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Sample records for yeast candida tropicalis

  1. Enzymes of Candida tropicalis yeast biodegrading phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Effluents of industrial wastewaters from oil refineries, paper mills, dyes, ceramic factories, resins, textiles and plastic contain high concentrations of aromatic compounds, which are toxic to organisms. Degradation of these compounds to tolerant limits before releasing them into the environment is an urgent requirement. Candida tropicalis yeast is an important representative of eucaryotic microorganisms that are able to utilize phenol. During the first phase of phenol biodegradation, cytopl...

  2. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-11-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories.

  3. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

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    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  4. Cultivating yeast in fractions of light oil from black coal resin. [Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucher, R.V.; Pavlyuk, M.I.; Dzumedzei, N.V.; Turovskii, A.A.

    1982-11-01

    Feasibility of using a light fraction of black coal oil from the Avdeevskii coking plant as a substrate for growing microorganisms was studied. Candida tropicalis was adapted to the light oil in multiple stages and in continually changing conditions. Maximum growth of the yeast occurred in fractions of the oil with boiling points of 363, 373-293 K. It was demonstrated that low temperature fractions of the hard coal oil are a source of hydrocarbons and energy in microbiological processes. Surface-active materials, such as sodium lauryl sulfate and syntanol-15, stimulate the growth of the yeast in light oil fractions from hard coal resin. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

  5. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  6. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

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    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  7. Sexual Biofilm Formation in Candida tropicalis Opaque Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Hirakawa, Matthew P.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that can transition between white and opaque phenotypic states. White and opaque cells differ both morphologically and in their responses to environmental signals. In C. albicans, opaque cells respond to sexual pheromones by undergoing conjugation, while white cells are induced by pheromones to form sexual biofilms. Here, we show that sexual biofilm formation also occurs in C. tropicalis but, unlike C. albicans, biofilms are formed exclusively by opaque cells. C. tropicalis biofilm formation was dependent on the pheromone receptors Ste2 and Ste3, confirming the role of pheromone signaling in sexual biofilm development. Structural analysis of C. tropicalis sexual biofilms revealed stratified communities consisting of a basal layer of yeast cells and an upper layer of filamentous cells, together with an extracellular matrix. Transcriptional profiling showed that genes involved in pheromone signaling and conjugation were upregulated in sexual biofilms. Furthermore, FGR23, which encodes an agglutinin-like protein, was found to enhance both mating and sexual biofilm formation. Together, these studies reveal that C. tropicalis opaque cells form sexual biofilms with a complex architecture, and suggest a conserved role for sexual agglutinins in mediating mating, cell cohesion and biofilm formation. PMID:24612417

  8. Hemólise produzida por Candida tropicalis isoladas de amostras clínicas Hemolysis produced by Candida tropicalis isolates from clinical samples

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    Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são responsáveis pela maioria das infecções fúngicas em humanos. Candida tropicalis tem sido uma das mais comumente isoladas dentre as espécies não-albicans. O objetivo foi analisar a hemólise in vitro promovida por isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis provenientes de sangue e outras amostras clínicas de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário da UEL, PR-Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a hemólise promovida por 28 isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis, sendo os isolados agrupados em classes de acordo com os níveis de hemólise. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados de sangue apresentou hemólise fraca (+, enquanto as classes de hemólise forte (+++ e muito forte (++++ foram as predominantes nos isolados de outras amostras clínicas como urina, lesão de unha e secreção traqueal, embora não tenham sido detectadas diferenças estatísticas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Isolados de C. tropicalis, obtidos de diferentes amostras clínicas, apresentam capacidade de promover hemólise in vitro.INTRODUCTION: Yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are responsible for the majority of fungal infections in humans. Candida tropicalis has been one of most commonly isolated non-albicans species. To analyze in vitro hemolysis promoted by clinical isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from blood and other clinical samples from hospitalized patients at the University Hospital of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The hemolysis promoted by 28 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis was evaluated, and the isolates were grouped into classes according to the hemolysis levels. RESULTS: The majority of the blood isolates showed weak hemolysis (+, while the classes of strong hemolysis (+++ and very strong hemolysis (++++ predominated among isolates from other clinical samples such as urine, nail lesions and tracheal secretions. However, no statistical differences were detected (p> 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Isolates of C

  9. Prevalence of Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei in onychomycosis in João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil from 1999 to 2010

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    JULIANA M.M. ARRUA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOver time, as the etiology of onychomycosis has developed, yeasts from the genus Candida have emerged as important etiological agents. This study aimed to determine the frequency of yeast caused onychomycosis in Joao Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil from 1999 to 2010. A retrospective study from January 1999 to December 2010 evaluated the results of onychomycosis positive direct mycological exams (DME - for yeast and realized in the Hemato(r Clinical Laboratory. Women were the most affected by onychomycosis which occur preferentially in adults, and the toenails are the favorite yeast targets. The prevalent yeasts were Candida tropicalis and C. krusei.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy as a tool for the analysis of colony architecture produced by phenotypic switching of a human pathogenic yeast Candida tropicalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlaneto, M C; França, E J G; Moralez, A T P; Ferreira, L C S; Andrade, C G T J; Aragão, P H A

    2012-01-01

    Candida tropicalis has been identified as one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeast species of the Candida-non-albicans group. Phenotypic switching is a biological phenomenon related to the occurrence of spontaneous emergence of colonies with different morphologies that provides variability within colonizing populations in order to adapt to different environments. Currently, studies of the microstructure of switching variant colonies are not subject of extensive research. SEM analysis was used to verify the architecture of whole Candida colonies. The strain 49/07 exhibited a hemispherical shape character, while the strain 335/07 showed a volcano shape with mycelated-edge colony. The ring switch variant is characterized by a highly wrinkled centre and an irregular periphery. The rough phenotype exhibited a three-dimensional architecture and was characterized by the presence of deep central and peripheral depressions areas. The ultrastructural analysis also allowed the observation of the arrangement of individual cells within the colonies. The whole smooth colony consisted entirely of yeast cells. Differently, aerial filaments were found all around the colony periphery of the volcano shape colony. For this colony type the mycelated-edge consisted mainly of hyphae, although yeast cells are also seen. The ring and rough colonies phenotypes comprised mainly yeast cells with the presence of extracellular material connecting neighbouring cells. This study has shown that SEM can be used effectively to examine the microarchitecture of colonies morphotypes of the yeast C. tropicalis and further our understanding of switching event in this pathogen.

  11. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

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    Marol Serhat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  12. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-10-29

    The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  13. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

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    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS: IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW P450 FAMILY

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    The P450alk gene, which is inducible by the assimilation of alkane in Candida tropicalis, was sequenced and characterized. Structural features described in promoter and terminator regions of Saccharomyces yeast genes are present in the P450alk gene and some particular structures ...

  15. An actidione resistant Candida tropicalis from custard apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkarayya, H; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1981-01-01

    An actidione resistant yeast, Candida tropicalis, was isolated from fermenting custard apple juice. Though a slight inhibition of growth was observed on the first day with 5000 ppm of actidione, growth was equal to control after one week. Sorbic acid at 500 ppm and above inhibited the growth of this yeast while sodium benzoate and potassium metabisulphite were unable to suppress the growth even at 1000 ppm. Fermentation and assimilation of different carbon sources were delayed in the presence of 1000 ppm of actidione suggesting the disruption of protein synthesis by actidione.

  16. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

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    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  17. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    OpenAIRE

    Marol Serhat; Yücesoy Mine

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 ...

  18. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei: a case report and an updated literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  19. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

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    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  20. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. An open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. This ORF includes a charact...

  1. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  2. Decolorization of a recalcitrant organic compound (Melanoidin by a novel thermotolerant yeast, Candida tropicalis RG-9

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    Tiwari Soni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane distilleries use molasses for ethanol production and generate large volume of effluent containing high biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD along with melanoidin pigment. Melanoidin is a recalcitrant compound that causes several toxic effects on living system, therefore, may be treated before disposal. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing yeast from natural resources, and optimized different physico-chemical and nutritional parameters. Results Total 24 yeasts were isolated from the soil samples of near by distillery site, in which isolate Y-9 showed maximum decolorization and identified as Candida tropicalis by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC Chandigarh, India. The decolorization yield was expressed as the decrease in the absorbance at 475 nm against initial absorbance at the same wavelength. Uninoculated medium served as control. Yeast showed maximum decolorization (75% at 45°C using 0.2%, glucose; 0.2%, peptone; 0.05%, MgSO4; 0.01%, KH2PO4; pH-5.5 within 24 h of incubation under static condition. Decolorizing ability of yeast was also confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Conclusion The yeast strain efficiently decolorized melanoidin pigment of distillery effluent at higher temperature than the other earlier reported strains of yeast, therefore, this strain could also be used at industrial level for melanoidin decolorization as it tolerated a wide range of temperature and pH with very small amount of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  3. Cellular characterisation of Candida tropicalis presenting fluconazole-related trailing growth

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    Marcos Dornelas-Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed fluconazole susceptibility in 52 Candida tropicalis clinical strains using seven antifungal susceptibility methods, including broth microdilution (BMD [standard M27 A3 (with neutral and acid pH, ATB Fungus 3, Vitek 2 system and flow cytometric analysis] and agar-based methods (disk diffusion and E-test. Trailing growth, detection of cell-associated secreted aspartic proteases (Saps and morphological and ultrastructural traits of these clinical strains were also examined. The ranges of fluconazole 24 h-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were similar among all methods. The essential agreement among the methods used for MIC determinations was excellent and all methods categorised all strains as susceptible, except for one strain that showed a minor error. The presence of the trailing effect was assessed by six methods. Trailing positivity was observed for 86.5-100% of the strains. The exception was the BMD-Ac method where trailing growth was not observed. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations were detected in C. tropicalis trailing cells, including mitochondrial swelling and cell walls with irregular shapes. We tested the production of Saps in 13 C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth through flow cytometry. Our results showed that all of the C. tropicalis strains up-regulated surface Sap expression after 24 h or 48 h of exposure to fluconazole, which was not observed in untreated yeast strains. We concluded that C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth presented some particular features on both biological and ultrastructural levels.

  4. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis.

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    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2015-08-19

    The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose) concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60-80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w) on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h(-1)). Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w), against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  5. Furfural tolerance and detoxification mechanism in Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Cheng, Gang; Joshua, Chijioke; He, Zijun; Sun, Xinxiao; Li, Ruimin; Liu, Lexuan; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source. In this study, C. tropicalis showed a comparable ability of furfural tolerance during fermentation. We investigated the mechanism of C. tropicalis 's robust tolerance to furfural and relevant metabolic responses to obtain more information for metabolic engineering of microbes for efficient lignocellulose fermentation. Candida tropicalis showed comparable intrinsic tolerance to furfural and a fast rate of furfural detoxification. C. tropicalis 's half maximal inhibitory concentration for furfural with xylose as the sole carbon source was 3.69 g/L, which was higher than that of most wild-type microbes reported in the literature to our knowledge. Even though furfural prolonged the lag phase of C. tropicalis , the final biomass in the groups treated with 1 g/L furfural was slightly greater than that in the control groups. By real-time PCR analysis, we found that the expression of ADH1 in C. tropicalis ( ctADH1 ) was induced by furfural and repressed by ethanol after furfural depletion. The expression of ctADH1 could be regulated by both furfural and ethanol. After the disruption of gene ctADH1 , we found that C. tropicalis 's furfural tolerance was weakened. To further confirm the function of ctADH1 and enhance Escherichia coli 's furfural tolerance, ctADH1 was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The rate of furfural degradation in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with pET-ADH1 (high-copy plasmid) and pCS-ADH1 (medium-copy plasmid) was increased

  6. The determination of optimal cells disintegration method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungals

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    M. V. Rybalkyn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is common infectious disease that affects the mucous membranes, skin, nails, hair, and internal organs. Now Ukraine has neither domestic nor registered imported vaccine against candidiasis. The development of vaccine for prevention and treatment of candidiasis is a key issue in modern medicine and pharmacy. Similar research is actively conducted in many countries of the world: Russia, USA, Japan and others. It should be noted that researchers have not yet reached a consensus view which vaccine is most effective with candidiasis. There are several types of vaccines: live, inactivated, subunit and others. In this article, we consider getting the potential subunit vaccine from Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Subunit vaccine is composed of fragments of antigens that can provide an adequate immune response. These vaccines can be represented by particles of microbes. It is known that the main substances in cells of genus Candida fungi, which have antigenic properties, are proteins and polysaccharides. However, the question of their localization in the layers of the cell wall and cytoplasm nowadays require more detailed studies. Many researchers to highlight cytoplasm antigens and all the other layers of the cell use the following methods: grinding cells with quartz sand, destroying them in different machine disintegrating, freezing and thawing a multi others. To obtain potential subunit vaccine fungi were rejected by methods that are based on the processing of biomass fungi chemicals (extraction, hydrolysis. The aim of this work was to study experimentally the destruction method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Cells of Candida albicans fungi strain CCM 335-867 and Candida tropicalis fungi strain 20336 ATTS have been separately cultured in vitro on agar Sabouraud at 25 ± 2º C for 48 hours and then washed by 10 ml of sterile 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution. Cell suspension of Candida albicans and

  7. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis

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    Elena Tamburini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60–80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h−1. Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w, against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  8. Detoxification of Eucheuma spinosum Hydrolysates with Activated Carbon for Ethanol Production by the Salt-Tolerant Yeast Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Young; Kang, Chang Han; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the slurry contents and salt concentrations for ethanol production from hydrolysates of the seaweed Eucheuma spinosum. A monosaccharide concentration of 44.2 g/l as 49.6% conversion of total carbohydrate of 89.1 g/l was obtained from 120 g dw/l seaweed slurry. Monosaccharides from E. spinosum slurry were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Addition of activated carbon at 2.5% (w/v) and the adsorption time of 2 min were used in subsequent adsorption treatments to prevent the inhibitory effect of HMF. The adsorption surface area of the activated carbon powder was 1,400-1,600 m(2)/g and showed selectivity to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) from monosaccharides. Candida tropicalis KCTC 7212 was cultured in yeast extract, peptone, glucose, and high-salt medium, and exposed to 80, 90, 100, and 110 practical salinity unit (psu) salt concentrations in the lysates. The 100 psu salt concentration showed maximum cell growth and ethanol production. The ethanol fermentations with activated carbon treatment and use of C. tropicalis acclimated to a high salt concentration of 100 psu produced 17.9 g/l of ethanol with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.40 from E. spinosum seaweed.

  9. An Update on Candida tropicalis Based on Basic and Clinical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida tropicalis has emerged as one of the most important Candida species. It has been widely considered the second most virulent Candida species, only preceded by C. albicans. Besides, this species has been recognized as a very strong biofilm producer, surpassing C. albicans in most of the studies. In addition, it produces a wide range of other virulence factors, including: adhesion to buccal epithelial and endothelial cells; the secretion of lytic enzymes, such as proteinases, phospholipases, and hemolysins, bud-to-hyphae transition (also called morphogenesis) and the phenomenon called phenotypic switching. This is a species very closely related to C. albicans and has been easily identified with both phenotypic and molecular methods. In addition, no cryptic sibling species were yet described in the literature, what is contradictory to some other medically important Candida species. C. tropicalis is a clinically relevant species and may be the second or third etiological agent of candidemia, specifically in Latin American countries and Asia. Antifungal resistance to the azoles, polyenes, and echinocandins has already been described. Apart from all these characteristics, C. tropicalis has been considered an osmotolerant microorganism and this ability to survive to high salt concentration may be important for fungal persistence in saline environments. This physiological characteristic makes this species suitable for use in biotechnology processes. Here we describe an update of C. tropicalis, focusing on all these previously mentioned subjects. PMID:29081766

  10. Inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis

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    E Zibafar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Candidiasis associated with indwelling medical devices is especially problematic since they can act as substrates for biofilm growth which are highly resistant to antifungal drugs. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation and biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Since in recent years Candida tropicalis have been reported as an important and common non-albicans Candida species with high drug resistance pattern, the inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis was evaluated. Methods: Five Candida tropicalis strains were treated with different concentration of farnesol (0, 30 and 300 µM after 0, 1 and 4 hrs of adherence and then they were maintained under biofilm formation condition in polystyrene, 96-well microtiter plates at 37°C for 48 hrs. Biofilm formation was measured by a semiquantitative colorimetric technique based on reduction assay of 2,3- bis  -2H-tetrazolium- 5- carboxanilide (XTT. Results: The results indicated that the initial adherence time had no effect on biofilm formation and low concentration of farnesol (30 µM could not inhibit biofilm formation. However the presence of non-adherent cells increased biofilm formation significantly and the high concentration of farnesol (300 µM could inhibit biofilm formation. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the high concentration of farnesol could inhibit biofilm formation and may be used as an adjuvant in prevention and in therapeutic strategies with antifungal drugs.

  11. Mechanisms of azole resistance in a clinical isolate of Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Larcher, Gérald; Bergès, Thierry; Renier, Gilles; Chabasse, Dominique; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2005-11-01

    Azole resistance has been insufficiently investigated in the yeast Candida tropicalis. Here we determined the molecular mechanisms responsible for azole resistance in a clinical isolate of this pathogenic yeast. Antifungal susceptibility testing performed by a disk diffusion method showed resistance or markedly decreased susceptibility to azoles, which was confirmed by determination of MICs. Considering the relationship between azole susceptibility and the respiration reported for other yeast species, the respiratory activity of this isolate was investigated. Flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 and oxygraphy demonstrated an increased respiratory activity, which was not linked to an overexpression or increased number of copies of the mitochondrial genome. Among previously described resistance mechanisms, an increased activity of efflux pumps was investigated by flow cytometry using rhodamine 6G. However, the efflux of rhodamine 6G was lower in the resistant isolate than in susceptible ones. Likewise, real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification of the expression of C. tropicalis MDR1 (CtMDR1), which encodes an efflux protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily, did not show overexpression of this gene. In contrast, the resistant isolate overexpressed the CtERG11 gene coding for lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase. This was in agreement with the larger amount of ergosterol found in this isolate. Moreover, sequencing of CtERG11 showed a point mutation leading to a tyrosine substitution in the protein sequence, which might lead to decreased binding affinity for azoles. In conclusion, overexpression of CtERG11 associated with a missense mutation in this gene seemed to be responsible for the acquired azole resistance of this clinical isolate.

  12. Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals a New Cluster of Closely Related Candida tropicalis Genotypes in Italian Patients With Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordino, Fabio; Giuffrè, Letterio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Marino Merlo, Francesca; Orlando, Maria Grazia; Giosa, Domenico; Romeo, Orazio

    2018-01-01

    Candida tropicalis is a pathogenic yeast that has emerged as an important cause of candidemia especially in elderly patients with hematological malignancies. Infections caused by this species are mainly reported from Latin America and Asian-Pacific countries although recent epidemiological data revealed that C. tropicalis accounts for 6-16.4% of the Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Italy by representing a relevant issue especially for patients receiving long-term hospital care. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of C. tropicalis isolates contaminating the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) and hospital environments and/or associated with BSIs occurring in patients with different neurological disorders and without hematological disease. A total of 28 C. tropicalis isolates were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing analysis of six housekeeping ( ICL1, MDR1, SAPT2, SAPT4, XYR1 , and ZWF1 ) genes and data revealed the presence of only eight diploid sequence types (DSTs) of which 6 (75%) were completely new. Four eBURST clonal complexes (CC2, CC10, CC11, and CC33) contained all DSTs found in this study and the CC33 resulted in an exclusive, well-defined, clonal cluster from Italy. In conclusion, C. tropicalis could represent an important cause of BSIs in long-term hospitalized patients with no underlying hematological disease. The findings of this study also suggest a potential horizontal transmission of a specific C. tropicalis clone through hands of HCWs and expand our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this pathogen whose population structure is still far from being fully elucidated as its complexity increases as different categories of patients and geographic areas are examined.

  13. Xylitol from rice husks by acid hydrolysis and Candida yeast fermentation

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    Magale K. D. Rambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted into the production of xylose by acid hydrolysis of rice husks and its subsequent bioconversion to xylitol. The parameters were optimised using the response surface methodology. The fermentation stage took place with the aid of the yeast species Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis. An evaluation of the influence of several biomass pre-treatments was also performed. The effects of the acid concentration and hydrolysate pH on xylitol global yield were also assessed, and the highest yield of xylitol was 64.0% (w/w. The main products, xylose and xylitol, were identified and quantified by means of liquid chromatography.

  14. Rapid identification of drug resistant Candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diba, Kambiz; Namaki, Atefeh; Ayatolahi, Haleh; Hanifian, Haleh

    2012-01-01

    Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37℃, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  15. Hichrom candida agar for identification of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradkar, V P; Mathur, M; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%); C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%), C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%), C. tropicalis (100 and 100%) and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55%) respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  16. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

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    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  17. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar V; Mathur M; Kumar S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore for...

  18. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  19. [Activity of amphotericin B and anidulafungin, alone and combined, against Candida tropicalis biofilms developed on Teflon® and titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivero, Marcelo Ernesto; Del Pozo, José L; Valentín, Amparo; Fornes, Victoria; Molina de Diego, Araceli; Pemán, Javier; Cantón, Emilia

    Current therapeutic strategies have a limited efficacy against Candida biofilms that form on the surfaces of biomedical devices. Few studies have evaluated the activity of antifungal agents against Candida tropicalis biofilms. To evaluate the activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and anidulafungin (AND), alone and in combination, against C. tropicalis biofilms developed on polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon -PTFE) and titanium surfaces using time-kill assays. Assays were performed using the CDC Biofilm Reactor equipped with PTFE and titanium disks with C. tropicalis biofilms after 24h of maturation. The concentrations assayed were 40mg/l for AMB and 8mg/l for AND, both alone and combined. After 24, 48 and 72h of exposure to the antifungals, the cfu/cm 2 was determined by a vortexing-sonication procedure. AMB reduced biofilm viable cells attached to PTFE and titanium by ≥99% and AND by 89.3% on PTFE and 96.8% on titanium. The AMB+AND combination was less active than AMB alone, both on PTFE (decrease of cfu/cm 2 3.09 Log 10 vs. 1.08 when combined) and titanium (4.51 vs. 1.53 when combined), being the interaction irrelevant on both surfaces. AMB is more active than AND against C. tropicalis biofilms. Yeast killing rates are higher on titanium than on PTFE surfaces. The combination of AMB plus AND is less effective than AMB alone on both surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of Candida berkhout strains in the production of yeasts and ethyl alcohol from sulfite waste liquor and molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewska, H

    1962-01-01

    A single strain of Candida tropicalis was used to produce EtOH and fodder yeast from pasteurized, neutralized sulfite liquor containing 3.5% reducing substances and supplemented with NH/sub 3/ and P salts, or from molasses containing 150 g sucrose per l. After 48 hours sugar utilization by Candida was 87.7% and EtOH yield 56.1%; Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave 94.8 and 64.6 to 65.2%, respectively. After 72 hours sugar utilization and EtOH yield by Candida was 94.9 and 60.4% respectively.

  1. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-02-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates were, respectively, 37.0 and 6.0% after 24 h of incubation and 93.6 and 92.2% after 72 h of incubation, with specificities of 99.8 and 100%. Furthermore, CHROMagar Candida plates identified 13 of 14 Candida tropicalis and 9 of 12 Candida krusei strains after 48 h of incubation.

  2. Conversion of xylose to ethanol under aerobic conditions by Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Jeffries

    1981-01-01

    Candida tropicalis converts xylose to ethanol under aerobic, but not anaerobic, conditions. Ethanol production lags behind growth and is accelerated by increased aeration. Adding xylose to active cultures stimulates ethanol production as does serial subculture in a medium containing xylose as a sole carbon source.

  3. Fermentation and antimicrobial characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum and Candida tropicalis from Nigerian fermented maize (akamu

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    Patience Chisa Obinna-Echem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum strains (NGL5 and NGL7 and Candida tropicalis (NGY1 previously identified from akamu-a Nigerian fermented maize food with probiotic L. plantarum LpTx and Saccharomyces boulardii SB20 to ferment ground maize slurries based on pH, acidity, microbial biomass, levels of sugars and organic acids, and their antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis NCTC 5188, Escherichia coli NCTC 11560, Bacillus cereus NCIMB 11925, Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 3750 and Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 7973 using an agar spot assay. L. plantarum strains either as single or mixed starter cultures with the yeasts had growth rates ≥0.15 h-1,with pH significantly (p≤0.05 decreased to ≤3.93 after 12 h and then to ≤3.52 after 72 h and lactic acid >84 mmol L-1. The yeasts had growth rates ≥0.18 h-1 but pH was ≥4.57 with lactic acid levels ≤20.23 mmol L-1 after 72 h in the single culture fermentation. There was no inhibition in modified MRS agar: 0.2% glucose and 0.2% glucose without Tween 80. Inhibition halos in MRS agar varied from 10.6 to 23.9 mm. S. bourladii was more inhibitory towards L. monocytogenes (8.6 mm and B. cereus (5.4 mm than was C. tropicalis (1.1 and 3.3 mm for L. monocytogenes NCTC 7973 and B. cereus NCIMB 11925 respectively (0.9 mm in malt extract agar. This study showed that C. tropicalis was less inhibitory to the pathogens while antimicrobial activities of the L. plantarum strains were mainly due to acidity and the L. plantarum strains either as single or mixed cultures with the yeasts demonstrated strong fermentation ability, with significant decrease in pH which is vital in the choice of starter for product safety.

  4. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  5. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyada Ghufrana Nadeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods: A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results: The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion: The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  6. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-02-09

    Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal-tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  7. Candida tropicalis CE017: a new Brazilian enzymatic source for the bioreduction of aromatic prochiral ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Gizelle A.B.; Araujo, Daniel M. de Freitas; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Melo, Vania M.M.; Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Gotor-Fernandez, Vicente; Gotor, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The reactivity and stereoselectivity showed by a new strain of Candida tropicalis in the reduction of prochiral ketones have been compared with the ones previously attained in our laboratory using microorganisms from the Brazilian biodiversity. In this manner, Candida tropicalis has demonstrated its versatility as stereoselective agent in the bioreduction of a series of aromatic ketones. These prochiral compounds were converted into their corresponding optically alcohols with moderate to excellent stereopreference depending on the substrate structure. Among ketones tested, nitroacetophenones were enzymatically reduced to enantiopure (S)-alcohol with complete conversion. (author)

  8. Candida tropicalis CE017: a new Brazilian enzymatic source for the bioreduction of aromatic prochiral ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Gizelle A.B.; Araujo, Daniel M. de Freitas; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Melo, Vania M.M., E-mail: mcdmatto@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Gotor-Fernandez, Vicente; Gotor, Vicente [Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Univ. de Biotecnologia de Asturias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2010-07-01

    The reactivity and stereoselectivity showed by a new strain of Candida tropicalis in the reduction of prochiral ketones have been compared with the ones previously attained in our laboratory using microorganisms from the Brazilian biodiversity. In this manner, Candida tropicalis has demonstrated its versatility as stereoselective agent in the bioreduction of a series of aromatic ketones. These prochiral compounds were converted into their corresponding optically alcohols with moderate to excellent stereopreference depending on the substrate structure. Among ketones tested, nitroacetophenones were enzymatically reduced to enantiopure (S)-alcohol with complete conversion. (author)

  9. Ethanol production from olive prunings by autohydrolysis and fermentation with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Martin, Juan Francisco; Bravo, Vicente [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Cuevas, Manuel; Sanchez, Sebastian [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Hydrolysates from olive prunings (a renewable, low-cost, easily available, agricultural residue) were fermented with the unconventional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618 to produce not only ethanol fuel but also xylitol as a by-product, which adds value to the economic viability of the bioprocess. Autohydrolysis took place at 200 C in a stirred stainless-steel tank reactor. The influence of the solid/liquid ratio in the reactor was studied. Fermentation experiments were conducted in a batch-culture reactor at a temperature of 30 C, a stirring rate of 500 rpm and pH values of between 5.0 and 6.5. Under the operating conditions tested the highest yields of ethanol and xylitol were obtained with the hydrolysate fermented at pH 5.0 and solely the airflow that entered via the stirring vortex. Under these conditions, the instantaneous ethanol yield was 0.44 g g{sup -1} and the overall xylitol yield 0.13 g g{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Cellulolytic enzyme expression and simultaneous conversion of lignocellulosic sugars into ethanol and xylitol by a new Candida tropicalis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattam, Anu Jose; Kuila, Arindam; Suralikerimath, Niranjan; Choudary, Nettem; Rao, Peddy V C; Velankar, Harshad Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol production involves major steps such as thermochemical pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated biomass and the fermentation of released sugars into ethanol. At least two different organisms are conventionally utilized for producing cellulolytic enzymes and for ethanol production through fermentation, whereas in the present study a single yeast isolate with the capacity to simultaneously produce cellulases and xylanases and ferment the released sugars into ethanol and xylitol has been described. A yeast strain isolated from soil samples and identified as Candida tropicalis MTCC 25057 expressed cellulases and xylanases over a wide range of temperatures (32 and 42 °C) and in the presence of different cellulosic substrates [carboxymethylcellulose and wheat straw (WS)]. The studies indicated that the cultivation of yeast at 42 °C in pre-treated hydrolysate containing 0.5 % WS resulted in proportional expression of cellulases (exoglucanases and endoglucanases) at concentrations of 114.1 and 97.8 U g(-1) ds, respectively. A high xylanase activity (689.3 U g(-1) ds) was also exhibited by the yeast under similar growth conditions. Maximum expression of cellulolytic enzymes by the yeast occurred within 24 h of incubation. Of the sugars released from biomass after pretreatment, 49 g L(-1) xylose was aerobically converted into 15.8 g L(-1) of xylitol. In addition, 25.4 g L(-1) glucose released after the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass was fermented by the same yeast to obtain an ethanol titer of 7.3 g L(-1). During the present study, a new strain of C. tropicalis was isolated and found to have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) applications. The strain could grow in a wide range of process conditions (temperature, pH) and in the presence of lignocellulosic inhibitors such as furfural, HMF and acetic acid. The new yeast produced cellulolytic enzymes over a wide temperature range and in the presence of

  11. Significance of hyphae formation in virulence of Candida tropicalis and transcriptomic analysis of hyphal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Tian, Yuan; Dong, Danfeng; Peng, Yibing

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the proportion of Candida tropicalis in clinical isolates has significantly increased. Some C. tropicalis strains colonize the skin or mucosal surfaces as commensals; others trigger invasive infection. To date, the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis has not been thoroughly researched. This study reports several virulence factors, including biofilm and hyphae formation, proteinase, phospholipase, lipase and hemolytic activity, in 52 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis collected from five hospitals in four provinces of China. Some C. tropicalis tended to produce more hyphae than others in the same circumstance. Six C. tropicalis strains with different morphologies were injected into mice via the tail vein, and the survival proportions and fungal burdens of the strains were evaluated. Hyphal production by C. tropicalis was associated with stronger virulence. RNA sequencing revealed that C. tropicalis with more hyphae up-regulated several genes involved in morphological differentiation and oxidative response, including IF2, Atx1, and Sod2. It appears that hyphal formation plays a vital role in the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis, and interacts with the oxidative stress response to strengthen the organism's virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative evaluation of six chromogenic media for presumptive yeast identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Alessandra; Florio, Walter; Celandroni, Francesco; Barnini, Simona; Lupetti, Antonella; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the discrimination ability of six chromogenic media in presumptive yeast identification. We analysed 108 clinical isolates and reference strains belonging to eight different species: Candida albicans , Candida dubliniensis , Candida tropicalis , Candida krusei , Candida glabrata , Candida parapsilosis , Candida lusitaniae and Trichosporon mucoides . C. albicans , C. tropicalis and C. krusei could be distinguished from one another in all the tested chromogenic media, as predicted by the manufacturers. In addition, C. albicans could be distinguished from C. dubliniensis on BBL CHROMagar Candida, Kima CHROMagar Candida and Brilliance Candida, and C. parapsilosis could be identified on CHROMATIC Candida agar, CHROMOGENIC Candida agar, and Brilliance Candida agar. Brilliance Candida provided the widest discrimination ability, being able to discriminate five out of the seven Candida species tested. Interestingly, C. tropicalis and C. krusei could be already distinguished from each other after 24 hours of incubation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional strains by using a broth dilution assay standardized according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A assay. Terbinafine was found to have an MIC of 1 μg/ml for reference C. albicans strains. For 259 clinical isolates, the MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of terbinafine was 1 μg/ml (fluconazole, 0.5 μg/ml), and the MIC90 was 4 μg/ml (fluconazole, 1 μg/ml). Terbinafine was highly active against Candida parapsilosis (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and showed potentially interesting activity against isolates of Candida dubliniensis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida humicola, and Candida lusitaniae. It was not active against the Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis isolates in this assay. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus neoformans were highly susceptible to terbinafine, with MICs of 0.06 to 0.25 μg/ml. The NCCLS macrodilution assay provides reproducible in vitro data for terbinafine against Candida and other yeasts. The MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis are compatible with the known clinical efficacy of terbinafine in cutaneous infections, while the clinical relevance of its activities against the other species has yet to be determined. PMID:9593126

  15. Novel Polymorphic Multilocus Microsatellite Markers to Distinguish Candida tropicalis Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fan

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404, six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26 were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing. Two known microsatellite loci CT14 and URA3 were also studied. The 6-locus scheme was then tested against a set of 82 different isolates from 32 patients. Microsatellite genotypes of isolates from the same patient (two to five isolates per patient were identical. The six loci produced eight to 17 allele types and identified 11 to 24 genotypes amongst 32 patients' isolates, achieving a discriminatory power (DP of 0.76 to 0.97 (versus 0.78 for both CT14 and URA3 loci, respectively. Testing of a combination of only three loci, ctm1, ctm3 and ctm24, also achieved maximum typing efficiency (DP = 0.99, 29 genotypes. The microsatellite typing scheme had good correlation compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, although was slightly less discriminatory. The new six-locus microsatellite typing scheme is a potentially valuable tool for genotyping and investigating microevolution of C. tropicalis.

  16. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; vanHoogmoed, CG; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderKuijlBooij, M; vanderMei, HC

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy

  17. Determination of biofilm production by Candida tropicalis isolated from hospitalized patients and its relation to cellular surface hydrophobicity, plastic adherence and filamentation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Ladero, M A; Blanco-Blanco, M T; Hurtado, C; Pérez-Giraldo, C; Blanco, M T; Gómez-García, A C

    2013-09-01

    Candida tropicalis is an emerging virulent species. The aim of this study is to determine the biofilm-forming ability of 29 strains of C. tropicalis isolated from inpatients, and to examine its relation with other virulence factors such as cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH), immediate (15 min, IA) and late (24 h, LA) plastic adherence and filamentation ability. The study was performed in parallel using two incubation temperatures - 37 and 22 °C - to determine the effect of growth temperature variations on these pathogenic attributes of C. tropicalis. Biofilm formation (BF) was measured by optical density (OD) and by XTT reduction (XTT); Slime index (SI), which includes growth as a correction factor in BF, was calculated in both methods. All strains were hydrophobic and adherent - at 15 min and 24 h - at both temperatures, with higher values for 22 °C; the adhered basal yeast layer appears to be necessary to achieve subsequent development of biofilm. Filamentation ability varied from 76.2% of strains at 37 °C to 26.6% at 22 °C. All C. tropicalis strains were biofilm producers, with similar results obtained using OD determination and XTT measurement to evaluation methods; SI is useful when good growth is not presented. BF at 37 °C was similar at 24 h and 96 h incubation; conversely, at 22 °C, the highest number of biofilm-producing strains was detected at 96 h. CSH is an important pathogenic factor which is involved in adherence, is influenced by the filamentation of yeast, and plays a critical role in BF. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Xylitol production from colombian native yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isleny Andrea Vanegas Córdoba

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is an alternative sweetener with similar characteristics to sucrose that has become of great interest, due mainly to its safe use in diabetic patients and those deficient in glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Its chemical production is expensive and generates undesirable by-products, whereas biotechnological process, which uses different yeasts genera, is a viable production alternative because it is safer and specific. Colombia has a privilege geographic location and offers a great microbial variety, this can be taken advantage of with academic and commercial goals. Because of this, some native microorganisms with potential to produce xylitol were screened in this work. It were isolated 25 yeasts species, from which was possible to identify 84% by the kit API 20C-AUX. Three yeasts: Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis y C. parapsilosis presented greater capacity to degrade xylose compared to the others, therefore they were selected for the later evaluation of its productive capacity. Discontinuous cellular cultures were developed in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 35°C by 30 hours, using synthetic media with xylose as carbon source. Xylose consumption and xylitol production were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The maximal efficiency were obtained with Candida kefyr and C. tropicalis (Yp/s 0.5 y 0.43 g/g, respectively, using an initial xylose concentration of 20 g/L. Key words: Xylitol, xylose, yeasts, Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis.

  19. Voice Prosthetic Biofilm Formation and Candida Morphogenic Conversions in Absence and Presence of Different Bacterial Strains and Species on Silicone-Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henny C.; Buijssen, Kevin J. D. A.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekatarina; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    Morphogenic conversion of Candida from a yeast to hyphal morphology plays a pivotal role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Both Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, in combination with a variety of different bacterial strains and species, appear in biofilms on silicone-rubber voice

  20. Antimicrobial activity of yeasts against some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Younis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to isolate and identify yeast species from milk and meat products, and to test their antimicrobial activity against some bacterial species. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 milk and meat products samples were collected from random sellers and super markets in New Damietta city, Damietta, Egypt. Samples were subjected to yeast isolation procedures and tested for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. In addition, all yeast species isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of khs (kievitone hydratase and pelA (pectate degrading enzyme genes. Results: The recovery rate of yeasts from sausage was 20% (2/10 followed by kareish cheese, processed cheese, and butter 10% (1/10 each as well as raw milk 9% (9/100, and fruit yoghurt 30% (6/20. Different yeast species were recovered, namely, Candida kefyr (5 isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4 isolates, Candida intermedia (3 isolates, Candida tropicalis (2 isolates, Candida lusitaniae (2 isolates, and Candida krusei (1 isolate. khs gene was detected in all S. cerevisiae isolates, however, pelA gene was not detected in all identified yeast species. Antimicrobial activity of recovered yeasts against the selected bacterial species showed high activity with C. intermedia against S. aureus and E. coli, C. kefyr against E. coli, and C. lusitaniae against S. aureus. Moderate activities were obtained with C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and S. cerevisiae against E. coli; meanwhile, all the tested yeasts revealed a very low antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The obtained results confirmed that some kinds of yeasts have the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds that could inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and these antimicrobial activity of yeasts enables them to be one of the novel agents in controlling spoilage of food.

  1. Characterization of the newly isolated ω-oxidizing yeast Candida sorbophila DS02 and its potential applications in long-chain dicarboxylic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeseok; Sugiharto, Yohanes Eko Chandra; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Gyuyeon; Han, Changpyo; Jang, Hyeran; Jeon, Wooyoung; Park, Heejoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kang, Kyungbo; Lee, Hongwoen

    2017-08-01

    α, ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) are multipurpose chemicals widely used in polymers, perfumes, plasticizers, lubricants, and adhesives. The biotransformation of DCAs from alkanes and fatty acids by microorganisms has attracted recent interest, since synthesis via chemical oxidation causes problems in terms of the environment and safety. We isolated an ω-oxidizing yeast from a wastewater disposal facility of a petrochemical factory by chemostat enrichment culture. The haploid strain identified as Candida sorbophila DS02 grew on glucose and dodecane, exhibiting greater cell shrinkage on the latter. In flask cultures with mixed alkanes (C10-16) and fatty acid methyl esters (C10-16), DS02 used mixed alkanes simultaneously unlike Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica and showed high substrate resistance. In flask cultures with acrylic acid-a known inhibitor of β-oxidation-DS02 produced 0.28 g/l dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) from dodecane, similar to wild-type C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. In fed-batch fermentation, DS02 produced 9.87 g/l DDDA, which was 5.7-fold higher than wild-type C. tropicalis. These results suggest that C. sorbophila strain DS02 has potential applications for the large-scale production of DCA.

  2. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  3. Septic arthritis as the first sign of Candida tropicalis fungaemia in an acute lymphoid leukemia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicari Perla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections caused by Candida species have increased in incidence during the past two decades in England, North America and Europe. Candidal arthritis is rare in patients who are not intravenous drug users or are who not using a prostheses. We report the case of a 24-year-old man with acute lymphoid leukemia, who developed Candida tropicalis arthritis during an aplastic period after chemotherapy. This is the eighth case described in the literature of C. tropicalis causing arthritis without intra-articular inoculation. We call attention to an unusual first sign of fungal infection: septic arthritis without intra-articular inoculation. However, this case differs from the other seven, since despite therapy a fast and lethal evolution was observed. We reviewed reported cases, incidence, risk factors, mortality and treatment of neutropenic patients with fungal infections.

  4. Evaluation of Different Yeast Species for Improving Fermentation of Cereal Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effects of different yeast species on ruminal fermentation is limited. This experiment was conducted in a 3×4 factorial arrangement to explore and compare the effects of addition of three different live yeast species (Candida utilis 1314, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1355, and Candida tropicalis 1254 at four doses (0, 0.25×107, 0.50×107, and 0.75×107 colony-forming unit [cfu] on in vitro gas production kinetics, fiber degradation, methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics of maize stover, and rice straw by mixed rumen microorganisms in dairy cows. The maximum gas production (Vf, dry matter disappearance (IVDMD, neutral detergent fiber disappearance (IVNDFD, and methane production in C. utilis group were less (p<0.01 than other two live yeast supplemented groups. The inclusion of S. cerevisiae reduced (p<0.01 the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, isobutyrate, and isovalerate compared to the other two yeast groups. C. tropicalis addition generally enhanced (p<0.05 IVDMD and IVNDFD. The NH3-N concentration and CH4 production were increased (p<0.05 by the addition of S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis compared with the control. Supplementation of three yeast species decreased (p<0.05 or numerically decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate. The current results indicate that C. tropicalis is more preferred as yeast culture supplements, and its optimal dose should be 0.25×107 cfu/500 mg substrates in vitro.

  5. COPPER RESISTANT STRAIN CANDIDA TROPICALIS RomCu5 INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE COPPER COMPOUNDS

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    Ie. P. Prekrasna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was interaction of Candida tropicalis RomCu5 isolated from highland Ecuador ecosystem with soluble and insoluble copper compounds. Strain C. tropicalis RomCu5 was cultured in a liquid medium of Hiss in the presence of soluble (copper citrate and CuCl2 and insoluble (CuO and CuCO3 copper compounds. The biomass growth was determined by change in optical density of culture liquid, composition of the gas phase was measured on gas chromatograph, redox potential and pH of the culture fluid was defined potentiometrically. The concentration of soluble copper compounds was determined colorimetrically. Maximal permissible concentration of Cu2+ for C. tropicalis RomCu5 was 30 000 ppm of Cu2+ in form of copper citrate and 500 ppm of Cu2+ in form of CuCl2. C. tropicalis was metabolically active at super high concentrations of Cu2+, despite the inhibitory effect of Cu2+. C. tropicalis immobilized Cu2+ in the form of copper citrate and CuCl2 by it accumulation in the biomass. Due to medium acidification C. tropicalis dissolved CuO and CuCO3. High resistance of C. tropicalis to Cu2+ and ability to interact with soluble and insoluble copper compounds makes it biotechnologically perspective.

  6. Identification and susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida spp. to killer toxins

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    E. Robledo-Leal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP. Restriction resulted in 23 isolates identified as C. albicans using AlwI, 24 isolates as C. parapsilosis using RsaI, and 13 as C. tropicalis using XmaI. Then, a group of all isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of previously described killer yeasts, resulting in 75% being susceptible to at least one killer yeast while the remaining were not inhibited by any strain. C. albicans was the most susceptible group while C. tropicalis had the fewest inhibitions. No species-specific pattern of inhibition was obtained with this panel of killer yeasts. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were the strains that inhibited the most isolates of Candida spp.

  7. Identification of Yeast Species In the Oral Cavity of Iranian Soldiers By Disk Diffusion Method

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    M. Imami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:The disk diffusion method for identification of yeasts species was performed based on different but distinct susceptibilities of yeasts spp.to chemicals:janus green, ethidium bromide,2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, brilliant green, cycloheximide and rhodamine 6G. Methods: Atotal of 568 Iranian soldiers went under study for isolation and identification of Yeast species from their oral cavity. Asterile swab was used for each individual and specimens were collected from the nasopharynx region, then inoculated to petri dishes containing Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated for 48 hrs at 37 °C. All colonies were counted and stocked in distilled water and stored in a refrigerator for further analysis. The yeasts were identified by the “disk diffusion test” [6,8]. This is a simple, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive technique presented by Sobczak [8]. By this method we identified yeast species within 24-48 hrs. Results: 51.4% of petri dishes were positive for yeast species and 318 strains were identified. Candida albicans, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii were the most common yeast species isolated from the oral cavity of soldiers. Conclusion: We used this method because of its simplicity and other beneficial characteristics for rapid identification of large and numerous isolates and the results were compared with other morphological characters such as chlamydospore and germ tube production. In addition,we used some type strains (Candida parapsilosis: PTCC 5089,Candida tropicalis: PTCC 5028,Saccharomyces cerevisiae:PTCC 5052,Candida lipolytica: PTCC 5063,Candida lipolytica:PTCC 5064,and the results were acceptable.

  8. [Evaluation of Vitek 2 for the identification of Candida yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiuzzi, María E; Cataldi, Silvana; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of Vitek 2 YST cards (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) for the identification of yeasts of the genus Candida. A total of 168 isolates were analyzed and the results were compared to those of the API 20 C AUX (24%) o API ID 32 C (76%) kits (bioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France). Each isolate was grown in chromogenic agar and in corn meal agar (Oxoid, UK) to observe its micromorphology. C. albicans and C. dublininesis were identified by additional biochemical and molecular tests. The agreement observed was 98.3%. Only three isolates were incorrectly identified by Vitek 2: one strain of C .tropicalis and one strain of C. krusei were identified as C. parapsilosis by YST while one strain of C. krusei was identified with low discrimination. The average time for obtaining results was 18.25 h. Vitek 2 is a simple, safe and useful system for the identification of significant Candida species. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Yeast production from cellulase hydrolyzed furfural industrial waste. II. Conditions for the cultivation of yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Three yeast strains, Candida AS 2-121, C. utilis AS 2-1180, and C. tropicalis AS 2-637 were selected as being capable of growing on cellulase-hydrolyzed furfural industrial waste. Cell mass yields with respect to C source were approximately 50%. Fermentation conditions are given.

  10. Parameters oprimization for xylitol production by Candida tropicalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... Micro-determination of xylose in plasma. Analyst. 100. (1186): 12-15. Uhari M, Kontiokari Niemela T, Novel MA (1998). Use of xylitol sugar in preventing acute otitis media. Pediastrics, 102: 879-884. Vongsuvanlert V, Tani Y (1989). Xylitol production by methanol yeast. Candida boidinii (klocckera Sp) No.

  11. Nitric Acid-Treated Carbon Fibers with Enhanced Hydrophilicity for Candida tropicalis Immobilization in Xylitol Fermentation

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    Le Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3-treated carbon fiber (CF rich in hydrophilic groups was applied as a cell-immobilized carrier for xylitol fermentation. Using scanning electron microscopy, we characterized the morphology of the HNO3-treated CF. Additionally, we evaluated the immobilized efficiency (IE of Candida tropicalis and xylitol fermentation yield by investigating the surface properties of nitric acid treated CF, specifically, the acidic group content, zero charge point, degree of moisture and contact angle. We found that adhesion is the major mechanism for cell immobilization and that it is greatly affected by the hydrophilic–hydrophilic surface properties. In our experiments, we found 3 hto be the optimal time for treating CF with nitric acid, resulting in an improved IE of Candida tropicalis of 0.98 g∙g−1 and the highest xylitol yield and volumetric productivity (70.13% and 1.22 g∙L−1∙h−1, respectively. The HNO3-treated CF represents a promising method for preparing biocompatible biocarriers for multi-batch fermentation.

  12. Performance of Chromogenic Candida agar and CHROMagar Candida in recovery and presumptive identification of monofungal and polyfungal vaginal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kadri; Ilkit, Macit; Ates, Aylin; Turac-Bicer, Aygul; Demirhindi, Hakan

    2010-02-01

    Chromogenic Candida agar (OCCA) is a novel medium facilitating isolation and identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, as well as indicating polyfungal population in clinical samples. We compare the performance of OCCA, to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar (SCA). Vaginal swab samples from 392 women were simultaneously inoculated onto three study media. A total of 161 (41.1%) were found to be positive for fungi of which 140 (87%) were monofungal, and 21 (13%) polyfungal. One-hundred and fifty-seven samples (97.5%) were positive on CAC, 156 (96.9%) on OCCA, 148 (91.9%) on SCA and 144 (89.4%) samples were positive on all three media. The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX. The 182 isolates were C. albicans (n = 104), C. glabrata (n = 51), C. krusei (n = 7), C. tropicalis (n = 5), C. famata (n = 3), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. zeylanoides (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 4). Among the 21 polyfungal populations, 20 (95.2%) were detected in OCCA, 14 (66.7%) in CAC, and 13 (61.9%) in CAC and OCCA (P or=92.9% at 72 h. OCCA is more efficient and reliable for rapidly identifying C. albicans and polyfungal populations than CAC. However, CAC is more efficient for identifying C. krusei and C. tropicalis. A chromogenic agar with a higher isolation rate of yeasts and better detection of polyfungal populations than SCA, is suggested as a medium of first choice when available.

  13. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  14. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adhesion to silicone rubber of yeasts and bacteria isolated from voice prostheses : Influence of salivary conditioning films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderMei, HC

    Adhesion of yeasts and bacteria to silicone rubber is one of the first steps in the biodeterioration of silicone rubber voice prostheses. In this paper, adhesion of two streptococcal, staphylococcal, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains, isolated from explanted voice prostheses was

  16. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

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    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio; Johnson, Anbu Clemensis; Bachmann, Robert T.; Williams, Ceri J.; Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m -3 day -1 during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L biogas L reactor -1 day -1 , respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  18. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Johnson, Anbu Clemensis, E-mail: acj265@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Bachmann, Robert T. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 1988 Vendor City, 7800 Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka (Malaysia); Williams, Ceri J. [Yorkshire-Forward, Victoria House, Victoria Place, LS11 5AE Leeds (United Kingdom); Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L{sub biogas}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  19. Production of Cellulases, Xylanase, Pectinase, alpha-amylase and Protease Enzymes Cocktail by Bacillus spp. and Their Mixed Cultures with Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula glutinis under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Abo-State, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A group of twelve locally isolated Bacillus species, B.megaterium (MAI and MA II), B.licheniformis (MLI and ML II); B. circulans, B. stearothermophilis, B.cereus, B.sphaericus, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. coagulans and B. pantothenticus, were examined for the production of cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, alpha-amylase and protease enzymes cocktail on wheat bran under solid state fermentation (SSF). All species were found to be potent hydrolyzing enzymes producers and the superior producing species were B. megaterium MAI and B. licheniformis. On the other hand, both of them still produced highest enzyme titres when mixed with Candida tropicalis or Rhodotorula glutinis, yeast strains. The two superior bacterial strains produced the highest enzymatic activities when coculturing with C. tropicalis compared with coculturing with R. glutinis only or with both C. tropicalis and R. glutinis in combination. The inferior activities of cocultures (B. megaterinm MAI and R. glutinis) were enhanced in carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), filter paper cellulase (FPase), avecilase, xylanase, pectinase, -amylase and protease by gamma irradiation at dose 1.0 kGy with percent increase 8 %, 20 %, 10 %, 4 %, 31 %, 22 % and 34 %, respectively as compared with un-irradiated cocultures

  20. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  1. Aspectos micológicos e suscetibilidade in vitro de leveduras do gênero Candida em pacientes HIV-positivos provenientes do Estado de Mato Grosso Mycological aspects and susceptibility in vitro the yeast of the genus Candida from HIV-positive patients in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Cometti Favalessa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase é uma das infecções fúngicas mais frequentes entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O presente estudo objetivou a caracterização das leveduras do gênero Candida de distintas amostras clínicas, provenientes de pacientes HIV - positivos, assim como a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a cinco drogas antifúngicas. MÉTODOS: A caracterização dos isolados de Candida sp foi realizada através da metodologia clássica, testes bioquímicos (zimograma e auxanograma e morfológicos (prova do tubo germinativo e microcultivo em lâmina. Também, foram realizadas a técnica genotípica (PCR e identificação pelo método comercial API 20C AUX (BioMeriéux. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro, foram utilizadas cinco drogas antifúngicas (cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B, através do método comercialmente disponível - Etest. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 105 isolados de leveduras do gênero Candida provenientes de 102 pacientes infectados pelo vírus HIV. Destes, foram caracterizadas 82 (78,1% Candida albicans, 8 (7,6% Candida parapsilosis, 8 (7,6% Candida tropicalis, 4 (3,8% Candida krusei, 2 (1,9% Candida glabrata e 1 (1% Candida guilliermondii. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando o perfil geral de sensibilidade, 60% dos isolados foram suscetíveis a todos os antifúngicos testados, porém as espécies C. tropicalis e C. krusei demonstraram uma tendência a valores mais elevados de CIMs para os azóis do que os encontrados paraC. albicans, sugerindo resistência.INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections among patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus. The present study aimed to characterize yeasts of the genus Candida from distinct clinical samples from HIV-positive patients and determine the in vitro susceptibility profile to five antifungal drugs. METHODS: Characterization of

  2. Stepwise Development of a Homozygous S80P Substitution in Fks1p, Conferring Echinocandin Resistance in Candida tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-01-01

    Three Candida tropicalis isolates were obtained from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The first isolate was susceptible to all drug classes, while isolates 2 and 3, obtained after 8 and 8.5 weeks of caspofungin treatment, respectively, were resistant to the three echinocandins...

  3. Copper-tolerant yeasts: Raman spectroscopy in determination of bioaccumulation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Danka S; Pavlović, Vera P; Lazović, Milana M; Jovičić-Petrović, Jelena P; Karličić, Vera M; Lalević, Blažo T; Raičević, Vera B

    2017-09-01

    Modern, efficient, and cost-effective approach to remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil is based on the application of microorganisms. In this paper, four isolates from agricultural and urban contaminated soil showed abundant growth in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O) up to 2 mM. Selected yeasts were identified by molecular methods as Candida tropicalis (three isolates) and Schwanniomyces occidentalis (one isolate). C. tropicalis (4TD1101S) showed the highest percentage of bioaccumulation capabilities (94.37%), determined by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The Raman spectra of C. tropicalis (4TD1101S) analyzed in a medium with the addition of 2 mM CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O showed certain increase in metallothionein production, which represents a specific response of the yeast species to the stress conditions. These results indicate that soil yeasts represent a potential for practical application in the bioremediation of contaminated environments.

  4. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    2018-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast isolates,

  5. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  6. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts : Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, Tahereh; Aslani, Narges; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Meyabadi, Masoumeh Fatahi; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.; Boekhout, Teun; Kolecka, Anna; Badali, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  7. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  8. Análise dos fatores de virulência e proteoma de Candida tropicalis sensível e resistente ao fluconazol

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Lumi Kanoshiki

    2010-01-01

    Espécies de Candida são agentes oportunistas mais frequentes em infecções fúngicas. Embora Candida albicans seja a principal e a mais estudada espécie do gênero Candida, espécies não-albicans vêm emergindo como importantes agentes de candidíases. Entre as espécies não-albicans relata-se C. tropicalis como importante agente etiológico de candidemia em pacientes com câncer, principalmente aqueles com leucemia. Em países da América Latina, esta espécie é bastante frequente, mesmo entre pacientes...

  9. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis in Mashhad, Iran by Use of MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

     Of the 65 isolates analyzed, 61 (93.8% were recognised by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and for four isolates (6.1% only not relabile identifications were achieved. In this study, the most frequently isolated species were Candida albicans (58.5%, followed by Candida tropicalis (16.9%, Candida glabrata (7.7%, Candida parapsilosis (7.7% and Candida guillermondii (3.1%.  Conclusion presented results demonstrate that the MALDI TOF mass spectrometry is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic identification of Candida species and other yeast strains routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  10. Biochemical composition of the biomass of some yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippova, T.V.; Tyurina, Z.P.

    1981-01-01

    The biochemical composition of Rhodotorula gracilis was dependent on the culture medium. Cultivation of the yeast on molasses, starch, and plant hydrolyzates gave a high biomass yield with high protein and carbohydrate contents and relatively low nucleic acid contents. Similar results were obtained with fodder yeasts: Candida tropicalis, C. scotti, and Sporobolomyces pararoseus. There were 17 amino acids in yeast biomass. The amino acid content of R. gracilis and C. scotti was 29-30 percent and 39 percent respectively. Both species were deficient in methionine.

  11. Clinical characteristics of the first cases of invasive candidiasis in China due to pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata isolates with delineation of their resistance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meng Xiao,1,2,* Xin Fan,1–3,* Xin Hou,1,2,4,* Sharon CA Chen,5 He Wang,1,2 Fanrong Kong,5 Zi-Yong Sun,6,* Yun-Zhuo Chu,7 Ying-Chun Xu1,2 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, New South Wales Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People’s Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C. glabrata isolate was cultured from ascitic fluid of a 46-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal IC developing after surgery in 2012. This patient had had no prior antifungal exposure. The echinocandin-resistant C. tropicalis isolate was cultured from chest drainage

  12. Acquired multi-azole resistance in Candida tropicalis during persistent urinary tract infection in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Álvarez-Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-azole resistance acquisition by Candida tropicalis after prolonged antifungal therapy in a dog with urinary candidiasis is reported. Pre- and post-azole treatment isolates were clonally related and had identical silent mutations in the ERG11 gene, but the latter displayed increased azole minimum inhibitory concentrations. A novel frameshift mutation in ERG3 was found in some isolates recovered after resistance development, so it appears unlikely that this mutation is responsible for multi-azole resistance.

  13. Características da formação do biofilme de Candida tropicalis eresistência a antifúngicos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando César Bizerra

    2006-01-01

    Candida tropicalis é um dos principais agentes de candidíase, destacando-se em casos de infecções da corrente sanguínea e urinária em pacientes hospitalizados. Grande parte das infecções por Candida spp. estão associadas com a formação de biofilme na superfície de materiais médicos ou epitélio do hospedeiro. As células sésseis que constituem o biofilme apresentam fenótipos drasticamente diferentes das células planctônicas, tais como resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos e aos mecanismos de ...

  14. Candida tropicalis arthritis of the elbow in a patient with Ewing’s sarcoma that successfully responded to itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Youn Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are rarely responsible for arthritis. Few cases of fungal arthritis have been reported, even in immunocompromised hosts susceptible to low-virulence organisms. Herein, the authors report the first case of Candida tropicalis arthritis in a child with a solid tumor. A 13-year-old boy with Ewing’s sarcoma developed arthritis in his elbow during the neutropenic period after chemotherapy. Despite treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, his condition did not improve and serial blood cultures failed to reveal any causative organisms. After surgical drainage, culture of the joint fluid revealed the presence of C. tropicalis . Itraconazole treatment was started and after 3 months of therapy, the patient completely recovered full elbow function.

  15. Effect of medium components on the production of a biosurfactant from Candida tropicalis applied to the removal of hydrophobic contaminants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ranielly M; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; de Souza, José Edson G; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2010-05-01

    The influence of medium constituents on the production of biosurfactants by Candida tropicalis cultivated in waste frying oil was investigated according to a fractional factorial 2(5-1) design. The combined effect of the C/N(inorganic), C/Fe, C/Mg, and C/P ratios and yeast extract on surface tension reduction, biosurfactant yield, emulsification activity, and biomass were studied. The highest biosurfactant yield was reached when low C/Mg and low C/P ratio variables were combined, while the cell growth was favored by increasing the nitrogen concentration. The highest surface tension net decrease, on the other hand, was observed at low yeast extract concentration, low C/Fe, and high C/P ratios. Emulsification indices against lubrication and automobile waste oil of approximately 65 to 95% were observed. The crude biosurfactant produced in the medium--formulated with 2% waste frying oil, 0.067% NH4Cl, 0.025% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.067% KH2PO4, and 0.0026% FeCl3.6H2O--removed approximately 78 to 97% of the petroleum and motor oil adsorbed in sand samples.

  16. Distribution of yeast species associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agwu, Ezera

    2012-04-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis remains a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected and AIDS patients in regions of Africa where anti-retroviral therapy isn\\'t readily available. In this study we identified the yeast populations associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda who were receiving treatment with nystatin and topical clotrimazole. Samples were taken from 605 patients and 316 (52%) of these yielded yeast growth following incubation on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Samples were subsequently re-plated on CHROMagar Candida medium to facilitate identification of the yeast species present. The majority (56%) of culture-positive samples yielded a mix of two or more species. Candida albicans was present in 87% (274\\/316) of patient samples and accounted for 87% (120\\/138) of single species samples. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida norvegensis were also found in cultures that yielded a single species. No Candida dubliniensis isolates were identified in this population.

  17. Distribution of yeast species associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Ezera; Ihongbe, John C; McManus, Brenda A; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2012-04-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis remains a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected and AIDS patients in regions of Africa where anti-retroviral therapy isn't readily available. In this study we identified the yeast populations associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda who were receiving treatment with nystatin and topical clotrimazole. Samples were taken from 605 patients and 316 (52%) of these yielded yeast growth following incubation on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Samples were subsequently re-plated on CHROMagar Candida medium to facilitate identification of the yeast species present. The majority (56%) of culture-positive samples yielded a mix of two or more species. Candida albicans was present in 87% (274/316) of patient samples and accounted for 87% (120/138) of single species samples. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida norvegensis were also found in cultures that yielded a single species. No Candida dubliniensis isolates were identified in this population.

  18. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  19. Mastite por leveduras em bovinos leiteiros do Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Mastitis caused by yeasts in dairy herds in the South of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Geraldo Márcio da Costa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a freqüência de infecções intramamárias ocasionadas por leveduras a partir de amostras de leite (n=1710 coletadas em 40 rebanhos leiteiros do Estado de Minas Gerais. Cinqüenta e seis estirpes de leveduras do gênero Candida e uma linhagem de Trichosporon loubieri foram isoladas. Candida albicans foi a espécie dominante (28,1% das cepas, seguida por Candida parapsilosis (19,3%, Candida catenulata (14,0%, Candida glabrata (14,0% e Candida tropicalis (8,8%. Infecções mistas foram detectadas em 29,8% das vacas levedura-positivas. Amostras positivas para leveduras foram predominantemente obtidas (84% de vacas com mastite subclínica. A baixa taxa de isolamento de leveduras sugere que estes microrganismos não são relevantes para mastite bovina na região estudada.The objective of this study was to report the frequency of intramammary infections by yeasts, in Minas Gerais State, from milk samples (n = 1710 collected in 40 dairy herds. Fifty six yeast strains of the genus Candida and one strain of Trichosporon loubieri were isolated. Candida albicans was the dominant species (28.1% of the strains, followed by Candida parapsilosis (19.3%, Candida catenulata (14.0%, Candida glabrata (14.0%, Candida tropicalis (8.8%. Mixed infections were detected in 29.8% of yeast-positive cows. The yeast infection was more frequent (84% in cows with subclinical mastitis. The low rate of isolation of yeasts suggests that these microorganisms are not relevant to bovine mastitis in the studied region.

  20. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

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    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  1. Determination of some virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from locally produced cheese in Diyala Governorate-Iraq

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    Suhail Jawdat Fadihl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced cheese which called (Gibin Al arab is one of the most common dairy products in Iraq, it has an economic importance and great social value. This research aimed to identify yeast species from locally produced cheese (Gibin Al Arab in Diyala city which traditionally made and sold in markets of old town in Baquba, and study some of virulence factors (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production of yeasts belong to genus of Candida . All cheese samples showed contamination with varying number of yeast, total 88 yeast isolates obtained from 70 cheese samples, they were Geotrichum candidum(20.5%, Rhodotorela species(19.4%, Candida parapsilosis (18%, Candida albicans (13.6%, Candida  tropicalis (10.5%, Candida krusei (8%, Saccharomyces cerevisice (3.3% and mixed yeast (un identified at rate of (6.7%. Species of Candida formed half of the total isolates and the most prevalent isolate of Candida spp. was Candida parapsilosis .According to the results determining of  (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production as a virulence factors identifying Candida spp. these activities referred that all isolates of Candida spp. show one or more of these activities and that isolates of  medically important species Candida albicans were the most virulent isolates. this referred to the importance of take attention about consuming of such types of dairy products and need for applying more hygienic measures during handling, processing of milk and form of storage and/or selling of cheese.

  2. [Yeast urinary tract infections. Multicentre study in 14 hospitals belonging to the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network].

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    Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Relloso, Silvia; Garbasz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a frequent ailment in patients in intensive care units. Candida and other yeasts cause 5-12% of these infections. The value of the finding of any yeast is controversial, and there is no consensus about which parameters are adequate for differentiating urinary infections from colonization or contamination. To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of patients with funguria, to determine potential cut-off points in cultures (to distinguish an infection from other conditions), to identify the prevalent yeast species, and to determine the value of a second urine sample. A multicentre study was conducted in intensive care units of 14 hospitals in the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network. The first and second samples of urine from every patient were cultured. The presence of white cells and yeasts in direct examination, colony counts, and the identification of the isolated species, were evaluated. Yeasts grew in 12.2% of the samples. There was no statistical correlation between the number of white cells and the fungal colony-forming units. Eighty five percent of the patients had indwelling catheters. Funguria was not prevalent in women or in patients over the age of 65. Candida albicans, followed by Candida tropicalis, were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata appeared less frequently. The same species were isolated in 70% of second samples, and in 23% of the cases the second culture was negative. It was not possible to determine a useful cut-off point for colony counts to help in the diagnosis of urinary infections. As in other publications, C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, were the most prevalent species. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Typing and virulence factors of food-borne Candida spp. isolates.

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    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2018-08-20

    Food-borne yeasts, excluding yeasts used as starter cultures, are commonly considered as food spoilage microorganisms. However, the incidence of non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) infections has increased considerably over the past two decades. Although 15 Candida species are frequently identified as pathogens, a threat to human from food-borne Candida is poorly recognized. In the present study food-borne NCAC were characterized for the virulence factors, known to be associated with yeast pathogenicity. All food-borne strains in planktonic forms and 89% in biofilm structures represented biotypes established for C. albicans, and 61% demonstrated hemolytic activity. 56-94% of food-borne isolates formed biofilms on glass and biomaterials at a level comparable to clinical C. albicans. Nine out of eighteen tested food-borne NCAC strains (C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. famata, C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis) showed similarity to clinical C. albicans in terms of their biotypes and the tested virulence factors, allocating them in a group of risk of potential pathogens. However, their capacity to grow at 37 °C seems to be the preliminary criterion in the study of potential virulence of food-borne yeasts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparison of methods for the identification of the most common yeasts in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

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    Guelfand, L; Grisolía, P; Bozzano, C; Kaufman, S

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated different methods for the routine identification of medically important yeasts. A total of 150 clinical isolates: 25 C. albicans, 25 C. tropicalis, 25 C. glabrata, 25 C. parapsilosis, 8 C. guilliermondii, 11 C. krusei and 31 Cryptococcus neoformans were tested by Yeast Biochemical Card bioMerieux Vitek (YBC), CHROMagar Candida (CHR). The addition of yeast morphology in Corn Meal agar-Tween 80 (AM) to YBC and CHR was also evaluated. The reference methods used were: API 20C, germ tube formation, AM, Christensen urea and Birdseed agar. YBC identified 135 yeasts with an overall accuracy of 90%. Sensitivity (S) and specificity (E) were: 92-98% for C. albicans and C. tropicalis; 84-99% for C. papapsilosis; 100-99% for C. glabrata; 91-100% for C. krusei; 63-98% for C. guilliermondii and 90-99% for Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively. CHR identified correctly 100% for C. albicans, 92% for C. tropicalis and 91% for C. krusei. Both methods combined with AM provided 100% S and E. We found that YBC system was appropriate for identification of yeasts isolated from human sources. CHR was effective and easy to use for identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The routine use of AM with both methods is recommended.

  5. Identification of uncommon oral yeasts from cancer patients by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

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    Aslani, Narges; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Abastabar, Mahdi; Meis, Jacques F; Babaeian, Mahasti; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Boekhout, Teun; Badali, Hamid

    2018-01-08

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in cancer patients because of their inherent immunosuppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of yeast species from the oral cavity of patients during treatment for oncological and haematological malignancies. MALDI-TOF was performed to identify yeasts isolated from the oral cavity of 350 cancer patients. Moreover, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in according to CLSI guidelines (M27-A3). Among 162 yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from the oral cavity of cancer patients, Candida albicans was the most common species (50.6%), followed by Candida glabrata (24.7%), Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei (9.9%)), Candida tropicalis (4.3%), Candida dubliniensis (3.7%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (Candida kefyr (3.7%)) and Candida parapsilosis (1%). In addition, uncommon yeast species i.e., Saprochaete capitata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae (C. lusitaniae) and Pichia kluyveri (C. eremophila) were recovered from oral lesions. Oral colonization by C. albicans, non-albicans Candida species and uncommon yeasts were as follow; 55%, 44% and 1%, whereas oral infection due to C. albicans was 33.3%, non-albicans Candida species 60.6%, and uncommon yeasts 6.1%. Poor oral hygiene and xerostomia were identified as independent risk factors associated with oral yeast colonization. The overall resistance to fluconazole was 11.7% (19/162). Low MIC values were observed for anidulafungin for all Candida and uncommon yeast species. This current study provides insight into the prevalence and susceptibility profiles of Candida species, including emerging Candida species and uncommon yeasts, isolated from the oral cavity of Iranian cancer patients. The incidence of oral candidiasis was higher amongst patients with hematological malignancies. The majority of oral infections were caused by non-albicans Candida species which were often more resistant to anti

  6. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral yeast carriage in HIV-infected and non-infected populations in Rosario, Argentina.

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    Luque, A G; Biasoli, M S; Tosello, M E; Binolfi, A; Lupo, S; Magaró, H M

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were: (i) to assess the frequency of oral colonisation by Candida species in HIV-positive patients and to compare it with a population of HIV-negative individuals, (ii) to determine the prevalence of C. dubliniensis in both populations and (iii) to determine the susceptibility of C. dubliniensis and other Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients to the most commonly used antifungal agents. Oral samples were obtained from 101 HIV-positive and 108 HIV-negative subjects. For yeast identification, we used morphology in cornmeal agar, the API 20C Aux, growth at 45 degrees C, d-xylose assimilation, morphology in sunflower seed agar and PCR. The frequency of isolation of Candida in HIV-positive patients was: C. albicans, 60.7%; C. dubliniensis, 20.2%; C. glabrata, 5.6%; C. krusei, 5.6%; C. tropicalis, 4.5%; others, <5%. The frequency of isolation of Candida in HIV-negative patients was: C. albicans, 73.9%; C. tropicalis, 15.5%; C. dubliniensis, 2.1%; C. glabrata, 2.1%; C. parapsilosis, 2.1%; others, <5%. The oral colonisation by yeast in the HIV-positive patients was higher than that in the HIV-negative subjects. The susceptibilities of 42 Candida isolates to three antifungal agents were determined. All isolates of C. dubliniensis were susceptible to fluconazole, although several individuals had been previously treated with this drug. Out of the 42 Candida isolates, 10 presented resistance to fluconazole and 10 to itraconazole. The presence of Candida species, resistant to commonly used antifungal agents, represents a potential risk in immunocompromised patients.

  8. Physiological changes of Candida tropicalis population degrading phenol in fed batch reactor

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    Eliska Komarkova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis can use phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Experiments regarding phenol degradations from the water phase were carried out. The fermentor was operated as a fed-batch system with oxistat control. Under conditions of nutrient limitation and an excess of oxygen the respiration activity of cells was suppressed and some color metabolites (black-brown started to be formed. An accumulation of these products inhibited the cell growth under aerobic conditions. Another impact was a decrease of the phenol hydroxylase activity as the key enzyme of the phenol degradation pathway at the end of the cell respiration activity. This decrease is linked with the above mentioned product inhibition. The cell death studied by fluorescent probe proceeded very slowly after the loss of the respiration activity. The starvation stress induced an increase of the endogenous respiration rate at the expense of phenol oxidation.Candida tropicalis pode utilizar fenol como única fonte de carbono e de energia. O fermentador foi operado em um sistema ''batelada-alimentada'' e controle oxidativo. Em condições limitantes de nutrientes e excesso de oxigênio a atividade respiratória das células foi suprimida e o calor do metabolismo pode ser formado. Uma acumulação desses produtos inibiu o crescimento das células em condições aeróbicas. Outro impacto foi um decréscimo da atividade fenol hidroxilase como enzima chave da degradação do fenol no final da atividade respirométrica. Essa redução está relacionada com os fatos acima mencionados. A morte da célula estudada por sonda de fluorescência ocorreu lentamente após a perda da atividade respiratória. O ''stress'' celular induziu um aumento na taxa de respiração endógena devido à oxidação fenólica.

  9. Pigeons and their droppings as reservoirs of Candida and other zoonotic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario Medina, Inmaculada; Román Fuentes, Lorena; Batista Arteaga, Miguel; Real Valcárcel, Fernando; Acosta Arbelo, Félix; Padilla Del Castillo, Daniel; Déniz Suárez, Soraya; Ferrer Quintana, Otilia; Vega Gutiérrez, Belinda; Silva Sergent, Freddy; Acosta-Hernández, Begoña

    The importance of pigeons as reservoirs and carriers of Cryptococcus neoformans and other species of this genus is well-known; however, less is known about their role as reservoirs and carriers of other yeasts that impact public health. The present study was performed on Gran Canaria Island to define yeasts other than Cryptococcus spp. that have been reported to impact public health and which could be carried by pigeons. Samples were obtained from 83 pigeon lofts (Columba livia); moreover, 331 crop samples, 331 cloacal samples and 174 dropping samples were collected. In addition, 17 dropping samples were taken from a total of 17 public squares. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. Different yeast species, i.e. Candida guilliermondii (24.36%), Candida kefyr (1.21%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.43%), and Trichosporon asahii (1.21%) were isolated for the first time from the cloaca. The most frequently isolated yeast from the crop, cloaca and dropping samples from lofts was C. guilliermondii (30.46%, 24.36% and 49.37%, respectively). In addition, for the first time, C. kefyr (3.65%), Candida pelliculosa (2.43%), Candida rugosa (1.21%), T. asahii (3.65%), Trichosporon mucoides (3.65%) and Prototheca wickerhamii (1.21%) were obtained from crop samples; Candida pelliculosa (1.20%), T. asahii (9.63%) and T. mucoides (7.22%) were isolated from dropping samples in the lofts. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast in dropping samples collected in public squares. It can be assumed that pigeons and their droppings act as carriers and reservoirs of Candida spp. and other zoonotic yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence & susceptibility to fluconazole of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Srujana; Xess, Immaculata; Hasan, Fahmi; Kapil, Arti; Mittal, Suneeta; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2007-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an important cause of morbidity in women of reproductive age. This study was carried out to determine the species prevalence and susceptibility pattern to fluconazole of yeasts isolated from the vagina of symptomatic women. This prospective study was conducted in a rural primary health care center of north India from May 2003 to April 2004 and included 601 married, sexually active women (18-49 yr) with the self reported symptoms of vaginal discharge and/or genital itching and/or genital burning. Specific aetiology of the genitourinary symptoms including candidal infection were determined. Specimens from the lateral wall of vagina were subjected to direct wet mount microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Susceptibility testing to fluconazole was carried out using broth microdilution method. Yeasts were isolated in 111 (18.5%) women and these consisted of Candida glabrata (56, 50.4%), C. albicans (39, 35.1%), C. tropicalis (12, 10.8%), C. krusei (3, 2.7%) and C. parapsilosis (1, 0.9%). Susceptibility testing carried out on 30 representative isolates (15 C. glabrata, 10 C. albicans, 4 C. tropicalis and 1 C. parapsilosis) revealed that 21 isolates (70%) were susceptible (MIC, < or = 8 microg/ml) to fluconazole while 9 (30%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD, MIC 16-32 microg/ml). Our findings suggest a low prevalence of fluconazole resistance in vaginal candida isolates in our population. However, a high prevalence of non-albicans candida species and increased dose-dependent resistance in these isolates necessitates vigilance since this may warrant a change in the optimal therapy of non-albicans candida vaginitis.

  11. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  12. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p < 0.001) and cell morphology was governed by hyphal structures and rounded cells. Using the in situ growth method introduced here, yeast biofilms were determined to be viscoelastic materials with a predominantly solid-like behavior, and neither this nor the G'0 values were significantly affected by the flow conditions or the growth time, and at large deformations their weak structure collapsed beyond a critical strain of about 1.5-5%. The present work could represent a starting point for developing in situ measurements of yeast rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  13. Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Procop, Gary W; Rinaldi, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A commercially available, fully automated yeast susceptibility test system (Vitek 2; bioMérieux, Marcy d'Etoile, France) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution (BMD) method by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 425 isolates of Candida spp. against fluconazole and voriconazole. Reference CLSI BMD MIC endpoints and Vitek 2 MIC endpoints were read after 24 hours and 9.1-27.1 hours incubation, respectively. Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and Vitek 2 MICs was observed for fluconazole (97.9%) and voriconazole (96.7%). Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S) ≤2 μg/mL, susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) 4 μg/mL, and resistant (R) ≥8 μg/mL for fluconazole and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis and ≤32 μg/mL (SDD), ≥64 μg/mL (R) for Candida glabrata; S ≤0.12 μg/mL, SDD 0.25-0.5 μg/mL, R ≥1 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, and ≤0.5 μg/mL (S), 1 μg/mL (SDD), ≥2 μg/mL (R) for Candida krusei. The epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. glabrata was used to differentiate wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ ECV) from non-WT (MIC > ECV) strains of this species. Due to the lack of CBPs for the less common species, the ECVs for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were used for Candida lusitaniae (2 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida dubliniensis (0.5 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida guilliermondii (8 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL), and Candida pelliculosa (4 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL) to categorize isolates of these species as WT and non-WT. CA between the 2 methods was 96.8% for fluconazole and 96.5% for voriconazole with less than 1% very major errors and 1.3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system

  14. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-01-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts

  15. Evaluation of the frequency of Candida spp. in hospitalized and non-hospitalized subjects

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    J. N. Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours. The morphology identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic characterization, the CHROMagar Candida medium and the VITEK® system Yeast Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, France. The results showed a colonization of Candida spp. in 85.7% the hospitalized individuals, where the species found were C. albicans (60%, C. tropicalis (23.4%, C. krusei (3.3% and Candida spp. (13.3%. In the non-hospitalized individuals the colonization by Candida spp was 47.1%, and the species found were: C. albicans (45.5%, C.krusei (9.1%, C. guilliermondii (9.1% %, C. tropicalis (3.0%, C. famata (3.0% and Candida spp. (30.3%. In spite of their presence in oral cavity in both groups, Candida spp. was more frequently isolated in hospitalized individuals, who were 6.73 times more likely to have this fungus in the oral cavity and were 3.88 times more likely to have Candida albicans.

  16. The anthraquinones rubiadin and its 1-methyl ether isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata reduces Candida tropicalis biofilms formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Juliana; da Silva, María Angel; Cabrera, José Luis; Montoya, Susana C Núñez; Paraje, María Gabriela

    2016-11-15

    Candida tropicalis is increasingly becoming among the most commonly isolated pathogens causing fungal infections with an important biofilm-forming capacity. This study addresses the antifungal effect of rubiadin (AQ1) and rubiadin 1-methyl ether (AQ2), two photosensitizing anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata, against C. tropicalis biofilms, by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in two experimental conditions: darkness and irradiation. The combination with Amphotericin B (AmB) was assayed to evaluate the synergic effect. Biofilms of clinical isolates and reference strain of Candida tropicalis were treated with AQs (AQ1 or AQ2) and/or AmB, and the biofilms depletion was studied by crystal violet and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The oxidant metabolites production and the response of antioxidant defense system were also evaluated under dark and irradiation conditions, being the light a trigger for photo-activation of the AQs. The Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) were detected by the reduction of Nitro Blue Tetrazolium test, and Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNI) by the Griess assay. ROS accumulation was also detected inside biofilms by using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe, which was visualized by CSLM. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity of biofilms were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The minimun inhibitory concentration for sessile cells (SMIC) was determined for each AQs and AmB. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated for the combinations of each AQ with AmB by the checkerboard microdilution method. Biofilm reduction of both strains was more effective with AQ1 than with AQ2. The antifungal effect was mediated by an oxidative and nitrosative stress under irradiation, with a significant accumulation of endogenous ROS detected by CSLM and an increase in the SOD activity. Thus, the prooxidant-antioxidant balance was

  17. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.

    2007-01-01

    and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and reached 6.9 x 10(7) CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. During the fermentation process common yeast species were......The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize...... identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species found was Candida tropicalis. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon asahii were also found in high numbers during...

  18. Bioconversion Studies of Methyl Laurate to Dodecanedioic Acid using a Wild-type of Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmalina Rifkah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of dodecanedioic acid (DDDA, a platform chemical used as raw material for various commodities and polymers, has been studied through a biological process. This process was conducted by using a wild-type of Candida tropicalis which can be obtained easily from natural resources. The aim of this research was to study the characteristics of DDDA production from methyl laurate through batch fermentation process. Growth phase was carried out for 20 h, as the beginning of fermentation, then continued to conversion phase for 5 until 6 days. Utilization of methyl laurate and production of DDDA were analysed using gas chromatography, which proved the ability of C. tropicalis in assimilating methyl laurate to convert it become DDDA. The highest value of cells yield (Yx/s and DDDA yield (Yp/s successfully obtained were 0.86 g cells/g methyl laurate and 0.20 g DDDA/g methyl laurate, respectively. This study also showed the possibility of fermentation products accumulation as intermediate, or accumulation of DDDA inside the cells. Thus, this study can be applied as an alternative in addition to the use of mutant microorganism in producing DDDA.

  19. Yeasts of the genital region of patients attending the dermatology service at Hospital São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy; Mantovani, Ariane; Yamashita, Jane Tomimori; Gambale, Walderez; Fischman, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the diversity of yeasts that make up the skin microbiota of human beings is essential for the efficient monitoring of infections to which a person may be predisposed. This study identified yeasts comprising the genital skin microbiota of patients attending the Dermatology Service at the Hospital São Paulo-UNIFESP, Brazil. Samples were collected from the genital region of each patient and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Individual colonies were carefully transferred to tubes daily. Yeasts were identified based on classical methodologies and confirmed using a commercial kit. Eighty-three patients were included in the study. Approximately 80% were women and 20% were men. The average age was 55 years. Hypertension, diabetes, kidney transplant and AIDS were the main underlying diseases reported by the patients. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida parapsilosis (36.1%), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (9.2%), Rhodotorula glutinis (8.3%), Candida tropicalis (5.5%) and Trichosporon inkin (1.8%). Approximately 78% of the isolates were obtained in pure cultures. Trichosporon inkin was isolated only from women, in contrast to literature describing a high prevalence in males. Our results suggest that Candida albicans is not the main yeast found on genital skin as previously thought, and opportunistic pathogens such as C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Rhodotorula spp. and T. inkin make up the genital skin microbiota, representing a risk for infection in immunocompromised subjects. These results also indicate that women are carriers of T. inkin, the etiological agent of white piedra and trichosporonosis. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction of genetically engineered Candida tropicalis for conversion of l-arabinose to l-ribulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Seok; Shim, Woo-Yong; Kim, Jung Hoe

    2018-05-20

    For the biological production of l-ribulose, conversion by enzymes or resting cells has been investigated. However, expensive or concentrated substrates, an additional purification step to remove borate and the requirement for cell cultivation and harvest steps before utilization of resting cells make the production process complex and unfavorable. Microbial fermentation may help overcome these limitations. In this study, we constructed a genetically engineered Candida tropicalis strain to produce l-ribulose by fermentation with a glucose/l-arabinose mixture. For the uptake of l-arabinose as a substrate and conversion of l-arabinose to l-ribulose, two heterologous genes coding for l-arabinose transporter and l-arabinose isomerase, were constitutively expressed in C. tropicalis under the GAPDH promoter. The Arabidopsis thaliana-originated l-arabinose transporter gene (STP2)-expressing strain exhibited a high l-arabinose uptake rate of 0.103 g/g cell/h and the expression of l-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus sakei 23 K showed 30% of conversion (9 g/L) from 30 g/L of l-arabinose. This genetically engineered strain can be used for l-ribulose production by fermentation using mixed sugars of glucose and l-arabinose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and Determination of Drug Resistant of Candida species isolated from Hospital Acquired Infections

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    Kambiz Diba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Currently, the use of antifungal azole group and yeasts resistant to these drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the yeasts obtained from candidiasis patients and furthermore determining thier antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present descriptive study, infections samples were collected from 256 patients with suspected nosocomial candidiasis, then direct exam and culture were performed. Yeast colonies were identified using phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction method and enzyme digestion. Data were analyzed using Descriptive statistical tests. Results: Of sixty isolated yeast, thirty-seven cases of Candida albicans (61.6%, seven cases of C. krusei and C. glabrata (11.6% each, five cases of C. dubliniensis (8.3% and four cases of C. tropicalis (6.6% were indicated. The study showed that the sensitivity of C. albicans and C. cruise species to amphotericin B was negligible in disk diffusion and very sensitve in microdilution. Conclusion: Inspite of the results of antifungal susceptibility test of strains studied did not show high resistance, but screening for drug-resistant Candida isolates in Candida infection by disk diffusion and microdilution methods for new cases of drug resistance is reasonable.

  2. Metabolic responses in Candida tropicalis to complex inhibitors during xylitol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Li, Hao; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jingkun; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-09-01

    During xylitol fermentation, Candida tropicalis is often inhibited by inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysate. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic responses to inhibitor stress and the resistances to inhibitors are still not clear. To understand the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors, a GC/MS-based metabolomics approach was performed on C. tropicalis treated with and without complex inhibitors (CI, including furfural, phenol and acetic acid). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to determine the metabolic variability between CI-treated groups and control groups, and 25 metabolites were identified as possible entities responsible for the discrimination caused by inhibitors. We found that xylose uptake rate and xylitol oxidation rate were promoted by CI treatment. Metabolomics analysis showed that the flux from xylulose to pentose phosphate pathway increased, and tricarboxylic acid cycle was disturbed by CI. Moreover, the changes in levels of 1,3-propanediol, trehalose, saturated fatty acids and amino acids showed different mechanisms involved in metabolic responses to inhibitor stress. The increase of 1,3-propanediol was considered to be correlated with regulating redox balance and osmoregulation. The increase of trehalose might play a role in protein stabilization and cellular membranes protection. Saturated fatty acids could cause the decrease of membrane fluidity and make the plasma membrane rigid to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane. The deeper understanding of the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors will provide us with more information on the metabolism regulation during xylitol bioconversion and the construction of industrial strains with inhibitor tolerance for better utilization of bioresource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biooxidation of fatty acid distillates to dibasic acids by a mutant of Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Nandi, Sumit; Ghosh, Santinath

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process.

  4. [Comparison of Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel and API® ID 32C commercial systems for the identification of Candida species isolated from clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayibova, Ülkü; Dalyan Cılo, Burcu; Ağca, Harun; Ener, Beyza

    2014-07-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are one of the important causes of nosocomial infections, and several different types of yeasts, especially Candida species are increasingly recovered from immunocompromised patients. Since many of the yeasts are resistant to the commonly used antifungal agents, the introduction of appropriate therapy depends on rapid and accurate identification. The aims of this study were to compare the commercial identification systems namely API® ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) and Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, USA) for the identification of Candida species and to evaluate the effect of morphological findings in the identification process. A total of 211 yeast strains isolated from different clinical samples (111 urine, 34 blood/vascular catheter, 27 upper/lower respiratory tract, 16 abscess/pus, 13 throat/vagina swabs and 10 sterile body fluids) of 137 patients hospitalized in Uludag University Health and Research Center between October 2013 to January 2014, were included in the study. Samples were cultured on blood agar, chromogenic agar (CHROMagar Candida, BD, USA) and Saboraud's dextrose agar (SDA), and isolated yeast colonies were evaluated with germ tube test and morphological examination by microscopy on cornmeal/Tween-80 agar. The isolates were identified as well by two commercial systems according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Discrepant results between the systems were tried to be resolved by using morphological characteristics of the yeasts. Of the isolates 159 were identified identical by both of the systems, and the concordance between those systems were estimated as 75.4%. According to the concordant identification, the most frequently isolated species was C.albicans (44.1%) followed by C.tropicalis (9.9%), C.glabrata (9.5%), C.parapsilosis (8.5%) and C.kefyr (8.1%). The concordance rate was 81.7% in identification of frequently isolated species (C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C

  5. FarnesoI beyond morphogenesis controI: effect in Non- Candida albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    Candididasis is one of the most important life-tbreatening opportunistic mycosis mainly occurring in individuais with impaired immunity. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungai isolate, an increase in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species is being reported. ln fact, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are emerging as clinically relevant pathogens. So it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of infection b...

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri has antifungal effects on oral Candida species in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: An alternative approach for managing Candida infections in the oral cavity by modulating the oral microbiota with probiotic bacteria has been proposed.  Objective: The aim was to investigate the antifungal potential of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC...... PTA 5289) against six oral Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, and C. parapsilosis).  Design: The lactobacilli were tested for their ability to co-aggregate with and inhibit the growth of the yeasts assessed by spectrophotometry and the agar overlay...... inhibition assay. Additionally, the pH was evaluated with microsensors, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the lactobacilli was verified.  Results: Both L. reuteri strains showed co-aggregation abilities with the yeasts. The lactobacilli almost completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans...

  7. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  8. In vitro activity of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) on Candida tropicalis growth and cell wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia A; Freires, Irlan de A; de Souza, Tricia M P A; de Castro, Ricardo D

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) tincture on planktonic Candida tropicalis (ATCC 40042), which is a microorganism associated to oral cavity infections. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined through the microdilution technique. Possible action of the tincture on fungal cell wall formation was also studied by adding an osmotic protector (0.8M sorbitol) to the microplates. Nystatin was used as standard control and tests were performed in triplicate. S. terebinthifolius was found to have MIC and MFC values of 625 microg/mL on the strain assayed, whereas nystatin showed MIC and MFC of 6.25 microg/mL. Results suggest that S. terebinthifolius tincture acts on fungal cell walls, since the sorbitol test indicated a MIC of 1.250 microg/mL. It may be concluded that S. terebinthifolius has potential in vitro antifungal activity against C. tropicalis strains, and probably acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall formation.

  9. Xylitol production from colombian native yeast strains Producción de xilitol a partir de levaduras nativas colombianas*

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    Vanegas Córdoba Isleny Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is an alternative sweetener with similar characteristics to sucrose that has become of great interest, due mainly to its safe use in diabetic patients and those deficient in glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Its chemical production is expensive and generates undesirable by-products, whereas biotechnological process, which uses different yeasts genera, is a viable production alternative because it is safer and specific. Colombia has a privilege geographic location and offers a great microbial variety, this can be taken advantage of with academic and commercial goals. Because of this, some native microorganisms with potential to produce xylitol were screened in this work. It were isolated 25 yeasts species, from which was possible to identify 84% by the kit API 20C-AUX. Three yeasts: Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis y C. parapsilosis presented greater capacity to degrade xylose compared to the others, therefore they were selected for the later evaluation of its productive capacity. Discontinuous cellular cultures were developed in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 35°C by 30 hours, using synthetic media with xylose as carbon source. Xylose consumption and xylitol production were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The maximal efficiency were obtained with Candida kefyr and C. tropicalis (Yp/s 0.5 y 0.43 g/g, respectively, using an initial xylose concentration of 20 g/L. Key words: Xylitol, xylose, yeasts, Candida kefyr, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis.* Este artículo corresponde a la presentación oral que obtuvo el tercer lugar en la sala de bioprocesos, bioprospección y ambiental del segundo Congreso Colombiano de Biotecnología. El xilitol es un edulcorante alternativo con características similares a la sacarosa que ha despertado gran interés debido principalmente a su uso seguro en pacientes diabéticos y aquellos deficientes en glucosa-6-fosfato-deshidrogenasa. Su síntesis química es

  10. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

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    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  11. Estudo da incidência de amostras clínicas do gênero Candida isoladas de diversos sítios anatômicos = Study of the incidence of clinical samples belonging to the genus Candida obtained from different anatomic sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Furlaneto-Maia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase, principal infecção fúngica do ser humano, é provocada por leveduras do gênero Candida, que fazem parte da microbiota endógena e exógena do corpo humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença das espécies de Candida spp, em diversos sítiosanatômicos. Um total de 90 amostras clínicas foram isoladas em ágar Sabouraud contendo antibióticos e identificadas em meio cromogênico CHROMagar Candida®. Deste total, 58 amostras foram provenientes de secreção vaginal, 17 de raspado de unha, 8 de escarro e 7 deraspado de pele. Das amostras de secreção vaginal, 89% corresponderam a espécie C. albicans, seguido de espécies de Candida não-albicans, sendo 5,1% de C. krusei e 1,7% de C. glabrata, C. tropicalis e Candida sp., individualmente. Para as amostras isoladas de raspado de pele não foi observada prevalência de C. albicans (28%. As espécies Candida não-albicans corresponderam a 70% das amostras, sendo distribuídas em C. glabrata (14%, C. krusei (28% e demais espécies de Candida (28%. A prevalência de espécies Candida não-albicans foi também observada para as amostras isoladas de raspado de unha, sendo que 29% foram caracterizadas como C. glabrata, 23% C. krusei e Candida sp., individualmente e 11% de C. tropicalis. Amostras de C. albicans, isoladas neste sítio anatômico, representaram somente 11%. Em amostras obtidas de escarro foi observada somente duas espécies, com prevalência de C. albicans (75% seguida de C. tropicalis (25%. As amostras identificadas como C. albicans em meio CHROMagar Candida®, foram confirmadas quanto ao crescimento a 42ºC e pelo emprego da técnica de seminested PCR.Candidiasis is the main human fungal infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida which are part of endogenous microflora of thehuman body. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of Candida species obtained from different infection processes. A total of 90 clinical samples were isolated in

  12. Candida spp. AISLADAS EN PACIENTES CON VULVOVAGINITIS DE COMUNIDADES RURALES DEL MUNICIPIO CARIPE, ESTADO MONAGAS, VENEZUELA, 2014 | Candida spp. ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH VULVOVAGINITIS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES FROM CARIPE MUNICIPALITY, MONAGAS STATE, VENEZUELA, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druvic Lemus-Espinoza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated patients with symptomatic vaginal fungal infection in a rural area of Caripe Municipality, Monagas state, Venezuela, aiming to identify the species involved and their sensibility to antimicotics. Identification of species of Candida yeast was made with the use of CHROMagar Candida® and API AUX 20®. Additionally, in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole was evaluated by the agar diffusion method (CLSI, M44-A2. The prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 23/86 cases (26.7% among women 15 to 60 years. Candida albicans was the most common species among patients (39.1%. However, other isolated agents within the same genus Candida dominated (65.2% and were identified: Complex C. glabrata (4/23; 17.4%, C. tropicalis (4/23; 17.4%, Complex C. parapsilosis (3/23; 13.1%, C.guilliermondii (2/23; 8.7%, C. krusei (1/23; 4.3% and one episode of mixed infection with C. albicans and C. krusei (1/23. No statistical difference was observed between symptoms; vulvovaginal erythema occurred in all infected women. More than half of the yeasts (15/23 were sensitive to fluconazole. In this population sample, isolates of C. albicans and C. guilliermondii were 100% sensitive to fluconazole, while the C. krusei strain (1/23 isolated from a mixed infection was resistant to this antimicotic. Other species, like C. tropicalis (4/23, C. glabrata (2/23 and Complex C. parapsilosis (1/23 showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. In gynecological evaluations of patients from rural or urban communities, with clinical picture of micotic vulvovaginitis, a microbiological study of vaginal secretions should be implemented.

  13. Possibility for simultaneous electricity generation and bioremediation by using Candida melibiosica yeast in biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Georgiev, Danail; Mitov, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have proved that Candida melibiosica 2491 yeast strain possesses electrogenic properties and could be used as a biocatalyst in yeast-based biofuel cells. In this paper we demonstrate that when the yeast is cultivated under polarization conditions in a biofuel cell its phytase activity exceeds that obtained during cultivation in a conventional bioreactor. Furthermore, there is a correlation between the yeast phytase activity and the electrical characteristic of the biofuel cell during the different yeast growth phases. The obtained results reveal a possibility for application of C.melibiosica for simultaneous electricity generation and bioremediation of hardly degradable polyphosphates, especially in the regions with intensive stock-farming. Keywords: Biofuel cells, yeast, Candida melibiosica, electricity generation, bioremediation

  14. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  15. [Susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B of isolates of Candida spp. Experience of a university health network, between 2004 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; León, Pilar; Gárate, Cynthia; Guzmán, Ana María; Labarca, Jaime; García, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    To describe antifungal susceptibility testing surveillance (December 2004-September 2010) in Candida spp., for amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole, at the Laboratorio de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. The study was performed utilizing E test and included yeasts from invasive origin and isolates in which antifungal susceptibility testing was asked for by the patient's physician. The yeasts were mainly recovered from urine samples (n: 64), blood cultures (n: 51) and secretions (n: 24). Two hundred ninety three isolates were studied: C. albicans (38%), C. glabrata (30%), C. tropicalis (11%), C. parapsilosis (10%), C. krusei (4%) and others (7%). All Candida species were 100% susceptible to amphotericin B, except C. krusei (1/12). Fluconazole's global susceptibility in C. albicans was 91.8%, but 100% in isolates from blood cultures versus 76% in isolates from urine. C. tropicalis was 93.9% susceptible to fluconazole, C. parapsilosis, 90% and C. glabrata 30.3%. C. krusei had no susceptible isolates to fluconazole. Voriconazole resistance was mainly present in C. glabrata (11.5%). We recommend the study of antifungal susceptibility in isolates from invasive origin, selected urine strains and C. glabrata. Fluconazole remains effective in C. albicans from blood.

  16. Effects of fluconazole treatment of mice infected with fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida tropicalis on fungal cell surface hydrophobicity, adhesion and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Kanoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The incidence of Candida tropicalis less susceptible to fluconazole (FLC has been reported in many parts of the world. Objectives : The aim of this study was to examine the changes of putative virulence attributes of Candida tropicalis accompanying the development of resistance to FLC in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods : A FLC-resistant strain (FLC-R was obtained after sequential exposure of a clinical isolate FLC-sensitive (FLC-S to increasing concentrations of the antifungal. The course of infection by both strains was analyzed in BALB/c mice. Analyses of gene expression were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction PCR. The cell surface hydrophobicity, adhesion and biofilm formation were also determined. Results : Development of resistance to FLC could be observed after 15 days of subculture in azole-containing medium. Overexpression of MDR1 and ERG11 genes were observed in FLC-R, and this strain exhibited enhanced virulence in mice, as assessed by the mortality rate. All mice challenged with the FLC-R died and FLC-treatment caused earlier death in mice infected with this strain. All animals challenged with FLC-S survived the experiment, regardless of FLC-treatment. Overall, FLC-R derivatives strains were significantly more hydrophobic than FLC-S strains and showed greater adherence and higher capacity to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Conclusions : The expression of virulence factors was higher in FLC-R-C. tropicalis and it was enhanced after FLC-exposure. These data alert us to the importance of identifying microorganisms that show resistance to the antifungals to establish an appropriate management of candidiasis therapy.

  17. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri has antifungal effects on oral Candida species in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Twetman, Svante

    2017-01-01

    Background: An alternative approach for managing Candida infections in the oral cavity by modulating the oral microbiota with probiotic bacteria has been proposed. Objective: The aim was to investigate the antifungal potential of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) against six oral Candida species ( C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis , and C. parapsilosis ). Design: The lactobacilli were tested for their ability to co-aggregate with and inhibit the growth of the yeasts assessed by spectrophotometry and the agar overlay inhibition assay. Additionally, the pH was evaluated with microsensors, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the lactobacilli was verified. Results: Both L. reuteri strains showed co-aggregation abilities with the yeasts. The lactobacilli almost completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis , but did not affect C. krusei . Statistically significant differences in co-aggregation and growth inhibition capacities between the two L. reuteri strains were observed (preuteri exhibited antifungal properties against five of the six most common oral Candida species. Further, the results reconfirms that the probiotic capacity of L. reuteri is strain specific.

  18. Yeast identification in routine clinical microbiology laboratory and its clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of yeast infections is helpful in prompt appropriate antifungal therapy. In the present study, the usefulness of chromogenic medium, slide culture technique and Vitek2 Compact (V2C has been analysed. A total of 173 clinical isolates of yeast species were included in the study. An algorithm to identify such isolates in routine clinical microbiology laboratory was prepared and followed. Chromogenic medium was able to identify Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Trichosporon asahii. Chromogenic medium was also helpful in identifying "multi-species" yeast infections. The medium was unable to provide presumptive identification of C. pelliculosa, C. utilis, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. hemulonii. Vitek 2 compact (V2C differentiated all pseudohypae non-producing yeast species. The algorithm followed was helpful in timely presumptive identification and final diagnosis of yeast infections, including multi-species yeast infections.

  19. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  20. Use of the industrial yeast Candida utilis for cadmium sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kujan, Petr; Prell, Aleš; Šafář, Hynek; Sobotka, Miroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš; Holler, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 257-260 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : candida utilis * cadmium * yeast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  1. Optimization of fed-batch fermentation for xylitol production by Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-H; Han, K-C; Koh, Y-H; Ryu, Y-W; Seo, J-H

    2002-07-01

    Xylitol, a functional sweetener, was produced from xylose by biological conversion using Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. Based on a two-substrate fermentation using glucose for cell growth and xylose for xylitol production, fed-batch fermentations were undertaken to increase the final xylitol concentration. The effects of xylose and xylitol on xylitol production rate were studied to determine the optimum concentrations for fed-batch fermentation. Xylose concentration in the medium (100 g l(-1)) and less than 200 g l(-1) total xylose plus xylitol concentration were determined as optimum for maximum xylitol production rate and xylitol yield. Increasing the concentrations of xylose and xylitol decreased the rate and yield of xylitol production and the specific cell growth rate, probably because of an increase in osmotic stress that would interfere with xylose transport, xylitol flux to secretion to cell metabolism. The feeding rate of xylose solution during the fed-batch mode of operation was determined by using the mass balance equations and kinetic parameters involved in the equations in order to increase final xylitol concentration without affecting xylitol and productivity. The optimized fed-batch fermentation resulted in 187 g l(-1) xylitol concentration, 0.75 g xylitol g xylose(-1) xylitol yield and 3.9 g xylitol l(-1) h(-1) volumetric productivity.

  2. Phenol Biodegradation by Free and Immobilized Candida tropicalis RETL-Crl on Coconut Husk and Loofah Packed in Biofilter Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shazryenna, D; Ruzanna, R; Jessica, M S; Piakong, M T

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and its derivatives are environmental pollutant commonly found in many industrial effluents. It is toxic in nature and causes various health hazards. However, they are poorly removed in conventional biological processes due to their toxicity. Immobilization of microbial cells has received increasing interest in the field of waste treatment and creates opportunities in a wide range of sectors including environmental pollution control. Live cells of phenol-degrading yeast, Candida tropicalis RETL-Crl, were immobilized on coconut husk and loofah by adsorption. The immobolized particle was packed into biofilter column which used for continuous treatment of a phenol with initial phenol concentration of 3mM. Both loofah and coconut husk have similar phenol biodegradation rate of 0.0188 gL −1 h −1 within 15 hours to achieve a phenol removal efficiency of 100%. However loofah have lower biomass concentration of 4.22 gL −1 compared to biomass concentration on coconut husk, 4.39 gL −1 . Coconut husk contain higher biomass concentration which makes it better support material than loofah. Fibrous matrices such as loofah and coconut husk provide adequate supporting surfaces for cell adsorption, due to their high specific surface area. Therefore, coconut husk and loofah being an agricultural waste product have the potential to be used as low-cost adsorbent and support matrix for microbial culture immobilization for the removal of organic pollutant from wastewater. (paper)

  3. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  4. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  5. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  6. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginitis and Epidemiology of Recurrent Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandra S.; Galask, Rudolph P.; Messer, Shawn A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Pfaller, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing vulvovaginal candidiasis, since cultures are rarely performed. Susceptibility testing was performed on vaginal yeast isolates collected from January 1998 to March 2001 from 429 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis. The charts of 84 patients with multiple positive cultures were reviewed. The 593 yeast isolates were Candida albicans (n = 420), Candida glabrata (n = 112), Candida parapsilosis (n = 30), Candida krusei (n = 12), Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( n = 9), Candida tropicalis (n = 8), Candida lusitaniae (n = 1), and Trichosporon sp. (n = 1). Multiple species suggesting mixed infection were isolated from 27 cultures. Resistance to fluconazole and flucytosine was observed infrequently (3.7% and 3.0%); 16.2% of isolates were resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 1 μg/ml). The four imidazoles (econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole) were active: 94.3 to 98.5% were susceptible at ≤1 μg/ml. Among different species, elevated fluconazole MICs (≥16 μg/ml) were only observed in C. glabrata (15.2% resistant [R], 51.8% susceptible-dose dependent [S-DD]), C. parapsilosis (3.3% S-DD), S. cerevisiae (11.1% S-DD), and C. krusei (50% S-DD, 41.7% R, considered intrinsically fluconazole resistant). Resistance to itraconazole was observed among C. glabrata (74.1%), C. krusei (58.3%), S. cerevisiae (55.6%), and C. parapsilosis (3.4%). Among 84 patients with recurrent episodes, non-albicans species were more common (42% versus 20%). A ≥4-fold rise in fluconazole MIC was observed in only one patient with C. parapsilosis. These results support the use of azoles for empirical therapy of uncomplicated candidal vulvovaginitis. Recurrent episodes are more often caused by non-albicans species, for which azole agents are less likely to be effective. PMID:15872235

  7. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  8. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; dos Santos, Leandro Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  9. Resistencia de levaduras del género Candida al fluconazol Candida yeast´s resistance to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernando Gómez Quintero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por levaduras del género Candida sp. son cada vez más prevalentes en pacientes hospitalizados, especialmente en grupos de mayor riesgo como pueden ser pacientes con neoplasia hematológica bajo tratamiento de quimioterapia y en cuidados intensivos. La resistencia de Candida sp. representa un reto terapéutico que deja un menor número de posibilidades para el tratamiento de estas infecciones que se caracterizan, a su vez, por una alta morbimortalidad. Esta revisión describe los mecanismos de resistencia de Candida sp. a fluconazol y los factores de riesgo para la adquisición de éstos.Yeast infections of the genus Candida sp are becoming more prevalent in hospitalized patients, especially in high risk groups such as patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy and in intensive care units. Candida sp's resistance represents a therapeutic challenge that leaves fewer opportunities for the treatment of these infections which are characterized by high morbidity and mortality. This review describes Candida sp's resistance mechanisms to fluconazole and the risk factors for their acquisition.

  10. Diversity and physiological characterization of D-xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Dussán, Kelly J; Rodrigues, Rita C L B; Silva, Silvio S; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L) culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g) and productivities (0.62 g/L · h to 0.75 g/L · h). Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g), with concentrations up to 25.2 g/L. The new Spathaspora species produced ethanol and/or xylitol in different concentrations as the main fermentation products. In sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic fermentation assays, S. stipitis UFMG-XMD-15.2 generated the highest ethanol yield (0.34 g/g) and productivity (0.2 g/L · h), while the new species Spathaspora sp. 1 UFMG-XMD-16.2 and Spathaspora sp. 2 UFMG-XMD-23.2 were very good xylitol producers. This study demonstrates the promise of using new D-xylose-fermenting yeast strains from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest for ethanol or xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

  11. Non-albicans Candida Vulvovaginitis: Treatment Experience at a Tertiary Care Vaginitis Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna M; Gracely, Edward; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to analyze a cohort of women with vulvovaginal symptoms and positive cultures for non-albicans Candida (NAC) to determine whether yeast was responsible for their symptoms and to evaluate the mycological effectiveness of various regimens. This observational study was performed from retrospective chart review of patients with positive NAC cultures between April 1, 2008, and January 31, 2011, at a tertiary care vaginitis center. Patient intake demographics were entered into a database. Follow-up visits were analyzed for data about patient treatments and outcomes. Patients were considered a clinical cure if their symptoms were significantly improved and mycologic cure (MC) if later yeast cultures were negative. If clinical symptoms improved at the same time as MC, the isolate was considered the proximate cause for the symptoms. One hundred eight patients meeting entry criteria were analyzed. Boric acid was effective at obtaining MC in 32 (78%) of 41 patients with C. glabrata, 3 of 3 patients with C. tropicalis, and 3 of 3 patients with C. lusitaniae. Fluconazole was effective as initial treatment for 3 (60%) of 5 patients with C. glabrata and 13 (81%) of 16 patients with C. parapsilosis. In 52.7% of C. glabrata, 66.7% of C. parapsilosis, and 57.1% of C. tropicalis cases, effective antifungal therapy led to symptom improvement. In a tertiary care vaginitis center, NAC, when isolated on culture, caused clinically significant infections in approximately half of symptomatic patients. A majority of infections can be effectively treated with boric acid or fluconazole regardless of the non-albicans Candida species.

  12. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material.

  13. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Sana; Jamil, Naz; Saad, Uzma; Hafiz, Saleem; Siddiqui, Sualleha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida albicansin patients with funguria. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Patients’ urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candidaspecies was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6%) were male patients and 85 (29.4%) were female patients, with 165 (57.1%) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9%) from the in-patients. Five species of Candidawere found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1%) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9%) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8%) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8%) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4%) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2%). In the present study, 30.1% patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis(60.9%), followed by other non-albicansCandida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candidaas a major cause of candiduria.

  14. Evaluation of Virulence Factors In vitro, Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida tropicalis Isolated from the Coastal Environment of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; de Medeiros, Sayama S. T. Q.; de Souza, Luanda B. F. C.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Francisco, Elaine C.; de Araújo, Maria C. B.; Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G.; Neves, Rejane P.; Melo, Analy S. de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated. In general, environmental isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) than C. tropicalis ATCC13803 reference strain, and they also showed increased biofilm production. Most of the isolates presented wrinkled phenotypes on Spider medium (34 isolates, 54.8%). The majority of the isolates also showed higher proteinase production than control strains, but low phospholipase activity. In addition, 35 isolates (56.4%) had high hemolytic activity (hemolysis index > 0.55). With regard to C. tropicalis resistance to osmotic stress, 85.4% of the isolates were able to grow in a liquid medium containing 15% sodium chloride. The strains were highly resistant to the azoles tested (fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole). Fifteen strains were resistant to the three azoles tested (24.2%). Some strains were also resistant to amphotericin B (14 isolates; 22.6%), while all of them were susceptible for the echinocandins tested, except for a single strain of intermediate susceptibility to micafungin. Our results demonstrate that C. tropicalis isolated from the sand can fully express virulence attributes and showed a high persistence capacity on the coastal environment; in addition of showing high minimal inhibitory concentrations to several antifungal drugs used in current clinical practice, demonstrating that environmental isolates may

  15. Método de difusión con discos para la determinación de sensibilidad a fluconazol en aislamientos de Candida spp Disk diffusion method for fluconazole susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 1193 aislamientos clínicos para estandarizar y evaluar un método de difusión con discos de fluconazol de lectura visual, que permita detectar levaduras sensibles al antifúngico. Las especies analizadas fueron: Candida albicans (n=584, Candida parapsilosis (n=196, Candida tropicalis (n=200, Candida glabrata (n=113, Candida krusei (n=50, Candida spp. y otras levaduras oportunistas (n=50. Los discos fueron manufacturados en el INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se midieron los halos de inhibición del crecimiento producidos por fluconazol y la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM por el método de referencia M27-A2 modificado por EUCAST. Se establecieron los valores de corte del método de difusión en: ≥16 mm para levaduras sensibles a fluconazol (CIM ≤ 8 µg/ml, entre 9 y 15 mm para sensibles dependientes de la dosis (CIM = 16-32 mg/ml y ≤ 8 mm para resistentes (CIM ≥ 64 µg/ml. El método de difusión tuvo 94,7% de concordancia con el de referencia, con 0,2% de errores very major y 0,3% de errores major. La reproducibilidad inter e intralaboratorio fue muy buena. Para detectar aislamientos sensibles a fluconazol, este método resulta confiable y de bajo costo; sin embargo, es conveniente que los aislamientos con halos ≤ 15 mm sean reevaluados por el método de referencia.In order to standardize and evaluate a disk diffusion method with visual reading to detect in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeast, 1193 clinical isolates were tested. These included 584 Candida albicans, 196 Candida parapsilosis, 200 Candida tropicalis, 113 Candida glabrata, 50 Candida krusei and 50 Candida spp. and other opportunistic yeasts. The disks were manufactured in the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". The disk diffusion method results were compared to MIC results obtained by the reference CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution method modified by EUCAST. The interpretative breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole

  16. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Silva-Dias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the CLSI protocol for yeast M27-A3 S4.Yeast cells of non-albicans species exhibit increased ability to adhere and form biofilm. However the correlation between adhesion and biofilm formation varied according to species and also with the methodology used for biofilm assessment. No association was found between strain´s site of isolation or planktonic antifungal susceptibility and adhesion or biofilm formation. Finally CSH seemed to be a good predictor for biofilm formation but not for adhesion.Despite the marked variability registered intra and inter species, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were the species exhibiting high adhesion profile. C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii and C. krusei revealed higher biofilm formation values in terms of biomass. C. parapsilosis was the species with lower biofilm metabolic activity.

  17. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Dias, Ana; Miranda, Isabel M; Branco, Joana; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the CLSI protocol for yeast M27-A3 S4. Yeast cells of non-albicans species exhibit increased ability to adhere and form biofilm. However, the correlation between adhesion and biofilm formation varied according to species and also with the methodology used for biofilm assessment. No association was found between strain's site of isolation or planktonic antifungal susceptibility and adhesion or biofilm formation. Finally CSH seemed to be a good predictor for biofilm formation but not for adhesion. Despite the marked variability registered intra and inter species, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were the species exhibiting high adhesion profile. C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei revealed higher biofilm formation values in terms of biomass. C. parapsilosis was the species with lower biofilm metabolic activity.

  18. Molecular detection of candida species from hospitalized patient’s specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardoso, José Luis; Martínez-Rivera, María Ángeles; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    To identify the most frequent Candida species in specimens from patients hospitalized in different medical centers of Mexico City, with suspected fungal infection. Specimens were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 28°C for 72 h. In addition, DNA was extracted. Isolates were grown on CHROMagar Candida™, at 37°C for 48 h. The molecular identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for four species. Eighty one specimens were processed and included: bronchial lavage, pleural, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, ascites and bile fluids; blood, sputum, bone marrow, oro-tracheal cannula and ganglion. By culture, 30 samples (37%) were positive, and by PCR, 41 (50.6%). By PCR, the frequency of species was: Candida albicans 82.9%, Candida tropicalis 31.7%, Candida glabrata 24.4%, and Candida parapsilosis 4.9%. In 34.1% of specimens a species mixture was detected suggesting a co-infection: Two species in five specimens (C. albicans-C tropicalis and C. albicans-C glabrata), and three species in three specimens (C. albicans-C. glabrata-C. tropicalis). The PCR is an useful tool for detection the most common Candida species causing infection in hospitalized patients, it avoids the requirement of culture weather we start from clinical specimen and it favors the early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  19. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

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    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  20. Selection of lactose-fermenting yeast for ethanol production from whey. [Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, M E; Castillo, F J

    1982-01-01

    Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected from among 9 strains of lactose-fermenting yeasts on the basis of its ability to ferment concentrated whey. In 28% deproteinized whey solutions it produced an average of 12.4% EtOH. This yeast could be used in a process for whey treatment.

  1. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Jamil, N.; Hafiz, S.; Siddiqui, S.; Saad, U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Candida albicans in patients with funguria. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Patients urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candida species was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Results: Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6 percentage) were male patients and 85 (29.4 percentage) were female patients, with 165 (57.1 percentage) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9 percentage) from the in-patients. Five species of Candida were found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1 percentage) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9 percentage) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8 percentage) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8 percentage) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4 percentage) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2 percentage). Conclusion: In the present study, 30.1 percentage patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis (60.9 percentage), followed by other non-albicans Candida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of candiduria. (author)

  2. Differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts by analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.D.; Choo, K.B.; Tsai, W.C.; Jen, T.M.; Yeh, J.Y.; Han, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts based on autoradiographic analysis of protein profiles of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cellular proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using ATCC strains as references, protein profile analysis showed that different Candida and other yeast species produced distinctively different patterns. Good agreement in results obtained with this approach and with other conventional systems was observed. Being accurate and reproducible, this approach provides a basis for the development of an alternative method for the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens

  3. Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniela; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  5. Evaluation of Yeast Biomass (Candida utilis in a Practical Diet for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Goddard

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A yeast, Candida utilis, cultured on a substrate derived from a mixture of peat moss and fish processing waste, was substituted for fish meal in a practical diet for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The formulated diets were isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isoealoric (gross energy 20 kJ per g dry matter. During a 50-day feeding trial fish tripled in weight, and there were no significant differences in the mean final weights of groups of fish fed diets in which 0%, 25% and 35% of fishmeal had been replaced by yeast biomass. Diets containing yeast were palatable, as determined by food intake, and were highly digestible for protein. Carcass analysis revealed that the fish fed with yeast biomass had slightly higher crude protein and ash contents, and lower lipid levels than those of the control group. Significant reductions were recorded in food conversion efficiency as the yeast content of the diets increased. The results indicate the potential for partial replacement of fish meal (between 25-35% by Candida utilis biomass in feeds formulated for rainbow trout.

  6. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    , Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  7. The environmental and intrinsic yeast diversity of Cuban cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Maura, Yurelkys; Balzarini, Tom; Clapé Borges, Pablo; Evrard, Pierre; De Vuyst, Luc; Daniel, H-M

    2016-09-16

    The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required. Among 65 yeast species detected, Pichia manshurica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae were the most frequently isolated species, obtained from five and four fermentations, followed in frequency by Pichia kudriavzevii from two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only occasionally. Cocoa fermentation yeast species were also present on processing equipment. The repeated isolation of a preliminarily as Yamadazyma sp. classified species, a group of strains similar to Saccharomycopsis crataegensis from fermentations and equipment, and the isolation of fifteen other potentially novel yeast species in low numbers provides material for further studies. Environmental samples showed higher yeast diversity compared to the fermentations, included the most frequent fermentation species, whereas the most frequently isolated environmental species were Candida carpophila, Candida conglobata, and Candida quercitrusa. Potential selective advantages of the most frequently isolated species were only partly explained by the physiological traits tested. For instance, tolerance to higher ethanol concentrations was more frequent in strains of Pichia spp. and S. cerevisiae compared to Hanseniaspora spp.; the ability to also assimilate ethanol might have

  8. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  9. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results. Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion. Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite antifungal therapy. PMID:26858961

  10. Evaluation of risk factors in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the value of chromID Candida agar versus CHROMagar Candida for recovery and presumptive identification of vaginal yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Ahmet Bariş; Ilkit, Macit; Akar, Tuba; Burgut, Refik; Demir, S Cansun

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly the recurrent form, remains an intractable problem for clinicians, microbiologists, and patients. It is essential to confirm the clinical diagnosis by mycological methods and avoid empirical therapy. The recovery of yeast in fungal culture, such as on Sabouraud dextrose agar, remains the gold standard for diagnosis. In this investigation, we examined 474 participants, including 122 (25.7%) with acute VVC cases, 249 (52.5%) who had recurrent VVC (RVVC) cases, and 103 (21.7%) healthy controls. We also administered a questionnaire to obtain information on patient lifestyle and medical, gynecological, and sexual history. In addition, we compared the performance of chromID Candida agar (CAN2) to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin and chloramphenicol (SGC2). The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including the germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX system. We detected yeasts in 60 of 122 (49.2%) patients with acute VVC cases, 110 of 249 (44.2%) with RVVC cases, and in 35 of 103 (34%) healthy controls (P = 0.07). A total of 205 samples were found to be positive for fungi (43.2%), of which 176 (85.9%) were monofungal, and 29 (14.1%) were polyfungal. In addition, 198 of these samples (96.6%) were positive on CAN2, 195 (95.1%) on CAC, 189 (92.2%) on SGC2, and 183 (89.3%) samples on all three (P = 0.17). The 234 yeast isolates recovered were C. albicans (n = 118), C. glabrata (n = 82), C. kefyr (n = 11), C. krusei (n = 9), C. lipolytica (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 2), C. pelliculosa (n = 2), C. tropicalis (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 3). Of the 29 polyfungal populations, 28 (96.6%) were detected in CAN2, 25 in (86.2%) CAC, and 25 (86.2%) on both (P = 0.35). Notably, we detected the high predominance of C. albicans+C. glabrata (86.2%) in polyfungal populations. Briefly, the detection of C

  11. Use of antifungal principles from garlic for the Inhibition of yeasts and moulds in fermenting green olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Yeast contamination of fermented green olives was evaluated. Plate counts were determined during the fermentation process and strains were isolated, identified and characterized. Results showed that counts of yeasts reached a maximum when the acidity was rather high. Strain identification showed that: Pichia anomala, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida versatilis and C. tropicalis were the most abundant species. Isolates of these species were used in the in-vitro inhibition assays using laboratory media with whole garlic, water extract and steam distilled oil to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs. The effect of concentrations that inhibited yeasts and moulds were also studied on lactic acid bacteria which were not inhibited. The essential oil was the most active on growth of moulds and yeasts. The same concentrations of sorbic acid were used in olive preservation against yeasts and moulds during the fermentation and storage. A net decrease in yeast counts was observed.

    En el trabajo se evalúa la contaminación por levaduras en la fermentación de aceitunas verdes. Se hicieron recuentos en placas, y se aislaron, identificaron y caracterizaron las cepas correspondientes. Los resultados indican que los recuentos de mohos alcanzan el máximo cuando la acidez es elevada. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Pichia anomala, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida versatilis y C. tropicalis. Las especies anteriores se usaron en ensayos de inhibición in vitro utilizando medios de cultivos con ajo, extracto acuoso y aceites obtenidos por arrastre de vapor, determinándose las concentraciones de inhibición mínima (MICs. Las concentraciones que mostraron actividad no tuvieron inhibición frente a las bacterias lácticas. El aceite esencial fue la composición más activa frente a mohos y levaduras. La utilización adicional de ácido sórbico durante la fermentación y almacenamiento dio lugar a un descenso en la

  12. Molecular identification and distribution profile of Candida species isolated from Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Ghahri, Mohammad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Jalalizand, Nilufar; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-08-01

    A total of 855 yeast strains isolated from different clinical specimens, mainly nail (42%) and vulva-vagina (25%) were identified by a set of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh colonies using Whatman FTA Card technology. PCR assays were performed on the complete ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region for all isolates and species identification was carried out through their specific electrophoretic profiles after digestion with the enzyme MspI. Those isolates suspected as Candida parapsilosis group were then subjected to amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH) gene and restriction digestion with NlaIII enzyme. In total, 71.1% of the strains were obtained from females and 28.9% from males. The age group of 31-40 years consisted of the highest frequency of patients with candidiasis. Candida albicans was the predominant species (58.6%) followed by C. parapsilosis (11.0%), C. glabrata (8.3%), C. tropicalis (7.0%), C. kefyr (5.8%), C. krusei (4.4%), C. orthopsilosis (2.1%), and C. guilliermondii (0.6%). A few strains of C. lusitaniae, C. rugosa, C. intermedia, C. inconspicua, C. neoformans and S. cerevisiae were isolated. We could not identify 8 (0.9%) isolates. Candida albicans remains the most frequently species isolated from Iranian patients; however, the number of non-C. albicans Candida species looks to be increasing. The simple and reliable PCR-RFLP system used in the study has the potential to identify most clinically isolated yeasts.

  13. Identification of salivary components that induce transition of hyphae to yeast in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leito, Jelani T D; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans, the major human fungal pathogen, undergoes a reversible morphological transition from single yeast cells to pseudohyphae and hyphae filaments. The hyphae form is considered the most invasive form of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of saliva on hyphae growth of C. albicans. Candida albicans hyphae were inoculated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium with whole saliva, parotid saliva or buffer mimicking the saliva ion composition, and cultured for 18 h at 37 degrees C under aerobic conditions with 5% CO(2). Whole saliva and parotid saliva induced transition to yeast growth, whereas the culture with buffer remained in the hyphae form. Parotid saliva was fractionated on a reverse-phase C8 column and each fraction was tested for inducing transition to yeast growth. By immunoblotting, the salivary component in the active fraction was identified as statherin, a phosphoprotein of 43 amino acids that has been implicated in remineralization of the teeth. Synthetically made statherin induced transition of hyphae to yeast. By deletion of five amino acids at the negatively charged N-terminal site (DpSpSEE), yeast-inducing activity and binding to C. albicans were increased. In conclusion, statherin induces transition to yeast of C. albicans hyphae and may thus contribute to the oral defense against candidiasis.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with gowé production from sorghum in Bénin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Dalodé, G; Jespersen, L; Hounhouigan, J; Moller, P L; Nago, C M; Jakobsen, M

    2007-08-01

    To identify the dominant micro-organisms involved in the production of gowé, a fermented beverage, and to select the most appropriate species for starter culture development. Samples of sorghum gowé produced twice at three different production sites were taken at different fermentation times. DNA amplification by internal transcribed spacer-polymerase chain reaction of 288 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains revealed that the dominant LAB responsible for gowé fermentation were Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella confusa, Lactobacillus mucosae, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella kimchii. DNA from 200 strains of yeasts was amplified and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene was sequenced for selected isolates, revealing that the yeasts species were Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia anomala, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Gowé processing is characterized by a mixed fermentation dominated by Lact. fermentum, W. confusa and Ped. acidilactici for the LAB and by K. marxianus, P. anomala and C. krusei for the yeasts. The diversity of the LAB and yeasts identified offers new opportunities for technology upgrading and products development in gowé production. The identified species can be used as possible starter for a controlled fermentation of gowé.

  15. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  17. Investigation of the Yeast and Mould Floras in Some Ground Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Vural

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yeast and mould floras of 60 spices samples that werecollected from different places of Diyarbakır have been investigated. Theyeast spices as Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger and mouldspices as Candida tropicalis and C. albicans have been commonly isolatedfrom the spices samples.The ratios of yeast contamination in the samples of black pepper,cumin, allspice, ground hot red pepper, flaked pepper (red and flakedpepper (black, investigated in this study, have been found as % 70, % 80,% 90, % 90, % 60 and % 30 respectively. As a result of high amount ofyeast contamination in spices samples, it is thought that there is a high riskof aflatoxin presence.Using the good and hygienically producing techniques at the stages ofharvest, production, processing, storage and selling with decontaminationapplications as sterilization, microwave and irradiation become effectiveeither in to prove the microbiological quality of the spices and eliminatingof the probable aflatoxin risk due to highly yeast contamination.

  18. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  19. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: Modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D.; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-01-01

    Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K s , and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium.

  1. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  2. An in vitro study on the anti-adherence effect of Brucea javanica and Piper betle extracts towards oral Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah

    2013-10-01

    The adherence of Candida to mucosal surfaces is the initial step for successful invasive process of the oral cavity. The study aimed to investigate the effect of two plant extracts on the non-specific and specific bindings of oral candida. In the former, adsorption to hexadecane was used to measure the hydrophobic interaction of the candida cells. In the later, glass beads coated with saliva represented the experimental pellicles in specific adhesion of oral candida to hard tissue surface. Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis showed the highest adsorption to hexadecane at 30.23%, 26.19% and 19.70%, respectively, while the others within the range of 7-10%. All candidal species were significantly affected by the extracts (PPiper betle. Candida parapsilosis showed the highest affinity in specific-bindings to pellicle with 18.72±0.71×10(5)CFU/ml. Exposing to P. betle-treated pellicle has drastically reduced the adherence of C. tropicalis, Candida albicans and C. krusei by 86.01%, 61.41% and 56.34%, respectively. B. javanica exhibited similar effect on C. tropicalis (89.86%), Candida lusitaniae (88.95%), C. albicans (79.74%), Candida glabrata (76.85%) and C. krusei (67.61%). The extracts demonstrated anti-adherence activities by modifying the CSH and the characteristics of the experimental pellicle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of PNA-FISH method for direct identification of Candida species in blood culture samples and its potential impact on guidance of antifungal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özlem; İnkaya, Ahmet Çağkan; Gülmez, Dolunay; Uzun, Ömrüm; Akova, Murat; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-10-01

    Early antifungal therapy has a major influence on survival in candidemia. Rapid identification of the species has importance for the treatment, prediction of the species-specific primary resistance and variable antifungal susceptibility. Recently, molecular-based methods attempt to reduce the time between the positive signal of a blood culture and identification of the fungus. PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay distinguishes a number of frequently isolated Candida species in groups following the growth in blood culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the species identified by PNA-FISH with conventional identification methods in yeast positive blood cultures and its influence on the selection of antifungal therapy. Specimens of adult patients diagnosed as yeast with Gram stain in signal-positive blood cultures between August to December 2013, were included in the study. The strains were concomitantly cultivated by subculturing from the blood culture bottles onto solid media and identified by conventional methods (germ tube test, ID32C and morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar). Rapid species identification was performed by Yeast Traffic Light PNA-FISH, which generates green flourescence for Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, yellow for Candida tropicalis, and red for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. C.tropicalis was identified as a single species whereas the others were identified in pairs. The time points when the yeast positive blood culture bottle was received by the mycology laboratory and reporting of the species identification results by PNA-FISH and the conventional methods were recorded. Seven C.albicans, six C.glabrata, three C.parapsilosis, one C.tropicalis, one C.krusei, one Cryptococcus neoformans, one Saprochaete capitata (Blastoschizomyces capitatus), one C.albicans and Candida dubliniensis, one C.krusei and C.dubliniensis, and one C.glabrata and C.parapsilosis were

  4. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.......0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  5. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  6. [Comparison between conventional methods, ChromAgar Candida® and PCR method for the identification of Candida species in clinical isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Barraza, Deyanira; Dávalos Martínez, Arturo; Flores-Padilla, Luis; Mendoza-De Elias, Roberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the incidence of yeast species causing fungemia in susceptible immunocompromised patients in the last two decades and the low sensitivity of conventional blood culture has led to the need to develop alternative approaches for the early detection and identification of causative species. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of molecular testing by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to identify clinical isolates of different species, using the ID32C ATB system (bioMérieux, France), chromogenic culture Chromagar Candida® (CHROMagar, France) and morphogenesis in corn meal agar. We studied 79 isolates, in which the most prevalent species using the system ID32C and PCR was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C .krusei. PCR patterns obtained for the identification of clinical isolates were stable and consistent in the various independent studies and showed good reproducibility, concluding that PCR with species-specific primers that amplify genes ITS1 and ITS2 for rRNA or topoisomerase II primers is a very specific and sensitive method for the identification of C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans, and with less specificity for C. tropicalis. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Candida auris: emergence and epidemiology of a highly pathogenic yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Slomp Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant emerging yeast, which was responsible for healthcare-associated infection outbreaks, and was cataloged as a new species in 2009, after being isolated from a patient’s ear canal secretion in Japan. Since the notification of this first occurrence, numerous cases have been reported throughout the world, including Brazil. C. auris affects mainly inpatients, patients in intensive care units, exposed to broad-spectrum antifungal medications and who make use of vascular catheters. Currently, this yeast is one of the main responsible for invasive infections in hospitals and has been cause of concern by authorities and organs due to its rapid dissemination and difficult treatment caused by its low susceptibility to antifungal agents traditionally used in clinical practice. As a contributor to the severity of infections associated with C. auris, the transmission mechanism is still unknown, which implies in a lack of control of the microorganism and high mortality rates. Thus, this literature review presents relevant information in order to alert the importance of C. auris as an etiological agent of systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and the real challenges of the treatment. Keywords: Candida auris; candidiasis; candidemia; multidrug-resistance; biofilm; epidemiology; diagnosis

  8. Adaptation of Microstix®-Candida Slide-test for Diagnosis of Bovine Mastitis Due to Anascogenic Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dudko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large diversity of mastitis-causing bacteria (150 species, subspecies or biovars have been documented, an adequate and simple mycological screening for yeast-related mastitis has not been developed. Since yeast incubation normally lasts longer than the majority of bacteriological ones, usually a treatment is administered before the results of microbial cultures are obtained. Therefore, a simple test has been needed for detection of yeast-related mastitis, the results of which can be read in parallel to bacteriological screening. Application of Microstix®-Candida assay was first checked for its specificity in standard Candida albicans (Oxford strain cultures (phase I and then in the other 36 strains of yeasts isolated from clinical mastitis cases during field investigations (second phase. Next, a test was implemented for identification of pathogens in 9 cohorts (1,200 cows from red-white Polish- Friesian breed in which the dynamics of mastitis were traced by bacteriological and mycological assays along year-long observations. The data obtained showed that apart from frequent infections (~50-70% proved by using pure microbial cultures, also mixed (bacterial-fungal infections (0-25% appeared as well as negative sieves (in the range of 0-45%. Mycological assays revealed a significant fraction of mixed infections during both lactation and the dry period. Strepto-staphylococcal infection was thus identified, however, its proportion strongly decreased after the introduction of antibiotics (after sensitivity to microbial agents was determined. Microbial monitoring was improved in these herds by parallel application of bacteriological and mycological (particularly Microstix®- Candida tests. Microstix®-assay appears to be useful for mycological diagnosis in field conditions of infected (mastitis herds. Its advantages include easy performance and short incubation time that is only 24 h at 37 °C (72-96 h at room temperature. This allowed

  9. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the food-yeast Candida utilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Tomita

    Full Text Available The industrially important food-yeast Candida utilis is a Crabtree effect-negative yeast used to produce valuable chemicals and recombinant proteins. In the present study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. utilis, which showed that this yeast diverged long before the formation of the CUG and Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clades. In addition, we performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing, which resulted in the identification of genes important for characteristic phenotypes of C. utilis such as those involved in nitrate assimilation, in addition to the gene encoding the functional hexose transporter. We also found that an antisense transcript of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, which in silico analysis did not predict to be a functional gene, was transcribed in the stationary-phase, suggesting a novel system of repression of ethanol production. These findings should facilitate the development of more sophisticated systems for the production of useful reagents using C. utilis.

  10. Azasordarins: Susceptibility of Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. to GW 471558

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Monzón, Araceli; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the azasordarin GW 471558 was compared with those of amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 177 clinical isolates of Candida spp. GW 471558 showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis, even against isolates with decreased susceptibility to azoles. Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida guilliermondii are resistant to GW 471558 in vitro (MICs, >128 μg/ml).

  11. Biochemical characterization of recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zameitat, E.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans, and recently it has become increasingly resistant to the current antifungal agents. In this study we investigated C. albicans dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, EC 1.3.99.11), which catalyzes the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine...

  12. CHARACTERISATION OF YEASTS ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SAMPLES WITH EMPHASIS ON RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zevita Venisha Furtado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of reports of systemic and mucosal yeast infections. These infections have a direct impact on the choice of empiric antifungal therapy and clinical outcome. The aim of the study is to determine the risk factors and characterisation of the yeasts from various clinical specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a prospective study, a total of 200 yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens were processed and identified up to species level by germ tube test, growth on corn meal agar, sugar fermentation and assimilation test, India ink preparation, urease test and Candida differential agar. The demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Statistical Analysis- The data was analysed in terms of frequency percentage. RESULTS Candida species was the most predominant (97% among the yeasts. Majority of the isolates were C. tropicalis (44% followed by C. albicans (34%, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, C. dubliniensis, C. kefyr and Trichosporon asahii. Diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, prematurity, malignancy, steroids and AIDS were the risk factors. CONCLUSION There is increase in prevalence of non-albicans Candida species and increase in incidence of disseminated cryptococcosis in HIV seropositive patients. Thus, early isolation and speciation will aid the clinicians to institute proper antifungal therapy, thus decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  13. Evaluation of Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS for the identification of Candida tropicalis on different solid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Li, Ying; Fan, Xin; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-11-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Vitek MS systems for identification of genetically-confirmed blood isolates of Candida tropicalis that had been grown on several types of culture media commonly used for primary fungal isolation. Isolates included 105 from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET) and 120 from National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Culture media tested for CHIF-NET isolates included trypticase soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood (BAP), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA-C), CHROMagar, China blue agar (CBA), chocolate agar supplemented with vancomycin (CAP-VA), and MacConkey agar (MAC). Culture media used for NTUH isolates included BAP, SDA, CHROMagar, eosin methylene blue (EMB), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), Mycosel agar, and cornmeal agar (CMA). The Bruker Biotyper correctly identified all CHIF-NET isolates to the species level on all six agar media tested and correctly identified the majority of NTUH isolates with the exception of isolates grown on SDA (85.8%) and CMA (52.5%). The Vitek MS system correctly identified all CHIF-NET isolates to the species level with the exception of isolates grown on CHROMagar (84.8%), and correctly identified the majority of NTUH isolates with the exception of isolates grown on SDA (51.7%), Mycosel agar (57.5%), and CMA (9.2%) for NTUH isolates. Clinical microbiologists should be aware that different culture media can affect the performance of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek MS systems in identifying C. tropicalis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Production of sophorolipids biosurfactants by multiple species of the Starmerella (Candida) bombicola yeast clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophorolipid production was tested for 26 strains representing 19 species of the Starmerella yeast clade, including S. bombicola and Candida apicola, which were previously reported to produce sophorolipids. Five of the 19 species tested showed significant production of sophorolipids: S. bombicola, ...

  15. Estudio multicéntrico de fungemias por levaduras en la República Argentina Multicenter study of bloodstream infections due to yeasts in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de candidemias aumentó aproximadamente en un 500% en hospitales de alta complejidad y se observó un cambio en la distribución de especies del género Candida, con un incremento de las levaduras no Candida albicans. Con el objeto de conocer la distribución de especies asociadas a fungemias por levaduras en Argentina y determinar su sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso convencional, se realizó un estudio multicéntrico durante el período abril 1999 a abril 2000. Participaron 36 instituciones del país. Se colectaron 265 aislamientos de levaduras provenientes de hemocultivos, que se identificaron utilizando pruebas morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas y la determinación de la concentración inhibitoria mínima se realizó en base al estándar del NCCLS. La distribución de especies fue: Candida albicans (40,75%, Candida parapsilosis (28,67%, Candida tropicalis (15,84%, Candida famata (3,77%, Cryptococcus neoformans (3,77%, Candida glabrata (2,64% y otras (4,53%. La mayoría de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a anfotericina B, fluconazol e itraconazol. La mortalidad asociada a las fungemias por levaduras estudiadas (n=265 fue del 30%, siendo más baja a lo descrito (33-54% y fue menor en los pacientes que recibieron tratamiento antifúngico (26,3%, que en los no tratados (47%.The incidence of candidemia has increased approximately 500% in high-complexity hospitals. A change in the spectrum of Candida infections due to species other than Candida albicans has also been detected. Between April 1999 and April 2000 a multicenter study was performed in order to determine the species distribution associated to candidemias in Argentina and the susceptibility profile of the isolates to the current antifungal drugs. Thirty six institutions have participated. All the 265 yeast strains isolated from blood cultures were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. The antifungal susceptibility testing of

  16. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-01-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates w...

  17. Influence of growth conditions on adhesion of yeast Candida spp. and Pichia spp. to stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Ružica; Raspor, Peter

    2017-08-01

    An understanding of adhesion behavior of Candida and Pichia yeast under different environmental conditions is key to the development of effective preventive measures against biofilm-associated infection. Hence in this study we investigated the impact of growth medium and temperature on Candida and Pichia adherence using stainless steel (AISI 304) discs with different degrees of surface roughness (Ra = 25.20-961.9 nm), material typical for the food processing industry as well as medical devices. The adhesion of the yeast strains to stainless steel surfaces grown in Malt Extract broth (MEB) or YPD broth at three temperatures (7 °C, 37 °C, 43 °C for Candida strains and 7 °C, 27 °C, 32 °C for Pichia strains) was assessed by crystal violet staining. The results showed that the nutrient content of medium significantly influenced the quantity of adhered cells by the tested yeasts. Adhesion of C. albicans and C. glabrata on stainless steel surfaces were significantly higher in MEB, whereas for C. parapsilosis and C. krusei it was YPD broth. In the case with P. pijperi and P. membranifaciens, YPD broth was more effective in promoting adhesion than MEB. On the other hand, our data indicated that temperature is a very important factor which considerably affects the adhesion of these yeast. There was also significant difference in cell adhesion on all types of stainless steel surfaces for all tested yeast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  19. Complete DNA sequence of the linear mitochondrial genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosek, J.; Novotna, M.; Hlavatovicova, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida parapsilosis was determined. The mitochondrial genome is represented by linear DNA molecules terminating with tandem repeats of a 738-bp unit. The number of repeats varies, thus generating a population...

  20. Antifungal potential of eugenyl acetate against clinical isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Hmoteh, Jutharat; Thamjarungwong, Benjamas; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of eugenyl acetate (EA), a phytochemical in clove essential oil, against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EA against Candida isolates were in the range between 0.1% and 0.4% (v/v). Spot assay further confirmed the susceptibility of Candida isolates to the compound upon treatment with respective 1 × MIC. Growth profile measured in time kill study evidence that the compound at 1 × MIC and 1/2 × MIC retarded the growth of Candida cells, divulging the fungicidal activity. Light microscopic observation demonstrated that upon treated with EA, rough cell morphology, cell damage, and fragmented patterns were observed in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Furthermore, unusual morphological changes of the organism were observed in scanning electron microscopic study. Therefore, it is validated that the compound could cause cell damage resulting in the cell death of Candida clinical isolates. Eventually, the compound at sub-MIC (0.0125% v/v) significantly inhibited serum-induced germ tube formation by C. albicans. Eugenyl acetate inhibited biofilm forming ability of the organisms as well as reduced the adherence of Candida cells to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In addition, upon treatment with EA, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was increased significantly against C. albicans (P Candida infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus from the Asia and Western Pacific region: data from the SENTRY antifungal surveillance program (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    The SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program monitors global susceptibility rates of newer and established antifungal agents. We report the in vitro activity of seven antifungal agents against 496 contemporary clinical isolates of yeasts and molds. The isolates were obtained from 20 laboratories in the Asia-Western Pacific (APAC) region during 2010 through 2012. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole were susceptibility tested using CLSI methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. Sequencing of fks hot spots was performed for echinocandin-resistant strains. Isolates included 13 species of Candida (n=460), 5 species of non-Candida yeasts (21), 5 species of Aspergillus (11) and 4 other molds. Echinocandin resistance was uncommon among eight species of Candida and was only detected in three isolates of Candida glabrata, two from Australia harboring mutations in fks1 (F625S) and fks2 (S663P). Resistance to the azoles was much more common and was observed among all species with the exception of Candida dubliniensis. Fluconazole resistance rates observed with C. glabrata (6.8%) was comparable to that seen with Candida parapsilosis (5.7%) and Candida tropicalis (3.6%). Cross resistance among the triazoles was seen with each of these three species. The mold-active azoles and the echinocandins were all active against isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Azole resistance was not detected among the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal resistance is uncommon among isolates of fungi causing invasive fungal infections in the APAC region. As in other regions of the world, emerging resistance to the echinocandins among invasive isolates of C. glabrata bears close monitoring.

  2. Molecular characterization of Candida isolates from intensive care unit patients, Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, Marianna; Paluchowska, Paulina; Bogusz, Bożena; Budak, Alicja

    Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A total of 132 Candida clinical isolates (62 C. albicans, 40 C. glabrata, 13 C. tropicalis, 11 C. krusei, 6 C. kefyr), obtained from specimens of endotracheal aspirate, urine and blood taken from patients of a tertiary hospital in Poland, were included in the study. Species identification was performed by PCR method and genetic relatedness was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay (RAPD) with five primers. The RAPD analysis revealed high genetic diversity among the studied Candida isolates, indicating that most of the strains were from endogenous sources. Only two clonal strains of C. glabrata isolated from different patients were observed, suggesting a possible cross-transmission of these pathogens. Our study confirmed the high discriminatory power of the RAPD assay. This genotyping method can be applied to local epidemiological studies of Candida species. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Candida xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic yeast species isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2017-03-01

    Three yeast strains designated as S44, XF1 and XF2, respectively, were isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov of apricot tree in Shule County, Xinjiang, China, and were demonstrated to be a new member of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of S44 (type strain) to all sequences of other Candida yeasts was very low (≦93 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences revealed that the strain S44 is closely related to C. blattae, C. dosseyi, C. pruni, C. asparagi, C. fructus and C. musae. However, the strain S44 is distinguished from these Candida species by the physiological characteristics. Moreover, the strain S44 formed typical pseudohyphae when grown on cornmeal agar at 25 °C for 7 days, but did not form ascospores in sporulation medium for 3-4 weeks. Therefore, the name Candida xinjiangensis is proposed for the novel species, with S44 (=KCTC T 27747) as the type strain.

  4. Species Distribution and Susceptibility to Azoles of Vaginal Yeasts Isolated Prostitutes

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    Norma T. Gross

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the use of miconazole among female prostitutes in Costa Rica as well as the distribution of vaginal yeasts and the susceptibility pattern to azoles of strains obtained from this population. Our intention was to relate a frequent use of miconazole to occurrence of vaginal yeasts resistant to azoles. Methods. Vaginal samples were taken from 277 patients that have previously used azoles. Vaginal swabs were obtained for direct microscopy and culture. Yeast isolates were identified by germ tube test and assimilation pattern. Susceptibility testing was determined using a tablet diffusion method. Results. The number of clinical Candida isolates (one from each patient was 57 (20.6%. C. albicans was the predominant species (70%, followed by C. parapsilosis (12%, C. tropicalis (5.3%, C. glabrata and C. famata (3.5% each, C. krusei, C. inconspicua and C. guilliermondii (1.7% each. The majority of vaginal Candida isolates were susceptible to ketoconazole (91%, fluconazole (96.5%, and itraconazole (98%. A lower susceptibility of some isolates to miconazole (63% was observed as compared to the other azoles tested. Moreover, the strains, nonsusceptible to miconazole, were more often obtained from patients that have used this antifungal at least four times within the last year before taking the samples as compared to those with three or less treatments (P<.01. Conclusion. An indiscriminate use of miconazole, such as that observed among female prostitutes in Costa Rica, results in a reduced susceptibility of vaginal yeasts to miconazole but not to other azoles.

  5. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  6. Identification of salivary components that induce transition of hyphae to yeast in Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leito, J.T.D.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Nazmi, K.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans, the major human fungal pathogen, undergoes a reversible morphological transition from single yeast cells to pseudohyphae and hyphae filaments. The hyphae form is considered the most invasive form of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of saliva on

  7. Differentiating pneumocystis cysts from Candida Sp. yeasts in pulmonary specimens using methenamine silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantiziantoniou, N.

    1996-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii (PC) pneumonia in the immunocompromised patient requires therapeutic intervention; therefore, rapid identification of PC organisms in cytopathologic specimens is essential. Conclusive diagnoses of PC are achievable using Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS), the gold standard stain for PC cyst visualization. However, non-budding Candida sp. yeasts can stimulate PC cysts with GMS and thus pose significant diagnostic challenges. After qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of 49 cytopulmonary cases, this study aimed to establish morphologic criteria that differentiate these organisms using GMS. The results showed that spherical/demilune PC cysts (4 to 7 microns in diameter) are monomorphic and mainly transparent, with intracyst densities being commonly evident. Demilune cysts typically display wall wrinkling with longitudinal clefts. Relative to cysts, Candida sp. yeasts reveal increased argyrophilia, range 4 to 10 microns in diameter, are mainly oval and budding, polymorphic and exhibit wall deformation with variable internal structure. Differentiating criteria are (a) budding; (b) cyst transparency, demilune shape; (c) longitudinal cyst clefts; (d) paired common-alike intracyst densities; (e) cyst monomprphism; (f) alveolar cast formations; (g) overall cystomorphologic presentation; and (h)relative argyrophilia. (author)

  8. Yeasts of the genus Candida are the dominant cause of onychomycosis in Libyan women but not men: results of a 2-year surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabib, M S; Agaj, M; Khalifa, Z; Kavanagh, K

    2002-06-01

    The reported frequency of recovery of fungi from infected nails varies according to the geographical area. To establish the nature of the causal agents in a sample of the Libyan population presenting with suspected onychomycosis. Samples were taken from the infected fingernails of 648 patients attending the Tripoli Medical Centre. Samples from 500 patients proved positive for fungi following culturing, while 476 were potassium hydroxide and culture positive. Of the culture-positive samples, yeasts of the genus Candida (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. guillermondii and C. tropicalis) were the dominant cause of this condition in women (417 of 434, 96%) but were responsible for only a minority of cases in men (three of 66, 5%). In contrast, dermatophytes (Trichophyton violaceum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis) were responsible for this condition in the majority of cases in men (53 of 66, 80%) but only 3% (15 of 434) of cases in women. The mould Aspergillus nidulans was isolated from the nails of 10 (15%) men and two (0.5%) women. The data obtained in this study reveal an almost total separation of the aetiological agents responsible for onychomycosis based on gender.

  9. Candida ethanolica n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybárová, J; Stros, F; Kocková-Kratochvílová, A

    1980-01-01

    A new yeast, Candida ethanolica, isolated from industrial fodder yeast cultivated on synthetic ethanol as the only source of carbon, originally designated III-5 and III-6, is described. This species differs from all recently accepted Candida species in not assimilating nitrate, not producing urease and not fermenting sugars.

  10. [Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from urine samples of patients in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekkaya, Serife; Fındık, Duygu; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Candida strains (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata) isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Identification of the isolates was done according to microscopic morphology (chlamydospor, blastospor, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID 32C bioMérieux, France). Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by in vitro broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). To investigate the clonal relationship of the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed by using Cnd3 primer. Of the 56 Candida isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values for amphotericin B were 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.125 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. Fluconazole MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25-4 µg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.25-16 µg/ml, 0.5 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.5-64 µg/ml, 8 and 16 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. For amphotericin B, none of the isolates had high MIC values (MIC > 1 µg/ml). While one of the C.glabrata isolates was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 µg/ml), one C.tropicalis and two C.glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (MIC: 16-32 µg/ml). The results of RAPD analysis indicated an exogenous spread from two clones for C.albicans, one clone for C.glabrata and one clone for C.tropicalis. This study underlines the importance of molecular epidemiological analysis of clinical samples together with hospital environmental samples in terms of Candida spp. To determine the exogenous origin for the related strains and to prevent

  11. Candida neustonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the sea surface microlayer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Feng; Lee, Ching-Fu; Liu, Shiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    A new ascomycetous yeast species, Candida neustonensis is proposed in this study based on four strains (SN92(T), SN47, SJ22, SJ25) isolated from sea surface microlayer in Taiwan. These four yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on 5% malt extract agar, corn meal agar, V8 agar, McClary's acetate agar and potato-dextrose agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene places C. neustonensis as a member of the Pichia guilliermondii clade, it also reveals that the phylogenetically closest relatives of C. neustonensis are C. fukuyamaensis (4.4% divergence), C. xestobii (4.4% divergence) and P. guilliermondii (4.5% divergence). C. neustonensis also is clearly distinguished from other known species in the P. guilliermondii clade based on the results of physiology tests. From these comparison analyses, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Candida neustonensis sp. nov., with strain SN92(T) (= BCRC 23108(T) = JCM 14892(T) = CBS 11061(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Etest and Sensititre YeastOne Susceptibility Testing of Echinocandins against Candida Species from a Single Center in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Maria; Erbeznik, Thomas; Gschwentner, Martin; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2017-08-01

    Candida species were tested for susceptibility to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin in order to evaluate the roles of Etest and Sensititre YeastOne in antifungal susceptibility testing for daily routines and to survey resistance. A total of 104 Candida species isolates detected from blood cultures were investigated. With EUCAST broth microdilution as the reference method, essential agreement (EA), categorical agreement (CA), very major errors (VME), major errors (ME), and minor (MIN) errors were assessed by reading MICs at 18, 24, and 48 h. By use of EUCAST broth microdilution and species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs), echinocandin resistance was not detected during the study period. Using EUCAST CBPs, MIC readings at 24 h for the Etest and Sensititre YeastOne resulted in CA levels of 99% and 93% for anidulafungin and 99% and 97% for micafungin. Using revised CLSI CBPs for caspofungin, CA levels were 92% and 99% for Etest and Sensititre YeastOne. The Etest proved an excellent, easy-to-handle alternative method for testing susceptibility to anidulafungin and micafungin. Due to misclassifications, the Etest is less suitable for testing susceptibility to caspofungin (8% of isolates falsely tested resistant). The CA levels of Sensititre YeastOne were 93% and 97% for anidulafungin and micafungin (24 h) by use of EUCAST CBPs and increased to 100% for both antifungals if CLSI CBPs were applied and to 100% and 99% if Sensititre YeastOne epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) were applied. No one echinocandin could be demonstrated to be superior to another in vitro Since resistance was lacking among our Candida isolates, we cannot derive any recommendation from accurate resistance detection by the Etest and Sensititre YeastOne. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Repair of 313-nm induced lesions and photoprotection in yeast Candida guilliermondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Y.; Pospelov, M.E.; Rubin, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    The present communication is concerned with the effects of near-UV radiation (300-380 nm) on yeast Candida guilliermondii. It was found that certain doses of 313 nm irradiation caused inactivation of the yeast which was exhibited in a way different from the lethal action of far-UV radiation. It was also found that the cells inactivated by 313 nm are capable of recovering vitality, if incubated for some time in a non-nutrient medium. The yeast inactivated by far-UV radiation also proved to be capable of recovering, though to a lesser degree. Both 334 nm radiation and non-lethal doses at 313 nm induced the photoprotective effect against far-UV damage. The effect was exhibited if there was a certain time interval (2-4 h) between the exposures to photoprotective light and subsequent far-UV radiation. Within this time interval the extent of photoprotection was dependent on temperature. (author)

  14. Yeast flora of the mouth and skin during and after irradiation for oral and laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.V.; Al-Tikriti, U.; Bramley, P.A. (Sheffield Univ. (UK))

    1981-11-01

    The quantitative and qualitative changes occurring in the fungal flora of 22 patients with oral and 9 with laryngeal carcinoma were studied during and after radiation therapy. Each patient received 6000 rad of externally applied radiation in divided doses for 5 weeks. The fungal flora was isolated from the patients' oral cavity and irradiated skin sites during irradiation and 2 weeks and 4-6 months afterwards. The number and types of fungi increased in both groups of patients after the start of irradiation and persisted at high levels for at least 4-6 months after treatment. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis were the principal yeasts isolated throughout the period studied but seven other species were also identified. All the yeast isolates were sensitive in vitro to miconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin. Any of these antifungal agents should be appropriate for therapy.

  15. Yeast flora of the mouth and skin during and after irradiation for oral and laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.V.; Al-Tikriti, U.; Bramley, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative changes occurring in the fungal flora of 22 patients with oral and 9 with laryngeal carcinoma were studied during and after radiation therapy. Each patient received 6000 rad of externally applied radiation in divided doses for 5 weeks. The fungal flora was isolated from the patients' oral cavity and irradiated skin sites during irradiation and 2 weeks and 4-6 months afterwards. The number and types of fungi increased in both groups of patients after the start of irradiation and persisted at high levels for at least 4-6 months after treatment. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis were the principal yeasts isolated throughout the period studied but seven other species were also identified. All the yeast isolates were sensitive in vitro to miconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin. Any of these antifungal agents should be appropriate for therapy. (author)

  16. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  17. Colonização e espécies de Candida em pacientes submetidos à radioterapia cervicofacial Candida colonization and species in patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Ferreti Bonan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram investigar a colonização por Candida associada à redução do fluxo salivar e identificar as espécies antes, durante e após a radioterapia em 20 pacientes portadores de carcinomas de células escamosas, comparando com dados obtidos em dois grupos-controle, um formado por 24 pacientes saudáveis e o outro, por nove pacientes submetidos à radioterapia por pelo menos um ano. A saliva total de todos os pacientes foi coletada pelo método não-estimulado. As unidades formadoras de colônia de Candida foram quantificadas e identificadas pelos testes bioquímicos, CHROMagar e Api 20 Aux. Os resultados evidenciaram, no grupo de estudo, redução progressiva do fluxo salivar entre a primeira e a terceira coleta (p = 0,001 e aumento da positividade de espécies, com predominância das espécies C. albicans e C. tropicalis, bem como de sua diversificação. Houve correlação significativa entre redução do fluxo salivar e colonização por Candida (p = 0,009. Após 12 meses, o fluxo salivar apresentavase baixo e houve maior incidência das espécies C. albicans e C. tropicalis. Em suma, os pacientes irradiados com doses tumoricidas em campos cervicofaciais apresentaram redução do fluxo salivar, aumento na colonização fúngica e diversificação das espécies durante e no final do tratamento.The aims of this study were to investigate Candida carriage associated with reduced salivary flow and to identify Candida species in 20 patients with squamous cell carcinoma before, during and after head and neck radiotherapy, comparing with 2 control groups, one compounded by 24 healthful patients and the other, by nine patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy one year at least. Whole non stimulated saliva were collected from all patients. Candida unit form colonies were quantified and identified using biochemistry tests, CHROMagar and API 20 Aux. The results showed progressive reduction of salivary flow during

  18. Growth conditions for the biomass yield of two methanol utilizing yeast spp. , Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    More than 580 MeOH utilizing yeasts were isolated from samples collected throughout South Korea. Of these, 2 strains showed good biomass yield and were selected and tentatively identified as Candida melinii and Rhodotorula glutinis glutinis. Experiments on growth conditions for these 2 species were performed. Optimum pH was 2.6 for Candida, 5.2 for Rhodotorula, and the temperature optimum was 28 to 30/sup 0/ for both. Maximum biomass yield was 4.32 g/L for Candida and 4.2l g/L for Rhodotorula. Optimum concentrations were (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.3%, Mg/sup +/ 400 ppM, Fe/sup +/ 10 to 15 ppM for Candida and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.3% Mg/sup +/ 600 ppM Ca/sup +/ 2 ppM for Rhodotorula. Biotin stimulated Candida. Protein contents of the dry cell biomass were 39.3% in Candida and 44.0% in Rhodotorula.

  19. Candida esophagitis: species distribution and risk factors for infection Esofagite por Candida: distribuição da espécie e fatores de risco para a infecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Alexandre Kliemann

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Candida albicans is the main cause of fungal esophagitis, other species such as C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. stellatoidea have also been implicated. Several studies have identified risk factors for C. albicans esophagitis. However, data for non-C. albicans species is still sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of Candida esophagitis in our medical centre over an 18-month period. Additionally, we aimed to investigate predisposing conditions for esophageal candidosis caused by different Candida species. A total of 21,248 upper gastroscopies were performed in Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar between January 2005 and July 2006. The prevalence of Candida esophagitis was 0.74% (n = 158. C. albicans caused the vast majority of infections (96.2%, followed by C. tropicalis (2.5%, C. lusitaniae (0.6% and C. glabrata (0.6%. There were 81 women (51.3% and 77 men (48.7%. No case of mixed infection occurred. Concomitant oral candidosis was documented for 10.8% (n = 17. Most of cases (55.1% involved outpatients. Around one fifth of patients in our cohort had no identifiable risk factors for esophageal candidosis (20.8%. Since nearly all infections were caused by C. albicans we were not able to determine risk factors for esophagitis caused by other Candida species.Embora Candida albicans seja a principal causa de esofagite fúngica, outras espécies como C. tropicalis, C. krusei e C. stellatoidea também têm sido implicadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever espécies causadoras de esofagite fúngica em nosso centro durante um período de 18 meses, além de comparar condições predisponentes para candidose esofágica causadas por diferentes espécies de Candida. De janeiro de 2005 a julho de 2006, 21.248 endoscopias digestivas altas foram realizadas no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa (Porto Alegre, Brasil. A prevalência de esofagite por Candida foi de 0,74% (n = 158. C. albicans foi a causadora da maioria das infec

  20. Leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de sítios anatomicamente distintos de profissionais militares em Cuiabá (MT, Brasil Species of Candida isolated from anatomically distinct sites in military personnel in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Alguns fungos são habitantes do organismo humano e podem vir a causar alguma doença, quando há condições propícias para seu desenvolvimento. Infecções por leveduras são comuns e frequentes em pele e mucosas; contudo, espécies emergentes têm alterado o perfil epidemiológico. A habilidade de colonizar diversos sítios anatômicos tem sido associada à patogenicidade do gênero Candida, quando as condições ambientais são particularmente favoráveis. No caso de climas quentes e úmidos, os atritos sofridos pela pele ou as defesas imunitárias debilitadas podem fazer com que as leveduras deixem de ser comensais para se tornarem organismos patógenos. OBJETIVO: Diagnosticar candidíases em profissionais militares e avaliar a frequência dessas infecções nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: Os materiais clínicos analisados foram semeados em duplicata nos meios Sabouraud Dextrose-ágar (Difco e Mycosel (Difco. Identificaram-se os agentes etiológicos por meio da observação de tubo germinativo, microcultivo e caracteres fisiológicos, assimilação de fontes de carbono (auxanograma e fermentação de fontes de carbono (zimograma. RESULTADOS: De um total de 197 pacientes estudados, 91 (46,2% apresentaram quadros clínicos de candidíases. A região genitocrural foi considerada a mais acometida (47,7%, seguida pelas regiões interdactilares (mãos e pés, 27,8%. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e espécies emergentes, como C. krusei e C. guilliermondii, foram identificadas. CONCLUSÃO: No ambiente de trabalho, o uso de calçados e de uniformes por longos períodos de tempo, associado ao estresse e à sudorese, foi considerado fator predisponente para o desenvolvimento das infecções fúngicas.BACKGROUNDS: Some fungi are natural inhabitants of the human body but may result in disease when conditions are conducive to their development. Yeast infections are common and often occur in the skin and mucous

  1. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age

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    Bharathi Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  2. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

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    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  3. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Li; Ji, Tongzhen; Meng, Lingxin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Xiao; Li, Lin; Lu, Binghuai; Cao, Zheng

    2018-04-20

    Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay. From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8 % when using the molecular method and 15.0 % when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8 %), Candida glabrata (13.5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3.7 %), Candida krusei (2.2 %) and Candida tropicalis (1.1 %). We found that 90.7 % of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6 %). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.

  4. Occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy

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    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT for treatment of head and neck cancer. Fifty patients receiving RT were examined before, during and 30 days after RT. Saliva, mucosa, and biofilm samples were collected and microorganisms were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The most prevalent yeasts in patients submitted to RT were Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas were the most frequently cultivated bacteria. Before RT, targeted bacteria were cultivated from 22.2% of edentulous patients and 16.6% of dentate patients; 30 days after RT, these microorganisms were recovered from 77.8% edentulous and 46.8% dentate patients. By PCR, these microorganisms were detected from all edentulous patients, 78.1% of dentate patients. The presence of Gram-negative enteric roads and fungi was particularly frequent in patients presenting mucositis level III or IV. Modifications in the oral environment due to RT treatment seem to facilitate the colonization of oral cavity by members of family Enterobacteriaceae, genera Enterococcus and Candida.

  5. Enhancement of the far-UV lethality in yeast Candida guilliermondii by near-UV post-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Y.; Pospelov, M.E.; Rubin, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    In experiments with the non-photoreactivable yeast Candida guilliermondii, radiations at 313, 334 and 365 nm, having no effect on untreated cell populations, produced an 'enhancing' effect on the lethality of 254 nm-pretreated cells. Wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum did not exhibit a similar effect. (author)

  6. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  7. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

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    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  8. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

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    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  9. [Evaluation of common commercial systems for the identification of yeast isolates in microbiology laboratories: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Uludağ Altun, Hatice; Karatuna, Onur; Hazırolan, Gülşen; Aksu, Neriman; Adiloğlu, Ali; Akyar, Işın

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of yeast isolates have become important in recent years for not only antifungal susceptibility testing due to the species-specific clinical resistance breakpoints but also early initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. In clinical microbiology laboratories species identification of yeasts is often performed with several commercial systems based on biochemical properties and rarely according to the physiological and morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare the two common commercial systems, VITEK 2 YST ID Card (Vitek; bioMérieux, France) and API 20C AUX (API; bioMérieux, France) with conventional mycological methods. A total of 473 clinical yeast strains isolated from clinical specimens in different university and training/research hospitals and identified by Vitek system were included in the study. The isolates were re-identified with API and conventional methods including morphological identification in the Mycology Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Turkey. Candida dubliniensis MYA 583, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32268 were used as quality control strains and those standard strains were studied consecutively 10 days with both of the methods. The results of identification by Vitek and API were compared with the results of conventional methods for those 473 yeast isolates [6 genus (Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastoshizomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon), 17 species (5 common and 12 rarely isolated)]. The performances of the systems were better (Vitek: 95%; API: 96%) for the commonly detected species (C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis and C.krusei) than those for rarely detected species (Vitek: 78.4%; API: 71.6%) (p= 0.155). Misidentification or unidentification were mostly detected for C.parapsilosis (Vitek: 6/87; API: 7/87) and C.glabrata (Vitek: 9/104; API

  10. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida isolates from vaginitis patients attending STD Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital

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    G Sasikala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Candidiasis is the most common vaginal infection affecting approximately 50–72% of women. Rapid identification of yeast isolates to species level is essential to optimize antifungal treatment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of various Candida species among vaginal candidiasis and to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 471 women who were clinically diagnosed to have vaginal candidiasis were included in the study. Out of 471 vaginitis patients, 91 were positive for Candida species. All the isolates were speciated comprising five species – C. albicans 42 (46.1%, C. krusei 5 (5.5%, C. glabrata 40 (43.9%, C. tropicalis 3 (3.3%, and C. gullermondi 1 (1.1%. Antifungal susceptibility testing result of all Candida isolates are 100% susceptible to amphotericin B, nystatin, flucytosine, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole. C. krusei isolates are showing 100% resistance to fluconazole. Discussion: In the present study, C. albicans is most common species 46.1% followed by C. glabarata. C. albicans adhere to vaginal, epithelial cells in significantly higher number than other Candida species. This could explain relative higher frequency of C. albicans in vaginal candidiasis. Conclusion: Presumptive identification followed by confirmation of Candida species helps to initiate early appropriate antifungal treatment, thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality.

  11. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. An in vitro study.

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    Naiana Braga da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the antifungal potential of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC for Candida albicans (ATCC 90029, Candida albicans (CBS 562, Candida tropicalis (ATCC 705 and Candida tropicalis strains (CBS 94, as well as to analyze the possible mechanism of action of the oil through the addition of sorbitol to the culture medium. Methods. For the MIC determination, inocula were previously adjusted through spectrophotometry and 100μL were added to the wells of plates already containing the culture medium and 100μL of the serial dilutions of the oil, incubating them in aerobiosis for 24 hours, with subsequent staining by 1% TCT. For the MFC, 50μL of the supernatant from the MIC assay wells were dripped onto Petri dishes and incubated in aerobiosis for 24 hours. Tests were performed in triplicate and data analysed by descriptive statistics. Results. It was determined that the MIC for C. albicans was 125 μg/mL while MIC for C. tropicalis was 250 μg/mL, with the essential oil presenting fungicidal effect for both analyzed yeasts. Conclusion. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus does not act at the cellular wall level and demonstrated an antimicrobial effect on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, therefore acting as a fungicide.

  12. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

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    I. J. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6% and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%, followed by Candida krusei (25.0%; and Candida tropicalis (4.2%. The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL, followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL, and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL.Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.

  13. Isolation and identification of mold and yeast in medombae, a rice wine starter culture from Kompong Cham Province, Cambodia

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    Chay, C.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medombae is a dried starter culture used for traditional rice wine processing in Cambodia. However, studies on the role of mold and yeast present and their efficacy for rice wine fermentation are still limited. Cultural and morphological tests revealed that the isolated representative mold strains were isolated based on the method of identification used as Mucor spp and Rhizopus oryzae. On the other hand, the biochemical properties of the first yeast isolate using the Vitek 2 identification system and YST Card identification suggests its identity as Candida tropicalis. The second yeast strain examined for its morphological and cultural characteristic using agar slide technique, and its protein profile which was compared to the reference and sample protein masses using Biomerieux Vitek MS (MALD-TOF showed the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biochemical characteristics and cellular characteristics of the third yeast isolate as described by Lodder (1970 and Kreger-Van Rij (1984 confirmed its identity as Saccharomycopsis spp. The DNA test of identification of the isolates should be conducted to further confirm the identity of the isolates.

  14. Stress tolerance and biocontrol performance of the yeast antagonist, Candida diversa, change with morphology transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangkun; Chi, Mengshan; Chen, Huizhen; Sui, Yuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jia

    2016-02-01

    As an eco-friendly management method, biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing antagonistic yeasts, is a research topic receiving considerable attention. Detailed knowledge on the biology of yeast antagonists is crucial when considering their potential application and development as biocontrol products. Changes in the growth form, such as single-cell to pseudohyphae, have been associated with the mode of action in postharvest biocontrol yeasts. In this study, the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa, reversibly shifted from a single-cell morphology on yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) medium with 2 % agar to a pseudohyphal morphology on YPD with 0.3 % agar. The tolerance of the pseudohyphal form to heat and oxidative stresses, as well as the biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea on apple and kiwifruit stored at 25 and 4 °C, was significantly higher as compared to the single-cell form. This study provides new information on the ability of C. diversa to change its morphology and the impact of the morphology shift on stress tolerance and biocontrol performance.

  15. Yeasts from Scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber): A focus on monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of Candida famata and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Maia Junior, José Erisvaldo; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify yeasts from the gastrointestinal tract of scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and from plant material collected from the environment where they live. Then, the isolates phenotypically identified as Candida famata were submitted to molecular identification of their closely related species and evaluated for their antifungal susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. Cloacal swabs from 20 scarlet ibises kept in captivity at Mangal das Garças Park (Brazil), pooled stool samples (n = 20) and samples of trunks and hollow of trees (n = 20) obtained from their enclosures were collected. The samples were seeded on Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The 48 recovered isolates were phenotypically identified as 15 Candida famata, 13 Candida catenulata, 2 Candida intermedia, 1 Candida lusitaniae, 2 Candida guilliermondii, 1 Candida kefyr, 1 Candida amapae, 1 Candida krusei, 8 Trichosporon spp., and 4 Rhodotorula spp. The C. famata isolates were further identified as 3 C. famata, 8 Debaryomyces nepalensis, and 4 C. palmioleophila. All C. famata and C. palmioleophila were susceptible to caspofungin and itraconazole, while one D. nepalensis was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. This same isolate and another D. nepalensis had lower amphotericin B susceptibility. The azole resistant strain had an increased efflux of rhodamine 6G and an alteration in the membrane sterol content, demonstrating multifactorial resistance mechanism. Finally, this research shows that scarlet ibises and their environment harbor C. famata and closely related species, including antifungal resistant isolates, emphasizing the need of monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of these yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida . Methods  By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida ( Candida albicans ; Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results  There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non- Candida albicans ( Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant ( p  Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  17. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

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    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants

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    Aqel Kamal F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants. Methods Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics outpatient clinic or hospitalized at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan, were included in this study. Culture swabs were collected from oral and rectal sites and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All Candida isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system, and further investigated for specific virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility MIC using E-test. Genotyping of C. albicans isolates was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis method. Results A total of 61/492 (12.4% infants were colonized with Candida species by either their oral/rectal sites or both. Rectal colonization was significantly more detected than oral colonization (64.6% verses 35.4%, particularly among hospitalized infants aged more than one month. The pattern and rates of colonization were as follows: C. albicans was the commonest species isolated from both sites and accounted for 67.1% of all isolates, followed by C.kefyr (11.4%, each C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (8.9% and C. parapsilosis (3.8%. A various rates of Candida isolates proved to secrete putative virulence factors in vitro; asparatyl proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. C. albicans were associated significantly (P Candida species. All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, whereas 97% of Candida species isolates were susceptible to fluconazole using E-test. The genetic similarity of 53 C. albicans isolates as demonstrated by dendrogram

  19. Isolation of pathogenic yeasts in the air from hospital environments in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil

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    Rossana A Cordeiro

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of environmental surveillance of yeasts in specific areas of two tertiary local hospitals. From March 2007 to February 2008, samples from the air of two public hospitals were collected on a monthly basis. The samples were collected through passive sedimentation method (day and night exposure of Petri dishes. A total of 240 air samples from 10 hospital environments were analyzed. These environments presented similar contamination levels, from which 80 fungi isolates were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (n = 34, Rhodotorula spp. (19, Trichosporon asahii (11, C. tropicalis (8, C. albicans (4, C. glabrata (1, C. guilliermondii (1, C. krusei (1 and Saccharomyces spp. (1. Regarding the presence of yeasts and climatic conditions, there were 40 strains (50% in semi-critical areas (natural ventilation and critical areas (air conditioned. Considering the presence of microorganisms with pathogenic potential, environmental monitoring is necessary to prevent possible hospital infections.

  20. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation.

  1. Comparison of Enzymatic Method Rapid Yeast Plus System with RFLP-PCR for Identification of Isolated Yeast from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Moallaei; Mirhendi, Seied Hossein; Brandão, João; Mirdashti, Reza; Rosado, Laura

    2011-09-01

    To compare two identification methods, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR analysis and enzymatic method Rapid TM Yeast Plus System to identify different species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Vaginal discharges of women who had attended the gynecology outpatient clinic of Mobini Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran were collected using cotton swabs and were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Isolated yeasts were identified by germ-tube testing and Rapid TM Yeast Plus System (Remel USA). For molecular identification, the isolated DNA was amplified with ITS1 and ITS4 universal primers and PCR products digested with the enzyme HpaІІ followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Epidemiological and clinical features of women with respect to identified species were also evaluated. Out of 231 subjects enrolled, 62 VVC cases were detected. The isolated species were identified as follows: Candida albicans, 24 (38.7%), C. glabrata, 15 (24.2%), C. kefyr, 13 (21.0%) C. krusei, 9 (14.5%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1 (1.6%) by RFLP-PCR method; whereas findings by Rapid TM Yeast Plus System were C. albicans, 24 (38.7%), C. glabrata, 5 (8%), C. kefyr, 11 (17.7%) C. krusei, 2 (3.2%), S. cerevisiae, 9 (14.5%), and C. tropicalis, 6 (9.6%) as well as other nonpathogenic yeasts, 4 (6.9%). Statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference in identification of C. albicans by the two methods; although, in this study, it was not true about other species of yeasts. A correlation between clinical and laboratory findings is important as it enables us to administer an appropriate treatment on time.

  2. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Lim, Sung H; Wilson, Deborah A; SalasVargas, Ana Victoria; Churi, Yair S; Rhodes, Paul A; Mazzone, Peter J; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array (CSA) has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific "fingerprint" of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture. Culture trials of whole blood inoculated with a panel of clinically important pathogenic yeasts at four different microorganism loads were performed. Cultures were done in both standard BacT/Alert and CSA-embedded bottles, after adding 10 mL of spiked blood to each bottle. Color changes in the CSA were captured as images by an optical scanner at defined time intervals. The captured images were analyzed to identify the yeast species. Time to detection by the CSA was compared to that in the BacT/Alert system. One hundred sixty-two yeast culture trials were performed, including strains of several species of Candida (Ca. albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. parapsilosis, and Ca. tropicalis), Clavispora (synonym Candida) lusitaniae, Pichia kudriavzevii (synonym Candida krusei) and Cryptococcus neoformans, at loads of 8.2 × 105, 8.3 × 103, 8.5 × 101, and 1.7 CFU/mL. In addition, 8 negative trials (no yeast) were conducted. All negative trials were correctly identified as negative, and all positive trials were detected. Colorimetric responses were species-specific and did not vary by inoculum load over the 500000-fold range of loads tested, allowing for accurate species-level identification. The mean sensitivity for species-level identification by CSA was 74% at detection, and increased with time, reaching almost 95% at 4 hours after detection. At an inoculum load of 1.7 CFU/mL, mean time to detection with the CSA was 6.8 hours (17%) less than with the BacT/Alert platform. The CSA

  3. Subcellular location of the enzymes of purine breakdown in the yeast Candida famata grown on uric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Large, Peter J.; Waterham, Hans R.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1990-01-01

    The subcellular location of the enzymes of purine breakdown in the yeast Candida famata, which grows on uric acid as sole carbon and nitrogen source, has been examined by subcellular fractionation methods. Uricase was confirmed as being peroxisomal, but the other three enzymes, allantoinase,

  4. Determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns among the clinical isolates of Candida species

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    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida species are opportunistic yeasts that cause infections ranging from simple dermatosis to potentially life-threatening fungemia. The emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs has been increased in the past two decades. Aim: the present study we determined to find out the susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Candida species against four antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of the yeasts was done in accordance with the proposed guidelines for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts based on the CLSI document M44-A. Results: A total of 206 yeast isolates were assessed. Among the evaluated Candida species, the highest rates of resistance to ketoconazole were seen in Candida glabrata (16.6% and Candida albicans (3.2%. Susceptibility and intermediate response to fluconazole were seen in 96.6% and 3.4% of the Candida isolates, respectively. A total of 19 (9.2% yeast isolates showed petite phenomenon including 11 C. glabrata, 3 C. albicans, 2 Candida dubliniensis and one isolate of each Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: The high number of petite mutation in the isolated yeasts should be seriously considered since it may be one of the reasons of antifungal treatment failure.

  5. [The evaluation of relationship between the origin of Candida sp. and the ability of biofilm formation on surface of different biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Prazyńska, Małgorzata; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The increase of fungal infections in recent years is connected with the progress in medicine. The vast usage of biomaterials is an inseparable element of contemporary medicine but it also leads to development of infections. The ability to produce biofilm by those yeasts plays an important role in the pathogenesis of candidiasis. Candida biofilm can form on the surface of plastic materials (silicon, polychloride vinyl, polymethacrylate methyl) used to catheters, drains and dentures production that is why it is a serious problem in case of fungal infections in patients who during the diagnosis and treatment have contact with biomaterials. The aim of the study was the assessment of ability to form biofilm on the surface of different biomaterials (latex silicon, polychloride vinyl, polystyrene, nylon and polymethacrylate methyl). 150 strains of Candida sp. were examined: 85 (56.7%) C. albicans and 65 (43.3%) C. non-albicans. The examined yeasts produced biofilm on the surface of polymethacrylate methyl in 39.3%, latex silicone in 38.7%, polychloride vinyl in 38.0%, polystyrene in 35.3% and nylon in 30.7%. Biofilm was most frequently produced by the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. lusitaniae species.

  6. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Thiourea Derivatives and Their Nickel and Copper Complexes

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    Cevdet Akbay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five thiourea derivative ligands and their Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes have been synthesized. The compounds were screened for their in vitro anti-bacterial activity using Gram-positive bacteria (two different standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria (Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter aerogenes and in vitro anti-yeast activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all ligands and their complexes. In vitro anti-yeast activity of both ligands and their metal complexes is greater than their in vitro anti-bacterial activity. The effect of the structure of the investigated compounds on the antimicrobial activity is discussed.

  8. Comparative Evolution of Morphological Regulatory Functions in Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Erika; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali; Childers, Delma S.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transitions play an important role in virulence and virulence-related processes in a wide variety of pathogenic fungi, including the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. While environmental signals, transcriptional regulators, and target genes associated with C. albicans morphogenesis are well-characterized, considerably little is known about morphological regulatory mechanisms and the extent to which they are evolutionarily conserved in less pathogenic and less filamentous non-albicans Candida species (NACS). We have identified specific optimal filament-inducing conditions for three NACS (C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii), which are very limited, suggesting that these species may be adapted for niche-specific filamentation in the host. Only a subset of evolutionarily conserved C. albicans filament-specific target genes were induced upon filamentation in C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii. One of the genes showing conserved expression was UME6, a key filament-specific regulator of C. albicans hyphal development. Constitutive high-level expression of UME6 was sufficient to drive increased filamentation as well as biofilm formation and partly restore conserved filament-specific gene expression in both C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, suggesting that evolutionary differences in filamentation ability among pathogenic Candida species may be partially attributed to alterations in the expression level of a conserved filamentous growth machinery. In contrast to UME6, NRG1, an important repressor of C. albicans filamentation, showed only a partly conserved role in controlling NACS filamentation. Overall, our results suggest that C. albicans morphological regulatory functions are partially conserved in NACS and have evolved to respond to more specific sets of host environmental cues. PMID:23913541

  9. [Yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Tamási, Béla; Mihalik, Noémi; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-01-04

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common mycosis, however, the available information about antifungal susceptibilities of these yeasts is limited. To compare the gold standard fungal culture with a new molecular identification method and report the incidence of yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa. The authors studied 370 yeasts isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis and identified them by phenotypic and molecular methods. The most common species was Candida albicans (85%), followed by Candida glabrata, and other Candida species. At present there are no recommendations for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of pathogenic fungal species occurring in vulvovaginal candidiasis and the natural antifungal resistance of the different species is known only. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight identification can be used to differentiate the fluconazole resistant Candida dubliniensis and the sensitive Candida albicans strains.

  10. The crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease 1 from Candida parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostál, Ji& #345; í; Brynda, Ji& #345; í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Sieglová, Irena; Pichová, Iva; & #344; ezá& #269; ová, Pavlína; (ASCR-ICP)

    2010-09-01

    Opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida cause infections representing a major threat to long-term survival of immunocompromised patients. Virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes and secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) are therefore studied as potential virulence factors and possible targets for therapeutic drug design. Candida parapsilosis is less invasive than C. albicans, however, it is one of the leading causative agents of yeast infections. We report three-dimensional crystal structure of Sapp1p from C. parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A, the classical inhibitor of aspartic proteases. The structure of Sapp1p was determined from protein isolated from its natural source and represents the first structure of Sap from C. parapsilosis. Overall fold and topology of Sapp1p is very similar to the archetypic fold of monomeric aspartic protease family and known structures of Sap isoenzymes from C. albicans and Sapt1p from C. tropicalis. Structural comparison revealed noticeable differences in the structure of loops surrounding the active site. This resulted in differential character, shape, and size of the substrate binding site explaining divergent substrate specificities and inhibitor affinities. Determination of structures of Sap isoenzymes from various species might contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors.

  11. Xylitol production from waste xylose mother liquor containing miscellaneous sugars and inhibitors: one-pot biotransformation by Candida tropicalis and recombinant Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengwei; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Lebin; An, Jin; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2016-05-16

    The process of industrial xylitol production is a massive source of organic pollutants, such as waste xylose mother liquor (WXML), a viscous reddish-brown liquid. Currently, WXML is difficult to reuse due to its miscellaneous low-cost sugars, high content of inhibitors and complex composition. WXML, as an organic pollutant of hemicellulosic hydrolysates, accumulates and has become an issue of industrial concern in China. Previous studies have focused only on the catalysis of xylose in the hydrolysates into xylitol using one strain, without considering the removal of other miscellaneous sugars, thus creating an obstacle to subsequent large-scale purification. In the present study, we aimed to develop a simple one-pot biotransformation to produce high-purity xylitol from WXML to improve its economic value. In the present study, we developed a procedure to produce xylitol from WXML, which combines detoxification, biotransformation and removal of by-product sugars (purification) in one bioreactor using two complementary strains, Candida tropicalis X828 and Bacillus subtilis Bs12. At the first stage of micro-aerobic biotransformation, the yeast cells were allowed to grow and metabolized glucose and the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and converted xylose into xylitol. At the second stage of aerobic biotransformation, B. subtilis Bs12 was activated and depleted the by-product sugars. The one-pot process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 5, 150 L and 30 m(3) bioreactors. Approximately 95 g/L of pure xylitol could be obtained from the medium containing 400 g/L of WXML at a yield of 0.75 g/g xylose consumed, and the by-product sugars glucose, L-arabinose and galactose were depleted simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that the one-pot procedure is a viable option for the industrial application of WXML to produce value-added chemicals. The integration of complementary strains in the biotransformation of hemicellulosic hydrolysates is

  12. [Biomass composition of thermotolerant yeasts of the genus Candida under elevated cultivation temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakova, T I; Dediukhina, E G; Eroshin, V K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of growth temperature on the content of nucleic acids, the content and composition of protein, and the pool of free amino acids and lipids was studied under the conditions of chemostat cultivation of yeast strains at constant flow rates and pO2. The pool of free amino acids in all of the strains decreased with an increase in the temperature of growth. Changes in the content and composition of other cellular components depending on temperature were determined by individual characteristics of the strains. A linear relationship between the content of biomass components and the temperature of growth was found only in Candida scottii. The temperature of yeast cultivation may be used as a factor regulating the pool of free intracellular amino acids and the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  13. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  14. Efeito antifúngico de tinturas de própolis e romã sobre espécies de Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de produtos naturais na odontologia tem se mostrado como uma fonte alternativa no combate às patologias orais, incluindo as infecções fúngicas, causadas, geralmente, por Candida spp. Avaliar a ação antifúngica de tinturas de própolis Apis milifera e romã Punica granatum sobre Candida albicans (ATCC 76618, Candida krusei (ATCC 6538 e Candida tropicalis (ATCC 13803. A ação antifúngica das tinturas foi avaliada pelo método da Concentração Inibitória Mínima em meio de cultura sólido Ágar Saburaud Dextrose (Difco®. Foram confeccionados poços, com 6 mm de diâmetro, destinados a inserção de 50 µL das tinturas. Foram avaliadas seis concentrações seriadas das tinturas, sendo a concentração inicial para a tintura de própolis 200 mg/mL e 300 mg/mL a concentração inicial para a tintura de romã. Posteriormente, as placas de Petri foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica por 48 h a 37 ºC. A análise dos dados para a Concentração Inibitória Mínima foi feita através da mensuração dos halos de inibição, sendo considerados quando iguais ou superiores a 10 mm de diâmetro. Para a tintura de romã observou-se que as Concentração Inibitória Mínima sobre Candida albicans, Candida krusei e Candida tropicalis foram 9,37 mg/mL, 9,37 mg/mL e 18,75 mg/mL, respectivamente. Em relação à tintura da própolis, constatou-se que apenas em sua forma pura apresentou ação antifúngica sobre Candida krusei e Candida tropicalis, entretanto a mesma ação não foi observada sobre Candida albicans. As tinturas avaliadas apresentam ação antifúngica sobre as cepas avaliadas, exceto a tintura da própolis sobre Candida albicans.

  15. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  16. Enhanced phytate dephosphorylation by using Candida melibiosica yeast-based biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Georgiev, Danail; Mitov, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We report for the first time that Candida melibiosica expresses enhanced phytase activity when grown under biofuel cell polarization in a nutrient-poor medium, containing only fructose as a carbohydrate source. Phytase activity during the cultivation under polarization reached up to 25 U per g dry biomass, exceeding with 20 ± 3 % those of the control. A participation of the enzyme in the adaptation processes to the stress conditions is proposed. In addition, steady-state electrical outputs were achieved during biofuel cell operation at continuous polarization under constant load. The obtained results show that C. melibiosica yeast-based biofuel cell could be used for simultaneous electricity generation and phytate bioremediation.

  17. Anti-Candida activity assessment of Pelargonium graveolens oil free and nanoemulsion in biofilm formation in hospital medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Janice Luehring; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Gündel, André; Gomes, Patrícia; Steppe, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms. Geranium oil (GO) has proven antimicrobial activity. Because of this, the aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions containing this oil (NEG) and evaluate its activity after the biofilm formation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei in hospital medical supplies. For quantification of the biofilm, crystal violet, total protein, and ATP-bioluminescence assays were used. The results revealed that GO and NEG showed lower MIC for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The biofilms formed by different species of Candida on the surfaces of polyethylene and polyurethane were quantified. GO and NEG significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms in all species tested on the surfaces of polyethylene. However, NEG antibiofilm has had better activity than GO for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, according to the surface potential analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis of the biofilm formation on the polyethylene surface by ATP-bioluminescence and CFU showed similar results. In both methods the formation of biofilm in the catheter occurred in greater quantity for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. GO did not significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms only in C. krusei, although NEG significantly increased this activity GO in all species tested when compared to the control training biofilm. The following study shows that the development of NEG may become an effective

  18. Oral yeast carriage in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A N; Brailsford, S; Broadley, K; Beighton, D

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral yeast carriage amongst patients with advanced cancer. Oral rinse samples were obtained from 120 subjects. Yeasts were isolated using Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida, and were identified using a combination of the API 20 C AUX yeast identification system, species-specific PCR and 26S rDNA gene sequencing. Oral yeast carriage was present in 66% of subjects. The frequency of isolation of individual species was: Candida albicans, 46%; Candida glabrata, 18%; Candida dubliniensis, 5%; others, yeast carriage was associated with denture wearing (P = 0.006), and low stimulated whole salivary flow rate (P = 0.009). Identification of these risk factors offers new strategies for the prevention of oral candidosis in this group of patients.

  19. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Harun, Wan Himratul Aznita; Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 10(6) cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/mL for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1 mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product.

  20. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  1. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  2. Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-positive patients at Fortaleza, Ceará Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isolado da cavidade oral de pacientes HIV-positivos em Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans and other species are usually involved in opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunological deficiency syndrome (AIDS. The virulence mechanisms by which this yeast expresses its pathogenicity include adherence patterns, ability to form pseudomycelia and production of extracellular enzymes, among others. The objective of this research was to verify the frequency of Candida and the production of proteinase and phospholipase in 52 strains of Candida albicans from the oral cavity of patients infected by HIV treated at Hospital São José, AIDS reference and training center in Fortaleza, Ceará. Samples were collected of patients, with or without oral lesions characteristic of candidosis. From 100 patients, 80% presented positivity for Candida: 65% (52 were identified as C. albicans, 27.5% (22 as C. tropicalis, 2.5% (2 as C. glabrata, 2.5% (2 as C. krusei and 2.5% (2 as C. guilliermondii. Among the strains of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavity, proteinase and phospholipase were detected in 69.2% and 73%, respectively. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, with intermediate expression of proteinase and phospholipase.Candida albicans e outras espécies são usualmente envolvidas em infecções de pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. Os mecanismos de virulência pelos quais a levedura expressa sua patogenicidade incluem padrões de aderência, habilidade por formar pseudomicélio, produção de enzimas extracelulares e outros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a freqüência de Candida e a produção de proteinase e fosfolipase em 52 cepas de Candida albicans da cavidade oral de pacientes infectados pelo HIV atendidos no Hospital São José, hospital de referência e centro de treinamento em AIDS em Fortaleza, Ceará. Neste trabalho foram coletadas amostras de pacientes com ou sem lesões características de candidose. Dos cem pacientes 80

  3. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

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    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  4. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Simple method for screening .I.Candida./I. species isolates for the presence of secreted proteinases: a tool for the prediction of successful inhibitory treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jiří; Hamal, P.; Pavlíčková, Libuše; Souček, Milan; Ruml, T.; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2003), s. 712-716 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0831; GA MZd NI6485; GA MZd NI6190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Candida albicans * Candida tropicalis * Candida parapsilosis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.489, year: 2003

  6. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-12-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  7. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal activity of the extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2005-01-01

    Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck (Piperaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained from the leaves of P. regnellii were investigated for their antifungal activities against the yeasts Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. The EtOAc extract presented a significant activity against Candida albicans with MIC at 125 μg mL -1 , and a moderate activity against both C. krusei and C. parapsilosis with MIC at 500 μg mL -1 . Candida tropicalis was not inhibited by this extract at concentrations as high as 1000 μg mL -1 . Based on these findings, the EtOAc extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane and CHCl 3 fractions showed varied levels of antifungal activity against all test yeasts. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compounds eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3 and conocarpan. The structure of the compounds was based on spectral data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS). Conocarpan was the only active compound on the yeasts. The antifungal property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. (author)

  9. Emerging azole resistance among Candida albicans from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequently isolated yeasts in clinical laboratories and accounts for up to 80 % of the yeasts recovered from sites of infection. The study was set out to determine antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) to ...

  10. Molecular identification and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from patients with onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.

  11. Comparative kinetic characterization of catalases from Candida boidinii yeast and bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelitza, D I; Eryomin, A N; Artzukevich, I M; Chernikevich, I P

    1997-04-01

    Catalase with molecular weight 230 +/- kD was isolated and purified from methylotrophic yeasts Candida boidinii by ion-exchange chromatography. The kinetic characteristics of yeast and bovine liver catalases were compared in the reaction of H2O2 decomposition using a wide range of H2O2 concentrations (up to 0.12 M) and PH (2-10). First order rates constants (k, sec-1) were determined for both enzymes from semi-logarithmic anamorphoses of kinetic curves of H2O2 utilization. Anamorphoses of complete kinetic curves as a function of 1/ln([H2O2]0/[H2O2]t) versus 1/t were used for calculation of the effective rate constants of catalase inactivation during the reaction (k(in), sec-1) and the rate constants of interaction of catalase complex I with the second molecule of H2O2 (k2, M-1.sec-1). The effects of initial catalase concentrations, H2O2, and pH on k, k2, and k(in) were similar for both enzymes. Catalytic constant, k2, and the efficacy expressed as a ratio kcat/Km were 1.87-, 1.45-, and 1.3-fold, respectively, higher for bovine catalase than that of yeast catalase. Operational stability of yeast catalase is 3.5-fold higher than the stability of bovine catalase and much higher during cyclic decomposition of 50 mM H2O2. Enhanced operational stability and inexpensive source of its preparation open prospects for practical applications of yeast catalase for co-immobilization with superoxide dismutase on non-toxic carriers.

  12. Probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) modulates adhesive properties of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Zorica; Zupan, Jure; Matos, Tadeja; Raspor, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy together with broad-spectrum antimycotic therapy, the frequency of mucosal and systemic infections caused by the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata has increased in the past decades. Due to the resistance of C. glabrata to existing azole drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) on C. glabrata adhesion at different temperatures, pH values, and in the presence of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. We also studied the adhesion of C. glabrata co-culture with Candida krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two bacterial probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei The method used to assess adhesion was crystal violet staining. Our results showed that despite the nonadhesiveness of S. boulardii cells, this probiotic significantly affected the adherence ability of C. glabrata This effect was highly dependent on C. glabrata strain and was either antagonistic or synergistic. Regarding the extrinsic factors, temperature did not indicate any significant influence on this S. boulardii modulatory effect, while at high pH and at increased concentrations of antimycotics, S. boulardii did not manage to repress the adhesion of C. glabrata strains. The experiments of C. glabrata co-cultures with other species showed that the adhesiveness of two separate cultures could not be used to predict the adhesiveness of their co-culture. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin K Shrestha

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array (CSA has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific "fingerprint" of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture.Culture trials of whole blood inoculated with a panel of clinically important pathogenic yeasts at four different microorganism loads were performed. Cultures were done in both standard BacT/Alert and CSA-embedded bottles, after adding 10 mL of spiked blood to each bottle. Color changes in the CSA were captured as images by an optical scanner at defined time intervals. The captured images were analyzed to identify the yeast species. Time to detection by the CSA was compared to that in the BacT/Alert system.One hundred sixty-two yeast culture trials were performed, including strains of several species of Candida (Ca. albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. parapsilosis, and Ca. tropicalis, Clavispora (synonym Candida lusitaniae, Pichia kudriavzevii (synonym Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans, at loads of 8.2 × 105, 8.3 × 103, 8.5 × 101, and 1.7 CFU/mL. In addition, 8 negative trials (no yeast were conducted. All negative trials were correctly identified as negative, and all positive trials were detected. Colorimetric responses were species-specific and did not vary by inoculum load over the 500000-fold range of loads tested, allowing for accurate species-level identification. The mean sensitivity for species-level identification by CSA was 74% at detection, and increased with time, reaching almost 95% at 4 hours after detection. At an inoculum load of 1.7 CFU/mL, mean time to detection with the CSA was 6.8 hours (17% less than with the BacT/Alert platform

  14. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as

  15. Presence of Different Candida Species at Denture Wearers With Type 2 Diabetes and Clinically Healthy Oral Mucosa-Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja Matić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of different Candida spp. at diabetics and nondiabetics wearing dentures without clinical signs of Denture Stomatitis (DS and to study if some local and systematic factors are confounders for harboring Candida at these subjects. Material and Methods: Total of 60 subjects wearing partial or complete upper acrylic denture having at least half of palatal mucosa covered by denture were selected and stratified into three experimental groups: systematically health subjects; patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes (T2D and good glycoregulation; and T2D subjects with poorly regulated blood sugar level. Cotton swab samples were obtained from each patient from hard palate mucosa and denture surface. Swab cultures were made on Sabouraud dextrose agar and ChromAgar Media for distinciton of various Candida spp. Density growth was also measured. Results: Frequency of Candida spp. findings were similar between groups. At healthy subjects, only C.albicans was detected. At diabetics, C.albicans was the most common isolated species, followed by C.glabrata and C.tropicalis. Negative finding of yeasts on palatal mucosa, but positive on denture surface were detected at all groups, with the highest frequency (33.4% at diabetics with poor glycoregulation. Denture surface was heavier colonized than hard palate mucosa. Duration of diabetes in years were only independent predictors for harboring Candida spp. at denture surface (Exp B=1.186, CI=1.047-1.344, p=0.007. Conclusions: Prosthesis of denture wearers without DS may serve as reservoir of Candida spp. Presence of more pathogenic and resistant non-albicans species are related to diabetics, even without clinical signs of DS.

  16. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Influence of culture conditions for clinically isolated non-albicans Candida biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Ma, Su; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-11-01

    Non-albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. Moreover, they are adept at forming biofilms. This study analyzed biofilm formation of clinically isolated non-albicans Candida, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis under the influence of different growth media (RPMI 1640, YPD and BHI) and several culture variables (inoculum concentration, incubation period and feeding conditions). The results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced non-albicans Candida species biofilm formation. YPD and BHI resulted in larger amount of biofilm formation with higher metabolic activity of biofilms. Furthermore, the growth media seems to have varying effects on adhesion and biofilm development. Growth conditions may also influence biofilm formation, which was enhanced when starting the culture with a larger inoculum, longer incubation period and using a fed-batch system. Therefore, the potential influences of external environmental factors should be considered when studying the non-albicans Candida biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Evaluation of mass spectrometry for the identification of clinically interesting yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Fátima; García-Agudo, Lidia; Guerrero, Inmaculada; Marín, Pilar; García-Tapia, Ana; García-Martos, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Identification of yeasts is based on morphological, biochemical and nutritional characteristics, and using molecular methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, a new method for the identification of microorganisms, has demonstrated to be very useful. The aim of this study is to evaluate this new method in the identification of yeasts. A total of 600 strains of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens belonging to 9 genera and 43 species were tested. Identification was made by sequencing of the ITS regions of ribosomal DNA, assimilation of carbon compounds (ID 32C), and mass spectrometry on a Microflex spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics GmbH, Germany). A total of 569 strains (94.8%) were identified to species level by ID 32C, and 580 (96.7%) by MALDI-TOF. Concordance between both methods was observed for 553 strains (92.2%), with 100% in clinically relevant species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and almost 100% in C. krusei. MALDI-TOF identified species requiring molecular methods: Candida dubliniensis, C. nivariensis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Some irregularities were observed in the identification of arthroconidia yeast and basidiomycetes. MALDI-TOF is a rapid, effective and economic method, which enables the identification of most clinically important yeasts and the differentiation of closely related species. It would be desirable to include more species in its database to expand its performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1 in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Himratul Aznita Wan Harun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1×106 cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C. Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/mL for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1 mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product.

  20. Optimization of Culture Medium Enhances Viable Biomass Production and Biocontrol Efficacy of the Antagonistic Yeast, Candida diversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viable biomass production is a key determinant of suitability of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents. This study investigated the effects of three metal ions (magnesium, ferrous, and zinc on biomass production and viability of the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa. Using response surface methodology to optimize medium components, a maximum biomass was obtained, when the collective Mg2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ concentrations were adjusted in a minimal mineral (MM medium. Compared with the unmodified MM, and three ion-deficient MM media, yeast cells cultured in the three ion-modified MM medium exhibited a lower level of cellular oxidative damage, and a higher level of antioxidant enzyme activity. A biocontrol assay indicated that C. diversa grown in the ion-modified MM exhibited the greatest level of control of gray mold on apple fruit. These results provide new information on culture medium optimization to grow yeast antagonists in order to improve biomass production and biocontrol efficacy.

  1. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Identification of Candida albicans Directly from Blood Culture Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Susan; Procop, Gary W.; Haase, Gerhard; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine; Kurtzman, Cletus; Oliveira, Kenneth; Von Oy, Sabina; Hyldig-Nielsen, Jens J.; Coull, James; Stender, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method that uses peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Candida albicans directly from positive-blood-culture bottles in which yeast was observed by Gram staining (herein referred to as yeast-positive blood culture bottles) is described. The test (the C. albicans PNA FISH method) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets C. albicans 26S rRNA. The PNA probe is added to smears made directly from the contents of the blood culture bottle and hybridized for 90 min at 55°C. Unhybridized PNA probe is removed by washing of the mixture (30 min), and the smears are examined by fluorescence microscopy. The specificity of the method was confirmed with 23 reference strains representing phylogenetically related yeast species and 148 clinical isolates covering the clinically most significant yeast species, including C. albicans (n = 72), C. dubliniensis (n = 58), C. glabrata (n = 5), C. krusei (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 4), and C. tropicalis (n = 3). The performance of the C. albicans PNA FISH method as a diagnostic test was evaluated with 33 routine and 25 simulated yeast-positive blood culture bottles and showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It is concluded that this 2.5-h method for the definitive identification of C. albicans directly from yeast-positive blood culture bottles provides important information for optimal antifungal therapy and patient management. PMID:12037084

  2. The influence of photodynamic therapy parameters on the inactivation of Candida spp: in vitro and in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, F; Mima, E G; Jorge, J H; Pavarina, A C; Dovigo, L N; Bagnato, V S; De Souza Costa, C A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT), such as pre-irradiation time (PIT), on the inactivation of Candida spp. was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Suspensions of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were treated with Photogem ® , incubated for 5, 10 or 15 min and illuminated with a blue LED light. Colonies were cultivated and log values of CFU ml −1 were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall–Wallis test. For in vivo evaluation, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans. PDT was performed on the dorsum of the tongue by topical administration of Photogem ®  and illumination after 5, 10 or 15 min. C. albicans was recovered from the tongue and the number of CFU ml −1 was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Animals were killed and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis. Susceptibility of Candida spp. suspensions to PDT was in decreasing order: C. albicans  = C. tropicalis  < C. krusei  < C. glabrata. No significant difference was observed among the different PIT (p > 0.05), both in vivo and in vitro. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) of log(CFU ml −1 ) of C. albicans from tongues of mice was observed with no adverse effects in the tissue. PDT was effective to inactivate in vitroCandida spp. and for reduction of C. albicans in vivo, independently of the PIT used. (paper)

  3. Identification, antifungal resistance profile, in vitro biofilm formation and ultrastructural characteristics of Candida species isolated from diabetic foot patients in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D; Banerjee, T; Chakravarty, J; Singh, S K; Dwivedi, A; Tilak, R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g). Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test. For molecular identification, conserved portion of the 18S rDNA region, the adjacent internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and a portion of the 28S rDNA region were amplified, using the ITS1 and ITS2 primers. Antifungal susceptibility against voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B was determined by standard broth microdilution method. Biofilm formation was studied in three steps. First, on the surface of wells of microtiter plates followed by quantification of growth by fungal metabolism measurement. Finally, biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fungal aetiology was found in 75 patients (48.38%). All were identified as Candida species (100%). The prevalence of different species was Candida tropicalis (34.6%), Candida albicans (29.3%), Candida krusei (16.0%), Candida parapsilosis (10.6%), Candida glabrata (9.33%). All were susceptible to amphotericin B (100%). On microtiter plate, all the isolates were viable within 48 h showing biofilms. The metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm increased with cellular mass, especially in the first 24 h. On SEM, majority showed budding yeast form. Non-albicans Candida spp. with potential biofilm forming ability are emerging as a predominant cause of diabetic foot ulcers.

  4. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...

  5. Specific Human and Candida Cellular Interactions Lead to Controlled or Persistent Infection Outcomes during Granuloma-Like Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misme-Aucouturier, Barbara; Albassier, Marjorie; Alvarez-Rueda, Nidia; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    A delayed type of multicellular process could be crucial during chronic candidiasis in determining the course of infection. This reaction, consisting of organized immune cells surrounding the pathogen, initiates an inflammatory response to avoid fungal dissemination. The goal of the present study was to examine, at an in vitro cellular scale, Candida and human immune cell interaction dynamics during a long-term period. By challenging human peripheral blood immune cells from 10 healthy donors with 32 Candida albicans and non-albicans (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. lusitaniae, C. krusei, and C. kefyr) clinical isolates, we showed that Candida spp. induced the formation of granuloma-like structures within 6 days after challenge, but their sizes and the respective fungal burdens differed according to the Candida species. These two parameters are positively correlated. Phenotypic characteristics, such as hypha formation and higher axenic growth rate, seem to contribute to yeast persistence within granuloma-like structures. We showed an interindividual variability of the human response against Candida spp. Higher proportions of neutrophils and elevated CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratios during the first days after challenge were correlated with early production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and associated with controlled infection. In contrast, the persistence of Candida could result from upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and a poor anti-inflammatory negative feedback (IL-10). Importantly, regulatory subsets of NK cells and CD4 lo CD8 hi doubly positive (DP) lymphocytes at late stage infiltrate granuloma-like structures and could correlate with the IL-10 and TNF-α production. These data offer a base frame to explain cellular events that guide infection control or fungal persistence. Copyright © 2016 Misme-Aucouturier et al.

  6. Candida spp. biotypes in the oral cavity of school children from different socioeconomic categories in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil

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    MOREIRA Daniella

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-nine (239 Brazilian children, distributed into five distinct socioeconomic categories (A to E were studied. Saliva samples were analyzed as to flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters. The results revealed the presence of Candida spp. in 47.3% of the samples. The most commonly isolated species was C. albicans, in all socioeconomic categories, followed by C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. There was no statistical correlation between secretion rate, buffer capacity and Candida spp. CFU/ml. The prevalence of Candida spp. did not differ substantially among the groups; however the microorganisms were more detected in categories B and C. Among all species, C. albicans was the most prevalent. Only 5% of the sample presented more than one species - C. albicans associated with C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis or C. krusei. It was possible to detect a significant correlation between caries indices and the socioeconomic categories. All categories presented increased caries indices; however the studied population was considered of low caries risk. There was no positive correlation between the presence of Candida and caries risk in the analyzed population.

  7. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Majid; Kolecka, Anna; Boekhout, Teun; Zarrinfar, Hossein; Ghanbari Nahzag, Mohamad A; Badiee, Parisa; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common problem in women. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida isolates by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) from women with vulvovaginitis that were referred to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. This study was conducted on 65 clinical samples isolated from women that were referred to Ghaem Hospital. All specimens were identified using phenotyping techniques, such as microscopy and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and corn meal agar. In addition, all isolates were processed for MALDI-TOF MS identification. Out of the 65 analyzed isolates, 61 (94%) samples were recognized by MALDI-TOF MS. However, the remaining four isolates (6%) had no reliable identification. According to the results, C. albicans (58.5%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. tropicalis (16.9%), C. glabrata (7.7%), C. parapsilosis (7.7%), and guilliermondii (3.1%). As the findings indicated, MALDI TOF MS was successful in the identification of clinical Candida species. C. albicans was identified as the most common Candida species isolated from the women with VVC. Moreover, C. tropicalis was the most common species among the non- albicans Candida species.

  8. Fungicidal efficacy of various honeys against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from HIV+ patients with candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, H; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Honey is well known to possess a broad spectrum of activity against medically important organisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of different honeys against 40 fluconazole (FLU) resistant Candida species, including Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Three honey samples were collected from northern (Mazandaran, A), southern (Hormozgan, B) and central (Lorestan, C) regions of Iran. A microdilution technique based on the CLSI, M27-A2 protocol was employed to compare the susceptibility of honeys "A", "B" and "C" against different pathogenic Candida isolates. The results showed that different Candida isolates were resistant to FLU, ranging from 64μg/mL to 512μg/mL. All of the honeys tested had antifungal activities against FLU-resistant Candida species, ranging from 20% to 56.25% (v/v) and 25% to 56.25% (v/v) for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), respectively. Honey "A" (MIC: 31.59%, v/v) showed higher anti-Candida activity than honey "B" (MIC: 35.99%, v/v) and honey "C" (MIC: 39.2%, v/v). No statistically significant differences were observed among the mean MIC values of the honey samples (P>0.05). The order of overall susceptibility of Candida species to honey samples were; C. krusei>C. glabrata>C. tropicalis>C. albicans (P>0.05). In addition, the mean MICs of Candida strains isolated from the nail, vagina and oral cavity were 33.68%, 36.44% and 39.89%, respectively, and were not significantly different (P>0.05). Overall, varying susceptibilities to the anti-Candida properties of different honeys were observed with four FLU-resistant species of Candida. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of honey as an inhibitor of candidal growth in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Xylitol production by yeasts isolated from rotting wood in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, and description of Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamán-Burneo, Maria C; Dussán, Kelly J; Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Portero, Patricia; Carvajal-Barriga, Enrique J; da Silva, Sílvio S; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated D-xylose-assimilating yeasts that are associated with rotting wood from the Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, for xylitol production from hemicellulose hydrolysates. A total of 140 yeast strains were isolated. Yeasts related to the clades Yamadazyma, Kazachstania, Kurtzmaniella, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia and Saturnispora were predominant. In culture assays using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate, Candida tropicalis CLQCA-24SC-125 showed the highest xylitol production, yield and productivity (27.1 g L(-1) xylitol, Y p/s (xyl) = 0.67 g g(-1), Qp = 0.38 g L(-1). A new species of Cyberlindnera, strain CLQCA-24SC-025, was responsible for the second highest xylitol production (24 g L(-1), Y p/s (xyl) = 0.64 g g(-1), Qp = 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1)) on sugarcane hydrolysate. The new xylitol-producing species Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the strain CLQCA-24SC-025(T) (=UFMG-CM-Y517(T); CBS 13997(T)). The MycoBank number is MB 812171.

  10. An in vitro study of antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus seronegative individuals in Lucknow population Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Shafi; Sreedar, Gadiputi; Shukla, Abhilasha; Gupta, Prashant; Rehan, Ahmad Danish; George, Jiji

    2015-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms and gradual colonization of non-albicans in patients with advanced immunosuppression leads to resistance for azole group of antifungal drugs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. To isolate the Candida species and determine of antifungal drug susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, and clotrimazolein HIV seropositive and control individuals, with or without clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Includes samples from faucial region of 70 subjects with and without clinical candidiasis in HIV seropositive and controls were aseptically inoculated onto Sabaraud's Dextrose Agar media and yeasts were identified for the specific species by Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and heat tolerance tests. Antifungal drug susceptibility of the isolated species was done against above-mentioned drugs by E-test and disc diffusion method. The commonly isolated species in HIV seropositive and controls were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis Candida guilliermondii and Candida dubliniensis isolated only in HIV seropositive patients. Susceptibility against selected antifungal drugs was observed more in HIV-negative individuals whereas susceptible dose-dependent and resistance were predominant in HIV-positive patients. Resistance is the major problem in the therapy of OPC, especially in HIV seropositive patients due to aggressive and prolonged use of antifungal agents, therefore, our study emphasizes the need for antifungal drug susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment is desired, especially in HIV-infected subjects.

  11. Effect of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis planktonic/biofilm quorum sensing molecules on yeast morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of this work was to study the effect of farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule for Candida albicans, on morphologic inhibition of Candida dubliniensis. The second goal of this work was to confirm if Candida dubliniensis also excreted quorum sensing molecules, on both planktonic and biofilm forms. The results clearly demonstrate that Candida dubliniensis undergoes morphological alterations triggered by farnesol. It was also found that supernatants of Candida dubliniensis and Ca...

  12. The production and growth characteristics of yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicans in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, M G; Sullivan, P A

    1976-04-01

    The growth characteristics of Candida albicans CM145,348 have been examined under aerobic conditions in continuous culture. At different steady states the environment was controlled with respect to the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon and nitrogen, the pH, and the temperature. Dry matter, substrate concentration, yield, specific oxygen uptake, specific carbon dioxide release and respiration quotient were examined as a function of the dilution rate. The morphology depended on the carbon source. Maltose produced a mycelial morphology, whereas with lactate a yeast culture was obtained. With fructose or glucose as a carbon source a mixed morphology of yeast, pseudo-mycelial and mycelial forms was produced. A larger number of different growth conditions were examined in batch culture but a mixed morphology was always obtained.

  13. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  14. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

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    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  15. Biophysical Effects of a Polymeric Biosurfactant in Candida krusei and Candida albicans Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella Freitas; Dos Santos Pinto, Bruna Lorrana; Souza, Eliene Batista; Viana, José Lima; Zagmignan, Adrielle; Dos Santos, Julliana Ribeiro Alves; Santos, Áquila Rodrigues Costa; Tavares, Priscila Batista; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Monteiro, Andrea Souza

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a polymeric biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida krusei cells to human buccal epithelial cells and its interference in biofilm formation by these strains. The biofilm inhibition by biosurfactant (25 mg/mL) in C. krusei and C. albicans in polystyrene was reduced up to 79.5 and 85 %, respectively. In addition, the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter of the yeasts altered as a function of the biosurfactant concentration added to the cell suspension. The changes in the cell surface characteristics and the interface modification can contribute to the inhibition of the initial adherence of yeasts cells to the surface. In addition, the analyses of the biofilm matrix and planktonic cell surfaces demonstrated differences in carbohydrate and protein concentrations for the two studied strains, which may contribute to the modulation of cell adhesion or consolidation of biofilms, especially in C. krusei. This study suggests a possible application of the of CLOA72 biosurfactant in inhibiting the adhesion and formation of biofilms on biological surfaces by yeasts of the Candida genus.

  16. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kenji

    2012-08-28

    An 87-year-old, Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep, central ulceration covered with thick, whitish exudate in the stomach. Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer. Though cured of the lesion, she developed another ulcer in a different position, in which Candida was demonstrated but H. pylori was undetectable. This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world. Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H. pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs, Candida is considered, contrary to the prevailing opinion, to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  17. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Supplementation on Yeast (Candida utilis Biomass Production by Using Pineapple (Ananas comosus Waste Extracted Medium

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    Rosma, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w/v. Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05 increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial yeast extract, peptone, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate was added into fermentation medium. Commercial yeast extract, Maxarome® which increased 55.2% of biomass production at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content, is the most suitable among the selected organic source. On the other hand, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content is comparable inorganic source which enhanced 53.7% of production. Total nitrogen content of each treatment at 0.05% (w/v showed that nitrogen supplied was not fully utilized as substrate limitation in the fermentation medium.

  19. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-11-21

    Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846). The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95%) and 4 μg/ml (96%); 1 μg/ml (95%) and 8 μg/ml (95%); 0.5 μg/ml (99%) and 19 μg/ml (98%); and 4 μg/ml (95%) and 64 μg/ml (95%), respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates) in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  20. [INVESTIGATION ON ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA YEASTS IN PREGNANT PATIENTS WITH CONFIRMED VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS AND THEIR NEWBORNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, A; Kouzmanov, A; Ivanova, Z; Zisova, L; Amalie, G; Petleshkova, P; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Ts; Krasteva, M; Uchikova, E

    Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVU) is considered as a special risk factor during pregnancy, with important influence on the reproductive function of the patients and on the morbidity in the newborns from mothers with VVC. Maternal VVC is a major risk factor for the development of candida-colonization of the infant, which in turn is the first step towards the development of mucocutaneous or systemic candidiasis and Candida-septicemia in the newborn. In pregnant patients, the possible applicable local and systemic medications are limited, while the therapeutic resistance in chronic recurrent forms of VVC increases, facts that require precision of the diagnosic approach to optimize the therapeutic recommendations in pregnant patients, considered as a high risk group. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida yeasts to current antifungal agents in pregnant patients with confirmed VVC before the act of birth. Material and Methods Vaginal secretions of 23 healthy pregnant women with proven Candida vaginitis were taken within 48 hours before birth and the presence of yeasls of Candida was confirmed by culture examination. Between 47-72 hours after birth, samples were taken for Candida colonization of the oralmucosa and feces of their newborns. Samples were plated on Sabouraud agar and cultured in an incubator for 2 to 3 days at a temperature of 25° C. Species identification of the isolated yeasts were performed by commercial API Candida test - API 20C AUX (BioMerieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France). Part of the isolates was identified by commercial whale AUXACOLOR (BioRad, Mames la Coquette, France). Antifungal sensitivity of isolated strains was examined by applying commercial solicitation ready kit and methods of disc diffusion and E-test, as the aim of the authors was to assess their potential for use in the diagnosis, and the correlation between them. Results Candida albicans was the prevalent etiological agent in pregnant

  1. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus (DM, uma doença endócrino-metabólica de alta e crescente prevalência, é citada como responsável pela ocorrência das candidíases orais. A candidíase constitui um espectro de infecções causadas por fungos do gênero Candida, sendo o seu agente mais comum a Candida albicans, embora outras espécies tenham sido identificadas (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos atendidos no Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio da Universidade Federal do Ceará (HUWC/UFC. Foram coletadas amostras de 48 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os sexos, com situações variáveis de controle glicêmico. Os materiais clínicos foram colhidos com ajuda de swabs e semeados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol e incubado a 37°C. Os crescimentos foram identificados pelas provas clássicas usadas em micologia. Depois, essas cepas de Candida foram submetidas a provas de detecção de enzimas fosfolipase e proteinase. Destas, 15 amostras (31,25% apresentaram cultura positiva para o gênero Candida. A espécie mais freqüente foi a C. albicans, com 80%, seguida de C. tropicalis (13,3% e C. guillermondii (6,7%. Quanto à pesquisa da atividade enzimática de Candida spp., foi observado que 86,6% delas apresentaram atividade de proteinase e 80%, de fosfolipase. Conclui-se com tais resultados que a C. albicans é a mais freqüente e que as espécies de Candida isoladas possuem fortes atividades enzimáticas.Diabetes mellitus, a endocrine-metabolic disease, of high and increasing prevalence, is cited as responsible by the occurrence of oral candidiasis. Candidiasis constitutes a specter of infections caused by fungi of genera Candida; the most common agent is Candida albicans, but other species have also been

  2. Colonization and antifungals susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Navid, Mojgan; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Mazdarani, Shahnam

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown that there are an increasing in invasive candidiasis during 2-3 last decades. Although, Candida albicans is considered as the most common candidiasis agents, other non-albicans such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were raised as infectious agents. Resistance to fluconazole among non-albicans species is an important problem for clinicians during therapy and prophylaxis. The aim of current study was to detect the Candida species from hospitalized neonatal and children in intensive care units (ICUs) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In addition, the susceptibility of isolated agents were also evaluated against three antifungals. In the present study 298 samples including 98 blood samples, 100 urines and 100 swabs from oral cavity were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida. Initial detection was done according to the coloration colonies on CHROMagar Candida . Morphology on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and growth at 45°C were confirmed isolates. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and terbinafine (Lamisil) were used for the susceptibility tests using microdilution method. In the present study 21% and 34% of urines and swabs from oral cavity were positive for Candida species, respectively. The most common species was C. albicans (62.5%) followed by C. tropicalis (15.6%), C. glabrata (6.3%) and Candida species (15.6%). Our study indicated that the most tested species of Candida, 70.3% were sensitive to fluconazole at the concentration of ≤8 μg/mL. Whereas 9 (14.1%) of isolates were resistant to amphotericine B at ≥8 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of species identification and antifungals susceptibility testing for hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs wards.

  3. The production of arabitol by a novel plant yeast isolate Candida parapsilosis 27RL-4

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    Kordowska-Wiater Monika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyalcohol arabitol can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as a natural sweetener, a dental caries reducer, and texturing agent. Environmental samples were screened to isolate effective yeast producers of arabitol. The most promising isolate 27RL-4, obtained from raspberry leaves, was identified genetically and biochemically as Candida parapsilosis. It secreted 10.42– 10.72 g l-1 of product from 20 g l-1 of L-arabinose with a yield of 0.51 - 0.53 g g-1 at 28°C and a rotational speed of 150 rpm. Batch cultures showed that optimal pH value for arabitol production was 5.5. High yields and productivities of arabitol were obtained during incubation of the yeast at 200 rpm, or at 32°C, but the concentrations of the polyol did not exceed 10 g l-1. In modified medium, with reduced amounts of nitrogen compounds and pH 5.5-6.5, lower yeast biomass produced a similar concentration of arabitol, suggesting higher efficiency of yeast cells. This strain also produced arabitol from glucose, with much lower yields. The search for new strains able to successfully produce arabitol is important for allowing the utilization of sugars abundant in plant biomass.

  4. [Onychomycosis by yeast not common in diabetics of a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, J L; G Gomez, J V; Escudero, R B; Blasco, J L

    2016-10-01

    Mexican diabetic population frequently presents mycosis under foot hyperkeratosis; however, in another type of onychomycosis as the ones that is assumed Candida albicans is the causal agent, it is unknown the frequency, the prevalence and if another Candida species or other yeasts are found. Evaluate the frequency of yeasts causing onychomycosis in diabetic patients looked after in public institutions of health of the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, and its association with clinical epidemiological variables. An observational, descriptive and transversal study was made on 261 patients, from which one nail sample of each one was obtained, used to isolate and identify dermatophytes and yeasts; the results were statistically correlated with 24 epidemiological parameters. The clinical study was done through interrogation and by medical exploration in order to evaluate Tinea pedis and onychomycosis. Onychomycosis were caused by Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida spp., Kodamaea ohmeri, Prototheca wickerhamii and unidentified yeasts. The prevalence for general onychomycosis, by dermatophytes, mixed onychomycosis and by yeasts were: 24.1, 19.5, 2.3 and 14.6%, respectively. Patients with significant probability to be diagnosed as having onychomycosis by yeasts are those wearing open shoes (2.59%); technicians and professionals (10.49%) and alcohol drinkers (3.72%). The fact that Candida albicans is not present in this study as causal agent of onychomycosis, and emerging and non-common yeasts were indeed isolated, creates new challenges. It is remarked the clinical criterion that when onychomycosis is suspected in diabetics, the diagnosis for culturing dermatophytes and yeasts should be included. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF A RAPID, QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR METHOD FOR ENUMERATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDA CELLS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan?) chemistry, was developed for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C....

  6. Identification, antifungal resistance profile, in vitro biofilm formation and ultrastructural characteristics of Candida species isolated from diabetic foot patients in Northern India

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    D Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g. Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test. For molecular identification, conserved portion of the 18S rDNA region, the adjacent internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and a portion of the 28S rDNA region were amplified, using the ITS1 and ITS2 primers. Antifungal susceptibility against voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B was determined by standard broth microdilution method. Biofilm formation was studied in three steps. First, on the surface of wells of microtiter plates followed by quantification of growth by fungal metabolism measurement. Finally, biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: Fungal aetiology was found in 75 patients (48.38%. All were identified as Candida species (100%. The prevalence of different species was Candida tropicalis (34.6%, Candida albicans (29.3%, Candida krusei (16.0%, Candida parapsilosis (10.6%, Candida glabrata (9.33%. All were susceptible to amphotericin B (100%. On microtiter plate, all the isolates were viable within 48 h showing biofilms. The metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm increased with cellular mass, especially in the first 24 h. On SEM, majority showed budding yeast form. Conclusion: Non-albicans Candida spp. with potential biofilm forming ability are emerging as a predominant cause of diabetic foot ulcers.

  7. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

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    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  8. Regression analysis and categorical agreement of fluconazole disk zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution of clinical isolates of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P; Kashyap, B

    2017-06-01

    Rampant use of fluconazole in Candida infections has led to predominance of less susceptible non-albicans Candida over Candida albicans. The aim of the study was to determine if zone diameters around fluconazole disk can be used to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for clinical isolates of Candida species and vice versa. Categorical agreement between the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended disk diffusion and CLSI broth microdilution method was sought for. Antifungal susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and Broth microdilution was done as per CLSI document M44-S3 and CLSI document M27-S4 for Candida isolates respectively. Regression analysis correlating zone diameters to MIC value was done. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to determine correlation between disk zone diameters and MICs. Candida albicans (33.3%) was clearly outnumbered by other non-albicans species predominantly Candida tropicalis (42.5%) and Candida glabrata (18.4%). Ten percent of the strains were resistant to fluconazole by disk diffusion and 13% by broth microdilution. MIC range for Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis ranged from≤0.25-64μg/ml while that of Candida glabrata ranged from≤0.25-128μg/ml. Categorical agreement between disk diffusion and broth microdilution was 86.8%. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was -0.5975 indicating moderate negative correlation between the two variables. Zone sizes can be used to estimate the MIC values, although with limited accuracy. There should be a constant effort to upgrade the guidelines in view of new clinical data, and laboratories should make an active effort to incorporate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Potentially pathogenic yeasts from soil of children’s recreational areas in the city of Łódź (Poland

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    Anna Wójcik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Yeasts may become potential human and animal pathogens, particularly for individuals with a depressed immune system. Their presence in the environment, especially in soil, may favour their spread into human ontocenoses. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four soil samples obtained from 21 children's recreational sites in Łódź in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 were evaluated. The yeasts were isolated by classical microbiological methods and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical features. Results: The fungi were found in 73.8% and in 69.0% of the examined samples collected in autumn and spring, respectively. Among 97 isolates of yeasts, the species potentially pathogenic to humans and animals were Candida colliculosa, C. guilliermondii, C. humicola, C. inconspicua, C. lambica, C. lusitaniae, C. pelliculosa, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, C. neoformans, C. terreus, Kloeckera japonica, Geotrichum candidum, G. penicillatum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, R. glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sporobolomyces salmonicolor and Trichosporon cutaneum. The most frequently isolated fungi included the genus Cryptococcus (38 isolates and two species: Rhodotorula glutinis (15, Trichosporon cutaneum (14. C. neoformans, an etiological factor of cryptococcal meningitis, was present in the sandpits of 3 kindergartens. The Candida species were identified from park playgrounds and school sports fields mainly in autumn 2010 (14 isolates, in spring 2011 - only 1 isolate. The concentration of fungal species in particular samples varied considerably, but in the majority of samples, fungi were present at concentration of up to 1×102 CFU/1 g of soil. Conclusions: Yeasts were present in the soil of parks, schools and kindergarten recreational areas; the fact may pose a health risk to humans, especially to children, and this type of biological pollution should be regarded as a potential public health concern.

  10. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. [National Trends in the Distribution of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Japan from 2003 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichi; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Takesue, Yoshio; Tomono, Kazunori; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Niki, Yoshitiho; Yoshida, Minoru; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    The Epidemiological Investigation Committee for Human Mycoses in Japan performed a retrospective epidemiological survey of candidemia and causative Candida species. Data from 2003 to 2014 were collected from 10 Japanese university hospitals. A total of 328,318 blood cultures were included. The prevalence of fungi in all cultures and in positive cultures were 0.58±0.09% and 4.46±0.66%, respectively. Among the results that were positive for Candida species (N=1,921), Candida albicans was the most common species (39.5%) and was followed by Candida parapsilosis (23.3%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.1%), Candida krusei (3.2%), and others (13.7%). During the last 6 years, the frequency of C. albicans has significantly decreased in Japan, while that of C. glabrata has increased. Additional surveys are needed to continuously monitor the trends in the distribution of candidemia.

  12. Effects of photoprotection and reversible inactivation of the yeast Candida guilliermondii, induced by 313 nm light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frajkin, G.Ya.; Pospelov, M.E.; Rubin, L.B.

    1976-01-01

    The results of studies on the effect of near uv light on the yeast Candida guilliermondii are presented. It was shown that certain doses of 313 nm light inactivated the yeast. The detailed affect is shown in the loss of the ability of the cells to form microcolonies and outwardly does not differ from inactivation caused by 254 nm uv. It was concluded that the cell destruction caused by the 313 nm light was not due to damage to DNA. Experiments in which yeast cells were inactivated by 313 nm light before plating on agar and held for some time in a non-nutrient medium permitted observation of recovery of their viability. A difference was shown in the level of repair of yeasts irradiated by 313 nm light (up to 100% recovery) and 254 nm light (60% recovery). The nature of the dependence of the photoprotection on the 313 nm light dose was determined. A decrease in photoprotection was noted, starting with 7x10 -7 einstein/cm 2 , with its complete disappearance upon further dose increase. It is suggested that, in this recovery of the yeast, some other, thus far unknown, mechanism participates. Data were obtained on the survival of yeast irradiated with lethal uv doses. Of special importance, in the authors' opinion, is the fact that, for the photoprotection effect to appear, some time is needed between actions of the 313 and 254 nm lights, which suggests a photoinduced formation in the yeast cells of compounds that protect them from lethal injury

  13. A comparative investigation of azole susceptibility in Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affect millions of women and are typically treated with azoles. We know little about azole susceptibility of Candida species from VVC versus RVVC patients, and nothing about African isolates. We have investigated the susceptibility of Candida isolates from Ghana to fluconazole, itraconazole and/or voriconazole. The percentage of Candida albicans isolates showing susceptibility was significantly lower in RVVC than VVC patients. Isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis showed a similar trend. For Candida glabrata there was no observed difference. The data indicate a decreased susceptibility in selected Candida species from RVVC patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel system integrating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a two-stage biological aerated filter (BAF) system was investigated as advanced treatment of heavy oil wastewater with large amounts of dissolved recalcitrant organic substances and low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. #1 BAF, inoculated with two yeast strains (Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula dairenensis), was installed in the upper reaches of #2 BAF inoculated with activated sludge. During the 180-day study period, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the wastewater were removed by 90.2%, 90.8%, 86.5% and 89.4%, respectively. Although the wastewater qualities fluctuated and the hydraulic retention time continuously decreased, the effluent quality index met the national discharge standard steadily. The UASB process greatly improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while #1 BAF played an important role not only in degrading COD but also in removing oil and high molecular weight PAHs. This work demonstrates that the hybrid UASB-BAFs system containing yeast-bacteria consortium has the potential to be used in bioremediation of high-strength oily wastewater.

  15. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra R; Peixoto, Camila Bernardo; Caldas, Daniele Manhães; Silva, Eline Barboza; Akiti, Tiyomi; Nucci, Márcio; de Uzeda, Milton

    2002-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between salivary flow and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Sialometry and Candida colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were taken from 112 subjects who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva was collected and streaked in Candida plates and counted in 72 hours. Species identification was accomplished under standard methods. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts (P =.007) when subjects with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). In addition, the median sialometry of men was significantly greater than that of women (P =.003), even after controlling for confounding variables like underlying disease and medications. Sjögren's syndrome was associated with low salivary flow rate (P =.007). There was no relationship between the median Candida CFU counts and gender or age. There was a high frequency (28%) of mixed colonization. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, and C krusei. In subjects with high Candida CFU counts there was an inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts.

  16. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Y.; Cabelli, D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O 2 - ). This behavior limits the amount of H 2 O 2 produced at high [O 2 - ]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H 2 O 2 in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O 2 - ], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn 3+ species in yeast Mn 3+ SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn 3+ species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn 3+ species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O 2 - ].

  17. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. Methods In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. Results The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846. The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95% and 4 μg/ml (96%; 1 μg/ml (95% and 8 μg/ml (95%; 0.5 μg/ml (99% and 19 μg/ml (98%; and 4 μg/ml (95% and 64 μg/ml (95%, respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  18. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal

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    Candido Regina Celia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.

  19. Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

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    Liliana Simões-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.

  20. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradasi minyak oleh Rhodotorula dan Candida hasil isolasi dari Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak Surabaya

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    Tri Nurhariyati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A research about isolation and capability of isolat yeast from Tanjung Perak Harbor, Surabaya in degrading kerosen, gas oil ,and lubricant were conducted. This research were done to know the influence of Rhodotorula, Candida and Mix of Rhodotorula and Candida; the influence of oil type and interaction of both (between yeast and oil in decreasing oil weight. Research design was laboratory experimental and using the factorial 4 × 3 with five replication. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p: 0.05 and followed by t test. The result of the biodegradation test showed that the kind of yeast, the kind of oil weight and interaction of both influence in decreasing of oil weight. The most decreasing of oil weight obtained by mix of Rhodotorula and Candida (82.55%, kerosen (66.59% and combination mix of yeast (Rhodotorula and Candida and kerosen (89.32%.

  2. Elevated Chitin Content Reduces the Susceptibility of Candida Species to Caspofungin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748

  3. The dectin-1/inflammasome pathway is responsible for the induction of protective T-helper 17 responses that discriminate between yeasts and hyphae of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Lenardon, Megan; Stoffels, Monique; Plantinga, Theo; Smeekens, Sanne; Rizzetto, Lisa; Mukaremera, Liliane; Preechasuth, Kanya; Cavalieri, Duccio; Kanneganti, Thirumala Devi; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Joosten, Leo A B; Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2011-08-01

    In the mucosa, the immune pathways discriminating between colonizing and invasive Candida, thus inducing tolerance or inflammation, are poorly understood. Th17 responses induced by Candida albicans hyphae are central for the activation of mucosal antifungal immunity. An essential step for the discrimination between yeasts and hyphae and induction of Th17 responses is the activation of the inflammasome by C. albicans hyphae and the subsequent release of active IL-1β in macrophages. Inflammasome activation in macrophages results from differences in cell-wall architecture between yeasts and hyphae and is partly mediated by the dectin-1/Syk pathway. These results define the dectin-1/inflammasome pathway as the mechanism that enables the host immune system to mount a protective Th17 response and distinguish between colonization and tissue invasion by C. albicans.

  4. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  5. Antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast: Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Aissat Saad; Meslem Abdelmelek; Benhalima Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast i.e. Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Rhodotorula sp. Methods: Four Algeria honeys of different botanical origin were analyzed to test antifungal effect against C. albicans, and Rhodotorula sp. Different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% w/v) of honey were studied in vitro for their antifugal activity using C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. as fungal strains...

  6. [Aetiology of candidiasis in paediatric patients: Comparative analysis with adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Tomás, Jesús J; Colomina-Rodríguez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. represents a group of commensal yeasts that can act as pathogens and cause candidiasis in different anatomical locations. The aim of this study was to perform an epidemiological and comparative analysis between the isolates of Candida spp. in clinical specimens during a three year-period (2010-2012) from children (0-14 years) and adults (15-99 years) in the Valencian Community (RedMIVA). The microbiological surveillance network of Valencian Community was used as the information source. Candida was isolated in 52,436 patients (1,604 [3.1%] children and 50,832 [96.9%] adults). Candida albicans was significantly (p<0.05) the predominant species in both age groups, and in almost every type of clinical specimen. The distribution of other species varied depending on the sample type and age group. In blood specimens, Candida parapsilosis followed by C. albicans, Candida famata and Candida lusitaniae were the main species found in children, whereas C. albicans followed by C. parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the predominant species in adults. In sterile fluids, urine and lower respiratory tract samples, C. parapsilosis was the second most prevalent species in the children group, while C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were the main second species in adults. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  8. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciani Gaspar De Toledo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic and MRC-5 (fibroblast cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL. The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred

  9. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  10. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; O, Joo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  11. Group X hybrid histidine kinase Chk1 is dispensable for stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in the opportunistic yeast Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arias, María J; Dementhon, Karine; Defosse, Tatiana A; Foureau, Emilien; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Le Gal, Solène; Nevez, Gilles; Le Govic, Yohann; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Noël, Thierry; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Papon, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) progressively emerge as prominent sensing proteins in the fungal kingdom and as ideal targets for future therapeutics. The group X HHK is of major interest, since it was demonstrated to play an important role in stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in some yeast and mold models, and particularly Chk1, that corresponds to the sole group X HHK in Candida albicans. In the present work, we investigated the role of Chk1 in the low-virulence species Candida guilliermondii, in order to gain insight into putative conservation of the role of group X HHK in opportunistic yeasts. We demonstrated that disruption of the corresponding gene CHK1 does not influence growth, stress tolerance, drug susceptibility, protein glycosylation or cell wall composition in C. guilliermondii. In addition, we showed that loss of CHK1 does not affect C. guilliermondii ability to interact with macrophages and to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, the C. guilliermondii chk1 null mutant was found to be as virulent as the wild-type strain in the experimental model Galleria mellonella. Taken together, our results demonstrate that group X HHK function is not conserved in Candida species. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of catalase-specific inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on yeast peroxisomal catalase in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tomoko; Kamasawa, Naomi; Osumi, Masako; Tanaka, Atsuo

    2003-02-14

    3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) is known as an inhibitor of catalase to whose active center it specifically and covalently binds. Subcellular fractionation and immunoelectronmicroscopic observation of the yeast Candida tropicalis revealed that, in 3-AT-treated cells in which the 3-AT was added to the n-alkane medium from the beginning of cultivation, catalase transported into peroxisomes was inactivated and was present as insoluble aggregated forms in the organelle. The aggregation of catalase in peroxisomes occurred only in these 3-AT-treated cells and not in cells in which 3-AT was added at the late exponential growth phase. Furthermore, 3-AT did not affect the transportation of catalase into peroxisomes. The appearance of aggregation only in cells to which 3-AT was added from the beginning of cultivation suggests that, in the process of catalase transportation into yeast peroxisomes, some conformational change may take place and that correct folding may be inhibited by the binding of 3-AT to the active center of catalase. Accordingly, 3-AT will be an interesting compound for investigation of the transport machinery of the peroxisomal tetrameric catalase.

  13. Prevalência e susceptibilidade de leveduras vaginais Prevalence and susceptibility of vaginal yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonilda Chiari Galle

    2004-08-01

    increase in the frequency of the species non-albicans, and a great concern with repetitive episodes, as well as its relationship with the resistance to the treatment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the yeast species that cause vaginitis and their susceptibility to antifungal agents. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Vaginal swabs were colleted from 250 patients and were evaluated for culture, species identification and susceptibility to antifungal agents. RESULTS: Candida was present in 27.6% of the samples. Candida albicans was the predominant species (74%, followed by Candida glabrata (14.5%, Candida tropicalis (7,3% and Candida parapsilosis (4,3%. All the C. albicans isolates were susceptible to anfotericin B and only one sample of non-albicans showed greater MIC (2mg/mL. 5.9% of C. albicans strains were susceptible-dose dependent to FLU and 9,8% resistant. Only one sample showed resistance to itraconazol, with CIM 8mg/mL. In the species non-albicans, 11.8% of the isolates were considered resistant to fluconazol and 23.5% to itraconazol. CONCLUSION: Candida albicans is the most frequent in the vaginal microenviroment, however non-albicans are common vaginal isolates even in a primary care population. The species isolated are less susceptible to fluconazole and itraconazole than most C. albicans, showing the importance of the performance of the identification tests and susceptibility to antifungal agents of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  14. Kinetic behavior of Candida tropicalis during xylitol production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... yeast extract, 3.0; peptone, 5.0; agar, 20 and xylose, 10.0 in place of glucose (pH ... 10% was taken as the inoculum volume for the ... Rates of cellular growth, xylose uptake, glucose uptake and xylitol ... Cell concentration was determined by means of a calibration curve .... biomass growth or respiration.

  15. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Martha Darce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis. The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH was 61% and 70% with Gram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%, C. tropicalis (23%, C. glabrata (14% and C. krusei (4%. This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  16. Removal of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution by fused yeast: Study of cations release and biosorption mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Hua; He Baoyan; Peng Hui; Ye Jinshao; Yang Feng; Zhang Na

    2008-01-01

    Biosorption of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) by a fused yeast from Candida tropicalis and Candida lipolytica under varying range of pH, initial metal concentration and reaction time was investigated. Net cation release and Cr removal reached 2.000 mmol/l and 81.37% when treating 20 mg/l Cr(VI) at pH 2 with 25 mg/l biomass for 30 min, while for Ni were 0.351 mmol/l and 64.60%, respectively. Trace metal elements such as Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn played active role in biosorption as important ingredients of functional enzymes. Cr(VI) was reduced to less toxic Cr(III) and chelated with extracellular secretions, and further accumulated inside the cells. For Ni biosorption, however, largely a passive uptake process influenced by ion gradient led to lower adsorption capacity and cations release. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum analysis indicated that amide and pyridine on cells were involved in binding with Cr, but for Ni, bound-OH and nitro-compounds were the main related functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed that considerable amounts of metals precipitated on cell surface when dealing with high concentration metals

  17. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  18. Targeted integration of genes in Xenopus tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhaoying; Tian, Dandan; Xin, Huhu

    2017-01-01

    With the successful establishment of both targeted gene disruption and integration methods in the true diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis, this excellent vertebrate genetic model now is making a unique contribution to modelling human diseases. Here, we summarize our efforts on establishing homologous...... recombination-mediated targeted integration in Xenopus tropicalis, the usefulness, and limitation of targeted integration via the homology-independent strategy, and future directions on how to further improve targeted gene integration in Xenopus tropicalis....

  19. Prevalence of Candida co-infection in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Arunava; Charles, Mv Pravin; Noyal, Mariya Joseph; Sivaraman, Umadevi; Kumar, Shailesh; Easow, Joshy M

    2013-01-01

    Candida species are emerging as a potentially pathogenic fungus in patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases. The synergistic growth promoting association of Candida and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has raised increased concern for studying the various Candida spp . and its significance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients during current years. This study was undertaken with the objective of discovering the prevalence of co-infection caused by different Candida species in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum Ziehl-Neelsen staining were included in the study. Candida co-infection was confirmed using the Kahanpaa et al. criteria. Candida species were identified using gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, morphology on cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and HiCrome Candida Agar. Candida co-infection was observed in 30 (40%) of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Candida albicans was the most common isolate observed in 50% of the patients with co-infection, followed by C. tropicalis (20%) and C. glabrata (20%). Candida co-infection was found in 62.5% of female patients, while it was observed in only 29.4% of the male patients (P value 0.0133). Mean ± SD age of the patients with C. glabrata infection was 65.83 ± 3.19, while the mean ± SD age of the patients with other Candida infections was 43.25 ± 20.44 (P value 0.0138). Many patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have co-infection with Candida spp. The prevalence of non-albicans Candida species is increasing and may be associated with inadequate response to anti-tubercular drugs. C. glabrata infection has a strong association with old age.

  20. Caracterização fenotípica de leveduras isoladas da mucosa vaginal em mulheres adultas Phenotypic characterization of yeasts isolated from the vaginal mucosa of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Reis Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    , Candida tropicalis, e Candida guillermondii, o que pode ser explicado pelo uso inadequado de medicamentos e tratamento empírico.PURPOSE: to characterize, phenotypically, yeasts isolated from the vaginal content of 223 symptomatic (S and asymptomatic (A adult women with vulvovaginitis, and to determine the clinical indicators which may lead to the appearance of signs and symptoms related to the mucosa involvement by this pathology. METHODS: a questionnaire with open and closed questions on epidemiological clinical data was applied initially. Then, mycological diagnosis with sowing in Chrom Agar Candida was done, followed by micro-morphological and biochemical identification. Specific methods for the detection of the virulence factors, proteinase and phospholipase were employed. Statistical analysis was performed through χ2 and Pearson's χ2 tests. RESULTS: the most prevalent species found was Candida albicans (87%, S and 67%, A followed by Candida glabrata (4%, S e 17% A. The number of women reporting the use of contraceptives was higher among the symptomatic, 77%. In the two groups studied, about 87% of the women presented regular menstrual cycles and 57% were married with ages between 30 to 40 years old. Concerning the sexual practices, there has been concomitance among anal, oral and vaginal habits from the patients. Only Candida albicans produced the virulence factor phospholipase in 37.5% of them. Proteinase has been detected in Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. This latter virulence factor was mainly associated to isolates from symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: it is a fact that the vaginal mucosa can be colonized and infected by yeasts, with several Candida species present. Nevertheless, Candida albicans is the most prevalent in the vaginal mucosa of adult women. It is evident the emergence of non-albicans Candida species, some of them with intrinsic resistance to azolics, such as Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida

  1. Distribution of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species in oral candidiasis patients: Correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muadcheingka, Thaniya; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to study the prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) species from oral candidiasis patients and evaluate the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biofilm forming capacity of the clinical isolates Candida species from oral cavity. This study identified a total of 250 Candida strains isolated from 207 oral candidiasis patients with PCR-RFLP technique. CSH value, total biomass of biofilm and biofilm forming ability of 117 oral Candida isolates were evaluated. C. albicans (61.6%) was still the predominant species in oral candidiasis patients with and without denture wearer, respectively, followed by C. glabrata (15.2%), C. tropicalis (10.4%), C. parapsilosis (3.2%), C. kefyr (3.6%), C. dubliniensis (2%), C. lusitaniae (2%), C. krusei (1.6%), and C. guilliermondii (0.4%). The proportion of mixed colonization with more than one Candida species was 18% from total cases. The relative CSH value and biofilm biomass of NAC species were greater than C. albicans (poral isolates NAC species had biofilm forming ability, whereas 78% of C. albicans were biofilm formers. Furthermore, the significant difference of relative CSH values between biofilm formers and non-biofilm formers was observed in the NAC species (poral cavity was gradually increasing. The possible contributing factors might be high cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability. The relative CSH value could be a putative factor for determining biofilm formation ability of the non-albicans Candida species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  3. Antifungal resistance of candida isolates obtained from various specimens of intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Çolak Pirinççioğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study; we aimed to determine the identificationof yeasts from the samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit of DiyarbakırEducation and Research Hospital and also we aimed toperform the antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts.Materials and methods: Antifungal susceptibility test resultsof yeasts that isolated from 25 blood, 24 urine, 3sputum and 3 peritoneal fluid samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit to our laboratoryduring the period December 2009 - Septemberl/2010were evaluated.The yeasts identified by germ tube test, cornmeal tween80 and VITEC 2 Compact® (Biomerieux, France yeastidentification system. The antifungal susceptibility testswere performed for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazoleand voriconazole by using VITEC 2 Compact®(Biomerieux, France system.Results: 56.36% of the yeasts were determined asC.albicans which was the most common yeast followedby; C.parapsilosis (30.9%, C.tropicalis (10.6%,C.tropicalis (5.45%, C.dubliniensis (3,63%, C.glabrata(1.81% and C.guilliermondi (1.81%. According to theresults of antifungal susceptibility tests, the resistancerate for fluconazole and variconazole were 1.81% and3.63% respectively. However no resistance were detectedagainst amphotericin B and flucytosine.Conclusions: Our results shows that C.albicans is themost common yeast isolated from the patients at intensivecare unit in our hospital. Increased resistance to fluconazolewhich is frequently used for empirical treatmentdemostrates importance of antifungal susceptibility tests.

  4. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  5. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Slime Production by Yeasts Isolated from Subclinical Mastitic Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla Türkyılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate yeasts from subclinical mastitic cows and to investigate the slime production by the isolated yeasts. The material used in this study included 339 milk samples from 152 dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis. Milk was plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Forty-one samples (12.1% of total milk samples were found positive for the yeast by API 20 C AUX identification system. The isolated yeasts were classified into four genera of Candida, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus and Saccharomyces. The Candida species were following: C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. rugosa and C. utulis. Other yeasts were identified as Trichosporon mucoides, T. asahii, Cryptococcus laurentii, C.  neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Slime production was tested on Congo red brain heart infusion agar and evaluated according to Congo red phenomenon. Fifteen (36.6% strains were slime factor positive: seven were C. krusei, four C. kefyr, one C. guilliermondii, one C. famata, one T. asahii, and one C. laurentii. The results of the present study indicate that yeast mastitis is significant for causing economic losses and slime production is mostly found in non-albicans Candida species. Therefore, non-albicans Candida species should be examined for slime production.

  7. Incidence and Speciation of Candida Species among Non-gravid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the incidence and speciation of Candida species among non-gravid young females, using commercially available chromogenic Candida speciation media (CHROM agar) for the identification/speciation of medically important yeast and yeastlike organisms in a routine clinical mycology laboratory.

  8. Yeast Identification During Fermentation of Turkish Gemlik Olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujdeci, Gamze; Arévalo-Villena, María; Ozbas, Z Yesim; Briones Pérez, Ana

    2018-05-01

    Naturally fermented black table olives of the Gemlik variety are one of the most consumed fermented products in Turkey. The objective of this work was to identify yeast strains isolated during their natural fermentation by using Restriction Fragments Lengths Polymorphism-Polimerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. The study also focused on determining the effect of regional differences on yeast microflora of naturally fermented Gemlik olives. A total of 47 yeast strains belonging to 12 different species which had been previously isolated from the natural brine of Akhisar and Iznik-Gemlik cv. olives were characterized by molecular methods. Forty-two of the tested strains could be identified by RFLP-PCR to species level. These yeast species were determined as Candida mycetangi, Candida hellenica, Candida membranaefaciens, Candida famata, Candida pelliculosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygosaccharomyces mrakii. Five strains were identified by DNA sequencing. These strains belonged to three different species: Aureobasidium pullulans, Kloeckera apiculate, and Cryptococcus saitoi. The most frequent species were C. famata and C. pelliculosa in both regions. This work studies the yeasts from Turkish table olives which could prove to be of importance to the food industry in that area. On the other hand, it compares identification by molecular and classical biochemical methods and offers an idea about the differences between the ecosystems of Gemlik olives in the Akhisar (AO) and Iznik (IO) regions. The study could be useful in characterizing a very important product and, in this way, could help to promote its marketing. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  10. Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, a hitherto unknown property of yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Brink, Jolanda A. van den; Veenhuis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of utilizing uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil by the enrichment culture method. The strains were identified as Candida famata (Harrison) Meyer et Yarrow and Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurm., Gougerot et Vaucher) Ota. On the subcellular

  11. Yeast cell differentiation: Lessons from pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    2016-09-01

    Yeasts, historically considered to be single-cell organisms, are able to activate different differentiation processes. Individual yeast cells can change their life-styles by processes of phenotypic switching such as the switch from yeast-shaped cells to filamentous cells (pseudohyphae or true hyphae) and the transition among opaque, white and gray cell-types. Yeasts can also create organized multicellular structures such as colonies and biofilms, and the latter are often observed as contaminants on surfaces in industry and medical care and are formed during infections of the human body. Multicellular structures are formed mostly of stationary-phase or slow-growing cells that diversify into specific cell subpopulations that have unique metabolic properties and can fulfill specific tasks. In addition to the development of multiple protective mechanisms, processes of metabolic reprogramming that reflect a changed environment help differentiated individual cells and/or community cell constituents to survive harmful environmental attacks and/or to escape the host immune system. This review aims to provide an overview of differentiation processes so far identified in individual yeast cells as well as in multicellular communities of yeast pathogens of the Candida and Cryptococcus spp. and the Candida albicans close relative, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular mechanisms and extracellular signals potentially involved in differentiation processes are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in <40% of the isolates; however there was a significant association between proteinase production by Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Occurrence and identification of yeast species in fermented liquid feed for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Bjørklund, Marina Kryger; Canibe, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very...... heterogeneous with high variations in both yeast counts and yeast species composition. The yeast population varied between 6.0 × 10(3) and 4.2 × 10(7) cfug(-1) with an average yeast count of 8.7 × 10(6) ± 1.1 × 10(7) cfug(-1). A total of 766 yeasts were isolated and identified by conventional and/or molecular...... typing techniques. The predominant yeast species in the FLF samples were found to be Candida milleri (58.4%), Kazachstania exigua (17.5%), Candida pararugosa (6.40%) and Kazachstania bulderi (5.09%). No clear separation between isolates of C. milleri and Candida humilis could be obtained based...

  14. MALDI-TOF MS as a tool to identify foodborne yeasts and yeast-like fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintilla, Raquel; Kolecka, Anna; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide M; Houbraken, Jos; Kostrzewa, Markus; Boekhout, Teun; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2018-02-02

    Since food spoilage by yeasts causes high economic losses, fast and accurate identifications of yeasts associated with food and food-related products are important for the food industry. In this study the efficiency of the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify food related yeasts was evaluated. A CBS in-house MALDI-TOF MS database was created and later challenged with a blinded test set of 146 yeast strains obtained from food and food related products. Ninety eight percent of the strains were correctly identified with log score values>1.7. One strain, Mrakia frigida, gained a correct identification with a score value1.7. Ambiguous identifications were observed due to two incorrect reference mass spectra's found in the commercial database BDAL v.4.0, namely Candida sake DSM 70763 which was re-identified as Candida oleophila, and Candida inconspicua DSM 70631 which was re-identified as Pichia membranifaciens. MALDI-TOF MS can distinguish between most of the species, but for some species complexes, such as the Kazachstania telluris and Mrakia frigida complexes, MALDI-TOF MS showed limited resolution and identification of sibling species was sometimes problematic. Despite this, we showed that the MALDI-TOF MS is applicable for routine identification and validation of foodborne yeasts, but a further update of the commercial reference databases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

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    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  16. Isolation of L-methionine-enriched mutant of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii No.2201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Y.; Lim, W.J.; Yang, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Six strains of methylotrophic yeast were examined for production of L-methionine-enriched cells. Candida boidinii (kloeckera sp.) No. 2201,which accumulated 0.54 mg/g-dry cell weight (DCW) of free L-methionine (pool methionine), was selected as the parental strain for breeding L-methionine-rich mutants. Ethionine-resistant mutants were derived from the strain by UV irradiation. A mutant strain, E500-78,which was resistant to 500 μg/ml of DL-ethionine, accumulated 6.02 mg/g-DCW of pool methionine. The culture conditions for mutant strain E500-78 to increase pool methionine accumulation were optimized. As a result, the mutant strain accumulated 8.80 mg/g-DCW of pool methionine and contained 16.02 mg/g-DCW total methionine

  17. [Susceptibility of yeasts to antifungal agents in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodeniene, Erika; Dambrauskiene, Asta; Vitkauskiene, Astra

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the species of yeast and their susceptibility to antifungal agents isolated from clinical specimens of patients treated in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. A total of 142 yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens of patients hospitalized in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital were included in this study. All yeasts were cultivated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and identified using either CHROM agar or API 20C AUX system. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined by the ATB FUNGUS 2 agar microdilution test. In all clinical specimens except blood, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast (65.5%, pyeast strains showed resistance to fluconazole. Nearly one-fourth of Candida albicans strains (24.7%) and 23.2% of all isolated yeast strains showed resistance to itraconazole. Almost all of fluconazole-resistant (93.3%) and 12.6% of fluconazole-susceptible yeast were found to be resistant to itraconazole (pyeast strains were susceptible to amphotericin B. Candida albicans strains were significantly frequently resistant to fluconazole than non-albicans Candida species (15.1% and 4.1%, respectively, pyeast isolated in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. There was determined that yeasts resistant to fluconazole were commonly resistant to itraconazole too. All isolated yeast strains were susceptible to amphotericin B.

  18. Characterization of Candida species isolated from cases of lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, B J; Dey, S; Tamang, M D; Joshy, M E; Shivananda, P G; Brahmadatan, K N

    2006-01-01

    (1) To identify and characterize the Candida species isolates from lower respiratory tract infection. (2) to determine the rate of isolation of Candida species from sputum samples. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from June 2002 to January 2003. A total of 462 sputum samples were collected from patients suspected lower respiratory tract infection. The samples were processed as Gram staining to find out the suitability of the specimen, cultured on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) and also on blood agar and chocolate agar to identify the potential lower respiratory tract pathogens. For the identification of Candida, sputum samples were processed for Gram stain, culture, germ tube test, production of chlamydospore, sugar fermentation and assimilation test. For the identification of bacteria, Gram stain, culture, and biochemical tests were performed by standardized procedure. Out of 462 samples, 246 (53.24%) samples grew potential pathogens of lower respiratory tract. Among them Haemophilus influenzae 61(24.79%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae 57 (23.17%) were the predominant bacterial pathogens. Candida species were isolated from 30 samples (12.2%). The majority of Candida species amongst the Candida isolates were Candida albicans 21(70%) followed by Candida tropicalis 4(13.33%). Candida krusei 3(10%), Candida parapsilosis 1(3.33%) and Candida stellatoidea 1(3.33%). The highest rate of isolation of Candida was between the age of 71 and 80. Candida isolation from sputum samples is important as found in the present study in which Candida species were the third most common pathogen isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infection.

  19. Chemical signaling and insect attraction is a conserved trait in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul G; Hagman, Arne; Verschut, Vasiliki; Chakraborty, Amrita; Rozpędowska, Elżbieta; Lebreton, Sébastien; Bengtsson, Marie; Flick, Gerhard; Witzgall, Peter; Piškur, Jure

    2018-03-01

    Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the insect-associated species Candida californica , Pichia kluyveri and Metschnikowia andauensis , wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis , milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis , the vertebrate pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata , and oleophilic Yarrowia lipolytica were screened for fly attraction in a wind tunnel. Yeast headspace was chemically analyzed, and co-occurrence of insect attractants in yeasts and flowering plants was investigated through a database search. In yeasts with known genomes, we investigated the occurrence of genes involved in the synthesis of key aroma compounds. Flies were attracted to all nine yeasts studied. The behavioral response to baker's yeast was independent of its growth stage. In addition to Drosophila , we tested the basal hexapod Folsomia candida (Collembola) in a Y-tube assay to the most ancient yeast, Y. lipolytica, which proved that early yeast signals also function on clades older than neopteran insects. Behavioral and chemical data and a search for selected genes of volatile metabolites underline that biosynthesis of chemical signals is found throughout the yeast clade and has been conserved during the evolution of yeast lifestyles. Literature and database reviews corroborate that yeast signals mediate mutualistic interactions between insects and yeasts

  20. Superficial Mycoses In Pregnant Women Consulting At University Hospital Center Of Yaounde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petmy Lohoue J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women may contaminate new borns and babies with vaginal candidiasis and ringworms, thus the choice of this group for our study. Cases were recruited at the UHC Yaounde from June 2001 to September 2002. Four hundred and thirty (29.3% out of 1467 examined presented at least one mycosis. The principal lesions were vaginal thrush 44% and athlete’s foot 22%. The causal fungi were essentially yeasts with the predominance of candida albicans (72% and for the dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum (71.84%. The other species were Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei, Candida parapsilosis, candida glabrata, Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon sp., Trichophyton soundanense, Trichophyton interdigitale, Thrichophyton mentagrophytes and scytalidium dimidiatum. Because these infections affect up to 30% of pregnant women, they should be taken into consideration during prenatal care.

  1. Saccharomyces boulardii and Candida albicans experimental colonization of the murine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonis, G; Falagas, M E; Lionakis, S; Ntaoukakis, M; Kofteridis, D P; Ntalas, I; Maraki, S

    2011-05-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii has been and continues to be extensively used as a probiotic, with only rare associations with fungemia. This study evaluated the virulence of this yeast when given as a probiotic, and its role in preventing gastrointestinal (GI) colonization by Candida. Adult male Crl:CD1 (ICR) BR mice were given S. boulardii orally in three different doses or normal saline for 14 days. Stool cultures were performed at the time of discontinuation of yeast administration, as well as 1 and 2 weeks later. Gut colonization was proportional to the given dose but lasted only 1 week and no dissemination of the yeast was detected. S. boulardii was also given for 2 and 4 weeks to mice fed chow containing Candida albicans. S. boulardii in the gut did not affect Candida GI colonization. These findings suggest that oral administration of S. boulardii induces a substantial but short term increase of this yeast in the intestinal lumen and administration of the probiotic does not prevent subsequent GI colonization by C. albicans.

  2. Atividade antifúngica do extrato de Psidium guajava Linn. (goiabeira sobre leveduras do gênero Candida da cavidade oral: uma avaliação in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollianna M. Alves

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antifúngica do extrato da folha de Psidium guajava Linn. sobre leveduras do gênero Candida, isoladas da cavidade oral, incluindo Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. stelatoidea e C. krusei, em análise comparativa com o gluconato de clorexidina à 0,12%. Os ensaios antifúngicos foram realizados pelas técnicas de difusão em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. A CIM do extrato de Psidium guajava sobre C. albicans e C. tropicalis foi de 1:32, C. stelatoidea e C. krusei de 1:2, formando, em média, halos de inibição entre 11 e 22 mm. Diante dos resultados, concluí-se que o extrato da folha de Psidium guajava (goiabeira apresenta a capacidade de inibir o crescimento de leveduras do gênero Candida da cavidade oral, o que sugere a possibilidade de utilização deste extrato como meio alternativo no tratamento das candidose orais.

  3. Binding and Conversion of Selenium in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeasts in Bioreactor Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kieliszek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is considered an essential component of all living organisms. The use of yeasts as a selenium supplement in human nutrition has gained much interest over the last decade. The accumulation and biochemical transformation of selenium in yeast cells is particularly interesting to many researchers. In this article, we present the results of the determination of selenium and selenomethionine content in the biomass of feed yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 obtained from the culture grown in a bioreactor. The results indicated that C. utilis cells performed the biotransformation of inorganic selenium(IV to organic derivatives (e.g., selenomethionine. Selenium introduced (20–30 mg Se4+∙L−1 to the experimental media in the form of sodium(IV selenite (Na2SeO3 salt caused a significant increase in selenium content in the biomass of C. utilis,irrespective of the concentration. The highest amount of selenium (1841 μg∙gd.w.−1 was obtained after a 48-h culture in media containing 30 mg Se4+∙L−1. The highest content of selenomethionine (238.8 μg∙gd.w.−1 was found after 48-h culture from the experimental medium that was supplemented with selenium at a concentration of 20 mg Se4+∙L−1. Biomass cell in the cultures supplemented with selenium ranged from 1.5 to 14.1 g∙L−1. The results of this study indicate that yeast cell biomass of C. utilis enriched mainly with the organic forms of selenium can be a valuable source of protein. It creates the possibility of obtaining selenium biocomplexes that can be used in the production of protein-selenium dietary supplements for animals and humans

  4. Potential of xylose-fermented yeast isolated from sugarcane bagasse waste for xylitol production using hydrolysate as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumawadee Thancharoen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is a high value sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener. In the past years, the biological process of D-xylose from lignocellulosic material into xylitol has gained increasing interest as an alternative production method. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used as raw material for xylitol production because of its high efficiency, reduced industrial cost, and high concentration of xylose. Pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse with sulfuric acid was performed with various conditions. The results showed that the optimum condition was exhibited for 3.1% sulfuric acid at 126°C for 18 min producing 19 g/l xylose. Isolated yeasts from the sugarcane bagasse were selected and tested for xylitol ability from xylose. Results showed that Candida tropicalis KS 10-3 (from 72 isolates had the highest ability and produced 0.47 g xylitol/ g xylose in 96 hrs of cultivation containing 32.30 g/l xylose was used as the production medium.

  5. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  6. Infección por especies de Candida durante los cuidados intensivos neonatales Infection caused by Candida species during the neonatal intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Roig Álvarez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, con el incremento de la supervivencia de los recién nacidos menores de 1500 g, pueden ser cada vez más frecuentes los aislamientos de especies de Candida en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Con el objetivo de actualizar los temas relacionados con la problemática mundial de la infección neonatal por especies de Candida, los criterios diagnósticos y el manejo terapéutico, se realizó una revisión dirigida fundamentalmente a especialistas en neonatología. Se constató que las especies que más se aíslan en los neonatos son las Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. El cuadro clínico es inespecífico y suele presentarse entre la segunda y tercera semanas de la vida. Los hallazgos de laboratorio clínico son también equívocos. El diagnóstico de certeza se establece por el aislamiento del hongo en sitios estériles como la sangre, el líquido cefalorraquídeo, el fluido pericárdico o mediante biopsia de tejido. El tratamiento curativo de primera línea contra la candidiasis invasiva en los neonatos continúa siendo el anfotericin B. En estos pacientes es de suma importancia retirar los catéteres vasculares profundos ante sospechas y en el momento de la confirmación de la infección.In Cuba, with the rise of the survival of newborn infants with a birth weight under 1500 g, the isolations of Candida species in the neonatal intensive care units may be increasingly frequent. To update the topics related to the world problems of neonatal infection due to Candida species, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic management, it was made a review directed mainly to Neonatology specialists. It was confirmed that the most isolated species in infants are Candida albicans, C. Glabrata, C. Parapsilosis, and C. Tropicalis. The clinical picture is not specific, and it may appear between the second and third weeks of life. The clinical laboratory findings are also equivocal. The accurate diagnosis is made by

  7. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  8. Ecology of Candida-associated Denture Stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Ejvind

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of a prosthesis into the oral cavity results in profound alterations of the environmental conditions as the prosthesis and the underlying mucosa become colonized with oral microorganisms, including Candida spp. This may lead to denture stomatitis, a non-specific inflammatory reaction against microbial antigens, toxins and enzymes produced by the colonizing microorganisms. The role of Candida in the etiology of denture stomatitis is indicated by an increased number of yeasts on th...

  9. Novel structural features in Candida albicans hyphal glucan provide a basis for differential innate immune recognition of hyphae versus yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Douglas W; Greene, Rachel R; Bearden, Daniel W; Kruppa, Michael D; Pottier, Max; Monteiro, Mario A; Soldatov, Dmitriy V; Ensley, Harry E; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G; Williams, David L

    2014-02-07

    The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure that minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. (1)H NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared with reference (1→3,1→6) β-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or "closed chain" structure that is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed a high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared with yeast β-glucan. In addition to the expected (1→3), (1→6), and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage that has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1β processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae.

  10. Antifungal Efficacy during Candida krusei Infection in Non-Conventional Models Correlates with the Yeast In Vitro Susceptibility Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Lucas, Maria Pilar; Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Lozano, Encarnación; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent decades due to the growing proportion of immunocompromised patients in our society. Candida krusei has been described as a causative agent of disseminated fungal infections in susceptible patients. Although its prevalence remains low among yeast infections (2–5%), its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole makes this yeast important from epidemiologic aspects. Non mammalian organisms are feasible models to study fungal virulence and drug efficacy. In this work we have used the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as models to assess antifungal efficacy during infection by C. krusei. This yeast killed G. mellonella at 25, 30 and 37°C and reduced haemocytic density. Infected larvae melanized in a dose-dependent manner. Fluconazole did not protect against C. krusei infection, in contrast to amphotericin B, voriconazole or caspofungin. However, the doses of these antifungals required to obtain larvae protection were always higher during C. krusei infection than during C. albicans infection. Similar results were found in the model host C. elegans. Our work demonstrates that non mammalian models are useful tools to investigate in vivo antifungal efficacy and virulence of C. krusei. PMID:23555877

  11. Species identification of Candida isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary care hospital

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    lsmet Nigar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are responsible for various clinical manifestations from mucocutaneous overgrowth to blood stream infections especially in immunocompromized situations. Although C. albicans is the most prevalent species, high incidence of non-albicans Candida species with antifungal resistance are emerging which is posing a serious threat to the patients care.Objective: This study aimed to isolate and identify different species of Candida from different clinical specimens. Methods: A total of 100 different clinical specimens were studied of which 35 were oral swab, 28 were high vaginal swab, 15 were urine, 14 were nail, 04 were bronchoalveolar lavage and peritoneal fluid were 04. Among 100 clinical specimens, Candida isolates were identified in 64 specimens. Isolation of Candida species was done by primary culture in SDA. Subsequent identification of species were performed by germ tube test, subculture in chromo­genic agar medium and carbohydrate assimilation test with commonly used twelve sugars.Results: Out of 64 isolated Candida species, Candida albicans were 51.56% and the non-albicans Candida species were 48.44%. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans 33 (51.53% followed by C. tropicalis 17 (26.56%. C. glabrata 4 (6.25%, C. parapsilo­sis 4 (6.25%, C. krusei 3 (4.68% and C. guilliermondii 2 (3.2%. One of the isolated Candida species was unidentified.Conclusion: Though Candida albicans was found as the most common species, but non-albicans Candida species are appearing as emerging pathogens as well. Exposure to chemotherapy appeared to be the commonest predisposing factor for Candida infection followed by indwelling urinary catheter in situ for prolong period.

  12. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  13. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as...

  14. [Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast--like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Kułak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed.

  15. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  16. Therapeutic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic and inactivated whole yeast on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Ballet, Nathalie; Sabbatini, Samuele; Roselletti, Elena; Cayzeele Decherf, Amélie; Pélerin, Fanny; Luciano, Eugenio; Perito, Stefano; Jüsten, Peter; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2017-01-02

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and Candida albicans is its major agent. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by disruption of the vaginal microbiota composition, as happens following large spectrum antibiotic usage. Recent studies support the effectiveness of oral and local probiotic treatment for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a safe yeast used as, or for, the production of ingredients for human nutrition and health. Here, we demonstrate that vaginal administration of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast (GI) and, in part, inactivated whole yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IY), used as post-challenge therapeutics, was able to positively influence the course of vaginal candidiasis by accelerating the clearance of the fungus. This effect was likely due to multiple interactions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Candida albicans. Both live and inactivated yeasts induced coaggregation of Candida and consequently inhibited its adherence to epithelial cells. However, only the probiotic yeast was able to suppress some major virulence factors of Candida albicans such as the ability to switch from yeast to mycelial form and the capacity to express several aspartyl proteases. The effectiveness of live yeast was higher than that of inactivated whole yeast suggesting that the synergy between mechanical effects and biological effects were dominant over purely mechanical effects. The protection of epithelial cells to Candida-induced damage was also observed. Overall, our data show for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based ingredients, particularly the living cells, can exert beneficial therapeutic effects on a widespread vaginal mucosal infection.

  17. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mammary candidiasis: molecular-based detection of Candida species in human milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschlechner, W; Karall, D; Hartmann, C; Streiter, B; Baumgartner-Sigl, S; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective and monocentric study, we investigated the performance of a commercialized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test system for the specific detection of DNA from Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis in human milk samples of patients suspicious of mammary candidiasis. For this purpose, 43 breast-feeding women with characteristic symptoms of mammary candidiasis and 40 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. By culture, Candida spp. were detected in 8.8 % (4/46) and 9.3 % (4/43) of patient and control samples, respectively. Candida albicans (2/46), C. parapsilosis (1/46), and C. guilliermondii (1/46) were present in patient samples, and C. lusitaniae (3/43) and C. guilliermondii (1/43) were present in the controls. After RT-PCR was applied, Candida spp. were found to be present in 67.4 % (31/46) and 79.1 % (34/43) of patient and control samples investigated, respectively. PCR detection of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis revealed only a low sensitivity and specificity of 67.4 % and 41.9 %, respectively. Our data do not support the use of Candida RT-PCR for sensitive and specific diagnosis of mammary candidiasis.

  19. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-10-20

    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Antifungal activity of the extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, against yeasts of the genus Candida isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

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    Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and is treated empirically with topical or systemic antifungals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible antifungal action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, on yeasts in this population. Samples were collected from HIV-positive patients who attended the Laboratory for Teaching and Research in Clinical Analysis at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá for routine exams. The isolated yeasts were identified at the genus and species levels through classical methodology. Next, tests of microdilution in broth were carried out to determine the profile of susceptibility of these yeasts towards the hydroalcoholic extract of C. zedoaria, following methodology standardised by the CLSI (2002. A total of 53 yeasts were identified, 49 of them C. albicans, two C. tropicalis and two C. glabrata. These yeasts were inhibited by low concentrations of the extract of C. zedoaria (between 1.95 and 15.63 μg/mL. In addition, 7.82 μg/mL inhibited 90% of the yeasts. Our results indicate a potent antifungal action for C. zedoaria and suggest more detailed studies with a view towards the practical application of this phytomedicine in topical pharmaceutical forms for the treatment of oral candidosis or candidiasis.

  1. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  2. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  3. Development and Characterization of Complex DNA Fingerprinting Probes for the Infectious Yeast Candida dubliniensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Sophie; Pujol, Claude; Rysz, Michal; Vargas, Kaaren; Soll, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Using a strategy to clone large genomic sequences containing repetitive elements from the infectious yeast Candida dubliniensis, the three unrelated sequences Cd1, Cd24, and Cd25, with respective molecular sizes of 15,500, 10,000, and 16,000 bp, were cloned and analyzed for their efficacy as DNA fingerprinting probes. Each generated a complex Southern blot hybridization pattern with endonuclease-digested genomic DNA. Cd1 generated an extremely variable pattern that contained all of the bands of the pattern generated by the repeat element RPS of Candida albicans. We demonstrated that Cd1 does not contain RPS but does contain a repeat element associated with RPS throughout the C. dubliniensis genome. The Cd1 pattern was the least stable over time both in vitro and in vivo and for that reason proved most effective in assessing microevolution. Cd24, which did not exhibit microevolution in vitro, was highly variable in vivo, suggesting in vivo-dependent microevolution. Cd25 was deemed the best probe for broad epidemiological studies, since it was the most stable over time, was the only truly C. dubliniensis-specific probe of the three, generated the most complex pattern, was distributed throughout all C. dubliniensis chromosomes, and separated a worldwide collection of 57 C. dubliniensis isolates into two distinct groups. The presence of a species-specific repetitive element in Cd25 adds weight to the already substantial evidence that C. dubliniensis represents a bona fide species. PMID:10074523

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  5. Diversity and killer activity of yeasts in Malaysian fermented food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S L; Tay, S T

    2011-08-01

    The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis.

  6. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from superficial candidiasis in outpatients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M; Sadeghi, G; Zeinali, E; Alirezaee, M; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Amani, A; Mirahmadi, R; Tolouei, R

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most prevalent fungal infection affecting human and animals all over the world. This study represents the epidemiological aspects of superficial candidiasis in outpatients and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of etiologic Candida species. Clinical samples were taken from 173 patients including skin and nail scrapings (107; 61.8%), vaginal discharge (28; 16.2%), sputum (20; 11.6%), oral swabs (7; 4.0%), bronchoalveolar lavage (6; 3.5%) and 1 specimen (0.6%) of each eye tumor, gastric juice, urine, biopsy and urinary catheter and confirmed as candidiasis by direct microscopy, culture and histopathology. Susceptibility patterns of the isolated Candida species were determined using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Among 173 Candida isolates, C. albicans (72.3%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. parapsilosis (11.5%). Other identified species were C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. intermedia and C. sake. Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (95.4%) followed by 5-flucytosine (89.6%), voriconazole (78.6%) itraconazole (48.0%) and ketoconazole (42.8%). Caspofungin was the most potent antifungal drug against C. albicans (MICs; 0.062-1 μg/mL), ketoconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (MICs; 0.031-0.25 μg/mL) and itraconazole for C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. guilliermondii (MICs; 0.031-1 μg/mL). This study reinforces the significance of superficial candidiasis as an important fungal infection with multiple clinical presentations. Our results further indicate that susceptibility testing to commonly used antifungals is crucial in order to select the appropriate therapeutic strategies which minimize complications while improving patients' life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND SENSOR USING LOCAL YEAST: Candida fukuyamaensis, UICC Y-247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Saepudin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to shorten the measurement time of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, a BOD sensor based on yeastmetabolism was developed. Local yeast, Indonesian Origin, Candida fukuyamaensis UICC Y-247, was used as atransducer. The yeast was immobilized as a thin film in agarose matrix with the auxiliary of Nafion® acting as themembrane for ion exchange process. The film was then attached to gold-modified glassy carbons and used as transduceron the working electrodes. The measurements were conducted by observing the depletion of glucose concentrationusing multipulse amperometric method and then converted to BOD values. Optimum condition was observed in awaiting measurement time of 30 min at an applied potential of 450 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl. Linearity was shown in glucoseconcentration range of 0.1–0.5 mM, which was equivalent to BOD concentration range of 10–50 mg/L. A detectionlimit of 1.13 mg/L BOD could be achieved. Good repeatability was shown by a relative standard deviation (RSD of2.7% (n = 15. However, decreasing current response of ~50% was found after 3 days. Comparing to the conventionalBOD measurement, this BOD sensor can be used as an alternative method for BOD measurements.

  8. Digestive fungal flora in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanata, Bamba; Salam, Ouédraogo Abdoul; Ibrahim, Sangaré; Adama, Zida; Mamoudou, Cissé; Simplice, Karou D.; Jacques, Simpore; Robert, Guiguemdé T.; Christophe, Hennequin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify Candida species in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) by the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2013 in Bobo-Dioulasso to collect fecal and urine specimens from voluntary donors. Fungal strains were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results A total of 135 samples including stools (78.5%, 106/135) and urine (21.5%, 29/135) were analyzed. The results revealed that fecal specimens contained mainly Candida krusei (C. krusei) (42.5%) followed by Candida albicans (29.3%), Candida glabrata (18.0%) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) (4.7%). C. krusei (34.6%) was also found to be the most frequently identified in urine samples followed by Candida albicans (27.0%), C. tropicalis (15.4%) and Candida parapsilosis. However, uncommon species such as Candida nivariensis, Candida kefyr, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae and Candida robusta were also identified from fecal and urines samples. Conclusions This study noted the emergence of species such as C. krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsiolosis, C. tropicalis, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, and others. It is an imperative to take into account the existence of these species in the therapeutic management of patients in Bobo-Dioulasso. PMID:25183337

  9. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  10. Growth-dependent secretome of Candida utilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buerth, C.; Heilmann, C.J.; Klis, F.M.; de Koster, C.G.; Ernst, J.F.; Tielker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the food yeast Candida utilis has emerged as an excellent host for production of heterologous proteins. Since secretion of the recombinant product is advantageous for its purification, we characterized the secreted proteome of C. utilis. Cells were cultivated to the exponential or

  11. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  12. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Kianipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Results: Fifty-nine (49.2% yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6% of C. albicans/dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4% of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9% were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Conclusion: Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  13. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianipour, Sahar; Ardestani, Mohammad Emami; Dehghan, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Fifty-nine (49.2%) yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6%) of C. albicans / dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4%) of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9%) were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  14. Atividade in vitro de extratos brutos de duas espécies vegetais do cerrado sobre leveduras do gênero Candida In vitro activity of crude extracts of two plant species in the Cerrado on yeast of the Candida SPP variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Ferreira Queiroz e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer a atividade de Lafoensia pacari e a de Brossimum gaudichaudii, sobre leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas da mucosa vaginal. As leveduras foram isoladas a partir de esfregaço de mucosa vaginal de mulheres com ou sem sintomatologia. Realizou-se os testes de susceptibilidade em duplicata para 34 linhagens de Candida frente aos extratos brutos das espécies vegetais, nas concentrações de 50, 100 e 200 mg.mL-1. Consideraram-se como ativos os extratos que produziram halos de inibição com média a partir de 10 mm. Evidenciou-se atividade antifúngica de B. gaudichaudii na concentração de 200 mg.mL-1, enquanto que a de L. pacari mostrou-se ativo a 50 mg.mL-1. A atividade dos extratos vegetais estudados destacou-se em relação à Nistatina creme (100.000UI/4g utilizada como controle.This work aims to evaluate the activity of Lafoensia Pacari and Brossimum gaudichaudii on yeast of the Candida variety isolated from vaginal mucus. The yeasts were obtained from swabs of women with or without symptoms. Susceptibility testing in duplicate was carried out for 34 strains of Candida compared to crude extracts of plant species at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg.mL-1. Extracts that produced inhibition zones with an average of over 10 mm were considered to be active. Antifungal activity of B. gaudichaudii at a concentration of 200-mg.mL-1 was proven, while that of L. pacari was found to be active at 50 mg.mL-1. The activity of plant extracts was revealed compared to Nystatin cream (100.000UI/4g used for control purposes.

  15. The first cases of Candida auris candidaemia in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Jalila; Hagen, Ferry; Al-Balushi, Zainab A M; de Hoog, G Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S

    2017-09-01

    Candida auris has been recognised as a problematic healthcare-associated emerging yeast which is often misidentified as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Correct early identification of C. auris is important for appropriate antifungal treatment and implementing effective infection control measures. Here we report emergence of the first C. auris cases in Oman, initially misidentified as C. haemulonii. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Competition assays and physiological experiments of soil and phyllosphere yeasts identify Candida subhashii as a novel antagonist of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber-Bodmer, Maja; Schmid, Michael; Ahrens, Christian H; Freimoser, Florian M

    2017-01-05

    While recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled researchers to readily identify countless microbial species in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere microbiomes, the biological functions of the majority of these species are unknown. Functional studies are therefore urgently needed in order to characterize the plethora of microorganisms that are being identified and to point out species that may be used for biotechnology or plant protection. Here, we used a dual culture assay and growth analyses to characterise yeasts (40 different isolates) and their antagonistic effect on 16 filamentous fungi; comprising plant pathogens, antagonists, and saprophytes. Overall, this competition screen of 640 pairwise combinations revealed a broad range of outcomes, ranging from small stimulatory effects of some yeasts up to a growth inhibition of more than 80% by individual species. On average, yeasts isolated from soil suppressed filamentous fungi more strongly than phyllosphere yeasts and the antagonistic activity was a species-/isolate-specific property and not dependent on the filamentous fungus a yeast was interacting with. The isolates with the strongest antagonistic activity were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora sp., Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, and Pichia kluyveri. Among these, the soil yeasts (C. sargentensis, A. pullulans, C. subhashii) assimilated and/or oxidized more di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides and organic acids than yeasts from the phyllosphere. Only the two yeasts C. subhashii and M. pulcherrima were able to grow with N-acetyl-glucosamine as carbon source. The competition assays and physiological experiments described here identified known antagonists that have been implicated in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi in the past, but also little characterised species such as C. subhashii. Overall, soil yeasts were more antagonistic and metabolically versatile than yeasts from

  17. Prevalence of Candida species in the oral cavity of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of fungal infections caused by Candida species. Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by yeast fungi of the genus Candida on the mucous membranes of the mouth. To isolate and determine the ...

  18. Prevalence of Candida species in the oral cavity of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... During the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of fungal infections caused by Candida species. Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by yeast fungi of the genus Candida on the mucous membranes of the mouth. To isolate.

  19. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Alves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL, Vatairea macrocarpa (VML, Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL, Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL, and Hypnea musciformis (HML showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units. The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins.

  20. Direct impression on agar surface as a diagnostic sampling procedure for candida balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Carmen; Santos, António; Azevedo, Filomena; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of candida balanitis should be based upon both clinical and mycological data. The procedure of material collection is a critical issue to confirm or rule out the clinical diagnosis of candida balanitis. To compare direct impression of the glans on the agar surface of solid culture media with the collection of genital exudates with cotton swab for the diagnosis of candida balanitis. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out during a 36-month period. Sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees with balanitis and asymptomatic men were included. Specimens for yeast culture were collected from the glans penis and inner preputial layer using the direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium and by swabbing with a sterile cotton swab. Among 478 men enrolled, 189 had balanitis. The prevalence of candida balanitis was 17.8% (85/478) confirmed after culture by direct impression; the swab method detected only 54/85 (63.5%) of these men. Of the 289 asymptomatic men, 36 (12.5%) yielded Candida spp; the swab method detected only 38.9% of these men. The risk of having candida balanitis is 8.9 (IC 95% 2.48 to 32.04) whenever the number of candida colonies recovered by direct impression was greater than 10. Direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium resulted in the highest Candida spp recovery rate. More than 10 colonies yielded by impression culture were statistically associated with candida balanitis. This method shows the ideal profile for sampling the male genital area for yeasts and should be included in the management of balanitis.

  1. Effects of 60 Cobalt ionizing radiation in morphology and metabolism of yeasts and Chlamydospore of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Michel R.F.; Demicheli, Marina C.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F.; Galiesteo Junior, Andres A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungus responsible for 80-90% of fungal infections, as the symptoms are similar to those of systemic bacterial infections there is a difficulty for immediate diagnosis. These difficulties can lead to delays of antifungal therapy, which contributes to the high mortality rates associated with this infection. Resistance structures referred to as chlamydospores are very common in the pathogen, representing different cell types that form in response to certain genetic or environmental conditions. Recently, various antifungal agents and new therapeutic strategies have come into use, allowing the fungus to acquire a resistance to the drugs. The use of ionizing radiation has been widely employed for the production of immunogens against various parasites. In this work, we evaluate the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) in yeast and chlamydospore of C. albicans with doses ranging from 320 to 10.240 Gy with Cobalt 60. Subsequently the samples were plated and after seven days, the colony forming units (CFU) told. The viability of irradiated cells were evaluated using the Janus green dye. A dose of 6000 Gy was considered ideal for the mitigation of chlamydospore and yeast. The dimorphic change mechanisms of both fungal structures were not harmed. The viability of chlamydospores remained above 70% while the yeast viability remained above 85%. By transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy may be noted cytoplasmic changes, defects in the cell wall, mitochondria, and the presence of partially preserved vesicles of both morphological forms of C. albicans. Irradiation both chlamydospore as C. albicans yeast allows the suppression of their reproduction, opening the possibility of their use in future candidate immunogens. (author)

  2. Effects of 60 Cobalt ionizing radiation in morphology and metabolism of yeasts and Chlamydospore of Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Michel R.F.; Demicheli, Marina C.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F.; Galiesteo Junior, Andres A.J., E-mail: galisteo@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IMTSP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Medicina Tropical. Lab. de Protozoologia; Takakura, Cleusa F.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Patologia de Molestias Transmissiveis. Lab. de Patologia; Negro, Gilda M.B. del [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFM/USP/IMTSP/LIM-53), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Lab. de Micologia; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans is a fungus responsible for 80-90% of fungal infections, as the symptoms are similar to those of systemic bacterial infections there is a difficulty for immediate diagnosis. These difficulties can lead to delays of antifungal therapy, which contributes to the high mortality rates associated with this infection. Resistance structures referred to as chlamydospores are very common in the pathogen, representing different cell types that form in response to certain genetic or environmental conditions. Recently, various antifungal agents and new therapeutic strategies have come into use, allowing the fungus to acquire a resistance to the drugs. The use of ionizing radiation has been widely employed for the production of immunogens against various parasites. In this work, we evaluate the effects of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in yeast and chlamydospore of C. albicans with doses ranging from 320 to 10.240 Gy with Cobalt 60. Subsequently the samples were plated and after seven days, the colony forming units (CFU) told. The viability of irradiated cells were evaluated using the Janus green dye. A dose of 6000 Gy was considered ideal for the mitigation of chlamydospore and yeast. The dimorphic change mechanisms of both fungal structures were not harmed. The viability of chlamydospores remained above 70% while the yeast viability remained above 85%. By transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy may be noted cytoplasmic changes, defects in the cell wall, mitochondria, and the presence of partially preserved vesicles of both morphological forms of C. albicans. Irradiation both chlamydospore as C. albicans yeast allows the suppression of their reproduction, opening the possibility of their use in future candidate immunogens. (author)

  3. Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from cases of Vulvovaginitis in women referring to selected gynecological clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batol Bonyadpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15 to 55 harbour Candida albicans in the vagina .the aimed to determine the Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from women with Vulvovaginitis candidates (VVC of reproductive ages. Methods: this descriptive study was conducted on 280 of who were selected for gathering samples by Purposive sampling based on their history and characteristics of vaginal discharges in 2009. Among these patients, 105 ones were diagnosed with candidiasis. The data were collected using demographic information form and disease symptoms. the species were differentiated using germ tube test, chrome agar test, and chlamidospore test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16, using Descriptive Statistics Results: the prevalence of candida vaginitis was 9.3%.105 samples obtained from patients.. Chlamidospore was detected in 54.3% of the corn meal agar media. Besides, in chrome agar test, 41.9% of the samples turned into green representing candida albicans. In germ tube test, on the other hand, 70.5% of the samples were candida albicans, while 29.5% were candida non-albicans. Overall, The frequency of the Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and  the Candida Krusei were  66.6% , 219%  , 8.6% ,  and 2.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most common species leading to the Vulvovaginitis in patients with VCC while other species were at the secondary importance stages.Due to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease based on the clinical symptoms, fungal culture is recommended as a standard diagnostic method.

  4. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  5. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  6. Candida species diversity and antifungal susceptibility patterns in oral samples of HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ordóñez, Isadora; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva T; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R

    2017-04-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of carriers of Candida, Candida species diversity, and in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In 297 HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico, Candida strains were identified by molecular methods (PCR-RFLP) from isolates of oral rinses of patients in Tijuana, Mexicali, and Ensenada. 56.3% of patients were colonized or infected with Candida. In Tijuana, there was a significantly higher percentage of carriers (75.5%). Out of the 181 strains that were isolated, 71.8% were Candida albicans and 28.2% were non-albicans species. The most common non-albicans species was Candida tropicalis (12.2%), followed by Candida glabrata (8.3%), Candida parapsilosis (2.2%), Candida krusei (1.7%), and Candida guilliermondii (1.1%). Candida dubliniensis was not isolated. Two associated species were found in 11 patients. In Mexicali and Ensenada, there was a lower proportion of Candida carriers compared to other regions in Mexico and worldwide, however, in Tijuana, a border town with many peculiarities, a higher carrier rate was found. In this population, only a high viral load was associated with oral Candida carriers. Other factors such as gender, use of antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels, time since diagnosis, and alcohol/ tobacco consumption, were not associated with Candida carriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Epidemiology of Candida isolates from Intensive Care Units in Colombia from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Muñoz, Juan Sebastián; Oñate, José; Pallares, Christian José; Hernández, Cristhian; Villegas, María Virginia

    The frequency of Candida isolates as a cause of hospital infections has risen in recent years, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The knowledge of the epidemiology of those hospital acquired fungal infections is essential to implement an adequate antifungal therapy. To describe the epidemiology of Candida infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from a surveillance network in Colombia. Information was collected from the microbiology laboratories of 20 tertiary healthcare institutions from 10 Colombian cities using the Whonet® software version 5.6. A general descriptive analysis of Candida species and susceptibility profiles focusing on fluconazole and voriconazole was completed between 2010 and 2013, including a sub-analysis of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) during the last year. Candida isolates made up 94.5% of the 2680 fungal isolates considered, with similar proportions for Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species (48.3% and 51.7%, respectively). Among the latter, Candida tropicalis (38.6%) and Candida parapsilosis (28.5%) were the most frequent species. Of note, among the blood isolates C. albicans was not the main species. Most of the species isolated were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. From the HAIs reported, 25.5% were caused by Candida; central line-associated bloodstream infection was the most common HAI (58.8%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding length of hospital stay and device days among HAIs. In ICUs of Colombia, non-C. albicans Candida species are as frequent as C. albicans, except in blood samples where non-C. albicans Candida isolates predominate. Further studies are needed to evaluate Candida associated risk factors and to determine its clinical impact. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Candida profiles and antifungal resistance evolution over a decade in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George Farah; Asmar, Rima George; Avedissian, Aline Zakaria

    2015-09-27

    Infection with and antifungal resistance of Candida species have been on the rise globally. Relevant data on these pathogens are relatively few in our region, including Lebanon, thus warranting this study. This retrospective study of Candida spp. profiles and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility was based on analysis requests for 186 Candida non-albicans and 61 C. albicans during three periods (2005-2007, 2009-2011, and 2012-2014) over the span of the last 10 years at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. Identification of Candida was done using the API 20C AUX system, and the E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents. Among the 1,300-1,500 Candida isolates recovered yearly, C. albicans rates decreased from 86% in 2005 to around 60% in 2014. Simultaneously, the non-albicans rates increased from 14% in 2005 to around 40% in 2014, revealing 11 species, the most frequent of which were C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. All these demonstrated high resistance (35%-79%) against itraconazole, but remained uniformly susceptible (100%) to amphotericin B. Though C. albicans and the other species maintained high susceptibility against fluconazole and voriconazole, their MIC90 showed an elevated trend over time, and C. glabrata had the highest resistance rates. The observed rise in resistance among Candida spp. in Lebanon mandates the need for close surveillance and monitoring of antifungal drug resistance for both epidemiologic and treatment purposes.

  9. Comparative Study of the New Colorimetric VITEK 2 Yeast Identification Card versus the Older Fluorometric Card and of CHROMagar Candida as a Source Medium with the New Card

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertine, C. L.; Rivera, M.; Rohan, S. M.; Larone, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    The new VITEK 2 colorimetric card was compared to the previous fluorometric card for identification of yeast. API 20C was considered the “gold standard.” The new card consistently performed better than the older card. Isolates from CHROMagar Candida plates were identified equally as well as those from Sabouraud dextrose agar.

  10. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Bio production of Alcohols as Alternative Fuels From Some Agricultural Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd ElTawab, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    With the inevitable depletion of the world’s energy supply, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in alternative sources of energy. It’s now understood that it is important to use biomass energy as a means of providing modern energy to the billions who lack it. Bi oethanol continues to be offered as a viable solution for complex problems ranging from global warming and national energy security to local economic development. Fuel bi oethanol burns cleaner than gasoline, is derived from renewable agricultural products. The aim of the current study is the isolation of local yeast isolate has the ability to produce bi oethanol from molasses. The local isolate of yeast E10 from sugar cane waste (bagasse) which identified as(Candida tropicalis strain JH8 26S ribosomal RNA gen) was employed for ethanol production in submerged fermentation conditions compared with standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae EMCC number 71"T. The production of bi oethanol is influenced to a great extent by a variety of physical factors (incubation time, temperature, ph, agitation speed) also; bi oethanol production by yeast depends upon the nature and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimization of these factors is prerequisite for the development of commercial process. The use of seed culture inocula (24 h) age at rate of (8% v/v) also enhances the production. The results showed that, the maximum ethanol production in local strain Candida tropicalis was 30.28 g/l achieved at incubation temperature 30 °C, with ph 5, incubation time 48 hr, agitation rate 150 rpm. Also, the best ethanol production in standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 42.57 g/l at the same conditions. . Low doses of gamma radiation (0.2 kGy) stimulate bi oethanol production and microbial growth by the local Candida isolate. Batch fermentation was also investigated

  11. Structural investigations of yeast mannans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademacher, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Cell wall mannans were isolated from 8 different Candida species and separated in oligosaccharides by partial acetolysis. After gel chromatography specific acetolysis patterns were obtained. The 13 C NMR spectra of mannans and oligosaccharides were recorded. Signals at delta = 93.1 - 105.4 were assigned to certain chemical structures. Both the spectral patterns and the acetolysis patterns of the yeast mannans can be used for the discrimination of related yeasts. (author)

  12. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Candidose na medicina veterinária: um enfoque micológico, clínico e terapêutico Candidosis on veterinary medicine: a mycological, clinical and therapeutic approuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Helena Salles de Brito

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Candida é composto por leveduras que vivem como comensais na microbiota de homens e animais. Em geral, não causam nenhum dano aos seus hospedeiros, entretanto, em virtude de desequilíbrios nas defesas química, física e imunológica, esses microrganismos podem se tornar patogênicos. Infecções por Candida spp. são pouco frequentes na Medicina Veterinária no entanto, nos últimos anos, tem sido observado aumento considerável de relatos de enfermidades causadas por essas leveduras, acometendo diferentes animais. Várias espécies do gênero são implicadas em quadros infecciosos, sendo a C. albicans a principal delas, seguida por C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis. Considerando-se o potencial patogênico do gênero Candida, aliado ao surgimento de cepas resistentes a derivados azólicos, in vitro, o presente trabalho se propôs a realizar detalhada revisão de literatura, abordando os aspectos clínico-laboratoriais, etiológicos e terapêuticos da candidose na Medicina Veterinária.The Candida genus is composed by yeasts that live as commmensal on human and animals' microbiota. In general, they do not cause any damage to their hosts. However, due instability on chemical, physical and immunological defenses, these microorganisms can become pathogens. Candida spp. infections are rare on Veterinary Medicine. However, on the last years, a considerable raise of illness caused by these yeasts has been related on varied animal species. Several species of this genus has been mentioned as responsible for infectious diseases in animals, being C. albicans the main of them, followed by C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Considering the pathogenic role of the genus Candida, allied to the emerging of resistant strains to the azole derivatives, in vitro, the present research proposed to perform a detailed review, approaching clinic-laboratorial, etiologic and therapeutic aspects of the candidosis on Veterinary medicine.

  14. Candida colonization and species identification by two methods in NICU newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Sadat Taherzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last two decades invasive candidiasis has become an increasing problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Colonization of skin and mucous membranes with Candida spp. is important factor in the pathogenesis of neonatal infection and several colonized sites are major risk factors evoking higher frequencies of progression to invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to detect Candida colonization in NICU patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 neonates in NICUs at Imam Khomeini and Children Medical Center Hospitals in Tehran. Cutaneous and mucous membrane samples obtained at first, third, and seventh days of patients’ stay in NICUs during nine months from August 2013 to May 2014. The samples were primarily cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. The cultured media were incubated at 35°C for 48h and evaluated based on colony color produced on CHROMagar Candida. In addition, isolated colonies were cultured on Corn Meal Agar medium supplemented with tween 80 for identification of Candida spp. based on their morphology. Finally, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was performed for definite identification of isolated species. Results: Colonization by Candida spp. was occurred in 20.43% of neonates. Fifteen and four patients colonized with one and two different Candida spp., respectively. Isolated Candida spp. identified as; C. parapsilosis (n: 10, C. albicans (n: 7, C. tropicalis (n: 3, C. guilliermondii (n: 2, and C. krusei (n: 1. In present study non-albicans Candia species were dominant (69.56% and C. parapsilosis was the most frequent isolate (43.47%. Using Fisher's exact test, the correlation between fungal colonization with low birth weight, low gestational age, and duration of hospital stay was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003. Conclusion: The results of this study imply to the candida species colonization of neonates

  15. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively......Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...

  16. Use of ionizing irradiation to increase rates of production and yield of yeast from paraffins. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrath, J.

    1975-09-01

    The uptake of CO 2 in the assimilation of n-alkanes by Candida tropicalis was determined using CO 2 as tracer. It was confirmed that a net assimilation of CO 2 takes place. The distribution of CO 2 in tricarboxylic acid intermediates (Candida cultured on glucose, acetate or n-hexadecane) was also measured. The amount of ATP in microbial cells (Saccharomyces sp and Acetobacter) was determined to clarify why energy is wasted in the assimilation of n-alkanes (compared to the growth on carbohydrates)

  17. Presence and distribution of yeasts in the reproductive tract in healthy female horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarvandi, A; Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Gharahgouzlou, F; Vahedi, G; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-09-01

    Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, and on the skin and other mucosa in mammals. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify yeast flora in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. Longitudinal study. A total of 453 samples were collected using double-guarded swabs from the vestibule, clitoral fossa and vagina in 151 horses. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar and incubated at 35°C for 7-10 days. Isolates were identified according to their morphological characteristics and biochemical profiles. Yeast colonies were isolated from 60 (39.7%) of the 151 horses. The isolated yeasts belonged to nine genera, and included Candida spp. (53.2%), Cryptococcus spp. (12.2%), Saccharomyces spp. (10.5%), Geotrichum spp. (8.0%), Rhodotorula spp. (7.1%), Malassezia spp. (3.7%), Trichosporon spp. (2.6%), Kluyveromyces spp. (2.6%) and Sporothrix spp. (0.2%). Candida krusei (43.1%) was the most frequent Candida species isolated. There was a significant difference in prevalence between C. krusei and other Candida species (Pyeast isolates (48.0%) than the vagina (18.3%). The isolation of yeast colonies from multiparous females (76.8%) was significantly higher than from maiden mares (P<0.05). The study was limited by the difficulty of distinguishing between normal flora and potential pathogens. Candida spp., in particular C. krusei, represent important flora resident in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. This is particularly important in contexts that require the initiation of empirical treatment prior to the completion of culture results. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Yeasts in pigeon feacal droppings in Lisbon - Portugal, 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Maria Lourdes Martins

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results of a preliminary survey held in city of Lisbon. Eighty faecal samples were examined between Summer and Autumn, 1994, from twelve different urban areas, mainly near churchs and monuments where birds nest, rest or eat. From each sample 1 g was weighted and suspensed in 10 ml of destilled sterilized water and consecutive decimal diluitions were executed. Yeasts were enumerated and grouped by species, based on morphological types. On eighty faecal samples the most prevalent yeasts identified were: Candida humicola (51.5%, Candida albicans (48.7%, Cryptococcus neoformans (5% and Trichosporon cutaneum (37.5%.

  19. Distribution of dimorphic yeast species in commercial extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2010-12-01

    Recent microbiological research has demonstrated the presence of a rich microflora mainly composed of yeasts in the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oil. Some of the yeasts are considered useful as they improve the organoleptic characteristics of the oil during preservation, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. However, some dimorphic species can also be found among the unwanted yeasts present in the oil, considered to be opportunistic pathogens to man as they have often been isolated from immunocompromised hospital patients. Present research demonstrates the presence of dimorphic yeast forms in 26% of the commercial extra virgin olive oil originating from different geographical areas, where the dimorphic yeasts are represented by 3-99.5% of the total yeasts. The classified isolates belonged to the opportunistic pathogen species Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii, while among the dimorphic yeasts considered not pathogenic to man, the Candida diddensiae species was highlighted for the first time in olive oil. The majority of the studied yeast strains resulted lipase positive, and can consequently negatively influence the oil quality through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. Furthermore, all the strains showed a high level of affinity with some organic solvents and a differing production of biofilm in "vitro" corresponded to a greater or lesser hydrophobia of their cells. Laboratory trials indicated that the dimorphic yeasts studied are sensitive towards some components of the oil among which oleic acid, linoleic acid and triolein, whereas a less inhibiting effect was observed with tricaprilin or when the total polyphenols extracted from the oil were used. The observations carried out on a scanning electron microscope (SEM), demonstrated the production of long un-branched pseudohyphae in all the tested dimorphic yeasts when cultivated on nutrient

  20. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  1. Screening studies of yeasts capable of utilizing petroleum fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Masry, H.G.; Foda, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In these studies 23 yeasts cultures belonging to 10 genera of ascosporogenous, ballistosporogenous, and asporogenous yeasts, were screened with respect to their abilities of hydrocarbon utilization in synthetic media. Thus, kerosene, n-hexadecane, and wax distillate were compared as sole carbon sources in 2% final concentration. Kerosene exhibited marked inhibition on the growth of the majority of the strains, whereas active growth was observed with Debaryomyces vanrijii and many species of the genus Candida in media with n-hexadecane or wax distillate as sole source of carbon. In addition, some cultures belonging to the genera Sporobolomyces, Hansenula, Cryptococcus, and Trigonopsis could utilize some of these substrates, but to a lesser extent. Highest yield of cells and protein was obtained with Candida lipolytica NRRL 1094 in n-hexadecane medium, supplied with 0.03% yeast extract and trace element solutions. The results are discussed with respect to the possibilities of using new yeast genera, with special reference to the genus Debaryomyces, in microbial protein production.

  2. Diagnosis of oral fungal infection in patients undergoing head and neck cancer radiation. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulacio, L.; Paz, M.; Ramadan, S.; Ramos, L.; Marozzi, M.L.; Sortino, M.; Escovich, L.; Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy adverse effects are very common, they contribute to development of opportunistic infections. Genus Candida is often associated with oral diseases in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to study the presence of yeast in oral lesions, in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Swabs of oral mucosal lesions of 76 patients were studied. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated, with ATB Fungus-3 method, which tests 5-fluorcitosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC); and allows the estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Yeasts were isolated in 74% of samples, being Candida albicans, most frequent specie (53%), followed by C.tropicalis (24%), C.parapsilosis (14%), C.krusei (5%), C.dubliniensis (2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2%). All strains were susceptible to VRC. For other antifungals, there were resistant or dose-dependent-susceptible strains. Only C.krusei was resistant to the FCA. About AMB, 2 isolates of C. tropicalis presented a value of 2 mg/l MIC, dose with high incidence of adverse effects. These studies are important to establish early and suitable therapy, wich contribute to achieve lowers rates of disseminated forms of candidiasis, and to reduce the difficulties in food intake that carries the presence of oral lesions. (authors)

  3. Prevalence of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana in pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, María Josefina; Cuestas, María Luján; Landanburu, María Fernanda; Mujica, María Teresa

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulvovaginitis commonly diagnosed in gynecology care. In recent years, the taxonomy of the most important pathogenic Candida species, such as Candida albicans have undergone significant changes. This study examined the prevalence of C. albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal specimens from 210 pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginitis or having asymptomatic colonization. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used for the identification of the species. During the studied period, 55 isolates of Candida or other yeasts were obtained from specimens collected from 52 patients suffering from vulvovaginitis (24.8%). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species in 42 isolates (80.7%), either alone or in combination with other species of the genus (5.7%, n=3). Additionally, nine isolates of C. albicans (50%) were obtained from asymptomatic patients (n=18). C. dubliniensis was the causative agent in 2 (3.8%) cases of VVC, and was also isolated in one asymptomatic patient. Molecular assays were carried out using specific PCR to amplify the ACT1-associated intron sequence of C. dubliniensis. The amplification of the HWP1 gene also correctly identified isolates of the species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was isolated in this work. Some C. albicans isolates were either homozygous or heterozygous at the HWP1 locus. The distribution of heterozygous and homozygous C. albicans isolates at the HWP1 locus was very similar among patients suffering from VVC and asymptomatic patients (p=0.897). The presence of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, and the absence of C. africana in pregnant is noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Yeast microbiota in artisanal cheeses from Corrientes, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marina C; Fusco, Ángel J V; Carrasco, Marta S

    The artisanal cheese from Corrientes (from the Spanish acronym QAC-Queso Artesanal de Corrientes/Artisanal Cheese from Corrientes) is a soft cheese elaborated with raw cow milk and an artisanal coagulant agent. Lactic bacteria contitute the main flora of this cheese although yeasts are also present in high quantities as secondary microbiota and might play a relevant role in cheese ripening. The aim of this work was to evaluate yeast occurrence during QAC elaboration and ripening, and the effect of seasonal variation. Yeasts were isolated and purified from raw materials and cheese at different ripening stagesl elaborated during the different seasons. Yeast sample counts were in the order of 10 3 - 10 7 UFC/ml o UFC/g. Ninety yeast strains were classified: 9 from milk, 28 from the coagulant agent, 10 from curd and 43 from cheese. Candida predominated in milk samples while other yeast genera had low incidence. Candida also predominated in the coagulant agent samples, followed by genera Myxozyma and Debaryomyces. The isolates obtained from cheese belonged to the same genera predominating in the coagulant agent, and showed the same order of prevalence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequence and Analysis of the Genome of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccombeni, Alessandro; Vidanes, Genevieve; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis is closely related to the fungal pathogen Candida parapsilosis. However, whereas C. parapsilosis is a major cause of disease in immunosuppressed individuals and in premature neonates, C. orthopsilosis is more rarely associated with infection. We sequenced the C. orthopsilosis genome to facilitate the identification of genes associated with virulence. Here, we report the de novo assembly and annotation of the genome of a Type 2 isolate of C. orthopsilosis. The sequence was obtained by combining data from next generation sequencing (454 Life Sciences and Illumina) with paired-end Sanger reads from a fosmid library. The final assembly contains 12.6 Mb on 8 chromosomes. The genome was annotated using an automated pipeline based on comparative analysis of genomes of Candida species, together with manual identification of introns. We identified 5700 protein-coding genes in C. orthopsilosis, of which 5570 have an ortholog in C. parapsilosis. The time of divergence between C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis is estimated to be twice as great as that between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. There has been an expansion of the Hyr/Iff family of cell wall genes and the JEN family of monocarboxylic transporters in C. parapsilosis relative to C. orthopsilosis. We identified one gene from a Maltose/Galactoside O-acetyltransferase family that originated by horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium to the common ancestor of C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. We report that TFB3, a component of the general transcription factor TFIIH, undergoes alternative splicing by intron retention in multiple Candida species. We also show that an intein in the vacuolar ATPase gene VMA1 is present in C. orthopsilosis but not C. parapsilosis, and has a patchy distribution in Candida species. Our results suggest that the difference in virulence between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis may be associated with expansion of gene families. PMID:22563396

  6. The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Rad, M; Zafarghandi, S; Abbasabadi, B; Tavallaee, M

    2011-04-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide. According to previous epidemiological studies, Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida. The prevalence of non-Candida species, however, is increasing. Identification of Candida species among the population will not only help health professionals to choose suitable antifungal treatments, but also prevent development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to identify, using chromogenic agar medium, the Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among a sample of the Iranian population. In a prospective cohort study during a two year period from March 2006 to March 2008, swab samples of vaginal discharge/secretion were taken from 200 patients admitted to the gynecology clinic of Mahdieh Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with a clinical presentation suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates obtained were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and chromogenic agar medium. Candida species were also identified by germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospore production on Corn Meal Agar and carbohydrate absorption using the API 20C-AUX kit. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the risk factors associated with candidiasis. An assessment of the different species of recurrent and non-recurrent candidiasis was also made. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to analyze the data. A total of 191 isolates were obtained from 175 vaginal specimens. Candida albicans accounted for 67% of the strains including single and mixed infections. The other identified species were Candida glabrata (18.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.8%), Candida krusei (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (1.6%), and Candida guilliermondii (0.5%) respectively. Mixed infection with two or more species of Candida was seen in 10.3% of patients. The most common mixed cause was the combination of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Participants who were sexually active

  7. Distribution of yeast-like fungi at a university hospital in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ece, Gulfem

    2014-12-01

    The increased life span has led to application of more invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment of particularly immunosuppressed individuals. This situation drew more attention to fungal infections due to existence of yeast-like fungi. Candida infections have increased due to transplant in patients, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stays, and invasive procedures. Recently, identification of yeast-like fungi as well as antifungal susceptibility test has been gaining more importance. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of yeast-like fungi strains isolated from blood, urine, wound and respiratory specimens, which were sent from various departments of Izmir University School of Medicine University Hospital. The 262 yeast strains (of 13860 clinical specimens), isolated during 30.05.2012-20.05.2013, which were sent from various departments of Izmir University School of Medicine to Medical Microbiology Laboratory, were included in this study. Blood, wound, respiratory (sputum, tracheal secretion), and urine specimens were cultivated on blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 24-48 hours at 37°C. The isolates were cultivated on CHROMagar Candida and Cornmeal Tween 80 medium for identification. Besides, the automatized Vitek version 2.0 system was used for identification of the yeast strains as well as the antifungal susceptibility of blood culture strains. A total of 262 strains, isolated from the Anesthesiology and Reanimation Unit, as well as from the departments of Hematology, Urology, Infectious Diseases, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Ear Nose and Throat, were included in this study. The most common isolated yeast-like species was Candida albicans. C. parapsilosis was the most common yeast-like fungus isolated from blood cultures. All the blood culture strains were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole and voriconazole. Candida strains isolated from newborns, elderly patients, and intensive care patients

  8. Production of single-cell protein from enzymatic hydrolyzate of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, M.; Kometani, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuno, R.; Kamikubo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The components of rice straw, pretreated with sodium chlorite, cellulose and hemicellulose were solubilized with culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa or Trichoderma reesei. The ratio of glucose to total sugar in the solution obtained from the cellulose component with the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa was approximately twice that of Trichoderma reesei. Ten yeast strains (Candida utilis, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, Torulopsis xylinus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were cultivated as test organisms for single-cell protein (SCP) production on sugar solutions obtained from the straw, cellulose and hemicellulose components, pretreated with the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa. Sugar consumption, in terms of total sugar and cell yield, of the culture with the sugar solution obtained from pretreated straw were; 70% and 6.8 g/l for Candida tropicalis, 56% and 6.4 g/l for Torulopsis xylinus, 76% and 10.1 g/l for Trichosporon cutaneum, and 74% and 7.6 g/l for Candida guilliermondii. In addition, the highest consumption with respect to total sugar (87%) and the best dry cell yield (15.6 g/l) were observed with the culture of Trichosporon cutaneum using the sugar solution obtained from the hemicellulose component. (Refs. 17).

  9. Development of Yeast Populations during Processing and Ripening of Blue Veined Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Knox

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of blue veined cheese were analyzed regularly during different stages of manufacturing and ripening to determine the origin of contaminating the yeasts present in them, their population diversity and development until the end of the storage. Yeast diversity and development in the inner and outer core of the cheeses during ripening were also compared. Air samples revealed few if any yeasts whereas the samples in contact with the equipment and the surroundings revealed high number of yeasts, implicating it as the possible main source of post-pasteurization contamination, as very few yeasts were isolated from the milk and cheese making process itself. Samples from the inner and outer core of the maturing cheeses had typical survival curves. The number of yeasts on the outer core was about a 100-fold more than of those in the inner core. The most abundant yeasts isolated from the environment and ripening cheeses were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida versatilis and Cryptococcus albidus, while the yeasts Candida zeylanoides and Dekkera anomala were additionally isolated from the environment. Yeasts were present in high number, making their occurrence in blue-veined cheeses meaningful.

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and the correlation between triazoles susceptibility: Results from a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J; Xu, J; Wang, T

    2018-06-01

    Candida spp. is a common cause of invasive fungal disease. The aim of this study was to examine the susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and explore the correlation between triazoles susceptibility. The antifungal susceptibility in the present study was measured by ATB Fungus 3 method, and the potential relationship was examined by obtaining the correlation of measured minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Candida spp. isolates. A total of 2099 clinical isolates of Candida spp. from 1441 patients were analyzed. The organisms included 1435 isolates of Candida albicans, 207 isolates of Candida glabrata, 65 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, 31 isolates of Candida krusei, 268 isolates of Candida tropicalis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than fluconazole and against Candida spp. in vitro. The fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole MIC 90 (MIC for 90% of the isolates) for all Candida spp. isolates was 4mg/L, 1mg/L and 0.25mg/L, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the fluconazole MIC s for Candida spp. isolates and this for voriconazole (R 2 =0.475; P<0.01) and itraconazole (R 2 =0.431; P<0.01). Voriconazole MICs for the Candida spp. isolates also correlated with those for itraconazole (R 2 =0.401; P<0.01). These observations suggest that the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole exhibits a moderate correlation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  12. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  13. Photodynamic inactivation of four Candida species induced by photogem®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Nordi Dovigo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro susceptibility of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis and C. krusei to photodynamic therapy (PDT induced by Photogem® and light emitting diode (LED. Suspensions of each Candida strain were treated with three photosensitizer (PS concentrations (10, 25 and 50 mg/L and exposed to 18.0, 25.5 and 37.5 J/cm² LED light fluences (λ ~ 455 nm. Control suspensions were treated only with PS concentrations, only exposed to the LED light fluences or not exposed to LED light or PS. Sixteen experimental conditions were obtained and each condition was repeated three times. From each sample, serial dilutions were obtained and aliquots were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. After incubation of plates (37 ºC for 48 hours, colonies were counted (cfu/mL and the data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05. Complete killing of C. albicans was observed after 18.0 J/cm² in association with 50 mg/L of PS. C. dubliniensis were inactivated after 18.0 J/cm² using 25 mg/L of PS. The inactivation of C. tropicalis was observed after photosensitization with 25 mg/L and subsequent illumination at 25.5 J/cm². For C. krusei, none of the associations between PS and light resulted in complete killing of this species. PDT proved to be effective for the inactivation of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. In addition, reduction in the viability of C. krusei was achieved with some of the PS and light associations.

  14. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the

  15. Identification of inhibitors of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Candida albicans by a reporter screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Eickhoff, Holger; Hohn, Erwin; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2013-03-10

    Candida albicans is one of the most common opportunistic fungal pathogens, causing life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. As it is not primarily a pathogen, but can exist in a commensal state, we aimed at the identification of new anti-infective compounds which do not eradicate the fungus, but primarily disable a virulence determinant. The yeast–hyphae-dimorphism of C. albicans is considered a major contributor to fungal disease, as mutants locked into either yeast or hyphal state have been shown to be less virulent in the mouse-model. We devised a high-throughput screening procedure which allows us to find inhibitors of the induction of hyphae. Hyphae-formation was induced by nitrogen starvation at 37 °C and neutral pH in a reporter strain, which couples promoter activity of the hyphae-specific HWP1 to β-galactosidase expression. In a pilot screening of 720 novel synthetic compounds, we identified substances which inhibited the outgrowth of germ tubes. They belonged to chemical classes not yet known for antimycotic properties, namely methyl aryl-oxazoline carboxylates, dihydrobenzo[d]isoxazolones and thiazolo[4,5-e]benzoisoxazoles. In conclusion we developed a novel screening assay, which addresses the morphological switch from the yeast form of C. albicans to its hyphal form and identified novel chemical structures with activity against C. albicans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vulvovaginal Candida species among women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Khan,1 Jawad Ahmed,2 Amina Gul,3 Aamer Ikram,1 Farida Khurram Lalani1 1Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, National University of Management Sciences, CMH Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 2Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Microbiology, Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is considered as a pervasive gynecological problem among women worldwide. Owing to this fact, in the current study, we aimed at assessing the prevalence rate of Candida spp. causing VVC in symptomatic pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Methods: This study was carried out in the tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar during the period of July 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016. The study group included 450 pregnant women in the age group of 17–44 years with symptoms of excessive vaginal discharge, pain and pruritis. In all, 108 pregnant women were culture positive for Candida. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST was conducted on specimens against various azoles and polyene F group of antifungals. Results: Out of 108 Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swabs, there were 45 (41.7% Candida albicans, 18 (16.7% Candida tropicalis, 18 (16.7% Candida krusei, 16 (14.8% Candida glabrata and 11 (10.2% Candida dubliniensis. According to age distribution, 27 years was the mean age. Pregnancy trimester distribution among patients was as follows: 21 (19.4% patients were in their first trimester, 65 (60.2% patients were in their second trimester and 22 (20.4% patients were in the third trimester. Susceptibility of fluconazole was determined as follows: 33.3% of the Candida isolates were sensitive, 4.6% were susceptible dose dependent (SDD and 62% were resistant. Susceptibility of Candida spp. with respect to nystatin in patients with VVC was as follows: 25% were

  17. Isolation and Characterization of a Catabolite Repression-Insensitive Mutant of a Methanol Yeast, Candida boidinii A5, Producing Alcohol Oxidase in Glucose-Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Sawai, Tohru; Tani, Yoshiki

    1987-01-01

    Mutants exhibiting alcohol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.13) activity when grown on glucose in the presence of methanol were found among 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants derived from a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5. One of these mutants, strain ADU-15, showed the highest alcohol oxidase activity in glucose-containing medium. The growth characteristics and also the induction and degradation of alcohol oxidase were compared with the parent strain and mutant strain ADU-15. In the parent strain, initia...

  18. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  19. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-08-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  20. Undecylenic Acid Inhibits Morphogenesis of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    McLain, Nealoo; Ascanio, Rhoda; Baker, Carol; Strohaver, Robert A.; Dolan, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  1. Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, N; Ascanio, R; Baker, C; Strohaver, R A; Dolan, J W

    2000-10-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  2. Occurrence and significance of Candida albicans in Lake Ontario bathing beaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherry, J. P; Kuchma, S. R; Zarzour, J; Dutka, B. J

    1979-01-01

    .... In this report we have reviewed the potential of different fungi to serve as fecal pollution indicators and the literature pertaining to the occurrence of the potentially pathogenic yeast Candida...

  3. Oral Candida spp. colonization in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Moris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several yeast species of Candida genus can colonize the skin as well as the mucous membrane of the vagina and the digestive tract for short or long periods. Depending on the host's immunological state and the yeast's virulence, colonization can become an infection, invading the colonized tissues and also disseminating. AIDS is characterized by the host's intensive and progressive immunodepression which manifests as diverse symptoms, mainly lesions in the mouth. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and is an important indicator of the disease progress and the immunosuppression increase. The factors involved in the equilibrium between Candida spp. and HIV-infected subjects are sometimes contradictory and were evaluated in the present study specially for colonization.

  4. [Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida strains isolated as nosocomial pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Ergünay, Koray; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Ardıç, Nurittin; Hoşbul, Tuğrul; Haznedaroğlu, Tunçer

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decade, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections and antifungal agents used to treat these infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections among patients in intensive care units. One of the main goals of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of infectious Candida species isolated in our hospital and accordingly supply data for hospital infection (HI) control. The other aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and practical applicability of traditional and molecular methods used to identify Candida isolates to the species level. A total of 77 Candida strains that were isolated from various clinical specimens of 60 hospitalized patients (29 male, 24 female; 7 were children) were included in the study. Fifty-seven (74%) of those isolates were defined as HI agents according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The most common Candida species identified as agents of HI were C.albicans (22; 38.6%), followed by C.tropicalis (14; 24.6%), C.parapsilosis (13; 22.8%), C.glabrata (7; 12.3%) and Candida spp. (1; 1.75%). It was determined that bloodstream (26; 45.6%) and urinary tract infections (24; 42.1%) were the most frequently encountered nosocomial infections caused by Candida species. In addition it was detected that the most frequent causative agent of bloodstream infections was C.parapsilosis (10; 38.5%) and of urinary tract infections was C.albicans (12; 50%). The evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of traditional phenotypic methods [germ tube formation, chlamydospore formation in corn meal agar, growth at 45°C, colony characteristics on CHROMagar Candida medium, carbohydrate assimilation properties detected by API ID 32C (BioMerieux, France) system] and some molecular techniques [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using ITS-1, ITS-3 and ITS 4 primers, PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), PCRRFLP

  5. Genes regulation encoding ADP/ATP carrier in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebohacova, M.

    2000-01-01

    Genes encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis were investigated. AAC2 is coding for the major AAC isoform in S. cerevisiae. We suggest that AAC2 is a member of a syn-expression group of genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Within our previous studies on the regulation of the AAC2 transcription an UAS (-393/-268) was identified that is essential for the expression of this gene. Two functional regulatory cis-elements are located within this UAS -binding sites for an ABFl factor and for HAP2/3/4/5 heteromeric complex. We examined relative contributions and mutual interactions of the ABFl and HAP2/3/4/5 factors in the activation of transcription from the UAS of the AAC2 gene. The whole UAS was dissected into smaller sub-fragments and tested for (i) the ability to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in vitro, (ii) the ability to confer heterologous expression using AAC3 gene lacking its own promoter, and (iii) the expression of AAC3-lacZ fusion instead of intact AAC3 gene. The obtained results demonstrated that: a) The whole UAS as well as sub-fragment containing only ABF1-binding site are able to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in oxygen- and heme- dependent manner. The experiments with antibody against the ABF1 showed that the ABF1 factor is one of the proteins binding to AAC2 promoter. We have been unsuccessful to prove the binding of cellular proteins to the HAP2/3/4/5-binding site. However, the presence of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is necessary to drive a binding of cellular proteins to the ABF1-binding site in carbon source-dependent manner. b) The presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to confer the growth of Aaac2 mutant strain on non- fermentable carbon source when put in front of AAC3 gene introduced on centromeric vector to Aaac2 mutant strain. c) For the activation of AAC3-lacZ expression on

  6. Identification of Candida species isolated from cows suffering mastitis in four Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.A. Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A mastite representa um dos problemas mais sérios que afetam as fazendas de gado leiteiro. As mastites clínica e subclínica em bovinos, devido a leveduras, são causadas principalmente por espécies do gênero Candida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar quais espécies dessa levedura estavam presentes em amostras de leite obtidas da glândula mamária de vacas apresentando mastite. Um total de 428 amostras de leite foi coletado nos estados de São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. A identificação foi realizada por meio de critérios fenotípicos e fisiológicos. Foi possível isolar seis espécies de Candida em 55 (12,8% das amostras. As espécies mais frequentes foram C. krusei (34,6%, C. parapsilosis (25,4%, C. tropicalis (18,2% e C. albicans (12,8%. Esses resultados sugerem que outras espécies de Candida, além da C. albicans, possuem um papel importante em mastites micóticas em vacas.

  7. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations...... of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR......-DGGE technique followed by the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species identified were typed by rep-PCR. Candida krusei was the predominant yeast species in mawe fermentation followed by Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Other yeast species were detected...

  8. Differentiation of enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms isolated from various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogusławska-Wąs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determinate enzymatic activity of yeast-like organisms - Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula rubra, Trichosporon beigelii, Zygosaccharomyces sp. - isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon and herring salads. We have shown that lipolytic activity was higher than protcolytic for every strain tested. The lowest activity level was found out for amylolytic hydrolases. The results also demonstrated that yeast-like organisms isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon revealed much higher average enzymatic activity compared to tbe same species isolated from herring salads, excepting C. lipolytica.

  9. Host defence against disseminated and invasive candida albicans infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating

  10. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  11. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  12. Diagnosis of bronchial asthma in sensitization to yeast-like fungus candida ablicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnasheva, R.Kh.; Gumerova, A.M.; Glushko, N.I.; Rakhmatullina, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The peculiarities of bronchial asthma caused by hypersensitivity to antigens Candida albicans are studied. The allergen Candida albicans developed in the Kazan SIEM is used in the specific diagnosis. The various types of reactions in skin and provocative inhalation tests are analyzed, the role of specific immunoglobulins E is stressed

  13. Promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral Candida biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Marion; Guerineau, Amandine; Boudesocque, Leslie; Costa, Damien; Bazinet, Laurent; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Imbert, Christine

    2014-04-01

    In the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) and two other red fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Malpighia punicifolia L.) were assessed on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata yeasts. When added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against Candida spp. when used at low concentrations. In addition, the pretreatment of surfaces with this extract induced an anti-adhesion activity mainly against C. glabrata yeasts and an antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. This activity was dependent on concentration, species, and strain. A phytochemical investigation bioguided by anti-adhesion tests against the two Candida species was carried out on crude cranberry juice to determine the active fractions. Three subfractions enriched in proanthocyanidins showed an anti-adhesion activity at low concentrations. This study investigated for the first time the interest of crude extracts of cranberry and cranberry juice fractions to prevent biofilms of C. glabrata. It highlighte