach to understand the dynamical attributes of association football players.

  13. Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity of a Novel Smartphone-Based Eccentric Hamstring Strength Test in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin W Y; Cai, Ming-Jing; Yung, Patrick S H; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and concurrent validity of a smartphone-based method for assessing eccentric hamstring strength among male professional football players. A total of 25 healthy male professional football players performed the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Nordic break-point test, hamstring fatigue protocol, and isokinetic hamstring strength test. The CUHK Nordic break-point test is based on a Nordic hamstring exercise. The Nordic break-point angle was defined as the maximum point where the participant could no longer support the weight of his body against gravity. The criterion for the sensitivity test was the presprinting and postsprinting difference of the Nordic break-point angle with a hamstring fatigue protocol. The hamstring fatigue protocol consists of 12 repetitions of the 30-m sprint with 30-s recoveries between sprints. Hamstring peak torque of the isokinetic hamstring strength test was used as the criterion for validity. A high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .94; 95% confidence interval, .82-.98) was found in the Nordic break-point angle measurements. The Nordic break-point angle significantly correlated with isokinetic hamstring peak torques at eccentric action of 30°/s (r = .88, r 2  = .77, P hamstring strength measures among male professional football players.

  14. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of the King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Daniel H; Burlingame, Jennifer; Yousif, Lina R; Donahue, Xinh P; Krier, Joshua; Rayes, Lydia J; Young, Rachel; Lilla, Muareen; Mazurek, Rochelle; Hittle, Kristie; McCloskey, Charles; Misra, Saroj; Shaw, Michael K

    2015-09-15

    Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, and results from impact or impulsive forces to the head, neck or face. Due to the variability and subtlety of symptoms, concussions may go unrecognized or be ignored, especially with the pressure placed on athletes to return to competition. The King-Devick (KD) test, an oculomotor test originally designed for reading evaluation, was recently validated as a concussion screening tool in collegiate athletes. A prospective study was performed using high school football players in an attempt to study the KD as a concussion screening tool in this younger population. 343 athletes from four local high school football teams were recruited to participate. These athletes were given baseline KD tests prior to competition. Individual demographic information was collected on the subjects. Standard team protocol was employed to determine if a concussion had occurred during competition. Immediately after diagnosis, the KD test was re-administered to the concussed athlete for comparison to baseline. Post-season testing was also performed in non-concussed individuals. Of the 343 athletes, nine were diagnosed with concussions. In all concussed players, cumulative read times for the KD test were significantly increased (phistory of concussion was the only demographic factor predictive of concussion in this cohort. The KD test is an accurate and easily administered sideline screening tool for concussion in adolescent football players. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between subconcussive impacts and concussion history on clinical measures of neurologic function in collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysland, Sonia M; Mihalik, Jason P; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Trulock, Scott C; Shields, Edgar W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Concussions sustained during college and professional football careers have been associated with both acute and chronic neurologic impairment. The contribution of subconcussive impacts to this impairment has not been adequately studied. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between subconcussive impacts and concussion history on clinical measures of neurologic function. Forty-six collegiate football players completed five clinical measures of neurologic function commonly employed in the evaluation of concussion before and after a single season. These tests included the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Sensory Organization Test, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, and Graded Symptom Checklist. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System recorded head impact data including the frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts. College football players sustain approximately 1,000 subconcussive impacts to the head over the course of a season, but for the most part, do not demonstrate any clinically meaningful changes from preseason to postseason on measures of neurologic function. Changes in performance were mostly independent of prior concussion history, and the total number, magnitude and location of sustained impacts over one season as observed R(2) values ranged between 0.30 and 0.35. Repetitive subconcussive head impacts over a single season do not appear to result in short-term neurologic impairment, but these relationships should be further investigated for a potential dose-response over a player's career.

  17. Return to Play and Decreased Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Football League Defensive Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Connor R; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur commonly in football. Recent work has reported ACL reconstruction (ACLR) as one of several orthopaedic procedures with unfavorable outcomes for professional athletes. The performance impact to defensive players after surgery has not been quantified. To quantify the effect of ACLR on the performance of defensive players by comparing them to a cohort of matched controls as well as to measure the effect of ACLR on athletes' career length in the National Football League (NFL). Case-control and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-eight NFL defensive players with a history of ACLR from 2006 to 2012 were identified. For each injured player, a matched control player was identified. Demographic and performance statistics were collected from the online NFL player database. Players who returned after ACLR (n = 23) were compared with players who did not return (n = 15) using t tests and chi-squared analyses. Similarly, players who returned after ACLR (n = 23) were compared with their matched controls with t tests and chi-squared analyses. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was utilized to test for significant differences between performance before and after the season of the injury for the players in the ACLR group who returned (n = 23) and for their matched controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to test for differences in the rate of retirement between the groups. For all analyses, P values <.05 were considered significant. Approximately 74% (28/38) of athletes who underwent ACLR returned to play at least 1 NFL game, and 61% (23/38) successfully returned to play at least half a season (ie, 8 games). Athletes in the ACLR group who returned retired from the NFL significantly sooner and more often after surgery than their matched controls. In the seasons leading up to their injury, athletes who successfully returned to play started a greater percentage of their games (81%) and made more solo tackles per

  18. Correlation of physical and functional of cardiovascular young footballer 14-16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Swistun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a competition period were studied the indexes of general and special physical preparedness of young footballers aged 14 - 16 years old. On the basis of research of electrocardiograms dependence of indexes of physical preparedness of young footballers is presented on functional possibilities of the cardiovascular system. It is set that the dynamics of development of physical qualities of young footballers has heterochronic character. The level of physical preparedness of sportsmen is recommended to check on such by tests: at run on distance 15, 30, 60 meters from a place and 15 meters with to motion (for the estimation of speed motive qualities, at run on 400 meters (estimation anaerobic - to glicolic endurance; broad jump from a place, triple and upwards (estimation of dynamic force, at run on 3000 meters or during 12 minutes (estimation of aerobic endurance. The integral criterion of the special preparedness of footballers are competition performance indicators during a season (16 matches.

  19. On Being in the Wrong Place: The Role of Children's Conceptual Understanding and Ballgame Experience When Judging a Football Player's Offside Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Bosco, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of children's conceptual understanding and ballgame experience when judging whether a football player is in an offside position, or not. In the offside position, a player takes advantage of being behind the defence line of the opposing team and just waits for the ball to arrive in order to score a goal. We explained the…

  20. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate if Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention program improves physical fitness and technical performance in youth futsal players. DESIGN:: Randomized cohort study. SETTING:: Futsal club. PARTICIPANTS:: Thirty-six futsal players (17.3 ± 0...

  1. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes.

  2. Performance-Based Outcomes after Operative Management of Athletic Pubalgia / Core Muscle Injury in National Football League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played

  3. The effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on brain integrity in collegiate football players over a single football season: A multi-modal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobounov, Semyon M; Walter, Alexa; Breiter, Hans C; Zhu, David C; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Bream, Tim; Seidenberg, Peter; Mao, Xianglun; Johnson, Brian; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on the structural and functional integrity of the brain remains largely unknown. Athletes in collision sports, like football, experience a large number of impacts across a single season of play. The majority of these impacts, however, are generally overlooked, and their long-term consequences remain poorly understood. This study sought to examine the effects of repetitive collisions across a single competitive season in NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision athletes using advanced neuroimaging approaches. Players were evaluated before and after the season using multiple MRI sequences, including T 1 -weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). While no significant differences were found between pre- and post-season for DTI metrics or cortical volumes, seed-based analysis of rs-fMRI revealed significant ( p  Football Bowl Subdivision, even in the absence of clinical symptoms or a diagnosis of concussion. Whether these changes reflect compensatory adaptation to cumulative head impacts or more lasting alteration of brain integrity remains to be further explored.

  4. The effect of neoprene shorts on leg proprioception in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts on swinging leg movement discrimination (MD) scores in elite level Australian Football players. Twenty players had their swinging leg MD assessed using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus (AMEDA), once wearing close-fitting neoprene and once wearing loose-fitting running shorts. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the shorts conditions prior to repeating the test in the other condition. The AMEDA was used to assess the accuracy at which subjects judge the extent of a standing backward swinging leg movement corresponding to the late swing early stance phase of running. Each subject performed 40 movements made to one of five randomly set physical limits, and without the aid of vision made a judgment as to the perceived limit position. From the accuracy of these judgments, a movement discrimination (MD) score was calculated for each subject under each condition. Subjects were grouped as having low or high neuromuscular control, or ability to use proprioception when controlling active movements without vision, based on their loose-shorts MD score. Analysis was performed on the MD scores obtained for each limb from subjects in the two groups, under the two shorts-wearing conditions. There was no main effect of wearing close-fitting shorts when the cohort was treated as a whole. A significant interaction effect was obtained (F=17.027, p=0.0006) whereby the mean MD score of the low neuromuscular control ability group was improved when wearing neoprene shorts but was reduced for the high ability group. Wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts has a beneficial effect on leg swing judgment accuracy in subjects with low neuromuscular control ability. Conversely, leg swing judgment accuracy for subjects with high ability was reduced by wearing neoprene shorts.

  5. Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.

  6. The structure of physical fitness and its correlation analysis at young players aged 16-17 years at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. POPOV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The questions about the importance of physical fitness of young players to improve the management and correction of the training process. Material : In the research participated 40 players aged 16-17 years of specialized youth football school of FC "Obolon-Brewery". Data for the study of physical fitness were teacher observations and teacher testing carried out under the direct training of young players. Results : It is shown that the structure of physical fitness among all the studied parameters there is a close correlation relationship, except for a parameter that characterizes the start speed. It was found that the above regularities indicate the advisability of excluding the studied parameters in the structure of physical fitness of young players to improve the efficiency of the training process at the base of specialized training. Conclusions : It is recommended to improve the starting speed to use non-gaming and technical and tactical exercises.

  7. Tattoo-Induced Skin “Burn” During Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Professional Football Player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James R.; Matava, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a professional football player with an immediate and sustained cutaneous reaction (“burn”) at the site of lower extremity tattoos that occurred during magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. The burn was attributed to an electromagnetic reaction due to the ferromagnetic metallic compounds found in tattoo pigments, especially iron oxide—a reaction that has the potential to distort the field of image. These compounds can theoretically create an electric current that increases the local skin temperature, enough to cause a cutaneous burn. “At risk” tattoos are those with black pigment or any other pigments containing iron oxide, as well as those with a design that displays loops, large circular objects, or multiple adjacent points. Patients who develop this reaction may be treated prophylactically or symptomatically with a cold compress to assist with completion of the examination. Alternatively, a towel or cloth may be placed between the cutaneous body parts in those patients who experience the typical reaction resulting from an electrical arc between 2 separate cutaneous tattoos. This is likely an underreported issue that merits mention in the sports medicine literature given the frequent occurrence of cosmetic tattoos in athletes requiring magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a musculoskeletal injury. As in the present patient, no permanent sequelae have been noted in the literature. Therefore, patients who develop this reaction should be reassured that the reaction is only temporary. PMID:23016039

  8. COMPARING ANALYSIS OF ANTHROPOMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES OF TOP FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND OF FEMALE WHO DOESN'T TRAIN ANY SPORT ACTIVELY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mladenovic

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Football is very popular game all over the world and in SCG as well.Every year in Yugoslavia girls and women are from 7 to 40 years take part in the game of football as a sport as well as a sort of recreation. Technically and tactically this game more and more resembles the male football. The process of training is close to the very edge of female abilities, so we have dynamic game full of duel, long shots and spectacular goals.The aim of this research is to confirm differences of developing characteristics and functional abilities female football players and women who don't train any sport actively.The research encircled 20 female football players members of football club Masinac (winner of 2003 competition. The control group consisted of 20 female students who didn't go in for any sport actively.The results show that the average height of female football players is 166.85 ± 5.47 cm and average height of control group is 166.11 ± 5.6 cm. Relative values of maximal oxygen up take is 63.14 ± 8.11 ml/min/kg and 55.43 ± 7.25 for control group. This result show that bought group have aerobic abilities higher than one of average women (30-40 ml/min/kg.

  9. Whole-Person Impairment in Younger Retired NFL Players: The Orthopaedic Toll of a Professional Football Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Carter, Chris; Finch, Nathan A; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Dunne, Kevin F; Stake, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Professional American football is a physically demanding, high-impact sport with an elevated risk of injury. Orthopaedic injuries may impose acute, short-term or cumulative consequences throughout a player's lifetime. Several studies have addressed health and psychosocial concerns of an older, retired population of players in the National Football League (NFL); however, minimal research has examined the orthopaedic toll on younger, retired players. This study reports total whole-person impairment (WPI) percentages in a cohort of younger, retired NFL players who presented for disability evaluations based on the use of standardized American Medical Association (AMA) impairment guidelines. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. During the study period of February 2011 to August 2013, 65 younger retired NFL players presented for impairment evaluations. The mean time between retirement and impairment evaluation was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-16.4 years). A complete history and physical examination was performed on all symptomatic joints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100% of presenting players to assess orthopaedic burden. Body-part impairment (BPI) percentage for each affected joint was generated. The impairment data for each extremity were then combined with spine impairment data to create WPI percentage. Player demographics, including age, position, and playing time, were also recorded. The average WPI percentage was 37% (range, 19%-53%). Players participating in >30 games (n = 54) had a higher mean WPI percentage (38%) than those playing in 5 seasons (n = 46) were 2.4 times more likely to have a WPI of at least 37% (P = .007). The most common joints players reported as symptomatic were lumbar (n = 63; 97%) and cervical spine (n = 58; 89%). The mean age at evaluation was 33.5 years (range, 27-42 years), and the mean number of seasons played was 7.5 (range, 3-14 seasons). The mean number of games played was 98.4 (range, 2-236 games). This study demonstrated

  10. Effects of Video-Based Visual Training on Decision-Making and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Nimmerichter; Nikolaus J. R. Weber; Klaus Wirth; Andreas Haller

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the trainability of decision-making and reactive agility via video-based visual training in young athletes. Thirty-four members of a national football academy (age: 14.4 ± 0.1 years) were randomly assigned to a training (VIS; n = 18) or a control group (CON; n = 16). In addition to the football training, the VIS completed a video-based visual training twice a week over a period of six weeks during the competition phase. Using the temporal occlusion technique, the playe...

  11. The Influence of Playing Experience and Position on Injury Risk in NCAA Division I College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunn, Robert; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Williams, Sean; Halseth, Travis J; Sampson, John A; Murray, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    American football is widely played by college student-athletes throughout the United States; however, the associated injury risk is greater than in other team sports. Numerous factors likely contribute to this risk, yet research identifying these risk factors is limited. The present study sought to explore the relationship between playing experience and position on injury risk in NCAA Division I college football players. Seventy-six male college student-athletes in the football program of an American NCAA Division I university participated. Injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Players were characterized based on college year (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) and playing position. The effect of playing experience and position on injury incidence rates was analyzed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model, with a Poisson distribution, log-linear link function, and offset for hours of training exposure or number of in-game plays (for training and game injuries, respectively). The overall rates of non-time-loss and time-loss game-related injuries were 2.1 (90% CI: 1.8-2.5) and 0.6 (90% CI: 0.4-0.8) per 1000 plays, respectively. The overall rates of non-time-loss and time-loss training-related injuries were 26.0 (90% CI: 22.6-29.9) and 7.1 (90% CI: 5.9-8.5) per 1000 h, respectively. During training, seniors and running backs displayed the greatest risk. During games, sophomores, juniors, and wide receivers were at greatest risk. Being aware of the elevated injury risk experienced by certain player groups may help coaches make considered decisions related to training design and player selection.

  12. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noël C. Barengo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP. A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits.

  13. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process.

  14. ANTROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG MONTENEGRO BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.

  15. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS

  16. Perceived motivational factors for female football players during rehabilitation after sports injury – a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Malin; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Compliance with a rehabilitation program is significant among athletes following a sports injury. It is also one of the main factors that influence the rehabilitation process; moreover, the outcome is also influenced by the athlete’s motivation. It is primarily an autonomous motivation, resulting in rehabilitation adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived motivation of female football players during rehabilitation after a sports injury and the extent to which these motivating factors were autonomous. Qualitative interviews, based on a semistructured interview guide with injured female football players undergoing rehabilitation, were analyzed using content analysis. The motivational factors that were described were their set goals, social support as well as external and internal pressures during rehabilitation. The perceived autonomy varied somewhat but overall, they experienced external motivation; therefore, the behavior was not entirely self-determined. Results are expected to provide a better understanding of women football players’ motivation in relation to their rehabilitation; hence, physiotherapists and coaches who are part of the rehabilitation process can contribute by increasing the autonomous motivation, thus, improving the compliance and outcome of the rehabilitation. PMID:29740552

  17. Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Fatalities Among High School and College Football Players - United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L; Yau, Rebecca K; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Marshall, Stephen W; Thomas, Leah C; Wolf, Susanne; Cantu, Robert C; Mueller, Frederick O; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-01-06

    An estimated 1.1 million high school and 75,000 college athletes participate in tackle football annually in the United States. Football is a collision sport; traumatic injuries are frequent (1,2), and can be fatal (3). This report updates the incidence and characteristics of deaths caused by traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury (4) in high school and college football and presents illustrative case descriptions. Information was analyzed from the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research (NCCSIR). During 2005-2014, a total of 28 deaths (2.8 deaths per year) from traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries occurred among high school (24 deaths) and college football players (four deaths) combined. Most deaths occurred during competitions and resulted from tackling or being tackled. All four of the college deaths and 14 (58%) of the 24 high school deaths occurred during the last 5 years (2010-2014) of the 10-year study period. These findings support the need for continued surveillance and safety efforts (particularly during competition) to ensure proper tackling techniques, emergency planning for severe injuries, availability of medical care onsite during competitions, and assessment that it is safe to return to play following a concussion.

  18. Content Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT: Application to Coaches, Parents and Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Prieto-Ayuso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The aim of this study was to design and validate the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT, with the aim of optimising the processes for identifying said talent. The scale was first validated through expert judgment, and then statistically, by means of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal reliability and convergent validity. The results reveal the presence of three factors in the scale’s factor matrix, with these results being confirmed by the CFA. The scale revealed suitable internal reliability and homogeneity indices. Convergent validity showed that it is teammates who are best able to identify football talent, followed by coaches and parents. It can be concluded that the NSIFT is suitable for use in the football world. Future studies should seek to confirm these results in different contexts by means of further CFAs.

  19. Effects Of Different PUFA Supplementation On Inflammatory Response Markers In Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited knowledge regarding the effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on the inflammatory response during physical activity, we aimed to evaluate the level of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in young soccer players before and after a maximal physical load test at the beginning and end of a two-month training process. The study included 75 young footballers from Football School “Kragujevac,” who were followed during the two-month training programme. The subjects were divided into the following groups: 1 control group (consumed a standard diet; 2 group that consumed fish oil (2500 mg of n-3 PUFAs per day; 3 group that consumed nutritional sunflower oil (2500 mg of n-6 PUFAs daily. The maximal progressive exercise test was performed using a treadmill belt. Venous blood samples were drawn 4 times for the determination of cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α: before and after the exercise load test before the two-month training programme (initial measurement and immediately before and after the exercise load test after the two-month training programme (control measurement. Supplementation with fish oil (n-3 has been associated with reduced levels of IL-6 compared with the initial values. After an acute bout of exercise, n-3 PUFAs did not show a significant effect on inflammatory marker dynamics, whereas n-6 PUFAs slightly stimulated the production of TNF-α.

  20. Characteristics of Professional and Non-Professional Football Players – An Eight-Year Follow-Up of Three Age Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther1

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the most talented youth players is regarded as a key part of the talent development process in football. The basis for the criteria is naturally affected by the characteristics of the early-detected talented players. Nonetheless, earlier research has found limited evidenced for different criteria in this process. This study has examined whether professional and non-professional football players showed differences in player and coach characteristics as talented youth-level players eight years earlier. A total of 103 players selected for Norwegian youth national teams (age cohorts 1991–1993 participated in this study. Based on player and coach characteristics, the results showed that non-professional players had the most playing time and felt more successful in comparison to the professional players. The professional players, however, reported higher ambitions and a higher number of weekly-organized training sessions. No differences between the professional and non-professional players showed in terms of their relationship to their coaches were found. The study concludes that we need more research on identification criteria to be able to predict which abilities and skills should be sought in the identification process for youth-level players. As in earlier research, this study also found a poor relationship between youth performance and senior performance.

  1. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  2. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldén Markus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to

  3. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players - design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Atroshi, Isam

    2009-06-23

    Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee

  4. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, E M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P history of knee injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender.

  5. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of winter sports participation on high school football players: strength, power, agility, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R

    2001-02-01

    In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p training.

  7. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a Collegiate American Football Player After Preventive Cold-Water Immersion: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Wasik, Mitchell; Alvey, Thurman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate American football player after preventive cold-water immersion. Background: A healthy man (19 years old) participated in full-contact football practice followed by conditioning (2.5 hours). After practice, he entered a coach-mandated post-practice cold-water immersion and had no signs of heat illness before developing leg cramps, for which he presented to the athletic training staff. After 10 minutes of repeated stretching, massage, and replacement of electrolyte-filled fluids, he was transported to the emergency room. Laboratory tests indicated a creatine kinase (CK) level of 2545 IU/L (normal range, 45–260 IU/L), CK-myoglobin fraction of 8.5 ng/mL (normal rhabdomyolysis. Treatment: The patient was treated with rest and rehydration. One week after the incident, he began biking and swimming. Eighteen days later, the patient continued to demonstrate elevated CK levels (527 IU/L) but described no other symptoms and was allowed to return to football practice as tolerated. Two months after the incident, his CK level remained high (1900 IU/L). Uniqueness: The athlete demonstrated no signs of heat illness upon entering the cold-water immersion but experienced severe leg cramping after immersion, resulting in a diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Previously described cases have not linked cold-water immersion with the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis. Conclusions: In this football player, CK levels appeared to be a poor indicator of rhabdomyolysis. Our patient demonstrated no other signs of the illness weeks after the incident, yet his elevated CK levels persisted. Cold-water immersion immediately after exercise should be monitored by the athletic training staff and may not be appropriate to prevent muscle damage, given the lack of supporting evidence. PMID:22488291

  8. Analysis and assessment of the influence coaches’ formative profile has on young footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Irazusta Adarraga,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and assess the formative profile of football coaches, based on Nicholls’ Goal Theory (1984, Bandura’s Self-efficiency Theory (1986 and Deci and Ryan’s Self Determination Theory (1985. We selected three coaches from the lower categories of Real Sociedad S.A.D. and 4 players (aged 15 to 19 from each of their teams. We selected the players depending on the time they participated in the competition, to represent the footballers that play almost every minute, the ones that play around 75% of the minutes and the ones who play the smallest amount of minutes (more or less 50%. At the end of the season, these players filled in the questionnaire of Perceived Formative Climate, which involves four different variables (Motivational Climate, Trust in the players, Communication and Decisional style. The results we obtained show that there are significant differences (pd».05 in the perception of players with regard to the formative climate of their coaches. Specifically, we found these differences in four of the seven dimensions composing the formative climate (Individual Mastery Climate, Emotional Communication, Decisional Style and Reactive Communication. These results emphasize how important are coach’s criteria and the way he/she communicates with players regarding the formative quality and sports experience. Moreover, these conclusions also suggest that it is necessary to tackle it from a multidimensional perspective to be able to analyze it in depth and within the context

  9. Achilles tendon structure improves on UTC imaging over a 5-month pre-season in elite Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, S I; Rosengarten, S D; Cook, J

    2016-05-01

    Pre-season injuries are common and may be due to a reintroduction of training loads. Tendons are sensitive to changes in load, making them vulnerable to injury in the pre-season. This study investigated changes in Achilles tendon structure on ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) over the course of a 5-month pre-season in elite male Australian football players. Eighteen elite male Australian football players with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and normal Achilles tendons were recruited. The left Achilles tendon was scanned with UTC to quantify the stability of the echopattern. Participants were scanned at the start and completion of a 5-month pre-season. Fifteen players remained asymptomatic over the course of the pre-season. All four echo-types were significantly different at the end of the pre-season, with the overall echopattern suggesting an improvement in Achilles tendon structure. Three of the 18 participants developed Achilles tendon pain that coincided with a change in the UTC echopattern. This study demonstrates that the UTC echopattern of the Achilles tendon improves over a 5-month pre-season training period, representing increased fibrillar alignment. However, further investigation is needed to elucidate with this alteration in the UTC echopattern results in improved tendon resilience and load capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A comparison of injuries in elite male and female football players: A five-season prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruskain, J; Lekue, J A; Diaz, N; Odriozola, A; Gil, S M

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiology of injuries between elite male and female football players from the same club. Injuries and individual exposure time in a male team and a female team, both playing in the Spanish first division, were prospectively recorded by the club's medical staff for five seasons (2010-2015) following the FIFA consensus statement. Total, training, and match exposure hours per player-season were 20% higher for men compared to women (Ppubalgia cases were 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.20) and 11.10 (95% CI 1.48-83.44) times more frequent in men, respectively; whereas quadriceps strains, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and ankle syndesmosis injuries were 2.25 (95% CI 1.22-4.17), 4.59 (95% CI 0.93-22.76), and 5.36 (95% CI 1.11-25.79) times more common in women, respectively. In conclusion, prevention strategies should be tailored to the needs of male and female football players, with men more predisposed to hamstring strains and hip/groin injuries, and women to quadriceps strains and severe knee and ankle ligament injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players' perceptions of women in the athletic training room using a role congruity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.

  12. E xamining Oragnizational Commitment of the Football Players in the Amatuer Level ; An Example of the Province Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül A. AKTÜRK

    2014-07-01

    .05. Significant diffrences were found dimension of the continuance commitment education level difference (p<0 .05 furthermore negative significant were found between age, education and football age with continuance commentment. Consequently, rather than clup managments and clup facilities , sporty responsibles are more effective on the commitment level for amat uer football players. It could be said as a cause of this that, football players and sporty responsibles are in direct relation to each other. In addition it could be said that, the higher the age and football age tend to feel compulsion to team by themsel ves decrease.

  13. Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, Stuart J; Newton, Robert U; McGuigan, Michael R; Cormie, Prue

    2008-12-01

    To examine variations in neuromuscular and hormonal status and their relationship to performance throughout a season of elite Australian Rules Football (ARF). Fifteen elite ARF players performed a single jump (CMJ1) and 5 repeated countermovement jumps (CMJ5), and provided saliva samples for the analysis of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) before the season commenced (Pre) and during the 22-match season. Magnitudes of effects were reported with the effect size (ES) statistic. Correlations were performed to analyze relationships between assessment variables and match time, training load, and performance. CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time was substantially reduced on 60% of measurement occasions. Magnitudes of change compared with Pre ranged from 1.0+/-7.4% (ES 0.04+/-0.29) to -17.1+/-21.8% (ES -0.77+/-0.81). Cortisol was substantially lower (up to -40+/-14.1%, ES of -2.17+/-0.56) than Pre in all but one comparison. Testosterone response was varied, whereas T:C increased substantially on 70% of occasions, with increases to 92.7+/-27.8% (ES 2.03+/-0.76). CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time (r=.24+/-0.13) and C displayed (r=-0.16+/-0.1) small correlations with performance. The response of CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time suggests periods of neuromuscular fatigue. Change in T:C indicates subjects were unlikely to have been in a catabolic state during the season. Increase in C compared with Pre had a small negative correlation with performance. Both CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time and C may be useful variables for monitoring responses to training and competition in elite ARF athletes.

  14. Reliability and validity of Yo-Yo tests in 9- to 16-year-old football players and matched non-sports active schoolboys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Soares, José M C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted Yo-Yo intermittent tests in football players aged 9-16 years (n = 70) and in age-matched non-sports active boys (n = 72). Within 7 days, each participant performed two repetitions...... performances and HRpeak are reliable for 9- to 16-year-old footballers and non-sports active boys. Additionally, performances of the three Yo-Yo tests were seemingly better for football-trained than for non-sports active boys, providing evidence of construct validity....

  15. The prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon injuries in Australian football players beyond a time-loss definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, S I; Rio, E; Cook, J; Orchard, J W; Fortington, L V

    2018-03-23

    Little is known about the prevalence and associated of morbidity of tendon problems. With only severe cases of tendon problems missing games, players that have their training and performance impacted are not captured by traditional injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon problems in elite male Australian football players using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) overuse questionnaire, compared to a time-loss definition. Male athletes from 12 professional Australian football teams were invited to complete a monthly questionnaire over a 9-month period in the 2016 pre- and competitive season. The OSTRC overuse injury questionnaire was used to measure the prevalence and severity of Achilles and patellar tendon symptoms and was compared to traditional match-loss statistics. A total of 441 participants were included. Of all participants, 21.5% (95% CI: 17.9-25.6) and 25.2% (95% CI 21.3-29.4) reported Achilles or patellar tendon problems during the season, respectively. Based on the traditional match-loss definition, a combined 4.1% of participants missed games due to either Achilles or patellar tendon injury. A greater average monthly prevalence was observed during the pre-season compared to the competitive season. Achilles and patellar tendon problems are prevalent in elite male Australian football players. These injuries are not adequately captured using a traditional match-loss definition. Prevention of these injuries may be best targeted during the off- and pre-season due to higher prevalence of symptoms during the pre-season compared to during the competitive season. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation for a large chondral defect in a professional football player: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyzadeoglu Tahsin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-known procedure for the treatment of cartilage defects, which aims to establish a regenerative milieu and restore hyaline cartilage. However, much less is known about third-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation application in high-level athletes. We report on the two-year follow-up outcome after matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat a large cartilage lesion of the lateral femoral condyle in a male Caucasian professional football player. Case presentation A 27-year-old male Caucasian professional football player was previously treated for cartilage problems of his left knee with two failed microfracture procedures resulting in a 9 cm2 Outerbridge Grade 4 chondral lesion at his lateral femoral condyle. Preoperative Tegner-Lysholm and Brittberg-Peterson scores were 64 and 58, and by the second year they were 91 and 6. An evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated filling of the defect with the signal intensity of the repair tissue resembling healthy cartilage. Second-look arthroscopy revealed robust, smooth cartilage covering his lateral femoral condyle. He returned to his former competitive level without restrictions or complaints one year after the procedure. Conclusions This case illustrates that robust cartilage tissue can be obtained with a matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure even after two failed microfracture procedures in a large (9 cm2 cartilage defect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on the application of the third-generation cell therapy treatment technique, matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation, in a professional football player.

  17. Does player unavailability affect football teams' match physical outputs? A two-season study of the UEFA champions league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Johann; Ekstrand, Jan; Khan, Karim M; McCall, Alan; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2018-05-01

    Player unavailability negatively affects team performance in elite football. However, whether player unavailability and its concomitant performance decrement is mediated by any changes in teams' match physical outputs is unknown. We examined whether the number of players injured (i.e. unavailable for match selection) was associated with any changes in teams' physical outputs. Prospective cohort study. Between-team variation was calculated by correlating average team availability with average physical outputs. Within-team variation was quantified using linear mixed modelling, using physical outputs - total distance, sprint count (efforts over 20km/h), and percent of distance covered at high speeds (>14km/h) - as outcome variables, and player unavailability as the independent variable of interest. To control for other factors that may influence match physical outputs, stage (group stage/knockout), venue (home/away), score differential, ball possession (%), team ranking (UEFA Club Coefficient), and average team age were all included as covariates. Teams' average player unavailability was positively associated with the average number of sprints they performed in matches across two seasons. Multilevel models similarly demonstrated that having 4 unavailable players was associated with 20.8 more sprints during matches in 2015/2016, and with an estimated 0.60-0.77% increase in the proportion of total distance run above 14km/h in both seasons. Player unavailability had a possibly positive and likely positive association with total match distances in the two respective seasons. Having more players injured and unavailable for match selection was associated with an increase in teams' match physical outputs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  19. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Hemmati, Farajollah; Heidarian, Hamid; Ziaee, Vahid

    2011-02-09

    Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43) in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40) in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05).Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7%) and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%). The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration) and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise.Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91%) and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%).Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  20. The Evolving Treatment Patterns of NCAA Division I Football Players by Orthopaedic Team Physicians Over the Past Decade, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Trevor J; Schrock, John B; Kraeutler, Matthew J; McCarty, Eric C

    Previous studies have analyzed the treatment patterns used to manage injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Treatment patterns used to manage injuries in NCAA Division I football players will have changed over the study period. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 5. The head orthopaedic team physicians for all 128 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey containing questions regarding experience as team physician, medical coverage of the team, reimbursement issues, and treatment preferences for some of the most common injuries occurring in football players. Responses from the current survey were compared with responses from the same survey sent to NCAA Division I team physicians in 2008. Responses were received from 111 (111/119, 93%) NCAA Division I orthopaedic team physicians in 2008 and 115 (115/128, 90%) orthopaedic team physicians between April 2016 and April 2017. The proportion of team physicians who prefer a patellar tendon autograft for primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) increased from 67% in 2008 to 83% in 2016 ( P football players over the study period. In particular, physicians have changed their preferred techniques for ACLR, anterior shoulder stabilization, and PCL reconstruction. Physicians have also become more conservative with pregame Toradol injections. These opinions may help guide treatment decisions and lead to better care of all athletes.

  1. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  2. A History of Black Professional Football Players from 1900-1946.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanfora, Jerry A.

    The history of Black professional football is obscure, although it is known that in the early years Black and White athletes played together on basis of ability. Several Black Americans were members of early professional football teams; however, in the late 1920s, they seemed to disappear from team rosters. Each of the eighteen Black professional…

  3. Sleep-apnea risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in early-middle-aged retired National Football League players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyster FS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith S Luyster,1 Reginald E Dunn,2 Diane S Lauderdale,3 Mercedes R Carnethon,4 Andrew M Tucker,5 Robert A Vogel,6 Andrew E Lincoln,2 Kristen L Knutson,7 Elliot J Pellman,8–10 Patrick J Strollo Jr11 1School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 2Sports Medicine Research Center, MedStar Health Research Institute, Baltimore, MD, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 5MedStar Sports Medicine, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD, 6Cardiology Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, 7Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 8ProHealth Care Associates, Lake Success, 9Department of Medicine, 10Department of Orthopedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 11Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Purpose: Limited data from former National Football League (NFL players suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may be highly prevalent after retirement. It remains unclear whether the high prevalence of OSA in retired players is comparable to nonathletes. This retrospective analysis compared sleep apnea (SA risk in retired NFL players to a community cohort (CARDIA Sleep study, and examined associations between SA risk and cardiovascular risk factors, including subclinical atherosclerosis.Materials and methods: Retired NFL players (n=122 were matched to CARDIA Sleep participants by age ±2 years (range 37–55 years, body mass index ±2 kg/m2, race, and male sex. Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to determine SA risk. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0.Results: Retired NFL players had a greater prevalence of high SA risk than the matched CARDIA Sleep participants (27% vs 11

  4. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  5. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  6. Ossification of the Interosseous Membrane of the Leg in a Football Player: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Postacchini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a case of ossification of the interosseous membrane (OIM of the leg in a football player who had no history of severe local traumas. A review of the literature of the OIM of the leg in athletes was also carried out. Case Report. A 38-year-old Caucasian male patient complained of pain on lateral aspect of the leg when playing football. Pain progressively worsened until he had to stop the sporting activity. Radiographs, and then CT and MRI, showed OIM in the middle third of the left leg. MRI showed inflammation of tibia periosteum and bone adjacent to the ossification, which was then excised. Two months after surgery the patient returned to play football. Conclusion. A thorough analysis of the literature revealed three types of OIM of the leg in athletes. Type I usually occurs after a syndesmosis ankle sprain, Type II appears to result from a tibia fracture, and Type III, of which only one fully recorded case has been published, is probably caused, as in our patient, by repetitive minor traumas to the leg. Awareness of the existence of Type III OIM can avoid erroneous diagnoses leading to useless investigations and treatments.

  7. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Gaze Stabilization Test Asymmetry Score as an Indicator of Previous Concussion in a Cohort of Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Criter, Robin E; Patterson, Jessie N; Jones, Sherri M

    2015-07-01

    Vestibular dysfunction may lead to decreased visual acuity with head movements, which may impede athletic performance and result in injury. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that athletes with history of concussion would have differences in gaze stabilization test (GST) as compared with those without a history of concussion. Cross-sectional, descriptive. University Athletic Medicine Facility. Fifteen collegiate football players with a history of concussion, 25 collegiate football players without a history of concussion. Participants completed the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), static visual acuity, perception time test, active yaw plane GST, stability evaluation test (SET), and a bedside oculomotor examination. Independent samples t test was used to compare GST, SET, and DHI scores per group, with Bonferroni-adjusted alpha at P history of concussion. The results support further research on the use of GST for sport-related concussion evaluation and monitoring. Inclusion of objective vestibular tests in the concussion protocol may reveal the presence of peripheral vestibular or visual-vestibular deficits. Therefore, the GST may add an important perspective on the effects of concussion.

  9. Australian football players' Achilles tendons respond to game loads within 2 days: an ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengarten, Samuel D; Cook, Jill L; Bryant, Adam L; Cordy, Justin T; Daffy, John; Docking, Sean I

    2015-02-01

    The Achilles tendon is a tissue that responds to mechanical loads at a molecular and cellular level. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the expression of anabolic and/or catabolic proteins can change within hours of loading and return to baseline levels within 72 h. These biochemical changes have not been correlated with changes in whole tendon structure on imaging. We examined the nature and temporal sequence of changes in Achilles tendon structure in response to competitive game loads in elite Australian football players. Elite male Australian football players with no history of Achilles tendinopathy were recruited. Achilles tendon structure was quantified using ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) imaging, a valid and reliable measure of intratendinous structure, the day prior to the match (day 0), and then reimaged on days 1, 2 and 4 postgame. Of the 18 participants eligible for this study, 12 had no history of tendinopathy (NORM) and 6 had a history of patellar or hamstring tendinopathy (TEN). Differences in baseline UTC echopattern were observed between the NORM and TEN groups, with the Achilles of the TEN group exhibiting altered UTC echopattern, consistent with a slightly disorganised tendon structure. In the NORM group, a significant reduction in echo-type I (normal tendon structure) was seen on day 2 (p=0.012) that returned to baseline on day 4. There was a transient change in UTC echopattern in the Achilles tendon as a result of an Australian football game in individuals without a history of lower limb tendinopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Descriptive analysis of objectively assessed physical activity among talented soccer players: a study of three Norwegian professional football clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Stig Arve; Aspvik, Nils Petter

    2017-01-01

    Background Talented football players are expected to overcome large training and match loads, indicating a high weekly level of physical activity (PA). Aims With the use of accelerometers, the aim of this study was to objectively describe the players’ total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and very vigorous PA (VVPA) per day in 1 week. Since high-intensity PA has been highlighted as important in terms of overall PA load, we also included 2 and 4 min bouts of VPA. Methods Data were collected in three junior teams in professional football clubs in March (club 1: 2014, club 2: 2012 and club 3: 2011). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to analyse differences between the three respective clubs. Results The players averaged 77.2–86.2 min in MVPA, 14.9–18.5 min in VPA and 1.0–3.1 in VVPA per day. While there were no differences in total time spent in MVPA and VPA per day, VVPA was significantly higher in club 1 (p<0.01) compared with clubs 2 and 3. Moreover, when using the VPA bouts, club 3 (p<0.01) achieved significantly more time in this intensity compared with clubs 1 and 2. Conclusion This study acknowledges the importance of including both club-related and non-club-related PA when analysing talented football players’ PA level. We suggest that future studies examining players’ PA with accelerometers should emphasise time spent in high-intensity PA and how this is associated with physical overload, psychological burnout and risk of injury. PMID:28879031

  11. Pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function sport and recreation subscale scores predict groin injury in Gaelic football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Different Warm-up Protocols on young Soccer Players' Explosive Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Mohamadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigating the effect of different Warm-up Protocols on young Soccer Players' Explosive Power. Methods: Twenty male soccer players (17.4 0.685 years volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were randomly selected, and in order to remove the effects of transmission and to observe the sequence of warm-up methods, they were cross-matched randomly e.g. 20 players in four categories; that is, 5 players in each category. The participants in each category experienced the 4 warm-up ways in four consecutive so that at the end 20 players performed each method of warm-up. Warm-up methods: 1. Static warm-up; 2. Dynamic warm-up plus 2 min active rest; 3. Dynamic warm-up plus 5 min passive rest and finally Dynamic warm-up plus 15 min passive rest. Participants in each category performed different warm-up methods which had been designed based on scientific and research-based sources in 48 hours intervals After performing each warm-up method, they were given a Long Jump. Results: Based on the results of analysis of variance between the effect of different warm-up methods on Explosive Power participants, significant difference was observed (p?0/05 so that Dynamic warm-up plus 5 min passive rest was more effective in Explosive Power performance than other methods(p?0/05. Discussion: The results of this study are in line with those of Roger (2008 and Faigenbaum et al (2006 who indicated in their studies that Dynamic or mixed method of warm-up are more effective than static ones. Conclusion: Therefore, with regard to the results of the study presented here and also the nature of football enjoying explosive power than the air blows, it is recommended that these types of protocols during warm-up program be employed.   Keywords: Warm up, Explosive Power , Soccer Players', Young  

  13. Facilitating Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Learning Disorders through Football Fandom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünke, Matthias; Ropohl, Benedikt; Semmling, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Young people with learning disorders often remain on the fringes of society, feeling that they do not fit in. Sharing hobbies with other members of their community can help them to become part of a mainstream group. Football (which is called "soccer" in the US and parts of Canada) is a popular sport, especially among men. Identifying as…

  14. Smiles as signals of lower status in football players and fashion models: evidence that smiles are associated with lower dominance and lower prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Timothy; Koenig, Bryan L; Gambacorta, Daniel; Dolgov, Igor; Hor, Daniel; Zarzosa, Jennifer; Luna-Nevarez, Cuauhtémoc; Klungle, Micki; Wells, Lee

    2012-07-10

    Across four studies, the current paper demonstrates that smiles are associated with lower social status. Moreover, the association between smiles and lower status appears in the psychology of observers and generalizes across two forms of status: prestige and dominance. In the first study, faces of fashion models representing less prestigious apparel brands were found to be more similar to a canonical smile display than the faces of models representing more prestigious apparel brands. In a second study, after being experimentally primed with either high or low prestige fashion narratives, participants in the low prestige condition were more likely to perceive smiles in a series of photographs depicting smiling and non-smiling faces. A third study of football player photographs revealed that the faces of less dominant (smaller) football players were more similar to the canonical smile display than the faces of their physically larger counterparts. Using the same football player photographs, a fourth study found that smiling was a more reliable indicator of perceived status-relevant personality traits than perceptions of the football players' physical sizes inferred from the photographs.

  15. Smiles as Signals of Lower Status in Football Players and Fashion Models: Evidence That Smiles are Associated with Lower Dominance and Lower Prestige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ketelaar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Across four studies, the current paper demonstrates that smiles are associated with lower social status. Moreover, the association between smiles and lower status appears in the psychology of observers and generalizes across two forms of status: prestige and dominance. In the first study, faces of fashion models representing less prestigious apparel brands were found to be more similar to a canonical smile display than the faces of models representing more prestigious apparel brands. In a second study, after being experimentally primed with either high or low prestige fashion narratives, participants in the low prestige condition were more likely to perceive smiles in a series of photographs depicting smiling and non-smiling faces. A third study of football player photographs revealed that the faces of less dominant (smaller football players were more similar to the canonical smile display than the faces of their physically larger counterparts. Using the same football player photographs, a fourth study found that smiling was a more reliable indicator of perceived status-relevant personality traits than perceptions of the football players' physical sizes inferred from the photographs.

  16. Relationship between “self-efficiency“ competence levels and constant sportive self-respect levels of football players (Sample of Istanbul European Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Pekel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Super amateur cluster is examination of the relationship between “self-efficiency” and competence levels and constant sportive self-respect levels of football players. Methods: Population of the study consists of 80 super amateur cluster football clubs operating in European Side of İstanbul Province, and sample of the study consists of (n=310 volunteer football players playing football in 21 sports clubs determined with simple random method. Questionnaire method was applied as data collection tool. The participants were applied personal information form, Self Efficiency Competence Scale which was developed by Sherer and colleagues in 1982 and adapted to Turkish by Gözüm and Aksayan in 1999 and Constant Sportive Self-Respect Scale which was developed by Vealey in 1986 and of which validity and reliability studies were conducted by Yıldırım in 2013. The obtained data was recorded with the package program named "IBM SPSS 22". Correlation analysis and regression analysis were applied as statistical procedure. Results: It was seen that “self-efficiency” and - competence levels of amateur football players were in a good level and constant sportive self-respect levels were high. It was detected that there is a high-level positive relationship between constant sportive self-respect level and “self-efficiency” and -competence level, and that “self-efficiency” and - competence level predicted constant sportive self-respect level. Conclusion: It may be considered that sufficient performance of the football players results from self-completion, motivation, belief in themselves and desire to act for success by using their skills.

  17. The 3 vs 1 game build-up effectiveness examination in physical and technical tests of 11-year-old football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth jr. Janos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study is to prove that young players who have been coached with the main focus on technical ability and player interaction, perform better when tested on physical and technical attributes.

  18. Evaluating Postural Control and Ankle Laxity Between Taping and High-Top Cleats in High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizac, Douglas A; Swanik, Charles B; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2018-03-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are the most common injuries in high school sports. While ankle taping is a preferred method of external prophylactic support, its restrictive properties decline during exercise. The Under Armour ® Highlight cleat is marketed on the premise that it provides added support without the need for additional ankle taping. To determine if differences in ankle joint laxity and postural control exist between football players wearing the Under Armour ® Highlight cleat (Under Armour Inc, Baltimore, MD) as compared to a low/mid-top cleat with ankle tape. Crossover trial. Athletic training room and football practice field sideline. 32 interscholastic football players (15.8 ± 1.0 y; 178.9 ± 7.4 cm; 87.1 ± 21.4 kg). Ankle laxity was assessed using an instrumented ankle arthrometer (Blue Bay Research Inc, Milton, FL), while postural control testing was performed on the Tekscan MobileMat™ Balanced Error Scoring System (BESS; South Boston, MA). The 2 treatments included Under Armour ® Highlight cleats and a low/mid-top cleat with ankle tape applied to the nondominant ankle only. Measurements were taken before and immediately after practice. The independent variable was treatment (Highlight vs low/mid-top cleat with ankle tape). Dependent variables included ankle arthrometry measures of anterior displacement (mm), inversion/eversion rotation (deg), and the modified BESS error scores. A linear mixed-effects model was used for analysis. The low/mid-top cleat with tape condition had significantly higher inversion range-of-motion (ROM) and inversion/eversion rotation postexercise when compared to the Highlight cleat (P Under Armour ® Highlight cleat restricts ankle ROM following a training session better than the taped low/mid-top cleat. Further study is warranted to determine if this high-top style of football cleat can reduce the incidence of ankle sprains and how it might compare to spat taping.

  19. Prevalence of Pituitary Hormone Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome, and Impaired Quality of Life in Retired Professional Football Players: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J.; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C.J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30–65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and

  20. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  1. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  2. Assessment of functional conditions of basketball and football players during the load by applying the model of integrated evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbakytė-Šermukšnienė, Renata; Kajėnienė, Alma; Vainoras, Alfonsas; Berškienė, Kristina; Augutienė, Viktorija

    2010-01-01

    We consider the human body as an adaptable, complex, and dynamic system capable of organizing itself, though there is none, the only one, factor inside the system capable of doing this job. Making use of the computerized ECG analysis system "Kaunas-load" with parallel registration of ECG carrying out body motor characteristics, ABP, or other processes characterizing hemodynamics enable one to reveal and evaluate the synergistic aspects of essential systems of the human body what particularly extends the possibilities of functional diagnostics. The aim of the study was to determine the features of alterations in the functional condition of basketball and football players and nonathletes during the bicycle ergometry test by applying the model of evaluation of the functional condition of the human body. The study population consisted of 266 healthy athletes and nonathletes. Groups of male basketball players, male football players, male nonathletes, female basketball players, and female nonathletes were studied. A computerized ECG analysis system "Kaunas-load" that is capable of both registering and analyzing the power developed by the subject and 12-lead ECG synchronically were used for evaluating the functional condition of the CVS. The subject did a computer-based bicycle ergometry test. The following ECG parameters at rest and throughout the load - HR, JT interval, and the deduced JT/RR ratio index that reflects the condition between regulatory and supplying systems - were evaluated. After measuring ABP, the pulse amplitude (S-D) was evaluated. The pulse blood pressure ratio amplitude (S-D)/S that depicts the connection between the periphery and regulatory systems was also evaluated. Speeds of changes in physiological parameters during physical load were evaluated too. Heart rate and JT/RR ratio of athletes at the rest and during load were lower, and JT interval of rest was longer and became shorter more slowly during load, compared to that of healthy nonathletes

  3. Analyses of heart rate variability in young soccer players: the effects of sport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricout, Véronique-Aurélie; Dechenaud, Simon; Favre-Juvin, Anne

    2010-04-19

    The use of heart rate variability (HRV) in the management of sport training is a practice which tends to spread, especially in order to prevent the occurrence of states of fatigue. To estimate the HRV parameters obtained using a heart rate recording, according to different loads of sporting activities, and to make the possible link with the appearance of fatigue. Eight young football players, aged 14.6 years+/-2 months, playing at league level in Rhône-Alpes, training for 10 to 20 h per week, were followed over a period of 5 months, allowing to obtain 54 recordings of HRV in three different conditions: (i) after rest (ii) after a day with training and (iii) after a day with a competitive match. Under the effect of a competitive match, the HRV temporal indicators (heart rate, RR interval, and pNN50) were significantly altered compared to the rest day. The analysis of the sympathovagal balance rose significantly as a result of the competitive constraint (0.72+/-0.17 vs. 0.90+/-0.20; pHRV is an objective and non-invasive monitoring of management of the training of young sportsmen. HRV analysis allowed to highlight any neurovegetative adjustments according to the physical loads. Thus, under the effect of an increase of physical and psychological constraints that a football match represents, the LF/HF ratio rises significantly; reflecting increased sympathetic stimulation, which beyond certain limits could be relevant to prevent the emergence of a state of fatigue. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF SPRINT AND PLYOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON ANAEROBIC POWER AND AGILITY IN COLLEGIATE MALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vadivelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Football is the world’s most popular game and is played by men, women and children of all ages and levels of ability. Success as a player requires an appropriate mixture of mental, physical, technical and tactical ability. Many decisive moments are defined by anaerobic activities such as sprinting, jumping & contests for the football. Agility is an ability of the neuromuscular system to coordinate explosive changes of direction of an individual and/or multiple body segments in all planes of motion. Plyometric Training has been advocated for sports that require the athletes to have explosive power and agility. Similarly previous sprint training studies have shown improvement in the dynamic athletic lower body performance. Advanced technique such as plyometric training protocol has proven more effective but not much studies have been done to assess its effectiveness over Plyometric Training, namely Lower Body Power and Agility Methods: A total of 30 collegiate football players were taken with a mean age of 21.5 with a standard deviation of one. They were randomized into two groups (Group A – Sprint Training & Group B – Plyometric Training. Each group consist of 15 players were selected based on their selection criteria. Informed consent was obtained from the subjects. The study was conducted for six weeks (12 sessions with both the Groups. Evolution parameters are vertical jump height, 40 yard dash, illinois agility Test. Results: Independent t test was used to analysis data. On comparing VJH, Plyometric Training shows (49.26 which have the higher mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (44.93.On comparing Anaerobic power Plyometric Training shows (4150.8 which has the higher Mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (3782.4, on comparing 40 yard dash Plyometric Training shows (5.335 which has the lower Mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (5.490. Illinois Agility Test Plyometric Training shows (15

  5. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  6. Complete avulsion of the adductor longus in a semi-professional football player: Rapid return to play with nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince W Lands

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adductor longus has become recognized as one of the more commonly injured muscles in the medial compartment. Acute complete rupture injuries occurring at the proximal aspect of the muscle are less common. Limited data exist regarding management of the injuries in athletes required for return to play and functioning. The current data favors operative management; however, nonoperative treatment may be a viable option. Nonoperative management of avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon may prove equal results to surgical repair in return to play and functioning. A semi-professional football player sustained a left groin injury while participating in the play. Due to continued pain, swelling, and suspicion of injury, a magnetic resonance imaging was performed diagnosing a complete tear of proximal adductor longus tendon. Physical examination, strength, and range of motion were recorded until the patient was able to function normally without strength deficit, the range of motion loss, and the return of speed. The player was treated nonoperatively and was eventually allowed to return to play. The time of return to play was 6 weeks. Strength deficit was not appreciated or loss of motion and player was able to return to baseline function. Nonoperative management of complete avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon result in faster return to play than operative management even if significant retraction is present.

  7. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  8. MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER A TENNIS MATCH IN YOUNG PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following a simulated tennis match play using nationally ranked young (17.6 ± 1.4 years male tennis players. Ten young athletes played a 3-hour simulated match play on outdoor red clay courts following the International Tennis Federation rules. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK, serum myoglobin concentration (Mb, one repetition maximum (1RM squat strength, and squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ heights were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after the simulated match play. All parameters were also evaluated in a non-exercised group (control group. A small increase in the indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, CK and Mb was detected at 24-48 hours post-match (p<0.05. A marked acute decrement in neuromuscular performance (1RM squat strength: -35.2 ± 10.4%, SJ: -7.0 ± 6.0%, CMJ: -10.0 ± 6.3% was observed immediately post-match (p<0.05. At 24 h post-match, the 1RM strength and jump heights were not significantly different from the baseline values. However, several players showed a decrease of these measures at 24 h after the match play. The simulated tennis match play induced mild muscle damage in young players. Coaches could monitor changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage to assess athletes’ recovery status during training and competition.

  9. Effects of turf and cleat footwear on plantar load distributions in adolescent American football players during resisted pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Griffin, Janet R; Ford, Kevin R

    2018-06-01

    Metatarsal and midfoot injuries are common in American football. Footwear design may influence injury rates by altering plantar foot loading patterns in these regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cleat design on in-shoe plantar foot loading during a football-specific, resisted pushing task. Twenty competitive football players (age 14.7 ± 1.8 years, height 1.72 ± 0.10 m, and mass 71.8 ± 26.9 kg) completed three trials of pushing a weighted sled at maximal effort in a standard shoe (CLEAT) and artificial turf-specific shoe (TURF), with flexible in-shoe force measuring insoles. Repeated measures ANOVAs identified mean differences in maximum force and relative load under all regions of the foot. Results showed higher forces in the CLEAT under the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p = 0.004) midfoot, central (p = 0.007) and lateral (p < 0.001) forefoot, and lesser toes (p = 0.01), but lower forces in the hallux (p = 0.02) compared to the TURF shoe. Additionally, relative loading was higher in the CLEAT under the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p = 0.002) midfoot and lateral (p < 0.001) forefoot, but lower in the medial forefoot (p = 0.006) and hallux (p < 0.001) compared to the TURF shoe. The two shoes elicited distinct plantar loading profiles and may influence shoe selection decisions during injury prevention or rehabilitation practices.

  10. Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined effects of a three-game, 1-week microcycle (G1, G2, G3) on recovery of performance and inflammatory responses in professional male footballers. METHODS: Players were randomized into an experimental (EXP; N = 20) and a control group (CON; N = 20). Blood was drawn and repeated....... In EXP, game play increased muscle soreness (~sevenfold) compared to CON with G2 inducing the greatest rise, while KJRM was attenuated post-game in EXP compared to CON (5-7 %) and recovered slower post G2 and G3 than G1. CK, CRP, sVCAM-1, sP-Selectin and cortisol peaked 48 h post-games with G2 eliciting...

  11. Kicking velocity and physical, technical, tactical match performance for U18 female football players - effect of a new ball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas B; Bendiksen, Mads; Pedersen, Jens M

    2012-01-01

    the new ball (NB) compared with the standard ball (SB) in a laboratory testing situation (23.2±0.4 vs. 22.4±0.3 ms(-1); p.05), but lower-limb muscular RPE was lower with NB (4.2±0.4 vs. 5.2±0.3; p.05). High-intensity running decreased (p.05). In conclusion, physiological demands were high in youth female...... football games, and decrements in running performance occurred towards the end of games. The players kicked faster and reported lower muscular exertion during games played with a lighter smaller ball, but locomotor activities, heart rate and overall technical-tactical game performance remained unaffected....

  12. Specification of physical preparation of football players of 15-16 years old as a basic for complex control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisenchuk G.A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the results of physical fitness of football-players of 15-16 years old in the structure of annual training cycle. There is a try to define the informative indices while estimating the athletes preparation. Selection of adequate procedures and tests is necessary for definition of frame of physical fitness of sportsmen. Analysis of experimental data has allowed to establish the information importance of components of frame of physical fitness at different stages of a year cycle of training, to eliminate for each stage of training the indicators which are not possessing reliability and a validity, and the received indicators to use as tests for carrying out the control.

  13. The influence of individualizing physical loads on speed, creatine kinase activity and lactate dehydrogenase in football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important training problems in: contemporary football is speed preparation of a player for the season and the ability of keeping it on the same, relatively high level throughout the starting period [1]. The main process used for re-synthesis ATP during single, short-lasting efforts of maximal intensity, is decomposition of phospho-creatine under the influence of creatine kinase enzyme. Physical loads imposed during speed trainings often exceed the possibility of producing energy from phosphogenic reserve through oxygen - lactate free processes, because the supply of phospho-creatine is used very quickly. In such circumstances the lacking energy is refilled through processes called oxygen free glicolise with the help of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. The aim of the work was to answer the question:

  14. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  15. Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Adamuz, Maria-Carmen; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Wilson, Mathew G.; Witvrouw, Erik; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football

  16. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Nutrition Knowledge of Australian Football and Soccer Players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r 2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.

  17. Professional football players at risk for non-acute groin injuries during the first half of the season: A prospective cohort study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Veenstra, Ersot; Goedegebuure, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Kuijer, Peter Paul

    2018-02-06

    To study the incidence, diagnostics, treatment, anatomical region and return to play of non-acute groin injuries among professional footballers in the Netherlands. Prospective cohort study. Medical staff members of all Dutch professional football clubs, recording prospectively injury occurrence of all professional footballers in their clubs, were asked to fill in an injury form about time-loss (⩾ 8 days) non-acute groin injury over the 2012-2013 season. A cohort of 410 players from 12 professional football clubs were included (response rate = 44%). The season incidence of non-acute groin injuries was nearly 7% (29 non-acute groin injuries). In 82% of all cases, the player suffered from non-acute groin injury in the first half of the season. The average time to return to play was 35 days, ranging from 8 to 84 days. The adductors were the most affected anatomical regions (82%), with the most frequent diagnosis being overuse of the adductors (36%), followed by adductor tendinopathy (18%). In addition to medical history and physical examination, ultrasound (50%) and MRI (32%) were the diagnostic methods most frequently mentioned. As well as physical therapy, treatment consisted mostly of manual therapy (96%) and dry needling (61%). A professional club with a squad of 25 players can expect on average two non-acute groin injuries per season with an average time-loss of 35 days. Players are more at risk in the first half of the season. In Dutch professional football, ultrasound is commonly used to diagnose non-acute groin injury, while manual therapy is the most commonly applied treatment.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON CLINICAL MEASURES OF DEEP CERVICAL FLEXOR ENDURANCE AND CERVICAL ACTIVE RANGE OF MOTION: IS HISTORY OF CONCUSSION A FACTOR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura; Ruediger, Thomas; Alsalaheen, Bara; Bean, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    More than one million adolescent athletes participated in organized high school sanctioned football during the 2014-15 season. These athletes are at risk for sustaining concussion. Although cervical spine active range of motion (AROM) and deep neck flexor endurance may serve a preventative role in concussion, and widespread clinical use of measurements of these variables, reference values are not available for this population. Cost effective, clinically relevant methods for measuring neck endurance are also well established for adolescent athletes. The purpose of this study was to report reference values for deep cervical flexor endurance and cervical AROM in adolescent football players and examine whether differences in these measures exist in high school football players with and without a history of concussion. Concussion history, cervical AROM, and deep neck flexor endurance were measured in 122 high school football players. Reference values were calculated for AROM and endurance measures; association were examined between various descriptive variables and concussion. No statistically significant differences were found between athletes with a history of concussion and those without. A modest inverse correlation was seen between body mass and AROM in the sagittal and transverse planes. The results of this study indicate that the participants with larger body mass had less cervical AROM in some directions. While cervical AROM and endurance measurements may not be adequate to identify adolescents with a history of previous concussions among high school football players. However, if a concussion is sustained, these measures can offer a baseline to examine whether cervical AROM is affected as compared to healthy adolescents. 2c.

  19. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Nielsen, André Bjørn; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    populated communities (100 to sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may...... be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies....

  20. Osteoarthritis Prevalence in Retired National Football League Players With a History of Concussion and Lower Extremity Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Pietrosimone, Brian; Kerr, Zachary Y; Mauntel, Timothy C; Mihalik, Jason P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-06-02

      Dynamic balance deficits have been described postconcussion, even after athletes return to play. Lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury rates increase for up to 1 year after concussion, but the long-term musculoskeletal implications of concussion are unclear.   To (1) examine the association of concussion and LE injury histories with osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in retired National Football League players and (2) examine the association of concussion and LE injury histories with OA prevalence in those ≤55 years of age.   Case-control study.   Survey.   We administered the Health Survey of Retired National Football League Players, which collects information about demographics, OA, LE injury, and concussion history.   Twelve discrete categories were created based on concussion and LE injury history, ranging from 0 concussions and 0 LE injuries (referent group) to 3+ concussions and 2+ LE injuries. Binomial regression analysis modeled lifetime OA prevalence. Covariates were body mass index, age at the time of the survey, and total years playing professional football.   Complete data were available for 2696 participants. Lifetime OA prevalence was smallest in the referent group (21.1%) and largest in the 3+ concussion and 2+ LE group (50.6%; 2.5 times the referent; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 3.1). Participants in all concussion groups (1, 2, 3+) who reported a history of 0 LE injuries had a greater OA prevalence than the referent group. When participants were stratified by age, the ≤55 years of age, 3+ concussions, and 2+ LE injuries group prevalence ratio (3.6; 95% CI = 2.7, 5.2) was larger than that of the >55 years of age, 3+ concussions, and 2+ LE injuries group (1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.4) compared with the respective referent groups.   Concussion with or without a history of LE injury may be an important moderator of OA. Future researchers should seek to better understand the mechanisms that influence the association among

  1. Somatotype and stress hormone levels in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (Psoccer training process could indicate a stagnation of training process, accordingly with insignificant changes of AnT. The significant correlations of some somatotypes with stress hormonal responses could only suggest that the somatotype characteristics of young soccer players could be of interest in process of selection and planning of soccer training process with an essential need for more studies.

  2. Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.

  3. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Andrews Portes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitnesscharacteristics of Brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. Inthis study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. The athletesparticipated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3hours. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. The boys were divided intoage classes and prevalence data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Parametric datawere compared by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, when necessary. The resultsare expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequateand proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05. It was concluded that anthropometricand physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and areproportional to age. Children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Thepresent results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditionsand physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.

  4. Conservative treatment of lumbar spondylolysis in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Pellisé, Ferran; Cugat, Ramón

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the functional outcomes of young active soccer players with lumbar spondylolysis undergoing conservative treatment. Between 2002 and 2004, all soccer players diagnosed with spondylolysis with a minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated nonoperatively with cessation of sports activity and rehabilitation for 3 months. The rehabilitation protocol was identical for all patients and emphasized strengthening of abdominal muscles, stretching of the hamstrings, "core" stability exercises, and trunk rotational movements in a pain-free basis. Those patients with pain at rest and with daily life activities were also treated with a thoracolumbar orthosis. Symptomatic patients or those with positive SPECT were not allowed to return to sports and continued the rehabilitation protocol for 3 more months. The mean time of cessation of sports activity was 3.9 months (SD 0.8) and 5.2 months (SD 2.1) for a complete return to sports. At the 2-year follow-up, 28 patients (82%) obtained excellent results, 4 (12%) good results, 1 patient (3%) a fair result, and 1 patient (3%) a poor result. Conservative treatment of spondylolysis in young soccer players with cessation of sports and rehabilitation, with or without thoracolumbar orthosis, was associated with excellent functional results in terms of return to sports and level of achievable physical activity.

  5. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  6. Physical performance and positional differences among young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel A; Gabbett, Tim J; Maia, Marianna F; Santana, Haroldo; Miranda, Humberto; Lima, Vicente

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association among anthropometric, physical performance parameters, and dynamic postural control attributes of young female volleyball athletes, and to determine if differences exist in these attributes according to playing position. Forty-three young female volleyball players participated in this study. Players were divided by position into hitters (N.=17), middle blockers (N.=8), setters (N.=10), and liberos (N.=8). Stature, body mass, vertical jump (VJ), peak power, horizontal jump (HJ), sit-and-reach (SRT), star excursion balance (SEBT), and agility (e.g. shuttle run and Illinois agility test) tests were assessed on non-consecutive days in randomized order. No difference was found between groups for SRT, peak power, VJ, and HJ (P≤0.05). Middle blockers and hitters were taller than setters (P≤0.05). Middle blockers were also taller than liberos (P=0.017). Significant differences were observed among groups for agility tests, with hitters significantly faster than setters (P=0.023) and middle blockers (P=0.037). In addition, liberos were significantly faster than setters (P=0.032) and middle blockers (P=0.046), during the Illinois agility test. No difference was observed between groups for reach distance scores in the SEBT. These results demonstrate important positional differences in agility measures of young female volleyball players. Coaches can use this information to determine the type of physical profile that is needed for specific positions and to design training programs to maximize strength, power, and neuromuscular development of young female volleyball athletes.

  7. Effect of turf on the cutting movement of female football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Strutzenberger

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings provide some support for the use of AT in female football, with no evidence to suggests that there is an increased risk of injury when performing on an artificial turf. The ankle response was less clear and further research is warranted. This initial study provides a platform for more detailed analysis, and highlights the importance of exploring the biomechanical changes in performance and injury risk with the introduction of AT.

  8. Comparative analysis of competitive activities of skilled players of different functions in women's and men's football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhurid S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of results of the pedagogical looking is conducted after individual and command competition activity of footballers of professional clubs. The most characteristic are exposed technical tactical receptions. Quantitative and high-quality competition performance of sportsmen indicators are certain. In descriptions of competition activity it is necessary to take into account quantitative and high-quality indexes. Also are terms: speed, limitations, is in time and space, presence of hammerings together factors and competitor.

  9. ANALYSIS OF MOTOR ABILITES OF FOOTBALL AT PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of 170 respondents, players - seniors, aged 18-27 years, from areas of Montenegro. System was applied 16 variables of motor skills. Research objective was to determine the discriminatory ability of their rank accord¬ing to modalities which belong tested players (second and third league competition. Discriminant analysis results indicate that the motor variables are tested athletes in relation to the level of competition significantly different.

  10. Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2006-07-01

    In soccer, the players perform intermittent work. Despite the players performing low-intensity activities for more than 70% of the game, heart rate and body temperature measurements suggest that the average oxygen uptake for elite soccer players is around 70% of maximum (VO(2max). This may be partly explained by the 150 - 250 brief intense actions a top-class player performs during a game, which also indicates that the rates of creatine phosphate (CP) utilization and glycolysis are frequently high during a game. Muscle glycogen is probably the most important substrate for energy production, and fatigue towards the end of a game may be related to depletion of glycogen in some muscle fibres. Blood free-fatty acids (FFAs) increase progressively during a game, partly compensating for the progressive lowering of muscle glycogen. Fatigue also occurs temporarily during matches, but it is still unclear what causes the reduced ability to perform maximally. There are major individual differences in the physical demands of players during a game related to physical capacity and tactical role in the team. These differences should be taken into account when planning the training and nutritional strategies of top-class players, who require a significant energy intake during a week.

  11. How do professional Australian Football League (AFL) players utilise social media during periods of injury? A mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Brodie; Ferguson, Laura; Gosling, Cameron; Storr, Michael; Ilic, Dragan; Young, Mark; Maloney, Stephen

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how social media is used by a population of injured professional athletes, by comparing the content and frequency of posts on social media, pre and post-injury. A retrospective mixed methods design was utilised. Professional Australian Football League (AFL) players, injured during the 2015 season, were included in the study. Publicly accessible social media profiles for these players were identified on Twitter and Instagram. All posts published on verified profiles, from four weeks prior to injury until return to play, were extracted. Thematic analysis was used to investigate the content of these posts, while univariate and multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the frequency of posts during this time period. Two reoccurring themes were identified exclusively post-injury; 'supporting team from the sideline' and 'sharing information about injury and rehabilitation'. The frequency of total posts did not differ significantly pre and post-injury, but the frequency of injury related posts increased in the immediate post-injury phase, then decreased between 4-8 weeks and 8-12 weeks post-injury. The frequency of injury related posts was higher with more severe injuries. The findings of this study suggest that injured players use social media to seek social support from their followers, especially in the immediate post-injury period and after sustaining a severe injury. The role of social media in injury rehabilitation may warrant further investigation, to determine if it could be used to facilitate return to play. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Quality but Not Quantity Altered With a Change in Training Environment in Elite Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nathan W; Robertson, Sam J; Sargent, Charli; Cordy, Justin; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects of a change in training environment on the sleep characteristics of elite Australian Rules football (AF) players. In an observational crossover trial, 19 elite AF players had time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) assessed using wristwatch activity devices and subjective sleep diaries across 8-d home and camp periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined mean differences in sleep, training load (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and environment. Pearson product-moment correlations, controlling for repeated observations on individuals, were used to assess the relationship between changes in sleep characteristics at home and camp. Cohen effect sizes (d) were calculated using individual means. On camp TIB (+34 min) and WASO (+26 min) increased compared with home. However, TST was similar between home and camp, significantly reducing camp SE (-5.82%). Individually, there were strong negative correlations for TIB and WASO (r = -.75 and r = -.72, respectively) and a moderate negative correlation for SE (r = -.46) between home and relative changes on camp. Camp increased the relationship between individual s-RPE variation and TST variation compared with home (increased load r = -.367 vs .051, reduced load r = .319 vs -.033, camp vs home respectively). Camp compromised sleep quality due to significantly increased TIB without increased TST. Individually, AF players with higher home SE experienced greater reductions in SE on camp. Together, this emphasizes the importance of individualized interventions for elite team-sport athletes when traveling and/or changing environments.

  13. Episodic memory in former professional football players with a history of concussion: an event-related functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.

  14. Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research.

  15. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Santos, Patricia; Figueiredo, Teresa; João, Paulo Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school. A total of 20 young female volleyball players playing at Scholar Sport in High School at the district level were divided in two groups: the experimental group (n=10; 14.0±0.0 years; 1.6±0.1 m; 52.0±7.0 kg and 20.7±2.4% body mass) and the control group (n=10; 13.8±0.4 years, 1.6±0.1 m; 53.5±4.7 kg and 20.3±1.7% body mass). The experimental group received additional plyometric and ball throwing exercises besides their normal volleyball practice. The control group underwent only their regular session of training. Strength performance in the experimental group significantly improved (medicine ball and volleyball ball throwing: P=0.00; and counter movement jump: P=0.05), with the improvement ranging from 5.3% to 20.1%. No significant changes in strength performance were observed in the control group (P>0.05). The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. The Motor Subsystem as a Predictor of Success in Young Football Talents: A Person-Oriented Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibung, Marc; Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Motor tests play a key role in talent selection in football. However, individual motor tests only focus on specific areas of a player’s complex performance. To evaluate his or her overall performance during a game, the current study takes a holistic perspective and uses a person-oriented approach. In this approach, several factors are viewed together as a system, whose state is analysed longitudinally. Based on this idea, six motor tests were aggregated to form the Motor Function subsystem. 104 young, top-level, male football talents were tested three times (2011, 2012, 2013; Mage, t2011 = 12.26, SD = 0.29), and their overall level of performance was determined one year later (2014). The data were analysed using the LICUR method, a pattern-analytical procedure for person-oriented approaches. At all three measuring points, four patterns could be identified, which remained stable over time. One of the patterns found at the third measuring point identified more subsequently successful players than random selection would. This pattern is characterised by above-average, but not necessarily the best, performance on the tests. Developmental paths along structurally stable patterns that occur more often than predicted by chance indicate that the Motor Function subsystem is a viable means of forecasting in the age range of 12–15 years. Above-average, though not necessary outstanding, performance both on fitness and technical tests appears to be particularly promising. These findings underscore the view that a holistic perspective may be profitable in talent selection. PMID:27508929

  17. A confidence in itself, as mortgage of successful competition activity of the young chess-players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoroshavina A.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of the study the basic aspects of self-confidence of young players. The study involved 54 young chess players. Of these, 34 students Kherson CYSS Chess. 20 players from different regions of Ukraine. Age investigated from 10 to 15 years. The dependence of the confidence of participation in competitions for young players on the level of anxiety, motivational set, strong-willed self-control. In the result of performance of young chess players in the competition is directly proportional to the strength of motivation to succeed installation. Most athletes have been observed high levels of self-willed. Self-control depends on the experience of participation of young players in the competition, as well as facilities manager.

  18. Assessment of somatotype in young voleyball players: Validity as criteria to select young sports talents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Hoyo Lora

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p255 The anthropometric characteristics of athletes can determine their sporting performance. For this reason, we’ve defined the somatotype of young volleyball players in order to be able to control their sports training and to ensure their appropriate athletic development. In the present investigation 154 male and female volleyball players (aged from 12 to 14 years were analyzed. Data were collected according to the ISAK protocol. The results show an endomesomorphic profile for male and female volleyball players agreeing with the predominant profile at these ages. However, after comparing these data with results obtained in other studies, we observed a certain homogeneity in the male somatotype, invalidating the current trend of using this parameter as criteria to select young sports talent. However, somatotype could be a factor to take into account with female athletes, since their profile is much more heterogeneous.

  19. Normalized STEAM-based diffusion tensor imaging provides a robust assessment of muscle tears in football players: preliminary results of a new approach to evaluate muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Chiara; Motyka, Stanislav; Weber, Michael; Karner, Manuela; Resinger, Christoph; Feiweier, Thorsten; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2018-02-08

    To assess acute muscle tears in professional football players by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and evaluate the impact of normalization of data. Eight football players with acute lower limb muscle tears were examined. DTI metrics of the injured muscle and corresponding healthy contralateral muscle and of ROIs drawn in muscle tears (ROI tear ) in the corresponding healthy contralateral muscle (ROI hc_t ) in a healthy area ipsilateral to the injury (ROI hi ) and in a corresponding contralateral area (ROI hc_i ) were compared. The same comparison was performed for ratios of the injured (ROI tear /ROI hi ) and contralateral sides (ROI hc_t /ROI hc_i ). ANOVA, Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc and Student's t-tests were used. Analyses of the entire muscle did not show any differences (p>0.05 each) except for axial diffusivity (AD; p=0.048). ROI tear showed higher mean diffusivity (MD) and AD than ROI hc_t (ptear than in ROI hi and ROI hc_t (ptear than in any other ROI (pmuscle tears in athletes especially after normalization to healthy muscle tissue. • STEAM-based DTI allows the investigation of muscle tears affecting professional football players. • Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differ between injured and healthy muscle areas. • Only normalized data show differences of fibre tracking metrics in muscle tears. • The normalization of DTI-metrics enables a more robust characterization of muscle tears.

  20. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  1. A Functional Return-to-Play Progression After Exertional Heat Stroke in a High School Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Tanner, Patrick; Irani, Sarah; Mularoni, P Patrick

    2018-03-01

      To present a functional return-to-play (RTP) progression after exertional heat stroke (EHS) in a 17-year-old high school football defensive end (height = 185 cm, mass = 145.5 kg).   The patient had no pertinent medical history but moved to a warm climate several days before the EHS occurred. After completing an off-season conditioning test (14- × 110-yd [12.6- × 99.0-m] sprints) on a warm afternoon (temperature = approximately 34°C [93°F], relative humidity = 53%), the patient collapsed. An athletic trainer (AT) was called to the field, where he found the patient conscious but exhibiting central nervous system dysfunction. Emergency medical services were summoned and immediately transported the patient to the hospital.   Exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, exertional sickling, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac arrhythmia.   The patient was immediately transported to a hospital, where his oral temperature was 39.6°C (103.3°F). He was transferred to a children's hospital and treated for rhabdomyolysis, transaminitis, and renal failure. He was hospitalized for 11 days. After a physician's clearance once the laboratory results normalized, an RTP progression was completed. The protocol began with light activity and progressed over 3 weeks to full football practice. During activity, an AT monitored the patient's gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, fluid consumption, and sweat losses.   Documentation of RTP guidelines for young athletes is lacking. We used a protocol intended for the football setting to ensure the athlete was heat tolerant, had adequate physical fitness, and could safely RTP. Despite his EHS, he recovered fully, with no lasting effects, and successfully returned to compete in the final 5 games of the season.   Using a gradual RTP progression and close monitoring, a high school defensive end successfully returned to football practice and games after EHS. This case demonstrates the feasibility of

  2. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  3. Fatigue-induced balance impairment in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Massimiliano; Ibba, Gianfranco; Attene, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Although balance is generally recognized to be an important feature in ensuring good performance in soccer, its link with functional performance remains mostly unexplored, especially in young athletes. To investigate changes in balance induced by fatigue for unipedal and bipedal static stances in young soccer players. Crossover study. Biomechanics laboratory and outdoor soccer field. Twenty-one male soccer players (age = 14.5 ± 0.2 years, height = 164.5 ± 5.6 cm, mass = 56.8 ± 6.8 kg). Static balance was assessed with postural-sway analysis in unipedal and bipedal upright stance before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test (2 × 15-m shuttle sprint interspersed with 20 seconds of passive recovery, repeated 6 times). On the basis of the center-of-pressure (COP) time series acquired during the experimental tests, we measured sway area, COP path length, and COP maximum displacement and velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Fatigue increased all sway values in bipedal stance and all values except COP velocity in the mediolateral direction in unipedal stance. Fatigue index (calculated on the basis of RSA performance) was positively correlated with fatigue/rest sway ratio for COP path length and COP velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for nondominant single-legged stance. Fatigued players exhibited reduced performance of the postural-control system. Participants with better performance in the RSA test appeared less affected by balance impairment, especially in single-legged stance.

  4. Level of knowledge and hydration strategies of young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate fluid replacement strategies of young soccer players and their level of knowledge regarding hydration management. A total of 216 males (age: 18 ± 0.9 years playing soccer for 8.7 ± 2.6 years were studied. The participants were members of four elite and subelite Brazilian soccer clubs. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 18 objective questions. The main results indicated that 32.3% and 30.1% of the athletes do not have an appropriate strategy for fluid replacement during competitions and training, respectively. In addition, 1.4% and 4.6% of the subjects reported to ingest no fluids during these exercise conditions. When asked about the type of solution (water or isotonic solution consumed before, during and after exercise, water was the main fluid ingested during these periods. Approximately 80 athletes only ingest fluids when feeling thirsty. Coca-Cola® accounted for 11.1% of ingested fluids. Only 27.8% of the participants measure their body weight and 54.2% were unaware of the adequate strategy for fluid replacement. The most common symptoms reported by the athletes were cramps (53.2%, intense thirst (37.5%, and headache (33.8%. These results suggest that young soccer players have inappropriate fluid replacement habits, a fact that may lead to low performance during training or competition.

  5. Self-Reported Wellness Profiles of Professional Australian Football Players During the Competition Phase of the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2017-02-01

    Gallo, TF, Cormack, SJ, Gabbett, TJ, and Lorenzen, CH. Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian football players during the competition phase of the season. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 495-502, 2017-With the prevalence of customized self-report measures in high-performance sport, and the incomplete understanding of athletes' perceived wellness in response to matches and training load, the objective of this study was to explore weekly wellness profiles within the context of the competitive season of professional Australian football. Internal match load, measured through the session-rating of perceived exertion method, match-to-match microcycle, stage of the season, and training load were included in multivariate linear models to determine their effect on weekly wellness profile (n = 1,835). There was a lower weekly training load on a 6-day microcycle compared with a 7-day and 8-day microcycle. Match load had no significant impact on weekly wellness profile, while there was an interaction between microcycle and days postmatch. There was a likely moderately lower wellness Z-score 1 day postmatch for an 8-day microcycle (mean; 95% confidence interval: -1.79; -2.02 to -1.56) compared with a 6-day (-1.19; -1.30 to -1.08) and 7-day (-1.22; -1.34 to -1.09) cycle (d; 95% confidence interval: -0.82; -1.3 to -0.36, -0.78; -1.3 to -0.28, respectively). The second half of the season saw a possibly small reduction in overall wellness Z-score than the first half of the season (0.22; 0.12-0.32). Finally, training load had no effect on wellness Z-score when controlled for days postmatch, microcycle, and stage of the season. These results provide information on the status of players in response to matches and fixed conditions. Knowing when wellness Z-score returns to baseline relative to the length of the microcycle may lead practitioners to prescribe the heaviest load of the week accordingly. Furthermore, wellness "red flags" should be made relative to the

  6. Training Effects of the FIFA 11+ Kids on Physical Performance in Youth Football Players: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pomares-Noguera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the training effects of the FIFA 11+ kids on several parameters of physical performance in male youth football players.Materials and methodsTwenty-three youth players were randomized within each team into two groups (control vs. intervention. The intervention group performed the FIFA 11+ kids programme 2 times a week for 4 weeks; the control groups completed their normal warm-up routines. Thirteen physical performance measures {range of motion (hip, knee, and ankle joints, dynamic postural control (measured throughout the Y balance test, 20 m sprint time, slalom dribble with a ball, agility, vertical jumping height [counter movement jump (CMJ and drop jump (DJ], horizontal jump distance, accuracy when volleying a ball [measured throughout the Wall Volley test]} were assessed. All physical performance parameters were compared via magnitude-based inference analysis.ResultsSignificant between-group differences in favor of the FIFA 11+ players were found for dynamic postural control {anterior [mean and 90% confidence intervals (CI = 1 cm, from −1.6 to 3.5 cm] and posteromedial (mean and 90% CI = 5.1 cm, from −1.8 to 12 cm and posterolateral (mean and 90% CI = 4.8 cm, from 0.6 to 9.0 cm distances}, agility run (mean and 90% CI = 0.5 s, from −0.9 to 0 s, vertical jump height [CMJ (mean and 90% CI = 3.1 cm, from 0.2 to 6.1 cm and DJ (mean and 90% CI = 1.7 cm, from −0.5 to 3.9 cm], and horizontal jump distance (mean and 90% CI = 2.5 cm, from −8 to 15 cm. The control groups showed better performance in 20 m sprint time (mean and 90% CI = −0.05 s, from −0.11 to 0.07 and wall volley tests (mean and 90% CI = 0.2, from −0.2 to 0.6 compared to the intervention group.ConclusionThe main findings of this study suggest that just 4 weeks of implementation of the FIFA 11+ kids produces improved physical performance compared with traditional warm-up routines

  7. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Serner, Andreas

    2018-07-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17) or to 10-weeks of supervised strength training using the NHE in-season (IG; n = 18). A repeated-sprint test, consisting of 4 × 6 10 m sprints, with 15 s recovery period between sprints and 180 s between sets, was conducted to evaluate total sprint time as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were best 10 m sprint time (10mST) and sprint time during the last sprint (L10mST). Additionally, peak eccentric hamstring strength (ECC-P HS ) and eccentric hamstring strength capacity (ECC-CAP HS ) were measured during the NHE. Ten