Sample records for yag pulsed laser

  1. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel


    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  2. Measurement of pulse lengthening with pulse energy increase in picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Cutolo, A.; Zeni, L.; Berardi, V.; Bruzzese, R.; Solimeno, S.; Spinelli, N.


    Taking advantage of a new technique, we have monitored the relative variations of time duration and mode size as a function of the pulse energy for 30-ps-long Nd:YAG laser pulses. In particular, by carrying out a statistical analysis, we have observed that the pulse time duration is an increasing function of the pulse energy, according to the theoretical modeling of passively mode-locked lasers. The measurements can be easily extended to the femtosecond regime.

  3. Pulsed Tm:YAG laser ablation of knee joint tissues

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Vari, Sandor G.; Duffy, J. T.; Miller, J. M.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.


    We investigated the effect of a free-running 2.01 micron pulsed Tm:YAG laser on bovine knee joint tissues. Ablation rates of fresh fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone were measured in saline as a function of laser fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and fiber core size (400 and 600 microns). All tissues could be effectively ablated and the ablation rate increased linearly with the increasing fluence. Use of fibers of different core sizes, while maintaining constant energy fluence, did not result in significant difference in ablation rate. Histology analyses of the ablated tissue samples reveal average Tm:YAG radiation induced thermal damage (denatunalization) zones ranging between 130 and 540 microns, depending on the laser parameters and the tissue type.

  4. Optodynamic analysis of pulsed-laser processing with a Nd:YAG laser

    Strgar, Simon; Možina, Janez


    Laser drilling and laser marking of metals with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser are discussed. Some characteristics of pulsed-laser processing and the possibilities of process optodynamic analysis are presented for the laser-drilling of aluminium. The optodynamic analysis is based on observation of generated shock waves, which propagate in the material as well as in the surrounding air during laser processing. For the detection of laser-induced shock waves in the air and for measurements of their chara...

  5. Treatment of rosacea with long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser

    Ekin Meşe Say


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the face. There is no curative treatment for the disease. Facial flushing and vascular lesions due to rosacea may significantly affect a patient’s quality of life. Topical and oral antibiotics are not effective for treating rosacea. Currently, laser treatment of vascular lesions has been reported in the literature. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-pulse 1064-nm neodymium: YAG (Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of vascular lesions (erythema and telangiectasia in rosacea patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (29 women, 10 men with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR were recruited into the study. Severity of the disease (ETR-score: 0-3 was assessed for all patients. We used long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser for vascular lesions at 3-4 weeks intervals. The face was divided into seven anatomic regions for evaluation. Assessment was made by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment photographs by using ETR-scores. For evaluating patient satisfaction, a scale of 0 to 3 was used. Results: The patients were divided into three groups according to the ETR scores [ETR-1 (n=12, ETR-2 (n=9, ETR-3 (n=18]. Following an average of 3.95 (2-8 sessions laser treatments, the clinical improvement was statistically significant in all groups (p<0.05. The mean reduction of ETR-score was 91.70% in patients with ETR-1 and. the clinical improvement was to be decreased in severe forms of ETR. The most common sites for the lesions were the malar region, ala nasi and the nasal dorsum, respectively. The lesions on the ala nasi were more recalcitrant to the treatment than those on the other areas. Regarding to physician assessment of treatment’s success, 97% of the patients was associated with moderate and excellent improvement. According to physicians’ assessment, excellent improvement was noticed in 43.58% and, 61.5% of patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with this

  6. Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides.

    Tan, Yang; Luan, Qingfang; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez


    This work reports on the Q-switched pulsed laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides. Double-cladding waveguides with different combination of diameters were inscribed into a sample of Nd:YAG ceramic. With an additional semiconductor saturable absorber, stable pulsed laser emission at the wavelength of 1064 nm was achieved with pulses of 21 ns temporal duration and ~14 μJ pulse energy at a repetition rate of 3.65 MHz.

  7. Coherent polarization locking: an approach to mitigating optical damage in a pulsed Ho:YAG laser.

    Tan, L H; Chua, C F; Phua, P B


    Intracavity optical damage is mitigated in a pulsed Ho:YAG laser cavity using the coherent polarization locking (CPL) technique. By splitting the available pump power into two individual Ho:YAG laser rods, we passively coherently locked two orthogonal polarization lasers with 9.13 mJ output pulse energies and 14 ns pulsewidths, and operating at 800 Hz repetition rate. A conventional Ho:YAG laser cavity with the same pump and cavity configuration results in severe optical damage when operating at <2 kHz repetition rate, thus limiting the output pulse energies to <5 mJ. We also demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge, the first pulsed operation within the entire CPL Ho:YAG laser cavity by Q-switching in one of the polarization arms, producing nanosecond pulses with no sign of pulse instability.

  8. High-gain Yb:YAG amplifier for ultrashort pulse laser at high-average power

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.; Du, Detao


    We report on a Yb:YAG laser amplifier for ultrashort pulse applications at kW-class average power. The laser uses two large-aperture, disk-type gain elements fabricated from composite ceramic YAG material, and a multi-pass extraction architecture to obtain high gain in a chirped-pulse amplification system. The disks are edge-pumped, thus allowing for reduced doping of host material with laser ions, which translates to lower lasing threshold and lower heat dissipation in the Yb:YAG material. The latter makes it possible to amplify a near diffraction-limited seed without significant thermo-optical distortions. This work presents results of testing the laser amplifier with relay optics configured for energy extraction with up to 40 passes through the disks. Applications for the ultrashort pulse laser amplifier include producing laser-induced plasma channel, laser material ablation, and laser acceleration of atomic particles.

  9. High-gain multipassed Yb:YAG amplifier for ultrashort pulse laser

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.; Du, Detao


    We report on a Yb:YAG laser amplifier for ultrashort pulse applications at kW-class average power. The laser uses two large-aperture, disk-type gain elements fabricated from composite ceramic YAG material, and a multi-pass extraction architecture to obtain high gain in a chirped-pulse amplification system. The disks are edge-pumped, thus allowing for reduced doping of the host material with laser ions, which translates to lower lasing threshold and lower heat dissipation in the Yb:YAG material. The latter makes it possible to amplify a near diffraction-limited seed without significant thermo-optical distortions. This work presents results of testing the laser amplifier with relay optics and passive polarization switching configured for energy extraction with up to 40 passes through the disks. Applications for the ultrashort pulse laser amplifier include producing a laser-induced plasma channel, laser material ablation, and laser acceleration of atomic particles.

  10. Sheet metal welding using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser-robot

    Huang, Qi; Kullberg, Gunnar; Skoog, Hans

    This paper presents a pulsed Nd: YAG laser-robot system for spot and seam welding of mild steel sheets. The study evaluates the laser beams behaviour for welding, and then investigates pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot and seam welding processes. High pulse power intensity is needed to initiate the key-hole welding process and a threshold pulse energy to reach full penetration. In seam welding, a weld consists of successive overlapping spots. Both high pulse energy and high average power are needed to keep the key-hole welding going. A 70% overlap is used to define overlapping spot welding as seam welding and to optimize process parameters because a high tensile strength joint compatible with the strength of the base material can be obtained when the overlap is ≥ 70%; at the same time a smooth seam with full penetration is obtained. In these cases, the joints in pulsed Nd: YAG laser welding are comparable in strength to those obtained with CO 2 laser welding. Robot positioning and motion accuracies can meet the demands of Nd: YAG laser sheet metal welding, but its cornering accuracy affects the welding processes. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the YAG laser-robot system for production in the automotive industry.

  11. Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance.

    Bader, Markus J; Pongratz, Thomas; Khoder, Wael; Stief, Christian G; Herrmann, Thomas; Nagele, Udo; Sroka, Ronald


    In vitro investigations of Ho:YAG laser-induced stone fragmentation were performed to identify potential impacts of different pulse durations on stone fragmentation characteristics. A Ho:YAG laser system (Swiss LaserClast, EMS S.A., Nyon, Switzerland) with selectable long or short pulse mode was tested with regard to its fragmentation and laser hardware compatibility properties. The pulse duration is depending on the specific laser parameters. Fragmentation tests (hand-held, hands-free, single-pulse-induced crater) on artificial BEGO stones were performed under reproducible experimental conditions (fibre sizes: 365 and 200 µm; laser settings: 10 W through combinations of 0.5, 1, 2 J/pulse and 20, 10, 5 Hz, respectively). Differences in fragmentation rates between the two pulse duration regimes were detected with statistical significance for defined settings. Hand-held and motivated Ho:YAG laser-assisted fragmentation of BEGO stones showed no significant difference between short pulse mode and long pulse mode, neither in fragmentation rates nor in number of fragments and fragment sizes. Similarly, the results of the hands-free fragmentation tests (with and without anti-repulsion device) showed no statistical differences between long pulse and short pulse modes. The study showed that fragmentation rates for long and short pulse durations at identical power settings remain at a comparable level. Longer holmium laser pulse duration reduces stone pushback. Therefore, longer laser pulses may result in better clinical outcome of laser lithotripsy and more convenient handling during clinical use without compromising fragmentation effectiveness.

  12. Emission spectra of YAG:Er3+ under pulse laser-thermal excitation

    Marchenko, V. M.; Shakir, Yu. A.


    Spectra and kinetics of emission of YAG:0.5% Er3+ monocrystal in visible and NIR ranges were investigated under laser-thermal excitation by the pulses of CO2 laser of 100 ns duration at wavelength λ = 10,6 μμm. Kinetics of integral emission was interpreted.

  13. 1.32 μm Nd3+∶YAG Pulse Laser

    WANG Zhaoying; WU Xing


    Using specially coated mirrors, an output energy of 0.97 J at 1.32 μm from a Nd3+∶YAG pulse laser is obtained with pumping energy of 66 J. The repetition rate is 1 pulse/sec and the slope efficiency is 1.7%. The repetition rate can be changed from 1 pulse/sec to 10 pulses/sec.

  14. Pump beam waist-dependent pulse energy generation in Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip laser

    Li, Chao-yu; Dong, Jun


    The incident pump beam waist-dependent pulse energy generation in Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal passively Q-switched microchip laser has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by moving the Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal along the pump beam direction. Highest pulse energy of 0.4 mJ has been generated when the Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal is moved about 6 mm away from the focused pump beam waist. Laser pulses with pulse width of 1.7 ns and peak power of over 235 kW have been achieved. The theoretically calculated effective laser beam area at different positions of Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal along the pump beam direction is in good agreement with the experimental results. The highest peak power can be generated by adjusting the pump beam waist incident on the Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal to optimize the effective laser beam area in passively Q-switched microchip laser.

  15. The Overlapped Triple Circle Pulse Technique with Nd:YAG Laser for Refractory Hand Warts.

    Bingol, Ugur Anil; Cömert, Asuman; Cinar, Can


    Inadvertent superficial treatment of hand warts causes recurrence, whereas aggressive treatment can lead to tissue defects resulting in hand dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a novel laser treatment modality for recalcitrant hand warts. The study included 51 patients who were treated for 146 recalcitrant hand warts using 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser between 2011 and 2014. The laser treatment method is novel because each treated wart was aligned at the intersection point of the circles of 3 laser pulses per session. Among the 146 hand warts, 88.35% were successfully treated with one session and 100% of those that required a second treatment session were treated successfully, based on the 12 month follow-up examination. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment was observed to be a safe, rapid, and effective method for treating recalcitrant hand warts.

  16. [Retinal photocoagulation with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm)].

    Roider, J; Schiller, M; el Hifnawi, E S; Birngruber, R


    The small difference in wavelength between an argon laser (514 nm) and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), together with the advantage of the solid-state technology, makes the Nd:YAG laser likely to play a major role in retinal photocoagulation in the near future. For technical reasons all frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers work in a quasi-continuous mode, emitting a burst of highly repetitive short laser pulses during the exposure time desired. We investigated the side effects due to high peak irradiances of those short laser pulse trains (Crystal Focus Nd:YAG laser, Emerald; pulse duration 1-10 microseconds, repetition rate 13 KHz) in rabbits in comparison with a standard argon laser system (Zeiss, Visulas, Argon II). The energy necessary for blanching the retina was similar in both cases. As opposed to the argon laser system, subretinal bubbles were regularly visible ophthalmoscopically with the Nd:YAG system, when average powers as high as 200 mW were used. The ED50 power for bubble formation is about 2-3 times above the ED50 power for blanching. Thermal calculations show that this bubble formation effect is likely to be related to the peak power of the short pulses. The hemorrhage threshold is similar in both systems. However, light microscopically there is no difference between the two laser systems. Panretinal photocoagulation (300-500 microns, 100-200 ms) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy produced such bubbles about once per 1000 lesions.

  17. Generation of 170-fs Laser Pulses at 1053 nm by a Passively Mode-Locked Yb:YAG Laser

    ZHOU Bin-Bin; WEI Zhi-Yi; LI De-Hua; TENG Hao; Bourdet G. L


    A novel method is developed to obtain 1.05μm laser operation with a Yb:YAG laser. By using a Yb:YAG crystal with proper length and doping concentration, a femtosecond Yb: YAG laser is realized at the central wavelength of 1053nm. The measured pulse duration and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) are 17ors and 7nm; the repetition rate is 80 MHz. Under a power pump of 2 W, an average mode-locking power of 180mW is achieved.

  18. Combined pulsed dye laser and fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of hypertrophic port wine stain.

    Radmanesh, Mohammed; Radmanesh, Ramin


    The hypertrophic Port Wine Stain (PWS) is only partially and superficially treated with the Pulsed dye laser (PDL) because of its limited depth of penetration. We used combined PDL and fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser to treat a case with hypertrophic PWS. After tumescent anesthesia, few holes were made by a 16-gauge needle on different sides of the lesion. The fiberoptic tip of 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser was inserted within the holes and was pushed forward while triggering. In a fan pattern and by a back and forth movement, the subcutaneous and deep dermal areas were coagulated. The skin and outer mucosal surfaces were then treated by PDL. The fiberoptic system used was Accusculpt 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser (Lutronic lasers, South Korea), and the PDL used was 585 nm Nlite system (Chromogenex UK). The parameters used for PDL were fluence = 9 Joules/cm(2) and the spot size was 5 mm. The parameters used for fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser were: Pulse rate = 30 Hz, pulse energy = 300 mJ, power = 6 W, and the total energy = 4000 J for the whole face and mucosa. Little sign of regression and moderate purpura were detected immediately after combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG and PDL therapy. The lesion gradually regressed within 4 months with satisfactory color and volume change. Combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser and PDL can be used for the treatment of deeper and superficial layers of hypertrophic PWS.

  19. In vitro study of the variable square pulse Er:YAG laser cutting efficacy for apicectomy.

    Grgurević, Josko; Grgurević, Lovro; Miletić, Ivana; Karlović, Zoran; Krmek, Silvana Jukić; Anić, Ivica


    Variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser should be quicker than older Er:YAG lasers. The objectives were: (1) comparison of VSP laser and mechanical handpiece efficacy for apicectomy and (2) determination of optimal pulse width/energy/frequency combination. Sixty extracted, single-rooted mature human teeth with round apical parts were instrumented, root filled, cleaned, and divided into four groups. Apical 2 mm of each root were apicectomized with mechanical handpiece and Er:YAG laser with three different settings (LaserA = 200 mJ/300 microseconds/ 8 Hz; LaserB = 200 mJ/100 microseconds/8 Hz; LaserC = 380 mJ/100 microseconds/20 Hz). Timing results were statistically compared. LaserC was the most efficient setting. Differences between groups were significant except between LaserC-Mechanical and LaserA-LaserC (P apicectomy is slower by a factor of 7-31 than mechanical handpiece, but treatment outcome is acceptable. Optimal settings for apicectomy with VSP laser are 380 mJ/100 microseconds/20 Hz. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Features of gallstone and kidney stone fragmentation by IR-pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation

    Batishche, Sergei A.


    It is shown that infra-red ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) long pulse (approximately 100 microsecond(s) ) radiation of YAG:Nd laser, operating in free generation regime, effectively fragments gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. The features of the mechanism of this process are investigated. Laser lithotripsy is nowadays a method widely used for fragmentation of gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. Flashlamp pumped dye lasers of microsecond duration are most often used for such purposes. Nevertheless, there are some reports on lithotripsies with nanosecond duration laser pulses (for example, Q-switched YAG:Nd laser). The mechanism of the laser fragmentation of such stones was supposed to be the next. The laser powerful radiation, delivered through the optical fiber, is absorbed by the material of the stone. As a result of such highly localized energy absorption, dense plasma is formed, which expands. Such plasma and vapor, liquid confined, forms a cavitation bubble. This bubble grows, reaches its most dimension and then collapses on itself in some hundreds of micro seconds. Shock waves generated during the growth and the collapse of these bubbles are the origin of fragmentation of the stone. It is necessary to say that there are rather confined data on the hundreds microsecond laser pulse fragmentation especially what concerns the usage of infra-red (IR) YAG:Nd lasers with long laser pulses. Clearing this problem would result in better understanding of the fragmentation mechanism and it could favor development of simple and more reliable laser systems for lithotripsy. In this work we report about investigation of features of an effective fragmentation of gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones under exposure of IR ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) radiation of repetitive YAG:Nd laser working in free generation regime.

  1. Fractional Carbon Dioxide, Long Pulse Nd:YAG and Pulsed Dye Laser in the Management of Keloids.

    Annabathula, Ashwini; Sekar, C Shanmuga; Srinivas, C R


    Keloids are abnormal wound responses characterised by excessive deposition of collagen and glycoprotein. They are both aesthetically and symptomatically distressing for most of the patients. There are reports of keloid management with pulsed dye laser (PDL), fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser individually and also in combination of CO2 with PDL and CO2 with Nd:YAG. Here, we discuss a combination of all the 3 lasers as a therapy for keloids. This study aims to assess the efficacy of fractional CO2 laser, long pulse Nd:YAG laser and PDL in the management of keloids. Fifteen patients with keloids were treated by fractional CO2 laser, followed by PDL and long pulse Nd:YAG laser at monthly intervals. Four patients discontinued the study and were lost for follow-up. Photographs were taken at the beginning of the treatment and at the end of five sessions. Clinical improvement was analysed based on a visual analogue scale graded by three blinded observers after assessing the clinical photographs for the improvement in size, colour and aesthetic impression. Of the 11 patients, one patient had excellent improvement, one patient had good improvement, four patients had moderate improvement, two patients had mild improvement and three had no improvement. Lasers may have a synergistic effect when combined with other modalities of treatment but cannot be used as monotherapy in the treatment of keloids.

  2. Features of gallstone and kidney stone fragmentation by IR pulsed YAG:Nd laser radiation

    Batishche, Sergei A.


    It is shown that infra-red ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) long pulse (approximately 100 microsecond(s) ) radiation of YAG:Nd laser, operating in free generation regime, effectively fragments gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. The features of the mechanism of this process are investigated.

  3. Effective shortening of picosecond pulses emitted by a YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ laser

    Dianov, E.M.; Karasik, A.Y.; Mamyshev, P.V.; Onishchukov, G.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Stel' makh, M.F.; Fomichev, A.A.


    A 15-fold reduction in the duration of YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ laser pulses was achieved under conditions of active mode locking and Q switching at a pulse repetition frequency approx.1 kHz. Phase self-modulation in a single-mode quartz fiber waveguide of length 10 m resulted in broadening of the laser emission spectrum right up to approx.10 cm/sup -1/ at the waveguide exit. The pulses were then shortened in a system with a diffraction grating. The pulse duration was measured by a correlation system in which the second harmonic was generated.

  4. Pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce: A randomized, comparative, observer-blinded study.

    Ibrahim, S M


    Angiokeratoma of Fordyce is typically asymptomatic, blue-to-red papules with a scaly surface located on the scrotum, shaft of penis or labia majora. They can be treated with some locally destructive treatment modalities such as excision, electrocoagulation, cryotherapy and laser. To compare the effects of the pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce. Twenty tow patients with angiokeratoma of Fordyce were included in this study. All participants received three sessions of pulsed dye laser on the selected side or part of lesional area and long pulsed Nd:YAG laser on the other side or part of lesional area. Two dermatologists independently evaluated the photographs of the baseline and two-month follow-up after last session using a grade system in which treatment response was categorized into six grades. Both PDL and long pulsed Nd:YAG laser revealed statistically significant improvements in angiokeratoma of fordyce. Comparatively, there was a statistical difference between them (overall mean improvement with PDL, 61.8%, versus Nd:YAG, 77.63%; p laser are effective and safe in the treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce with better response in Nd:YAG laser than pulsed dye laser.

  5. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  6. Pulsed dye laser versus Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of plantar warts: a comparative study.

    El-Mohamady, Abd El-Shakor; Mearag, Ibrahim; El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Elshahed, Ahmed; Shokeir, Hisham; Mahmoud, Anas


    Plantar warts are common viral infection that are usually challenging in treatment. Conventional treatment methods are usually invasive, have low efficacy, and need long recovery periods. In this study, we compared pulsed dye laser (PDL) and neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts. The study included 46 patients with multiple plantar warts. In each patient, lesions were divided into two groups: one treated with Nd:YAG (spot size, 7 mm; energy, 100 J/cm(2); and pulse duration, 20 ms) and the other with PDL (spot size, 7 mm; energy, 8 J/cm(2); and pulse duration, 0.5 ms). Laser sessions were applied every 2 weeks with maximum of six sessions. The study included 63% males and 37% females with a mean age of 29.6 ± 7.34 years. The cure rate was 73.9% with PDL with no significant difference (p = 0.87) from Nd:YAG (78.3%). The number of sessions required was more in PDL (mean, 5.05 ± 0.2) compared with Nd:YAG (mean, 4.65 ± 0.5) but without significant difference. Complications were significantly higher with Nd:YAG (43.5%) compared with PDL (8.7%). Hematoma was the most common complication recorded by Nd:YAG (28.3 %), and it was significantly higher (p = 0.002) than PDL (2.2%). Relapse was recorded in 8.7% with Nd:YAG compared with 13% in PDL with no significant difference (p = 0.74). Our results suggested that PDL and Nd:YAG lasers are effective in the treatment of resistant plantar warts. PDL is safer and less painful but needs more sessions, while Nd:YAG is more painful and shows more complications.

  7. 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Ortiz, Arisa E; Anderson, R Rox; Avram, Mathew M


    Standard surgical and destructive treatments for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can result in significant morbidity and scarring, stimulating the investigation of alternative non-surgical options. The objective of this study was to determine the safety, clinical, and histological efficacy of pulsed, high-fluence 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser therapy for the treatment of BCC on the trunk and extremities. This was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial. Ten subjects with a biopsy-proven BCC less than 1.5 cm in diameter on the trunk or extremities received one treatment with a 10 milliseconds pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Standard excision was performed 1 month after laser treatment to confirm histologic clearance. The laser treatment was quick and well tolerated. There was complete histologic clearance after one treatment in 92% of the BCC tumors, overall. At higher fluences, there was 100% histologic clearance after one treatment. No significant adverse events were seen, including scarring. The 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser may offer a safe alternative for treating BCC off the face. A larger study is highly warranted to confirm these preliminary results. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:106-110, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ultrashort-pulse generation in a YAG:Nd(3+) laser in a scheme with colliding pulses

    Prokhorenko, V.I.; Tikhonov, E.A.; Iatskiv, D.IA.; Bushmakin, E.N.


    The time, energy, and statistical characteristics of a picosecond mode-locked YAG:Nd(3+) laser with colliding pulses are studied. Under these conditions, no additional pulse shortening occurs as compared to a laser utilizing an absorber which is in contact with the nontransmitting mirror. However, this mode of operation is characterized by a greater reproducibility of the emitted pulse duration. A direct recording of the duration and the spectrum is used. It is shown that spectrally limited pulses are emitted only when the cell with a saturable absorber (dye No. 3274) is located in the center of the antiresonant reflector. 11 references.

  9. Impulse transfer to the surface of aluminum and copper from a pulsed Nd: YAG laser

    Xu, Bingzhang; Wang, Qingpu; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhao, Shenzi; Xia, Yueyuan; Mei, Liangmo; Wang, Xiangtai; Wang, Gongtong


    Impulse coupling coefficients in air from 1.06 μm, 10 ns, Nd: YAG pulsed-laser radiation to aluminum and copper targets are measured using the ballistic pendulum method in the laser power-density range from 2.0×108 W/cm2 to 4.0×109 W/cm2. A modified laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave and cylindrical blast wave theory incorporating the vaporization model is proposed to calculate the impulse coupling coefficients. It is found that the theoretical results obtained with the modified model agree well with the experimental data.

  10. Long-pulse Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser treatment for onychomycosis

    ZHANG Rui-na; WANG Dong-kun; ZHUO Feng-lin; DUAN Xiao-han; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying


    Background Recent research shows that lasers can inhibit fungal growth and that Nd:YAG 1064-nm lasers can penetrate as deep as the lower nail plate.The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a long-pulse Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser on 154 nails of 33 patients with clinically and mycologically proven onychomycosis.Methods Thirty-three patients with 154 nails affected by onychomycosis were randomly assigned to two groups,with the 154 nails divided into three sub-groups (Ⅱ degree,Ⅲ degree,and Ⅳ degree) according to the Scoring Clinical Index of Onychomycosis.The 15 patients (78 nails) in group 1 were given eight sessions with a one-week interval,and the 18patients (76 nails) in group 2 were given four sessions with a one-week interval.Results In group 1,the effective rates at 8 weeks,16 weeks,and 24 weeks were 63%,62%,and 51%,respectively,and the effective rates in group 2 were 68%,67%,and 53% respectively.The treatment effect was not significantly different between any sub-group pair (P >0.05).Conclusions Long pulse Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser was effective for onychomycosis.It is a simple and effective method without significant complications or side effects and is expected to become an alternative or replacement therapy for onychomycosis.

  11. Iron plasma generation using a Nd:YAG laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds

    Tamura, Jun; Kumaki, Masafumi; Kondo, Kotaro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro


    We investigated the high intensity plasma generated by using a Nd:YAG laser to apply a laser-produced plasma to the direct plasma injection scheme. The capability of the source to generate high charge state ions strongly depends on the power density of the laser irradiation. Therefore, we focused on using a higher power laser with several hundred picoseconds of pulse width. The iron target was irradiated with the pulsed laser, and the ion current of the laser-produced iron plasma was measured using a Faraday cup and the charge state distribution was investigated using an electrostatic ion analyzer. We found that higher charge state iron ions (up to Fe21+) were obtained using a laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds in comparison to those obtained using a laser pulse of several nanoseconds (up to Fe19+). We also found that when the laser irradiation area was relatively large, the laser power was absorbed mainly by the contamination on the target surface.

  12. Surface Profiling Of Paper Radiated With Focused Infra-Red Nd:yag Pulsed Laser

    Ahmad Hadi Ali


    Full Text Available A Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength of 1.06 mm can cause a tremendous damage when interacts with material. In this study the effects of Nd:YAG laser interactions onto paper are reported. A combination lens technique was used with different focal length of lens. The target material that is a photographic paper was positioned at a focal spot of the laser beam. IR laser pulsed with peak power up to megawatt (MW is brought to focus thus interacts with the photographic paper. This high-power impact of the laser pulsed shockwave caused a tremendeous damage on the photographic paper. Measurement of the impact was base on the surface size of the damage. From the observation result it shows that the maximum damage diameter for short lens system is 0.613 mm at peak power of 21.93 MW, whereas the maximum damage diameter for long lens system is 1.224 mm at 22.25 MW peak power.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the drilling of alumina ceramic using Nd:YAG pulsed laser

    Hanon, M. M.; Akman, E.; Genc Oztoprak, B.; Gunes, M.; Taha, Z. A.; Hajim, K. I.; Kacar, E.; Gundogdu, O.; Demir, A.


    Alumina ceramics have found wide range of applications from semiconductors, communication technologies, medical devices, automotive to aerospace industries. Processing of alumina ceramics is rather difficult due to its high degree of brittleness, hardness, low thermal diffusivity and conductivity. Rapid improvements in laser technologies in recent years make the laser among the most convenient processing tools for difficult-to-machine materials such as hardened metals, ceramics and composites. This is particularly evident as lasers have become an inexpensive and controllable alternative to conventional hole drilling methods. This paper reports theoretical and experimental results of drilling the alumina ceramic with thicknesses of 5 mm and 10.5 mm using milisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Effects of the laser peak power, pulse duration, repetition rate and focal plane position have been determined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images taken from cross-sections of the drilled alumina ceramic samples. In addition to dimensional analysis of the samples, microstructural investigations have also been examined. It has been observed that, the depth of the crater can be controlled as a function of the peak power and the pulse duration for a single laser pulse application without any defect. Crater depth can be increased by increasing the number of laser pulses with some defects. In addition to experimental work, conditions have been simulated using ANYS FLUENT package providing results, which are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Diffractive optics for reduction of hot cracking in pulsed mode Nd:YAG laser welding

    Bagger, Claus; Olesen, Søren; Roos, Sven-Olov


    In order to reduce the susceptibility to hot cracking in pulsed mode laser welding of austenitic stainless steel, an optical system for reduction of the cooling rate is sought developed. Based on intensive numerical simulations, an optical system producing three focused spots is made. In a number...... of systematic tests, the applicability of this system is tested on an industrial 1 kW Nd:YAG laser. Three separate series of tests are conducted, one with the diffractive optical system at 500 W and two without the diffractive system at 400 W and 500 W, respectively. In principle the diffractive, optical system...

  15. Microstructural and Hardness Study of Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Surface Alloyed Aluminum with Iron

    Ansari, Mohammad; Soltani, Reza; Heydarzadeh Sohi, Mahmoud; Valefi, Zia


    In the present study, the feasibility of the formation of surface layers containing hard iron aluminides on AA6061-T6 aluminum via pre-plasma spraying with iron and subsequently double surface melting by pulsed Nd:YAG laser is studied. The effects of single and double laser surface melting on microstructure, phase formation, and hardness of the treated layers are examined. Single-step laser treatment resulted in the presence of undissolved iron particles surrounded by lump-like Al5Fe2 and needle-like Al3Fe intermetallic compounds. Double laser surface melting dissolved the retained undissolved irons and resulted in the formation of Al-Al3Fe eutectic structure. Microhardness profiles along cross section and top surface of the treated layers indicated that laser surface alloying with iron enhanced the hardness of the aluminum to more than twice of that of the base material.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition process of PLZT thin films using an infrared Nd:YAG laser

    Garcia, T. [CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Posada, E. de [IMRE-Physics Faculty, Havana University (Cuba); Bartolo-Perez, P. [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico, UAC, Compeche (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Diamant, R. [UAM-Unidad Iztapalapa, D.F. (Mexico); Calderon, F. [IMRE-Physics Faculty, Havana University (Cuba); Pelaiz, A. [IMRE-Physics Faculty, Havana University (Cuba)


    Pulsed laser depositions of PLZT thin films were performed using an Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser. The growths took place in vacuum or in an oxygen background. Room temperature and 500 deg. C were the used substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a preferential crystallographic orientation in the films grown at room temperature in vacuum. Such result is discussed. The velocity distribution functions of the species in the plasma plume were obtained from a time of flight study using optical emission spectroscopy. The maximums of these distributions functions fall around 10{sup 6} cm/s, equivalent to an energy range of 18-344 eV. Ionic species of heavy elements (like lead) achieved higher velocities than other lighter species. This result is linked to the creation of an accelerating spatial charge and to the thermal nature of the target material extraction that allows some elements to be released first than others. Chemical state variations of the elements present in the films were analyzed. Under these different growing conditions, lead chemical states varied the most.

  17. Tissue effects of Ho:YAG laser with varying fluences and pulse widths

    Vari, Sandor G.; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Duffy, J. T.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.


    We investigated the effect of varying fluence and pulse width on the ablation rate and consequent thermal damage of the Ho:YAG (2.130 micrometers ) laser. The rate of ablation on fresh bovine knee joint tissues, fibrous cartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone in saline was determined after varying the fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and pulse width (150, 250, 450 microsecond(s) ec, FWHM) at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A 400/440 micrometers fiber was used. The ablation rate increased linearly with the fluence. In fibrocartilage, different pulse durations generated significant changes in the ablation rates, but showed minor effects on hyaline cartilage and bone. The heat of ablation for all three tissue types decreased after lengthening the pulse.

  18. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia treated by pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1,064 nm).

    Werner, A; Bäumler, W; Zietz, S; Kühnel, T; Hohenleutner, U; Landthaler, M


    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a familial, autosomal, dominant, multi-system, vascular, dysplasia. Besides repetitive epistaxis, cutaneous eruptive macules and nodules lead to recurring bleeding and cosmetic problems. We report on a pilot study of four cases of HHT in which cutaneous lesions were treated with a pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1,064 nm). Pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment, without anaesthesia, was performed several times on eruptive angiomas on palmar and facial skin. Lesions on fingers and face mostly showed very good, or even complete, clearing after the first laser treatment. Several macules required multiple treatment; only a few lesions showed no effect. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser therapy (1,064 nm) appears to be an effective and safe treatment option for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia on the skin of face and extremities.

  19. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser induces pulpal analgesia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Chan, A; Armati, P; Moorthy, A P


    This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial investigated the effectiveness and underlying mechanism of neural inhibition of pulsed Nd:YAG laser induction of pulpal analgesia compared with 5% EMLA anesthetic cream. Forty-four paired premolars from 44 orthodontic patients requiring bilateral premolar extraction from either dental arch were randomly assigned to the 'Laser plus Sham-EMLA' or 'EMLA plus Sham-Laser' treatment group. Analgesia was tested by an Electric Pulp Tester (EPT) and the cutting of a standardized cavity, which was terminated when participants reported sensitivity, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and numbness were recorded. Statistical analyses were done by paired t test, McNemar's test, and a chi-squared test (p analgesia, by suppression of intradental nerve responses to electrical and mechanical stimuli. Such a laser provides an alternative for dental pain management (ANZ-Clinical Trial Registry: N12611001099910).

  20. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Daejin Kim


    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, andin some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affectedindividuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneouspulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG laser treatment for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis.Methods Twenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patientswere categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and asubcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for theappropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor’stest against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The resultswere evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using thegrading system and iodine starch test.Results The average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-togoodresult and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor’s test demonstratedthat there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms.Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3 were treated in a conservativemanner. A deep second degree burn (n=1 was treated by a surgical procedure.Conclusions Subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effectivenoninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  1. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser drilling of aerospace materials (Ti-6Al-4V)

    Bahar, N. D.; Marimuthu, S.; Yahya, W. J.


    This paper studies the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. Ti-6Al-4V of 1 mm and 3 mm thickness were used as the workpiece substrate. The principal findings are mainly based on minimising the taper angle in laser drilled holes, reducing the heat affected zone and reducing the production of spatter. Identification of key process variables associated with laser drilling process is accomplished by trial experimentation. Using the identified key process variables, further experiments were then performed with the assistance of statistical design of experiment (DOE) to find the interaction and individual effects of various laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. The lowest taper angle of 1.8 degrees was achieved with use of nitrogen as the assist gas. Furthermore, from the laser process observations, it was found that laser power significantly affects the quality of the laser drilled hole. Increase in laser power would increase the hole size and result in more spatter on the entry hole surfaces. The nozzle focus position substantially influenced the laser drilled hole size. The amount of spatter deposits increased with decrease in the nozzle offset. Increase in laser frequency significantly increased the exit diameter, which resulted in smaller taper angle. Number of pulse required to drill through a workpiece depends on the material properties and physical properties of the material. For 1mm Ti-6Al-4V, a minimum of two pulses was required to successfully removed the material during drilling and a minimum of 4 pulses was required to drill through the same material with 3mm thickness.

  2. Performance study of highly efficient 520 W average power long pulse ceramic Nd:YAG rod laser

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Ali, Sabir; Jain, R. K.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.


    We report the performance study of a 2% atomic doped ceramic Nd:YAG rod for long pulse laser operation in the millisecond regime with pulse duration in the range of 0.5-20 ms. A maximum average output power of 520 W with 180 J maximum pulse energy has been achieved with a slope efficiency of 5.4% using a dual rod configuration, which is the highest for typical lamp pumped ceramic Nd:YAG lasers. The laser output characteristics of the ceramic Nd:YAG rod were revealed to be nearly equivalent or superior to those of high-quality single crystal Nd:YAG rod. The laser pump chamber and resonator were designed and optimized to achieve a high efficiency and good beam quality with a beam parameter product of 16 mm mrad (M2˜47). The laser output beam was efficiently coupled through a 400 μm core diameter optical fiber with 90% overall transmission efficiency. This ceramic Nd:YAG laser will be useful for various material processing applications in industry.

  3. Short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases bond strength of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin

    Cersosimo, Maria Cecília Pereira; Matos, Adriana Bona; Couto, Roberta Souza D.'Almeida; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira


    This study evaluated the influence of the irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser on the adhesion of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin (SD and ED). Forty-six samples of occlusal dentine, obtained from human molars, had half of their surface protected, while the other half was submitted to erosive cycles. Afterward, 23 samples were irradiated with Er:YAG laser, resulting in four experimental groups: SD, sound irradiated dentine (SID-Er:YAG, 50 μs, 2 Hz, 80 mJ, and 12.6 J/cm2), ED, and eroded irradiated dentin (EID-erosion + Er:YAG laser). A self-etching adhesive system was used, and then cylinders of composite resin were prepared. A microshear bond strength test was performed after 24 h storage (n=20). The morphology of SD and ED, with or without Er:YAG laser irradiation, was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (n=3). Bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Statistically significant differences were found among the experimental groups: SD (9.76±3.39 B), SID (12.77±5.09 A), ED (5.12±1.72 D), and EID (7.62±3.39 C). Even though erosion reduces the adhesion to dentin, the surface irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases adhesion to both ED and SD.

  4. Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses.

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey; Mezentsev, Vladimir; Shestakov, Alexander; Bennion, Ian


    A depressed cladding waveguide with record low loss of 0.12 dB/cm is inscribed in YAG:Nd(0.3at.%) crystal by femtosecond laser pulses with an elliptical beam waist. The waveguide is formed by a set of parallel tracks which constitute the depressed cladding. It is a key element for compact and efficient CW waveguide laser operating at 1064 nm and pumped by a multimode laser diode. Special attention is paid to mechanical stress resulting from the inscription process. Numerical calculation of mode distribution and propagation loss with the elasto-optical effect taken into account leads to the conclusion that the depressed cladding is a dominating factor in waveguide mode formation, while the mechanical stress only slightly distorts waveguide modes.

  5. Selected area laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 355 nm wavelength

    Duan Chunyan; Liu Chao; Ai Bin; Lai Jianjun; Deng Youjun; Shen Hui


    Selected area laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon(p-Si)thin films were prepared by the third harmonics(355 nm wavelength)generated by a solid-state pulsed Nd:YAG laser.Surface morphologies of 400 nm thick films after laser irradiation were analyzed.Raman spectra show that film crystallinity is improved with increase of laser energy.The optimum laser energy density is sensitive to the film thickness.The laser energy density for efficiently crystallizing amorphous silicon films is between 440-634 mJ/cm2 for 300 nm thick films and between 777-993 mJ/cm2 for 400 nm thick films.The optimized laser energy density is 634,975 and 1571 mJ/cm2 for 300,400 and 500 nm thick films,respectively.

  6. Cleaning of carbon layer from the gold films using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Singh, Amol [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Choubey, Ambar [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Modi, Mohammed H., E-mail: [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Upadhyaya, B.N.; Oak, S.M. [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Lodha, G.S.; Deb, S.K. [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)


    Hydrocarbon cracking and carbon contamination of optical elements in soft X-ray spectrometers and synchrotron radiation beamlines is a severe problem. Carbon contamination seriously affects the optics performance. In the present work, an Nd:YAG laser providing 2 mJ of pulse energy and 100 ns of pulse duration has been used for carbon cleaning experiments. The laser cleaning is a non-contact, accurate, efficient and safe process. A surface area of 48 cm{sup 2} having ∼20 nm thick carbon layer on gold surface has been removed with six number of laser passes and with 80% laser spot overlapping without any change in surface roughness of the underneath gold film. Effect of laser beam on gold film after carbon removal has been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray reflectivity techniques. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze surface morphology before and after laser cleaning process. Power spectral density function was calculated over large frequency range of 10{sup −1} to 10{sup −4} nm{sup −1} to understand topographic data.

  7. Cleaning of carbon layer from the gold films using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Singh, Amol; Choubey, Ambar; Modi, Mohammed H.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.; Lodha, G. S.; Deb, S. K.


    Hydrocarbon cracking and carbon contamination of optical elements in soft X-ray spectrometers and synchrotron radiation beamlines is a severe problem. Carbon contamination seriously affects the optics performance. In the present work, an Nd:YAG laser providing 2 mJ of pulse energy and 100 ns of pulse duration has been used for carbon cleaning experiments. The laser cleaning is a non-contact, accurate, efficient and safe process. A surface area of 48 cm2 having ∼20 nm thick carbon layer on gold surface has been removed with six number of laser passes and with 80% laser spot overlapping without any change in surface roughness of the underneath gold film. Effect of laser beam on gold film after carbon removal has been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray reflectivity techniques. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze surface morphology before and after laser cleaning process. Power spectral density function was calculated over large frequency range of 10-1 to 10-4 nm-1 to understand topographic data.

  8. Surface characteristics of aluminum 6061 T6 subjected to Nd:YAG pulsed laser irradiation

    Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young; Shin, Wan Soon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study was to investigate the surface characteristics of an aluminum 6061 T6 alloy subjected to Nd:YAG pulsedlaser irradiation. The test specimens were prepared by a mechanical polishing process using diamond paste and emery polishing paper to obtain different levels of initial surface roughness. After ten pulsed laser shots, the surface morphology was observed via optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano indentation hardness testing was also conducted on the irradiated surface. The diameter of the melted zone increased with surface roughness because of the multiple reflection and absorption of the laser beam. The relative absorbance was measured as a function of the diameter of the melted zone with varied surface roughness.

  9. Diffractive optics for reduction of hot cracking in pulsed mode Nd:YAG laser welding

    Bagger, Claus; Olesen, Søren; Roos, Sven-Olov;


    of systematic tests, the applicability of this system is tested on an industrial 1 kW Nd:YAG laser. Three separate series of tests are conducted, one with the diffractive optical system at 500 W and two without the diffractive system at 400 W and 500 W, respectively. In principle the diffractive, optical system......In order to reduce the susceptibility to hot cracking in pulsed mode laser welding of austenitic stainless steel, an optical system for reduction of the cooling rate is sought developed. Based on intensive numerical simulations, an optical system producing three focused spots is made. In a number...... functions as intended. Three spots are produced with a variable amount of energy between the center spot and two support spots. On average, the penetration depth drops to roughly half of that obtained with standard optics and the seam width increases 30 to 40 percent. The results show that at similar...

  10. Reflection of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals.

    Benavides, O; Lebedeva, O; Golikov, V


    Hemispherical total reflectivity of copper, nickel, and tungsten in ablation by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in air of atmospheric pressure is experimentally studied as a function of laser fluence in the range of 0.1-100 J/cm(2). Our experiment shows that at laser fluences below the plasma formation threshold the reflectivity of mechanically polished metals remains virtually equal to the table room-temperature reflectivity values. The hemispherical total reflectivity of the studied metals begins to drop at a laser fluence of the plasma formation threshold. With increasing laser fluence above the plasma formation threshold the reflectivity sharply decreases to a low value and then remains unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. Computation of the surface temperature at the plasma formation threshold fluence reveals that its value is substantially below the melting point that indicates an important role of the surface nanostructural defects in the plasma formation on a real sample due to their enhanced heating caused by both plasmonic absorption and plasmonic nanofocusing.

  11. Study of laser die release by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Karlitskaya, N.; de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Sanders, Rene; Phipps, Claude R.


    A new laser-assisted process called "Laser Die Transfer" is developed for high speed assembling of miniature electronic components. Silicon dies, fabricated on an optically transparent carrier are released using a laser pulse. This process has the potential to offer major advantages compared to

  12. A compact diode-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG slab laser based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration

    Maleki, A.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Saghafifar, H.; Moghtader Dindarlu, M. H.; Ebadian, H.


    In this paper, the design and construction of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser is described. The structure of this laser is based on a master oscillator power amplifier system. A master oscillator is an electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser. Face-pumping is used for the excitation of the slab structure, and a double-pass method is designed for the amplification stages. Two Nd:YAG zigzag slabs are utilized as power amplification stages in this laser. The laser diodes are stacked in a compact configuration and are used for rod and slabs pumping. The total pump energy in the amplifier stages is 3200 mJ at 808 nm. The output pulse energy achieved at 1064 nm is about 850 mJ of 10 ns pulse duration corresponding to 26.5% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. Moreover, this laser can generate pulse energies around 430 mJ at 532 nm. The dependence of the output energy of MOPA and second harmonic generation operations on different pulse repetition rates (PRRs) from 1 to 100 Hz has been investigated. Experimental results show that the maximum fluctuations of the output energies are about 2.5 and 4% for 1064 and 532 nm, respectively.

  13. Thin films of silver nanoparticles deposited in vacuum by pulsed laser ablation using a YAG:Nd laser

    Alonso, J.C., E-mail: [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diamant, R.; Castillo, P.; Acosta-Garcia, M.C.; Batina, N.; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    We report the deposition of thin films of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in vacuum using the third line (355 nm) of a YAG:Nd laser. The nanostructure and/or morphology of the films was investigated as a function of the number of ablation pulses, by means of transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results show that films deposited with a small number of ablation pulses (500 or less), are not continuous, but formed of isolated nearly spherical Ag nanoparticles with diameters in the range from 1 nm to 8 nm. The effect of increasing the number of pulses by one order of magnitude (5000) is to increase the mean diameter of the globular nanoparticles and also the Ag areal density. Further increase of the number of pulses, up to 10,000, produces the formation of larger and anisotropic nanoparticles, and for 15,000 pulses, quasi-percolated Ag films are obtained. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in the films was also evidenced from the appearance of a strong optical absorption band associated with surface plasmon resonance. This band was widened and its peak shifted from 425 nm to 700 nm as the number of laser pulses was increased from 500 to 15,000.

  14. Precise ablation milling with ultrashort pulsed Nd:YAG lasers by optical and acoustical process control

    Schulze, Volker; Weber, Patricia


    Laser ablation milling with ultra short pulsed Nd:YAG lasers enables micro structuring in nearly all kinds of solid materials like metals, ceramics and polymers. A precise machining result with high surface quality requires a defined ablation process. Problems arise through the scatter in the resulting ablation depth of the laser beam machining process where material is removed in layers. Since the ablated volume may change due to varying absorption properties in single layers and inhomogeneities in the material, the focal plane might deviate from the surface of the work piece when the next layer is machined. Thus the focal plane has to be adjusted after each layer. A newly developed optical and acoustical process control enables an in-process adjustment of the focal plane that leads to defined process conditions and thus to better ablation results. The optical process control is realized by assistance of a confocal white light sensor. It enables an automated work piece orientation before machining and an inline ablation depth monitoring. The optical device can be integrated for an online or offline process control. Both variants will be presented and discussed. A further approach for adjustment of the focal plane is the acoustical process control. Acoustic emissions are detected while laser beam machining. A signal analysis of the airborne sound spectrum emitted by the process enables conclusions about the focal position of the laser beam. Based on this correlation an acoustic focus positioning is built up. The focal plane can then be adjusted automatically before ablation.

  15. Effects of Nd:YAG laser pulse frequency on the surface treatment of Ti 6Al 4V alloys

    Gursel, Ali [International University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The desirable properties of titanium and titanium alloys, including excellent corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio and high operating temperature, have led to their successful application in various fields such as the medical and aerospace industries. Among the reliable treatment techniques, laser welding can provide significant advantages for the titanium alloys because of its precision, rapid processing capability and ability to control the welding parameters and their effects. The morphology and the quality of pulsed seam welds are directly or synergistically influenced by the Nd:YAG laser parameters of pulse shape, energy, duration, travel speed, peak power and frequency of repetition. In this study, a 1.5 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheet surface was treated by SigmaLaser {sup registered} 300 Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The influence of the pulse frequency on seam morphology and surface effects was then investigated. The seam and surface quality were characterized in terms of weld morphology and microhardness. The results showed that, for Nd:YAG laser seams used for surface treatment, pulse repetition was more effective on the cooling rate than had been expected.

  16. Transient interaction of a boiling melt with a pulsed Nd:YAG-laser

    Samarjy, R. S. M.; Kaplan, A. F. H.


    The boiling front induced by a pulsed Nd:YAG-laser at very slow translation speed was studied. The purpose is to understand fundamental melt movement mechanisms. The melt was observed by high speed imaging, with and without illumination. When switching on the laser beam a hole is drilled through a bulk of melt. The hole expands and the boiling pressure gradually opens the melt bridge, instead developing an interaction front similar to cutting. These conditions remain in quasi-steady state during the pulse. The ablation pressure from boiling shears waves down the front and keeps the melt downwards in a stable position. When switching off, the waves smoothen and in absence of boiling the surface tension drags the melt back upwards, to semi-torus-like Catenoid shape. Evidence on the large melt pool and its shape was achieved by three-dimensional reconstruction from cross section macrographs. The basic findings how melt can move with and without ablation pressure can enable controlled melt dynamics for various laser processing techniques, like remote cutting, ablation, keyhole welding or drilling.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation on the transient vascular thermal response to multi-pulse Nd:YAG laser.

    Li, Dong; Li, Ruohui; Jia, Hao; Chen, Bin; Wu, Wenjuan; Ying, Zhaoxia


    Port wine stains (PWS) are congenital vascular malformations that progressively darken and thicken with age. Laser therapy is currently the most effective way in clinical practice for PWS. A 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser in the near-infrared band can achieve a deeper treatment depth compared to the current widely adopted pulsed dye laser. However, because of its relatively weak absorption by blood, single-pulse Nd:YAG laser requires high energy density to cause effective vessel damage, but may inflict undesirable burning to surrounding collagen. Multi-pulse laser has great potential in clinical treatment because it needs less energy density for each pulse. This paper presented an experimental and theoretical study of the transient thermal effects of low-energy multi-pulse Nd:YAG laser on blood vessels. In vivo experiments were performed on dorsal skin chamber. By using a high speed camera (up to 2,000 fps), the complete and dynamic thermal response of blood vessels during laser irradiation and between pulse intervals was obtained. In vitro experiment in capillary tubes and Numerical simulations by two-scale heat transfer model were also conducted to further explore the in vivo experimental findings. The complete and dynamic response of blood vessels were obtained, including vessel dilation, thrombus formation, partial vessel constriction, thread-like constriction, cavitation and bubbles, and hemorrhage. Thread-like constriction is the desirable treatment end point, which will only occur after thrombus completely occludes the vessel lumen. Cavitation can cause hemorrhage when thrombus fails to occlude the vessel lumen. In vitro experiment found that vessel constriction was due to the constriction of thrombus induced by laser irradiation. Theoretical investigation revealed that the mechanism for the effective reduction of energy density by multi-pulse Nd:YAG laser was due to enhanced light absorption of the blood with thrombus formation. For multi-pulse treatment, laser

  18. A highly efficient and compact long pulse Nd:YAG rod laser with 540 J of pulse energy for welding application.

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S C; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R K; Agrawal, D K; Arya, R; Upadhyaya, B N; Oak, S M


    We have developed an efficient and high average power flash lamp pumped long pulse Nd:YAG laser capable of generating 1 kW of average output power with maximum 540 J of single pulse energy and 20 kW of peak power. The laser pulse duration can be varied from 1 to 40 ms and repetition rate from 1 to 100 Hz. A compact and robust laser pump chamber and resonator was designed to achieve this high average and peak power. It was found that this laser system provides highest single pulse energy as compared to other long pulsed Nd:YAG laser systems of similar rating. A slope efficiency of 5.4% has been achieved, which is on higher side for typical lamp pumped solid-state lasers. This system will be highly useful in laser welding of materials such as aluminium and titanium. We have achieved 4 mm deep penetration welding of these metals under optimized conditions of output power, pulse energy, and pulse duration. The laser resonator was optimized to provide stable operation from single shot to 100 Hz of repetition rate. The beam quality factor was measured to be M(2) ~ 91 and pulse-to-pulse stability of ±3% for the multimode operation. The laser beam was efficiently coupled through an optical fiber of 600 μm core diameter and 0.22 numerical aperture with power transmission of 90%.

  19. A highly efficient and compact long pulse Nd:YAG rod laser with 540 J of pulse energy for welding application

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R. K.; Agrawal, D. K.; Arya, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.


    We have developed an efficient and high average power flash lamp pumped long pulse Nd:YAG laser capable of generating 1 kW of average output power with maximum 540 J of single pulse energy and 20 kW of peak power. The laser pulse duration can be varied from 1 to 40 ms and repetition rate from 1 to 100 Hz. A compact and robust laser pump chamber and resonator was designed to achieve this high average and peak power. It was found that this laser system provides highest single pulse energy as compared to other long pulsed Nd:YAG laser systems of similar rating. A slope efficiency of 5.4% has been achieved, which is on higher side for typical lamp pumped solid-state lasers. This system will be highly useful in laser welding of materials such as aluminium and titanium. We have achieved 4 mm deep penetration welding of these metals under optimized conditions of output power, pulse energy, and pulse duration. The laser resonator was optimized to provide stable operation from single shot to 100 Hz of repetition rate. The beam quality factor was measured to be M2 ˜ 91 and pulse-to-pulse stability of ±3% for the multimode operation. The laser beam was efficiently coupled through an optical fiber of 600 μm core diameter and 0.22 numerical aperture with power transmission of 90%.

  20. Amorphous carbon-silicon heterojunctions by pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition

    Yap, Seong-Shan; Yow, Ho-Kwang [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Selangor 63100 (Malaysia); Tou, Teck-Yong, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Selangor 63100 (Malaysia)


    Amorphous carbon (a-C) films were deposited at 10{sup -4} Pa on n-Si (Si-111) and p-Si (Si-100) substrates using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fundamental, second- and third-harmonic outputs. These unhydrogenated and undoped a-C films were characterized by visible and UV Raman spectroscopy which indicated the presence of substantial amount of sp{sup 3} hybridized carbon network depending on the laser wavelength. The bulk resistivity in the Au/a-C/indium tin oxide structure varied between (10{sup 9}-10{sup 13}) {Omega} cm - the lowest resistivity was obtained for films deposited by the fundamental laser output at 1064 nm while the highest value was by the third-harmonic laser output at 355 nm. All the a-C/Si heterostructures exhibited a nonlinear current density-voltage characteristic. Under light illumination, by taking into consideration the fill factor of {approx} 0.2 for a-C/n-Si, the conversion efficiency at the highest photovoltage and photocurrent, at an illumination density of 0.175 mW/cm{sup 2} was estimated to be {approx} 0.28%.

  1. A basic study of the interstitial laser prostatectomy using pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser

    Daidoh, Yuichiro [National Defenese Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)


    The efficacy of interstitial laser irradiation with a pulsed Ho:YAG laser ({lambda}: 2.1 {mu}m) was evaluated in the normal canine prostate. Pathological studies were performed up to 6 months after interstitial laser irradiation in 26 mongrel dogs. Two dogs without irradiation were as controls (control group). Prostate glands of the other 24 dogs were irradiated interstitially with a Ho:YAG laser. Four prostates were irradiated with 150-175 J/cm{sup 2} in fluence (low-fluence group) and 19 were irradiated with 500-600 J/cm{sup 2} in fluence (high-fluence group). Prostates glands were excised immediately, 1, 2, 3, or 6 months after irradiation and examined histologically. To investigate the influence of interstitial irradiation with a Ho:YAG laser on smooth muscle and/or on the adrenergic activity of the prostate, we also measured changes in intraluminal pressure of the prostatic urethra upon administration of epinephrine (10 {mu}g/kg) in 6 dogs before and after irradiation. In only the high-fluence group, smooth muscles and small vessels surrounded the ablated hole were destroyed, but the thickness of the thermal coagulation layer was only approximately 0.2 mm. These findings suggested that damage to the small vessels and smooth muscle may have been caused by laser-induced stress waves rather than by a thermal effect. In the high-fluence group, huge cavities were created in the laser-irradiated prostate gland 1 or 2 months after irradiation, prostatic volume was reduced, the cavities collapsed and prostatic volume was reduced by up to 50% at 6 months post-procedure. The prostatic urethra expanded following the reduction in volume. The maximal intraluminal change in pressure of the prostatic urethra decreased significantly after laser irradiation. Results indicate that interstitial irradiation of the prostate with a Ho:YAG laser with high-fluence may relieve the anatomical and functional obstruction of the prostatic urethra in benign prostatic hyperplasia. (H.O.).

  2. Structure of picosecond pulses of a Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    Donin, V I; Yakovin, D V; Gribanov, A V [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The pulse duration of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, in which Q-switching with mode-locking (QML regime) is achieved using a spherical mirror and a travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator, is directly measured with a streak camera. It is found that the picosecond pulses can have a non-single-pulse structure, which is explained by excitation of several competing transverse modes in the Q-switching regime with a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz. In the case of cw mode-locking (without Q-switching), a new (auto-QML) regime is observed, in which the pulse train repetition rate is determined by the frequency of the relaxation oscillations of the laser field while the train contains single picosecond pulses. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases bond strength of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin.

    Cersosimo, Maria Cecília Pereira; Matos, Adriana Bona; Couto, Roberta Souza D'Almeida; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira


    This study evaluated the influence of the irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser on the adhesion of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin (SD and ED). Forty-six samples of occlusal dentine, obtained from human molars, had half of their surface protected, while the other half was submitted to erosive cycles. Afterward, 23 samples were irradiated with Er:YAG laser, resulting in four experimental groups: SD, sound irradiated dentine (SID—Er:YAG, 50  μs 50  μs , 2 Hz, 80 mJ, and 12.6  J/cm 2 12.6  J/cm2 ), ED, and eroded irradiated dentin (EID—erosion + Er:YAG laser). A self-etching adhesive system was used, and then cylinders of composite resin were prepared. A microshear bond strength test was performed after 24 h storage (n=20 n=20 ). The morphology of SD and ED, with or without Er:YAG laser irradiation, was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (n=3 n=3 ). Bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test. Statistically significant differences were found among the experimental groups: SD (9.76±3.39  B 9.76±3.39  B ), SID (12.77±5.09 A 12.77±5.09 A ), ED (5.12±1.72 D 5.12±1.72 D ), and EID (7.62±3.39 C 7.62±3.39 C ). Even though erosion reduces the adhesion to dentin, the surface irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases adhesion to both ED and SD.

  4. Hollow fiber optics with improved durability for high-peak-power pulses of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers.

    Matsuura, Yuji; Tsuchiuchi, Akio; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Mitsunobu


    To improve the damage threshold of hollow optical waveguides for transmitting Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses, we optimize the metallization processes for the inner coating of fibers. For silver-coated hollow fiber as the base, second, and third Nd:YAG lasers, drying silver films at a moderate temperature and with inert gas flow is found to be effective. By using this drying process, the resistance to high-peak-power optical pulse radiation is drastically improved for fibers fabricated with and without the sensitizing process. The maximum peak power transmitted in the fiber is greater than 20 MW. To improve the energy threshold of aluminum-coated hollow fibers for the fourth and fifth harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, a thin silver film is added between the aluminum film and the glass substrate to increase adhesion of the aluminum coating. By using this primer layer, the power threshold improves to 3 MW for the fourth harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light.

  5. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser cladding of high silicon content coating on low silicon steel

    Danyang Dong; Changsheng Liu; Bin Zhang; Jun Miao


    A pulsed Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser-based technique was employed to clad low silicon steel with preplaced Si and Fe mixed powders for high Si content. The surface morphology, microstructural evolution, phase composition, and Si distribution,within the obtained cladding coatings, were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), with associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microhardness was also measured along the depth direction of the specimens. A crack- and pore-free cladding coating through excellent metallurgical bonding with the substrate was successfully prepared on low silicon steel by means of optimized single-track and multi-track laser cladding. The phases of the coating are α-Fe, γ-Fe, and FeSi. The high microhardness of the lasercladding zone is considered as an increase in Si content and as the refined microstructure produced by the laser treatment. The Si contents of the cladding coatings were about 5.8wt% in the single-track cladding and 6.5wt% in the multi-track cladding, respectively.

  6. Lap Fillet Welding of Thin Sheet AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Maekawa, Katsuhiro

    In recent years, reducing the size and weight of consumer products requires the joining of thin sheets of magnesium alloys with both thickness and joining area of less than 1mm, especially for packaging purposes. Conventional welding processes are difficult to joint a thin sheet magnesium alloy because of high heat input, which in turns leads to various problems such as burn through and cracks. In this study, lap fillet welding of thin sheet magnesium alloy AZ31B with a thickness of 0.3 mm has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam. The influences of gap, laser beam center location and scan speed on joint appearances have been investigated. It was found that defects were significantly reduced when the gap width was less than 35 µm when the laser beam center was located just on the edge of the upper specimen (x=0), and scan speed was varied from 400 to 450 m/min. Wider bond width at average value of 300 µm was achieved when the beam center was at x=0 with a wide range of scan speeds from 250 to 450 mm/min compared with the cases at x=-0.1 and -0.2 mm from edge. Increases in bond width and minimal defects at x=0 improve fracture load by 68% compared with those at x=-0.1 mm.

  7. Low-power pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation for pre-emptive anaesthesia: A morphological and histological study.

    Chan, Ambrose; Punnia-Moorthy, Arumugam; Armati, Patricia


    To determine if tooth structure or dental pulp of normal healthy human premolar teeth to be extracted for orthodontic reasons exhibit morphological or histological changes following dental anaesthesia by pulsed Nd:YAG laser and subsequent cavity preparation (CP). Materials (Subjects) and Methods: 54 bilateral paired of human, healthy premolar teeth identified for inclusion in a clinical trial of Nd:YAG-induced anaesthesia and subsequently extracted for orthodontic reasons, were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: Group 1 - teeth (n=44) were irradiated with 150 µs pulsed Nd:YAG laser-1064 nm (American Dental Laser, dLase300, Sunrise Technologies Inc., Folsom, CA, USA; Average power: 1.1 ± 0.2 W, power density: 39+ 0.7 W/cm(2), area 0.28 cm(2), 15 Hz; energy density:0. 260+ 0.047 J/cm(2)) +Sham EMLA (cream without active component) followed by cavity preparation (CP); Group 2 - Teeth (n=44) - were treated with EMLA + Sham Laser (1 mW 632.8-nm He:Ne laser aiming beam only) with CP; Group 3 Teeth (n=10) - were irradiated with pulsed Nd:YAG laser as above but minus CP; Group 4 (n=10)- was a Control group with teeth untreated (no Laser, EMLA or CP). Clinical anaesthesia was assessed by electric pulp testing (EPT) and CP. Teeth in each of the 4 groups were processed for examination by i) scanning electron microscopy (SEM); ii) longitudinal undecalcified ground sectioning (LUGS); iii) light microscopy of pulpal tissues or iv) dye penetration. Both Laser and EMLA groups demonstrated no alteration to mineralized tooth structure and dentinal permeability. Mild superficial pulpal changes were found in both groups (3/18 teeth) and of no statistical difference (p>0.99, the McNemar test). Neither Laser nor the Control groups minus CP, showed pulpal changes. Low-power pulsed Nd:YAG laser dose, as used in the clinical trial to induce anaesthesia, does not cause morphological damage to the mineralized tooth structure. Both Laser and EMLA groups showed minor superficial

  8. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in non-surgical periodontal therapy

    Slot, D.E.; Kranendonk, A.A.; Paraskevas, S.; van der Weijden, F.


    Background: Laser treatment may serve as an alternative or adjunctive treatment to conventional mechanical therapy in periodontics. The neodymium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has been used in periodontics. Systematic reviews aid in clinical decision-making. The aim of this stud

  9. End-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with high energy and narrow pulse for glass carving

    Ling, Ming; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Wu, Zhi-chao; Liang, Zhu


    In order to raise the accuracy of glass carving and improve deep cutting, a novel diode end-pumed solid-state laser is researched. Selecting proper volume of laser crytal, one continue wave laser diode which longitudinally pumped Nd:YAG crystal is performed and an applied optics coupling system is designed with self focusing.Computing with ray trace software and MATLAB software, the best parameter is obtained, so pumping beam is coupled efficiently to Nd:YAG.Used a Cr4+:YAG crystal with the singnal transmission of 82% and a line plane-concave cavity, nanosecond narrow pulse is gotten. After two thermal-electrical coolers kept the laser to work at constant temperature instead of water cooling, the volume of laser is markedly reduced. The method of thermal-electrical cooling could increase the system efficiency,achieve the effect of low mode output.Experimental results indicate that the maximum laser output energy in 1064 nm is 118mJ,pulse width is 5 ns, conversion efficiency from light to light is 15.7% under the condition of the incident power of 5 W and the diameter of the output laser spot is less than 1 mm. This end-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with the light output of high quality and long life, which has 0.01 mm accuracy after lens focusing can satisfy the glass carving with higher precision, rapid speed as well as easy control. It can be used in carving all kinds of glass and replace current CO2 laser.

  10. Long-Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Warts: Report on a Series of 369 Cases

    Han, Tae Young; Lee, Ji Ho; Lee, Chang Kyun; Ahn, Ji Young; Hong, Chang Kwun


    Various treatment methods have been adopted in the management of warts; however, there is still no consensus on first-line treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of warts. Over the course of 1 yr, 369 patients with recalcitrant or untreated warts were exposed to a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The following parameters were used: spot size, 5 mm; pulse duration, 20 msec; and fluence, 200 J/cm2. No concomitant topical treatment was used. In all, 21 patients were lost during follow up; hence, the data for 348 patients were evaluated. The clearance rate was 96% (336 of the 348 treated warts were eradicated). The clearance rate of verruca vulgaris after the first treatment was very high (72.6%), whereas the clearance rate of deep palmopantar warts after the first treatment was low (44.1%). During a median follow-up period of 2.24 months (range, 2-10 months), 11 relapses were seen (recurrence rate, 3.27%). In conclusion, long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for the removal or reduction of warts and is less dependent on patient compliance than are other treatment options. PMID:19794989

  11. Histological and ultrastructural effect of an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam on dental hard tissue and pulp

    Vignato, Costantino; Vignato, Giuseppe; Nardelli, Antonella; Baldan, Arianna; Mason, Pier N.


    The purpose of this study was to determine histological and ultrastructural modifications produced by an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam after an in vivo exposure of human molars. Using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam delivered by a 600 micrometers optical fiber and concurrent air and water cooling spray, 14 human third molars with artificial first class cavities were exposed at different power levels (6, 7, and 8 W). All the teeth were extracted at different time periods between 10 and 25 days and prepared for histological examination. The results of the histological examination showed no evidence of degeneration or necrosis of the pulpar tissue. Analysis of the dentinal surfaces after exposure demonstrated that the dentinal tubules are completely closed due to the melted dentin. In conclusion a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with an air and water cooling spray is safe for treatments of class I decay and no necrosis or degeneration of the pulp was found for laser powers of 6, 7, and 8 W.

  12. Measurement of the composition change in Al5754 alloy during long pulsed Nd : YAG laser welding based on LIBS

    Jandaghi, M.; Parvin, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.


    Weld metal composition change in aluminium alloy 5754 in keyhole mode welding, using a long pulsed Nd : YAG laser, was investigated theoretically and supported with experimental measurements. A comprehensive model for the calculation of vaporization rates was developed based on the kinetic theory of gases and the thermodynamic laws. During the laser welding process, the significant variables were pulse duration and power density. It was predicted in the model and concurred experimentally that the concentration of magnesium in the weld metal decreases with an increase in the laser pulse duration, while the aluminium concentration increases. Moreover, the concentrations of aluminium and magnesium elements in the weld metal were determined by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for different welding conditions.

  13. Efficient delivery of 60 J pulse energy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser through 200 m core diameter optical fibre

    Ravindra Singh; Ambar Choubey; R K Jain; S C Vishwakarma; D K Agrawal; Sabir Ali; B N Upadhyaya; S M Oak


    Most of today’s industrial Nd:YAG lasers use fibre-optic beam delivery. In such lasers, fibre core diameter is an important consideration in deploying a beam delivery system. Using a smaller core diameter fibre allows higher irradiances at focus position, less degradation of beam quality, and a larger stand-off distance. In this work, we have put efforts to efficiently deliver the laser output of ‘ceramic reflector’-based long pulse Nd:YAG laser through a 200 m core diameter optical fibre and successfully delivered up to 60 J of pulse energy with 90% transmission efficiency, using a GRADIUM (axial gradient) plano-convex lens to sharply focus down the beam on the end face of the optical fibre and fibre end faces have been cleaved to achieve higher surface damage thresholds.

  14. Temperature distribution in port wine stain following pulsed irradiation by a dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser

    Majaron, Boris; Choi, Bernard; Nelson, J. S.


    In therapy of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks using pulsed green or yellow lasers, non-specific absorption by epidermal melanin reduces the amount of incident radiation that reaches the target PWS blood vessels. The related epidermal heating can induce blistering, dyspigmentation, or scarring, which limits the applicable radiant exposure, thus adversely affecting the efficacy of treatment in many patients. Our objective was to assess temperature depth profiles induced in PWS skin by a novel Nd:YAG laser emitting simultaneously at 1064 and 532 nm. The results should help determine safe radiant exposures for use in future clinical trials. The underlying hypothesis is that the added 1064 nm radiation may lead to a higher temperature increase in PWS relative to the epidermis, in comparison with a customary KTP/Nd:YAG laser system for vascular treatments (emitting at 532 nm only). The laser induced temperature profiles were determined in vivo using pulsed photothermal radiometry. A PWS test site was irradiated with a sub-therapeutic laser pulse and the transient change of the infrared radiant emission was recorded by a fast infrared camera. The laser-induced temperature profiles were reconstructed by solving the thermal-radiative inverse problem using an iterative minimization algorithm.

  15. Laser welding of glasses using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    de Pablos-Martín, A.; Höche, Th.


    This work reports on laser welding of two 1 mm thickness borosilicate glasses through the irradiation with a nanosecond pulsed laser, as a novel alternative to the use of ultrashort pulsed lasers for welding of transparent materials. Two different methodologies were investigated and compared in terms of interface quality. In a first approach, the glasses were joined without any absorbing intermediate layer. However, the bond interface possesses defects. To improve the resulting bond interface, the use of a titanium ultrathin intermediate layer was proposed to weld the glasses substrates, acting as a sealant between them. The laser parameters were optimized to achieve the best joining conditions of the Ti film. The use of the Ti layer gives rise to a bond interface more homogeneous and free of damages. As a further step, thin glasses of 86 μm thickness, of great technological value, were joined through the Ti film as well. The joined interfaces were inspected through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the bond quality was evaluated by Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM).

  16. A Case Report of Telangiectatic Rosacea Treated with Long Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Can Ergin


    Full Text Available Rosacea is a chronic enflammatory skin disease characterized by facial erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. A variety of topical and systemic medications are used in the treatment of the disease. Recently, erythema and telangiectasia in rosacea patients have been frequently treated with laser applications. Herein, we present a case of rosacea whose telangiectasia were successfully treated with Nd-YAG laser treatment. 

  17. Preparation of Fiber Optics for the Delivery of High-Energy High-Beam-Quality Nd:YAG Laser Pulses.

    Kuhn, A; French, P; Hand, D P; Blewett, I J; Richmond, M; Jones, J D


    Recent improvements in design have made it possible to build Nd:YAG lasers with both high pulse energy and high beam quality. These lasers are particularly suited for percussion drilling of holes of as much as 1-mm diameter thick (a few millimeters) metal parts. An example application is the production of cooling holes in aeroengine components for which 1-ms duration, 30-J energy laser pulses produce holes of sufficient quality much more efficiently than with a laser trepanning process. Fiber optic delivery of the laser beam would be advantageous, particularly when one is processing complex three-dimensional structures. However, lasers for percussion drilling are available only with conventional bulk-optic beam delivery because of laser-induced damage problems with the small-diameter (approximately 200-400-mum) fibers that would be required for preserving necessary beam quality. We report measurements of beam degradation in step-index optical fibers with an input beam quality corresponding to an M(2) of 22. We then show that the laser-induced damage threshold of 400-mum core-diameter optical fibers can be increased significantly by a CO(2) laser treatment step following the mechanical polishing routine. This increase in laser-induced damage threshold is sufficient to propagate 25-J, 1-ms laser pulses with a 400-mum core-diameter optical fiber and an output M(2) of 31.

  18. Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Fluence Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Treatment in Melasma Patients

    Na, Se Young; Cho, Soyun


    Background Recently, low fluence collimated Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser has drawn attention for the treatment of melasma. However, it needs a lot of treatment sessions for the substantial results and repetitive laser exposures may end up with unwanted depigmentation. Objective We evaluated the clinical effects and safety of the combinational treatment, using intense pulsed light (IPL) and low fluence QS Nd:YAG laser. Methods Retrospective case series of 20 female patients, with mixed type melasma, were analyzed using medical records. They were treated with IPL one time, and 4 times of weekly successive low fluence Nd:YAG laser treatments. At each visit, digital photographs were taken under the same condition. Melanin index (MI) and erythema index (EI) were measured on the highest point on the cheekbones. Modified melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores were calculated by two investigators using digital photographs. Results The mean values of MI and EI decreased significantly after treatments. The modified MASI score has decreased by 59.35%, on average. Sixty percents of the participants did not require any more treatments, and no clinical aggravations were observed during the follow-up period (mean 5.9 months). Conclusion IPL and low fluence laser may elicit a clinical resolution in the mixed type melasma with long term benefits. PMID:22879709

  19. Management Of Condylar And Synovial Hyperplasias With Pulsed Er: YAG Laser In The Temporomandibular Joints Of New Zealand Rabbits

    El-Hadedi, M.; Badr, Y.; Gheith, M.


    The pulsed Er: YAG laser has recently emerged as an alternative to the mechanical instruments in surgery and medicine its wave length is close to the strong peak in the absorption spectrum of water, this feature combined with the high water content of biological tissues result in delivering of optical energy in an area of small optical extent and this enables highly controlled precise ablation with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Er: YAG laser in management of induced condylar and synovial hyperplasias in the TMJ of new Zealand rabbits. 12 New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups for laser high condylar shave and laser synovectomy using Er: YAG laser 2.9 μm with parameters 250 mJ, 20 Hz frequency and 1 mm beam diameter. Histopathologial and ultramicroscopic assessments were performed at four weeks and six weeks postoperative. using this wave length with theses parameters was safe to perform high condylar shave and synovectomy.

  20. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji


    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 µm spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 µm narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 µm gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam.

  1. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji [Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)


    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 {mu}m spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 {mu}m narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 {mu}m gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam.

  2. Morphologic Changes of Zebrafish Melanophore after Intense Pulsed Light and Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Lee, Ji Min; Jang, Hee Won; Park, Hae Chul; Rhyu, Im Joo


    Background Recently, the pulse-in-pulse mode of intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used increasingly for the treatment of melasma. Objective To observe the morphologic changes in the melanophore in adult zebrafish after irradiation with conventional and pulse-in-pulse IPL and Q-switched Nd:YAG (QSNY) laser. Methods Adult zebrafish were irradiated with conventional and pulse-in-pulse mode of IPL. The conditions for conventional IPL were 3 mJ/cm2, 560 nm filter, and pulse widths of 7, 20, and 35 msec. The pulse-in-pulse conditions were 3 mJ/cm2 and on-time 1/off-time 2. The QSNY laser was used with the settings of 1,064 nm, 0.4 J/cm2, a 7 mm spot size, and one shot. Specimens were observed using a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope (TEM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a confocal microscope. Results After conventional IPL irradiation with a 7 msec pulse width, melanophore breakage was observed using light microscopy. Under TEM, irradiation with conventional IPL for 7 msec and pulse-in-pulse IPL induced melanophore thermolysis with vacuolization. However, changes in the melanophore were not observed with 35 msec IPL. Under SEM, unlike the control and QSNY groups, IPL-irradiated zebrafish showed finger-like fusion in the protein structure of scales. Specimens examined by a confocal microscope after conventional IPL irradiation showed a larger green-stained area on TUNEL staining than that after pulse-in-pulse mode IPL irradiation. Conclusion Zebrafish irradiated with long pulse-IPL showed no morphologic changes using light microscopy, while morphological changes in melanophores were evident with use of TEM. Pulse-in-pulse mode IPL caused less damage than conventional IPL. PMID:27904270

  3. Spiking suppression of high power QCW pulse 1319 nm Nd:YAG laser with different intracavity doublers

    Bian, Qi; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Chang; Shen, Yu; Zong, Nan; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qin-Jun; Chen, Hong-Bin; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan


    We describe the results of our efforts in suppressing spiking of a high power, high beam quality 1319 nm Nd:YAG microsecond-pulse laser with three different intracavity frequency doublers. The 1319 nm laser is generated by a quasi-continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser system. One potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), two KTPs and one lithium triborate (LBO) as frequency doublers are installed in the ring resonator and tested, respectively. At 800 Hz repetition rate, with a pulse width of 100 µs, performances of spiking suppression for each case are observed. The average output power are 23.6 W, 22.7 W and 23.4 W with beam quality factors of M 2  =  2.21, 1.28 and 1.25 for one KTP, two KTPs and one LBO, respectively. The corresponding brightness are 270 MW/(cm2·sr), 780 MW/(cm2·sr) and 860 MW/(cm2·sr). With better beam quality, higher brightness, and easier maintainability, the LBO is the best option of the three. A laser rate equation model including the insertion loss of the doubler is applied for theoretical analysis of the output temporal pulse shape and power, and the simulated results agree well with the experimental data.

  4. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Barreiro, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Rivas, T. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); González, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas (CIT), University of A Coruña, 15403, Ferrol (Spain)


    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  5. Periodic surface structures on crystalline silicon created by 532 nm picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Trtica, M.S. [Physical Chemistry Department, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. BOX 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail:; Gakovic, B.M. [Atomic Physics Department, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. BOX 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Radak, B.B. [Physical Chemistry Department, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. BOX 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Batani, D.; Desai, T.; Bussoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)


    Creation of laser-induced morphology features, particularly laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), by a 532 nm picosecond Nd:YAG laser on crystalline silicon is reported. The LIPSS, often termed ripples, were produced at average laser irradiation fluences of 0.7, 1.6, and 7.9 J cm{sup -2}. Two types of ripples were registered: micro-ripples (at micrometer scale) in the form of straight parallel lines extending over the entire irradiated spot, and nano-ripples (at nanometer scale), apparently concentric, registered only at the rim of the spot, with the periodicity dependent on laser fluence. There are indications that the parallel ripples are a consequence of the partial periodicity contained in the diffraction modulated laser beam, and the nano-ripples are very likely frozen capillary waves. The damage threshold fluence was estimated at 0.6 J cm{sup -2}.

  6. Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism.

    Chan, Kin Foong; Lee, Ho; Teichman, Joel M H; Kamerer, Angela; McGuff, H Stan; Vargas, Gracie; Welch, Ashley J


    We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of long pulse erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy is photothermal. Human urinary calculi were placed in deionized water and irradiated with erbium:YAG laser energy delivered through a sapphire optical fiber. Erbium:YAG bubble dynamics were visualized with Schlieren flash photography and correlated to acoustic emissions measured by a polyvinylidene fluoride needle hydrophone. The sapphire fiber was placed either parallel or perpendicular to the calculus surface to assess the contribution of acoustic transients to fragmentation. Stones were irradiated using desiccated stone irradiated in air, hydrated stone irradiated in air and hydrated stone irradiated in water. Ablation crater sizes were compared. Uric acid stones were irradiated in water and the water was assayed for cyanide. During the early phase of vapor bubble expansion, acoustic transients had minimal effects on calculus fragmentation. Fragmentation occurred due to direct absorption of laser energy transmitted to the calculus through the vapor channel between the sapphire fiber tip and calculus. The forward axial expansion of the bubble occurred more rapidly than the radial expansion. A parallel oriented fiber on the calculus surface produced no fragmentation but generated larger amplitude acoustic transients compared to perpendicular orientation. In perpendicular orientation the erbium:YAG laser did not generate any collapse acoustic waves but fragmentation occurred. Crater width was greatest for desiccated stones irradiated in air (p <0.03). Cyanide production increased as erbium:YAG irradiation of uric acid calculi increased, (r2 = 0.98). The erbium:YAG laser fragments stones through a photothermal mechanism.

  7. Low-pulse energy Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment for hair-dye-induced Riehl's melanosis.

    On, Hye Rang; Hong, Won Jin; Roh, Mi Ryung


    Riehl's melanosis, a form of dermatitis characterized by reticulate pigmentation, typically presents as a gray-brown to black hyperpigmentation on the face and neck. Among the various etiologic factors suggested, photoallergic reaction and pigmented contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to drugs, coal tar dyes, optical whitener, or other ingredients found in cosmetics are believed to be the major contributing factors in this disease. The histopathological features of Riehl's melanosis mainly consist of pigmentary incontinence along with infiltration of numerous dermal melanophages and lymphohistiocytes.1,2 Additionally, notable clinical improvements in the treatment of this condition have been reported for intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, in comparison to long-term topical application of bleaching agents.2 Here, we report the cases of two Asian patients treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser for hair dye-induced Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck. In conclusion, we observed that Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck was effectively and safely treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. We suggest that this method can be used in Asian patients with Riehl's melanosis at risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from excessive light or laser energy delivery.

  8. Histological aspects of retinal damage following exposure to pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation in rabbits: indication for mechanism

    Kadar, T.; Peri, D.; Turetz, J.; Fishbine, E.; Sahar, R.; Egoz, I.; Sapiens, N.; Brandeis, R.


    The severity and characteristics of retinal injury following laser radiation derived from laser and tissue related factors. We have previously shown that retinal damage following Nd:YAG Q-switched laser radiation in rabbits was related to physical parameters, i.e. energy levels and number of pulses. Yet, an extremely large variability in the severity of the damage was found under similar exposure paradigms, even within the same retina. This emphasizes the role of the biological variables in the pathological mechanism of laser-induced retinal damage. The aim of the present study was to further study histological parameters of the injury in relation to retinal site and to elucidate their role in the initiation and characteristics of the damage, following various energy levels (10-50 μJ) and number of pulses (1-4). Pigmented rabbits were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation (532nm, pulse duration: 20ns). Exposures were conducted in retina tissue, adjacent to the optic nerve, with a total of 20 exposures per retina. Animals were sacrificed 15 min or 24 hours post exposure, eyes enucleated and processed for paraffin embedding. 4μm thick serial sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were examined under light microscopy. Two major types of retinal damage were observed: focal edema confined to the pigmented epithelium and the photoreceptor cells, and hemorrhages, associated with destruction of retinal tissue. While focal edema associated with slight elevation of the photoreceptor layer seems to depend on the pigmented epithelium, hemorrhages were related also to the choroid vasculature at the site of radiation. It is suggested that a thermo-mechanical mechanism is involved in laser induced retinal hemorrhages at energies above 10-30μJ (2-1 pulses, respectively).

  9. Yb:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifiers for picosecond lasers using the divided pulse amplification technique.

    Lesparre, Fabien; Gomes, Jean Thomas; Délen, Xavier; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan; Druon, Frederic; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick


    A two-stage master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system based on Yb:YAG single-crystal-fiber (SCF) technology and designed for high peak power is studied to significantly increase the pulse energy of a low-power picosecond laser. The first SCF amplifier has been designed for high gain. Using a gain medium optimized in terms of doping concentration and length, an optical gain of 32 dB has been demonstrated. The second amplifier stage designed for high energy using the divided pulse technique allows us to generate a recombined output pulse energy of 2 mJ at 12.5 kHz with a pulse duration of 6 ps corresponding to a peak power of 320 MW. Average powers ranging from 25 to 55 W with repetition rates varying from 12.5 to 500 kHz have been demonstrated.

  10. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser

    Glova, A. F.; Lysikov, A. Yu


    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  11. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser-assisted hair removal in Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.

    Rao, Krishna; Sankar, Thangasamy K


    Unwanted hair is a common problem for which a variety of laser treatments is available. Laser treatment in dark-skinned individuals carries a higher risk of complications like hyperpigmentation and burn. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety profile of laser-assisted hair removal in individuals with Fitzpatrick type IV-VI skin using long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Retrospective data was collected from 150 individuals with Fitzpatrick type IV-VI skin who underwent laser-assisted hair removal. This included area treated, fluence, number of treatments, and outcome. Data was also gathered on patient satisfaction and complications. The most common phototype was type IV (94%). The most frequently treated area was the face (84.7%) followed by the underarms and legs. Among the facial areas, the chin was the most frequently treated area followed by the upper lip and jaw line. The mean number of treatments was 8.9 (range 4-22). The maximum fluence averaged 26.8 Joules/cm(2) and was significantly higher for facial hair. Of the patients, 78.7% felt that their treatment was good or satisfactory. Mean hair reduction was 54.3%. Satisfaction from the treatment was significantly higher in individuals undergoing treatment of non-facial areas. Subsequent hair growth was slower and finer in 79.3% of the patients. There were no complications in 86% of the patients. All the complications were transient, with hyperpigmentation being the most frequent complication. Our results show that laser hair removal using the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective in dark-skinned individuals with satisfactory results in most patients.

  12. Comparative studies of semiconductor saturable absorber mirror mode-locking dynamics in pulsed diode-end-pumped picosecond Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers

    Bingyuan Zhang; Gang Li; Meng Chen; Guoju Wang; Yonggang Wang


    Ultrashort pulses were generated in passively mode-locked Nd:YAG and Nd:GdVO4 lasers pumped by a pulsed laser diode with 10-Hz repetition rate. Stable mode-locked pulse trains were produced with the pulse width of 10 ps. The evolution of the mode-locked pulse was observed in the experiment and was discussed in detail. Comparing the pulse evolutions of Nd:YAG and Nd:GdVO4 lasers, we found that the buildup time of the steady-state mode-locking with semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) was relevant to the upper-state lifetime and the emission cross-section of the gain medium.

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long-pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    Yamamoto, Karen Y; Cremers, David A; Foster, Leeann E; Davies, Mathew P; Harris, Ronny D


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements are typically carried out using pulses (50 mJ) from a flashlamp-pumped electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (EO-laser) or excimer laser. Here we report LIBS analyses of solids using an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (AO-laser) producing 150 ns pulses of lower energy (10 mJ) at repetition rates up to 6 kHz. The high repetition rate allows increased spatial or depth sampling over a given time period compared to the EO-laser. Results of AO-laser based LIBS analysis of (1) steels, (2) soils, and (3) surface stains and dusts are described. Detection limits for Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Si in steel ranged from 0.11 to 0.24% using a commercial polychromator-based detection system with limits 4--30 times lower achieved using a laboratory-based detection system. The minimum detectable masses of Ba, Cr, Mn, and Sr on a metal surface were estimated with 1.2 pg/shot achieved for Sr. Detection limits for Ba and Sr in soil were 296 and 52 ppm, respectively. The temperatures, spectra, and emission decay curves from plasmas generated by the AO- and EO-lasers are compared and some characteristics of particles ablated by the AO-laser are described.

  14. Heating of multi-layered samples by a Nd: YAG pulsed laser

    Diniz Neto, O. O.


    Full Text Available In the work we examine the heating of multi-layered samples by a powerful Nd - YAG pulsed láser. The samples are made of two and three layers, conductor-isolator (Al-Al2O3, conductor-conductor (Al-Ag; Al-Au and conductor-conductor-conductor (Al-Au-Ag; Ag-Au-Al. The transient behaviour of the temperature distribution throughout the sample is computed. We carry out three dimensional model calculations for the heating process in which we consider not only the temperature dependence of the sample thermal and optical parameters but also the space and time characteristics of the laser beam as the heating source. We showed the influence of the substrate in the thermal profile, in space and time, and máximum temperature on the multi-layered samples.

    Em nosso trabalho examinamos o aquecimento de amostras compostas de duas e três camadas, condutor- isolante e condutor-condutor, com um pulso potente de láser. O comportamento transiente da distribuição de temperatura através da amostra foi calculado. Em nosso modelo de calculo para o processo de aquecimento levamos em conta a dependência com a temperatura dos parâmetros térmicos (difusividade, capacidade e condutividade térmica, óticos (refletividade e coeficiente de absorção, bem como a dependência das condições de contorno com o tempo e consequentemente com a temperatura. Aplicamos nossa metodología para calcular o aquecimento amostras compostas: Al-Au, Al-Ag, Al-Al2O3, Al-Au-Ag e Ag-Au-Al. Concluimos que o substrato influencia as temperaturas máximas nas superfície exposta ao láser e a forma com que a frente de calor se propaga nas amostras termicamente finas.

  15. Clinical usefulness of transpapillary removal of common bile duct stones by frequency doubled double pulse Nd: YAG laser

    Tae Hyeon Kim; Hyo Jeong Oh; Chang-Soo Choi; Dong Han Yeom; Suck Chei Choi


    AIM: To study the efficacy and the safety of laser lithotripsy without direct visual control by using a balloon catheter in patients with bile duct stones that could not be extracted by standard technique.METHODS: The seventeen patients (7 male and 10 female; mean age 67.8 years) with difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones were not amenable for conventional endoscopic maneuvers such as sphincterotomy and mechanical lithotripsy were included in this study. Laser wavelengths of 532 nm and 1064 nm as a double pulse were applied with pulse energy of 120 mJ. The laser fiber was advanced under fluoroscopic control through the ERCP balloon catheter. Laser lithotripsy was continued until the fragment size seemed to be less than 10 mm.Endoscopic extraction of the stones and fragments was performed with the use of the Dormia basket and balloon catheter.RESULTS: Bile duct clearance was achieved in 15 of 17 patients (88%). The mean number of treatment sessions was 1.7 ± 0.6. Endoscopic stone removal could not be achieved in 2 patients (7%). Adverse effects were noted in three patients (hemobilia, pancreatitis, and cholangitis).CONCLUSION: The Frequency Doubled Double Pulse Nd:YAG (FREDDY) laser may be an effective and safe technique in treatment of difficult bile duct stones.

  16. Indocyanine green-augmented diode laser therapy vs. long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser treatment of telangiectatic leg veins: a randomized controlled trial.

    Klein, A; Buschmann, M; Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Bäumler, W


    Telangiectatic leg veins (TLV) represent a common cosmetic problem. Near infrared lasers have been widely used in treatment because of their deeper penetration into the dermis, but with varying degrees of success, particularly because of different vessel diameters. Indocyanine green (ICG)-augmented diode laser treatment (ICG+DL) may present an alternative treatment option. This trial evaluates the efficacy of ICG+DL in the treatment of TLV and compares the safety and efficacy of therapy with the standard treatment, the long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. In a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, 29 study participants with TLV were treated with a Nd:YAG laser (λem = 1064 nm, 160-240 J cm(-2) , 65-ms pulse duration, 5-mm spot size) and ICG+DL (λem = 810 nm, 60-110 J cm(-2) , 48-87-ms pulse duration, 6-mm spot size; total ICG dose 4 mg kg(-1) ) in a side-by-side comparison in one single treatment setting that included histological examination in four participants. Two blinded investigators and the participants assessed clearance rate, cosmetic appearance and adverse events up to 3 months after treatment. According to both the investigators' and participants' assessment, clearance rates were significantly better after ICG+DL therapy than after Nd:YAG laser treatment (P treatment, participants rated ICG+DL therapy to be more painful (6·1 ± 2·0) than Nd:YAG laser (5·4 ± 2·0). ICG+DL therapy represents a new and promising treatment modality for TLV, with high clearance rates and a very good cosmetic outcome after one single treatment session. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Ablation of CdTe with 100 {mu}s Nd:YAG laser pulses: dependence on target preparation method

    Rzeszutek, J. [Instytut Fizyki, Politechnika Poznanska, ul. Nieszawska 13a, 61-965 Poznan (Poland); Savchuk, V. [Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3B Naukova Street, 79601 Lviv (Ukraine); Oszwaldowski, M.


    The results of experimental studies of the ablation of CdTe with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm) performed with 100 {mu}s pulses and repetition time of 35 Hz are presented for the pulse energy range from 0.13 to 0.25 J. The main goal is to elucidate the dependence of the ablation process on the target preparation method. The investigation of the vapour stream intensity and chemical composition and their evolution with time are performed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer synchronized with the laser pulses. These studies are performed for three kinds of targets: a target made of CdTe bulk crystal (BC target), a target made of CdTe fine powder pressed under the pressure of 700 atm (PP target), and a target made of loose CdTe powder (N-PP target). The applicability of these targets for obtaining high quality CdTe thin films is determined. The best chemical composition of the vapour stream can be obtained with the BC target. A major drawback of this target is the energetic threshold for ablation with Nd:YAG laser and resulting delay in the ablation process above the threshold. The advantage of powder targets over BC target is the lack of any ablation threshold or delay. Weaker angular dependence of the particle emission (associated with the surface roughness), if confirmed in further experiments, can be the most important advantage of PP and N-PP targets. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of a long pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser for improvement in appearance of cellulite.

    Truitt, Anne; Elkeeb, Laila; Ortiz, Arisa; Saedi, Nazanin; Echague, Agustina; Kelly, Kristen M


    Cellulite is a common, unwanted condition, which is challenging to treat. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed 1064 Nd:YAG laser as a method for improvement in cellulite appearance and to evaluate parameter selection. Twenty-two female subjects with posterior leg cellulite were randomly assigned to treatment of left or right thigh with higher energy treatment with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) (10-mm spot size; 50 J/cm(2); 50-ms pulse duration and CSC settings of 30-ms duration with a 20-ms delay) or lower energy treatment with no CSC (10 mm; 20 J/cm(2); 50 ms). Subjects received three treatments at 4 weeks intervals. Digital photographs and circumference measurements were taken pre-treatment and up to 6 months post-treatment. Nineteen subjects completed three treatments and 16 subjects completed 6-month follow-up. Circumference measurements pre- and post-treatment were not significantly different. Blinded evaluators noted mild improvement in three of seven subjects in high energy group and moderate improvement in two of nine subjects in low energy group. Multiple passes with a long-pulsed 1064 Nd:YAG achieved mild or moderate improvement in some subjects as rated by blinded evaluators.

  19. Short pulse diode-pumped Tm:YAG slab laser electro-optically Q-switched by RbTiOPO4 crystal

    Jin, Lin; Liu, Pian; Huang, Haitao; Liu, Xuan; Shen, Deyuan


    In this paper, a laser diode end pumped RbTiOPO4 (RTP) electro-optically Q-switched Tm:YAG slab laser was demonstrated. Stable Q-switched pulse with the shortest pulse width of 58 ns and an average output power of 7.5 W were realized at the repetition rate of 1 KHz, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 21.7%.

  20. Optimization of pulsed Nd:YAG laser melting of gray cast iron at different spot sizes for enhanced surface properties

    Zulhishamuddin, A. R.; Aqida, S. N.; Rahim, E. A.


    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of gray cast iron using different laser spot size with an aims to eliminate graphite phase and achieve minimum surface roughness and maximum depth of molten zone and microhardness properties. The laser processing was conducted using JK300HPS Nd:YAG twin lamp laser source pulse TEM00 mode, 50 W average power, 1064 nm wavelength and different laser spot sizes of 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.7 mm. Three controlled parameter were peak power (Pp), pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and traverse speed (v). Increasing spot size the parameter setting where peak power is increased and pulse repetition frequency and traverse speed is decreased. The modified surface of laser surface melting was characterized for metallographic study, surface roughness and hardness. Metallographic study and surface morphology were conducted using optical microscope while hardness properties were measured using Vickers scale. Surface roughness was measured using a 2D stylus profilometer. From metallographic study, the graphite phase was totally eliminated from the molten zone and formed white zone. This phenomenon affected hardness properties of the modified surface where maximum hardness of 955.8 HV0.1 achieved. Optimization of laser surface modification was conducted for minimum surface roughness and maximum depth of modified layer and hardness properties. From the optimization, the higher desirability is 0.902. The highest depth of molten zone obtain from spot size 1.4 mm at 132 µm and the highest hardness is 989 HV0.1 at laser's spot size 1.0 mm. The surface roughness increased when the spot size increased from 3.10 µm to 7.31 µm. These finding indicate potential application of enhanced gray cast iron in high wear resistance automotive components such as cylinder liner and break disc.

  1. Enhancement of p-polarized output power in long pulse single rod Nd:YAG laser using a tilted 90° quartz rotator

    Choubey, Ambar; Mondal, Shyamal; Singh, Ravindra; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Datta, P. K.; Oak, S. M.


    We report a study on the enhancement of linearly p-polarized output power in long pulse (2-20 ms) multimode operation of single rod Nd:YAG laser. Laser resonator was designed using a simple optical scheme with a tilted 90° quartz rotator and a re-entering feedback mirror placed at appropriate location. A p-polarized average output power of 215 W has been achieved with a slope efficiency of 4.5%, which is on higher side for a typical long pulse single rod Nd:YAG laser system. It has been verified experimentally that the depolarization losses can be reduced significantly from a value of ~34% to ~9%. Further, this scheme has resulted in a significant enhancement (more than 80%) of p-polarized output power as compared to placing a polarizer in the resonator. This long pulse p-polarized laser will be useful in various material processing applications and nonlinear frequency conversions.

  2. Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation.

    Richou, B; Schertz, I; Gobin, I; Richou, J


    A large-core multimode optical fiber of a few meters length is studied as a 10-MW beam delivery system for a 15-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A laser-to-fiber vacuum coupler is used to inhibit air breakdown and reduce the probability of dielectric breakdown on the fiber front surface. Laser-induced damage inside the fiber core is observed behind the fiber front surface. An explanation based on a high power density is illustrated by a ray trace. Damaged spots and measurements of fiber output energies are reported for two laser beam distributions: a flat-hat type and a near-Gaussian type. Experiments have been performed to deliver a 100-pulse mean energy between 100 and 230 mJ without catastrophic damage.

  3. Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: Dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation

    Richou, B.; Richou, J. [Laboratoire d` Optoelectronique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Toulon et du Var, BP 132, La Garde 83957 (France); Schertz, I.; Gobin, I. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique/Vaujours, Moronvilliers, BP 7, Courtry 77181 (France)


    A large-core multimode optical fiber of a few meters length is studied as a 10-MW beam delivery system for a 15-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A laser-to-fiber vacuum coupler is used to inhibit air breakdown and reduce the probability of dielectric breakdown on the fiber front surface. Laser-induced damage inside the fiber core is observed behind the fiber front surface. An explanation based on a high power density is illustrated by a ray trace. Damaged spots and measurements of fiber output energies are reported for two laser beam distributions: a flat-hat type and a near-Gaussian type. Experiments have been performed to deliver a 100-pulse mean energy between 100 and 230 mJ without catastrophic damage. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  4. Alloying element losses in pulsed Nd : YAG laser welding of stainless steel 316

    Jandaghi, M.; Parvin, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.


    Experimental studies of pulsed laser welding of stainless steel 316 in keyhole mode were done to examine a vaporization model based on the kinetic theory of gases and the thermodynamic laws. Undesirable loss of volatile elements affects the weld metal composition and properties. The profile of the keyhole was simulated as a function of time from a 'hydrodynamic' physical model. The power density and pulse duration were the main investigated variables. The model predicts that loss of alloying elements increases at higher peak powers and longer pulse durations. Accordingly, the concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel and manganese were determined in the weld pool by means of the proton-induced x-ray emission and energy dispersive x-ray/wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis. It was shown that the composition alteration, predicted by the model due to varying laser parameters, accords well with the corresponding experimental data.

  5. Damage on HfO2/SiO2 high-reflecting coatings under single and multiple Nd:YAG laser pulse irradiation

    Weidong Gao; Tao Wang; Yuanan Zhao; Jianda Shao


    The single- and multi-shot damage behaviors of HfO2/SiO2 high-reflecting (HR) coatings under Nd:YAG laser exposure were investigated. Fundamental aspects of multi-shot laser damage, such as the instability due to pulse-to-pulse accumulation of absorption defect and structural defect effect, and the mechanism of laser induced defect generation, are considered. It was found in multi-shot damage, the main factors influencing laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are accumulation of irreversible changes of structural defects and thermal stress that induced by thermal density fluctuations.

  6. Bundled hollow optical fibers for transmission of high-peak-power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses.

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Yuji


    A hollow-fiber bundle was designed and used to deliver high-peak-power pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. An 80 cm long bundle with a total diameter of 5.5 mm was composed of 37 glass capillaries with bore diameters of 0.7 mm. Beam-resizing optics with two lenses were used to couple the laser beam into the bundle. The measured coupling loss due to the limited aperture ratio of the bundle was 2.3 dB, and the transmission loss at wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm was 0.3 dB. When an inert gas flowed through the bores of the capillaries, the maximum output pulse energy was 200 mJ, which was the limit of the laser used in the experiment. Hollow-fiber bundles withstand irradiation better than single hollow fibers and silica-glass optical fibers do. They are suitable for many dermatological applications because they can be used to irradiate a large area.

  7. Nonablative acne scar reduction after a series of treatments with a short-pulsed 1,064-nm neodymium:YAG laser.

    Lipper, Graeme M; Perez, Maritza


    Effective treatment of facial acne scarring presents a major challenge. Nonablative lasers and radiofrequency devices work by thermally stimulating dermal collagen remodeling, thereby softening acne scars in a minimally invasive fashion. One such laser, a 1,064-nm short-pulsed Nd:YAG, uses rapidly scanned low-energy infrared pulses to heat the dermis selectively through the normal dermal microvasculature. In this pilot study, the safety and efficacy of a novel short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser were investigated for the treatment of moderate to severe facial acne scarring. Nine of 10 enrolled patients with moderate to severe facial acne scarring received eight sequential 1,064-nm Nd:YAG treatments (laser parameters 14 J/cm2, 0.3 milliseconds, 5-mm spot size, 7-Hz pulse rate, 2,000 pulses per side of face). Patients were graded for the presence and severity of three scar morphologies: superficial (rolling), medium-depth (boxcar), and deep (ice pick). Outcome measures included blinded evaluation of before and after photographs by three physician observers (scar severity score) and patient self-assessment. Acne scarring improved in 100% of the nine patients completing the study. Scar severity scores improved by a mean of 29.36% (95% confidence interval, 16.93%-41.79%; p = .006); 89% of patients noted greater than 10% scar improvement. No treatment-related adverse events were seen. Our findings support the use of a short-pulsed, low-fluence 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser as a safe, effective treatment for facial acne scarring. Scar improvement was noted in all treated subjects with minimal discomfort and no downtime. This protocol appears to be most effective at reducing scar depth and softening scar contours. A laser upgrade needed for the study was provided to the authors at a reduced price.

  8. Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG rod laser with 73 ns pulse duration and 160Wgreen output power

    S K Sharma; A J Singh; P K Gupta; P Hedaoo; P K Mukhopadhyay; K Ranganathan; K S Bindra; S M Oak


    In a thermally birefringence-compensated linear cavity configuration, ∼160 W of average green power by intracavity frequency doubling of AO Q-switched Nd:YAG/LBO-based laser is demonstrated. The corresponding optical to optical conversion efficiency is estimated to be ∼12.7%. The pulse repetition rate is 20 kHz with the individual pulse duration of 73 ns. The beam quality parameter is measured to be 18.

  9. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System

    Inbok Lee


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS, with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  10. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee


    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  11. Investigation of droplet formation in pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of metals and silicon

    Siew, Wee-Ong; Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Tou, Teck-Yong [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yong, Thian-Khok [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, Seong-Shan [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)


    In the process of pulsed laser deposition of nickel (Ni) and ruthenium (Ru) thin films, the occurrence of phase explosion in ablation was found to affect the deposition rate and enhance the optical emissions from the plasma plume. Faster thin-film growth rates coincide with the onset of phase explosion as a result of superheating and/or sub-surface boiling which also increased the particulates found on the thin-film surface. These particulates were predominantly droplets which may not be round but flattened and also debris for the case of silicon (Si) ablation. The droplets from Ni and Ru thin films were compared in terms of size distribution and number density for different laser fluences. The origins of these particulates were correlated to the bubble and ripple formations on the targets while the transfer to the thin film surface was attributed to the laser-induced ejection from the targets. (orig.)

  12. Long pulsed Nd: YAG laser with inbuilt cool sapphire tip for long term hair reduction on type- IV and V skin: A prospective analysis of 200 patients

    Nanda Soni


    Full Text Available Background: Laser hair reduction has become a very popular means to get rid of unwanted hair. Aims: We conducted the current study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Nd: YAG laser on dark skin. We also evaluated the effect of increasing the gap between sessions on the long term efficacy of hair reduction achieved with long pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 200 consecutive female patients who underwent laser hair reduction for unwanted hair over the face, at Kaya skin clinic Delhi, with long pulsed Nd: YAG laser, from May 2006 to May 2009. The gap between sessions was increased from 2 nd session itself. Results were evaluated 6 months after 6 sessions. Also a note was made of worsening of hair growth or any side effects experienced the patient during any of the sessions. Results: A total of 200 female patients (160 skin type IV and 40 skin type V were followed up. Of these, 64 enrolled for lower face, 88 for chin or upper neck and 48 for upper lip. 6 months after 6 sessions, more than 50% improvement was seen in 68.7% of lower face, 89.69% cases of chin and 59% of upper lip cases. None of the patients had any worsening. Conclusions: The current study shows that long pulsed Nd: YAG is a very safe and effective means of hair reduction in skin types IV and V. Adequate fluences and increasing the gap between sessions from the 2 nd session could be the key to achieving long term hair reduction with Nd: YAG laser. Adequate cooling and proper shaving are the key factors determining the safety.

  13. Histologic and photonic evaluation of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser for ablation of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Ichikawa, Kota; Tanino, Ryuzaburo; Wakaki, Moriaki


    and lipolysis using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The results will be useful for research and development of a more effective laser system for liposculpture.

  14. Comparative study of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steels

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish


    Laser welding is a potentially useful technique for joining two pieces of similar or dissimilar materials with high precision. In the present work, comparative studies on laser welding of similar metal of AISI 304SS and AISI 316SS have been conducted forming butt joints. A robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser source has been used for welding purpose. The effects of laser power, scanning speed and pulse width on the ultimate tensile strength and weld width have been investigated using the empirical models developed by RSM. The results of ANOVA indicate that the developed models predict the responses adequately within the limits of input parameters. 3-D response surface and contour plots have been developed to find out the combined effects of input parameters on responses. Furthermore, microstructural analysis as well as hardness and tensile behavior of the selected weld of 304SS and 316SS have been carried out to understand the metallurgical and mechanical behavior of the weld. The selection criteria are based on the maximum and minimum strength achieved by the respective weld. It has been observed that the current pulsation, base metal composition and variation in heat input have significant influence on controlling the microstructural constituents (i.e. phase fraction, grain size etc.). The result suggests that the low energy input pulsation generally produce fine grain structure and improved mechanical properties than the high energy input pulsation irrespective of base material composition. However, among the base materials, 304SS depict better microstructural and mechanical properties than the 316SS for a given parametric condition. Finally, desirability function analysis has been applied for multi-objective optimization for maximization of ultimate tensile strength and minimization of weld width simultaneously. Confirmatory tests have been conducted at optimum parametric conditions to validate the optimization techniques.

  15. Studies on pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thick stainless steel in dry air and underwater environment for dismantling applications

    Choubey, Ambar; Jain, R. K.; Ali, Sabir; Singh, Ravindra; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Agrawal, D. K.; Arya, R.; Kaul, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.


    Dismantling of old equipments and structures is an important application in nuclear facilities and shipping industry. This paper presents a study on process optimization during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thick stainless steel (AISI SS304) sheets having a thickness in the range of 4-20 mm in dry air and underwater environment. Laser cutting experiments have been performed using a 500 W average power long pulse Nd:YAG laser system with fiber optic beam delivery. A water shielded laser cutting nozzle with coaxial gas jet was specifically developed to form a local dry cavity around the laser beam during the cutting experiments in underwater condition. It was found that for a given pulse energy, a higher cutting speed is possible with optimal value of pulse duration, spot overlapping, and assist gas pressure. Cutting speed of 20 mm thick SS sample was enhanced to about three times by means of increase in pulse duration from 14 ms to 20 ms and reduction in the required spot overlapping from a value of 80% to 40% using oxygen as the assist gas. A comparison of the cutting speed and heat affected zone in dry air and underwater environment has been performed. These results will be highly useful in laser based dismantling of old steel structures in radioactive and underwater environment to save time and minimize radiation dose consumption as compared to conventional dismantling methods.

  16. Ceramic planar waveguide laser of non-aqueous tape casting fabricated YAG/Yb:YAG/YAG.

    Wang, Chao; Li, Wenxue; Yang, Chao; Bai, Dongbi; Li, Jiang; Ge, Lin; Pan, Yubai; Zeng, Heping


    Ceramic YAG/Yb:YAG/YAG planar waveguide lasers were realized on continuous-wave and mode-locked operations. The straight waveguide, fabricated by non-aqueous tape casting and solid state reactive sintering, enabled highly efficient diode-pumped waveguide continuous-wave laser with the slope efficiency of 66% and average output power of more than 3 W. The influence of the waveguide structure on the wavelength tunability was also experimentally investiccgated with a dispersive prism. Passively mode-locked operation of the ceramic waveguide laser was achieved by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), output 2.95 ps pulses with maximum power of 385 mW at the central wavelength of 1030 nm.

  17. Characterization of Fe3Si-based coatings on low silicon steel by pulsed Nd:YAG laser cladding

    Dan-yang Dong; Chang-sheng Liu; Sui-yuan Chen; Bin Zhang


    The Fe3Si based coating was produced on the Fe-lSi steel surface by a pulsed Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. Its phase constitution and microstructure were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hyperfine structure of the coating was studied by Mossbauer spectra (MS) and the magnetic property was also measured at room temperature by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The obtained coating is pore and crack-free with dense microstructure and high Si content. The metallurgical bonding between the coating and the substrate was realized. The micro-structure of the coating is typical fine dendrites. The major phase was confirmed by XRD and TEM to be the ordering DO3 structured Fe3Si phase. In addition, there were smaller amounts of the Fe5Si3 phase and the T-Fe phase in the coating. Compared with the sub-strate, the laser cladding coating has a lower saturation magnetization and a higher coercive force. The poor magnetic property might be because of rapid solidification microstructure and phase constitution in the coating.

  18. Experimental investigation of the spectro-temporal dynamics of the light pulses of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers and nanosecond optical parametric oscillators

    Anstett, G.; Wallenstein, R.


    We report an experimental investigation of the spectro-temporal dynamics of the pulse formation in Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers and in nanosecond optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). The temporal evolution of the spectral intensity distribution of the light pulses was measured with a 1-m Czerny Turner spectrometer in combination with a fast streak camera. This detection system allows the analysis of temporal changes in the spectrum of single nanosecond pulses. The measurements were performed for a flashlamp-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and for an unseeded as well as for a seeded singly-resonant nanosecond OPO. The laser output spectrum varies strongly from pulse to pulse and even within a single pulse due to mode beating. In an unseeded OPO, individual spectral modes start to oscillate statistically from the parametric noise for pump powers close to the OPO threshold. With increasing pump power a strong modulation in the spectral formation of the pulse is observed, resulting from a strong interaction of parametric conversion and back conversion of signal and idler radiation into pump radiation. By means of injection seeding, the starting condition was controlled for a single mode. Due to the seed radiation, the seeded mode starts sooner than the unseeded modes. These are suppressed completely in the case of sufficient seed power and moderate pump power. The observations are in good agreement with results of corresponding numerical simulations.

  19. Nd:YAG and pulsed dye laser therapy in infantile haemangiomas: a retrospective analysis of 271 treated haemangiomas in 149 children.

    Hartmann, F; Lockmann, A; Grönemeyer, L-L; Haenssle, H A; Zutt, M; von Fintel, H; Kühnle, I; Schön, M P; Thoms, K-M


    Infantile haemangiomas (IH) are common benign tumours in infancy. Most IH resolve spontaneously, but some require treatment due to ulceration, functional impairment or cosmetic disfiguration. While systemic propranolol is effective in many cases, laser therapy may be a safe topical alternative. To assess the efficacy of combined Nd:YAG/pulsed dye laser (PDL) or PDL alone for therapy of IH. A total of 271 IH in 149 infants were treated with combined Nd:YAG/PDL or PDL alone. Based on photographs before and 4-6 weeks after the last treatment, the results were evaluated independently by three physicians. Remissions were categorized as 0-25% (I), 26-50% (II), 51-75% (III) and 76-100% (IV). In total, 472 laser treatments were performed. In 137 of 149 infants (91.9%) laser therapy was performed during a short sevoflurane mask anaesthesia, while 12 of 149 infants (8.1%) received topical anaesthetic gel. Combined Nd:YAG/PDL was applied in 187 of 271 IH (69.0%), while PDL alone in 84 of 271 IH (31.0%). On average, 1.74 treatments per IH were necessary (Nd:YAG/PDL: 1.95, PDL: 1.26). Moderate or strong (III/IV) improvement was observed in 92.4% of all IH treated. No serious adverse effects were observed. Combined Nd:YAG/PDL therapy is an effective and well-tolerated local treatment option for IH of any classification, in any phase of development and at any age. With regard to the systemic use of propranolol, combined Nd:YAG/PDL therapy seems a safe and promising alternative in many cases. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Optimized evaluation of a pulsed 2.09 microns holmium:YAG laser impact on the rat brain and 3 D-histomorphometry of the collateral damage.

    Ludwig, H C; Bauer, C; Fuhrberg, P; Teichmann, H H; Birbilis, T; Markakis, E


    Since more than 20 years CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers are established in the microsurgery of the nervous system. CO2 lasers can be used handheld, but may be focused on the target area by mirror optics and sideports of the operating microscope's micromanipulator. Nd:YAG lasers have the disadvantage of deep penetration into the brain and provocation of a large collateral damage. The need is for a fibre conducted solid system for surgery in delicate areas as for brain stem surgery. Fibre conduction of near infrared lasers allows better exposure of the target area compared to hollow wave guides or mirror equipment. Fibres can be tapered and modified according to the purpose. The holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser has acquired interest by introducing the system into microsurgery of parenchymal tissue. They have not been proven yet sufficiently for neurosurgical tasks. The effort to minimalize the collateral tissue damage has to be maximalized in the surgery of nervous tissue and functional low redundant brain stem or spinal cord tissue. Volumetric data may be more precise in comparison to depth and width data of the laser lesion even when the different levels of the tissue interaction have to be analyzed for estimation of the real side effects in nervous tissue. We have used 50-800 ml delivered Ho:YAG single pulses in cortical areas of Sprague-Dawley rats and investigated the different lesion zones by volumetric data. The functional lesion zone was detected and measured by immunohistological staining of the heat shock protein HSP 72. For further reduction of the focus area, we have used tapered 400 to 200 microns fibres.

  1. Self-cleaning effect of sealing caps for infrared hollow fiber delivering pulsed Er:YAG laser light

    Shi, Yi Wei; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Jelinkova, Helena


    A sealing cap had been proposed as an output device for hollow optical fibers in delivering laser light underwater. Properties of sealing cap were experimentally discussed when used in ablation on soft tissue for Er:YAG laser. A self-cleaning effect of the sealing cap was observed when various targets were used for different laser light power. Debris from pork fat formed a uniform oil layer on the output surface of the cap, and the oil layer is relatively transparent in Er:YAG laser light wavelength band. When the target was pork muscle, almost no debris could attach on the surface of the cap. The self-cleaning effect was more obvious when ablation was conducted underwater because of the protection of the water film between the target and the cap's surface.

  2. Sulcular debridement with pulsed Nd:YAG

    Harris, David M.; Gregg, Robert H., II; McCarthy, Delwin K.; Colby, Leigh E.; Tilt, Lloyd V.


    We present data supporting the efficacy of the procedure, laser sulcular debridement (laser curettage), as an important component in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease. Laser Assisted New Attachment Procedure (LANAP) is a detailed protocol for the private practice treatment of gum disease that incorporates use of the PerioLase pulsed Nd:YAG Dental Laser for laser curettage. Laser curettage is the removal of diseased or inflamed soft tissue from the periodontal pocket with a surgical dental laser. The clinical trial conducted at The University of Texas HSC at San Antonio, Texas, evaluated laser curettage as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. They measured traditional periodontal clinical indices and used a questionnaire to evaluate patient comfort and acceptance. The Texas data (N=10 patients) are compared with pocket depth changes following LANAP. LANAP data were obtained from a retrospective review of patient records at three private practices (N=65). No significant differences in post treatment probe depth changes were found among the four centers indicating that the procedure produced consistent, favorable outcomes, and that results from controlled scientific clinical trials can be replicated in private practices. Reduction in pocket depths following laser treatment compare well with results obtained with scalpel surgery. The use of the laser offers additional benefits. We also present quantitative evidence from digitized radiographs of increased bone density in affected areas following LANAP.

  3. Tattoo removal in micropigs with low-energy pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm

    Hu, Xin-Hua; Wooden, W. A.; Cariveau, Mickael J.; Fang, Qiyin; Bradfield, J. F.; Kalmus, Gerhard W.; Vore, S. J.; Sun, Y.


    Treatment of pigmented lesions in skin with visible or near- infrared nanosecond (ns) laser pulses often causes significant collateral tissue damage because the current approach uses pulses with energy of 300 mJ or larger. Additionally, this requires large Q-switched laser systems. To overcome these disadvantages, we have investigated a different approach in delivering ns laser pulses for cutaneous lesion treatment. Tattoo removal in an animal model with a focused laser beam from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been investigated in two Yucatan micropigs tattooed with blue, black, green and red pigments. The tattoos were treated with a focused beam of 12-ns pulses at 1064 nm, with different depth under the skin surface, while the micropig was translated to achieve an effect of single pulse per ablation site in the skin. With the pulse energy reduced to a range from 38 to 63 mJ, we found that nearly complete clearance was achieved for blue and black tattoos while clearance of red and green tattoos was incomplete. Analysis of the skin appearance suggested that the pulse energy can be decreased to below 20 mJ which may lead to further reduction of the collateral tissue damage and improve the clearance of red and green tattoos.

  4. Histological and molecular analysis of the long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the ultraviolet-damaged skin of hairless mice: In association with pulse duration change.

    Rhee, Do Young; Cho, Hong Il; Park, Gyeong-Hun; Moon, Hye-Rim; Chang, Sung Eun; Won, Chong Hyun; Jung, Joon Min; Park, Ki-Young; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Deug-Chan; Goo, Boncheol


    Nonablative lasers have been widely used to improve photodamaged skin, although the mechanism underlying dermal collagen remodeling remains unclear. To investigate the effects and the molecular mechanisms of long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on dermal collagen remodeling in association with different pulse durations. Five hairless mice were pretreated with ultraviolet B irradiation for 8 weeks. The dorsal quadrant of each mouse was then irradiated twice at 1-week intervals at a pulse duration of 1 ms, 12 ms, or 50 ms, and a constant fluence of 20 J/cm(2). The levels of dermal collagen, mRNAs of procollagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and various growth factors were analyzed after 4 weeks. Long-pulse Nd:YAG treatment increased the dermal collagen level. A substantial increase in the level of procollagens, MMPs, TIMPs, and various growth factors was also observed irrespective of pulse duration, with a trend toward maximal increase at a pulse duration of 12 ms. Long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation promotes wound-healing process, which is characterized by the induction of growth factor expression and subsequent increase in MMPs and TIMPs, followed by matrix remodeling as confirmed by new procollagen production.

  5. Laser properties of YAG:Nd, Ti

    Kvapil, J.; Kvapil, J.; Kubelka, K. J.; Perner, B.


    YAG:Nd containing about 0.001 wt percent Ti showed slightly increased losses at 1.064 micron but a substantially increased gain coefficient if compared with a material containing no Ti. The increased losses may be attributed to the increased absorption near 1.064 nm and the increased gain to the better energy coupling among Nd(3+) ions occupying nonequivalent sites due to the presence of Ti(3+) ions. YAG:Nd, Ti may be used as a high performance pulsed laser.

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment on Liquation Cracking in Continuous Fiber and Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of HASTELLOY X Alloy

    Pakniat, M.; Ghaini, F. Malek; Torkamany, M. J.


    Laser welding of HASTELLOY X is highly feasible; however, hot cracking can be a matter of concern. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of solution heat treatment on susceptibility to liquation cracking in welding of a 2-mm-thick HASTELLOY X plate. In addition, Nd-YAG pulsed laser (400 W) and continuous wave (CW) fiber laser (600 W) were compared with each other in this respect. Results revealed that performing the prewelding solution heat treatment reduces the tendency for occurrence of liquation cracking. Furthermore, it was established that by increasing pulse frequency, there was a significant reduction in the tendency for liquation cracking. With CW laser welding of HASTELLOY X in the solution-heat-treated condition, the tendency for heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking was found to be minimized.

  7. Effect of the combination of different welding parameters on melting characteristics of grade 1 titanium with a pulsed Nd-Yag laser.

    Bertrand, C; Laplanche, O; Rocca, J P; Le Petitcorps, Y; Nammour, S


    The laser is a very attractive tool for joining dental metallic alloys. However, the choice of the setting parameters can hardly influence the welding performances. The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of several parameters (pulse shaping, pulse frequency, focal spot size...) on the quality of the microstructure. Grade 1 titanium plates have been welded with a pulsed Nd-Yag laser. Suitable power, pulse duration, focal spot size, and flow of argon gas were fixed by the operator. Five different pulse shapes and three pulse frequencies were investigated. Two pulse shapes available on this laser unit were eliminated because they considerably hardened the metal. As the pulse frequency rose, the metal was more and more ejected, and a plasma on the surface of the metal increased the oxygen contamination in the welded area. Frequencies of 1 or 2 Hz are optimum for a dental use. Three pulse shapes can be used for titanium but the rectangular shape gives better results.

  8. YAG Laser Treatment of Tinea Pedis

    Ueda, Masahiro; KAGAWA, Kiichiro


    A clinical experiment on the treatment of tinea pedis infections (common as an athlete’s foot) was conducted using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser with an output energy of 0.5 joule/pulse and duration of 1 millisecond. The experiment was supported by 13 volunteers for skin samples used in this experiment. The treatment was performed with the following irradiation condition; an energy density of 400 joule/cm2 at a skin sample surface, a spot diameter of the laser beam on the surface of 0.4 mm and a re...

  9. Stone Retropulsion with Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study.

    Kamal, Wissam; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Koukiou, Georgia; Amanatides, Lefteris; Panagopoulos, Vasileios; Ntasiotis, Pantelis; Liatsikos, Evangelos


    To compare the retropulsion of stones with the use of holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho: YAG) laser and thulium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Tm: YAG) laser in settings that could be used in clinical practice. The experimental configuration included a glass tube set in a water bath filled with physiologic saline. Plaster of Paris stones were inserted in the tube. Tm: YAG and Ho: YAG laser systems were used along with a high-speed slow-motion camera. The lasers were activated with different settings. The displacement of the stone was measured according to a custom-made algorithm. Ho: YAG: the retropulsion of stones was the lowest with the energy setting of 0.5 J and the frequency of 20 Hz with long pulse duration. The highest retropulsion was observed in the case of 3 J, 5 Hz, and short pulse. Tm: YAG: the retropulsion of stones was the lowest with the energy setting of 1 J and the frequency of 10 Hz with either long or short pulse duration. Practically, there was no retropulsion at all. The highest retropulsion was observed in the case of 8 J, 5 Hz, and short pulse. Ho: YAG laser has a linear increase in stone retropulsion with increased pulse energy. On the other hand, the retropulsion rate was kept to the minimum with Tm: YAG as much as the energy level of 8 J. The activation of lasers with short pulse resulted in further displacement of the stone. Lower frequency with the same power setting seemed to result in further stone retropulsion. Higher power with the same frequency setting resulted in further displacement of the stone.

  10. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial hypertrichosis during topical minoxidil therapy.

    Benmously Mlika, Rym; Ben Hamida, Myriam; Hammami, Houda; Dorbani Ben Thabet, Imen; Rouatbi, Mondher; Mokhtar, Inçaf


    Hypertrichosis is a well-recognized adverse effect of therapy with either oral or topical minoxidil. We report a case of fronto-temporal hypertrichosis occurring in an 8-year-old girl treated for patchy alopecia areata of the frontal area of the scalp with 2% minoxidil solution. After failure of 5-months minoxidil-discontinuation, hair removal with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm line) (Smartepil II, Deka) was tested leading to complete resolution within 2 sessions.

  11. Periorbital rejuvenation with fractional 1,550-nm ytterbium/erbium fiber laser and variable square pulse 2,940-nm erbium:YAG laser in Asians: a comparison study.

    Wattanakrai, Penpun; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Rojhirunsakool, Salinee


    Ablative and fractional lasers are used for periorbital rejuvenation, with different downtime, side effects, and efficacy. To compare effects of fractional 1,550-nm ytterbium- and erbium-doped (Yb/Er) fiber laser and variable square pulse (VSP) 2,940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment for periorbital wrinkles. This side-by-side comparison study randomized 22 women with mild to moderate periorbital rhytides to receive three treatments with fractional 1,550-nm Yb/Er fiber laser or 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser treatment on either side at 4-week intervals. A video camera was used for objective assessment of wrinkles. Standardized photographs, patient satisfaction, side effects, and pain score were recorded. Twenty subjects completed the study. The median change in wrinkle measurement 3 months after laser treatments from baseline of the fractional Yb/Er fiber laser side was -3.03 versus -3.09 on the VSP Er:YAG side (p = .63, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was no significant difference in degree of wrinkle improvement analyzed according to global assessment between the sides (p = .25, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Less downtime correlated with greater patient satisfaction of the fractional laser treatment . Two subjects experienced hyperpigmentation. Fractional Yb/Er fiber and VSP Er:YAG lasers are effective in improving periorbital wrinkles in Asians, with minimal side effects. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparative study of efficacy of 30% Salicylic acid peel VsLong-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for treatment of Keratosis Pilaris



    Full Text Available Introduction: Keratosis pilaris(KP is a disorder of keratinization of hair follicles characterized by keratin plugs in the hair follicles with perifollicular erythema. It may be inherited with X-Linked Dominant, or may be sporadic. Aim of the study: to compare the efficacy of 30% Salicylic acid and Long pulsed 1064nm Nd:YAG laser for treatment of keratosis pilaris. Materials and Methods: Out of 20 patients, 10 patients were given 30% Salicylic acid peel (after washing their face every 15 days for 2 months. Another 15 patients were given the 1064 nm Nd:YAG Long pulse, Spot size: 10 mm, Pulse width: 30 ms every 4-6 weeks for 4 sitting. Results: Among salicylic acid treated group, only 2 out of 10 showed improvement between 50-75%, and were slightly satisfied; none showed >75% improvement, and 8 out of 10 failed to show >50% improvement and were considered as failure of the therapy. Among the Nd:YAG treated group, 3 out of 10 showed 50-75% improvement and were slightly satisfied;none showed > 75% improvement, 7 out 10 failed to show successful results i.e. >50% improvement. Conclusion: Both of the treatments are not much effective and do not give consistent and satisfactory results for treatment of keratosis pilaris.

  13. Modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod


    Thin sheets of aluminium alloys are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries for specific applications. Nd:YAG laser beam cutting is one of the most promising sheetmetal cutting process for cutting sheets for any profile. Al-alloy sheets are difficult to cut by laser beam because of its highly reflective nature. This paper presents modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile. In the present study, four input process parameters such as oxygen pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and cutting speed and two output parameters such as average kerf taper ( Ta) and average surface roughness ( Ra) are considered. The hybrid approach comprising of Taguchi methodology (TM) and response surface methodology (RSM) is used for modelling whereas multi-objective optimization is performed using hybrid approach of TM and grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with entropy measurement methodology. The entropy measurement methodology is employed for the calculation of weight corresponding to each quality characteristic. The results indicate that the hybrid approaches applied for modelling and optimization of the LBC process are reasonable.

  14. Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre.

    Urich, A; Maier, R R J; Mangan, B J; Renshaw, S; Knight, J C; Hand, D P; Shephard, J D


    In this paper the delivery of high power Er:YAG laser pulses through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated. The Er:YAG wavelength of 2.94 µm is well beyond the normal transmittance of bulk silica but the unique hollow core guidance allows silica to guide in this regime. We have demonstrated for the first time the ability to deliver high energy pulses through an all-silica fibre at 2.94 µm. These silica fibres are mechanically and chemically robust, biocompatible and have low sensitivity to bending. A maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ at 2.94 µm was delivered through the fibre. This, to our knowledge, is the first time a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre has been shown to transmit 2.94 μm laser light at a fluence exceeding the thresholds required for modification (e.g. cutting and drilling) of hard biological tissue. Consequently, laser delivery systems based on these fibres have the potential for the realization of novel, minimally-invasive surgical procedures.

  15. Novel Treatment Approach for Deep Palmoplantar Warts Using Long-Pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG Laser and a Moisturizing Cream Without Prior Paring of the Wart Surface.

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel


    The present study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of palmoplantar wart removal using long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser after application of a moisturizing cream. Previously described laser treatments for wart removal are associated with negative side effects and need to pare the warts before laser treatment. Two hundred forty patients (142 males, 98 females) were treated for 1-40 palmoplantar warts by long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser (spot size 4-6 mm, pulse duration 20 msec, fluence 200 J/cm(2)) after covering the wart surface with a thin film of a moisturizing cream. The endpoint was lesion graying or whitening with or without development of a hemorrhagic bulla beneath the treated wart. Color photographs were taken before and immediately after each laser session and at 1, 4, and 16 weeks after the last session. The overall clearance rate was 97%, with 90% of treated patients cured after one session, 4% after two, and 3% after three. Clearance rate after three laser sessions decreased linearly with the number of warts from 100% to 95%. Less accessible wart location in interdigital spaces also decreased the cure rate after three sessions from 100% to 95%. Additionally, warts became more difficult to eradicate as they aged. Remission lasted up to 6 years, and complications were mild and infrequent (17.5%). This novel method is effective in removing palmoplantar warts. It is easier, time-saving, and safer than other methods described in previous studies conducted with ablative or nonablative lasers.

  16. Microchip laser based on Yb:YAG/V:YAG monolith crystal

    Nejezchleb, Karel; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Škoda, Václav


    V:YAG crystal was investigated as a passive Q-switch of longitudinally diode-pumped microchip laser, emitting radiation at wavelength 1030.5 nm. This laser was based on diffusion bonded monolith crystal (diameter 3 mm) which combines in one piece an active laser part (Yb:YAG crystal, 10 at.% Yb/Y, 3 mm long) and saturable absorber (V:YAG crystal, 2 mm long, initial transmission 86 % @ 1031 nm). The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith surfaces (pump mirror HT @ 968 nm and HR @ 1031 nm on Yb:YAG part, output coupler with reflection 55 % @ 1031 nm on the V:YAG part). For longitudinal CW pumping of Yb:YAG part, a fibre coupled (core diameter 100 μm, NA = 0.22, emission @ 968 nm) laser diode was used. The laser threshold was 3.8W. The laser slope efficiency for output mean in respect to incident pumping was 16 %. The linearly polarized generated transversal intensity beam profile was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. The generated pulse length, stable and mostly independent on pumping power, was equal to 1.3 ns (FWHM). The single pulse energy was increasing with the pumping power and for the maximum pumping 9.7W it was 78 μJ which corresponds to the pulse peak-power 56 kW. The maximum Yb:YAG/V:YAG microchip laser mean output power of 1W was reached without observable thermal roll-over. The corresponding Q-switched pulses repetition rate was 13.1 kHz.

  17. Influence of process parameters on drilling characteristics of Al 1050 sheet with thickness of 0.2 mm using pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Dong-Gyu AHN; Gwang-Won JUNG


    The object of this work is to investigate the influence of process parameters on drilling characteristics of an Al 1050 sheet with a thickness of 0.2 mm using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser through numerical analyses and experiments. By comparing the numerical analyses with the experiments, a proper numerical model was obtained. From the results of the numerical analyses and the experiments, the effects of process parameters on entrance diameters of drilled holes, shapes of the holes, taper angles of the holes and temperature distributions in the vicinity of the holes were examined quantitatively. In addition, the optimal drilling condition was stimated to improve the quality of the drilled holes.

  18. Generation of 415 W of p-polarized output power in long pulse operation of Nd:YAG laser using z-fold resonator geometry

    Choubey, Ambar; Mondal, Shyamal; Singh, Ravindra; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Datta, P. K.; Oak, S. M.


    We report on the generation of high average power linearly p-polarized beam in long pulse operation of dual rod Nd:YAG laser. A z-fold resonator configuration has been designed using simple optical scheme to provide effective birefringence compensation, compactness, and reduction of alignment criticality. Using this geometry, a maximum linearly p-polarized average output power of 415 W and a pulse energy of 150 J was achieved with a slope efficiency of 4.3%, which is on higher side for typical lamp pumped long pulse Nd:YAG lasers. For effective birefringence compensation, an intra-cavity concave mirror based imaging system, a 90° quartz rotator, and a re-entrant feedback mirror has been used. This scheme resulted in an enhancement of p-polarized output power of more than 80% as compared to the p-polarized output power without birefringence compensation. Depolarization loss in the resonator has also been reduced significantly from a value of 35% to a value of ~1.8% after birefringence compensation.

  19. Large-energy, narrow-bandwidth laser pulse at 1645 nm in a diode-pumped Er:YAG solid-state laser passively Q-switched by a monolayer graphene saturable absorber.

    Zhou, Rong; Tang, Pinghua; Chen, Yu; Chen, Shuqing; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun


    Nonlinear transmission parameters of monolayer graphene at 1645 nm were obtained. Based on the monolayer graphene saturable absorber, a 1532 nm LD pumped 1645 nm passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser was demonstrated. Under the pump power of 20.8 W, a 1645 nm Q-switched pulse with FWHM of 0.13 nm (without the use of etalon) and energy of 13.5 μJ per pulse can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy for graphene-based passively Q-switched Er:YAG laseroperating at 1645 nm, suggesting the potentials of graphene materials for high-energy solid-state laser applications.

  20. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment for failing dental implants due to peri-implantitis

    Nicholson, Dawn; Blodgett, Kris; Braga, Charles; Finkbeiner, Larry; Fourrier, Jeanne; George, John; Gregg, Robert; Honigman, Allen; Houser, Bruce; Lamas, William; Lehrman, Neal; Linden, Eric; McCarthy, Delwin; McCawley, Tom; McCormick, Randy; Marcus, Ed; Noraian, Kirk; Rubelman, Peter; Salama, Maurice; Saunders, Steven; Seamons, Brandon; Thein, David; Toms, Michael; Vassos, George; Harris, David M.


    A large percentage of dental implants experience complications, most commonly, infection leading to peri-implantitis and peri-mucositis, inflammatory disease involving pathogen contamination. It presents with radiographic findings of crestal bone loss. At this time there appears to be no compelling evidence for an effective intervention. The LANAP protocol is a FDA cleared surgical protocol that produces new attachment and bone regeneration when applied to periodontally infected natural teeth. The LANAP protocol and laser dosimetry have been modified to treat ailing and failing implants. Twenty-one clinicians who have been trained to perform the LANAP protocol and the LAPIPTM protocol have volunteered 26 LAPIP case reports. The time from implant to intervention ranges from 3 months to 16 years. Post-LAPIP radiographs range from 2-48 months. Ten cases were excluded for technical reasons. All 16 remaining cases provide radiographic evidence of increase in crestal bone mass around the implant and, when reported, probe depth reductions. All treating clinicians report control of the infection, reversal of bone loss and rescue of the incumbent implant. Although the success/failure rate cannot be judged from these data, any successes in this area deserve reporting and further study.

  1. Characterization the microstructure of pulsed Nd:YAG welding method in low frequencies; correlation with tensile and fracture behavior in laser-welded nitinol joints

    Shojaei Zoeram, Ali; Rahmani, Aida; Asghar Akbari Mousavi, Seyed Ali


    The precise controllability of heat input in pulsed Nd:YAG welding method provided by two additional parameters, frequency and pulse duration, has made this method very promising for welding of alloys sensitive to heat input. The poor weldability of Ti-rich nitinol as a result of the formation of Ti2Ni IMC has deprived us of the unique properties of this alloy. In this study, to intensify solidification rate during welding of Ti-rich nitinol, pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam in low frequency was employed in addition to the employment of a copper substrate. Specific microstructure produced in this condition was characterized and the effects of this microstructure on tensile and fracture behavior of samples welded by two different procedures, full penetration and double-sided method with halved penetration depth for each side were investigated. The investigations revealed although the combination of low frequencies, the use of a high thermal conductor substrate and double-sided method eliminated intergranular fracture and increased tensile strength, the particular microstructure, built in the pulsed welding method in low frequencies, results to the formation of the longitudinal cracks during the first stages of tensile test at weld centerline. This degrades tensile strength of welded samples compared to base metal. The results showed samples welded in double-sided method performed much better than samples welded in full penetration mode.

  2. Identification and Removal of High Frequency Temporal Noise in a Nd:YAG Macro-Pulse Laser Assisted with a Diagnostic Streak Camera

    Kent Marlett, Bechtel Nevada; Ke-Xun Sun Bechtel Nevada


    This paper discusses the use of a reference streak camera (SC) to diagnose laser performance and guide modifications to remove high frequency noise from Bechtel Nevada's long-pulse laser. The upgraded laser exhibits less than 0.1% high frequency noise in cumulative spectra, exceeding National Ignition Facility (NIF) calibration specifications. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require full characterization of streak cameras over a wide range of sweep speeds (10 ns to 480 ns). This paradigm of metrology poses stringent spectral requirements on the laser source for streak camera calibration. Recently, Bechtel Nevada worked with a laser vendor to develop a high performance, multi-wavelength Nd:YAG laser to meet NIF calibration requirements. For a typical NIF streak camera with a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD, the flat field calibration at 30 ns requires a smooth laser spectrum over 33 MHz to 68 GHz. Streak cameras are the appropriate instrumentation for measuring laser amplitude noise at these very high frequencies since the upper end spectral content is beyond the frequency response of typical optoelectronic detectors for a single shot pulse. The SC was used to measure a similar laser at its second harmonic wavelength (532 nm), to establish baseline spectra for testing signal analysis algorithms. The SC was then used to measure the new custom calibration laser. In both spatial-temporal measurements and cumulative spectra, 6-8 GHz oscillations were identified. The oscillations were found to be caused by inter-surface reflections between amplifiers. Additional variations in the SC spectral data were found to result from temperature instabilities in the seeding laser. Based on these findings, laser upgrades were made to remove the high frequency noise from the laser output.

  3. Pre-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser

    Xinning Tian(田信宁); Ping Yan(闫平); Qiang Liu(柳强); Mali Gong(巩马理); Yun Liao(廖云)


    A pre-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser is demonstrated with a peak power of 7.5 kW at pulse repetition rate of serveral kilohertzs. The full-width at half-maximum(FWHM)is 734 ps, and the pulse energy is 5.5 μJ with a fundamental spatial mode. In this system, the pre-pumped microchip laser of Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG wafer which is bonded through the thermal-bonding technique has achieved a time jitter value of 12 μs and a Q-switched amplitude instability of 1.26%(15)through the pre-pumped modulation technique.

  4. Stress analysis and optimization of Nd:YAG pulsed laser processing of notches for fracture splitting of a C70S6 connecting rod

    Kou, Shuqing; Gao, Yan; Zhao, Yong; Lin, Baojun [Jilin University, Changchun (China)


    The pulsed laser pre-processing of a notch as the fracture initiation source for the splitting process is the key mechanism of an advanced fracture splitting technology for C70S6 connecting rods. This study investigated the stress field of Nd:YAG pulsed laser grooving, which affects the rapid fracture initiation at the notch root and the controlled crack extension in the critical fracture splitting quality, to improve manufacturing quality. Thermal elastic-plastic incremental theory was applied to build the finite element analysis model of the stress field of pulsed laser grooving for fracture splitting based on the Rotary-Gauss body heat source. The corresponding numerical simulation of the stress field was conducted. The changes and distributions of the stress during pulsed laser grooving were examined, the influence rule of the primary technological parameters on the residual stress was analyzed, and the analysis results were validated by the corresponding cutting experiment. Results showed that the residual stress distribution was concentrated in the Heat-affected zone (HAZ) near the fracture splitting notch, which would cause micro-cracks in the HAZ. The stress state of the notch root in the fracture initiation direction was tensile stress, which was beneficial to the fracture initiation and the crack rapid extension in the subsequent fracture splitting process. However, the uneven distribution of the stress could lead to fracture splitting defects, and thus the residual stress should be lowered to a reasonable range. Decreasing the laser pulse power, increasing the processing speed, and lowering the pulse width can lower the residual stress. Along with the actual production, the reasonable main technological parameters were obtained.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of hole characteristics during pulsed Nd:YAG laser microdrilling of gamma-titanium aluminide alloy sheet

    Biswas, R.; Kuar, A. S.; Mitra, S.


    Nd:YAG laser microdrilled holes on gamma-titanium aluminide, a newly developed alloy having wide applications in turbine blades, engine valves, cases, metal cutting tools, missile components, nuclear fuel and biomedical engineering, are important from the dimensional accuracy and quality of hole point of view. Keeping this in mind, a central composite design (CCD) based on response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for multi-objective optimization of pulsed Nd:YAG laser microdrilling operation on gamma-titanium aluminide alloy sheet to achieve optimum hole characteristics within existing resources. The three characteristics such as hole diameter at entry, hole diameter at exit and hole taper have been considered for simultaneous optimization. The individual optimization of all three responses has also been carried out. The input parameters considered are lamp current, pulse frequency, assist air pressure and thickness of the job. The responses at predicted optimum parameter level are in good agreement with the results of confirmation experiments conducted for verification tests.

  6. Electrically Tunable Nd:YAG waveguide laser based on Graphene

    Ma, Linan; Tan, Yang; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng


    We demonstrate a tunable hybrid Graphene-Nd:YAG cladding waveguide laser exploiting the electro-optic and the Joule heating effects of Graphene. A cladding Nd:YAG waveguide was fabricated by the ion irradiation. The multi-layer graphene were transferred onto the waveguide surface as the saturable absorber to get the Q-switched pulsed laser oscillation in the waveguide. Composing with appropriate electrodes, graphene based capacitance and heater were formed on the surface of the Nd:YAG waveguide. Through electrical control of graphene, the state of the hybrid waveguide laser was turned on or off. And the laser operation of the hybrid waveguide was electrically tuned between the continuous wave laser and the nanosecond pulsed laser.

  7. Are lasers superior to lights in the photoepilation of Fitzpatrick V and VI skin types? - A comparison between Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light.

    Bs, Bibilash; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Mt, Friji; S, Dineshkumar; Pandey, Sandhya


    There are no large volume comparative studies available to compare the efficacy of lasers over lights for hair removal in Fitzpatrick V and VI skin types. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser versus IPL in the darker skin types. Thirty-nine patients included in Group-1 were treated with Nd:YAG and 31 in Group-2 with IPL. Both groups received 5 sessions of treatment. The hair counts were assessed using digital photography and manual counting method before and after treatment and the results were analysed. Patient satisfaction scores and pain scores were recorded in each session and compared. Mean hair reduction in the IPL group was 25.70 and Nd:YAG group was 24.12 (95% CI). In the Nd:YAG group, 59% of subjects had burning sensation while the figure was 32.3% in IPL group. Burning was less in IPL group (p nd IPL are equally effective for epilation of the darker skin types. Nd:YAG is associated with mild burning sensation in a significant number of patients. Patient satisfaction scores were comparable in both the groups.

  8. Molecular effects of fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment with multiple stacked pulses on standardized human three-dimensional organotypic skin models.

    Schmitt, Laurenz; Amann, P M; Marquardt, Y; Heise, R; Czaja, K; Gerber, P A; Steiner, T; Hölzle, F; Baron, Jens Malte


    The molecular changes in gene expression following ablative laser treatment of skin lesions, such as atrophic scars and UV-damaged skin, are not completely understood. A standardized in vitro model of human skin, to study the effects of laser treatment on human skin, has been recently developed. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to examine morphological and molecular changes caused by fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment on an in vitro full-thickness 3D standardized organotypic model of human skin. A fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser was used to irradiate organotypic human 3D models. Laser treatments were performed at four different settings using a variety of stacked pulses with similar cumulative total energy fluence (60 J/cm(2)). Specimens were harvested at specified time points and real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and microarray studies were performed. Frozen sections were examined histologically. Three days after erbium:YAG laser treatment, a significantly increased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, TIMP1, and TIMP2), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL6), and cytokines such as IL6, IL8, and IL24 could be detected. qRT-PCR studies confirmed the enhanced mRNA expression of IL6, IL8, IL24, CXCLs, and MMPs. In contrast, the mRNA expression of epidermal differentiation markers, such as keratin-associated protein 4, filaggrin, filaggrin 2, and loricrin, and antimicrobial peptides (S100A7A, S100A9, and S100A12) as well as CASP14, DSG2, IL18, and IL36β was reduced. Four different settings with similar cumulative doses have been tested (N10%, C10%, E10%, and W25%). These laser treatments resulted in different morphological changes and effects on gene regulations. Longer pulse durations (1000 μs) especially had the strongest impact on gene expression and resulted in an upregulation of genes, such as collagen-1A2, collagen-5A2, and collagen-6A2, as well as FGF2. Histologically, all treatment

  9. Scaling and passively Q-switch operation of a Nd:YAG laser pumped laterally through a YAG prism

    Dascalu, T.; Salamu, G.; Sandu, O.; Dinca, M.; Pavel, N.


    We report on scaling of a laser configuration in which a YAG prism is used to couple the pump beam from a fiber-coupled diode laser directly into a Nd:YAG medium. Several resonator geometries have been investigated. In free generation regime laser pulses at 1.06 μm with energy of 22.1 mJ for the pump energy of 44.6 mJ were obtained from a 10.0 mm long, 1.0-at% Nd:YAG single crystal that had the high-reflectivity mirror coated directly on one of the laser crystal surface. The slope efficiency was 0.51. A similar uncoated Nd:YAG crystal placed in a plane-plane resonator delivered laser pulses with 17.8 mJ energy under the pump with 45.4 mJ energy, at 0.40 slope efficiency. Further, a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite ceramic laser pumped through a YAG prism has been built. Using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber of 0.85 initial transmission the device delivered laser pulses with 0.29 mJ energy and 11 ns duration. The output performances are compared to those obtained in a classical end-pumping scheme.

  10. Influence of shielding gas composition on weld profile in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of low carbon steel

    M Jokar


    Full Text Available Weld area and weld depth/width ratio can be considered to be of the most important geometrical factors in pulsed laser welding. The effects of carbon dioxide and oxygen additions to the argon shielding gas on the weld properties in pulsed laser welding of low carbon steel is investigated. Presence of carbon dioxide and oxygen up to 10 and 15 percent respectively decreases the weld geometrical factors. But, at higher levels of additions, the weld geometrical factors will increase. It is observed that the plasma plume temperature decreases from 6000K to 5500K with the addition of 15% carbon dioxide but increases to 7700K with 25% carbon dioxide addition. Increase in laser absorption coefficient, laser energy absorption, formation of oxide layer on the work-piece surface, exothermic reactions and their competitive effects can be considered as the competing phenomena involved in such a behavior in the weld profile

  11. Size-controllable synthesis of Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles using pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition and metal-semiconductor-heterojunction-assisted photoluminescence

    Patil, Ranjit A.; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Yeh, P.-H.; Liang, Jyun-Bo; Gao, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Han; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron


    We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs).We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes

  12. Q开关Nd:YAG1064nm激光联合强脉冲光治疗56例颧部褐青色痣临床疗效探讨%Treatment of nevus fusco-caeruleus zygomaticus with Q switch Nd: YAG 1064nm laser and intensive pulsed laser

    杨军; 杨洪艳


    目的 观察Q 开关Nd:YAG1064nm激光与强脉冲光570~950nm 联合治疗颧部褐青色痣的临床疗效.方法 采用Q 开关Nd:YAG1064nm激光与强脉冲光570~950nm对56例颧部褐青色痣患者行联合治疗;每次治疗前根据皮损状况的不同,选用不同的治疗方式,不同的治疗参数;治疗间隔期积极采用促进色素代谢及组织修复等辅助疗法.结果 56例患者总有效率为100%.痊愈39例,显效13例,有效4例,无效0例..所有患者中Q开关激光治疗1次者18例,2次者31例,3次者7例.结论 Q 开关Nd:YAG1064nm激光与强脉冲光联合治疗颧部褐青色痣疗效可靠,且减少了炎症后色素沉着的发生率,缩短了治疗时间,患者满意度明显提高.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of naeviis fiisco-caeriilens zygomaticus treated with Q switch Nd: YAG 1064 nm laser combined with intensive; pulsed 570-950 nm laser. Methods Fifty-six cases with nevus fiisco-caeridens zygomaticns were treated by Q switch Nd: YAG 1064 nm laser and intensive pulsed 570-950 nm laser. According to different skin lesions, different treatments and therapeutic parameters were used. During the treatments, complementary therapies were positively performed to decrease pigmentation and accelerate tissue repairing. Results The combined treatment of Q switch Nd: YAG 1064 nm wave-length laser and intensive pulsed 570 -950 nm wave-length laser was effective on naevns fusco-caenileus zygomaticus, decreasing pigmentation and shortening the course of treatment. Conclusion The combined treatment of Q switch Nd: YAG 1064 nm wave-length laser and intensive pulsed 570 - 950 nm wave-length laser has reliable effect in naevus fus-co-caenilens zygomaticns and has good effect in reducing pigmentation and shortening the course of treatment. During the treatments, patients' anxiety was significantly decreased and satisfaction was increased.

  13. Split lesion randomized comparative study between long pulsed Nd:YAG laser 532 and 1,064 nm in treatment of facial port-wine stain.

    Al-Dhalimi, Muhsin A; Al-Janabi, Murtadha H


    Lasers have been the treatment of choice for Port-wine stain (PWS). However, only one type of laser is not a panacea for all PWS malformations. This is may be due to the great heterogeneity of phenotypic presentation of this congenital anomaly as color, depth, and the site of the lesion. For the treatment of PWS, flash lamp-pumped pulsed dye laser, carbon dioxide, argon, krypton, copper bromide, frequency-doubled neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), and also intense pulsed light sources can be used. To assess and compare the effectiveness of wavelength 532 and 1,064 nanometers (nm) long pulse Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial port-wine stain. This was a comparative therapeutic study for the treatment of facial port-wine stain. We divided the lesion into two halves, medial and lateral, and then each half was treated by 532 or 1,064 nm Nd:YAG. The sessions were done every 4 weeks for six sessions and follow-up after 3 months, then assess the response before and after the sessions and at the end follow-up period objectively (degree of improvement, Photo comparison) and subjectively (Patient satisfaction). Fourteen out of nineteen patients completed all sessions of the treatment, and the other five patients were defaulted from the study due to different causes, including marriage, poor compliance for treatment, and for unknown causes. They were 13 (92.85%) females and 1 (7.15%) male. The mean age of patients was 22.07 ± 9.003 years (range 8-44 years). Three patients (21.4%) were Fitzpatrick's skin type III and four patients (78.6%) were typed IV. There was no hypertrophy in any of the lesions. All facial PWSs lie along the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Four patients (28.6%) have V1 (ophthalmic), 12 patients (85.7%) have V2 (maxillary), and 9 (64.3%) have V3 (mandibular). The color of PWSs was pink-red in eight patients (57.1%), dark-red in four patients (28.6%), and purple-dark two patients (14.3%). The improvement score for the halves of

  14. The effect of an Nd-YAG pulsed laser on the cleaning of the root canal and the formation of a fused apical plug.

    Saunders, W P; Whitters, C J; Strang, R; Moseley, H; Payne, A P; McGadey, J


    A Neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) pulsed laser was used in vitro to determine whether various laser energy levels from 0.75 W to 1.7 W at 15 pulses s(-1) (pps) were able to (i) remove debris from the walls of prepared root canals (ii) remove pulpal tissue from unprepared canals and (iii) create a fused apical plug from dentine chips, hydroxyapatite (HAP) or low-fusing dental porcelain. Single-rooted teeth were sectioned at the amelocemental junction and the crowns discarded. The root canals of 50 teeth were prepared chemomechanically and allocated to four groups of 10 teeth for laser treatment. One group was left unlased as a control. After lasing, the teeth were split longitudinally, stained and examined for residual debris. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (Plaser energy was applied to dentine chips, HAP and low-fusing porcelain in an attempt to produce a fused apical plug. The laser was unable to melt the dentine chips but some hardening of HAP occurred when combined with blue food-colouring, with or without glycerine, at energy levels of 1.0 W, at 15 pps for 30 s. Superficial hardening of low-fusing porcelain occurred at 1.0 W, 15 pps for 30 s.

  15. Laser dyes excited by high PRR Nd:YAG laser second-harmonic radiation

    Soldatov, A. N.; Donin, V. I.; Jakovin, D. V.; Reimer, I. V.


    The lasing characteristics of red-emitting dyes in ethanol excited by Nd:YAG laser second-harmonic radiation are examined. The Nd:YAG laser was pumped by a diode matrix. The pump pulse repetition rates (PRRs) were 2.5 - 10 kHz and the pulse duration was 60 - 300 ns. The following dyes were evaluated: oxazine 17, DCM, DCM sp, and pyridine 1. The conversion efficiency for oxazine was 25 % without wavelength selection and 15 % with wavelength selection over the tuning range from 630 to 700 nm. The Nd:YAG and dye laser designs used are described elsewhere [1,2].

  16. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.


    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  17. Size-controllable synthesis of Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles using pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition and metal-semiconductor-heterojunction-assisted photoluminescence.

    Patil, Ranjit A; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Yeh, P-H; Liang, Jyun-Bo; Gao, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Han; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron


    We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs).

  18. Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers; Laser diode reiki Nd:YAG lasear

    Yuasa, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nakayama, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers are expected to be applied to laser processing fields such as welding, cutting, drilling, and marking due to their potential for high efficiency and compactness. We are designing and developing laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers using numerical analysis simulation techniques such as ray tracing and thermal analysis. We have succeeded in achieving a laser power of more than 3 kW with 20% efficiency, which is the best ever obtained. In addition, we have developed a laser-diode pumped green laser by second harmonic generation, for precision machining on silicon wafers. (author)

  19. Temperature variation during apicectomy with Er:YAG laser.

    Bodrumlu, Emre; Keskiner, Ilker; Sumer, Mahmut; Sumer, A Pinar; Telcıoglu, N Tuba


    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the generated temperature of the Er:YAG laser, with three different pulse durations for apicectomy, compared with tungsten bur and surgical saw. Apicectomy is an endodontic surgery performed to remove the root apex and curette adjacent periapical tissue because of lesions of the apical area that are not healing properly. Sixty single-rooted extracted human teeth were resected by three cutting methods: tungsten bur, surgical saw, and Er:YAG laser irradiation with three different pulse durations; pulse duration 50 μs, pulse duration 100 μs, and pulse duration 300 μs. Teflon-insulated, type K thermocouples were used to measure temperature changes during the apicectomy process. Data were analyzed using the general linear models procedure of the SPSS statistical software program. Although there was no statistically significant difference for the mean values of temperature changes at 1 mm away to the cutting site of teeth, there was statistically significant difference among groups for the mean values of temperature changes at 3 mm away to the cutting site of teeth. Additionally, there was statistically significant difference among groups for the total time required for apicectomy. The laser irradiation with pulse duration 50 μs appears to have the lowest temperature rise and the shortest time required for apicectomy of the three pulse durations. However, Er:YAG laser for apicectomy in all pulse durations could be used safely for resection in endodontics in the presence of sufficient water.

  20. Laser-assisted hair transplantation: histologic comparison between holmium:YAG and CO2 lasers

    Chu, Eugene A.; Rabinov, C. Rose; Wong, Brian J.; Krugman, Mark E.


    The histological effects of flash-scanned CO2 (λ=10.6μm) and pulsed Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG, λ=2.12μm) lasers were evaluated in human scalp following the creation of hair transplant recipient channels. Ho:YAG laser irradiation created larger zones of thermal injury adjacent to the laser channels than irradiation with the CO2 laser device. When the two lasers created recipient sites of nearly equal depth, the Holmium:YAG laser caused a larger region of lateral thermal damage (589.30μm) than the CO2 laser (118.07μm). In addition, Holmium:YAG irradiated specimens exhibited fractures or discontinuities beyond the region of clear thermal injury. This shearing effect is consistent with the photoacoustic mechanism of ablation associated with pulsed mid-IR laser irradiation. In contrast, channels created with the CO2 exhibited minimal epithelial disruption and significantly less lateral thermal damage. While the Holmium:YAG laser is a useful tool for ablation soft tissue with minimal char in select applications (sinus surgery, arthroscopic surgery), this study suggests that the use of the CO2 laser for the creation of transplantation recipient channels result in significantly less lateral thermal injury for the laser parameters employed.

  1. Computerized simulation of YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V): experimental characterization and modelling of the thermomechanical aspects of this process; Simulation numerique du soudage du TA6V par laser YAG impulsionnel: caracterisation experimentale et modelisation des aspects thermomecanique associees a ce procede

    Robert, Y


    This work is a part of study which goal is to realize a computer modelling of the thermomechanical phenomena occurring during the YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V). The filet welding has different heterogeneities (microstructural and mechanical). In fact, the temperature causes microstructural changes (phase transformations, precipitations) and modifies the mechanical properties. Thermomechanical modelling has thus to be established for the welding of TA6V. (author)

  2. Neodymium YAG Lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Carrigan, B.


    Federally funded research reports on lasing of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet are cited. Studies on design, fabrication, quantum efficiency, light pulses, stabilization, and testing are covered. Optical pumping, mode locking, frequency conversion, and modulation of these lasers are discussed. Laser applications such as optical communication, range finding, and tracking are included. Safety hazards and radiation damage related to neodymium YAG lasers are also covered. This updated bibliography contains 181 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  3. Ablation of porcine ligamentum flavum with Ho:YAG, q-switched Ho:YAG, and quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers.

    Johnson, Matt R; Codd, Patrick J; Hill, Westin M; Boettcher, Tara


    Ligamentum flavum (LF) is a tough, rubbery connective tissue providing a portion of the ligamentous stability to the spinal column, and in its hypertrophied state forms a significant compressive pathology in degenerative spinal stenosis. The interaction of lasers and this biological tissue have not been thoroughly studied. Technological advances improving endoscopic surgical access to the spinal canal makes selective removal of LF using small, flexible tools such as laser-coupled fiber optics increasingly attractive for treatment of debilitating spinal stenosis. Testing was performed to assess the effect of Ho:YAG, Q-switched Ho:YAG, and frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers on samples of porcine LF. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of these lasers for surgical removal of LF. LF was resected from porcine spine within 2 hours of sacrifice and stored in saline until immediately prior to laser irradiation, which occurred within an additional 2 hours. The optical absorbance of a sample was measured over the spectral band from 190 to 2,360 nm both before and after dehydration. For the experiments using the Ho:YAG (λ = 2,080 nm, tp  = 140 µs, FWHM) and Q-Switched Ho:YAG (λ = 2,080 nm, tp  = 260 ns, FWHM) lasers, energy was delivered to the LF through a laser-fiber optic with 600 µm core and NA = 0.39. For the experiment using the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (λ = 266 nm, tp  = 5 ns FWHM), rather than applying the laser energy through a laser-fiber, the energy was focused through an aperture and lens directly onto the LF. Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the given lasers on LF. First, using the Ho:YAG laser, the single-pulse laser-hole depth versus laser fluence was measured with the laser-fiber in direct contact with the LF (1 g force) and with a standoff distance of 1 mm between the laser-fiber face and the LF. Second, with the LF remaining in situ and the spine bisected

  4. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...... laser parameters with tissue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse...... 190 to 347 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser...

  5. A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals in air and in vacuum.

    Benavides, O; May, L de la Cruz; Gil, A Flores


    A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of aluminum in air and in vacuum under the same other experimental conditions is performed. We find that, hemispherical total reflectivity of aluminum undergoes a sharp drop at the plasma formation threshold both in the air and in vacuum. The initial large value (0.8) of aluminum reflectivity decreases to a level of about 0.14 and 0.24 for ablation in the air and in vacuum, respectively. These decreased reflectivity values remain virtually unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. The reflectivity drop in the air is observed to be sharper than in vacuum. Our study indicates that the reflectivity drop is predominantly caused by absorption of the laser light in plasma. Nano/micro-structural defects present on practical sample surfaces play the important role in the plasma formation, especially for the ablation in the air, where the plasma formation threshold is found to be by a factor of 3 smaller than in vacuum.

  6. Neodymium YAG lasers pumped by light-emitting diodes

    Bilak, V.I.; Goldobin, I.S.; Zverev, G.M.; Kuratev, I.I.; Pashkov, V.A.; Stel' makh, M.F.; Tsvetkov, Y.V.; Solov' eva, N.M.


    The results are presented of theoretical and experimental investigations of room-temperature YAG:Nd lasers pumped by light-emitting diodes. The lasing characteristics of a laser operated at the 1.06 and 1.32 wavelengths were investigated in the cw and pulsed regimes and dependences of its parameters on the temperature, pulse repetition frequency, and other factors were studied. In the pulsed regime the laser efficiency was 0.2% and in the cw regime the radiation power reached 50 and 17 mW at the 1.06 and 1.32 wavelengths, respectively.

  7. High repetition rate femtosecond dye amplifier using a laser diode pumped neodymium:YAG laser

    Zysset, B.; LaGasse, M.J.; Fujimoto, J.G.; Kafka, J.D.


    A high repetition rate femtosecond dye amplifier is demonstrated using a laser diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Amplification of wavelength tunable 300 fs pulses from a synchronously mode-locked rhodamine dye laser is achieved with a saturated gain of 70 and a small gain of 200 at a repetition rate of 800 Hz. Maximum pulse energies of 40 nJ are obtained, and pulse compression to as short as 30 fs is demonstrated.

  8. High repetition rate femtosecond dye amplifier using a laser diode pumped neodymium:YAG laser

    Zysset, B.; LaGasse, M. J.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Kafka, J. D.


    A high repetition rate femtosecond dye amplifier is demonstrated using a laser diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Amplification of wavelength tunable 300 fs pulses from a synchronously mode-locked rhodamine dye laser is achieved with a saturated gain of 70 and a small gain of 200 at a repetition rate of 800 Hz. Maximum pulse energies of 40 nJ are obtained, and pulse compression to as short as 30 fs is demonstrated.

  9. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter


    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 μs at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 μm diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was

  10. 传导冷却侧面抽运Nd:YAG脉冲激光器%Side-Pumped Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser with Conduction Cooling

    肖崇溧; 万春明; 凌铭


    研制了一种传导冷却结构的激光二极管(LD)侧面抽运NdtYAG调Q全固态脉冲激光器.将侧面抽运的Nd:YAG棒状激光晶体,与卡网冷却套圆滑配合,冷却套镶嵌在铜圆环热沉上,铜圆环热沉被一大的外表面加工成叠槽式的三角形铝热沉环套,3只长条形列阵半导体激光管根据其特定的设计结构固定在热沉上,实现无水冷保证激光器恒温工作.在-20℃~40℃范围内进行实验,获得了波长1.06μm、脉冲宽度9 ns、最大能量98 mJ的低阶膜激光输出,-20℃比40℃时能获得更高的输出能量和稳定度.该设计能缩小激光器体积,获得稳定的激光输出,代替水冷在低温下应用.%A new pumping structure about laser diode (LD) side-pumped Nd: YAG Q-switched laser without water cooling was reserched. Side-pumping was done with three LD centimeter strips made by 12 cm bar. Nd: YAG crystal rods were smoothly fitted to copper stucking net with cooling units, which mounted on the heat sink copper ring. And copper ring was processed into the aluminum heat sink ring sets with outer surface of the triangle stack slot. Three long rectangular array laser diodes according to their specific design were fixed to the heat sink in order to ensure working at constant temperature without water cooling. Experiencing at the range of - 20 ℃ and 40 ℃, the loworder mode laser output of 9 ns pulse width and maximum 98 mJ in 1064 nm is obtained and output energy and stability at -20 ℃ was higher than that at 40 ℃. This design can reduce the laser volume and increase the system efficiency at last.

  11. Densification behavior, doping profile and planar waveguide laser performance of the tape casting YAG/Nd:YAG/YAG ceramics

    Ge, Lin; Li, Jiang; Qu, Haiyun; Wang, Juntao; Liu, Jiao; Dai, Jiawei; Zhou, Zhiwei; Liu, Binglong; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Pan, Yubai; Gao, Qingsong; Guo, Jingkun


    The sintering behavior and doping concentration profile of the planar waveguide YAG/Nd:YAG/YAG ceramics by the tape casting and solid-state reaction method were investigated on the basis of densification trajectory, microstructure evolution, and Nd3+ ions diffusion. The porosity of the green body by tape casting and cold isostatic pressing is about 38.6%. And the green bodies were consolidated from 1100 °C to 1800 °C for 0.5-20 h to study the densification and the doping diffusion behaviors. At the temperature higher than 1500 °C, pure YAG phase is formed, followed by the densification and grain growth process. With the increase of temperature, two sintering stages occur, corresponding to remarkable densification and significant grain growth, respectively. The mechanism controlling densification at 1550 °C is grain boundary diffusion. The diffusion of Nd3+ ions is more sensitive to temperature than the sintering time, and the minimum temperature required for the obvious diffusion of Nd3+ ions is higher than 1700 °C. Finally, planar waveguide YAG/1.5 at.%Nd:YAG/YAG transparent ceramics with in-line transmittance of 84.8% at 1064 nm were obtained by vacuum-sintering at 1780 °C for 30 h. The fluorescence lifetime of 4F3/2 state of Nd3+ in the specimen is about 259 μs. The prepared ceramic waveguide was tested in a laser amplifier and the laser pulse was amplificated from 87 mJ to 238 mJ, with the pump energy of 680 mJ.

  12. Stability of a Laser-diode-pumped Cr4+∶YAG Passively Q-switched Nd3+∶YAG Laser

    ZHANG Xingyu; ZHAO Shengzhi; WANG Qingpu; ZHANG Qidi; B. Ozygus; M. Weber


    In this paper, the stability of a laser-diode-pumped Cr4+∶YAG passively Nd3+∶YAG Q-switched laser and the influence of the transversal mode structure on the stability are investigated. With the laser operating in TEM00 mode, the pulse energy fluctuation and the repetition rate fluctuation as functions of the repetition rate are measured, and semi-quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed, respectively.

  13. Development of a fiber-optic laser delivery system capable of delivering 213 and 266 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation for tissue ablation in a fluid environment.

    Miller, Joe; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi


    Ultraviolet (UV) lasers have the capability to precisely remove tissue via ablation; however, due to strong absorption of the applicable portion the UV spectrum, their surgical use is currently limited to extraocular applications at the air/tissue boundary. Here we report the development and characterization of a fiber-optic laser delivery system capable of outputting high-fluence UV laser pulses to internal tissue surfaces. The system has been developed with a view to intraocular surgical applications and has been demonstrated to ablate ocular tissue at the fluid/tissue boundary. The fifth (213 nm) and fourth(266 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser were launched into optical fibers using a hollow glass taper to concentrate the beam. Standard and modified silica/silica optical fibers were used, all commercially available. The available energy and fluence as a function of optical fiber length was evaluated and maximized. The maximum fluence available to ablate tissue was affected by the wavelength dependence of the fiber transmission; this maximum fluence was greater for 266 nm pulses (8.4 J/cm2) than for 213 nm pulses (1.4 J/cm2). The type of silica/silica optical fiber used did not affect the transmission efficiency of 266 nm pulses, but transmission of 213 nm pulses was significantly greater through modified silica/silica optical fiber. The optical fiber transmission efficiency of 213 nm pulses decreased as a function of number of pulses transmitted, whereas the transmission efficiency of 266 nm radiation was unchanged. Single pulses have been used to ablate fresh porcine ocular tissue. In summary, we report a method for delivering the fifth (213 nm) and fourth (266 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser to the surface of immersed tissue, the reliability and stability of the system has been characterized, and proof of concept via tissue ablation of porcine ocular tissue demonstrates the potential for the intraocular surgical application of this

  14. Generation of UV laser light by stimulated Raman scattering in D2, D2/Ar and D2/He using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 355nm

    徐贲; 岳古明; 张寅超; 胡欢陵; 周军; 胡顺星


    A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 355nm is used to pump Raman cell filled with D2,D2/Ar and D2/He.With adequately adjusted parameters,the maximum photon conversion efficiency of the first-order Stokes light(S1,396.796nm)reaches 33.33% in D2/Ar and the stability of S1 in pure D2 is fairly high,the energy drift being less than 10% when the pump energy drifts in the range of 5%.The conversion efficiency and stability,which are functions of the composition and pressure of the Raman medium and the energy of pump laser,are investigated.The result has been used to optimize the laser transmitter system for a differential absorption lidar system to measure NO2 concentration profiles.

  15. A multiple work mode YAG laser in derma surgery

    Sa, Yu; Zhang, Guizhong; Ye, Zhisheng; Yu, Lin


    It has been very common that a pulse laser is used in derma surgery based on the theory of "Selective Photothermolysis". This method has also been accepted as the best way to treat the pigments by the medical textbook. A kind of double-pulsed laser which gets the name by two pulse output at one pumping process is developed for derma surgery lately, and this kind of laser has been proved more effective and safe than single-pulse laser. We also develop a multiple work mode YAG laser including two double-pulsed modes at 1064nm and 532nm, two single-pulsed modes at 1064nm and 532nm, and one free-running mode at 1064nm. Considering availability, security and reliability of the laser as a surgery machine, some important subsystems of the laser are optimized carefully, such as Q-switch driver, wavelength-switching system, power supply, and control system etc. At last we get a prototype laser which can run for longer than 30 minutes continuously, and output Max10 pulse per second (pps) with Max800mJ energy at 1064nm double Q-Switch mode, or Max400mJ at 532nm. Using double pulse mode of the laser we do some removal experiments of tattoos and other pigments, and obtain good effect.

  16. Effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V sheets

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Jie, E-mail:; Zhang, Jian-Xun


    The effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructures and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V alloy sheets was investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, tensile tests and fatigue tests. A microstructural examination shows that by increasing the overlapping factor, the grains in the fusion zone become coarser, and the width of the heat affected zone increases. As overlapping factor increases, the width of region composed completely of martensite α′ and the secondary α phase in the heat affected zone increases, consequently the gradient of microstructure along the direction from the fusion zone to base metal decreases, so does the gradient of microhardness. The results of tensile and fatigue tests reveal that the joints made using medium overlapping factor exhibit better mechanical properties than those welded with low and high overlapping factors. Based on the experimental results, it can be stated that a sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy can be obtained if an appropriate overlapping factor is used. - Highlights: • The weld quality of Ti6Al4V alloy under various overlapping factors was assessed. • Tensile and fatigue tests were conducted with as-welded specimen. • Localized strain across the weld was measured using DIC photogrammetry system. • A sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy is obtained by using right overlapping factor.

  17. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    Yong, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail:; Yow, H.K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Konkoly-Thege ut 29-33, Budapest XII (Hungary)


    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to < 4 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O{sub 2} and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N{sub 2} and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N{sub 2} but polycrystalline for using O{sub 2} and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O{sub 2} and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO.

  18. Investigation of two-frequency Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser

    Arapov, Yu D; Ivanov, A F; Kas' yanov, I V; Magda, L E [E.I. Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region (Russian Federation)


    A repetitively pulsed two-frequency laser is developed. Pulsed operation of a laser based on a Nd{sup 3+} : YAG crystal with simultaneous amplification of radiation at two wavelengths in a single-pass amplifier is studied. (laser optics 2012)

  19. Theoretical Analysis on the Simultaneous Operation of a Color-Center Laser and a Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser

    WU Xing; DING Yongkui; ZHANG Rui


    The simultaneous operation for the Q- switched Nd: YAG laser at 1.06 and the tunable color-center laser over 1.12~1.26 μm has been realized by using a LiF: F2- color-center crystal both as the Q-switcher for the Nd:YAG laser and as the active medium for the color-center laser. The interaction of the two lasers has been analyzed and calculated with the rate equations. The pulse duration of YAG laser is compressed, in agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Laser properties of yag: Nd, Cr, Ce

    Kvapil, J.; Kvapil, Jos; Perner, B.; Kubelka, J.; Mánek, B.; Kubeček, V.


    Transient absorption of a long lifetime (≧ 20 s) of YAG: Nd is typical of pure material. It is the main reason of thermal deformation of the laser rods accompanied with power decreases at higher CW input. It may be prevented by an admixture of Fe, Ti or Cr. Using a small admixture (≦ 10-3 wt.%) of Ti or Cr the energy transfer among Nd ions and the gain coefficient may be increased. Cr in a higher concentration absorbs the pumping light and serves as earlier described coactivator (sensitizer) only. Fe impurity fully prevents any increase of the gain of YAG: Nd containing Ti or Cr and causes slow but irreversible degradation of the active parameters. Ce favourably modifies properties of YAG: Nd, Cr. YAG: Nd, Cr, Ce free of iron impurity is advisable active material for powerfull CW lasers.

  1. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

    Danqing Xia


    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  2. Self-controlled Study of Onychomycosis Treated with Long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm Laser Combined with Itraconazole

    Yan Li


    Conclusions: For patients with mild or moderate onychomycosis, we recommended a pure medication treatment or combination treatment with medication and laser. For those patients with severe onychomycosis, we recommended a combination of medication and laser therapy.

  3. Treatment of nail psoriasis with Pulse Dye Laser plus calcipotriol betametasona gel vs. Nd:YAG plus calcipotriol betamethasone gel: An intrapatient left-to-right controlled study.

    Arango-Duque, L C; Roncero-Riesco, M; Usero Bárcena, T; Palacios Álvarez, I; Fernández López, E


    Treatment of nail psoriasis remains a challenging and often disappointing situation. To compare the efficacy, adverse reactions and tolerability of treatment of nail psoriasis with PDL vs. Nd:YAG, in association with betametasona calcipotriol gel. An open, prospective intrapatient left-to-right study was designed. The right hand of each patient received treatment with PDL and the left hand with Nd:YAG. Betamethasone calcipotriol gel was applied once a day during the first week after each laser session. A total of four sessions were administered. The clinical efficacy was evaluated according to the NAPSI score. All patients showed improvement in nail bed and nail matrix psoriasis. The global NAPSI mean declined in 15.46 (p<0.000). There was neither statistical difference between the reduction in nail bed and matrix NAPSI nor in the treatment with PDL vs. Nd:YAG. The administration of Nd:YAG was more painful. No serious adverse effects were documented. No random assignment and the small number of patients. PDL and Nd:YAG have proven to be an effective treatment for nail psoriasis with no serious adverse effect. No statistically significant difference was found between the two treatments. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human cartilage

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Malgorzata; Ciszek, Bogdan; Rowinski, Jan; Strek, Wieslaw


    Irradiation of the hyaline or fibrous cartilage excised from the body of a human cadaver with Er:YAG laser beam, single pulse with a dose of 1 J, produces a crater with a depth of approximately 500 micrometers and a diameter varying from 5 to 300 micrometers. Histological examination has revealed that the laser-made craters were surrounded by a thin rim (2-10 micrometer) of charred and coagulated tissue. No damage was observed in the cartilage surrounding the rim. The presence of sharp demarcation between the tissue areas ablated by laser energy and the undamaged areas argues for the potential usefulness of the Er:YAG laser in surgery of cartilages.

  5. Dual-polarization mode-locked Nd:YAG laser.

    Thévenin, J; Vallet, M; Brunel, M


    A mode-locked solid-state laser containing a birefringent element is shown to emit synchronously two frequency combs associated to the two polarization eigenstates of the cavity. An analytical model predicts the polarization evolution of the pulse train, which is determined by the adjustable intracavity birefringence. Experiments realized with a Nd:YAG laser passively mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror are in perfect agreement with the model. Locking between the two combs arises for particular values of their frequency difference, e.g., half the repetition rate, and the pulse train polarization sequence is then governed by the relative overall phase offset of the two combs.

  6. Development of monolith Nd:YAG /Cr+4:YAG passively Q-switched microchip laser

    Izhnin, Ihor; Vakiv, Mykola; Izhnin, Aleksandr; Syvorotka, Igor; Ubizskii, Sergii; Syvorotka, Ihor, Jr.


    The main features of passively Q-switched microchip lasers development are considered. The active medium of laser is an epitaxial structure combining an epitaxial layer of saturable absorber Cr4+:Y3Al5O12 (Cr:YAG) grown on substrate of generating crystal Nd:YAG by liquid phase epitaxy. The modulator layer has an initial optical absorption of 36 cm-1 at wavelength of lasing (1064 nm). The epitaxial layer grown on unworking side was mechanically removed and this substrate side was optically polished. The other one was processed precisely to needed thickness. The cavity's mirrors were deposited by electron beam technique directly on each side of the structure to form a rugged, monolithic resonator. Diode laser Model ATC-C4000 with lasing wavelength 808 nm provided the CW end pumping. The output pulses parameters were investigated by means of test bench consisting of photoelectric transducer FEK-15 and Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope TDS 5052B. The obtained laser parameter are as follows: pulse width (FWHM) about 1.3 ns, repetition rate 5.5 kHz, average output power about 10 mW, pulse energy 1.0 μJ, pick power 1.2 kW. The possible solutions for laser parameter improving and optimization are discussed.

  7. Analysis on the effect of urethra caruncle treated by Ho:YAG laser

    Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Hong-Min


    Objective: To observe the effect of Ho:YAG laser in treatment of urethra cauncle. Methods: The patients suffering from urethra cauncle were treated by Ho:YAG laser, the energy of per pulse is 0.5J. The frequency of pulse is 5~15Hz, and the average power of the laser is 2.5~7.5W. Results: Among the patients 188 cases of urethra cauncle were only cured for one time, twice for12 cases. No stricture on the peristome of urethra or urethrovaginal fistula was observed. Conclusions: The technique of treatment of urethra cauncle with Ho:YAG laser is an effect and safe therapeutics with the merit of excellent homeostasis, improved visualization, minimal thermal damage to surrounding tissue, shorter period of recovery and easy to operate. It is better than CO2 laser and Nd:YAG laser.

  8. Mode size and time duration fluctuations in a picosecond Nd:YAG laser

    Cutolo, A.; Zeni, L.; Berardi, V.; Bruzzese, R.; Solimeno, S.; Spinelli, N.


    A new technique is successfully used to analyze in real time the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of mode size and time duration in a picosecond Nd:YAG laser. In particular we show that the pulse length (30 psec) of our active--passive mode-locked Nd:YAG laser is stable to within 10% when the cavity is perfectly tuned and the saturable absorber is fresh. This technique is experimentally shown to be effective and reliable for real-time analysis of the stability of ultrashort laser pulses under a broad range of experimental conditions.

  9. New insight in the treatment of refractory melasma: Laser Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated followed by intense pulsed light.

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Pinto, Clovis Antonio Lopes; Mattos, Camila Bonati; Cabrini, Dayane Peverari; Tolosa, Joana Lugli


    The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

  10. Er:YAG crystal temperature influence on laser output characteristics

    Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Hlinomaz, Kryštof; Jelínková, Helena


    The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the temperature of the Er:YAG active medium on laser properties in eye-safe spectral region for three various pump wavelengths. The tested Er:YAG sample doped by 0.5% of Er3+ ions had a cylindrical shape with 25mm in length and 5mm in diameter. The absorption spectrum of the Er:YAG active medium in the range from 1400nm up to 1700nm for temperatures 80K and 300K was measured. The crystal was placed inside the vacuum chamber of a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat. The temperature was controlled within the 80 - 340K temperature range. Three pump sources generating at 1535, 1452, and 1467nm were applied. The first one was flash lamp pumped Er:glass laser (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse energy 148 mJ). The further two sources were fiber coupled laser diodes (repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse duration 10 ms, maximum pulse energies 106mJ and 195 mJ). The semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a pump curved mirror and output plan coupler with a reflectivity of 90% @ 1645 nm. The laser output characteristics were investigated in dependence on temperature of active medium for three laser pumping systems. The output energy has an optimum in dependence on active medium temperature and pump wavelengths. The maximal generated laser energies were 16.2mJ (90 K), 28.7mJ (120 K), and 33.2mJ (220 K), for pump wavelengths 1452 nm, 1467 nm, and 1535 nm, respectively.

  11. YAG laser welding with surface activating flux

    樊丁; 张瑞华; 田中学; 中田一博; 牛尾诚夫


    YAG laser welding with surface activating flux has been investigated, and the influencing factors and mechanism are discussed. The results show that both surface activating flux and surface active element S have fantastic effects on the YAG laser weld shape, that is to obviously increase the weld penetration and D/W ratio in various welding conditions. The mechanism is thought to be the change of weld pool surface tension temperature coefficient, thus, the change of fluid flow pattern in weld pool due to the flux.

  12. Continuous-wave and Q-switched performance of an Yb:YAG/YAG composite thin disk ceramic laser pumped with 970-nm laser diode

    Hong Cai; Jun Zhou; Hongming Zhao; Yunfeng Qi; Qihong Lou; Jingxing Dong; Yunrong Wei


    Using front face-pumped compact active mirror laser (CAMIL) structure, we have demonstrated an Yb:YAG/YAG composite ceramic disk laser with pumping wavelength at 970 nm. The laser has been operated in both continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switching modes. Under CW operation, laser output power of 1.05 W with 2% transmission output coupler was achieved at the wavelength of 1031 nm. Qswitched laser output was gotten by using an acousto-optic Q-switch. The repetition rate ranged from 1 to 30 kHz and the pulse width varied from 166 to 700 ns.

  13. Optimal and safe treatment of spider leg veins measuring less than 1.5 mm on skin type IV patients, using repeated low-fluence Nd:YAG laser pulses after polidocanol injection.

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Hernández, Esteban; Royo, Josefina; Alcolea, Justo; Isarría, M Jose; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Smarandache, Adriana; Trelles, Mario


    Treatment of micro-veins of less than 1.5 mm with laser and with chemical sclerosis is technically challenging because of their difficulty to remedy. Laser treatment is even more difficult when dark phototypes are involved.Three groups of 30 patients each, skin type IV, and vessels measuring less than 1.5 mm in diameter, were enrolled for two treatment sessions 8 weeks apart: group A, polidocanol (POL) micro-foam injection; group B, Nd:YAG laser alone; and group C, laser after POL injection. Repeated 8-Hz low-fluence pulses, moving the hand piece over a 3-cm vein segment with an average of five laser passes maximum and with a total time irradiation of 1 s were used. Sixteen weeks after the second treatment, statistically, degree of clearance after examining photographs and patients satisfaction index, plotted on a visual analogue scale and comparing results of all three groups, results were significantly better for group C (p<0.0001). No significant differences in complications were noticed between the three groups. Efficacy of combining POL and laser proved safe and satisfactory in 96 % of patients using low-fluence laser pulses with a total cumulative energy in the 3 cm venous segment, lower than that of conventional treatment. Very few and transient complications were observed. POL foam injection followed by laser pulses is safe and efficient for vein treatment in dark-skinned patients.

  14. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K


    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  15. Optimizing treatment parameters for the vascular malformations using 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser

    Gong, Wei; Lin, He; Xie, Shusen


    Near infrared Nd:YAG pulsed laser treatment had been proved to be an efficient method to treat large-sized vascular malformations like leg telangiectasia for deep penetrating depth into skin and uniform light distribution in vessel. However, optimal clinical outcome was achieved by various laser irradiation parameters and the key factor governing the treatment efficacy was still unclear. A mathematical model in combination with Monte Carlo algorithm and finite difference method was developed to estimate the light distribution, temperature profile and thermal damage in epidermis, dermis and vessel during and after 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Simulation results showed that epidermal protection could be achieved during 1064 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling. However, optimal vessel closure and blood coagulation depend on a compromise between laser spot size and pulse duration.

  16. Holmium:YAG laser angioplasty: treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Topaz, On


    We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.

  17. Q-switched Nd:YAG optical vortex lasers.

    Kim, D J; Kim, J W; Clarkson, W A


    Q-switched operation of a high-quality Nd:YAG optical vortex laser with the first order Laguerre-Gaussian mode and well-determined helical wavefronts using a fiber-based pump beam conditioning scheme is reported. A simple two-mirror resonator incorporating an acousto-optic Q-switch was employed, along with an etalon and a Brewster plate to enforce the particular helicity of the output. The laser yielded Q-switched pulses with ~250 μJ pulse energy and ~33 ns pulse duration (FWHM) at a 0.1 kHz repetition rate for 5.1 W of absorbed pump power. The handedness of the helical wavefronts was preserved regardless of the repetition rates. The prospects of further power scaling and improved laser performance are discussed.

  18. Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich


    Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

  19. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices.

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian


    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs.

  20. High-repetition-rate femtosecond dye amplifier using a laser-diode-pumped neodymium:YAG laser

    Zysset, B.; LaGasse, M.J.; Fujimoto, J.G.; Kafka, J.D.


    A high-repetition-rate femotosecond dye amplifier is demonstrated using a laser-diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Amplification of wavelength-tunable 300-fs pulses from a synchronously mode-locked rhodamine dye laser is achieved with a saturated gain of 70 and a small gain of 200 at a repetition rate of 800 Hz. Maximum pulse energies of 40 nJ are obtained, and pulse compression to as short as 30 fs is demonstrated.

  1. Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique.

    Salamu, Gabriela; Jipa, Florin; Zamfirescu, Marian; Pavel, Nicolaie


    We report on realization of buried waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramic media by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique and investigate the waveguides laser emission characteristics under the pump with fiber-coupled diode lasers. Laser pulses at 1.06 μm with energy of 2.8 mJ for the pump with pulses of 13.1-mJ energy and continuous-wave output power of 0.49 W with overall optical efficiency of 0.13 were obtained from a 100-μm diameter circular cladding waveguide realized in a 0.7-at.% Nd:YAG ceramic. A circular waveguide of 50-μm diameter yielded laser pulses at 1.3 μm with 1.2-mJ energy.

  2. Twenty-watt average output power, picosecond thin-rod Yb:YAG regenerative chirped pulse amplifier with 200 mJ pulse energy

    MATSUBARA, Shinichi; TANAKA, Motoharu; TAKAMA, Masaki; KAWATO, Sakae; Kobayashi, Takao


    A high-average power, laser-diode-pumped, picosecond-pulse regenerative chirpedpulse amplifier was developed by using the thin-rod Yb:YAG laser architecture. An averageoutput power of 20 W was achieved at a repetition rate of 100 kHz with an output pulse width of 2ps.

  3. Intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium:YAG laser

    Denstedt, John D.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Chun, Samuel S.; Sales, Jack L.


    A variety of devices are currently available for intracorporeal stone fragmentation. Recently a new wavelength of laser, the Holmium:YAG, has demonstrated a variety of potential urologic applications including ablation of soft tissue lesions as well as stone fragmentation. This laser has a wavelength of 2100 nm and operates in a pulsed mode. Energy is delivered through a 400 um quartz end-firing fiber. In this presentation we review our clinical experience with the Holmium:YAG laser for the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi. Over a 23 month period, 63 patients underwent 67 procedures. Seven procedures consisted of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy for large or staghorn renal calculi. Sixty procedures were performed for ureteral stones. Procedures for proximal ureteral stones (6) employed a retrograde approach using flexible ureteroscopes (8.5 or 9.8). Stones in the mid ureter (12) and distal ureter (42) were approached transurethrally using a 6.9 rigid ureteroscope. Complete stone fragmentation without the need for additional procedures was achieved in 82% of cases. Treatment failures included 1 stone migration into the renal pelvis during laser activation, 6 patients who had incomplete fragmentation and 3 patients in which laser malfunction precluded complete fragmentation. Stone analysis available in 23 patients revealed calcium oxalate monohydrate (15), calcium oxalate dihydrate (2), cystine (2), uric acid (3) and calcium phosphate (1). A single complication of ureteral perforation occurred when the laser was fired without direct visual guidance. Radiographic follow-up at an average of 16 weeks is available in 22 patients and has identified 2 patients with ureteral strictures that are not believed to be related to laser lithotripsy. In summary, we have found the Holmium:YAG laser to be a reliable and versatile device for intracorporeal lithotripsy. Its safety and efficacy make it a suitable alternative for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy of urinary

  4. Pulsed lasers in dentistry: sense or nonsense?

    Koort, Hans J.; Frentzen, Matthias


    The great interest in the field of laser applications in dentistry provokes the question, if all these new techniques may really fulfill advantages, which are expected after initial in-vitro studies. Whereas laser surgery of soft oral tissues has been developed to a standard method, laser treatment of dental hard tissues and the bone are attended with many unsolved problems. Different laser types, especially pulsed lasers in a wide spectrum of wavelengths have been proofed for dental use. Today neither the excimer lasers, emitting in the far uv-range from 193 to 351 nm, nor the mid-infrared lasers like Nd:YAG (1,064 μm), Ho:YAG (2,1 μm) and Er:YAG (2,96 μm) or the C02-laser (10,6 μm) show mechanism of interaction more carefully and faster than a preparation of teeth with diamond drillers. The laser type with the most precise and considerate treatment effects in the moment is the short pulsed (15 ns) ArF-excimer laser with a wavelength of 193 nm. However this laser type has not yet the effectivity of mechanical instruments and it needs a mirror system to deliver the radiation. Histological results point out, that this laser shows no significant pathological alterations in the adjacent tissues. Another interesting excimer laser, filled with XeCI and emitting at a wavelength of 308 nm has the advantage to be good to deliver through quartz fibers. A little more thermal influence is to be seen according to the longer wavelength. Yet the energy density, necessary to cut dental hard tissues will not be reached with the laser systems available now. Both the pulsed Er:YAG- (2,94 μm, pulse duration 250 s) and the Ho:YAG -laser (2,1 μm, pulse duration 250 μs) have an effective coupling of the laser energy to hydrogeneous tissues, but they do not work sufficient on healthy enamel and dentine. The influence to adjacent healthy tissue is not tolerable, especially in regard of the thermal damage dentine and pulp tissues. Moreover, like the 193 nm ArF-excimer laser

  5. Over 0.5 MW green laser from sub-nanosecond giant pulsed microchip laser

    Zheng, Lihe; Taira, Takunori


    A sub-nanosecond green laser with laser head sized 35 × 35 × 35 mm3 was developed from a giant pulsed microchip laser for laser processing on organic superconducting transistor with a flexible substrate. A composite monolithic Y3Al5O12 (YAG) /Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG/YAG crystal was designed for generating giant pulsed 1064 nm laser. A fibercoupled 30 W laser diode centered at 808 nm was used with pump pulse duration of 245 μs. The 532 nm green laser was obtained from a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with output energy of 150 μJ and pulse duration of 268 ps. The sub-nanosecond green laser is interesting for 2-D ablation patterns.

  6. Diode pumped Nd:YAG laser development

    Reno, C. W.; Herzog, D. G.


    A low power Nd:YAG laser was constructed which employs GaAs injection lasers as a pump source. Power outputs of 125 mW TEM CW with the rod at 250 K and the pump at 180 K were achieved for 45 W input power to the pump source. Operation of the laser, with array and laser at a common heat sink temperature of 250 K, was inhibited by difficulties in constructing long-life GaAs LOC laser arrays. Tests verified pumping with output power of 20 to 30 mW with rod and pump at 250 K. Although life tests with single LOC GaAs diodes were somewhat encouraging (with single diodes operating as long as 9000 hours without degradation), failures of single diodes in arrays continue to occur, and 50 percent power is lost in a few hundred hours at 1 percent duty factor. Because of the large recent advances in the state of the art of CW room temperature AlGaAs diodes, their demonstrated lifetimes of greater than 5,000 hours, and their inherent advantages for this task, it is recommended that these sources be used for further CW YAG injection laser pumping work.

  7. End-Pumped Tm:YAG Ceramic Slab Lasers

    CHENG Xiao-Jin; XU Jian-Qiu; ZHANG Wen-Xin; JIANG Sen-Xue; PAN Yu-Bai


    Lasers from a Tm:YAG ceramic aare reported for the first time to our best knowledge. The Tm:YAG ceramic slab is end-pumped by a laser diode with central wavelength 792nm. At room temperature, the maximum continuous-wave output power is 4.5 W, and the sloping efficiency is obtained to be 20.5%. The laser spectrum of the Tm: YAG ceramic is centered at 2015 nm.

  8. Carbon dioxide laser versus erbium:YAG laser in treatment of epidermal verrucous nevus: a comparative randomized clinical study.

    Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf; Kassab, Ahmed Nazmi


    A verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) is a skin disorder that has been treated using different treatment modalities with varying results. Ablative lasers such as carbon dioxide laser (CO2) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser have been considered as the gold standard for the treatment of epidermal nevi. To evaluate and compare the efficacy, postoperative wound healing and side effects of pulsed CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser for the treatment of verrucous epidermal nevi. Twenty patients with localized VEN were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was administered CO2 laser and group 2 underwent Er:YAG laser treatment. A blinded physician evaluated the photographs and dermoscopic photomicrographs for the efficacy and possible side effects. All patients received one treatment session and were followed up over a 6-month period. Both lasers induced noticeable clinical improvement, but there were no significant differences between two lasers in treatment response, patient satisfaction, duration of erythema and side effects. The average time to re-epithelialization was 13.5 days with CO2 and 7.9 days with Er:YAG laser (p< .0005). No scarring was observed in Er:YAG laser group and no lesional recurrence was detected in CO2 laser group since treatment. Apart from re-epithelialization, both lasers showed equivalent outcomes with respect to treatment response, patient satisfaction, side effects and complications.

  9. Nd:YAG solid-state ring laser pumped by a light-emitting diode

    Belozerov, S.A.; Kornienko, L.S.; Kravtsov, N.V.; Kuratev, I.I.; Rusakov, S.I.; Stel' makh, M.F.; Shelaev, A.A.; Shelaev, A.I.


    This letter reports lasing in an Nd:YAG solid-state laser (lambda = 1.06 pumped either in pulses or continuously by a light-emitting diode. We report the first experimental results on this laser.(AIP)

  10. Combination of CO2 and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers is more effective than Q-switched Nd:YAG laser alone for eyebrow tattoo removal.

    Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rafiei, Zohreh


    The eyebrow tattoo removal using Q-switched lasers is usually prolonged. Other modalities may be required to enhance the efficacy and shorten the treatment course. To compare the efficacy of Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser alone versus combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ultrapulse CO2 lasers for eyebrow tattoo removal after a single session. After local anesthesia, the right eyebrow of 20 patients was treated with Ultrapulse CO2 laser with the parameters of 4 J/cm(2) and 3.2 J/cm(2) for the first and the second passes. Both eyebrows were then treated with 1064-nm and 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The spot size and pulse duration were 3 mm and 5 nanoseconds for both wavelengths, and the fluence was 7 J/cm(2) for 1064 nm and 3 J/cm (2) for 532 nm. The side treated with combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers improved 75-100% in 6 of 20 patients versus only 1 of 20 in the side treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG alone. Similarly, the right side in 13 of 20 patients showed more than 50% improvement with combination therapy versus the left side (the monotherapy side), where only 6 of 20 cases showed more than 50% improvement. The Mann-Whitney test was 2.85 for the right side and 1.95 for the left side (P value = 0.007). Using Ultra pulse CO2 laser enhances the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in eyebrow tattoo removal.

  11. Wound healing after irradiation of bone tissues by Er:YAG laser

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Aoki, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao


    Clinical applications of Er:YAG laser are now developing in periodontics and restorative dentistry. To date, there have been few studies indicating safety criteria for intraoral usage of the Er:YAG laser. The present study examined the effects of the Er:YAG laser on bone tissues, supposing mis- irradiation in the oral cavity during dental application, especially periodontal surgery. The experiments were performed using the newly-developed Er:YAG laser apparatus equipped with a contact probe. In experiment 1, 10 pulses of laser irradiation were administered to the parietal bone of a rat at 50, 150 and 300 mJ/pulse with and without water irrigation, changing the irradiation distance to 0, 5, 10 and 20 mm, respectively. As a control, electric knife was employed. Macroscopic and SEM observations of the wound surface were performed. In experiment 2, laser irradiation in a straight line was performed at 150 mJ/pulse, 1- pps and 0,5, 10 mm irradiation distance without water irrigation. Wound healing was observed histologically at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after laser irradiation and compared with that of the control. Non-contact irradiation by Er:YAG laser did not cause severe damage to the parietal bone tissue under water irrigation. Contact irradiation induced a limited wound, however, new bone formation was observed 28 days after laser irradiation, while osseous defect with thermal degenerative tissue remained at the control site. In conclusion, irradiation with an Er:YAG laser would not cause severe damage to surrounding bone tissues in the oral cavity when used within the usual power settings for dental treatment. Furthermore, this laser may be applicable for osseous surgery because of its high ablation efficiency and good wound healing after irradiation.

  12. Numerical Modelling of QCW-Pumped Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Lasers with Cr4+:YAG as Saturable Absorber

    WANG Yu-Ye; XU De-Gang; XIONG Jing-Ping; WANG Zhuo; WANG Peng; YAO Jian-Quan


    @@ Passively Q-switched quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber is numerically investigated by solving the coupled rate equations. The threshold pump rate for passively Q-switched QCW-pumped laser is derived. The effects of the pump rate and pump-pulse duration on the laser operation characteristics are studied theoretically. The pump power range can be estimated according to the number of output pulses. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. High repetition rate, compact micro-pulse all-solid-state laser

    Yutong Feng; Junqing Meng; Weibiao Chen


    A high repetition rate, compact micro-pulse all-solid-state laser is designed. The diffusion bonded crystal of YAG, Nd:YAG, and Cr4+:YAG is taken as a monolithic cavity. The optimized initial transmission,output coupling, and pumping size of Cr4+:YAG are calculated. The experimental results show that the laser satisfies the requirement of a spaceborne laser range finder.

  14. Selective photothermal ablation of tissue with a fiber-delivered Er:YAG laser

    Pierce, Mark C.; Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh


    The feasibility of using laser-induced photoemission signals to distinguish between hard and soft biological tissues during photothermal ablation with a pulsed Er:YAG laser has been investigated. Time-resolved emission spectroscopy indicated a threshold fluence of approximately 35 J/cm2 to regularly initiate photoemission from dental enamel, while no emission was detected from porcine muscle tissue with incident laser fluences of up to approximately 140 J/cm2. The delay time of an emission signal with respect to the incident, ablative Er:YAG laser pulse was found to decrease from approximately 150 microseconds near the emission threshold fluence to approximately 60 microseconds at the highest fluence level used. Optical multichannel analyzer spectroscopy of Er:YAG irradiated enamel demonstrated that photoemissions typically consisted of a broad, continuous background in the visible region, with superimposed peaks arising from the presence of elements including calcium, characteristic of plasma emission either from the sample surface or emission plume.

  15. Er:YAG and alexandrite laser radiation propagation in root canal and its effect on bacteria.

    Jelínková, H; Dostálová, T; Dusková, J; Krátký, M; Miyagi, M; Shoji, S; Sulc, J; Nemec, M


    The objective of this study was to compare the bactericidal effect of the Er:YAG (wavelength 2.94 microm) and the Alexandrite (wavelength 0.75 microm) laser radiation. The spreading laser energy in the surrounding hard dental tissues round the root canal was evaluated and the bactericidal effect of both these different laser wavelengths was analyzed. The use of a laser to clean and shape the root canal space is the latest method used for cleaning of root canals. The interest in laser endodontics was concentrated on the possibility to extirpate the contents of the root canal, to sterilize and to "melt" the walls of the root canals. The previous reports were performed with CO2, excimer, argon, Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, and Er:YAG lasers. Er:YAG laser system (2.94 microm, energy 100 mJ or 300 mJ, repetition rate 1 Hz, 30 pulses) and alexandrite laser system (0.75 microm, energy 250 mJ, repetition rate 1 Hz, 30 pulses) were prepared and three experimental arrangements were used during the measurements. First the energy transport through the tooth tissue was observed (frontal and side experimental setups) and then, the bactericidal effect was evaluated. It was demonstrated that due to the absorption in the hydroxyapatite and water content in the dentin, the Er:YAG laser radiation is fully absorbed in the root canal wall. This direct influence of the radiation could be expected only close to the sapphire tip. It was found that the tissue, which was not directly affected by the laser radiation, cannot be disinfected by the subablative effect of Er:YAG laser radiation. In the second part of the experiment the real bactericidal effect of Er:YAG ablative energy (300 mJ) could be observed. It was also shown that the alexandrite laser radiation with a wavelength of 0.75 microm spreads through the canal system space and leaks into the surrounding tooth tissues. Both lasers have bactericidal effect. The pulsed Er:YAG and alexandrite lasers can be efficiently used for killing dental

  16. Physical and optical limitations using ArF-excimer and Er:YAG lasers for PRK

    Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Mrochen, Michael; Seiler, Theo


    The Erbium:YAG laser emitting at a wavelength of 2,94 micrometer have been promised as an alternative laser for the ArF-excimer laser (193 nm) in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This report discusses the limitations of laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density and pulse duration for the ablation of the cornea. In addition, the melting process during ablation on the corneal surface roughness may play a role.

  17. Er:YAG laser technology for remote sensing applications

    Chen, Moran; Burns, Patrick M.; Litvinovitch, Viatcheslav; Storm, Mark; Sawruk, Nicholas W.


    Fibertek has developed an injection locked, resonantly pumped Er:YAG solid-state laser operating at 1.6 μm capable of pulse repetition rates of 1 kHz to 10 kHz for airborne methane and water differential absorption lidars. The laser is resonantly pumped with a fiber-coupled 1532 nm diode laser minimizing the quantum defect and thermal loading generating tunable single-frequency output of 1645-1646 nm with a linewidth of tuning range covering multiple water absorption lines, with a pulse energy of 1 mJ and a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz. The resonator cavity was locked to the seed wavelength via a Pound Drever Hall (PDH) technique and an analog Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller driving a high-bandwidth piezoelectric (PZT)-mounted cavity mirror. Two seed sources lasing on and off the methane absorption line were optically switched to tune the resonator wavelength on and off the methane absorption line between each sequential output pulse. The cavity locking servo maintained the cavity resonance for each pulse.

  18. Comparison of laser iridotomy using short duration532-nm Nd: YAG laser (PASCAL) vs conventional laser in dark irides

    Hye; Jin; Chung; Hae-Young; Park; Su-Young; Kim


    AIM: To evaluate the outcome of laser iridotomy using532-nm Nd: YAG laser(PASCAL) with short pulse duration and Nd: YAG laser compared to conventional combined laser iridotomy.METHODS: Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series. Forty-five eyes of 34 patients underwent laser iridotomy. Twenty-two eyes underwent iridotomy using short duration PASCAL and Nd: YAG laser, and 23 eyes underwent iridotomy using conventional combined laser method. The average settings of PASCAL were60 μm and 700-900 m W with a short duration of 0.01 s to reduce the total applied energy. The conventional laser was 50 μm and 700-900 m W for 0.1s. After photocoagulation with these laser, the Nd: YAG laser was added in each group. Endothelial cell counts of preiridotomy and 2mo after iridotomy were measured and compared.RESULTS: All eyes completed iridotomy successfully.The total energy used in the PASCAL group was 1.85 ±1.17 J. Compared to conventional laser 13.25 ±1.67 J, the energy used was very small due to the short exposure time of PASCAL. Endothelial cell counts were reduced by0.88% in the PASCAL group and 6.72% in the conventional laser group(P =0.044). The change in corneal endothelial cell counts before and after iridotomy was significant in conventional combined laser iridotomy group(P =0.004).CONCLUSION: Combined PASCAL and Nd:YAG laseriridotomy is an effective and safe technique in the dark brown irides of Asians. Furthermore, the short duration of exposure in PASCAL offers the advantages of reducing the total energy used and minimizing the corneal damage.

  19. Use of the holmium:YAG laser in urology

    Mattioli, Stefano


    The Holmium-YAG is a versatile laser with multiple soft- tissue applications including tissue incision and vaporization, and pulsed-laser applications such as lithotripsy. At 2140 nanometers, the wavelength is highly absorbed by tissue water. Further, like CO2 laser, the Holmium produces immediate tissue vaporization while minimizing deep thermal damage to surrounding tissues. It is an excellent instrument for endopyelotomy, internal urethrotomy, bladder neck incisions and it can be used to resect the prostate. The Holmium creates an acute TUR defect which gives immediate results like the TURP. More than 50 patients were treated from Jan. 1996 to Jan. 1997 for obstructive symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder neck stricture, urethral stenosis, and superficial bladder tumors.

  20. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  1. Demining with Nd:YAG laser

    Rothacher, Thomas; Lüthy, Willy; Weber, Heinz P.


    Laser neutralization of antipersonnel (AP) mines offers the enormous advantage to work from a safe distance. In this article the interaction of Nd:YAG laser radiation and four different types of blast AP mines is investigated. For this purpose, a very compact laser system for mine neutralization is developed. The incident power on the mine surfaces is varied from 20 to 70 W. Neutralization of all mines is achieved from a safe distance up to 50 m. The mines burn and finally detonate after an irradiation time of a few minutes. Detonation of the irradiated burning mines is considerably weaker compared to fully functional mines. Therefore, expected damage in the surrounding area is significantly reduced.

  2. Research of actively-passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pumped by pulse xenon lamp%主被动锁模脉冲氙灯抽运Nd:YAG激光器的研究



    为了克服主动锁模脉冲能量低、被动调Q锁模稳定性差、锁模不完全的缺点,采用Cr:YAG和声光锁模器进行主被动联合锁模脉冲氙灯抽运的Nd:YAG激光器,实验验证和分析了Cr:YAG被动锁模,声光锁模器主动锁模及两者联合主被动锁模3种情况下输出脉冲的特性.结果表明,主被动联合锁模可得到200mJ输出能量、输出幅值和能量抖动小于±5%、锁模深度100%、脉宽小于450ps的1064nm锁模脉冲输出,腔外增加KTP倍频晶体,可得到约41%的转换效率的532nm稳定锁模脉冲输出.这一结果验证了主被动锁模技术的可行性,有利于锁模技术的进一步发展.%In order to resolve the low output energy of active mode-locked laser and instability of passive mode-locked laser,Cr4+ :YAG passive mode-locker and acousto-optic active mode-locker were used jointly for Nd:YAG laser mode-locking.The output characteristics of passively mode-locked by Cr4+ :YAG only, actively mode-locked by anousto-optic mode-locker only and mode-locked by Cr+ :YAG and acousto-optic jointly were analyzed and compared through experiments.Results showed that the joint mode-locking method gave good resolution to the low output energy and stability, and the mode-lock amplitude and energy fluctuation were less than ± 5%, with the depth of mode locking of 100%, pulse width less than 450ps and output energy near 200mJ at 1064nm wavelength.Adding KTP crystal out of the cavity, the output conversion efficiency was about 41% at 532nm wavelength.The results show the possibility of actively-passively mode-locked technology and it is helpful for the development of mode-locking technology.

  3. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on the surface microstructure and roughness of hydroxyapatite-coated implant


    Purpose The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation on the change of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implant surface microstructure according to the laser energy and the application time. Methods The implant surface was irradiated by Er:YAG laser under combination condition using the laser energy of 100 mJ/pulse, 140 mJ/pulse and 180 mJ/pulse and application time of 1 minute, 1.5 minutes and 2 minutes. The specimens were exam...

  4. Cryogenic Yb: YAG Thin-Disk Laser


    Spitzberg, "Cryogenic Yb3+-Doped Solid-State Lasers," IEEE Journ. of Sel. Topics in Quant. Elect., 13(3), 448-459 (2007). [3] S. Tokita, J. Kawanaka, M...Europe ( IEEE ,2005) ,CTu3 (2005). [4] D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, J. W. Kuper, B. J. Lotito, L. L. Bennett, "Innovative high-power CW...Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, "Yb:YAG Absorption at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures," IEEE Journ. Sel. Topics Quant. Elect. 11(3), 604-612 (2005

  5. Deicing with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers

    Qi, Lijun; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong; Guo, Fei; Zhu, Guangzhi; Gu, Shanqiang


    A model of deicing with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers for simulation using ANSYS software is presented. Experiments with a 300-W, 1-ms, 60-Hz Nd:YAG laser and a 500- to 2000-W cw CO2 laser are reported. The Nd:YAG laser is considered as a volume thermal source, and the CO2 laser as a plane thermal source. The model and the simulation results can describe both Nd:YAG and CO2 laser deicing well. The results of the simulation and experiments suggest that the melting rates for the two lasers are almost equal at the same laser power density. So are the melting efficiencies. The hard and transparent ice irradiated by the Nd:YAG laser becomes opaque and loose, because the thermal stress is distributed in the body of the ice, while the ice irradiated by the CO2 laser is still transparent and hard, because thermal stress hardly occurs. So the laser with characteristics of high output power and large ice absorbing length can be selected for the power line laser deicing system, and Nd:YAG laser is more appropriate for power-line deicing than CO2 laser.

  6. Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation for esthetic purposes by Nd:YAG laser: report of 4 cases.

    Atsawasuwan, P; Greethong, K; Nimmanon, V


    Gingival hyperpigmentation may cause esthetic problems and embarrassment, especially in patients with a gummy smile. This report presents the use of the Nd:YAG laser for gingival depigmentation. Four cases, 3 females and 1 male, ages between 24 to 28 years old, presented with the same chief complaint of unesthetic gingiva caused by melanin hyperpigmentation. The Nd:YAG laser was set at 6 watts, 60 millijoules per pulse, and 100 pulses per second. The procedures were performed with contact mode in all pigmented areas by using a handpiece with a 320 microm diameter fiber optic. Ablation of the gingival hyperpigmented areas were accomplished without any bleeding complications or significant postoperative pain. Three to 4 weeks after the procedures, the hyperpigmented gingiva appeared healthy, pink, and firm. No recurrence of hyperpigmentation had been found in 11 to 13 months of follow-up. However, in delicate areas such as the marginal gingiva, the Nd:YAG laser should be used cautiously.

  7. Effects of Er:YAG Laser on Mineral Content of Sound Dentin in Primary Teeth


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth prepared using an Er:YAG laser at two different power settings. Thirty-six primary second molars were used in this study. Three dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth, and the slabs were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, control; Group B, Er:YAG laser at 3.5 W, 175 mJ, and 20 Hz, short pulse mode; and Group C, Er:YAG laser at 4 W, 200 mJ, and 20 Hz, medium-short pulse mode. One den...

  8. Laser and intense pulsed light hair removal technologies

    Haedersdal, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F


    Light-based hair removal (LHR) is one of the fastest growing, nonsurgical aesthetic cosmetic procedures in the United States and Europe. A variety of light sources including lasers, e.g. alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and broad-spectrum intense...

  9. Cryogenic Yb:YAG thin-disk laser

    Vretenar, N.; Carson, T.; Lucas, T.; Newell, T.; Latham, W. P.; Peterson, P.; Bostanci, H.; Lindauer, J. J.; Saarloos, B. A.; Rini, D. P.


    At cryogenic temperatures, Yb:YAG behaves as a 4-level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG thin disk laser performance at room and cryogenic (80°K) temperatures will be presented. The Yb:YAG gain media is cooled using either a pressurized R134A refrigerant system or by a two-phase liquid nitrogen spray boiler. Interchangeable mounting caps allow the same Yb:YAG media to be switched between the two systems. This allows direct comparison of lasing, amplified spontaneous emission, and temperature performance between 20°C and -200°C.

  10. Analysis of droplet behavior in Nd:YAG laser-pulsed MAG hybrid welding%Nd:YAG激光-脉冲MAG复合热源焊熔滴过渡分析

    吴艳明; 王威; 林尚扬; 王旭友


    采用高速摄像技术拍摄熔滴形成、长大及脱落的过程,观测并分析激光加入对电弧焊熔滴过渡的影响.结果表明,发现激光改变了熔滴的空间飞行轨迹、过渡稳定性、熔滴过渡模式.并从熔滴受力角度建立了脉冲MAG焊接熔滴力学模型,分析了激光加入后熔滴受力状态的改变情况.分析发现复合激光后,脉冲MAG熔滴还受到额外两个力的作用,即激光小孔产生的高速向上喷发的金属蒸气对熔滴过渡的反推力和激光及光致蒸气等离子体对熔滴的热辐射而使被辐射面的液态熔滴金属高速蒸发而产生的反推力,这些反推力在光丝间距小于2 mm,会阻碍熔滴过渡;并且电磁%This paper studies the metal transfer phenomenon of Nd: YAG laser-pulsed MAG hybrid welding.High-speed video camera has been used to record droplet formation,growth and shedding process,observation and analysis for the effect of laser on the droplet transfer of arc welding can be conducted.The results show that the laser changes the droplet flight path,the transition stability and metal transfer mode.A mechanical model established to analysis how laser join influence the force on the droplet in pulsed MAG welding.Analysis showed that when hybrid with laser,the pulse MAG droplet is also subject to additional role of two forces,one is an anti-thrust force produced by the high-speed metal vapor eruption from keyhole acted on the droplet,the other is an anti-thrust force produced by the radiation of laser and laser-induced plasma let the surface of the droplet high-speed evaporation and reverse thrust.When the distance between laser and arc less than 2 mm,these two forces will hinder the droplet,and the electromagnetic force bias direction to laser keyhole.The metal transfer stability Nd: YAG laser-pulsed MAG hybrid welding affected by such as light DLA,laser power and defocus.

  11. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.


    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  12. Comparison of laser performance of electro-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic/single crystal laser

    Jianghua Ji; Xiaolei Zhu; Chunyu Wang; Yongwei Feng; Qihong Lou


    @@ An electro-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser operating at kHz repetition rate was demonstrated.Thermal induced lens' focus of ceramic rod was measured and compensated by plano-convex cavity structure. Depolarization loss at different output powers was measured in Nd:YAG single crystal and ceramic lasers. High-energy high-beam-quality laser pulse output was obtained in both laser structures. Pulse energy of about 20 mJ and pulse width of less than 12 ns were achieved, and the average power reached 20 W. The divergence of output laser beam was less than 1.2 mrad, and the beam propagation factor M2was about 1.4.

  13. 长脉冲可调脉宽Gentle-YAG 1064nm激光脱毛的长期疗效及安全性分析%Evaluation of the Long-term Therapeutic Effect and Safety of Long-pulsed Tunable Gentle-YAG Laser in Hair Removal

    秦萍萍; 吕东; 曹丽华; 周洋


    目的:评价长脉冲可调脉宽Gentle-YAG 1064nm激光在Ⅲ~Ⅳ型皮肤脱毛者中的长期疗效和安全性.方法:用美国CANDELA公司生产的长脉冲可调脉宽Gentle-YAG 1064nm激光治疗仪对221例多毛患者进行多次治疗,治疗结束后随访半年到两年,回顾性评价治疗的效果和不良反应,每个部位根据治疗次数分两组:<6次组和≥6次组(腋窝为<4次组和≥4次组),比较不同部位两组治疗效果.结果:随访到并进行评价的多毛患者169例共273处,经过2~16次脱毛治疗后,有效数为224例,总有效率为82.05%.唇部、腋窝、四肢、面颈部、躯干部A组有效率均高于B组,结果差异有统计学意义,不同部位两个治疗次数组别疗效有差异.169例患者中有5例出现不良反应,包括疼痛、毛囊性丘疹、瘙痒、水疱.结论:长脉冲可调脉宽Gentle-YAG 1064nm激光对Ⅲ一Ⅳ型皮肤患者脱毛安全有效.疗效与脱毛部位、治疗次数相关.%Objective: To evaluate the long-term therapeutic effect and safety of long-pulsed tunable Gentle-YAG laser in hair removal. Method: A retrospective study was conducted. In this study,221 patients with hypertrichosis were treated by long-pulsed tunable Gentle-YAG laser system. Who were divided into two groups were treated based on the treatment sessions: group A receiving 6 (≥4 for axillae) or more treatments, group B less than 6 ( < 4 for axillae) treatments. The patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years by return telephone. Evaluation of efficacy and side effects were performed. Result: Follow-up and evaluation were completed in 169 patients,and a total of 273 sites treated. After 2~16 times treatment,2 total effective rate of 82.05% (224/273) was achieved. Significant higher effective rates were observed in group B compared with group A at all sites ( P < 0.05 ). Side effects were noted in only 5 cases , including ache, follicular papules, itch and blisters. Conclusion: Long-pulsed

  14. Improvement of thermal management in the composite Yb:YAG/YAG thin-disk laser

    Kuznetsov, I. I.; Mukhin, I. B.; Palashov, O. V.


    To improve the thermal management in the composite Yb:YAG/YAG thin-disk laser a new design of laser head is developed. Thermal-induced phase distortions, small signal gain and lasing in the upgraded laser head are investigated and compared with previously published results. A substantial decrease of the thermal lens optical power and phase aberrations and increase of the laser slope efficiency are observed. A continuous-wave laser with 440 W average power and 44% slope efficiency is constructed.

  15. Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG Crystal Powder

    Jon Azkargorta


    Full Text Available This work explores the room temperature random stimulated emission at 1.064 μm of a Nd:YAG crystal powder (Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet in a very simple pump configuration with no assistance from an internal mirror. The laser threshold energy as a function of pump beam area and pump wavelength has been measured, as well as the temporal dynamics of emission pulses. The absolute energy of stimulated emission and the absolute laser slope efficiency have been measured by using a method proposed by the authors. The results show a surprising high efficiency that takes the low Nd3+ ion concentration of the crystal powder into account.

  16. Effects of output waveforms on penetration for Nd: YAG laser welding


    By using a Nd: YAG laser welding system devised for transmitting continuous, rectangular and pulsed waveforms, comprehensive and deep investigation is focused on the effects of several parameters of rectangular waveform and pulsed output wave superimposed on a rectangular waveform on the penetration depth of weld. Research results indicate that the average power, duty cycle, frequency and peak power of rectangular wave affect the weld penetration depth to different extent. Results of experiments and analysis also indicate that the pulse delay time, pulse width and the power ratio of pulse to rectangular waveform seriously influence the penetration when the pulsed wave is superimposed on a rectangular waveform.

  17. High-repetition-rate picosecond pump laser based on a Yb:YAG disk amplifier for optical parametric amplification.

    Metzger, Thomas; Schwarz, Alexander; Teisset, Catherine Yuriko; Sutter, Dirk; Killi, Alexander; Kienberger, Reinhard; Krausz, Ferenc


    We report an optically synchronized picosecond pump laser for optical parametric amplifiers based on an Yb:YAG thin-disk amplifier. At 3 kHz repetition rate, pulse energies of 25 mJ with 1.6 ps pulse duration were achieved with an rms fluctuation in pulse energy of pumped regenerative amplifier.

  18. Application of the long pulsed 1064nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of melasma%长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光治疗黄褐斑疗效观察

    杨鹏; 麦跃; 李娟; 孙林潮


    目的:探讨长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效和安全性.方法:选取12例面部黄褐斑患者,采用长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光,光斑直径5mm,脉宽0.3-0.4ms,能量13~15J/cm2,频率7~10Hz,全面部每次扫描约6000~12000个脉冲,共治疗1 0次,每2周1次,术后严格防晒.每次治疗前采用MASI评分和前后照片比较改善效果.结果:12例经过10次治疗,黄褐斑患者均获得不同程度改善,其中3例的改善率达到了60%,5例达到50%以上的改善.无1例出现严重副反应,同时还有改善皮肤质地的作用,80%以上的患者表示满意.结论:长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光治疗黄褐斑疗效确切,安全性高,无明显副作用,是一种治疗黄褐斑安全、有效的新方法.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long pulsed 1064nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of melasma lesions. Methods 12 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types III -IV) with melasma lesions were enrolled. During each treatment, each zone received 6000-12000 pulses using the following laser parameters: 0.3-0.4 ms pulse duration, 13-15J/cm2, 7-10 Hz, 5 mm spot size. Ten treatment sessions were performed for each patient 2 weeks apart. After treatment.the clearance of melasma lesions was assessed by MASI scores and the satisfaction of treatment was recorded by patients. Based on the MASI scores of pretreatment and posttreatment, the improvement rate of melasma was calculated. Results 12 cases of melasma lesions obtained different degree of improvement were treated by 10 times , MASI scores declined significantly from the baseline to the follow up visits of each treatment. 3 (15%) patients obtained 60% improvements ,5 (41.6%) patients obtained 50% improvements, according to the over all evaluation by dermatologists . Over 80% patients considered their results satisfactory or very satisfactory. Conclusions long pulsed 1064nm Nd:YAG laser is effective and safe in the treatment of melasma lesions, the side

  19. Noncontact Er:YAG laser ablation: clinical evaluation.

    Dostálová, T; Jelínková, H; Kucerová, H; Krejsa, O; Hamal, K; Kubelka, J; Procházka, S


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of laser ablation in comparison with the classical drilling preparation. For the experiment, the Er:YAG laser drilling machine was used. The system had a laser head, water cooler, and power supply with automatic control. Spot size of 300-350 microns was used for the preparation. Repetition rate of 1-4 Hz, and pulse energies of 100-400 mJ with water spray were chosen. Cavity shape in comparison with classical drill, time of preparation, and influence of cavity shape on filling materials retention in accordance with the U.S. Public Health Service System were used. The evaluation criteria for noncontact Er:YAG ablation were done. The cavity shape is irregular, but spot surface has larger area and microretentive appearance. Caries of enamel and dentin were treated with a noncontact preparation. It was possible to remove the old insufficient fillings, except for amalgam or metal alloys. The average number of pulses was 111.22 (SE 67.57). Vibrations of microexplosions during preparation were felt by patients on 14 cavities; however, nobody felt unpleasant pain. The qualities of filling materials in laser cavities were very stable; however, cavo surface margin discoloration of 82-86% of Alfa rating could be a problem. Changes of the color and anatomic form of the tooth were observed in 4-8%. In comparison with the classical treatment, it could be said that the retention and quality of filling materials is the same or very similar.

  20. In vitro application of optical transmission systems in erbium:YAG laser temporomandibular joint surgery

    Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Hering, Peter; Niederdellmann, Herbert; Deuerling, Christian; Dammer, Ralf


    The experimental setup of this study is focused on the changes in temporomandibular joint tissue after irradiation with an Erbium:YAG laser. Initially, the free-running beam from the laser was focused onto freshly excised porcine tissue samples, indicating an optimum average energy density and pulse duration for the purpose of temporomandibular joint surgery of about 15 - 60 J/cm2 and 120 microsecond(s) - 240 microsecond(s) , respectively. Consecutively, an attempt was made to couple the Erbium:YAG laser beam on the one hand to optical fibers made of infrared-transmitting glasses (fluoride- and chalcogenide-based), on the other hand to a recently developed sapphire and liquid core fiber, respectively. From the preliminary observations of this investigation it appears that both the liquid core and the sapphire fiber are the most promising candidates for delivery of Erbium-YAG laser radiation in arthroscopic surgery of the craniomandibular articulation.

  1. CO2, Er: YAG and Nd:YAG lasers in endodontic surgery

    Daniel Humberto Pozza


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: CO2, Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers have been used in endodontic surgery. This in vitro study evaluated 1% Rhodamine B dye penetration using computer-assisted morphometry (ImageTool Software® of 108 endodontically treated human permanent canines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were divided into 9 groups according to the technique used: A: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity preparation with ultrasound and filled with MTA; B: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA, and treatment of apical surface with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW; C: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz; D: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with CO2 laser,(1 W, CW/CW; E: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; F: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10Hz; G: apicoectomy with CO2 laser (5W, CW/SP, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; H: irradiation of apical end with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW; I: irradiation of apical end with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz. RESULTS: Dye penetration was found in all specimens at different rates, the lowest penetration occurring in groups C (16.20%, B (17.24% and F (17.84%. CONCLUSIONS: Groups B, C and F represent the best technical sequences to perform endodontic surgery.


    Pozza, Daniel Humberto; Fregapani, Patrícia Wehmeyer; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Weber, João Batista Blessmann; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt


    Objectives: CO2, Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers have been used in endodontic surgery. This in vitro study evaluated 1% Rhodamine B dye penetration using computer-assisted morphometry (ImageTool Software®) of 108 endodontically treated human permanent canines. Material and methods: Teeth were divided into 9 groups according to the technique used: A: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity preparation with ultrasound and filled with MTA; B: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA, and treatment of apical surface with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW); C: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz); D: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW); E: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; F: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz) and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10Hz); G: apicoectomy with CO2 laser (5W, CW/SP), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; H: irradiation of apical end with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW); I: irradiation of apical end with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz). Results: Dye penetration was found in all specimens at different rates, the lowest penetration occurring in groups C (16.20%), B (17.24%) and F (17.84%). Conclusions: Groups B, C and F represent the best technical sequences to perform endodontic surgery. PMID:20027433

  3. CO(2), Er: YAG and Nd:YAG lasers in endodontic surgery.

    Pozza, Daniel Humberto; Fregapani, Patrícia Wehmeyer; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Weber, João Batista Blessmann; Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt de


    CO(2), Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers have been used in endodontic surgery. This in vitro study evaluated 1% Rhodamine B dye penetration using computer-assisted morphometry (ImageTool Software) of 108 endodontically treated human permanent canines. Teeth were divided into 9 groups according to the technique used: A: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity preparation with ultrasound and filled with MTA; B: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA, and treatment of apical surface with CO(2) laser (1 W, CW/CW); C: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz); D: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with CO(2) laser,(1 W, CW/CW); E: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; F: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz) and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10Hz); G: apicoectomy with CO(2) laser (5W, CW/SP), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; H: irradiation of apical end with CO(2) laser (1 W, CW/CW); I: irradiation of apical end with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz). Dye penetration was found in all specimens at different rates, the lowest penetration occurring in groups C (16.20%), B (17.24%) and F (17.84%). Groups B, C and F represent the best technical sequences to perform endodontic surgery.

  4. Stable mode-locking in an Yb:YAG laser with a fast SESAM

    Guifang Ju(居桂方); Lu Chai(柴路); Qingyue Wang(王清月); Zhigang Zhang(张志刚); Yonggang Wang(王勇刚); Xiaoyu Ma(马骁宇)


    Stable mode-locking in a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser was obtained with a very fast semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The pulse width was measured to be 4 ps at the central wavelength of 1047 nm. The average power was 200 mW and the repetition rate was 200 MHz.

  5. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.


    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  6. About the luminescence properties of YAG:Nd, Ce and YAG:Nd single crystals and their relation to laser properties

    Mares, Jiri A.; Kubelka, Jiri; Kvapil, Jiri


    Laser excited luminescence studies of various YAG:Nd, Ce and YAG:Nd (with an excess of yttrium) single crystals together with a testing of laser properties of rods made from the same crystals have been investigated in this paper. It was observed that laser pulse energies increase with increasing halfwidths of the luminescence spectral bands. This dependence and other observations indicate that local structure changes or Nd(3+) nonequivalent centers are present in the studied crystals. Various mechanisms leading to the formation of Nd(3+) nonequivalent centers are discussed and it seems that the more probable mechanism is oxygen segregation and diffusion.

  7. Influência da energia de soldagem em uniões de lâminas finas através de laser pulsado de Nd:YAG Effect of the heat input on pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of thin foil

    Vicente A. Ventrella


    Full Text Available A soldagem laser vem sendo utilizada como um importante processo de manufatura. Ela pode ser utilizada tanto no modo contínuo quanto no modo pulsado. No processo onde se utiliza laser pulsado é possível realizar soldas de costura em lâminas finas, através da sobreposição dos pulsos. Nesse caso a velocidade de soldagem é definida pela taxa de sobreposição, taxa de repetição e diâmetro do pulso. A soldagem de sobreposição de lâminas finas apresenta problemas típicos como distorção excessiva da junta soldada, falta de contato entre as lâminas a serem soldadas (presença de um gap de ar, perfuração da junta e presença de altos níveis de tensões residuais. O processo de laser pulsado é preferido em relação ao processo por laser contínuo, pois ele possibilita um melhor controle da energia de soldagem. O presente trabalho estudou a influência da energia do pulso, no caso processo de soldagem laser Nd:YAG, na soldagem de lâminas finas ( 100µm de aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L, utilizado no revestimento de sensores (que trabalham em ambiente corrosivo da indústria sucroalcooleira. Utilizou-se energia de pulso de 1,0 a 2,25 Joules, com incremento de 0,25 Joules e largura temporal de 4 ms. As soldas foram realizadas com proteção gasosa de argônio. Foram realizadas análises macrográficas das juntas soldadas, através de secções transversais das mesmas e, ensaios de microdureza Vickers e ensaios de tração. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o controle da energia do pulso, em processo de soldagem por laser de lâminas finas é de fundamental importância para a geração de juntas soldadas com boas propriedades mecânicas e livres de descontinuidades. O limite de resistência da junta soldada aumentou no início e depois sofreu um pequeno decréscimo em função do aumento da energia do pulso. O processo mostrou-se muito sensível à presença de gap entre as lâminas.Laser beam welding has been used widely

  8. 脉冲掺钕钇铝石榴石激光对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成的影响%Effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser on collagen synthesis in hypertrophic scar derived fibroblast cultures

    舒彬; 郝林林; 曾登芬


    Objective In order to explore the selectively inhibitory effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on collagen production of scar fibroblasts in vitro.Methods Cultured fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars(HS) and normal human skin were irradiated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 1 064 nm,pulse width 150 μ s) at various energy density levels (500,1 000,1 500 and 2 000 J/cm2).At 24 hours after laser irradiation, collagen production of fibroblasts was measured by the incorporation of 3H proline. The expression of proα 1(I)procollagen mRNA was investigated by blot hybridization techniques. Results Collagen production of HS fibroblasts was significantly increased, as 2 times as that of normal skin fibroblasts. Type I procollagen mRNA level in HS fibroblasts was markedly elevated, as 3 times as that in normal skin fibroblasts.Conclusion Pulsed Nd:YAG laser at energy density of 1 000 J/cm2 can selectively suppress collagen synthesis and type I procollagen mRNA level of HS fibroblasts.

  9. Treatment of dentinal tubules by Nd:YAG laser

    Chmelíčkova, Hana; Zapletalova, Zdeňka; Peřina, Jan, Jr.; Novotný, Radko; Kubínek, Roman; Stranyánek, Martin


    Symptom of cervical dentine hypersensitivity attacks from 10% to 15% of population and causes an uncomfortable pain during contact with any matter. Sealing of open dentinal tubules is one of the methods to reach insensibility. Laser as a source of coherent radiation is used to melt dentine surface layers. Melted dentine turns to hard mass with a smooth, non-porous surface. Simulation of this therapy was made in vitro by means of LASAG Nd:YAG pulsed laser system KLS 246-102. Eighty human extracted teeth were cut horizontally to obtain samples from 2 mm to 3 mm thick. First experiments were done on cross section surfaces to find an optimal range of laser parameters. A wide range of energies from 30 mJ to 210 mJ embedded in 0,3 ms long pulse was tested. Motion in X and Y axes was ensured by a CNC driven table and the pulse frequency 15 Hz was chosen to have a suitable overlap of laser spots. Some color agents were examined with the aim to improve surface absorption. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to evaluate all samples and provided optimal values of energies around 50 Next experiments were done with the beam oriented perpendicularly to a root surface, close to the real situation. Optical fibers with the diameter of 0,6 mm and 0,2 mm were used to guide a laser beam to teeth surfaces. Laser processing heads with lens F = 100 mm and F = 50 mm were used. The best samples were investigated by means of the Atomic Force Microscopy.

  10. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B


    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M{sup 2} = 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M{sup 2} value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M{sup 2} < 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods.

  11. Er:YAG laser radiation etching of enamel

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav


    This study compares the effects of acid treatment and Er:YAG laser radiation on the enamel. The permanent human molars were used. Oval cavities in the buccal surface were prepared and the edges of cavities were irradiated by Er:YAG radiation. The energy of laser was 105 mJ and repetition rate 1 Hz. The radiation was focused by CaF2 lens and the sample was placed in the focus. Ten samples were etched by 35 percent phosphoric acid during 60 s. Than cavities were filled with composite resin following manufacturers directions. By laser etching the structure enamel in section was rougher. The optimal connection between the enamel and composite resin was achieved in 75 percent by acid etching and in 79.2 percent by Er:YAG laser etching. Er:YAG laser etching could be alternative method for etching of enamel.

  12. Optimization Of Output Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Based On Switching Time

    Tamuri, Abd Rahman; Daud, Yaacob Mat; Bidin, Noriah


    This paper reports the optimization of output Q-switch Nd:YAG. A free running Nd:YAG laser was employed as source of light. KD*P crystal was utilized as a Pockels cell. Avalanche transistor pulser was designed to switch a high voltage power supply. The switching time was conducted via a control unit based PIC16F84A microcontroller. The pulser was able to switch the voltage within 3 ns. The optimum switching time of Q-switching is obtained at 182.34 μs. The corresponding laser output is 40 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns.

  13. Absorption of some powder materials to YAG laser



    Laser powder alloying is widely used for tribological applications. As one of the key pa-rameters , absorptivity of powder materials to laser plays an important role in the processing. Themeasurement of laser absorptivity is essential for absorptivity research. In present work, lumpedmethod based on heat transfer is established for laser absorptivity measurement. The absorptivityof some powder materials as Cu, Fe, Al, NiO, Al2O3, ZrO2, SiC, to YAG laser, are investigated.The results show that the absorptivity of powder materials to YAG laser is generally larger thanthat of bulk materials.

  14. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.


    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  15. Nd:YAG laser therapy for rectal and vaginal venous malformations.

    Gurien, Lori A; Jackson, Richard J; Kiser, Michelle M; Richter, Gresham T


    Limited therapeutic options exist for rectal and vaginal venous malformations (VM). We describe our center's experience using Nd:YAG laser for targeted ablation of abnormal veins to treat mucosally involved pelvic VM. Records of patients undergoing non-contact Nd:YAG laser therapy of pelvic VM at a tertiary children's hospital were reviewed. Symptoms, operative findings and details, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Nine patients (age 0-24) underwent Nd:YAG laser therapy of rectal and/or vaginal VM. Rectal bleeding was present in all patients and vaginal bleeding in all females (n = 5). 5/7 patients had extensive pelvic involvement on MRI. Typical settings were 30 (rectum) and 20-25 W (vagina), with 0.5-1.0 s pulse duration. Patients underwent the same-day discharge. Treatment intervals ranged from 14 to 180 (average = 56) weeks, with 6.1-year mean follow-up. Five patients experienced symptom relief with a single treatment. Serial treatments managed recurrent bleeding successfully in all patients, with complete resolution of vaginal lesions in 40% of cases. No complications occurred. Nd:YAG laser treatment of rectal and vaginal VM results in substantial improvement and symptom control, with low complication risk. Given the high morbidity of surgical resection, Nd:YAG laser treatment of pelvic VM should be considered as first line therapy.

  16. Efficacy of long-pulse Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser combined with occlusive dressing with salicylic acid in the treatment of onychomycosis%长脉宽Nd:YAG 1064 nm激光联合水杨酸封包治疗甲真菌病的疗效评价

    陈梅; 张敬东; 董正邦


    Objective:To assess the efficacy of long-pulse Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser combined with occlu-sive dressing with salicylic acid in the treatment of onychomycosis. Methods: Sixty six patients with onycho-mycosis were randomly divided into the treatment group ( 34 patients, 68 disease nails) and control group ( 32 patients, 72 disease nails) . The disease nails in each group were divided into the SCIO≤9 group and the 90.05) . The effective rates of disease nails with a score of 90.05);对于9YAG 1064 nm 激光联合水杨酸封包治疗甲真菌病的临床疗效和真菌清除率均高于单独激光治疗,特别是对于9

  17. The bactericidal effect of a Genius (R) Nd : YAG laser

    Kranendonk, A.A.; Reijden, W.A. van der; Winkelhoff, A.J. van; Weijden, G.A. van der


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 'in vitro' bactericidal effect of the Nd:YAG laser (Genius, MØlsgaard Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) on six periodontal pathogens. METHODS: Suspensions of six different periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedi

  18. The bactericidal effect of a Genius Nd: YAG laser

    Kranendonk, A.A.; van der Reijden, W.A.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.; van der Weijden, G.A.


    Purpose: To evaluate the ‘in vitro’ bactericidal effect of the Nd:YAG laser (Genius, MØlsgaard Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) on six periodontal pathogens. Methods: Suspensions of six different periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedi

  19. The bactericidal effect of a Genius (R) Nd : YAG laser

    Kranendonk, A.A.; Reijden, W.A. van der; Winkelhoff, A.J. van; Weijden, G.A. van der


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 'in vitro' bactericidal effect of the Nd:YAG laser (Genius, MØlsgaard Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) on six periodontal pathogens. METHODS: Suspensions of six different periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedi

  20. A comparative SEM study between hand instrument and Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing.

    Moghare Abed, A; Tawakkoli, M; Dehchenari, M A; Gutknecht, N; Mir, M


    Scaling and root planing are one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time-consuming. In search for more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as alternatives or adjuncts for scaling and root planing. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of subgingival scaling and root planing with erbium: yttrium, aluminium, garnet (Er:YAG) laser and hand instrumentation in vitro. The mesial and distal surfaces of 15 periodontal loosed extracted teeth were treated randomly either by hand instrumentation or by Er:YAG laser irradiation. After choosing the "very long pulse mode" (pulse duration of about 700 micros), the output energy of 160 mJ with 920-microm beam diameter (RO7 Perio tip, Fidelis, Fotona, Slovenia) and frequency of 12 Hz were selected, both according to the best results of past studies. In addition, air water spray was used during the procedures. The morphology of the root surface was evaluated by three observers with a scanning electron microscopy in magnifications of 50x and 400x. The result of this setting showed that the rate of remained roughness on treated root surfaces in two groups of hand instruments and Er:YAG laser had a meaningful difference: The surface roughness in Er:YAG laser group was more than in hand instruments group. The present study could demonstrate the in vitro capability of the Er:YAG laser for scaling and root planing in periodontitis, although the effectiveness of this setting did not reach that achieved by hand instrumentation. It could be concluded that lower frequency and long pulse duration maybe more suitable for the micro-morphology of root surface after treatment. This theory is going to be tested with the same laser instrument in the next study.

  1. Polarization Self-Modulation Phenomenon in a Free Oscillated Nd: YAG Laser

    YANG Qian-Suo; LUO Geng-Xing; ZOU Nian-Yu; YANG Guo-Wei; ZHU Nai-Yi


    @@ Polarization self-modulation effect in a free oscillated Nd:YAG laser is investigated after a quarter wave plate is introduced independently in the two positions of the cavity. As described in the previous experiments, the intensity components in the orthogonal directions are modulated with a period of the round-trip time or twice.Different pulse shapes reveal that the seed field from the spontaneous emission is not uniform and seems to be stochastic for each pulse.

  2. Diode-pumped Solid-state Cr4+∶Nd∶YAG/KTP Green Laser

    YU Ting; CUI Junwen; LU Yutian; HU Qiquan


    A diode-pumped solid-state Cr4+∶Nd∶YAG/KTP green laser with intracavity second harmonic generation is reported. Stable quasi-cw output of 1.03 W in average power, 100 kHz of repetition rate and about 25 ns of pulse width were obtained. Repetition rate and pulse width were studied experimentally and analyzed under different conditions.

  3. 强脉冲光联合调Q激光治疗色素增生性皮肤病%Non-ablative treatment for hyperpigmented skin diseases with combined intense pulse light and Q switched Nd :YAG laser

    钱晓莺; 熊明弟; 赵春华; 张玲玲; 周宇


    目的 探讨强脉冲光联合调Q激光疗法对面部色素增生性皮肤病的疗效及安全性.方法 根据患者面部色素性疾病的特点,对225例Fitzpatrick Ⅲ、Ⅳ型皮肤的色素细胞增生性皮肤病患者,采用560 nm强脉冲光联合凋Q 532 nm激光治疗.首先使用560 nm强脉冲光,能量密度30~40 J/cm~2的光子嫩肤治疗,每月1次,3个月后观察疗效.对于改善不显著的脂溢性角化斑、咖啡斑及眼睑、口唇周围残留的雀斑等.再使用调Q 532 nm激光,施行局部针对性治疗,能量密度70 J/cm~2.于激光治疗后2个月,对皮损的改善和满意度进行评估并记录不良反应.结果 90%患者的雀斑、咖啡斑、脂溢性角化斑的色素均有50%~70%不同程度的消退,同时毛细血管扩张、毛孔粗大、细小皱纹均达到了60%以上的程度的改善.主要并发症为暂时性红斑和水疱.结论 560 nm强脉冲光联合调Q激光治疗面部色素增生性皮肤病安全有效.同时能有效改善肤质.%Objective To observe the effect of non-ablative treatment combined intense pulse light (IPL) and Q switched Nd :YAG laser on hyperpigmented skin diseases. Methods Total 250 cases of Fitzpatrick skin types Ⅲ and Ⅳ with hyperpigmented skin disorders received 4 treatments with combined 560nm IPI. and 532 nm Q switched Nd :YAG laser. The interval between two treat-ments was I month. After 3 months the effect of IPL was observed. If it was not good, we used the Q switched Nd :YAG laser. Efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated 3-6 months after the final treat-ment. Results 3-6 months after the last treatment, 50%-70% of patients had their telangiectasia, enlarged pores, hyperpigmentation and wrinking of facial photoaging improved. The degree of im-provement was more than 60 %. Common side effects were minor blistering and erythema. Conclusion Combined IPI. and Q switched Nd :YAG laser treatment is an idea non-ablative therapy for telangi-ectasia, enlarged pores

  4. 600-W lamp pumped CW Nd:YAG laser

    Qiang Li(李强); Zhimin Wang(王志敏); Zhiyong Wang(王智勇); Zhensheng Yu(于振声); Hong Lei(雷訇); Jiang Guo(郭江); Gang Li(李港); Tiechuan Zuo(左铁钏)


    A lamp pumped CW Nd:YAG laser is presented in this paper for the requirement of industrial application.The main factors, which affect output power and beam quality of high power solid-state laser module, are theoretically analyzed. Total electro-optics efficiency of lamp pumped Nd:YAG crystal as high as 4.0% is obtained, and output power is higher than 647 W with beam parameter product 22 mm.mrad.

  5. Experimental 511 W Composite Nd:YAG Ceramic Laser

    LI Hai-Feng; XU De-Gang; YANG Yang; WANG Yu-Ye; ZHOU Rui; ZHANG Tie-Li; ZHAO Xin; WANG Peng; YAO Jian-Quan


    @@ We demonstrate a 511 W laser diode pumped composite Nd:YAG ceramic laser. The optical pumping system is consisted of five laser diode stacked arrays arranged in a pentagonal shape around the ceramic rod whose size is φ6.35×144mm. When the pumping power is 1600W, the cw laser output up to 511 W at 1064nm can be obtained with a linear plano-plano cavity, and the optical-to-optical efficiency is 31.9%. To our knowledge, this is the highest value of laser output by using a newly invented composite Nd:YAG ceramic rod as the gain medium.


    Brigita Drnovšek-Olup


    Full Text Available Background. In this study, a new type of Er:YAG laser, emitting irradiation with variable pulse duration, has been used for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing in periocular region.More than 40 patients have been treated with second generation Er:YAG laser (Fotona Fidelis for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing. A focused laser beam (diameter 0.4 mm with very short pulse width (100 µs, that is significantly below the thermal relaxation time of skin, leads to a precise cut with no observable thermal effect on surrounding tissue. The depth of the cut is approximately 1–2 mm, precision comparable to a surgical scalpel. The high repetition rate of consecutive laser pulses (50 Hz at 120 mJ energy accounts for accumulation of thermal load in tissue, and thus leads to complete hemostasis of the cut tissue. Due to improved cutting abilities of the Er:YAG laser, excision of orbital fat is also performed with one pass of the laser beam. By changing the laser parameters to short pulses (300 µs, energy 500 mJ, spot diameter 5 mm and repetition rate 12–15 Hz, skin resurfacing was performed. No special pretreatment therapy was used. Anesthesia: 2% Xylocain inj. subcutaneously. Non adhesive dressing for 24 hours was applied after surgery.Epithelisation was complete after ten days. Redness persists up to 5 weeks. Discomfort of patients was mild. Cosmetic results are satisfying.Conclusions. New generation of Er:YAG laser offers a possibility to cut and coagulate the tissue simultaneously, and by changing the parameters to ablate the tissue with heating influence on skin collagen.

  7. 长脉冲1064 nmNd:YAG激光治疗皮肤血管性疾病%Long pulsed 1064nm Nd: YAG Laser Treatment of Dermovascular Disease



    目的 探讨应用长脉冲1064 nm Nd:YAG激光治疗皮肤血管性疾病的治疗效果.方法 自2005年2月至2009年2月,应用长脉冲1064 nm Nd:YAG激光治疗皮肤血管性疾病285例,对鲜红斑痣、草莓样血管瘤、混合性血管瘤、皮肤毛细血管扩张、血管痣及充血性增生瘢痕等皮肤血管性疾病,根据皮损的不同性质选定不同能量的光束进行照射,视情况重复治疗1~5次.治疗结束6个月后随访,评价治疗效果.结果 285例中,有效245例,有效率为85.9%,治愈153例,治愈率为53.7%,出现色素性改变52例(18.2%),均在数月至半年后恢复,遗留浅表性瘢痕10例(3.51%),增生性瘢痕2例(0.7%).结论 长脉冲长脉冲1064 nm Nd:YAG激光治疗皮肤血管性疾病具有起效快、疗效显著、不良反应小的优点,具有重要的临床应用价值.%Objective Evaluation Of long pulsed 1064nmNd: YAG laser treatment of dermovascular disease treatment effects. Methods A total of 285 cases of dermovascular disease were treated with long pulsed 1064nmNd: YAG laser including port wine stains, strawberry hemangiomas, expanded capillary and congested hypertrophic scar. from February 2005 to February 2009.During the management, different energy levels were decided on the basis of the reaction of each lesion and the treatment repeated 1 to 5 times. The treatment effect were evaluated after six months follow-up. Results 245 cases (85.9%) in 285 cases patients gained effective therapy. 153 cases (53.7%) obtained healing. There are 52 cases (18.2%) with temple pigment alteration after the courses of treatment which can recover in several months or haff a year, superficial depressed scar wereremained in 10 patients (3.51%),two patients (0.7%) showed hyperplastic scar. Conclusion Treatment of dermovascular disease with long pulsed 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser has the qualities of quick and remarkable action and few side effect. This method has important clinical application value.

  8. Removal effects of the Nd:YAG laser and Carisolv on carious dentin.

    Yamada, Y; Hossain, M; Kawanaka, T; Kinoshita, J; Matsumoto, K


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal effect of the Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Carisolv on carious dentin. Many previous studies have reported several simple and alternative techniques, such as lasers and chemicals, for caries removal. Carisolv was applied on the surface of 20 extracted human anterior and molar teeth for 1 min and then the Nd:YAG laser was irradiated with a continuous water spray for another 1 min. The energy densities were varied from 2 to 6W with a repetition rate of 20 pps. As caries removal progressed, the cavity was carefully assessed by DIAGNOdent. Each lesion was photographed before and after treatment, and the treated cavity was observed microscopically using a stereoscope and with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal change at the time of laser irradiation was measured by thermovision. Our results revealed that application of Carisolv followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 4-6W pulse energy effectively removed dentin caries. The total procedure was usually repeated once or twice for complete caries removal. From the SEM study, it was found that the cavity surface treated with the laser revealed various patterns of microirregularity, often accompanied by microfissure propagation. There was also no smear layer. It was revealed that Nd:YAG laser and Carisolv could provide an alternative technique for caries removal instead of the conventional mechanical drilling and cutting.

  9. 15 mJ single-frequency Ho:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 1.9 µm laser diode

    Na, Q. X.; Gao, C. Q.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, Y. X.; Gao, M. W.; Ye, Q.; Li, Y.


    A 2.09 µm injection-seeded single-frequency Ho:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 1.91 µm laser diode is demonstrated for the first time. The seed laser is a continuous wave (CW) Ho:YAG non-planar ring oscillator. 15.15 mJ single-frequency output energy is obtained from the injection-seeded Q-switched Ho:YAG laser, with a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz and a pulse width of 109 ns. The half-width of the pulse spectrum is measured to be 4.19 MHz by using the heterodyne technique. The fluctuation of the center frequency of the single-frequency pulses is 1.52 MHz (root mean square (RMS)) in 1 h.

  10. Selective removal of dental caries with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Yan, Ruth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel


    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. The purpose of this study was to measure the ablation rate and selectivity of sound and demineralized enamel and dentin for a 30 W diode-pumped Er:YAG laser operating with a pulse duration of 20-30-μs and evaluate it's potential for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral content of the demineralized enamel and dentin of 300-μm thick sections with natural caries lesions prior to laser ablation. The ablation rate was calculated for varying mineral content. In addition, near-IR reflectance measurements at 1500-1700- nm were used to guide the laser for the selective ablation of natural occlusal caries lesions on extracted teeth.

  11. Removal of graffiti from the mortar by using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Sanjeevan, Poologanathan; Klemm, Agnieszka J.; Klemm, Piotr


    This paper presents part of the larger study on microstructural features of mortars and it's effects on laser cleaning process. It focuses on the influence of surface roughness, porosity and moisture content of mortars on the removal of graffiti by Nd:YAG laser. The properties of this laser are as follows: wavelength ( λ) 1.06 μm, energy: 500 mJ per pulse, pulse duration: 10 ns. The investigation shows that the variation of laser fluence with the number of pulses required for the laser cleaning can be divided into two zones, namely effective zone and ineffective zone. There is a linear relationship observed between number of pulses required for laser cleaning and the laser fluence in the effective zone, while the number of pulses required for the laser cleaning is almost constant even though the laser fluence increases in the ineffective zone. Moreover, surface roughness, porosity and moisture content of mortar samples have influence on the laser cleaning process. The effect of these parameters become however negligible at the high level of laser fluence. The number of pulses required for the laser cleaning is low for smooth surface or less porous mortar. Furthermore, the wetness of the samples facilitates the cleaning process.

  12. Histological and SEM analysis of root cementum following irradiation with Er:YAG and CO2 lasers.

    Almehdi, Aslam; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Sasaki, Katia M; Ejiri, Kenichiro; Sawabe, Masanori; Chui, Chanthoeun; Katagiri, Sayaka; Izumi, Yuichi


    Recently, the Er:YAG and CO(2) lasers have been applied in periodontal therapy. However, the characteristics of laser-irradiated root cementum have not been fully analyzed. The aim of this study was to precisely analyze the alterations of root cementum treated with the Er:YAG and the CO(2) lasers, using non-decalcified thin histological sections. Eleven cementum plates were prepared from extracted human teeth. Pulsed Er:YAG laser contact irradiation was performed in a line at 40 mJ/pulse (14.2 J/cm(2)/pulse) and 25 Hz (1.0 W) under water spray. Continuous CO(2) laser irradiation was performed in non-contact mode at 1.0 W, and ultrasonic instrumentation was performed as a control. The treated samples were subjected to stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The Er:YAG laser-treated cementum showed minimal alteration with a whitish, slightly ablated surface, whereas CO(2) laser treatment resulted in distinct carbonization. SEM analysis revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the Er:YAG-lased surface and the melted, resolidified appearance surrounded by major and microcracks of the CO(2)-lased surface. Histological analysis revealed minimal thermal alteration and structural degradation of the Er:YAG laser-irradiated cementum with an affected layer of approximately 20-μm thickness, which partially consisted of two distinct affected layers. The CO(2)-lased cementum revealed multiple affected layers showing different structures/staining with approximately 140 μm thickness. Er:YAG laser irradiation used with water cooling resulted in minimal cementum ablation and thermal changes with a characteristic microstructure of the superficial layer. In contrast, CO(2) laser irradiation produced severely affected distinct multiple layers accompanied by melting and carbonization.

  13. Clinical application of erbium:YAG laser in periodontology.

    Ishikawa, Isao; Aoki, Akira; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi


    Various lasers have been introduced for the treatment of oral diseases and their applications in dental clinics have become a topic of much interest among practitioners. Technological advances and improvements have increased the choices of the available laser systems for oral use. Among them, a recently developed erbium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser system possesses suitable characteristics for oral soft and hard tissue ablation. Due to its high absorption in water, an effective ablation with a very thin surface interaction occurs on the irradiated tissues without any major thermal damage to the irradiated and surrounding tissues. In the field of periodontics, the application of Er:YAG laser for periodontal hard tissue has begun with studies from Japanese and German researchers. Several in vitro and clinical studies have already demonstrated an effective application of the Er:YAG laser for calculus removal and decontamination of the diseased root surface in periodontal non-surgical and surgical procedures. However, further studies are required to better understand the various effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on biological tissues for its safe and effective application during periodontal and implant therapy. Randomized controlled clinical trials and more basic studies have to be encouraged and performed to confirm the status of Er:YAG laser treatment as an adjunct or alternative to conventional mechanical periodontal therapy. In this paper, the advantages and current clinical applications of this laser in periodontics and implant dentistry are summarized based on current scientific evidence.

  14. Comparative study between Fortify and Nd:YAG laser used for marginal sealing in composite restorations

    Navarro, Ricardo S.; Esteves, Grazia V.; Oliveira, Wilson T., Jr.; Matos, Adriana B.; Turbino, Mirian L.; Youssef, Michel N.; Matson, Edmir


    The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage of composite restorations submitted to marginal treatment. Class V preparations with walls located in enamel were performed at buccal and lingual surfaces of eighteen recently extracted, non-carious human premolars. Cavities were restored with composite resins and adhesive system. Samples were stored in distilled water for 48h and polished with Sof-Lex discs. Teeth were randomly divide in six groups: G1 - Control; G2 - marginal treatment with surface sealant; G3 - Nd:YAG 25 Hz, 80mJ, 2W; G4 - Nd:YAG 20Hz, 100mJ, 2W; G5 - Nd:YAG 30Hz, 60mJ, 1.8W; G6 - Nd:YAG 30Hz, 40mJ, 1.2W. Contact fiberoptic (300μm) pulsed (1.064 μm) Nd:YAG laser was used for 30sec, under air cooling. Teeth were impermeabilized, immersed in a dye (Rhodamine B) for 4h at 37°, and sectioned. Specimens were evaluated under light microscopy and evaluated with scores. Results were analyzed with Kruskal- Wallis test (p=0.05) and showed that there were significant differences between marginal treatments; there were no significant differences beaten groups 1, 2, 4 and 3, 5, 6; lower values of microleakage were at groups 3, 5, 6. Nd:YAG laser showed marginal sealing ability and decreased microleakage of composite resins restorations.

  15. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    Diels, Jean-Claude


    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  16. Er:YAG and alexandrite laser radiation propagation in the root canal and its effect on bacteria

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Duskova, Jana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shoji, Shigeru; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal


    The goal of the study was to verify differences between the alexandrite and Er:YAG laser energy distribution in the root canal and in the surrounding dentin and bone tissues. For the experiment, two lasers were prepared: the Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) with a delivery system fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide ended by a special sapphire tip and the alexandrite laser (λ=0.75 μm) with a silicon fiber. The Er:YAG laser was operated in a free-running mode, the length of the generated pulses was 250 μsec and the output energy ranged from 100 to 350 mJ. The pulse length of the free- running alexandrite laser was 70 μsec and the output energy was ranged from 80 up to 200 mJ. For the experiment prepared root canals of molars were used. It was ascertained that the radiation of the alexandrite laser passes through the root canal and hits the surrounding tissue. Nocardia asteroids, Filaments, Micrococcus albus, Lactobacillus sp and Streptococcus sanguis colonies were treated by the Er:YAG or alexandrite laser radiation. The surface was checked by scanning electron microscopy. From the result it follows that the Er:YAG laser destroyed microbial colonies but the differences is in the depth of the affected area.

  17. Nd:YAG Laser Posterior Capsulotomy and Visual Outcome

    Khaleda Nazneen Bari


    Full Text Available Background: Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is a relatively noninvasive procedure that is used in the treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO. PCO is caused by proliferation of lens epithelial cells which causes fibrotic changes and wrinkling of the posterior capsule and results in decreased vision, glare, and other symptoms similar to that of the original cataract.Objective: To find out the visual outcome after performing Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for PCO.Materials and method: A prospective clinical trial was carried out in National Institute of Ophthalmology (NIO, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2010 to June 2011 on purposively selected 70 adult subjects of both sexes who developed PCO within 2 months to more than 2 years after extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant. After thorough pre laser assessment Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy was carried out with Zeis VISULAS YAG II through Zeiss slit lamp under topical anesthesia. Data were recorded and expressed as proportion.Results: Out of the 70 subjects 40 were male and 30 were female. The average time interval of cataract surgery and Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy was 23 months. Capsular fibrosis (57.04% was the predominant type of PCO. The pre laser visual acuity (VA of more than 61.06% of eyes was 6/36 or below while 41.12% had VA hand movements to finger count. After Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy VA of 6/18 or better was achieved in 63.9% of eyes while 9.94% recovered to 6/9 and 11.36% achieved 6/6. None of these eyes showed further deterioration in VA.Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for PCO is safe, effective and a rewarding procedure for improvement of vision.

  18. Effect of Single Pulse Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation on Monolayer KB Cell Cultures%脉冲Nd:YAG激光对单层KB细胞损伤效应的研究

    陈虹霞; 杨在富; 张杰; 杨景庚; 单清; 高光煌; 钱焕文


    目的:观察脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射体外单层培养KB细胞后的形态改变及损伤后HSP70, c-Fos的表达情况,初步探讨较强脉冲激光对细胞的损伤效应及损伤修复机制.方法:建立单层培养细胞的脉冲Nd:YAG激光损伤模型,每个脉冲能量密度为160 J/cm2~186 J/cm2或220 J/cm2~257 J/cm2,分别于照后即刻、2 h和6 h,用台盼蓝染色、TUNEL检测分析该激光对KB细胞的损伤特点,免疫组化法检测HSP70, c-Fos的表达水平.结果:当照射剂量为220 J/cm2~257J/cm2时,照后即刻,光斑中央细胞形态严重破坏,直接坏死;周围细胞形态未发生明显改变.2 h后周围细胞TUNEL着色也增强,呈强阳性.照后6 h光斑中央及周围细胞着色均减弱.TUNEL着色区直径随时间先扩大后缩小.当照射剂量为160 J/cm2~186 J/cm2时,细胞内HSP70、c-Fos表达随时间先显著增强,而后减弱至正常.结论:脉冲Nd:YAG激光在所选剂量下,可以引起单层KB细胞的损伤,包括即刻坏死、延迟性死亡及可逆性损伤.HSP70、c-Fos的高表达说明它们在保护受损细胞、修复激光所致损伤中发挥重要作用.%Objective: To investigate the character of morphological change after Nd:YAG laser irradiation on KB cells, and determine if two protective proteins(HSP70, c-Fos) are involved in the cellular stress response and repair processes. Methods: Monolayer KB cell cultures on glass-slides were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser. The pulse energy density was controlled within the range of 160 J/cm2~186 J/cm2 or 220 J/cm2~257 J/cm2 in single pulse mode. The cultures were then analyzed by means of trypan blue staining and TUNEL examination. HSP70 and c-Fos were examined with immunocytochemical staining. Results:KB cells at the center of laser beam were damaged instantly, the results of trypan blue staining and TUNEL were strong positive, while cells near the boundary of laser beam had hardly morphological change and were stained weakly. At 2h

  19. Cutting and coagulation during intraoral soft tissue surgery using Er: YAG laser.

    Onisor, I; Pecie, R; Chaskelis, I; Krejci, I


    To find the optimal techniques and parameters that enables Er:YAG laser to be used successfully for small intraoral soft tissue interventions, in respect to its cutting and coagulation abilities. In vitro pre-tests: 4 different Er:YAG laser units and one CO2 unit as the control were used for incision and coagulation on porcine lower jaws and optimal parameters were established for each type of intervention and each laser unit: energy, frequency, type, pulse duration and distance. 3 different types of intervention using Er:YAG units are presented: crown lengthening, gingivoplasty and maxillary labial frenectomy with parameters found in the in vitro pre-tests. The results showed a great decrease of the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Moreover, the height and width of the chewing cycles in the frontal plane increased after therapy. Er:YAG is able to provide good cutting and coagulation effects on soft tissues. Specific parameters have to be defined for each laser unit in order to obtain the desired effect. Reduced or absent water spray, defocused light beam, local anaesthesia and the most effective use of long pulses are methods to obtain optimal coagulation and bleeding control.

  20. Ultrashort-pulse lasers based on the Sagnac interferometer

    Bezrodnyi, V.I.; Prokhorenko, V.I.; Tikhonov, E.A.; Shpak, M.T.; Iatskiv, D.IA.


    Results of experimental studies carried out on passively mode-locked and synchronously pumped ultrashort-pulse lasers with cavities based on the Sagnac interferometer are reported. It is shown that the use of the interferometer makes it possible to substantially improve the principal parameters of the ultrashort-pulse laser, such as repeatability, stability, spatial-angular characteristics, and the frequency tuning range. In particular, results are presented for YAG:Nd(3+) and dye lasers with Sagnac interferometers. 10 references.

  1. Pulpal Thermal Changes following Er-YAG Laser Debonding of Ceramic Brackets

    Didem Nalbantgil


    Full Text Available Lasers are effective in debonding ceramic brackets. Unfortunately, while reducing the adhesive bond strength, lasers are also reported to increase pulpal temperature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths and temperature increase levels after debonding ceramic brackets using an Er-YAG laser with or without water-cooling. Sixty polycrystalline upper premolar ceramic brackets were placed on the labial surface of sixty human premolar teeth which were randomly divided into three groups of twenty. A laser pulse at 5 W for 9 seconds was delivered to each bracket in both study groups either with water-cooling (water group or without water-cooling (waterless group using an Er-YAG laser. Debonding was performed 45 seconds after laser exposure and shear bond strengths were measured. Data comparison revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups. Mean temperature increases of 2.41°C and 4.59°C were recorded for the water and waterless laser groups, respectively. The shear bond strength value for the control group was 22.76 MPa and 10.46 and 6.36 MPa for the water and waterless laser groups, respectively. The application of Er-YAG laser with water-cooling was an efficient and safe method of debonding ceramic brackets.

  2. Excimer Laser Pulse Compress With Pulse Feedback


    <正>To attain a shorter laser pulse, a compressing technique called pulse feedback was developed from the saturation gain switch applied to the amplification in a discharge pumping excimer laser cavity. It can

  3. Stable single-mode operation of injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser by sine voltage modulation

    Yongfei Gao; Junxuan Zhang; Huaguo Zang; Xiaolei Zhu; Yingjie Yu; Weibiao Chen


    Based on the modified ramp and fire technique,a novel injection seeding approach with real-time resonance tracking is successfully demonstrated in a single-frequency Nd:YAG pulsed laser.Appling a high-frequency sinusoidal modulation voltage to one piezo actuator and an adjustable DC voltage to another piezo actuator for active feedback,single-mode laser output with high-frequency stability is obtained,and the effect of the piezo hysteresis on the frequency stability can be eliminated for a laser diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a repetition rate of 400 Hz.

  4. 21 CFR 886.4392 - Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and...:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy. (a) Identification. The Nd:YAG laser for... laser intended for disruption of the posterior capsule or the iris via optical breakdown. The...

  5. [Moist ablation of the corneal surface with the Er:YAG laser. Results of optimizing ablation].

    Bende, T; Jean, B; Matallana, M; Seiler, T; Steiner, R


    The Er:YAG laser, emitting light at 2.94 microns, may be an alternative to the 193 nm excimer laser for photorefractive keratectomy. Compared to the excimer laser, the ablation rate is very high. Surface roughness is also more pronounced than for the excimer laser. Using a precorneal liquid film, these two factors can be reduced, as shown in ablation experiments performed on porcine corneas. Thermal damage of the remaining corneal tissue is another side effect. There is no significant decrease in the amount of thermal damage with this new technique,--not even when the pulse length is reduced.

  6. Investigation of Fe:ZnSe laser in pulsed and repetitively pulsed regimes

    Velikanov, S D; Zaretskiy, N A; Zotov, E A; Maneshkin, A A; Chuvatkin, R S; Yutkin, I M [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation); Kozlovsky, V I; Korostelin, Yu V; Krokhin, O N; Podmar' kov, Yu P; Savinova, S A; Skasyrsky, Ya K; Frolov, M P [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The characteristics of a Fe:ZnSe laser pumped by a single-pulse free-running Er : YAG laser and a repetitively pulsed HF laser are presented. An output energy of 4.9 J is achieved in the case of liquid-nitrogen cooling of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe active laser element longitudinally pumped by an Er:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an energy up to 15 J. The laser efficiency with respect to the absorbed energy is 47%. The output pulse energy at room temperature is 53 mJ. The decrease in the output energy is explained by a strong temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime and by pulsed heating of the active element. The temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime is used to determine the pump parameters needed to achieve high pulse energies at room temperature. Stable repetitively-pulsed operation of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser at room temperature with an average power of 2.4 W and a maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ is achieved upon pumping by a 1-s train of 100-ns HF laser pulses with a repetition rate of 200 Hz. (lasers)

  7. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Combined with Er:YAG Laser on the Permeability of Eroded Dentin: An In Situ Study.

    Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Carvalho, Sandra Chiga; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci, Vivian; Galo, Rodrigo; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish and Er:YAG laser on the permeability of eroded bovine root dentin. After initial erosive challenge followed by a remineralization period, the specimens were divided in two groups according to the treatment - fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish - and were subdivided according to the irradiation protocol: Er:YAG laser (100 mJ, 3 Hz, 12.8 J/cm2per pulse, non-contact and defocus mode) and non-irradiated. After a lead-in period, 7 volunteers wore a palatal device containing 4 specimens that were subjected to erosive challenges. At the first experimental phase, 4 volunteers used specimens treated with fluoride varnish and fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser and 3 volunteers used specimens treated with non-fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser. After a washout period, volunteers were crossed to treatments, characterizing a 2x2 crossover experiment. At the end of the experimental phase, the quantitative response variable was obtained by permeability analysis and the qualitative response by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer's test revealed that specimens treated with fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser showed the lowest permeability and a significant difference was found between this group and the others. When varnish (fluoride/non-fluoride) was applied in the absence of Er:YAG laser, higher permeability was found when compared to the laser-treated groups. SEM evaluations showed partially or completely obliterated dentinal tubules when specimens were treated with fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser. It may be concluded that Er:YAG laser was able to control the permeability of eroded root dentin and the combination with fluoride varnish increased laser action.

  8. Observation on compressive strength of veneers on mottled teeth after pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation%氟斑牙经脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射后贴面抗压强度观察

    夏永华; 张丹丹


    Objective To analyze experimentally the compressive strength of veneers on mottled teeth after Dul8e Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Methods Sixty motded teeth were extracted,including thirty maxdlary central incisors and thirty maxillary lateral incisors and each were divided equally into two groups randomly(experimental groups and control groups).The former were irradiated by pulse Nd:YAG lafer and then etched by 37%phosphorus acid.The latter only etched by 37%phosphorus acid.All the teeth were restored by composite resin veneers and tested with Instron 4505 electronic testing machine.The average collapse loads of the veneers of incisors were tested. The maximal compressive loads of the samples were obtained,then the experimental results were analyzed.Results The average collapse loads of central incisors of test groups and control groups were(0.342±0.053),(0.289±0.041) kN respectively,with a signiticant difference(t=3.16,P<0.05).The average collapse loads of lateral incisors of test groups and control groups were(0.321±0.041),(0.208 ±0.032)kN respectively.There was a significant difference when they were compared(t=7.66,P<0.05).Conclusions The compressive strength of the veneers incneases significandv when the mottled teeth are irradiated by pulse Nd:YAG laser.This method is worthy of recommending.%目的 观察氟斑牙经脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射后贴面的抗压强度变化.方法 取因各种原因而拔除的人上颌中切、侧切氟斑牙各30颗,每种切牙均分成试验组和对照组,每组15颗.试验组牙齿以脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射后.再以37%的磷酸酸蚀;而对照组牙齿只用37%的磷酸酸蚀,然后所有牙齿做树脂贴面,在Instron 4505电子万能试验机上进行压缩试验,测定切牙的试验组、对照组贴面的平均破坏载荷.结果 试验组和对照组中切牙贴面平均破坏载荷分别为(0.342 4-0.053)、(0.289±0.041)kN,试验组明显高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=3.16,P<0.05);试验

  9. In vitro fragmentation efficiency of holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy--a comprehensive study encompassing different frequencies, pulse energies, total power levels and laser fibre diameters.

    Kronenberg, Peter; Traxer, Olivier


    To assess the fragmentation (ablation) efficiency of laser lithotripsy along a wide range of pulse energies, frequencies, power settings and different laser fibres, in particular to compare high- with low-frequency lithotripsy using a dynamic and innovative testing procedure free from any human interaction bias. An automated laser fragmentation testing system was developed. The unmoving laser fibres fired at the surface of an artificial stone while the stone was moved past at a constant velocity, thus creating a fissure. The lithotripter settings were 0.2-1.2 J pulse energies, 5-40 Hz frequencies, 4-20 W power levels, and 200 and 550 μm core laser fibres. Fissure width, depth, and volume were analysed and comparisons between laser settings, fibres and ablation rates were made. Low frequency-high pulse energy (LoFr-HiPE) settings were (up to six times) more ablative than high frequency-low pulse energy (HiFr-LoPE) at the same power levels (P fragmentation volume, fissure width, and fissure depth (all P fragmentation measurements. Laser fibre diameter did not affect fragmentation volume (P = 0.81), except at very low pulse energies (0.2 J), where the large fibre was less efficient (P = 0.015). At the same total power level, LoFr-HiPE lithotripsy was most efficient. Pulse energy was the key variable that drove fragmentation efficiency. Attention must be paid to prevent the formation of time-consuming bulky debris and adapt the lithotripter settings to one's needs. As fibre diameter did not affect fragmentation efficiency, small fibres are preferable due to better scope irrigation and manoeuvrability. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  10. CL60车轮材料表面激光离散熔凝的滚动磨损形貌%Rolling Wear Properties of CL60 Steel after Pulsed Nd∶ YAG Laser Surface Melting

    邢旭辉; 李正阳; 杨明江; 占剑; 林化强


    针对激光离散熔凝后的CL60材料磨损后的形貌问题,使用MM P2摩擦磨损试验机对Nd∶ YAG激光离散熔凝后的圆环试样进行磨损试验,使用micro XAM三维白光干涉表面形貌仪对磨损试验前后的试样表面进行测量.使用金相显微镜和扫描电镜研究磨损试验后的试样金相.结果表明,经过激光离散熔凝的点硬度高,在磨损过程中形成凸起;熔凝点可以有效阻止试样表面塑性变形的积累,提高材料整体的抗塑性变形能力,减小试样表面由于塑性变形而产生的层片状剥落,表现出较高的耐磨性;不同螺距点距的熔凝点分布可以形成不同的磨损后表面形貌.%Laser surface melting is carried out using a pulsed Nd! YAG laser on specimens made of CL60 steel, after that the rolling wear properties of specimens are studied using a MM-P2 rolling friction and wear test machine. The surface topography of the specimens before and after the rolling wear test is measured by a micro XAM 3D surface topography instrument. Metallographic examinations of the specimens are taken out after the rolling wear test using metallographic microscope and scanning electron microscope. It turns out that the laser melted spots stand out during the experiments due to its higher hardness. The laser melted spots are not only reducing the plastic deformation themselves, but also hindering the plastic deformation of vicinity base material on the same circle. The laser melted spots can reduce the scraps peeling off from specimens and the rolling wear resistance is improved. Different distributions of laser melted spots can form different surface topographies after wear.

  11. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis


    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  12. Cryogenic Tm: YAG Laser in the Near Infrared


    REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < Cryogenic Tm:YAG Laser in the Near Infrared* Tso Yee Fan...therefore limits operation. However, operation at cryogenic temperature depopulates the lower laser level, reduces laser threshold, increases...efficiency, and greatly mitigates thermo-optic effects in crystalline host materials [21]-[23]. Here, we have used cryogenic cooling to enable laser

  13. Experimental study of thermal lensing of Nd:YAG laser

    HU Shao-yun; ZHONG Ming; ZUO Yan; FAN Hong-ying


    A wavefront method of measuring the thermal lensing of solid-state lasers is proposed.This method is easy to implement and has a high spatial resolution for diagnosing thermal lensing.By this method,the thermal lensing of Nd:YAG laser is studied in detail.And this work provides a means for studying the thermal effects of laser medium and many instructional parameters for optimizing the design of the laser cavity.

  14. Dichroic mirror for diode pumped YAG:Nd-laser

    Dinca, Andreea; Skettrup, Torben; Lupei, V.


    The paper describes the design and realization of a dichroic mirror for a diode pumped YAG:Nd laser. The mirror is deposed on an optical glass substrate and works in optical contact with the laser crystal. The design was performed by admittance matching of the basic stack with the adjacent media...

  15. Selective removal of dental composite with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Fried, William A.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel


    Selective removal of dental composite with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates focused to a small spot size. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. The purpose of this study was to compare the ablation rates and selectivity of enamel and composite for a 30 W diode-pumped Er:YAG laser operating with a pulse duration of 30-50-μs and evaluate it's suitability for the selective removal of composite from tooth surfaces. The depth of ablation and changes in surface morphology were assessed using digital microscopy. The fluence range of 30-50 J/cm2 appeared optimal for the removal of composite, and damage to sound enamel was limited to less than 100-μm after the removal of composite as thick as 700-800-μm. Future studies will focus on the use of methods of feedback to further increase selectivity.

  16. Regenerative amplification and bifurcations in a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser.

    Mance, Jason G; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Roy, Sukesh


    An Nd:YAG-based burst-mode regenerative amplifier laser was developed that offers high extraction efficiency at high repetition rates with low seed energies. The regenerative amplification technique, combined with the burst-mode laser technology, shows promise as an efficient method for amplification of femtojoule-nanojoule pulses up to millijoule energies at repetition rates exceeding 100 kHz. Output energies at repetition rates near the inverse upper state lifetime are limited by bifurcations in the pulse energies of the burst. A model is developed and advantages and limitations are discussed.

  17. Investigation of Fe:ZnSe laser in pulsed and repetitively pulsed regimes

    Velikanov, S. D.; Zaretskiy, N. A.; Zotov, E. A.; Kozlovsky, V. I.; Korostelin, Yu V.; Krokhin, O. N.; Maneshkin, A. A.; Podmar'kov, Yu P.; Savinova, S. A.; Skasyrsky, Ya K.; Frolov, M. P.; Chuvatkin, R. S.; Yutkin, I. M.


    The characteristics of a Fe:ZnSe laser pumped by a single-pulse free-running Er : YAG laser and a repetitively pulsed HF laser are presented. An output energy of 4.9 J is achieved in the case of liquid-nitrogen cooling of the Fe2+:ZnSe active laser element longitudinally pumped by an Er:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an energy up to 15 J. The laser efficiency with respect to the absorbed energy is 47%. The output pulse energy at room temperature is 53 mJ. The decrease in the output energy is explained by a strong temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime and by pulsed heating of the active element. The temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime is used to determine the pump parameters needed to achieve high pulse energies at room temperature. Stable repetitively-pulsed operation of the Fe2+:ZnSe laser at room temperature with an average power of 2.4 W and a maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ is achieved upon pumping by a 1-s train of 100-ns HF laser pulses with a repetition rate of 200 Hz.

  18. Combined effect of fluoride varnish to Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on permeability of eroded root dentine.

    Chiga, Sandra; Toro, Carmen Victoria Torres; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Turssi, Cecília Petroso; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish to Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on permeability of eroded root dentine. Sixty slabs of bovine root dentine (2×2×2mm) were eroded with citric acid 0.3% (pH 3.2) during 2h and then kept in artificial saliva during 24h. Specimens were randomly assigned in 6 groups (n=10), to receive the following treatments: fluoride varnish; fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser; fluoride varnish+Nd:YAG laser; non-fluoride varnish; non-fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser; non-fluoride varnish+Nd:YAG laser. The Er:YAG (100mJ, 3Hz) and Nd:YAG (70mJ, 15Hz) were applied for 10s. Specimens were subjected to further erosive challenges with citric acid 0.3% 4×/day, during 1min, for 5 days, remaining in artificial saliva between cycles. Dentin permeability was then assessed. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated no significant interaction between laser and varnish (p=0.858). No effect was also detected for the main factor varnish (p=0.768), while permeability of eroded root dentin was significantly lower when such substrate was laser-irradiated, no matter the laser source (pfluoride varnish application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 脉冲激光辅助去除正畸金属托槽方法初探%Pulsed Nd:YAG laser-aided debonding for removing the metal brackets

    赖仁发; 王海云; 陈铁; 刘湘宁


    Objective To explore the possibility of pulsed Nd:YAG laser-aided debonding for removing orthodontic metal brackets and to compare the method with the conventional mechanical debonding method.Methods Fifty healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose were randomly divided into five groups (10 teeth in each group).There were four experimental groups and one control group.Every tooth was bonded with bracket.Laser was used to irradiate the teeth in experimental groups with different electric currents(13.0,13.5,14.0,14.5 A).During the irradiation,the brackets received 4.9 N of force until the brackets off.The time needed for debonding and the temperature change of the pulp cavity were recorded.The teeth in control group were debonded using mechanical method.The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was calculated using stereomicroscope and imagetool software.All samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope.Results The time taken between the four groups were (67.70±7.18),(35.90±4.28),(24.90±3.76),(6.90±2.33) s,highly statistical difference was found in the time needed for debonding(P0.05).扫描电镜下可见对照组釉面横纹已被破坏,釉质表面粗糙不平;实验组釉质表面清洁,未见划痕、弹坑样及蜂窝样改变.结论 脉冲Nd:YAG激光辅助去除正畸金属托槽是一种可行的方法;与机械法相比,脉冲Nd:YAG激光辅助去除托槽及粘接剂的过程不破坏釉质表面结构.

  20. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)


    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  1. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Ródenas, Airán; Benayas, Antonio; Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel; Kar, Ajoy K.


    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  2. Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium

    Bernardin, James P.; Lawandy, N. M.


    A simple method for measuring the pulse lengths of synchronously pumped dye lasers which does not require the use of an external nonlinear medium, such as a doubling crystal or two-photon fluorescence cell, to autocorrelate the pulses is discussed. The technique involves feeding the laser pulses back into the dye jet, thus correlating the output pulses with the intracavity pulses to obtain pulse length signatures in the resulting time-averaged laser power. Experimental measurements were performed using a rhodamine 6G dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The results agree well with numerical computations, and the method proves effective in determining lengths of picosecond laser pulses.

  3. Effect of Irradiation Parameters on Morphology of Polishing DF2 (AISI-O1 Surface by Nd:YAG Laser

    Wei Guo


    Full Text Available Pulse Nd:YAG laser was used to polish DF2 cold work steel. Influence of irradiation parameters on the 3D surface morphology was studied by 3D profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscope (AFM. Results among the tests showed when DF2 specimens were irradiated with parameters of (i laser input energy P=1 J, (ii pulse feedrate=300 mm/min, (iii pulse duration (PD =3 milliseconds, and (iv pulse frequency f=20∼25 Hz, laser polishing of DF2 cold work steel seemed to be successful.

  4. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues.

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H


    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application.

  5. Comparison between laser-induced photoemissions and phototransmission of hard tissues using fibre-coupled Nd:YAG and Er(3+)-doped fibre lasers.

    El-Sherif, Ashraf Fathy


    During pulsed laser irradiation of dental enamel, laser-induced photoemissions result from the laser-tissue interaction through mechanisms including fluorescence and plasma formation. Fluorescence induced by non-ablative laser light interaction has been used in tissue diagnosis, but the photoemission signal accompanying higher power ablative processes may also be used to provide real-time monitoring of the laser-tissue interaction. The spectral characteristics of the photoemission signals from normal and carious tooth enamel induced by two different pulsed lasers were examined. The radiation sources compared were a high-power extra-long Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1,066 nm giving pulses (with pulse durations in the range 200-250 μs) in the near infrared and a free-running Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fibre laser operating at a wavelength near 3 μm with similar pulse durations in the mid-infrared region. The photoemission spectra produced during pulsed laser irradiation of enamel samples were recorded using a high-resolution spectrometer with a CCD array detector that enabled an optical resolution as high as 0.02 nm (FWHM). The spectral and time-dependence of the laser-induced photoemission due to thermal emission and plasma formation were detected during pulsed laser irradiation of hard tissues and were used to distinguish between normal and carious teeth. The use of these effects to distinguish between hard and soft biological tissues during photothermal ablation with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser or an Er fibre laser appears feasible. The real-time spectrally resolved phototransmission spectrum produced during pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation of human tooth enamel samples was recorded, with a (normalized) relative transmission coefficient of 1 (100%) for normal teeth and 0.6 (60%) for the carious teeth. The photoemission signal accompanying ablative events may also be used to provide real-time monitoring of the laser-tissue interaction.

  6. Synthesis and Modeling of Temperature Distribution For Nanoparticles Produced Using Nd:YAG Lasers

    Mu’ataz S. Hassan


    Full Text Available Nanosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser were employed to produce silver and silicon nanoparticles by laser ablation process in liquid. Two Nd:YAG laser systems of 6 and 10 nanoseconds pulse duration with variable laser energy in the range 700–760 mJ were employed. Morphological investigation using AFM and TEM reveals the formation of silver and silicon nanoparticles with uniform size distribution. It is found that mean nanoparticles sizes of 50 and 70 nm for silver and silicon, respectively, are produced under similar laser parameters. Moreover, theoretical model was used to estimate the temperature distributions for both silver and silicon nanoparticles. It is also found that the maximum temperature of about 50 k K° and 70 k K° for silver and silicon nanoparticles, respectively, is generated when Nd:YAG of 10 ns is used to prepare nanoparticles. Zeta potential measurements reveal that silver nanoparticles are more stable than those of silicon prepared by similar conditions.

  7. Polycarbonate surface cell's adhesion examination after Nd:YAG laser irradiation

    Ramazani, S.A. Ahmad, E-mail: [Polymer Group, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Abbas, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, University College of Science, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursalehi, Reza [Department of Physics, University of Shahed, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sareh, Shohreh [Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Silakhori, Kaveh [Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poorfatollah, Ali Akbar [Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamkhali, Amir Nasser [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Nd:YAG laser treatment was used in order to increase surface cell adhesion aspects of polycarbonate (PC) films prepared via melt process. The treatment was carried out under different wavelengths and beam diameters. ATR-FTIR and UV spectra obtained from different samples before and after laser treatment in air showed that laser irradiation has induced some chemical and physical changes in surface properties. The irradiated films were also characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. Effect of pulse numbers on the surface properties was also investigated. Cell culture test was used to evaluate cell adhesion property on the PC films before and after treatment. The results obtained from this test showed that after laser treatment, the cells were attached and proliferated extensively on the Nd:YAG laser treated films in comparison with the unmodified PC. Moreover, it was revealed that a decrease in the laser beam diameter and an increase in the irradiated pulse numbers increased surface wettability and caused a better cell attachment on the polymer surface. The obtained results also showed that a decrease in the laser beam diameter and an increase in the irradiated pulse numbers increased surface wettability and caused a better cell attachment on the polymer surface.

  8. Laser and intense pulsed light hair removal technologies

    Haedersdal, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F


    Light-based hair removal (LHR) is one of the fastest growing, nonsurgical aesthetic cosmetic procedures in the United States and Europe. A variety of light sources including lasers, e.g. alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and broad-spectrum intense...... and discuss the efficacy and human safety implications of home-use devices....

  9. Combined application of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers in treatment of chronic periodontitis. A split-mouth, single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Sağlam, M; Köseoğlu, S; Taşdemir, I; Erbak Yılmaz, H; Savran, L; Sütçü, R


    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of combined Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser therapy to that of scaling and root planing with hand instruments in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Twenty-five systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis were selected for this study. The quadrants were randomly allocated in a split-mouth design to either combined Er:YAG (160 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) and Nd:YAG laser (100 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz) therapy (test group) or scaling and root planing alone (control group). At baseline, 1 month and 3 months after treatment, plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing (%), were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid and subgingival plaque samples were taken. The gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantitative analysis of red complex bacteria was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The clinical parameters had significantly improved for both groups after treatment. There were statistically significant differences in probing depth and clinical attachment level between the test and control groups only for deep pockets (≥7 mm) (Pnd microbiological parameters at any time points (P>.05). The present study suggests that a combined course of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser therapy may be beneficial particularly in inaccessible areas such as deep pockets on a short-term basis. Further, well-designed studies are required to assess the effectiveness of the combination of these lasers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Radially polarized and passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with composite structure of gain medium

    Kegui Xia; Jianlang Li


    We report on a radially polarized and passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser.The bulk Nd:YAG crystal is bonded with two undoped YAG crystal end caps to weaken the thermal lens effect and thus,enhance the extraction of stored energy in the bulk gain material.In the absence of active water cooling,the average laser power reaches 383 mW with 33% slope efficiency,and the laser pulse achieves 1.457-W peak power,18.9-ns duration,and 13.9-kHz repetition rate with 97.6% polarization purity.The radially polarized laser beam shows axial symmetry both in amplitude and polarization[1-3].The beam is applied in a variety of fields[3-8] such as particle trapping and acceleration[5],high-resolution microscopy[6],and material processing (e.g.,metal cutting or drilling).Because radially polarized light is globally of the ptype with respect to the cutting surface,the material absorption to the irradiation could be maximized,the significant effect of the cutting depth and cutting speed can be facilitated[7,8].This advantage has created a high demand for high power and radially polarized lasers.%We report on a radially polarized and passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser. The bulk Nd:YAC crystal is bonded with two undoped YAG crystal end caps to weaken the thermal lens effect and thus, enhance the extraction of stored energy in the bulk gain material. In the absence of active water cooling, the average laser power reaches 383 mW with 33% slope efficiency, and the laser pulse achieves 1.457-W peak power, 18.9-ns duration, and 13.9-kHz repetition rate with 97.6% polarization purity.

  11. Study of diode-pumped Yb:YAG disk lasers at low temperature

    Jianlei Wang; Zhenhua Zhang; Xiaojin Cheng; Lei Li; Xiangchun Shi; Xiaolei Zhu; Weibiao Chen


    A Yb:YAG disk laser with V-shaped stable resonator and active-mirror configuration, end-pumped by a 940-nm InGaAs laser diode array, is demonstrated. Performances and optimization of the disk laser at low temperature over a range of 130-200 K are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Laser output energy of 1.46 J/pulse operating at 10-Hz repetition rate is obtained with the optimum output coupler transmission of 30%, and the corresponding optical-to-optical efficiency is 48.7%.%Yb:YAG[1-4],by virtue of its high quantum efficiency (>90%),long life time,no concentration quenching,no excite-state absorption,and no upconversion effect,has recently been considered as a suitable candidate for lasers with high average power and high efficiency[5-7].Due to their wide absorption band centered at 941 nm,Yb:YAG lasers are more acceptable for variation of pump laser diode (LD) wavelength.

  12. Photothermal ablation is the primary mechanism in holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy of urinary calculi

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Corbin, Nicole S.; Vassar, George J.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Chan, Kin Foong; Welch, Ashley J.


    Because of the >= 250 microsecond(s) pulsewidth emitted by the Ho:YAG laser used in clinical lithotripsy, it is unlikely that stress confinement occurs within the irradiated stones. Experimental data supports a thermal mechanism for Ho:YAG laser stone ablation. Previous work has shown that stone fragmentation occurs soon after the onset of the laser pulse, is uncorrelated to cavitation bubble formation or collapse, and is associated with low pressures. Moreover, lithotripsy proceeds fastest with desiccated stones in air (data based on laser ablation of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones), indicating that direct absorption of the laser radiation by the stone material is required for the most efficient ablation. Lowering the initial temperature of calculi reduces the stone mass-loss following 20 J of delivered laser energy: 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg vs 5.2 +/- 1.6 mg for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), and 0.8 +/- 0.4 mg vs 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg for cystine stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), p cystine; Ca2O7P2 from calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and cyanide and alloxan from uric acid. All of these observations are most consistent with a photothermal breakdown process induced by Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy.

  13. Electro-optical cavity-dumped Ce:Nd:YAG laser for aesthetic medicine

    Lv, Yuandong; Liu, Jiaqi; Hao, Lijun


    An electro-optical cavity-dumped 20 Hz Ce:Nd:YAG laser with an optimized thermal-insensitive concavo-convex cavity for aesthetic medicine was demonstrated. The pulse width remained constant at 6.0 ns. The maximum output energy and peak power were 120 mJ and 20 MW, respectively. The average output energy was very stable. The fluctuations of average output energy within 6 cycles and 10 min were 0.89% and 7.9%, respectively.

  14. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed


    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.


    A. M. Ivashko


    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental results of longitudinally continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG laser performance for compact field-condition measuring systems were demonstrated. Optimization of laser setup in terms of operation condition in the range of -40 ˚С – +65 ˚С without active thermal stabilization was carried out. Using Yb (10 ат.%:YAG crystal with the length of 3 mm the maximal output power more than 2 W was obtained in the whole of temperature range.

  16. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey


    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  17. 340 W average power output of diode-pumped composite ceramic YAG/Nd:YAG disk laser

    Jia, Kai; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Feng; Deng, Bo; Hou, Tianjin; Guo, Jiawei; Chen, Dezhang; Wang, Hongyuan; Yang, Chuang; Peng, Chun


    We report on a diode-pumped composite ceramic disk laser in this paper. The composite ceramic YAG/Nd:YAG disk consists of 4 mm thick pure YAG and 2 mm thick Nd:YAG with 1.0 at.% doping concentration. The slope efficiency of the composite ceramic disk laser is 36.6% corresponding to the maximum optical-optical efficiency of 29.2%. Furthermore, 340 W average power output was achieved at the absorbed pump power of 1290 W.

  18. Diode-pumped 1123-nm Nd:YAG laser

    Xiaoping Guo(郭晓萍); Meng Chen(陈檬); Gang Li(李港); Bingyuan zhang(张炳元); Jiandong Yang(杨建东); Zhigang Zhang(张志刚); Yonggang Wang(王勇刚)


    We demonstrated a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a plano-concave resonator. When the pump power is 1.57 W, the output power of 1123-nm laser is 132 mW at the temperature of 20 ℃, and the power change is less than 2% in an hour. A periodically poled LiNbOa (PPLN) was used as outer cavity frequency-doubling crystal and 561-nm laser was observed.

  19. Er:YAG Laser: A New Technical Approach to Remove Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis

    J. P. Rocca


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove by excision torus mandibularis and to smooth torus palatinus exostosis. Materials and Methods. Torus mandibularis (TM and torus palatinus (TP were surgically eliminated via the Er:YAG laser using the following parameters: TM: output power ranging from 500 to 1000 mJ, frequency from 20 to 30 Hz, sapphire tips (diameter 0.8 mm, air-water spray (ratio 5/5, pulse duration 150 μsec, fluence ranging from 99592 J/cm2 to 199044,586 J/cm2. TP: a peeling technique was used to eliminate TP, as excision by slicing being impossible here. Results. TM: excision was obtained after 12730 pulses. TP: smoothing technique took more time compared with excision. Once peeling was considered to be accomplished, the use of a surgical rasp was necessary to eliminate bone spicules that could delay the wound to heal in good conditions. Conclusion. Er:YAG excision (TM or Er:YAG peeling (TP are safe clinical techniques easy to practice even if the time required for excision or surface smoothing is more than the time required with bony burs and high speed instruments.

  20. Er:YAG Laser: A New Technical Approach to Remove Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis

    Rocca, J. P.; Raybaud, H.; Merigo, E.; Vescovi, P.; Fornaini, C.


    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove by excision torus mandibularis and to smooth torus palatinus exostosis. Materials and Methods. Torus mandibularis (TM) and torus palatinus (TP) were surgically eliminated via the Er:YAG laser using the following parameters: TM: output power ranging from 500 to 1000 mJ, frequency from 20 to 30 Hz, sapphire tips (diameter 0.8 mm), air-water spray (ratio 5/5), pulse duration 150 μsec, fluence ranging from 99592 J/cm2 to 199044,586 J/cm2. TP: a peeling technique was used to eliminate TP, as excision by slicing being impossible here. Results. TM: excision was obtained after 12730 pulses. TP: smoothing technique took more time compared with excision. Once peeling was considered to be accomplished, the use of a surgical rasp was necessary to eliminate bone spicules that could delay the wound to heal in good conditions. Conclusion. Er:YAG excision (TM) or Er:YAG peeling (TP) are safe clinical techniques easy to practice even if the time required for excision or surface smoothing is more than the time required with bony burs and high speed instruments. PMID:22792500

  1. Effects of root surface debridement using Er:YAG laser versus ultrasonic scaling - a SEM study.

    Miremadi, S R; Cosyn, J; Schaubroeck, D; Lang, N P; De Moor, R J G; De Bruyn, H


    Despite promising results of Er:YAG laser in periodontal debridement, to date there is no consensus about the ideal settings for clinical use. This experimental clinical trial aimed to determine the effects of debridement using Er:YAG laser and to compare with ultrasonic treatment. Sixty-four teeth were divided into two in vivo and in vitro subgroups. Each tooth received ultrasonic treatment on one side and Er:YAG laser debridement at either 60, 100, 160 or 250 mJ pulse(-1) and at 10 Hz on the other side on a random basis. All samples were morphologically analyzed afterwards under scanning electron microscope for surface changes and dentinal tubules exposure. Treatment duration (d) was also recorded. Laser debridement produced an irregular, rough and flaky surface free of carbonization or meltdown while ultrasound produced a relatively smoother surface. The number of exposed dentinal tubules (n) followed an energy-dependent trend. The number of exposed tubules among the in vivo laser groups was n 60 mJ = n 100 mJ lasers led to significantly more dentinal exposure than ultrasound under in vivo condition. Within the in vitro laser groups, dentinal tubules exposure was n 60 mJ laser treatments at 100, 160 and 250 mJ led to significantly more dentinal denudation than ultrasound. Treatment duration (d) for the in vivo groups was d 60 mJ > d 100 mJ > d Ultrasound = d 160 mJ > d 250 mJ (P ≤ 0.046), while for the in vitro groups it was d 60 mJ > d 100 mJ = d Ultrasound = d 160 mJ >d 250 mJ (P ≤ 0.046). Due to excessive treatment duration and surface damage, Er:YAG laser debridement at 60 and 250 mJ pulse(-1), respectively, is not appropriate for clinical use. Although laser debridement at 100 and 160 mJ pulse(-1) seems more suitable for clinical application, compared to ultrasound the former is more time-consuming and the latter is more aggressive. Using a feedback device or lower pulse energies are recommended when using laser in closed field. © 2014 John Wiley

  2. Variable pulsed Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light for the treatment of port wine stain in animal models%可变脉宽Nd:YAG激光与强脉冲光治疗鲜红斑痣动物模型的研究

    朱雅琳; 李建华; 聂晶; 惠艳


    Objective To study the therapeutic effect of variable pulsed Nd∶YAG laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) on port wine stain(PWS) in an animal model.Methods The combs of 38 Leghorn chickens served as the animal model of PWS,which were randomly classified into 4 groups:blank control group receiving no irradiation,Nd:YAG group receiving Nd∶YAG laser irradiation for 2 sessions,IPL group receiving IPL irradiation for 2 sessions,and combination group receiving 1 session of Nd∶YAG laser irradiation followed by 1 session of IPL irradiation 45 days later.One week after the final irradiation,the rnorphology of combs was observed,and tissue specimens were resected from the combs for the analysis of histological changes and blood vessel density.The data were assessed by using one-way ANOVA.Results After 2 sessions of irradiation,the color of comb skin was lightened,and light microscopy showed the thickening of vascular layers in the dermis,blockage of blood vessels and decrease in the number of blood vessels.The count of blood vessels per high power field (× 400) was significantly lower in the Nd∶YAG group (17.92 ± 3.63),IPL group (8.08 ± 1.56)and combination group (7.08 ± 1.31) than in the control group (37.08 ± 3.97,all P < 0.01 ),but was similar between the combination group and IPL group (P > 0.01),and higher in the Nd∶YAG group than in the combination group (P < 0.01 ).Conclusions Variable pulsed Nd∶YAG laser and IPL,alone or in combination,can be used in the treatment of PWS,however,the effect of IPL alone or in combination with Nd:YAG seems superior to that of Nd∶YAG laser alone.%目的 通过动物模型研究可调脉宽Nd∶YAG激光与强脉冲光对鲜红斑痣的治疗作用.方法 以38只莱亨鸡作为鲜红斑痣动物模型,随机分为4组,其中1组(2只)作为空白对照组不给予激光照射,其余3组(每组12只)分别给予可变脉宽Nd∶YAG激光照射2次、强脉冲光照射2次、Nd∶YAG激光和强脉冲光照射各1

  3. Effects of Er:YAG laser on mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth.

    Guler, Cigdem; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Gorgen, Veli Alper; Dilber, Erhan; Bulbul, Mehmet


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth prepared using an Er:YAG laser at two different power settings. Thirty-six primary second molars were used in this study. Three dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth, and the slabs were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, control; Group B, Er:YAG laser at 3.5 W, 175 mJ, and 20 Hz, short pulse mode; and Group C, Er:YAG laser at 4 W, 200 mJ, and 20 Hz, medium-short pulse mode. One dentin slab per group was used to evaluate the dentinal morphology and surface roughness values using SEM and profilometer, respectively. Mineral content in the dentin slabs were calculated by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD tests. No significant differences in Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P levels or Ca/P ratio were found among the groups (P > 0.05). SEM micrographs showed that surface irregularities increased with a higher power setting. The surface roughness after laser treatment in Group B and Group C was found to be similar, unlike Group A.

  4. Sub ablative Er: YAG laser irradiation on surface roughness of eroded dental enamel.

    Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    This study evaluated the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation applied at varying pulse repetition rate on the surface roughness of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (n = 10) were embedded in polyester resin, ground, and polished. To erosive challenges, specimens were immersed two times per day in 20mL of concentrated orange juice (pH = 3.84) under agitation, during a two-day period. Specimens were randomly assigned to irradiation with the Er:YAG laser (focused mode, pulse energy of 60 mJ and energy density of 3.79 J/cm(2) ) operating at 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hz. The control group was left nonirradiated. Surface roughness measurements were recorded post erosion-like formation and further erosive episodes by a profilometer and observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variance revealed that the control group showed the lowest surface roughness, while laser-irradiated substrates did not differ from each other following post erosion-like lesion formation. According to analysis of covariance, at further erosive episodes, the control group demonstrated lower surface roughness (P > 0.05), than any of the irradiated groups (P dental enamel eroded. The AFM images showed that the specimens irradiated by the Er:YAG laser at 1 Hz presented a less rough surface than those irradiated at 2, 3, and 4 Hz. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd:YAG laser

    Kuizenga, D. J.; Phillion, D. W.; Siegman, A. E.; Lund, T.


    The theory of transient mode-locking for an active modulator in a laser with a homogeneously broadened line is presented. The theory is applied to simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers and good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained. The main conclusion is that under usual Q-switched operating conditions the mode-locking process does not have sufficient time to build up to steady-state conditions. We also present a method to overcome this problem by allowing the laser to prelase before the Q-switch is opened. Mode-locked pulses whose width approaches the steady-state value are obtained. The transient mode-locking theory presented here also applies to actively mode-locking TEA CO2 lasers and to other types of simultaneously pulsed and mode-locked lasers.

  6. The analysis of the transient temperature distribution of double-slab Nd:YAG laser medium

    Yan Huang; Junqing Meng; Lingling Zhang; Qiquan Hu


    A novel double-slab Nd:YAG laser, which uses face-pumped slab medium cooled by liquid with different temperatures on both sides, is proposed. The thermal distortion of wavefront caused by the non-uniform temperature distribution in the laser gain media can be self-compensated. According to the method of operation, the models of the temperature distribution and stress are presented, and the analytic solutions for the model are derived. Furthermore, the numerical simulations with pulse pumping energy of 10 J and repetition frequencies of 500 and 1000 Hz are calculated respectively for Nd:YAG laser medium. The simulation results show that the temperature gradient remains the approximative linearity, and the heat stress is within the extreme range. Then the absorption coefficient is also discussed. The result indicates that the doping concentration cannot be too large for the high repetition frequency laser. It has been proved that the high repetition frequency, high laser beam quality, and high average output power of the order of kilowatt of Nd: YAG slab laser can be achieved in this structure.

  7. Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser

    Yamada, J; Yamada, Jun; Tsuda, Norio


    The laser induced plasma in liquid hasn't been studied enough. In liquid, the laser induced plasma may be able to resolve the hazardous material called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light is studied and the plasma development is observed by a streak camera. The ultra pure water or the ultra pure water with a melted NaCl is used as a test liquid. The liquid plasma is produced by the fundamental wave of YAG laser. When NaCl concentration is varied, the plasma development behavior is obserbed by streak camera. The liquid plasma develops backward. The plasma is produced from many seeds and It consists of a group of plasmas. However, the liquid plasma produced by second harmonic wave of YAG laser develops as a single plasma. The development mechanism is investigated from the growth rate of backward plasma. The backward plasma develops by breakdown wave and radiation supported shock wave.

  8. Investigations of YAG:Er(3+),Yb(3+) and YAG:Co(2+) Crystals for Laser Applications


    doped YAG crystals are given. Erbium and ytterbium doped YAG single crystals were obtained by the Czochralski method . The spectral properties and laser...relaxation time of 290 Rts14 2. CRYSTAL GROWTH The crystals were obtained by the Czochralski method , using iridium crucibles of external dimensions...YAG:Co 2+ single crystal grown by Czochralski method is presented. In all obtained crystals the core area of the characteristic threefold symmetry was

  9. Corneal photoablation in vivo with the erbium:YAG laser: first report

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas; Matallana, Michael; Kriegerowski, Martin


    As an alternative to far-UV lasers for corneal refractive surgery, the Erbium:YAG laser may be used in TEM00 mode. The resulting gaussian beam profile leads to a certain amount of myopic correction per laser pulse. Although animal data suggest that the clinical outcome should be comparable to the UV-lasers, no human data were available until now. We performed Erbium:YAG laser areal ablation in 5 blind human eyes. In TEM00 mode, the laser parameters were: effective diameter of laser spot equals 3.4 mm, fluence equals 380 mJ/cm2, pulse duration equals 250 microsecond(s) , Repetition rate equals 4 Hz, Number of applied laser pulses equals 15. Four patients with no light perception, one with intact light projection on one eye (some of them scheduled for enucleation) were treated under topical anaesthesia. Patient selection and informed consent were agreed to by the University's independent Ethics Committee. Prior to laser irradiation, corneal epithelium was removed. A postoperative silicone cast of the cornea was analyzed with a confocal laser micro-topometer for the ablation profile. The eyes were treated with antibiotic ointment until the epithelium was closed. Clinical appearance and, where possible, profilometry of the ablated area was observed. The ablation profile in cornea was gaussian shaped with a maximal depth of 30 micrometers . During laser treatment, the corneal surface becomes opaque, clearing in a matter of seconds. Epithelial healing and clinical appearance was similar to excimer laser treatment. However, during the first week, the irradiated area shows subepithelial irregularities, resembling small bubbles, disappearing thereafter.

  10. Cooperative Clinical Trial of Photodynamic Therapy for Early Gastric Cancer With Photofrin Injection® and YAG-OPO Laser

    Seishiro Mimura; Hiroyuki Narahara; Toshio Hirashima; Hisayuki Fukutomi; Akira Nakahara; Hiromasa Kashimura; Hirofumi Matsui; Hiroshi Tanimura; Yugo Nagai; Shigeru Suzuki; Yoko Murata; Kazunari Yoshida; Kaichi Isono; Teruo Kozu; Hiroko Ide


    Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treats malignant tumors using photosensitizers and light. We employed a new pulse laser as the excitation light source for PDT, i.e. an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, because it provides extremely high peak power. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The effects of PDT using the photosensitizer Photofrin® and the new laser were evaluated in 12 patients with early gastric cancer. Results: Compl...

  11. The possibility of clinical application of the solid state lasers: Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, and Er:YAG in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery

    Tomaszewska, M.; Kukwa, A.; Tulibacki, M.; Wójtowicz, P.; Olędzka, I.; Jeżewska, E.


    The purpose of this study was to summarize our experiences in clinical application of Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG and Er:YAG in otolaryngology- head and neck surgery. Choosing the laser type and parameters for the particular procedures was based on our previous research on tissue effects of those lasers. During the period of 1993-2006 we performed 3988 surgical procedures with the Nd:YAG laser. Over 87% of those were made for the nasal cavity pathologies as polyps, hyperplasia of inferior nasal turbinate, granulation tissue, postoperative adhesions, vascular malformations, under the local anesthesia conditions. In our experience Nd:YAG laser gives the possibility of good clinical control and low risk of side effects for disorders of high recurrence and frequent interventions necessity, as nasal polyps or respiratory papillomatosis. Nd:YAG assisted uvulopalatoplasty gives an interesting alternative for surgical procedures for snoring and slight/mild OSA-recognized patients. Due to its good hemostatic properties, it is a perfect tool for removal of the chemodectoma from meddle ear. During the period of 1995-2006 we performed 229 surgical procedures with the Ho:YAG laser, mostly for larynx pathologies (adhesion and scar tissue removal). In our experience Ho:YAG laser can serve as a precise laser knife for both soft and bony tissue. The ER:YAG laser still remain under clinical trial. Since 2001 year we performed 24 procedures of removing stone deposits from salivary glands. We believe it may become a promising method to cope with sialolithiasis which allows for glandule function preservation. All of the laser types mentioned above, can be easily coupled with endoscopes, what makes them available for all of the head and necklocalized disorders.

  12. Nanofabrication with pulsed lasers.

    Kabashin, Av; Delaporte, Ph; Pereira, A; Grojo, D; Torres, R; Sarnet, Th; Sentis, M


    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser-matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics.

  13. Laser Cleaning Using Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser of Low Carbon Steel Alloys

    S. N. Ali


    Full Text Available This paper represents the efforts to achieve the laser cleaning process of low carbon steel alloys AISI1005 and AISI1012 with 0.65 mm and 1 mm thickness, respectively. The cleaning experiments were performed with a Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The parameters that have been selected for the present work are peak power which varies as 5, 15, 30, 40, and 50 MW and pulse repetition rate which varies from 1 to 6 Hz by 1 Hz increment. Effects of these parameters on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the two alloys have been realized. Also predicted results of analytical model regarding the depth were compared with the experimental results which show a good agreement between both.

  14. The mechanism for SEU simulation by pulsed laser

    HUANG Jianguo; HAN Jianwei


    To simulate single event effect (SEE) by pulsed laser is a new approach in ground-based simulation of SEE in recent years. In this paper the way in which picosecond pulsed laser interacts with semiconductor and the mechanism of SEE inducement are analyzed. Additionally, associated calculations are made in the case of Nd:YAG and Ti:Sapphire lasers generally used in experiments and silicon device, with comparisons made between the two lasers. In the meantime, the fundamental principle for determining laser parameters and their typical ranges of values are provided according to the results.

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations of quasi-continuous wave diode arrays side-pumped Yb:YAG slab laser

    Wu Hai-Sheng; Yan Ping; Gong Ma-Li; Liu Qiang


    An analytical model of quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) diode array side-pumped slab laser for Yb:YAG oscillator in long-pulse free-running has been developed based on the CW model. In this model we first introduce a new parameter,pump pulse width, and make the model available for use in the quasi-CW model. We also give an analytical equation of laser delay time to calculate the laser pulse width. A detailed model is also presented for a new structure laser design, taking account of the geometry of Yb:YAG slab. A quasi-CW diode array side-pumped Yb:YAG slab laser is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Experiments yield a quasi-CW output energy up to 20.36 mJ with the laser pulse width of 654.55μs at 1049 nm when the diode arrays operate at 25 Hz and 1 ms pulse width. The crystal dimensions are 3 mm×8 mm× 1 mm and the doping density is 10 at.%. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  16. Assessment of the effect of Nd:YAG laser pulse operating parameters on the metallurgical characteristics of different tool steels using DOE software

    T. Muhič


    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of repair welded tool surfaces, clad quality should be improved. The relationships between metallurgical characteristics of cladding and laser input welding parameters were studied using the design of experiments software. The influence of laser power, welding speed, focal point position and diameter of welding wire on the weld-bead geometry (i.e. penetration, cladding zone width and heat-affected-zone width, microstructural homogeneity, dilution and bond strength was investigated on commonly used tool steels 1,2083, 1,2312 and 1,2343, using DOE software.

  17. Compositional analysis of root cementum and dentin after Er:YAG laser irradiation compared with CO2 lased and intact roots using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    Sasaki, K M; Aoki, A; Masuno, H; Ichinose, S; Yamada, S; Ishikawa, I


    The present study examines the dental root after Er:YAG laser irradiation, compared with CO2 lased and non-treated surfaces, using Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Freshly extracted human teeth were irradiated by Er:YAG laser at an energy output of 40 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz (0.4 watts), with or without water coolant, and by CO2 laser at an energy output of 0.5 watts in continuous wave mode without coolant. The surfaces were chalky and smooth after irradiation by Er:YAG laser with water coolant, were charred and irregular after irradiation by Er:YAG laser without water coolant, and were completely carbonized after CO2 laser irradiation. The FTIR profiles from samples of the surfaces that were irradiated by Er:YAG laser with water coolant were similar to those from non-treated samples, except for a slight decrease on the OH and amide bands, which are mainly related to organic components. This decrease was observed to be extreme after CO2 laser irradiation and moderate after Er:YAG laser irradiation without coolant. The formation of new bands showing toxic substances was observed to a large extent after CO2 laser irradiation and to a smaller extent after Er:YAG laser irradiation without water coolant. In contrast, no such bands were detected after Er:YAG laser irradiation with water coolant. The present results show that these laser treatments selectively ablated more organic components than inorganic components and that Er:YAG laser irradiation with water coolant did not cause major compositional changes or chemically deleterious changes in either root cementum or dentin.

  18. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook


    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  19. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.


    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of <2. The single frequency UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  20. Colour centre LiF:F{2/s-} passive Q-switch for cw pumped Nd:Yag laser

    Gusev, A. A.; Kubeček, V.; Sochor, V.; Kubelka, J.


    Operation of a cw pumped Nd:YAG laser Q-switched by a LiF crystal containing F{2/s-} centres is reported. Pulses of duration of 230 ns with a repetition rate of 1 3 kHz were generated. The colour centre Q-switch was used for the period of three months without any observable deterioration.

  1. Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser

    Xie, Yixuan; Kong, Lingchen; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhang, Jian


    We have experimentally demonstrated a passively Q-switched Tm-doped YAG ceramic laser with black phosphorus (BP) as saturable absorber (SA). According to the measurement, the BP saturable absorber mirror has a modulation depth of 5% and a saturation fluence of 20 μJ/cm2. The generated Q-switched pulse has a maximum average power of 38.5 mW and pulse energy of 3.32 μJ, with the corresponding repetition rate of 11.6 KHz and pulse width of 3.12 μs at 2 μm wavelength. The results show that BP is a promising SA for midinfrared-pulsed lasers.

  2. Morphological change study on root surfaces treated with curettes, sonic instruments or Er:YAG laser; Estudo in vitro da alteracao morfologica em superficie radicular tratada com curetas, aparelho ultrasonico ou com laser de Er:YAG

    Guimaraes Filho, Arlindo Lopes


    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque and dental calculus on roots surfaces, specially on cervical areas. As dental plaque is the main cause and dental calculus a secondary one, it is practically impossible to separate one factor to the other one. In order to get periodontal tissue health it is necessary to eliminate dental plaque and calculus from root surfaces. In this sense, Er:YAG laser comes in as an excellent way to control periodontal disease, not only, by removing calculus and dental plaque but also for its bacteria reduction. The aim of this study is to compare, by S.E.M., root surfaces changing when they are treated with curettes and ultrasonic scaling or Er:YAG laser irradiation with two different energy levels of 60 mJ/pulse and 100 mJ/pulse and repetition tax of 10 Hz (in the display). It is also objective of this study to check a possible thermic damage to pulp tissue when the roots surfaces are irradiated with Er:YAG laser. We used for this study, five human dental roots, each one of them were cut into four samples, giving us a total of twenty samples, which were divided in five groups of four samples each one. The control group, we did not indicated any kind of treatment. The first group, the roots samples were scaled and planned with Gracey curettes 5/6 and 7/8. The second group, the roots samples were treated with ultrasonic instruments. The third group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 60 mJ/pulse , 10 Hz and energy density of 4 J/cm{sup 2} (approximated). The fourth group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and energy density of 7 J/cm{sup 2} (approximated). The results analysis showed that roots scaling either with Gracey curettes or with ultrasonic instruments created smear layer covering roots surfaces; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed few roughness in the third group; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed no smear layer and the Er:YAG laser irradiation did not bring any

  3. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  4. Nanofabrication with Pulsed Lasers

    Kabashin AV


    Full Text Available Abstract An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3, is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser–matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics.

  5. A 12.1-W SESAM mode-locked Yb:YAG thin disk laser

    Yingnan, Peng; Zhaohua, Wang; Dehua, Li; Jiangfeng, Zhu; Zhiyi, Wei


    Pumped by a 940 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, a passively mode-locked Yb:YAG thin disk oscillator was demonstrated with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). 12.1 W mode-locked pulses were obtained with pulse duration of 698 fs at the repetition rate of 57.43 MHz. Measurement showed that the beam quality was close to the diffraction limit. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922402), the National Major Instrument Program of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61210017).

  6. [Use of the thermal laser effect of laser irradiation for cardiovascular applications exemplified by the Nd:YAG laser].

    Ischinger, T; Coppenrath, K; Weber, H; Enders, S; Unsöld, E; Hessel, S


    Techniques of percutaneous transluminal application of laser energy for vessel recanalization have been used clinically since 1983. The commonly used Nd:YAG and argon lasers achieve ablation of atherosclerotic plaques by thermal action (vaporization). In order to reduce undesirable thermal damage in the neighborhood of the target tissue and to avoid vessel perforation, optimal irradiation parameters, modified (atraumatic) fiber tips (hot tips, sapphires), and steerable catheter systems needed to be implemented. Favorable results from peripheral application have encouraged use in the coronary circulation. More recently, coagulative tissue effects of circumferential irradiation of the vessel wall during balloon dilatation have been used for stabilization of acute and late results after mechanical balloon angioplasty. Enhancement of the differential light absorption of atherosclerotic plaque by use of biological dyes may further improve selective intravascular laser application. Intraoperative ECG-guided laser coagulation of arrhythmogenic areas of myocardium is a method for treatment of malignant arrhythmias. Transluminal non-operative application of myocardial laser photocoagulation has now been tested experimentally and shown to be safe and effective. There was no arrhythmogenicity or thermal damage of coronary arteries associated with this method. Innovative techniques such as nanosecond pulsed excimer lasers (athermal action) and development of "intelligent" lasers--which are equipped with spectroscopy-guided feedback systems for plaque recognition--have opened new perspectives and will further improve safety and efficacy of clinical laser application. However, according to current experience, the thermally acting Nd:YAG laser is an effective and versatile mode of laser therapy for selected cardiovascular indications.

  7. Transient absorption and laser output of YAG : Nd

    Kvapil, Jiří; Kvapil, Jos; Kubelka, J.; Kubeček, V.


    YAG : Nd grown under 98% Ar 2% H2 protective atmosphere free of nitrogen or hydrocarbons showed after UV irradiation broad absorption peaked at ˜1·9×104 cm-1 which disappeared relatively slowly at room temperature. It was more intensive in oxygen treated samples than in those annealed in hydrogsn. Transient absorption suppresses laser output by the increase of absorption at 0·94×104 cm-1 (1064 nm) and, particularly in CW mode, by the anomalous rod deformation. YAG : Nd containing Fe ions (≲2·10-4 wt%) showed no transient absorption.

  8. Subpicosecond pulse generation from an all solid-state laser

    Keen, S. J.; Ferguson, A. I.


    An all-solid-state (holosteric) laser source which produces subpicosecond pulses at 1.4 microns is described. The system consists of a diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser which is frequency-modulated (FM) mode-locked and Q-switched at 1.32 microns. In continuous wave operation the laser produces pulses of 19 ps while simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking result in 30 ps pulses being contained in a Q-switched envelope of energy 2.1 microJ. The output of the laser, when passed through a 1 km single-mode optical fiber, produces a spectrally broad Raman signal with its peak at 1.4 microns and the overall conversion efficiency at 12 percent. The pulse duration at 1.4 microns has been measured to be 280 fs. This is the first time that subpicosecond light pulses have been generated by an all-solid-state laser system.

  9. Highly efficient Nd: YAG ceramic CW laser with 59.8% slope-efficiency

    Yunfeng Qi; Qihong Lou; Haixia Ma; Jingxing Dong


    @@ In this paper, a highly efficient Ti:sapphire end-pumped 1 at.-% Nd:YAG ceramic laser that is comparable in efficiency with Nd:YAG single crystal lasers has been developed. Optical absorption and emission spectra for Nd:YAG ceramics have been measured. With 673-mW pumping, 295-mW laser output at 1064 nm has been obtained. The laser threshold is only 13 mW. Deducted the transmitted light, the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 58.4%. The lasing characteristics of Nd:YAG ceramic are nearly equal to those of Nd:YAG single crystal.

  10. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Combined with Er:YAG Laser on the Permeability of Eroded Dentin: An In Situ Study

    Nemezio,Mariana Alencar; Carvalho,Sandra Chiga; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci,Vivian; Galo, Rodrigo; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish and Er:YAG laser on the permeability of eroded bovine root dentin. After initial erosive challenge followed by a remineralization period, the specimens were divided in two groups according to the treatment - fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish - and were subdivided according to the irradiation protocol: Er:YAG laser (100 mJ, 3 Hz, 12.8 J/cm2per pulse, non-contact and defocus mode) and non-irradiated. After a lead-in period, 7 ...

  11. Nd:YAG laser induced E' centers probed by in situ absorption measurements

    Cannas, M.; Messina, F.


    We investigated various types of commercial silica irradiated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation (4.66 eV), with exposure time ranging up to 10000 s. Transient E' centers were probed in situ by measuring the amplitude of the optical absorption band at 5.8 eV (due to E' centers) both during and after irradiation. The laser-induced absorption is observed only in natural samples, whereas the synthetic materials exhibit high toughness to radiation effect. The reported results evidence that the ...

  12. Ho:YAG laser arthroscopy of the knee

    Sisto, Domenick J.; Blazina, Martin E.; Hirsh, Linda C.


    The HO:YAG laser is a near-contact laser with a capacity to ablate or cut tissues. The ablation function allows the surgeon to remove meniscal tissue, lyse and resect adhesions, melt loose bodies, and dissolve inflamed synovium. The cutting function of the laser is utilized to perform a lateral release or resect torn menisci. The laser can also be utilized to drill holes in Grade IV chondromalacic lesions to initiate a healing response. The laser has been embraced by orthopaedic surgeons because of its shape and versatility. The tip is only 2 mm wide and can be delivered into the tight posterior compartments of the knee with no damaging contact with the articular surfaces. The laser coagulates as it works and bleeding is minimized. The laser can function both as a cutting and ablating tool. The laser can also drill holes into subchondral bone to, hopefully, initiate a healing response.

  13. 脉冲Nd:YAG激光用于乳牙活髓切断术的临床试验研究%Clinical and experimental study of pulsed Nd:YAG laser for amputation of the pith of live teeth

    杨春丽; 曾明昌; 李芳


    目的:通过临床试验,研究Nd:YAG激光用于乳牙活髓切断术的有效性,为临床行乳牙活髓切断术提供一种有效的新方法。方法选择3~6岁乳牙深龋及早期牙髓炎患儿189例,将实验牙随机分为激光组和对照组。激光组给予40 Hz,2 W,50 mJ的能量照射乳牙切髓断面,对照组给予生理盐水、双氧水冲洗牙髓断面,消毒棉球压迫止血。治疗后,分1,3,6个月三个时间段随访并行X片复查。结果激光组在每个时间点的口内检查和X线表现均优于对照组。结论 Nd:YAG激光照射乳牙切髓断面,能有效地杀菌、止血。同时可有效地应用于乳牙活髓切断术中。%ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to compare clinical effects of Nd:YAG laser pulpotomy to formocresol pulpotomy on human primary teech. An effective new method for pulpotomy was applied.Methods189 cases of primary teeth with deep caries or early pulpitis were selected for this study. These teeth were divided into the laser group and the control group randomly. After pulpotomy, every stump of laser group was exposed to Nd:YAG laser with output of 40 Hz, 2 W, 50 mJ. And each of the control group was irrigated with Stroke-physiological caline solution(SPSS) and Hydrogen Peroxide,then staunched with pressure. 189 teeth in two groups were to be followed up clinically and radiographicaly at 1, 3, 6 months. ResultsThe rapeutical effects of the experimental group were better than that of the control group in clinical and radiographic examination at each time point.ConclusionNd:YAG laser,can effectively sterilize and staunch. Nd: YAG laser is an effective method for primary teeth pulpotomy.

  14. 脉冲 Er:YAG 激光与常规涡轮高速车针治疗楔状缺损的效果比较%The Effect Comparasion between the Pulse Er:YAG Laser and the Conventional Turbine High-speed Dental Bur to the Remedy of Teeth Wedge-shaped Defect

    范伟; 贺慧霞


    目的:比较Er:YAG激光与常规涡轮机高速车针治疗楔状缺损的效果。方法收集我院口腔科就诊的、双侧多个同名牙楔状缺损患者85例382颗牙,随机分为激光组和涡轮机组各191牙,其中每位患者每侧至少2颗牙采用激光表面预备,对侧高速涡轮机预备,脉冲照射采用激光剂量为300 mJ,20 Hz间歇操作。涡轮机组采用高速车针制备固位型,自体对照,两组均预备后光固化树脂黏充填。比较两组治疗后1周、1个月、6个月、12个月术后充填物保存率、边缘着色、继发龋等指标,评价其临床治疗效果。结果两组术中疼痛牙齿发生率激光组(16.7%)显著少于涡轮机组(74.8%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后1周、1个月激光组分别有35牙和12牙出现冷热刺激痛,而涡轮机组发生刺激痛分别为83牙和44牙,两者差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);术后6个月和12个月修复体保存率激光组显著高于涡轮机组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);但边缘适合性、边缘着色和继发龋发生率两组差异无统计学意义。结论激光组较涡轮机组在楔状缺损治疗中疼痛发生率低、治疗后疼痛反应轻;修复体保存率高。300 mJ,20 Hz的Er:YAG激光治疗楔状缺损具有无痛、安全、高效的优点。%Objective To compare the effects of Er: YAG laser and conventional high-speed burr in treatment of wedge-shaped tooth defects and to evaluate its applicability and reliability .Methods 382 bilateral multiple teeth with wedge-shaped defects in 85 patients were randomly divided into two groups with 191 teeth in each:laser group and the turbine burr group .At least two teeth of one side in all patients were irradiated by pulsed Er:YAG laser with doses of 300 mj, 20 Hz.Meanwhile, the caries cavities on the contralateral were prepared by high-speed burr .Then the prepared caries defects in both

  15. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.


    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  16. Wavelength dependence of soft tissue ablation by using pulsed lasers

    Xianzeng Zhang; Shusen Xie; Qing Ye; Zhenlin Zhan


    Pulsed laser ablation of soft biological tissue was studied at 10.6-, 2.94-, and 2.08-μm wavelengths. The ablation effects were assessed by means of optical microscope, the ablation crater depths were measured with reading microscope. It was shown that Er:YAG laser produced the highest quality ablation with clear,sharp cuts following closely the patial contour of the incident beam and the lowest fluence threshold. The pulsed CO2 laser presented the moderate quality ablation with the highest ablation efficiency. The craters drilled with Ho:YAG laser were generally larger than the incident laser beam spot, irregular in shape, and clearly dependent on the local morphology of biotissue. The blation characteristics, including fluence threshold and ablation efficiency, varied substantially with wavelength. It is not evident that water is the only dominant chromophore in tissue.

  17. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.


    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  18. Side-pumped neodymium slab lasers Q-switched by V:YAG on 1.3μm

    Jabczyński, Jan K.; Żendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínkova, Helena


    Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP crystals in form of triangle which makes possible to realize a slab side-pumped configuration with one total internal reflection were tested as an active media for diode-pumped laser. The resonator arrangements for Q-switched regime were prepared for the emission corresponding to Nd 3+ ion transition 4F 3/2--> 4I 13/2 referring to each crystal (λ= 1318 nm Nd:YAG and λ= 1342 nm Nd:YAP). Optical pumping was accomplished by a fast axis collimated quasi-CW diode DILAS E7Y1-808.3-600Q-H175V with peak power 600 W. Pumping radiation was focused by two plan-convex lenses into an active medium. The parameters of the pumping radiation were: wavelength 806nm, maximum pumping energy was 150mJ, pulse length 250μs, repetition rate up to 14 Hz. In free running regime the maximum reached energy was 24 mJ and 27.5 mJ for Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP, respectively. The corresponding obtained slope efficiency was 19.9 % and 23.7 % for Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP laser oscillator, respectively. Proper Q-switching for 1.3 μm was realized with saturable absorber V:YAG which initial transmission was optimized for shortest possible pulse length. For that obtained pulses were 6 ns with the energies 740 μJ and 432 μJ for Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP, respectively. This results correspond to peak power reached 125 kW (Nd:YAG), and 77 kW (Nd:YAP) in fundamental TEM 00 mode which allows this laser to be used as an efficient source for further nonlinear conversion or other applications.

  19. Clinical application of the Nd-YAG and Ho-YAG lasers in otolaryngology: head and neck surgery

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Dudziec, Katarzyna; Wojtowicz, Piotr


    The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the area of the upper respiratory tract sinuses and ears. This technique makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. In case of the Nd:YAG laser they have also utilized the effect of deep coagulation of the soft tissues, whereas the Ho:YAG laser energy was applied for the surgery of bone tissue. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment. They are competitive compared wit the methods used by traditional surgery.

  20. [Gingival depigmentation for aesthetic purposes using erbium:YAG laser: rationale and technique].

    Tal, H; Oelgiessr, D; Tal, M


    Melanin, carotene and hemoglobin are the most common natural pigments contributing to the normal color of the gums. Although physiologic and ethnic melanin pigmentation is not a medical problem, complains about "black gums" are common. Gingival depigmentation has been carried out using surgical, chemical, electrosurgical and cryosurgical procedures. Recently, Laser Ablation has been recognized as one of the most effective, pleasant and reliable techniques. Effective depigmentation of the gingival requires removal of all or most of the melanocytes from the basal layer of the gingival epithelium. Using non-specific radiation means ablation of all the epithelial cell layers, as well as connective tissue rete pegs, leaving behind only remnants of the epithelial rete ridges. CO2, Nd:YAG and Erbium:YAG lasers, meeting most of these requirements and being available in the dental office, seems to be the lasers of choice for this procedure. Five patients (3 F; 2 M) who were referred to the TAUSDM for cosmetic therapy of "black gums" were treated using Erbium-YAG laser. The laser beam was set up at 850 mj/10 pulses per second producing peak power of 2.13 kwand peak power density of 30.43 kw/sq/cm. The beam was defocused to produce a 3 mm diameter circle, thus reducing the beam penetration while increasing the treated surface. Using the "brush" technique, 800-2,000 pulses were required per patient, with an average of 500-1,100 pulses per 1, depending on the thickness of the epithelium and the intensity of the pigmentation. Treatment required only topical anesthesia. Healing was uneventful and required no supportive therapy. Three months follow up has shown no repigmentation in any of the patients. Patients' evaluation analysis showed that the results were pleasing; no pain was experienced during lasing as well as during healing. Two patients were interupted by the lasing burning smell, which may be reduced or eliminated by operating a power suction during the procedure.

  1. Pulsed dermatologic 20W diode-laser emitting at 975-nm

    Piechowski, L.; Cenian, W.; Sawczak, M.; Cenian, A.


    The pulsed dermatologic laser for photothermolysis is constructed basing on technology of 975 nm diode lasers developed for fiber-laser excitation. In near future these lasers can replace ND:YAG ones for dermatologic applications, especially therapy of deep skin diseases.

  2. Equation-of-state studies using a 10-Hz Nd:YAG laser oscillator

    Shukla, M.; Upadhyay, A.; Senecha, V. K.; Khare, P.; Bandyaopadhyay, S.; Rai, V. N.; Navathe, C. P.; Pant, H. C.; Khan, M.; Godwal, B. K.


    A commercial mode locked cavity dumped Nd:YAG dye laser operating at 10 Hz repetition rate is modified to produce a high contrast (>5000:1) single laser pulse while maintaining the energy stability and high beam quality. A trigger generator biases the cavity dumping photodiode, which is triggered externally by a pulse from the microprocessor-based control unit controlling a [similar]2 J/200 ps laser chain. In the laser chain, the high contrast (>5000:1) is achieved by an external pulse selector based on single Pockel's cell to select a single laser pulse of high contrast, which is a prerequisite for experimental study of the equation of state. Laser-induced shock velocity measurement in thin aluminum, gold on aluminum, and copper on aluminum foil targets using this modified laser system are also presented. The equation of state of Al, Au, and Cu obtained using an impedance matching technique are in agreement with the reported results of SESAME and simulation results.

  3. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.


    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  4. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W


    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho:YAG

  5. Transmission of Er:YAG laser through different dental ceramics.

    Sari, Tugrul; Tuncel, Ilkin; Usumez, Aslihan; Gutknecht, Norbert


    The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. Laser debonding procedure of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations is based on the transmission of laser energy through the ceramic and the ablation of resin cement, because of the transmitted laser energy. Five different dental ceramics were evaluated in this study: sintered zirconium-oxide core ceramic, monolithic zirconium-oxide ceramic, feldspathic ceramic, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramic. Two ceramic discs with different thicknesses (0.5 and 1 mm) were fabricated for each group. Ceramic discs were placed between the sensor membrane of the laser power meter and the tip of the contact handpiece of an Er:YAG laser device with the aid of a custom- made acrylic holder. The transmission ratio of Er:YAG laser energy (500 mJ, 2 Hz, 1 W, 1000 μs) through different ceramic discs was measured with the power meter. Ten measurements were made for each group and the results were analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The highest transmission ratio was determined for lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic with 0.5 mm thickness (88%) and the lowest was determined for feldspathic ceramic with 1 mm thickness (44%). The differences among the different ceramics and between the different thicknesses were significant (pCeramic type and thickness should be taken into consideration to adjust the laser irradiation parameters during laser debonding of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations.

  6. Low threshold diode-pumped picosecond mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    Eshghi, M. J.; Majdabadi, A.; Koohian, A.


    In this paper, a low threshold diode pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser has been demonstrated by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The threshold power for continuous-wave mode-locking is relatively low, about 3.2 W. The resonator stability across the pump power has been analytically examined. Moreover, the mode overlap between the pump beam and the laser fundamental mode has been simulated by MATLAB software. Adopting Z-shaped resonator configuration and suitable design of the resonator’s arm lengths, has enabled the author to prepare mode-locking conditions, and obtain 40 ps pulses with 112 MHz pulse repetition rate. The laser output was stable without any Q switched instability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest threshold for CW mode-locking operation of a Nd:YAG laser.

  7. Passively Q-switched flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser using liquid graphene oxide as saturable absorber

    Adnan, N. N.; Bidin, N.; Taib, N. A. M.; Haris, H.; Fakaruddin, M.; Hashim, A. M.; Krishnan, G.; Harun, S. W.


    The performance of passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1060 nm is demonstrated using liquid graphene oxide (GO) composite solution as saturable absorber for the first time. The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is pumped by a xenon flashlamp. The GO was prepared using the simplified Hummer's method and then mixed with polyethylene oxide to form a composite solution. The Q-switched pulsed laser operates at wavelength of 1064.5 nm with a threshold pump energy of 33.64 J. The maximum output Q-switched laser energy of 41.6 mJ achieved at the maximum pump energy of 81 J. The corresponding pulse width is 98.67 ns.

  8. Comparative study of microstructural characteristics of electrospark and Nd:YAG laser epitaxially growing coatings

    Xie, Yu-jiang; Wang, Mao-cai; Huang, Da-wei


    As low-heat input welding processes, electrospark deposition and pulsed Nd:YAG laser cladding can be commonly used to prepare epitaxially growing coatings. However, these two processes have quite different characteristics in the energy input, the amount of materials involved, and the temperature gradient, and hence might result in dissimilar microstructural characteristics. In this paper, a comparative study has been made between microstructural characteristics in epitaxial growth coatings prepared by electrospark deposition and pulsed Nd:YAG laser cladding. Some interesting results have been achieved. Firstly, epitaxial growth coatings can be commonly achieved by these two techniques. Secondly, microstructural morphologies of these two epitaxial growth coatings are obviously different, cellular columnar structure prevails in the electrospark coating while columnar dendritic structure occupies most of the laser coating thickness, more importantly, electrospark coating remains fully columnar in the whole layer whereas laser coating tends to change from columnar to equiaxed at the top of the layer. Thirdly, electrospark coating possesses finer and more homogeneous microstructure than laser coating.

  9. Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG.

    Rodenas, A; Benayas, A; Macdonald, J R; Zhang, J; Tang, D Y; Jaque, D; Kar, A K


    A new (to our knowledge) ultrashort laser pulse irradiation regime that allows us to directly modify and increase the refractive index of rare earth doped YAG polycrystalline ceramics has been identified. Single-mode buried channel waveguides in both Ho:YAG and Er:YAG ceramics at the near-IR wavelengths of 1.55 μm and 1.95 μm are demonstrated by fabricating positive square step-index cores. Minimum propagation losses of 1.5 dB cm(-1) at a 1.51 μm wavelength have been preliminarily obtained. Confocal microluminescence mapping reveals that the increased refractive index regions retain the near-IR spectral properties of Er3+ ions in the YAG crystalline matrix.

  10. Pulse shape control in a dual cavity laser: numerical modeling

    Yashkir, Yuri


    We present a numerical model of the laser system for generating a special shape of the pulse: a steep peak at the beginning followed by a long pulse tail. Laser pulses of this nature are required for various applications (laser material processing, optical breakdown spectroscopy, etc.). The laser system consists of two "overlapped" cavities with different round-trip times. The laser crystal, the Q-switching element, the back mirror, and the output coupler are shared. A shorter pulse is generated in a short cavity. A small fraction of this pulse is injected into the long cavity as a seed. It triggers generation of the longer pulse. The output emission from this hybrid laser produces a required pulse shape. Parameters of the laser pulse (ratios of durations and energies of short- and long- pulse components) can be controlled through cavity length and the output coupler reflection. Modelling of the laser system is based on a set of coupled rate equations for dynamic variables of the system: the inverse population in an active laser media and photon densities in coupled cavities. Numerical experiments were provided with typical parameters of a Nd:YAG laser to study the system behaviour for different combinations of parameters.

  11. Pathomorphological distinction between Er:YAG and diode lasers on the excisional biopsy of the oral mucosa

    Georgi T. Tomov


    Full Text Available Background – In oral pathology, laser devices can provide important advantages, especially in the treatment of certain lesions. However, there is controversy about the use of some wavelengths in the analysis of suspected dysplastic or neoplastic lesions, raising doubt about the laser's suitability for use in biopsy procedures. The present pilot study evaluates the pathomorphological characteristics and suitability of Er:YAG and diode lasers for performing excisional biopsies in the oral mucosa with special emphasis on the extent of the thermal damage zone created. Material and Methods – 10 patients were randomly assigned to one diode or one Er:YAG laser groups. The Er:YAG laser(2940nm was used in a pulsed wave mode 200mJ/35Hz with a power of 7 W. Power settings for the diode laser(810 nm were 3 W in a pulsed mode. The thermal damage zone of the two lasers and intraoperative and postoperative complications were assessed and compared.All biopsy specimens were evaluated by optical microscopy by threeblinded pathologists. After establishing the pathomorphological diagnosis of the lesion assessed, the pathologists measured the maximal width of the peripheral thermal damage zone in the specimen in μm and classified it using appropriate index. Results – The peripheral thermal damage zone on the borders of the excisional biopsies was significantly smaller with the Er:YAG laser compared to the diode laser regarding values in μm or pathomorphological index scores. No postoperative complications occurred in any of the two groups. Conclusions – The Er:YAG laser seems to be appropriate for excisional biopsies of benign oral mucosal lesions. The Er:YAG laser offers clear advantages in terms of smaller thermal damage zones over the diode laser. Although in some samples thermal damage was minimally visible, in all samples histological evaluation was clearly possible. The study demonstrated that the Er:YAG laser can be safely used in oral biopsy

  12. Holmium:YAG laser in dentistry: photoconditioning of dentinal surfaces

    Holt, Raleigh A.; Nordquist, Robert E.


    This in vitro study was undertaken to determine energy levels necessary to produce tubule closure and surface smoothing on dentinal surfaces of human teeth and their resultant temperature increases within the pulpal canals with the Holmium:YAG laser. An optimal working spot size and even absorption pattern were produced by defocusing the laser beam and evaluated by images produced on light exposed and developed photographic paper. The surface effects on dentin were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A thermocouple was positioned in the canals of fresh dissected dog jaws and attached to a recorder which produced a graph of the temperature changes. The in vitro research model for intrapulpal temperatures changes was verified by comparing premortem and postmortem temperature readings. The same protocol was used to evaluate temperature changes in fresh human extracted teeth. In vivo histological studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of HO:YAG laser energy on pulpal tissues. The results of these studies indicate the HO:YAG laser at a wavelength of 2.12 microns can be safely and effectively used for photoconditioning of the dentinal surfaces of teeth in clinical conditions.

  13. Longitudinal Effect of Surface Treatments Modified by NaOCl-Induced Deproteinization and Nd:YAG Laser on Dentin Permeability.

    Esteves, Stella Renata Machado Silva; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Gomes, Ana Paula Martins; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette; De Paiva Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentin permeability after dentin hypersensitivity treatments: fluoride, adhesive system, and collagen deproteinization with and without Nd:YAG laser exposure, and after erosive and abrasive challenges. Dentin permeability was assessed by measuring dentinal fluid flow using a permeability device. Eighty bovine dentin specimens (6 mm diameter/1 mm thickness) had permeability measured in the presence of the smear layer and after removal of the smear layer by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). They were then divided into eight groups according to treatment (n = 10): Group C, control; Group L, Nd:YAG laser; Group F, fluoride; Group FL, fluoride plus Nd:YAG laser; Group A, adhesive; Group AL, adhesive plus Nd:YAG laser; Group D, 10% NaOCl plus adhesive; and group DL, NaOCl plus adhesive plus Nd:YAG laser. Nd:YAG laser was irradiated at 60 mJ/pulse/10 Hz/47.7 J/cm2/1 W and applied freehanded without contact for 60 sec. Permeability was measured 24 h after the treatments. The specimens were exposed to erosive and abrasive challenges for 5 days. Erosive challenge was done by immersion in Coca-Cola, four times a day/90 sec each. After the first and last erosive challenge of the day, the abrasive challenge was conducted by brushing the specimens (24,000 cycles/3.8 cm range/200 g weight), and permeability was measured again. Results were analyzed statistically using two factor ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). With the exception of groups FL and A, all treatments reduced permeability. A significant reduction in permeability was seen when the treatments were combined with laser exposure. The association of adhesive and Nd:YAG laser led to the lowest rate of permeability after 24 h. NaOCl-induced deproteinization associated with Nd:YAG laser showed the lowest permeability rate after erosive/abrasive challenges. Dentin hypersensitivity treatments reduced dentin permeability when associated with Nd:YAG

  14. Features of femtosecond laser pulses interaction with laser nanoceramics

    Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Merzliakov, M. A.; Laptev, A. V.


    In this work we have performed the experimental researches of features for the generation of supercontinuum in laser materials with identical chemical composition: Yb:YAG crystal and Yb:YAG laser nanoceramics. Dependence of width of supercontinuum spectrum in 515-1100 nm spectral range on femtosecond radiation intensity was investigated. At laser intensity ~1.2•10 14 W/cm2 the short-wave wing of a spectrum for nanoceramics has greater intensity and more flat shape in comparison with crystal. Experiments were made at lens focusing of the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system radiation with energy up to 0.5 mJ in explored sample that was inside of integrating optical sphere. Also we investigated the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses and the generation of supercontinuum in Nd:Y IIO 3 nanoceramics. The maximum value of laser intensity in experiments was restricted by optical breakdown on target output surface, i.e. was below threshold of ablation of sample substance.

  15. Evaluation of surface topography of zirconia ceramic after Er:YAG laser etching.

    Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser with different pulse lengths on the surface roughness of zirconia ceramic and airborne particle abrasion. Er:YAG laser treatment is expected to be an alternative surface treatment method for zirconia ceramics; however, the parameters and success of the application are not clear. One hundred and forty zirconia discs (diameter, 10 mm; thickness, 1.2 mm) were prepared by a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n=10). One group was left as polished control, one group was air-particle abraded with Al2O3 particles. For the laser treatment groups, laser irradiation was applied at three different pulse energy levels (100, 200, and 300 mJ) and for each energy level at four different pulse lengths; 50, 100, 300, and 600 μs. Surface roughness was evaluated with an optical profilometer and specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). For the 100 and 200 mJ laser etching groups, 50 and 100 μs laser duration resulted in significantly higher surface roughness compared with air-particle abrasion (p0.05). For the 300 mJ laser etching groups; there was no statistically significant difference among the Ra values of 50 μs, 100 μs, 300 μs, 600 μs, and air-particle abrasion groups (p>0.05). In order to increase surface roughness and promote better bonding to resin luting agents, Er:YAG laser etching may be an alternative to air-particle abrasion for zirconia ceramics. However, high levels of pulse energy and longer pulse length may have an adverse effect on micromechanical locking properties, because of a decrease in surface roughness.

  16. Evaluation of depth and profile cavity after laser ablation with different energy of Er:YAG laser radiation

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Krejsa, Otakar; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav


    Depth and profile cavity were studied after laser ablation with different energy of Er:YAG laser beam. Longitudinal sections of extracted human teeth were cut and polished to the flat surfaces. The thickness of layer of prepared teeth was from 3 to 5 mm. The check group contained glazed samples of ivory with the similar thickness. The Er:YAG laser drilling machine was operating in a free-running mode. For the preparation we used the energy up to 500 mJ. The repetition rate was 1 or 2 Hz. The laser radiation was focused on the tooth surface using CaF2 lens (f equals 55 mm). During the experiment, teeth were steady and the radiation was delivered by the mechanical arm which was fixed in a special holder. The fine water mist (water - 50 ml/min with the pressure to atm, air-pressure three atm) was used. Samples with the flat surfaces from the enamel, dentin and ivory were irradiated with five different energies from 100 to 500 mJ. Quantities of one, five, ten, twenty and thirty pulses were used. The depth of cavity and its profile were observed and measured. It was found that depth of cavity depends on the value of energy, type of hard dental tissue and number of pulses. With increasing energy or number of pulses the saturation effect in depth of holes in dentine or enamel were proved.

  17. Solid-state led-pumped YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ ring laser

    Belozerov, S.A.; Korniyenko, L.S.; Kravtsov, N.V.; Kuratev, I.I.; Rusakov, S.I.; Stel' makh, M.F.; Shelayev, A.A.; Shelayev, A.N.


    The article is a report on attainment of stimulated emission in a YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ solid-state ring laser (lambda = 1.06 with both cw and pulsed pumping by light-emitting diodes. The YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ crystal was 1.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long with Brewster faces. The laser was made as a monoblock in which channels were drilled for the laser beam. Total losses on the mirrors did not exceed 0.2%. Cavity perimeter was 22 cm. Pumping was by two lines of LEDs based on epitaxial heterostructure Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As. In the pulsed pumping mode maximum pulse duration was 8 ms, and maximum recurrence rate was 100 Hz. The threshold pumping current in the pulsed mode was about 1.1 A with prf of 10 Hz, pulse duration of 0.5 ms and temperature of 300 K. Maximum admissible current in this mode is 6 A. In cw pumping, the LED lines were fed by a stabilized DC source at voltage of about 40 V. Threshold pumping current was about 1.5 A, i.e., the threshold power was about 60 W. The optimum maximum current in the cw mode was about 2.0 A. Emission power was a near-linear function of current through the LEDs in either pumping mode. It was experimentally demonstrated that a rotating ring laser can produce stable beats with both cw and pulsed LED pumping. It should be possible to use self-switching modes to measure non-reciprocal effects. 5 references, 2 figures.

  18. Flash-lamp-pumped 4 J, 50 Hz Nd:YAG nanosecond laser system for mobile and transportable equipment

    Mikami, Katsuhiro; Hasegawa, Noboru; Okada, Hajime; Kondo, Shuji; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya


    A simplified flash-lamp pumped high-average-power Nd:YAG nanosecond laser system based on a master oscillator power amplifier platform was developed toward outside laser remote sensing. The performance of the laser system was demonstrated, obtaining 4 J output pulse energy with a 50 Hz operating frequency. Thermal lens effects were compensated for by using only simple image relays and up to 97% of the laser energy could be contained in the focal spot. The developed laser system was constructed using only components suitable for operation under outside conditions.

  19. Influence of Er:YAG laser ablation on cavity surface and cavity shape

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav


    The cavity surface and shape after Er:YAG laser ablation at different energies, number of pulses and at a different repetition rate were observed. Longitudinal sections of extracted human incisors and transverse sections of ivory tusk were cut and polished to flat and glazed surfaces. The samples thickness was from 3 to 5 mm. The Er:YAG laser was operating in a free-running (long pulse) mode. The laser radiation was focused onto the tooth surface by CaF2 lens (f equals 55 mm). During the experiment, the teeth were steady and the radiation was delivered by a special mechanical arm fixed in a special holder; fine water mist was also used (water-mJ/min, a pressure of two atm, air-pressure three atm). The shapes of the prepared cavities were studied either by using a varying laser energies (from 70 mJ to 500 mJ) for a constant number of pulses, or a varying number of pulses (from one to thirty) for constant laser energy. The repetition rate was changed from 1 to 2 Hz. For evaluating the surfaces, shapes, and profiles, scanning electron microscopy and photographs from a light microscope were used. The results were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is seen that there is no linear relation between the radiation pulse energy and the size of the prepared holes. With increasing the incident energy the cavity depth growth is limited. There exists some saturation not only in the enamel and dentin but especially in the homogeneous ivory.

  20. Argon laser versus erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum

    Abdelkader, Mona; Alashry, Shereen Ezzelregal


    Background Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common of the xanthomas with asymptomatic, symmetrical, bilateral, soft, yellow, polygonal papules around the eyelids. Though it is a benign lesion causing no functional disturbance, it is esthetically annoying. The surgical laser offers an extremely elegant and powerful solution to this problem. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of erbium:YAG and argon lasers in the treatment of xanthelasma lesions. Patients and methods Forty patients were included in the study. Twenty patients (15 patients were bilateral with 30 eyes either in the upper or lower lid and 5 patients were unilateral) were treated with erbium:YAG laser. Another 20 patients (10 patients were bilateral with 20 eyes and 10 patients were unilateral) were treated with argon laser. Results In the majority of treated patients (either treated with erbium:YAG or argon laser), xanthelasma lesions were completely disappeared or significantly decreased in size. Two patients showed pigmentary changes in the form of hypopigmentation with erbium:YAG laser (one case), another case showed hyperpigmentation. No intraoperative complication was observed. No significant scar or recurrence was observed. Conclusion Argon laser in xanthelasma is an easy, effective, and safe method of treatment for small lesions and YAG laser is more better for large lesions than argon laser. PMID:25892929

  1. Performance enhancement of sub-nanosecond diode-pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG microchip laser with diamond surface cooling.

    Zhuang, W Z; Chen, Yi-Fan; Su, K W; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F


    We experimentally confirm that diamond surface cooling can significantly enhance the output performance of a sub-nanosecond diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser. It is found that the pulse energy obtained with diamond cooling is approximately 1.5 times greater than that obtained without diamond cooling, where a Cr(4+):YAG absorber with the initial transmission of 84% is employed. Furthermore, the standard deviation of the pulse amplitude peak-to-peak fluctuation is found to be approximately 3 times lower than that measured without diamond cooling. Under a pump power of 3.9 W, the passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser can generate a pulse train of 3.3 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 287 μJ and with a pulse width of 650 ps.

  2. Comparative study on the clinical effect of venular malformation treated by intense pulsed light, long-pulse Nd:YAG laser and combined therapy with low energy%单用强脉冲光、长脉宽Nd:YAG激光以及低能量下两者联合使用治疗微静脉畸形的临床疗效比较

    吴迪; 鲁严; 周炳荣; 李巍; 曹筱冬; 骆丹


    目的:观察单用强脉冲光、长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光以及低能量下两者联合使用治疗微静脉畸形的临床疗效和不良反应.方法:联合应用590~ 1200nm强脉冲光(能量密度12 ~ 16J/cm2,脉宽3.0 ~ 5.0ms)以及长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光(能量密度80 ~ 90J/cm2,脉宽10~ 20ms)治疗51例微静脉畸形患者;并与单独应用强脉冲光(能量密度13~ 20J/cm2)及长脉宽Nd∶ YAG激光(能量密度120 ~ 145J/cm2)治疗结果比较.结果:强脉冲光、长脉宽1064nmNd:YAG激光及低能量下联合使用治疗微静脉畸形的有效率分别为33.1%、40.3%和56.9%,瘢痕发生率分别为0%、10.7%和5.9%.结论:低能量下联合使用强脉冲光及长脉宽1064nm Nd:YAG激光提高了微静脉畸形的有效率,且不良反应小.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse effect of intense pulsed light(IPL),long-pulse 1064nm Nd:YAG laser and combined therapy with low energy for the treatment of venular malformation.Methods Fifty-one patients with venular malformation were treated by combined therapy (590~1200 nm IPL and long-pulse 1064nm Nd:YAG laser).The treatment parameters of IPL were as follows∶12~16 J/cm2 energy density,3.0~5.0ms pulse duration.The treatment parameters of Nd∶YAG laser∶ 80~90 J/cm2 energy density,10~20ms pulse duration.The clinical efficacy and side effect of IPL and Nd:YAG laser were also observed separately.Results The effective rates were 33.1%,40.3% and 56.9% in venular malformation treated only with IPL,Nd:YAG laser and combined therapy respectively.While the incidences of scar were 0%,10.7% and 5.9% respectively.Conclusion IPL combined with long-pulse 1064nm Nd∶YAG laser in low energy is more effective and less adverse effect in the treatment of venular malformation.

  3. Comparing efficiency and root surface morphology after scaling with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers.

    Etemadi, Ardavan; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Razavi, Fahime; Aoki, Akira; Azad, Reza Fekr; Chiniforush, Nasim


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the root morphology of teeth and efficiency of scaling after using Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. Thirty-two periodontally hopeless teeth were extracted. The border of an appropriate calculus was marked using a diamond bur on each tooth, and the calculus was divided into two almost equal parts. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser with pulse energy of 50 mJ, power of 1 W, and energy density of 17.7 J/cm2 and an Er:YAG laser with pulse energy of 200 mJ, power of 2.4 W, and energy density of 21 J/cm2 were used to remove the calculus. The time for scaling was recorded for each group, and using stereomicroscopic analysis, the calculus remnant, carbonization, and number of craters were investigated. The mean time required for calculus removal in the Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser groups was 15.22 ± 6.18 seconds and 7.12 ± 4.11 seconds, respectively. The efficiency of calculus removal in the Er:YAG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group. Under stereomicroscope examination, no carbonization or remaining calculus was found in samples from either group, but all samples had craters. The number of craters in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er:YAG laser group. According to the parameters used and limitations of this study, there was no significant difference in efficiency per power for calculus removal between the two groups.

  4. Primary investigations on the potential of a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for middle ear surgery

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian


    Flashlamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are successfully used clinically for both precise soft and hard tissue ablation. Since several years a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system (Pantec Engineering AG) is available, with mean laser power up to 40 W and pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The aim of the study was to investigate the suitability of the laser system specifically for stapedotomy. Firstly an experimental setup was realized with a beam focusing unit and a computer controlled translation stage to move the samples (slices of porcine bone) with a defined velocity while irradiation with various laser parameters. A microphone was positioned in a defined distance to the ablation point and the resulting acoustic signal of the ablation process was recorded. For comparison, measurements were also performed with a flash lamp pumped Er:YAG laser system. After irradiation the resulting ablation quality and efficacy were determined using light microscopy. Using a high speed camera and "Töpler-Schlierentechnik" the cavitation bubble in water after perforation of a bone slice was investigated. The results show efficient bone ablation using the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system. Also a decrease of the sound level and of the cavitation bubble volume was observed with decreasing pulse duration. Higher repetition rates lead to a slightly increase of thermal side effects but have no influence on the ablation efficiency. In conclusion, these first experiments demonstrate the high potential of the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for use in middle ear surgery.

  5. Hollow polycarbonate fiber for Er:YAG laser light delivery.

    Nakazawa, Masayuki; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Iwai, Katsumasa; Miyagi, Mitsunobu


    We developed hollow fibers with polycarbonate (PC) capillaries for use as a supporting tube. The PC capillaries were prepared by using a glass-drawing technique. Hollow PC fibers are safer and more flexible than hollow glass fibers because no fragments are released when the fibers are broken in various applications. Inner coating layers of silver and cyclic olefin polymer (COP) enhanced the reflection rate at the Er:YAG laser light wavelength. Using these fibers, we attained low loss for Er:YAG laser light transmission. By adjusting the drawing temperature in the fabrication of the PC capillaries, we created a smooth inner surface and uniform PC capillaries. We also demonstrated low-loss properties for visible pilot beams.

  6. Comparative study of passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4/Nd:YAG lasers based on CVD graphene and controlled operation

    Jia, Fuqiang; Liu, Pei; Li, Kang; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Yongjie; Cai, Zhiping; Copner, Nigel


    In this paper, a comparative study of passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers using four different layers CVD graphene as saturable absorber are demonstrated experimentally for the first time. Moreover, it is successful to accurately control the frequency of repetition rates of the CVD graphern passively Q-switched lasers by pulsed pump. The impacts of laser materials, layers of CVD graphene and cavity length on output parameters are investigated intensively as well, the result shows that the c-cut Nd:YVO4 is a promising laser media compared with Nd:YAG for passively Q-switched lasers based on CVD graphene, as it has better performances in pulse width, pulse energy and peak power. A useful and cost-effective way to generate stable pulsed lasers by CVD graphene or other novel saturable materials are demonstrated.


    Laporte, P.; Damany, N.; Damany, H.


    We describe a pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source consisting of a plasma created by focusing a NdYAG laser beam into rare gases under moderate pressure, and we report on spectral and time properties of that source. Main features are : continuum emission in a large spectral range, with only few lines superimposed, good time characteristics of the pulses, stability, cleanliness, and relatively high repetition rate (20 Hz).

  8. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.


    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  9. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton


    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that is based on the detection of acoustic waves generated by absorption of pulsed light by tissue chromophores such as hemoglobin in blood. For this technique, usually large and costly Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are used. These lasers provide a pulse

  10. Continuous-wave yellow laser generation at 578 nm by intracavity sum-frequency mixing of thin disk Yb:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser

    Ma, Gangfei; Yang, Jianming; Tan, Huiming; Tian, Yubing; Yao, Wenming; Ju, Qiaojun; Zhang, Long; Chen, Jiansheng; Wu, Xiaodong; Gao, Jing


    We report a continuous-wave yellow laser at 578 nm obtained by doubly resonant intracavity sum-frequency mixing of thin disk Yb:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser with a LBO nonlinear crystal. Single-wavelength laser operation at 578 nm by using a silica etalon as a wavelength selector and dual-wavelength operation at 578 nm and 582 nm are obtained with maximum output powers of 100 mW and 136 mW, respectively. The single wavelength operating power stability value in 30 min was 4.7%, which was improved ∼21.6%, compared with that of dual-wavelength operation.

  11. Waveguide and articulated arm for Er:YAG laser system: shape and depth of laser cavity in hard dental tissues

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wang, You; Shi, Yi-Wei; Dolezalova, Libuse; Hamal, Karel; Krejsa, Otakar; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav


    The aim of our study was to verify the efficiency of delivery systems for Er:YAG laser radiation which could be used in dentistry. The influence of increasing energy and number of pulses on a profile and depth of drilled holes was investigated. Er:YAG laser was operating in a free-running mode, generating a length of pulses 200 microsecond with a maximum energy of 500 mJ. The delivery systems investigated were an articulated arm and a fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide. The prepared hard tissues were a sliced part of enamel, dentine and ivory. The laser radiation was directed on them by focusing optics (CaF2 lens) together with the cooling water to ensure that the tissues will not be burned. For the evaluation of shapes, depth and profiles of the prepared cavities the metallographic microscope, x-ray microtomograph and scanning electron microscope were used. From the results it was observed that the profile and depth of the cavities prepared by the laser radiation delivered by the various systems (waveguide or articulated arm) are not the same. The laser radiation delivered by waveguide produces a larger diameter cavity with a lower depth. The holes are smoother and without side effects.

  12. Diode-pumped Q-switched Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser operating in a wide temperature range without thermal stabilisation of pump diodes

    Vainshenker, A E; Vilenskiy, A V; Kazakov, A A; Lysoy, B G; Mikhailov, L K; Pashkov, V A [Open Joint-Stock Company ' M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research and Development Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A model sample of a compact low-power-consumption Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser emitting 20-mJ pulses with a pulse repetition rate up to 20 Hz (in cyclic duty) at a wavelength of 1064 nm is developed and studied. The laser is designed for operating at external temperatures from -40 to +50 deg C. This was achieved by using quasi-end diode pumping without thermal stabilisation of pump diodes. (laser optics 2012)

  13. Theoretical Analysis of Dependence of Nonlinear Effects in Mode-Locked Yb:YAG Lasers with a Highly Nonlinear Intra-Cavity Medium

    Takeshi Yoshida


    Full Text Available Nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in a mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with a highly nonlinear intra-cavity medium is analyzed using a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The output spectra are extended by the increased laser intensity, and spectral bandwidths wider than those of the gain medium are achieved. Moreover, pulse widths are shortened by increased laser intensity to considerably less than those of the gain medium. The simulation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results.




    Full Text Available Micro machining is a ready solution towards the miniaturization of component and devices. The process parameters of low power pulse Nd:YAG laser machining such as pulse rate, pulse width, speed play a major role in deciding the surface quality. Two methods, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were used to predict the surface roughness of Nd:YAG laser drilled mild steel specimens. The experiments were conducted based on the three factors, three levels and central composite face centered design with full replication technique and mathematical model was developed. Also a comparison has been done with between the result obtained throughresponse surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN.

  15. Management of Root Perforations Using MTA with or without Er:YAG Laser Irradiation: An In Vitro Study

    M. Tielemans


    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the microleakage of a root perforation sealed with MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate (group M to that sealed with MTA following Er:YAG laser irradiation (group ML. Forty-two recently extracted human monoroot teeth were used. Two cavities were prepared on each root surface. Randomly, on each root, the exposed dentine of one cavity was irradiated prior to MTA filling using an Er:YAG laser with the following settings: 200 mJ/pulses under an air water spray, 10 Hz, pulse duration of 50 μsec, and 0.7 mm beam diameter. All cavities were then sealed with MTA. submitted to thermocycling and immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 12 h. The penetration of methylene blue in the microleakage of cavity was observed and recorded. The mean value dye penetration in cavities sealed with MTA following Er:YAG laser irradiation (23.91±14.63% was lower than that of unlased cavities sealed only with MTA (25.17±17.53%. No significant difference was noted. The use of an Er:YAG laser beam for dentinal conditioning prior to MTA filling of perforated roots did not decrease significantly the microleakage of MTA sealing when compared to the conventional use of MTA filling.

  16. Experimental investigations of the use of an erbium:YAG laser on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) structures: first experimental results

    Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Niederdellmann, Herbert; Hering, Peter; Deuerling, Christian; Dammer, Ralf; Behr, M.


    The following paper introduces the results of an interdisciplinary research project. With the aid of photomacroscopic examination, light and scanning electron microscope investigations, changes to temporomandibular joint structures were detected in vitro after irradiation with an Erbium:YAG laser system. The solid-state Erbium:YAG laser, operating at a wavelength of 2.94 micrometers was used in the normal- spiking mode. The free-running laser beam was focussed onto freshly excised porcine tissue samples using a 108-mm sapphire lens. In this study the output was generally pulsed at a repetition rate of 4 Hz, with a pulse duration varying from 120 microsecond(s) to 500 microsecond(s) . Between 50 mJ and 500 mJ per pulse were applied to create pinpoint lesions. The optimum average energy density and pulse duration of the Erbium:YAG laser radiation for the purpose of TMJ-surgery (as far as it concerns meniscus and articulating facets) - which means efficient etch rate and minimal adjacent injury - seems to be about 24-42 J/cm2 and 120 microsecond(s) -240 microsecond(s) , respectively.

  17. Bactericidal effects of high-power Nd:YAG laser radiation on Staphylococcus aureus

    Yeo, C. B. Allen; Watson, Ian A.; Stewart-Tull, Duncan E. S.; Wardlaw, A. C.; Armstrong, Graham N.


    The effect of laser radiation on Staphylococcus aureus 6571 (Oxford strain) was studied with high-power Nd:YAG laser radiation between 50 and 300 W. A range of laser pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) from 5 to 30 Hz, with a combination of pulse energies from 2 to 30 J were applied; this covered a range of energy densities from 800 to 0963-9659/7/3/020/img8. The area of inactivation of S. aureus, lawned on nutrient agar plates, was quantified as a function of energy density and exposure time. The shortest exposure time which produced an area of inactivation equal to 50% of the beam area was achieved at a PRF of 30 Hz, pulse energy of 10 J, and with an exposure time of 10.75 s; this was equivalent to an applied energy density of 0963-9659/7/3/020/img9. No bacterial inactivation was observed at relatively low-power settings for PRF, pulse energies and exposure time of: 20 Hz, 3 J and 34 s; 25 Hz, 2 J and 45 s and 30 Hz, 2 J and 35 s, respectively. These results shows that pulse energy, PRF and exposure time are important criteria when considering inactivation of micro-organisms by laser radiation.

  18. High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

    Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A


    We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

  19. Amalgam Surface Treatment by Different Output Powers of Er:YAG Laser:SEM Evaluation.

    Hosseini, Mohammad Hashem; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Etemadi, Ardavan; Ranjbar Omrani, Ladan; Darvishpour, Hojat; Chiniforush, Nasim


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amalgam surfaces treated by different output powers of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Twenty-one amalgam blocks (8 mm × 8 mm, 3 mm thickness) were prepared by condensing silver amalgam (into putty impression material. After keeping them for 24 hours in distilled water, they were divided into 7 groups as follow: G1: Er:YAG laser (1 W, 50 mJ), G2: Er:YAG laser (2 W, 100 mJ), G3: Er:YAG laser (3 W, 150 mJ), G4: Sandblast, G5: Sandblast + Er:YAG laser (1 W, 50 mJ), G6: Sandblast +Er:YAG laser (2 W, 100 mJ) and G7: Sandblast +Er:YAG laser (3 W, 150 mJ). Then after preparation of all samples, they were examined by SEM. The SEM results of amalgam surfaces treated by different output powers of Er:YAG laser showed some pitting areas with non-homogenous irregularities Conclusion: It seems that the application of sandblasting accompanied by Er:YAG laser irradiation can provide proper surface for bonding of orthodontic brackets.

  20. 58W LD side-pump Nd:YAG picosecond laser system at 1KHz with double length of regenerative cavity

    Long, Ming Liang; Li, G.; Chen, Meng


    An average power of 58 W, pulse width of 40 ps at 1 KHz repetition rate of Nd:YAG picosecond laser is reported. It used an etalon to directly get pulse width of 135 ps from Nd:YVO4 mode locked laser in 1064 nm, which repetition rate was 88 MHz. When the seed pulses were injected into the double length of regenerative LD side-pump Nd:YAG cavity at 1 KHz repetition rate, the single pulse energy was amplified to 3 mJ, the pulse width was compressed to 99 ps, beam quality of M^2 factor was 1.3. The single pulse energy was amplified up to 58 mJ, the pulse width was self compressed to 40 ps, beam quality of M^2 factor was approximately 3.5 after single passing three stages of double high gain LD side-pump Nd:YAG module. Beam pointing was about 40 urad. The stability for pulse to pulse RMS was less than 3%. A thin-film polarizer and a quarter-wave plate was inserted into the regenerative amplification cavity to let pulses double travel the same geometric path basis on pulse polarization. Serrated aperture were used in the amplification. That's beneficial to decrease the nonlinear effect for the high power in the crystal. High gain LD side-pump Nd:YAG module could lead the pulse energy amplify more and self compress the pulse width. Double length of regenerative cavity was used to enhance the optical cavity length, it greatly decreased the laser's volume and improved stability of picosecond laser. It's a nice way for high power picosecond laser and the laser system would be more simple and smaller.

  1. Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study.

    Dietlein, T S; Jacobi, P C; Schröder, R; Krieglstein, G K


    Photoablative laser trabecular surgery has been proposed as an outflow-enhancing treatment for open-angle glaucoma. The aim of the study was to investigate the time course of repair response following low-thermal Erbium: YAG laser trabecular ablation. In 20 anaesthetized rabbits gonioscopically controlled ab-interno photoablation of the ligamenta pectinata and underlying trabecular meshwork (TM) was performed with a single-pulsed (200 microseconds) Erbium: YAG (2.94 microns) laser. The right eye received 12-15 single laser pulses (2 mJ) delivered through an articulated zirconium fluoride fiberoptic and a 200 microns (core diameter) quartz fiber tip, the left unoperated eye served as control. At time intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 10, 30, and 60 days after laser treatment, eyes were processed for light- and scanning electron microscopy. The applied energy density of 6-4 J cm-2 resulted in visible dissection of the ligamenta pectinata and reproducible microperforations of the TM exposing scleral tissue accompanied by blood reflux from the aqueous plexus. The initial ablation zones measured 154 +/- 36 microns in depth and 45 +/- 6 microns in width. Collateral thermal damage zones were 22 +/- 8 microns. At two days post-operative, ablation craters were still blood- and fibrin-filled. The inner surface of the craters were covered with granulocytes. No cellular infiltration of the collateral thermal damage zone was observed. At 10 days post-operative, progressive fibroblastic proliferation was observed, resulting in dense scar tissue formation with anterior synechiae, proliferating capillaries and loss of intertrabecular spaces inside the range of former laser treatment at 60 days post-operative. Trabecular microperforations were closed 60 days after laser treatment in all rabbits. IOP in treated and contralateral eyes did not significantly change its level during whole period of observation. Low-thermal infrared laser energy with minimal thermal damage to collateral

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of dynamical processes for Tm,Ho:YAG lasers

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Edwards, W. C.; Inge, A. T.; Dibartolo, B.


    The energy transfer processes in Tm,Ho:YAG lasers were investigated in spectral studies and measurements of the temporal response to pulsed excitation. These processes include the population of the 3H4 pump band of Tm, cross-relaxation in Tm, the transfer of energy from Tm to Ho, and various loss mechanisms. It was found that the Tm cross-relaxation is due to a dipole-dipole interaction between Tm ions and that the rate of this process is a function of temperature and ion concentration.

  3. Histological and TEM examination of early stages of bone healing after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

    Pourzarandian, Amir; Watanabe, Hisashi; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sasaki, Katia M; Nitta, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Isao


    The aim of this study was to analyze the early healing process of bone tissue irradiated by Er:YAG laser and compare it with that treated by mechanical drilling and CO(2) laser. Er:YAG laser has a great potential for cutting hard tissues as it is capable of ablation with less thermal damage. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were used for this study. The calvarial bone of rats was exposed and straight grooves were prepared by Er:YAG laser, mechanical bur and continuous wave CO(2) laser. Four rats each were sacrificed at six time points: 10 min, 6 and 24 h and 3, 7, and 14 days post-surgery. Sections were prepared for light and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations. Compared to mechanical bur and CO(2) groups, the inflammatory cell infiltration adjacent to the irradiated bone surface, fibroblastic reaction, and revascularization were more pronounced in the Er:YAG laser-irradiated tissues. A cell-rich granulation tissue with fibroblasts and osteoblasts was predominant in 7-day specimens of Er:YAG laser group. Histopathological analysis of 14-day specimens in the Er:YAG group also revealed significantly greater new bone formation, compared with the mechanical bur and CO(2) laser groups. Initial bone healing following Er:YAG laser irradiation occurred faster than that after mechanical bur and CO(2) laser. Er:YAG laser treatment may be advantageous for wound healing of bone tissue, presumably by providing a favorable surface for cell attachment.

  4. Room-temperature cw operation of an efficient miniaturized Nd:YAG laser end-pumped by a superluminescent diode

    Washio, K.; Iwamoto, K.; Inoue, K.; Hino, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Saito, F.


    A miniaturized Nd:YAG laser is described, in which a 3-mm-diam x 5.4-mm-long laser rod is end-pumped by a single Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As superluminescent diode (SLD) having x 1.4-nm stripe geometry. A 4.5-mW laser power was obtained at room temperature in a 1-ms pulse operation. Emitted power from the SLD was 50 mW with 1.7% external power efficiency. When continuously pumped, a 1.5-mW laser power was obtained at room temperature. (AIP)

  5. Effects of Er: YAG laser irradiation on wettability, surface roughness, and biocompatibility of SLA titanium surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Karimi, Mohammadreza; Safar-Hajhosseini, Ali


    The erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er: YAG) laser has been introduced as an effective method in the decontamination of implant surfaces. Data concerning the effects of the Er: YAG laser on the biological and surface properties of titanium are conflicting. Cellular behavior is greatly affected by surface properties, including composition, roughness, wettability, and morphology of the titanium surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Er: YAG laser on the biocompatibility, surface roughness, and wettability of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces. Twenty-one SLA titanium disks were irradiated by the Er: YAG laser at a pulse energy of 100 mJ, with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz under water irrigation for 1 min. Cell viability, surface roughness, and wettability alterations were evaluated. Thirteen nonirradiated SLA disks were used as the control groups. Human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells were seeded onto the disks in culture media. Cell viability was evaluated using the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The surface roughness and wettability of the test and control groups were measured using profilometer and tensiometer devices, respectively. A significantly higher cell viability rate was observed in the test group (p = 0.032). The surface roughness was significantly reduced in the test group compared with the control group (p = 0.008). The surface wettability was significantly higher in the test group (p = 0.004). Within the limits of this study, the application of the Er: YAG laser with the previously described properties did not appear to have adverse effects on the biocompatibility of the SLA titanium surfaces. Application of this laser decreased the surface roughness and increased the wettability of the SLA titanium surfaces.

  6. Optical spectroscopy in channel waveguides made in Nd:YAG crystals by femtosecond laser writing

    Torchia, G.A. [Grupo de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), CIC-Conicet, CC 124 La Plata (1900) (Argentina)], E-mail:; Mendez, C.; Roso, L. [Grupo de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Tocho, J.O. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), CIC-Conicet, CC 124 La Plata (1900) (Argentina)


    In this work, we present an optical characterization of channel waveguides fabricated by means of femtosecond laser writing on Nd:YAG substrates. These guiding structures show a refractive index increment of about 1x10{sup -3} which allows TE propagation. By pumping with a CW solid-state laser at 532 nm reaching the {sup 2}G{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 7/2} manifolds of Nd{sup 3+} ions, we have explored the emission band corresponding to {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} optical transitions (peaked at 890 nm). From data, we have found that emission showed similar characteristics for waveguide and bulk. On the other hand, the lifetime corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} metaestable level was determined to be 240 {mu}s for bulk and waveguide. Summarizing, we have made suitable channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals, by fs interaction, with similar spectroscopic properties to those of the bulk, a fact that boosters the photonics application of these devices. For the first time to our knowledge, a direct index increment waveguide made by interaction with ultra-short intense pulses in YAG crystals has been performed. This fabrication procedure can be an efficient tool to make several optical circuits in active materials by means of the one-step, fast and low-cost processing.

  7. Er:YAG laser ablation: evaluation after a two-year clinical treatment

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav


    The aim of the clinical study is to evaluate Er:YAG laser ablation after two year-long clinical treatment. One hundred fifty cavities were volunteered for checking. Three restorative materials were used following manufacturer's directions. For the experiment, an Er:YAG laser drilling machine was applied. The laser delivered energy from 100 to 450 mJ, repetition rate from 1 to 4 Hz. The length of the generated pulses was 200 microseconds. During our experiments cooling of the teeth was achieved by fine water mist. The number of pulses was from 16 to 489. Caries of enamel and dentin were treated. Old insufficient fillings were also removed (not amalgam or metal alloys). The experiments followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), Tokyo (1975), Venice (1983) and Hong-Kong (1989). Clinical evaluation of fillings after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months based on ADA recommendation was used. Eight criteria were applied for the restoration control. Composite resins and glassionomers could be used as filling materials.

  8. LED pumped Nd:YAG laser development program

    Farmer, G. I.; Kiang, Y. C.; Lynch, R. J.


    The results of a development program for light emitting diode (LED) pumped Nd:YAG lasers are described. An index matching method to increase the coupling efficiency of the laser is described. A solid glass half-cylinder of 5.0 by 5.6 centimeters was used for index matching and also as a pumping cavity reflector. The laser rods were 1.5 by 56 millimeters with dielectric coatings on both end surfaces. The interfaces between the diode array, glass cylinder, and laser rod were filled with viscous fluid of refractive index n = 1.55. Experiments performed with both the glass cylinder and a gold coated stainless steel reflector of the same dimensions under the same operating conditions indicate that the index matching cylinder gave 159 to 200 percent improvement of coupling efficiency over the metal reflector at various operating temperatures.

  9. Low Fluence Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser Toning and Q-Switched Ruby Laser in the Treatment of Melasma:A Comparative Split-Face Ultrastructural Study

    Yamashita, Rie; Kawana, Seiji; Sato, Shigeru; Naito, Zenya


    Background: Melasma still presents as a difficult entity to treat, especially in the Asian skin phe-notype. Recently laser toning with the Q-switched Nd:YAG has attracted attention. The present study investigated the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser toning for melasma, with a histopathological comparison with the Q-switched ruby laser. Subjects and Methods: Eight Japanese females (41–57 yr, mean 52.5 yr) with Fitzpatrick skin type III and bilateral melasma participated in the study. One half of each subject's face (randomly chosen) was treated with Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser toning (pulse width 5–20 ns; spot size, 6 mm diameter; fluence, 3.0 J/cm2, 5–7 passes, once/week, 4 weeks: QS:YAG group), and the contralateral half with a single treatment using a Q-switched ruby laser (694.5 nm, pulse width 20 ns, spot size 4 mm diameter; fluence 4.0 J/cm2, 1 pass with approximately 20% overlap: QS:Ruby group). Skin biopsies were taken immediately after the 4th Nd:YAG session and the single ruby session, and histopathological comparison was performed with light- and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Improvement in melasma pigmentation was seen in both the QS:YAG- and QS:Ruby-treat-ed sides, and this was well-maintained in the QS:YAG group. Ultrastructurally, melanin granules were destroyed in both groups, but there was considerably more morphological epidermal and dermal damage in the QS:Ruby specimens compared with minimal epidermal disruption and cellular damage in the QS:YAG specimens. Conclusions: Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser toning offered superior results in the treatment of melasma in the Japanese skin type compared with the Q-switched ruby laser, both ultrastructurally with less immediately post-treatment cellular damage and macroscopically, and a longer recurrence-free interval. PMID:24610976

  10. Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser in treatment of patients with contraindications of conventional dental and maxillofacial surgery

    Smucler, Roman; Mazanek, Jiri


    In clinical praxis we must treat patients with some relative or absolute contraindications every day. Need of hospitalization, antibiotics, hemostyptics and complex examinations makes dentoalveolar and maxillofacial surgery in those cases quite expensive. Combination of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser gives us new possibilities. We can help some untreatable patients or transfer care from hospital to dental office. We have been trying to solve contraindications for laser therapy five years. In the center of our work are disorders of blood coagulation, immunity and metabolism. Nd:YAG laser is very useful in coagulation and vaporization of dental gum hypertrophies, benign and malign tumors in case of chronic anticoagulation therapy and immunosupress / in combination for example- after heart transplantation /. Special chapter is the care of patients with disseminated tumors. Er:YAG laser large solve big lesions because of minimal invasivity of course but for small benign tumors are recidives is ideal. Better and quicker healing make new standard of patients' cooperation. Generally fashionable and more comfortable laser treatment minimize need of general anesthesia. After five years we use complex laser therapy in our routine. Aim of our new work is to find ideal combination of cutting lasers to minimize classical complications of laser surgery / carbonization, long and secondary healing /.

  11. Mode-locked and Q-switched operation of a diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064 µm

    Maker, G. T.; Keen, S. J.; Ferguson, A. I.


    We describe the performance of a mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064 μm, optically pumped by a 500 mW diode laser. The cw mode-locked system provides bandwidth-limited pulses of 55 ps duration, with a corresponding peak power of 3.3 W. When Q-switched the energy within the 100 ns pulse envelope is 10 μJ giving a peak power in the largest pulse of 7 kW. Preliminary results for operation at 1.32 μm are also reported.

  12. 36 W Q-switched Ho:YAG laser at 2097 nm pumped by a Tm fiber laser: evaluation of different Ho3+ doping concentrations

    Antipov, O. L.; Eranov, I. D.; Kositsyn, R. I.


    A laser oscillator based on Ho:YAG crystal pumped by a Tm fiber laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch was optimized for maximum output power and pulse-to-pulse stability. Stable operation at 2097 nm in Q-switched mode is demonstrated, with pulse repetition rates from 10 to 30 kHz, and output power of 36 W (at 55 W of pump power at 1908 nm) in the good quality beam. The influence of Ho ion up-conversion and thermal lensing on the oscillation efficiency is discussed.

  13. Paradoxical darkening of unperceived tattoo ink after relatively low fluence from a Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064-nm) laser in the course of treatment for melasma.

    Chung, W K; Yang, J H; Lee, D W; Chang, S E; Lee, M W; Choi, J H; Moon, K C


    Although Q-switched (QS) lasers are the mainstay of modern tattoo removal, paradoxical darkening of tattoo ink may occur. This darkening of tattoo ink is dependent on laser wavelength, pulse duration and fluence, with high-energy, nanosecond-pulsed lasers more prone to induce tattoo-ink darkening. Laser toning, consisting of multiple-passed QS neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), 1064-nm laser treatment with low fluence, short pulse duration (hair, eyebrows or eyelashes, but this phenomenon is reversible. A more problematic error is caused by treatment of eyeliner or eyebrow tattoos. We report a patient who experienced changes in unperceived, skin-coloured tattoos, turning them blue after QS Nd:YAG laser treatment of melasma.

  14. Micro pulse laser radar

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)


    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  15. Investigations on the potential of a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for dental applications

    Stock, Karl; Hausladen, Florian; Hibst, Raimund


    The successful clinical application of the Er:YAG-laser in dentistry is well known, documented by numerous published studies. These lasers are flash lamp pumped systems and emit pulses of typically some 100 μs duration with energies of up to 1 J. Pulse repetition rates can reach up to 100Hz, and mean powers are up to about 8W. As an alternative to these laser systems recently a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system (Pantec Engineering AG) became available. This laser can provide a pulse repetition rate up to 2kHz and a mean laser power up to 15W. The aim of the presented study is to investigate the effect of this laser system on dental hard and soft tissue at various irradiation parameters, particular at repetition rates more than 100 Hz. At first an appropriate experimental set-up was realized with a beam delivery and focusing unit, a computer controlled stepper unit with sample holder, and a shutter unit. The stepper unit allows to move the samples (dentin or enamel slides of extracted human teeth, chicken breast, pig bone) with a defined velocity during irradiation by various laser parameters. For rinsing the sample surface a water spray was also included. The laser produced grooves and cuts were analyzed by light microscopy and laser scanning microscopy regarding to the ablation quality, geometry, ablation efficacy, and thermal effects. The grooves in dentin and enamel show a rough surface, typical for Er:YAG laser ablation. The craters are slightly cone shaped with sharp edges on the surface. Water cooling is essential to prevent thermal injury. The ablation efficacy in dentin is comparable to literature values of the flash lamp pumped Er:YAG laser. The cutting of bone and soft tissue is excellent and appears superior to earlier results obtained with flash lamp pumped system. As a further advantage, the broad range of repetition rates allows to widely vary the thermal side effects. In conclusion, these first experiments with a diode pumped Er:YAG laser

  16. In-band pumped Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1617 and 1634 nm

    Wang, Yong; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Xiaofang; Shen, Deyuan; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan


    We report on the performance of an Er,Yb fiber laser in-band pumped, acousto-optically Q-switched polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser operating at 1617 and 1634 nm wavelength regions. A volume Bragg grating was employed to control the laser oscillating at either 1617 or 1634 nm via adjusting the incidence angle on the VBG of laser beams in the cavity. Spectral bandwidths of less than 0.1 nm were observed for both 1617 and 1634 nm wavelength laser emission. Stable pulses are generated for 0.1-10 kHz repetition rates. Maximum pulse energies of 6 mJ and 2.16 mJ were obtained for 1617 and 1634 nm under100 Hz repetition rate with pulse durations of 72 ns and 142 ns, respectively.

  17. Double pulse laser wakefield accelerator

    Kim, Changbum [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Kim, Jin-Cheol B. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kukhee [National Fusion Reserch Center, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, In Soo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Hyyong [Center for Advanced Accelerators, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)


    Two-dimensional simulation studies are performed for modified laser wakefield acceleration. After one laser pulse, another identical laser pulse is sent to the plasma to amplify the wake wave resonantly. The simulation results show that the number of injected electrons is bigger than that of the single pulse case and the beam energy is higher as well. In addition, increase of the transverse amplitude is noticed in the wake wave after the second laser pulse. This shows that the transverse motion of the wake wave enhances the wave breaking for strong injection and acceleration of electron beams.

  18. Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with microstructural refinement

    Kamimura, T.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Arii, T.; Shirai, W.; Mikami, T.; Okamoto, T.; Aung, Yan Lin; Ikesue, A.


    We have investigated a relationship among the bulk laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and YAG ceramics with various structural defects. The correlation of scattering defect density and laser damage resistance was clearly observed. A high-quality YAG ceramic having a low-scattering density showed a higher LIDT than that of a low-quality YAG ceramic. Laser damage threshold (LIDT) of high-quality YAG ceramic was almost the same as that of a single crystal. In addition, the high-quality Nd:YAG ceramics with low-defect density showed an excellent oscillation efficiency which was comparable to that of a single crystal. Thus, high-quality YAG ceramic with low-defect density is more reliable as a material which is highly resistant to laser damage.

  19. Effects of the Nd:YAG laser on amalgam dental restorative material: a preliminary study

    Cernavin, Igor; Hogan, Sean P.


    The Nd:YAG laser has been marketed as an instrument for use on both hard and soft dental tissues. Its potential for use on hard tissues is limited but it may be the instrument of choice for use in certain soft tissue procedures. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the Nd:YAG laser on amalgam restorations which frequently occur on tooth surfaces adjacent to areas of soft tissue which may be subjected to the laser. The amalgam used was Tytin. The laser firing was controlled by a computer and a constant repetition rate of 40 Hz was used. Energy per pulse was altered as follows, 30 mJ, 40 mJ, 60 mJ, 80 mJ, 120 mJ and 140 mJ. Exposure times of 0.05 sec, 0.125 sec, 0.25 sec, 0.5 sec, 1 sec, 2 sec, 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec were used. The width of defect was measured using a Nikon measurescope with 10x magnification and it was established that the damage threshold lies between 0.125 sec and 0.25 sec for 30 mJ per pulse. The data was analyzed using a one way ANOVA statistical test. There was a significant correlation between the width of the defect and energy per pulse setting as well as exposure time. The findings indicate that amalgam restorations are prone to damage from inadvertent laser exposure and clinicians must take measures to protect such restorations during lasing of soft tissues.

  20. A high-power high-stability Q-switched green laser with intracavity frequency doubling using a diode-pumped composite ceramic Nd:YAG laser

    Wang Yu-Ye; Xu De-Gang; Liu Chang-Ming; Wang Wei-Peng; Yao Jian-Quan


    We successfully obtain a high-average-power high-stability Q-switched green laser based on diode-side-pumped composite ceramic Nd:YAG in a straight plano-concave cavity. The temperature distribution in composite ceramic Nd:YAG crystal is numerically analyzed and compared with that of conventional Nd:YAG crystal.By using a composite ceramic Nd:YAG rod and a type-Ⅱ high gray track resistance KTP (HGTR-KTP) crystal,a green laser with an average output power of 165 W is obtained at a repetition rate of 25 kHz,with a diode-to-green optical conversion of 14.68%,and a pulse width of 162 ns.To the best of our knowledge,both the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are the highest values for green laser systems with intracavity frequency doubling of this novel composite ceramic Nd:YAG laser to date.The power fluctuation at around 160 W is lower than 0.3% in 2.5 hours.

  1. Characterization of 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser-produced cu plasma

    Ilyas, B.; Dogar, A. H.; Ullah, S.; Nadeem, A.; Qayyum, A.


    The plasma was produced by focusing Nd:YAG laser pulses of 1064 nm wavelength on to a copper target at laser fluences of 5.35, 6.95, and 9.33 J/cm2. An ion collector placed along the target surface normal was used to record the time-of-flight (TOF) ion signal during plasma expansion in vacuum. The TOF ion pulses were deconvoluted using the Coulomb-Boltzmann-shifted function to estimate the available Cu ion charge states, equivalent plasma ion temperature, and accelerating potential in the nonequilibrium plasma. The maximum available ion charge state, equivalent plasma ion temperature, and accelerating potential are found to increase with laser fluence. In the local thermal equilibrium conditions, the accelerating potential can be supposed to apply across a distance of the order of the Debye length. The Debye length and, hence, the electric field in the laser produced plasma at three laser fluences values were estimated. The electric field was in the range of 1 MV/cm and increased with laser fluence. In the laser fluence range used in this work, the sum of thermal and adiabatic energy of the ion was slightly higher than its Coulomb energy.

  2. Diode-Pumped Passive Q-Switched 946-nm Nd:YAG Laser with 2.1-W Average Output Power

    ZHANG Ling; LI Chun-Yong; FENG Bao-Hua; WEI Zhi-Yi; LI De-Hua; FU Pan-Ming; ZHANG Zhi-Guo


    @@ We demonstrate a diode-pumped passive Q-switched 946nm Nd:YAG laser with a diffusion-bonded composite laser rod and a co-doped Nd, Cr:YAG as saturable absorber. The average output power of 2.1 W is generated at an incident pump power of 14.3 W. The peak power of the Q-switched pulse is 643 W with 80 kHz repetition rate and 40.8ns pulse width. The slope efficiency and optical conversion efficiency are 17.6% and 14.7%, respectively.

  3. Passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with ion-implanted GaAs

    Yonggang Wang(王勇刚); Xiaoyu Ma(马骁宇); Bin Zhong(钟斌); Desong Wang(王德松); Qiulin Zhang(张秋琳); Baohua Feng(冯宝华)


    We reported a passive Q-switched diode laser pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with an ion-implanted semiinsulating GaAs wafer. The wafer was implanted with 400-kev As+ in the concentration of 1016 ions/cm2.To decrease the non-saturable loss, we annealed the ion-implanted GaAs at 500 ℃ for 5 minutes and coated both sides of the ion-implanted GaAs with antireflection (AR) and high reflection (HR) films,respectively. Using GaAs wafer as an absorber and an output coupler, we obtained 52-ns pulse duration of single pulse.

  4. A randomized controlled clinical and histopathological trial comparing excisional biopsies of oral fibrous hyperplasias using CO2 and Er:YAG laser.

    Suter, Valerie G A; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bornstein, Michael M


    This study was conducted in order to compare clinical and histopathological outcomes for excisional biopsies when using pulsed CO2 laser versus Er:YAG laser. Patients (n = 32) with a fibrous hyperplasia in the buccal mucosa were randomly allocated to the CO2 (140 Hz, 400 μs, 33 mJ) or the Er:YAG laser (35 Hz, 297 μs, 200 mJ) group. The duration of excision, intraoperative bleeding and methods to stop the bleeding, postoperative pain (VAS; ranging 0-100), the use of analgesics, and the width of the thermal damage zone (μm) were recorded and compared between the two groups. The median duration of the intervention was 209 s, and there was no significant difference between the two methods. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in 100% of the excisions with Er:YAG and 56% with CO2 laser (p = 0.007). The median thermal damage zone was 74.9 μm for CO2 and 34.0 μm for Er:YAG laser (p CO2 laser and 3 for the Er:YAG group. To excise oral soft tissue lesions, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers are both valuable tools with a short time of intervention and postoperative low pain. More bleeding occurs with the Er:YAG than CO2 laser, but the lower thermal effect of Er:YAG laser seems advantageous for histopathological evaluation.

  5. Comparison of Er:YAG laser and surgical drill for osteotomy in oral surgery: an experimental study.

    Gabrić Pandurić, Dragana; Bago, Ivona; Katanec, Davor; Zabkar, Janez; Miletić, Ivana; Anić, Ivica


    High-energy lasers have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional surgical drill in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aims of this study were to compare thermal changes of the bone surface, procedure time, and volume of the removed bone after drilling with an erbium (Er):yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser versus a low-speed surgical drill. The bone sections were observed under light microscopy and examined histologically. Thirty bone blocks were prepared from porcine ribs. On each block 2 holes (tunnel preparations) were performed using a low-speed, 1.0-mm-wide, surgical pilot drill and an Er:YAG laser (pulse energy, 1,000 mJ; pulse duration, 300 μs; frequency, 20 Hz). The temperature induced by the preparation techniques was measured using an infrared camera. The removed bone volume was calculated by a modified mathematical algorithm. The time required for the preparation was measured with a digital stopwatch and a time-measurement instrument integrated within the computer program. The cortical and spongiose surfaces of the specimens were examined microscopically and histologically under a light microscope with a high-resolution camera. The Er:YAG laser removed significantly more bone tissue than the drill (P time (P laser preparation (P laser were regular with clear sharp edges and knifelike cuts. In the drill group, the preparations exhibited irregular edges full of bone fragments and fiberlike debris. Histologic examination of the laser sides showed a 30-μm-thick altered sublayer. The tissue in the drill group was covered with a smear layer without any alterations. The Er:YAG laser produced preparations with regular and sharp edges, without bone fragments and debris, in a shorter time, and with less generated heat. Thermal alterations in the treated surface were minimal. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy revealed by time-resolved imaging

    Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Rink, Klaus


    The stone fragmentation process induced during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time-resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF needle hydrophone. We used artificial and cystine kidney stones. We observed that, although the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has a minimal incidence on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to a direct laser stone heating and vaporization of stone organic constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble for fragmentation is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. This is in contrast with the fragmentation mechanisms induced by laser of shorter pulse duration.

  7. Experimental investigation on CFRP milling by low power Q-switched Yb:YAG laser source

    Genna, S.; Tagliaferri, F.; Papa, I.; Leone, C.; Palumbo, B.


    In the present study, laser milling of CFRP plate by means of a 30W Q-Switched Yb:YAG fiber laser is investigated through statistical analysis. Milling tests were performed at the nominal power changing the pulse power; the scanning speed, the hatch distance and the released energy. Design of Experiments (DoE) and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) were applied with the aim to improve the process performances in term of material removal rate and heat affected zone extension. The results show that, the adopted laser is an effective solution for the CFRP milling. Moreover, adopting an accurate approach to the problem, process variability and material damages can be easily reduced.

  8. On the use of a chirped Bragg grating as a cavity mirror of a picosecond Nd : YAG laser

    Zubko, A E; Shashkov, E V; Smirnov, A V; Vorob' ev, N S [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V I [OptiGrate Corp., 562 South Econ Circle, Oviedo, Florida 32765-4311 (United States)


    The first experimental evidence is presented that the use of a chirped volume Bragg grating (CVBG) as a cavity mirror of a Q-switched picosecond Nd : YAG laser with self-mode-locking leads to significant changes in the temporal parameters of the laser output. Measurements have been performed at two positions of the CVBG: with the grating placed so that shorter wavelengths reflected from its front part lead longer wavelengths or with the grating rotated through 180°, so that longer wavelengths are reflected first. In the former case, the duration of individual pulses in a train increased from ∼35 to ∼300 ps, whereas the pulse train shape and duration remained the same as in the case of a conventional laser with a mirror cavity. In the latter case, the full width at half maximum of pulse trains increased from ∼70 ns (Nd : YAG laser with a mirror cavity) to ∼1 ms, and the duration of individual pulses increased from 35 ps to ∼1.2 ns, respectively, which is more typical of free-running laser operation. (laser crystals and braggg ratings)

  9. Supression of laser breakdown by pulsed nonequilibrium ns discharge

    Starikovskiy, A. Y.; Semenov, I. E.; Shneider, M. N.


    The avalanche ionization induced by infrared laser pulses was investigated in a pre-ionized argon gas. Pre-ionization was created by a high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge developed in the form of a fast ionization wave. Then, behind the front of ionization wave additional avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused Nd-YAG laser pulse. It was shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation. It was demonstrated that the suppression of laser spark development in the case of strong gas pre-ionization is because of fast electron energy transfer from the laser beam focal region. The main mechanism of this energy transfer is free electrons diffusion.

  10. MHz Repetion Rate Yb:YAG and Yb:CaF2 Regenerative Picosecond Laser Amplifiers with a BBO Pockels Cell

    Fedor Bergmann


    Full Text Available We present picosecond Yb:YAG and Yb:CaF2 regenerative laser amplifiers with ultra-high repetition rates in the MHz range. A maximum pulse energy of 40 μJ was obtained at 20 kHz while we achieved around 1 μJ at 1 MHz. We demonstrated a pulse duration of 2.1 ps for Yb:YAG and 4.8 ps for Yb:CaF2 when seeded by a mode-locked Yb:KGW fs-oscillator without pulse stretching or phase compensation.

  11. Treatment of gunpowder traumatic tattoo by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: an unusual adverse effect.

    Fusade, T; Toubel, G; Grognard, C; Mazer, J M


    The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser can completely eliminate traumatic tattoos. We report the results of the unsuccessful removal of traumatic tattoos among three patients with dermal inclusions of gunpowder who were shot at close range. Treatment was tried in each patient with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a medium fluence (4-6 J/cm2). During treatment of our patients, each pulse provoked sparks and the immediate formation of bleeding trans- epidermal pits. After the healing process was completed, we observed poxlike scars and the spreading of pigments in the skin around the initial points of the tattoo. We hypothesize that the rapid transfer of high-energy pulses to powder particles creates microexplosions of these fragments resulting in cavitation and provoking transepidermal holes and subsequent scars. This adverse effect was only produced if the tattoo resulted from gun powder being shot at a short distance from the skin.

  12. Numerical simulation of a battlefield Nd:YAG laser

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjoqvist, Lars; Uhrwing, Thomas


    A numeric model has been developed to identify the critical components and parameters in improving the output beam quality of a flashlamp pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a folded Porro-prism resonator and polarization output coupling. The heating of the laser material and accompanying thermo-optical effects are calculated using the finite element partial differential equations package FEMLAB allowing arbitrary geometries and time distributions. The laser gain and the cavity are modeled with the physical optics simulation code GLAD including effects such as gain profile, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence, the Pockels cell rise-time and component aberrations. The model is intended to optimize the pumping process of an OPO providing radiation to be used for ranging, imaging or optical countermeasures.

  13. Graded Yb:YAG ceramic structures: design, fabrication and characterization of the laser performances

    Toci, Guido; Lapucci, Antonio; Ciofini, Marco; Esposito, Laura; Hostaša, Jan; Piancastelli, Andreana; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Labate, Luca; Ferrara, Paolo; Pirri, Angela; Vannini, Matteo


    Significant improvements in efficiency in high power, high repetition rate laser systems should come from the use of ceramic laser active elements suitably designed to mitigate the thermal and thermo-mechanical effects (TEs and TMEs) deriving from the laser pumping process. Laser active media exhibiting a controlled and gradual distribution of the active element(s) could therefore find useful applications in the laser-driven inertial confinement fusion systems, which are considered among the most promising energy source of the future (ultraintense laser pulses), and in medical applications (ultrashort laser pulses) The present work explores the flexibility of the ceramic process for the construction of YAG (Y3Al5O12) ceramic laser elements with a controlled distribution of the Yb doping, in view of the realization of structures modelled to respond to specific application. Two processing techniques are presented to prepare layered structures with a tailored modulation of the doping level, with the goal of reducing the peak temperature, the temperature gradients and also the thermally-induced deformation of the laser material, thus mitigating the overall thermal effects. Tape casting in combination with thermal compression of ceramic tapes with a varying doping level is one of the presented techniques. To make this process as more adaptable as possible, commercial micrometric ceramic powders have been used. The results are compared with those obtained using nanometric powders and a shaping process based on the subsequent pressing of spray dried powders with a different doping level. Laser performance has been characterized in a longitudinally diode pumped laser cavity. The laser efficiency under high thermal load conditions has been compared to those obtained from samples with uniform doping, and for samples obtained with press shaping and tape casting, under the same conditions.

  14. Passive mode locking of a Nd:YAG laser with co-doped Nd, Cr:YAG as saturable absorber

    Yang Lin(杨林); Feng Bao-Hua(冯宝华); Zhang Zhi-Guo(张治国); Gaebler Volker; Liu Bai-Ning(刘百宁); Eichler Hans


    We demonstrate the characteristics of relatively low saturation intensity using co-doped Nd, Cr:YAG as saturable absorber for passively mode locking the Nd:YAG laser. The difference of the saturation intensity between Q-switched and mode-locked operation in co-doped Nd, Cr:YAG was only one to two orders of magnitude, while Cr:YAG was generally reported at a difference of five orders of magnitude. More than 80% mode locking modulation depth was achieved at an incident pump power of 4.4W, corresponding to an intracavity intensity of 6 × 104W/cma2, using a 68cm long plano-concave cavity.

  15. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da irradiacao laser de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG na parede dentinaria do canal radicular, sob observacao do estereoscopio, da micrografia eletronica e da camera termografica

    Goya, Claudia


    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  16. Tensile bond strength and SEM analysis of enamel etched with Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid: a comparative study in vitro

    Sasaki, Luis H.; Tanaka, Celso Shin-Ite [Bandeirante University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Prosthodontics; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Villaverde, Antonio B.; Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Brugnera Junior, Aldo [University of Vale do Paraba, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Research and Development]. E-mail:; Moriyama, Yumi [Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada). Div. of Biophysics and Bioimaging; Watanabe, Ii-Sei [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Biomedical Sciences


    Er:YAG laser has been studied as a potential tool for restorative dentistry due to its ability to selectively remove oral hard tissue with minimal or no thermal damage to the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the tensile bond strength (TBS) of an adhesive/composite resin system to human enamel surfaces treated with 37% phosphoric acid, Er:YAG laser ({lambda}=2.94 {mu}m) with a total energy of 16 J (80 mJ/pulse, 2Hz, 200 pulses, 250 ms pulse width), and Er:YAG laser followed by phosphoric acid etching. Analysis of the treated surfaces was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological differences among the groups. TBS means (in MPa) were as follows: Er:YAG laser + acid (11.7 MPa) > acid (8.2 MPa) > Er:YAG laser (6.1 MPa), with the group treated with laser+acid being significantly from the other groups (p=0.0006 and p= 0.00019, respectively). The groups treated with acid alone and laser alone were significantly different from each other (p=0.0003). The SEM analysis revealed morphological changes that corroborate the TBS results, suggesting that the differences in TBS means among the groups are related to the different etching patterns produced by each type of surface treatment. The findings of this study indicate that the association between Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid can be used as a valuable resource to increase bond strength to laser-prepared enamel. (author)

  17. Neodymium YAG laser for treatment of oral cavernous hemangiomas

    Bradley, Paul F.


    Oral cavernous haemangiomas are common lesions which may require treatment due to episodes of bleeding when bitten or deformity particularly when involving the lips and/or cheeks. Surgery can be hazardous due to haemorrhage while cryosurgery tends to be tedious for large lesions and be accompanied by major oedema. Sclerosants produce hard bulky masses. Embolization is seldom helpful due to lack of arterial feeders. The Nd:YAG laser is proving a useful modality in the oro-facial region and appeared worth investigating for these lesions in a laboratory animal model, by thermography and in the clinical situation.

  18. FT-Raman spectroscopic characterization of enamel surfaces irradiated with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers

    Shahabi, Sima; Fekrazad, Reza; Johari, Maryam; Chiniforoush, Nasim; Rezaei, Yashar


    Background. Despite recent advances in dental caries prevention, caries is common and remains a serious health problem. Laser irradiation is one of the most common methods in preventive measures in recent years. Raman spectroscopy technique is utilized to study the microcrystalline structure of dental enamel. In this study, FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate chemical changes in enamel structure irradiated with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers. Methods. We used 15 freshly-extracted, non-carious, human molars that were treated as follows: No treatment was carried out in group A (control group); Group B was irradiated with Er:YAG laser for 10 seconds under air and water spray; and Group C was irradiated with Nd:YAG laser for 10 seconds under air and water spray. After treatment, the samples were analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results. The carbonate content evaluation with regard to the integrated area under the curve (1065/960 cm–1) exhibited a significant reduction in its ratio in groups B and C. The organic content (2935/960 cm-1) area exhibited a significant decrease after laser irradiation in group B and C. Conclusion. The results showed that the mineral and organic matrices of enamel structure were affected by laser irradiation; therefore, it might be a suitable method for caries prevention. PMID:28096945

  19. FT-Raman spectroscopic characterization of enamel surfaces irradiated with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers

    Sima Shahabi


    Full Text Available Background. Despite recent advances in dental caries prevention, caries is common and remains a serious health problem. Laser irradiation is one of the most common methods in preventive measures in recent years. Raman spectroscopy technique is utilized to study the microcrystalline structure of dental enamel. In this study, FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate chemical changes in enamel structure irradiated with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers. Methods. We used 15 freshly-extracted, non-carious, human molars that were treated as follows: No treatment was carried out in group A (control group; Group B was irradiated with Er:YAG laser for 10 seconds under air and water spray; and Group C was irradiated with Nd:YAG laser for 10 seconds under air and water spray. After treatment, the samples were analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results. The carbonate content evaluation with regard to the integrated area under the curve (1065/960 cm–1 exhibited a significant reduction in its ratio in groups B and C. The organic content (2935/960 cm-1 area exhibited a significant decrease after laser irradiation in group B and C. Conclusion. The results showed that the mineral and organic matrices of enamel structure were affected by laser irradiation; therefore, it might be a suitable method for caries prevention.

  20. 1.8kW laser diode pumped YAG laser; Shutsuryoku 1.8kW no handotai laser reiki YAG laser



    Toshiba Corporation, as a participant in Ministry of International Trade and Industry`s `photon measurement and processing technology project` since August, 1997, is engaged in the development of an energy-efficient LD (laser diode) pumped semiconductor YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser device to be used for welding and cutting. It is a 5-year project and the goal is a mean output of 10kW and efficiency of 20%. In this article, a simulation program is developed which carries out calculation about element technology items such as the tracking of the beam from the pumping LD and the excitation distribution, temperature distribution, thermal stress distribution, etc., in the YAG rod. An oscillator is constructed, based on the results of the simulation, and it exhibits a world-high class continuous laser performance of a 1.8kW output and 13% efficiency. The record of 13% efficiency is five times higher than that achieved by the conventional lamp-driven YAG laser device. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Diode end-pumped self-Q-switched and mode-locked Nd,Cr:YAG/KTP green laser

    Du Shi-Feng; Wang Su-Mei; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Chun-Yu; Zhang Ling; Zhang Zhi-Guo; Zhang Shi-Wen


    We first experimentally demonstrate a laser-diode end-pumped self-Q-switched and mode-locked Nd,Cr:YAG green laser with a KTP crystal as the intra- cavity frequency doubler. The device produces an average output power of 680 mW at 532 nm. The corresponding pulse width of the Q-switched envelope of the green laser is 170 ± 20 ns. The mode-locked pulses have a repetition rate of approximately 183 MHz and the average pulse duration is estimated to be around sub-nanosecond. It is found that the intra-cavity frequency doubling greatly improves the modulation depth and stability of the mode-locked pulses within the Q-switched envelope.

  2. Dacriocistorrinostomia transnasal vídeo-endoscópica com Nd: YAG laser e diodo laser Endonasal dacriocystorhinosthomy with Nd: YAG laser and diodo laser

    Eurípedes da Mota Moura


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a técnica de dacriocistorrinostomia para o tratamento das obstruções do ducto lacrimo-nasal, pela vídeo-endoscopia transnasal com ND:YAG "laser" e Diodo "laser". MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e uma cirurgias de dacriocistorrinostomia transnasal vídeo-endoscópica com Nd:YAG "laser" e Diodo "laser" foram realizadas em 42 pacientes, 36 do sexo feminino e 6 do masculino com idade variando de 3 a 92 anos; idade média 52,3 anos, no período de abril 1997 a fevereiro 2003. RESULTADO: O índice de sucesso na remissão dos sintomas foi de 92,15%. Em todos os pacientes era feita entubação bicanalicular com silicone e mantida por seis a oito semanas. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica empregada mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento das obstruções do ducto lacrimo-nasal. Não se observou diferença de resultados quando se utilizou Nd:YAG e Diodo "laser". O pós-operatório em todos os casos foi confortável e sem hemorragias.PURPOSE: To evaluate the technique of dacryocysthorrinosthomy for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, by transnasal endoscopic video-assisted approach with Nd:YAG laser and diode laser. METHODS: Fifty one surgeries dacryocysthorrinostomy transnasal endoscopic video assisted were performed in 42 patients, 36 females, 6 males, aged between 3 and 92 years, mean age 52.3 years, in the period of April 1997 to February 2003. RESULT: The surgery successfully relieved lacrimal duct obstruction in 92.15% of the patients. CONCLUSION: The technique was efficient for the treatment of nasolacrimal obstruction. In all patients bicanalicular silicone stents were inserted at the time of surgery and removed after six to eight weeks. There is no difference in the results between Nd:YAG and diode laser. The postoperative period in all cases was comfortable and there was no hemorrhage.

  3. Microchannel fabrication on cyclic olefin polymer substrates via 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation

    McCann, Ronán [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Bagga, Komal; Groarke, Robert [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Stalcup, Apryll [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Vázquez, Mercedes, E-mail: [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brabazon, Dermot [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)


    Highlights: • Rapid single-step microchannel fabrication on optically transparent cyclic olefin polymer using IR Nd:YAG laser. • Ability to tailor channel depth between 12–47 μm demonstrated for single laser pass. • Use of multiple laser passes showed capability for finer depth control. • Potential applications in lab-on-chip and microfluidic devices. - Abstract: This paper presents a method for fabrication of microchannels on cyclic olefin polymer films that have application in the field of microfluidics and chemical sensing. Continuous microchannels were fabricated on 188-μm-thick cyclic olefin polymer substrates using a picosecond pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. The effect of laser fluence on the microchannel morphology and dimensions was analysed via scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Single laser passes were found to produce v-shaped microchannels with depths ranging from 12 μm to 47 μm and widths from 44 μm to 154 μm. The ablation rate during processing was lower than predicted theoretically. Multiple laser passes were applied to examine the ability for finer control over microchannel morphology with channel depths ranging from 22 μm to 77 μm and channel widths from 59 μm to 155 μm. For up to five repeat passes, acceptable reproducibility was found in the produced microchannel morphology. Infrared spectroscopy revealed oxidation and dehydrogenation of the polymer surface following laser ablation. These results were compared to other work conducted on cyclic olefin polymers.

  4. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on the scanning electron microscopic structure and surface roughness of various implant surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Shin, Seung-Il; Min, Hyung-Ki; Park, Bo-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Park, Joon-Bong; Herr, Yeek; Heo, Seong-Joo; Chung, Jong-Hyuk


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness (R(a)) and microscopic change to irradiated dental implant surfaces in vitro and ultimately to determine the proper pulse energy power and application time for the clinical use of Er:YAG lasers. Anodic oxidized surface implants and sand-blasted, large-grit, and acid-etched (SLA) surface implants were used. Each experimental group of implant surfaces included ten implants. Nine implants were used for the laser irradiation test groups and one for the control group. Each test group was equally divided into three subgroups by irradiated pulse energy power. Using an Er:YAG laser, each subgroup of anodic oxidized surface implants was split into 60-, 100-, and 140-mJ/pulse groups, with each subgroup of SLA surface implants irradiated with a 100-, 140-, or 180-mJ/pulse. Three implants in every test subgroup were respectively irradiated for 1, 1.5, and 2 min. The R(a) values for each specimen were recorded and every specimen was observed by SEM. Irradiation by Er:YAG laser led to a decrease in implant surface roughness that was not statistically significant. In anodic oxidized surfaces, the oxidized layer peeled off of the surface, and cracks appeared on implant surfaces in the 100- and 140-mJ/pulse subgroups. However, with SLA surfaces, no significant change in surface texture could be found on any implant surface in the 100- and 140-mJ/pulse subgroups. The melting and fusion phenomena of implant surfaces were observed with all application times with 180 mJ/pulse irradiation. The SLA implant surfaces are stable with laser intensities of less than 140 mJ/pulse and an irradiation time of less than 2 min. The anodic oxidized surfaces were not stable with laser intensities of 100 mJ/pulse when an Er:YAG laser was used to detoxify implant surfaces.

  5. Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    Nieuwenhuis, Ab F.; Lee, Chris J.; Slot, van der Peter J.M.; Gross, Petra; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Powers, Peter E.


    We generate mid-infrared pulsed light tunable between 5.6 μm and 6.6 μm using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) directly pumped by a Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG, Q -switched laser operating at 2.1 μm. The Holmium laser uses a RTP Q -switch to produce pulses shorter than 100 ns and energies of up to 42 mJ in a

  6. Mid-Infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    Nieuwenhuis, Albert F.; Lee, Christopher James; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Powers, Peter E.


    We generate mid-infrared pulsed light tunable between 5.6 μm and 6.6 μm using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) directly pumped by a Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG, Q -switched laser operating at 2.1 μm. The Holmium laser uses a RTP Q -switch to produce pulses shorter than 100 ns and energies of up to 42 mJ in a

  7. Studies on Nd∶YAG Single-pass Amplifiers for High-power Q-switched Laser System

    CAO Sansong(曹三松); ZHANG Xiangyang(张向阳); HUANG Yanlin(黄燕琳); LI Guangrong(李光荣); SU Xinzhi(苏心智)


    The output of Nd∶YAG single-pass laser amplifiers is studied analytically and experimentally. Methods of analysis for single-pass Nd∶YAG laser amplifier are presented. A flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Nd∶YAG oscillator/amplifier laser system has been developed with the average output power of 121.5 W.

  8. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)


    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  9. Bonding Strength of Ceromer with Direct Laser Sintered, Ni-Cr-Based, and ZrO2 Metal Infrastructures After Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG Laser Surface Treatments-A Comparative In Vitro Study.

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal


    Laser modalities instead of conventional surface treatment techniques have been suggested to obtain an adequate micromechanical bonding between dental super- and infrastructures. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of surface treatment with Ho:YAG, Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG laser modalities on the shear bond strength (SBS) of ceromer to different types of metal infrastructures in in vitro settings. The study specimens consisted of 40 direct laser sintered (DLS), 40 Ni-Cr-based, and 40 zirconium oxide (ZrO2) infrastructures. In each infrastructure group, the specimens were divided randomly into five treatment modalities (n = 8): no treatment (controls), sandblasting, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG lasers. The DLS, Ni-Cr-based, and ZrO2 infrastructures were prepared in the final dimensions of 7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness in line with the ISO 11405 standard. Ceromer as superstructure was applied to all the infrastructures after their surface treatments according to the selected treatment modality. SBS test was performed to test the effectiveness of surface treatments. A stereomicroscope was used to determine the changes in the surface morphology of specimens. Among the laser modalities and sandblasting, Ho:YAG laser caused the most important increase in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures but sandblasting caused the most important increase in the ZrO2 infrastructure. In all the infrastructures, Nd:YAG laser has the least effectiveness, and Er:YAG laser makes an intermediate success. The stereomicroscopy images presented that the applications of laser surface treatments altered the surface in all the infrastructures. Overall, in current experimental settings, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG lasers, in order of strength, are effective in improving the bonding of ceromer to all the infrastructures. Ho:YAG laser is more effective in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures, but sandblasting is more effective in the ZrO2 infrastructure. The studied

  10. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.


    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  11. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Comstock, Matthew


    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  12. LD end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser

    Wu, C. T.; Yu, M.; Wang, C.; Yu, K.; Yu, Y. J.; Chen, X. Y.; Jin, G. Y.


    Laser characteristics of acousto-optic Q-switched operation of 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser were studied. Maximum output power of 5.77 W was achieved in CW operation. Under Q-switched operation, the maximum peak power of 3.96 kW and minimum pulse width of 65.6 ns was obtained at repetition frequency of 20 kHz with the duty ratio of 96%. The influence of the duration of the ultrasonic field acted on the Q-switch to the output characteristics of dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser had been reported first time.

  13. High-power pulsed lasers

    Holzrichter, J.F.


    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization.

  14. Nd: YAG laser therapy of rectosigmoid bleeding due to radiation injury

    Leuchter, R.S.; Petrilli, E.S.; Dwyer, R.M.; Hacker, N.F.; Castaldo, T.W.; Lagasse, L.D.


    The Nd:YAG laser was used to treat a patient bleeding from the rectosigmoid as a result of radiation injury related to therapy for cervical carcinoma. Successful laser therapy was performed after a diverting colostomy failed to control persistent bleeding. Further surgical procedures were not required. Characteristics of Nd:YAG laser as compared with those of the carbon dioxide and argon lasers are considered.

  15. Holmium:YAG laser-assisted otolaryngologic surgery: Lahey Clinic experience

    Shapshay, Stanley M.; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Pankratov, Michail M.


    The Holmium:YAG laser was used to assist in 36 rhinologic procedures including surgery for chronic sinus disease, chronic dacryocystitis, recurrent choanal stenosis, and a sphenoid sinus mucocele. There were no laser related complications. The laser permitted controlled ablation of bone and soft tissue in all cases with satisfactory results. The Ho:YAG laser can be used in otolaryngology to assist in cases where surgical access is difficult or when controlled, precise bone and soft tissue ablation is necessary.

  16. Analysis of Thermal Effects in Laser Rod Pumped by Repetitively Pulsed Laser Diode Array

    DAI Qin; LI Xin-zhong; WU Ri-na; WANG Xi-jun


    Based on some assumptions, the numerical model of thermal distribution in solid state laser crystal pumped by pulsed laser diode is set up due to the pumped intensity distribution. Taking into account the property of YAG materials that varies with temperature, the transient temperature distribution of the laser crystal is calculated using finite element method on condition that K is a constant and a function of temperature. Then, the influence of the pumping parameters on the thermal effect in laser crystal is also discussed. This study is helpful to optimize the design of the diode side pumped solid state lasers.

  17. 室温6.11 mJ脉冲LD单端抽运Tm:YAG调Q激光器%6.11 mJ Q-switched Tm:YAG laser end pumped by pulse laser diode at room temperature

    金光勇; 宋雪迪; 吴春婷; 陈薪羽; 于凯


    由于2μm波段激光处于大气的窗口上,并且对人眼安全,因而在测风领域具有潜在的应用价值。该波段的激光器可以作为相干多普勒测风雷达和差分吸收雷达的光源。为了进行相干多普勒测风雷达光源的研究,报道了一种脉冲激光二级管(LD)单端抽运Tm:YAG调Q激光器。在实验中,采用L型平凹腔结构,利用声光Q开关实现大能量的激光输出。该激光器输出的激光中心波长为2014.9 nm,在重复频率为100 Hz情况下,调Q后获得最大单脉冲能量为6.11 mJ,激光脉冲宽度为324.7 ns,斜率效率为13.56%的激光输出。输出的脉冲激光的光束质量M2在x方向上为1.31,y方向上为1.35。%The 2 μm laser is in the atmosphere window and the eye -safety wavelength regions. Therefore, it is expected to have potential application in wide range of fields. The lasers can be a light source of Coherent Doppler Wind Lidars and Differential Absorption Lidars. In order to develop a laser light source of Coherent Doppler Wind Lidars, a pulse LD end pumped Q-switched Tm:YAG laser was developed by using a plano-concave cavity with a acousto-optical (AO) Q-switch. The center wavelength of the output laser was measured to be 2 014.9 nm. In the repetition frequency of 100 Hz, a maximum single energy of 6.11 mJ after Q-switching operation and the narrowest pulse width of 324.7 ns were achieved at room temperature, whose slop efficiency was 13.56%. The M2x was 1.31 and the M2y was 1.35.

  18. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  19. SEM evaluation of the hybrid layer after cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser.

    de Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostílio Cervantes; Sales, Helena Xavier; Silva, Bárbara Carvalho; Barceleiro, Cristiane Gomes


    This study compared the thickness of the hybrid layer formed using Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, Single Bond 2, Prime & Bond 2.1 and Xeno III on a dentin surface prepared with a diamond bur in a high speed handpiece or prepared with an Er:YAG laser used with two parameters of pulse energy (200 and 400 mJ) and two parameters of frequency (4 and 6 Hz). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from 20 human third molars were treated with the two methods and were then prepared with the dentin adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. After a layer of composite was applied, the specimens were sectioned, flattened, polished and prepared for Scanning Electronic Microscopy observation. Five different measurements of the hybrid layer thickness were obtained along the bonded surface in each specimen. The results were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (p cavity preparation method, four groups were formed: Group I (diamond bur) > Group II (Laser 200 mJ/4 Hz) = Group III (Laser 200 mJ/6 Hz) > Group IV (Laser 400 mJ/4 Hz) > Group V (Laser 400 mJ/6 Hz). When comparing the dentin adhesive systems, there were no statistically significant differences. These results showed that the four tested dentin adhesive systems produced a 2.90 +/- 1.71 microm hybrid layer in dentin prepared with a diamond bur. This hybrid layer was regular and routinely found. In the laser groups, the dentin adhesive systems produced hybrid layers ranging from 0.41 +/- 1.00 microm to 2.06 +/- 2.49 microm, which were very irregular and not routinely found. It was also concluded that the Er:YAG laser, with the parameters used in this experiment, has a negative influence on the formation of a hybrid layer and cavity preparation methods influence formation of the hybrid layer.

  20. Nd:YAG 1.44 laser ablation of human cartilage

    Cummings, Robert S.; Prodoehl, John A.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Black, Johnathan D.; Sherk, Henry H.


    This study determined the effectiveness of a Neodymium:YAG 1.44 micrometers wavelength laser on human cartilage. This wavelength is strongly absorbed by water. Cadaveric meniscal fibrocartilage and articular hyaline cartilage were harvested and placed in normal saline during the study. A 600 micrometers quartz fiber was applied perpendicularly to the tissues with a force of 0.098 N. Quantitative measurements were then made of the ablation rate as a function of fluence. The laser energy was delivered at a constant repetition rate of 5 Hz., 650 microsecond(s) pulsewidth, and energy levels ranging from 0.5 joules to 2.0 joules. Following the ablation of the tissue, the specimens were fixed in formalin for histologic evaluation. The results of the study indicate that the ablation rate is 0.03 mm/mj/mm2 for hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. Fibrocartilage was cut at approximately the same rate as hyaline cartilage. There was a threshold fluence projected to be 987 mj/mm2 for hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. Our results indicate that the pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.44 micrometers has a threshold fluence above which it will ablate human cartilage, and that its ablation rate is directly proportional to fluence over the range of parameters tested. Fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage demonstrated similar threshold fluence and ablation rates which is related to the high water content of these tissues.

  1. Preparation of BiSrCaCuO Multilayers by Use of Slower Q-switched 266 nm YAG Laser

    Kaneko, Satoru; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Ohya, Seishiro


    Multilayers of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox{\\slash}Bi2Sr2Cu1Ox were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the fourth harmonic 266 nm YAG. Compared to an excimer laser, YAG PLD required the higher oxygen atmosphere. The higher oxygen pressure together with the lower energy generated by YAG laser collapsed the region of plume emission. In order to produce the same energy density as an excimer, only Q-switch was modulated by 2 Hz while the flash lamp kept the original repetition rate of 10 Hz. With the rate of 2 Hz, we obtained the higher energy density per pulse, and more stable laser output of the fourth harmonics, 266 nm. To characterize the multilayers, reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed, and indicative of epitaxial layers with limited in-plane order. The resistivities of multilayers were measured by the Van der Pauw method, and showed the temperatures of superconducting transition, Tc0 (R=0), around 65 K on the multilayers.


    K. A. Orehov


    Full Text Available Laser emitters used in rangefinders without cooling have several limitations: low energy, high beam divergence at the cavity exit that leads to large output telescope design that significantly increases rangefinder’s size, long time beam parameters instability due to laser crystal heating. In the article laser emitter for a transmitting unit of rangefinder based on cylindrical laser medium Nd:YAG with transverse diode pumping abled to solve all the abovementioned promblems is considered. Matrix optics and balance equations were used for system modeling. The emitter is based on plano-concave scheme cavity with internal concave lens aimed for matching the size of TEM00 mode with the size of laser medium and cavity tuning to stability threshold which allows to achieve divergence of the output pulse at diffraction level for 5 mm diameter medium and 300 mm cavity length. Cavity reconfiguration and mode size compliance is conducted by the longitudinal movement of lens relative to the rear mirror. Three-, twoand one-sided pump schemes are compared in terms of rod energy absorption uniformity and their effectiveness. The three-sided pump scheme model with a system of gold coated reflectors was designed that provides 54 % efficiency of pump when the pump energy is distributed uniformly along the cross-section of the laser medium. Based on the modeling in ANSYS the scheme of laser medium thermal control in vacuum conditions was suggested that implies introduction heat-conducting glue between the side edge of a laser medium and quantron body that allows to low the active medium heating in the 8 min cycle by 35 °С. Beam pulse energy under pump of 1.2 Joule equals to about 0.3 Joule with the 4 ns pulse time and 2 Hz in frequency. 

  3. Large-core tube-leaky waveguide for delivery of high-powered Er:YAG laser

    Kobayashi, S.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.


    A tube-leaky fiber that consists of only dielectric thin-film tubing for delivery of Er:YAG laser light is presented. The tube-leaky fiber confines light in the airy core when the film thickness is properly chosen for target wavelength. Transmission properties of the fibers are derived by using a ray optic method and designed the optimum wall thickness for the Er:YAG laser wavelength of 2.94 micron. In fabrication of the tube leaky fiber, we use a microstructural tube made of glass to enhance mechanical strength. The central bore and surrounding glass thin layer that is held by the microstructure function as a tube-leaky fiber. We fabricate a large-core fiber for delivery of high-power medical lasers by stack-and-draw method and we use borosilicate-glass as a fiber material for low cost fabrication. Fabricated fibers have a diameter over 400 μm and from the loss measurements for Er:YAG laser, and the fibers deliver laser light with a transmission loss of 0.85 dB/m that is comparable to 0.7 dB/m of conventional hollow-optical fibers. The fibers withstand transmission of laser pulses with energy higher than 120 mJ. We confirm that these energies are enough to ablate biological tissues in surgical operations.

  4. Root substance removal with Er:YAG laser radiation at different parameters using a new delivery system.

    Folwaczny, M; Mehl, A; Haffner, C; Benz, C; Hickel, R


    The recently introduced Er:YAG laser radiation appears to be a promising alternative in treating dental hard tissue due to its thermo-mechanical ablation properties and the lack of thermal side effects. The present in vitro study attempted to evaluate the use of Er:YAG laser radiation in combination with a specially developed delivery system in removing calculus from root surfaces. Fifty extracted anterior teeth, premolars and molars, were divided into 2 groups of 25 each with (group A) and without (group B) subgingival calculus. Source of radiation was an Er:YAG laser device with a wavelength of 2.94 microm, in the infrared optical spectrum, a pulse duration of 250 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of 15 pps. In each group, 6 teeth were irradiated with 300 laser pulses either at 60 mJ, 80 mJ, 100 mJ, or 150 mJ. The samples were continually moved linearly using a computer numeric controlled device. The volumetric evaluation of root substance removal was performed with a 3-dimensional laser scanning system (100,000 surface points per sample, accuracy: 5 microm) and special image analyzing software. A scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation was performed to assess the laser induced ultrastructural changes on the root surfaces. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA followed by the Scheff*e test and with regression analysis according to Pearson-Bravais at a level of significance of 5% (P calculus samples (group A) revealed average depths between 174.38 (+/-16.13) microm and 501.85 (+/-111.01) microm. Defect depths on the teeth without calculus (group B) ranged from 37.78 (+/-14.03) microm to 484.44 (+/-80.63) microm. The SEM observation of laser-treated root surfaces revealed no signs of thermal damage; e.g., melting, fusion, or cracking. The results of the present study showed that a substance removal with Er:YAG laser radiation at lower energy densities is comparable, in effect, to that after conventional root surface instrumentation with curets. The

  5. Synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation

    Quintana, M.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Morales, J.; Batina, N.


    The synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation using a YAG laser at 532 nm is reported. The nanoparticles were deposited on three different substrates: metallic gold films, silicon wafers and glass, and subsequently visualized and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the size, shape and population of the selenium nanoparticles are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions during the ablation process; in particular on the energy density, number of laser pulses and the nature of the substrate. Atomic force microscopy imaging allows recognition, quantitative and qualitative characterization of individual selenium nanoparticles and their aggregates as well. In most of the experiments just a few laser pulses (up to five), were sufficient to produce a noticeable amount of nanoparticles on the substrate surface.

  6. High-Efficiency High-Power Nd:YAG Laser under 885 nm Laser Diode Pumping

    LI Fang-Qin; ZHANG Xiao-Fu; ZONG Nan; YANG Jing; PENG Qin-Jun; CUI Da-Fu; XU Zu-Yan


    A high-efficiency high-power Nd:YAG laser under 885 nm laser diode (LD) pumping is demonstrated. The laser crystal is carefully designed, and the overlapping between the pump modes and the laser modes is optimized. The maximum output power at 1064 nm is 87 W under the absorbed pump power 127.7 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 72.4% and an optical-optical efficiency of 68.1%. The optical-optical efficiency is 58.4% for the pump power emitted directly from the LD. To our best knowledge, this is the maximal optical-optical conversion efficiency obtained for the LD end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers so far.

  7. Characterization of caries progression on dentin after irradiation with Nd:YAG laser by FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

    Ana, P. A.; Brito, A. M. M.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C. C. C.


    Considering the use of high intensity lasers for preventing dental caries, this blind in vitro study evaluated the compositional and fluorescence effects promoted by Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) when applied for prevention of progression of dentin caries, in association or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Sixty bovine root dentin slabs were prepared and demineralized by 32h in order to create early caries lesions. After, the slabs were distributed into six experimental groups: G1- untreated and not submitted to a pH-cycling model; G2- untreated and submitted to a pH-cycling model; G3- acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF); G4- Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J/cm2, 60 mJ/pulse); G5- treated with Nd:YAG+APF; G6- treated with APF+Nd:YAG. After treatments, the samples of groups G2 to G6 were submitted to a 4-day pH-cycling model in order to simulate the progression of early caries lesions. All samples were characterized by the micro-attenuated total reflection technique of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (μATR-FTIR), using a diamond crystal, and by a fluorescence imaging system (FIS), in which it was used an illuminating system at λ= 405±30 nm. Demineralization promoted reduction in carbonate and phosphate contents, exposing the organic matter; as well, it was observed a significant reduction of fluorescence intensity. Nd:YAG laser promoted additional chemical changes, and increased the fluorescence intensity even with the development of caries lesions. It was concluded that the compositional changes promoted by Nd:YAG, when associated to APF, are responsible for the reduction of demineralization progression observed on root dentin.

  8. Comparison of the Q-switched alexandrite, Nd:YAG, and ruby lasers in treating blue-black tattoos.

    Leuenberger, M L; Mulas, M W; Hata, T R; Goldman, M P; Fitzpatrick, R E; Grevelink, J M


    A new generation of highly selective short-pulsed lasers has emerged in recent years for the treatment of tattoos. Several studies (including reports by the present investigators) have proven the efficacy of each of the three commercially available, FDA approved devices; namely, the Q-switched alexandrite, Q-switched Nd:YAG and Q-switched ruby lasers. Considerable differences among the three have been reported in relation to the rate of clearing of the tattoo ink particles, tissue effects, beam profile, wound healing, and side effects. This study was primarily conducted to examine and compare the clinical response of patients with blue-black tattoos simultaneously treated with three different Q-switched lasers (alexandrite, Nd:YAG, ruby) with a focus on the percentage of tattoo lightening/clearance and the occurrence or non-occurrence of pigmentary change as a side effect. A total of forty-two blue-black tattoos seen at two laser centers (Massachusetts General Hospital Dermatology Laser Center and Laser and Skin Surgery Center of La Jolla) were simultaneously treated with three types of Q-switched lasers: a Candela Q-switched alexandrite laser (755nm 50-100 nanoseconds, 3.0 mm spot size, 6-8 J/cm2); a Continuum Biomedical Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064nm, 10-20 nanoseconds, 3.0 mm spot size, 5-10 J/cm2); and a Spectrum Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm, 25-40 nanoseconds, 5.0 mm spot size, 4-10 J/cm2). Paired t-tests and McNemar tests were used to compare the treatment outcome and pigmentation side effects between sites per tattoo, with each site representative of one of the three lasers. The statistical significance level was set at p tattoo lightening versus the Q-switched Nd:YAG and Q-switched alexandrite lasers. An increase in the number of treatments paralleled a statistically significant increase in tattoo clearance for all three Q-switched lasers. The Q-switched ruby laser had the highest clearance rate in blue-black tattoos and the highest incidence of long

  9. Removal of overpaintings from easel paintings using LQS Nd:YAG laser

    Ciofini, D.; Osticioli, I.; Pavia, A.; Siano, S.


    The removal of overpaintings from valuable easel paintings represents a very difficult challenge, which is traditionally approached using solvents and moderate mechanical actions. Here, we explore for the first time the potential of Long Q-Switching Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) laser with a pulse duration of 120 ns for selective ablation of overpainting layers. Mock-ups were prepared in order to approach in a systematic way a concrete uncovering problem concerning a modern painting on canvas. The former were prepared according to the stratigraphy and material compositions of the latter, as measured using optical and ESEM-EDX microscopy along with infrared and portable Raman spectroscopy. The parameterization achieved on the mock-ups allowed interpreting and maximizing the selectivity of the laser conservation treatment carried out on the real case.

  10. Laser Erbium: YAG no tratamento de nevos melanocíticos Erbium: YAG laser in treatment of acquired melanocytic nevi

    Mauricio Martins


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - Os nevos melanocíticos adquiridos são observados em grande parte da população e o resultado da sua excisão, dependendo da localização, extensão e fatores inerentes ao paciente, pode ser insatisfatório. OBJETIVO - Avaliar o uso do laser Erbium: YAG no tratamento de nevos melanocíticos adquiridos MÉTODOS - Foram selecionados nove pacientes, seis homens e três mulheres, brancos, com idade entre 20 e 60 anos e desejo de remover um nevo melanocítico composto no tronco. Metade do nevo foi tratada com laser, e a outra metade foi utilizada como controle. Após um mês da aplicação, foram avaliados a cicatrização, o resultado estético e a persistência de células névicas e melanina. RESULTADOS - Houve rápida cicatrização e ótimo resultado estético, no entanto, o exame histopatológico demonstrou a permanência de células névicas e melanina em sete e em nove das amostras examinadas, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO - A utilização do laser Erbium:YAG, com os parâmetros utilizados neste estudo, não foi capaz de destruir completamente as células névicas melanocíticas e a melanina, não sendo, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento dessas lesões, dada a possibilidade de transformação maligna futura.BACKGROUND- Acquired melanocytic nevi are commonly found and the result of their excision may not be satisfactory depending on their location, extension and factors associated to the patient. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the use of Erbium:YAG laser in treatment of acquired melanocytic nevi. METHOD - Nine white-skinned patients were selected, six men and three women with aged 20-60 years. All desired to remove one compound acquired melanocytic nevus on the trunk. Half of the nevi was treated with Erbium YAG laser while the remaining were used as control. One month after application, healing, aesthetic results and persistence of melanocytic cells and melanin were evaluated. RESULTS - All patients presented fast healing and

  11. Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers

    Gottmann, Jens; Moiseev, Leonid; Wortmann, Dirk; Vasilief, Ion; Starovoytova, Larisa; Ganser, Dimitri; Wagner, Ralph


    Laser radiation is used both for the deposition of the laser active thin films and for the micro structuring to define wave guiding structures for the fabrication of waveguide lasers. Thin films of Er:ZBLAN (a glass consisting of ZrF 4, BaF II, LaF 3, AlF 3, NaF, ErF 3) for green upconversion lasers (545 nm), Nd:YAG (Y 3Al 5O 12) and Nd:GGG (Gd 3Ga 5O 12) for infrared lasers (1064 nm) are produced. Manufacturing of the laser active waveguides by micro-structuring is done using fs laser ablation of the deposited films. The structural and optical properties of the films and the damping losses of the structured waveguides are determined in view of the design and the fabrication of compact and efficient diode pumped waveguide lasers. The resulting waveguides are polished, provided with resonator mirrors, pumped using diode lasers and characterized. Laser operation of a ridge waveguide structure grown by pulsed laser deposition and structured by fs laser ablation is demonstrated. A 1 μm thick, 100 μm wide and 3 mm long structured waveguide consisting of amorphous neodymium doped Gd 3Ga 5O 12 has shown laser activity at 1.068 μm when pumped by a diode laser at 808 nm.

  12. Pulse-Width Jitter Measurement for Laser Diode Pulses

    TANG Jun-Hua; WANG Yun-Cai


    @@ Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of pulse-width jitter of diode laser pulses are presented. The expression of pulse power spectra with all amplitude jitter, timing jitter and pulse-width jitter is deduced.

  13. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement; Selamento de fossulas e fissura de segundo molar deciduo inferior com laser de Nd: YAG, acido fosforico e cimento de ionomero de vidro

    Toda, Maria Aparecida


    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 {mu}m diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm{sup 2}, assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  14. Effect of Er:YAG laser energy on the morphology of enamel/adhesive system interface

    Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka


    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of Er:YAG laser energy variation to cavity preparation on the morphology of enamel/adhesive system interface, using SEM. Eighteen molars were used and the buccal surfaces were flattened without dentine exposure. The specimens were randomly assigned to two groups, according to the adhesive system (conventional total-etching or self-etching), and each group was divided into three subgroups (bur carbide in turbine of high rotation, Er:YAG laser 250 mJ/4 Hz and Er:YAG laser 300 mJ/4 Hz) containing six teeth each. The enamel/adhesive system interface was serially sectioned and prepared for SEM. The Er:YAG laser, in general, produced a more irregular adhesive interface than the control group. For Er:YAG laser 250 mJ there was formation of a more regular hybrid layer with good tag formation, mainly in the total-etching system. However, Er:YAG laser 300 mJ showed a more irregular interface with amorphous enamel and fused areas, for both adhesive systems. It was concluded that cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser influenced on the morphology of enamel/adhesive system interface and the tissual alterations were more evident when the energy was increased.

  15. Effect of laser-assisted bleaching with Nd:YAG and diode lasers on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat; Behboodi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim


    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser-assisted bleaching with neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. One hundred and four extracted human premolars were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: No bleaching applied (control group); group 2: Teeth bleached with 40 % hydrogen peroxide; group 3: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 2.5 W, 25 Hz, pulse duration of 100 μs, 6 mm distance); and group 4: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with diode laser (810 nm, 1 W, CW, 6 mm distance). Equal numbers of teeth in groups 2, 3, and 4 were bonded at start, 1 h, 24 h, and 1 week after bleaching. A universal testing machine measured the SBS of the samples 24 h after bonding. After bracket debonding, the amount of residual adhesive on the enamel surface was observed under a stereomicroscope to determine the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The SBS in the unbleached group was significantly higher than that in the bleached groups bonded immediately and 1 h after laser-assisted bleaching (P laser-assisted bleaching, the SBS was found to be significantly lower than that in the control group. Significant differences in the ARI scores existed among groups as well. The SBS of brackets seems to increase quickly within an hour after laser-assisted bleaching and 24 h after conventional bleaching. Thus, this protocol can be recommended if it is necessary to bond the brackets on the same day of bleaching.

  16. Parametric amplification of 100 fs mid-infrared pulses in ZnGeP2 driven by a Ho:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier.

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Malevich, Pavel; Kangaparambil, Sarayoo Sasidharan; Ishida, Kakuta; Mizui, Makoto; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Hoogland, Heinar; Holzwarth, Ronald; Pugzlys, Audrius; Baltuska, Andrius


    We report on the parametric generation of 100 fs sub-6-cycle 40 μJ pulses with the center wavelength at 5.2 μm using a 1 ps 2.1 μm pump laser and a dispersion management scheme based on bulk material. Our optically synchronized amplifier chain consists of a Ho:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier and white-light-seeded optical parametric amplifiers providing simultaneous passive carrier-envelope phase locking of three ultrashort longwave pulses at the pump, signal, and idler wavelengths corresponding, respectively, to 2.1, 3.5, and 5.2 μm. We also demonstrate bandwidth enhancement and efficient control over nonlinear spectral phase in the regime of cascaded χ2 nonlinearity in ZnGeP2.

  17. Comparison of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser welding of grade 250 maraging steel, IIW doc. II-A-173-06

    Van Rooyen, C


    Full Text Available ), scanner welding, addition of filler material and pulsed Nd:YAG welding were investigated to increase the operating window compared to autogenous single spot laser welding by making the process less sensitive to fit up and alignment. Metallurgical...

  18. A new, efficient laser source at 630 nm for photodynamic therapy and pulsed hologram

    Azzeer, Abdallah M.; Masilamani, Vadivel [King Saud University, College of Science, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)


    This paper gives details of a new, simple and efficient laser source at 630 nm with an average power of 300 mW, based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) from an organic liquid, and with the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser as a pump source. What we have developed here can be fabricated as a module that can be added to a Nd:YAG laser, commonly available in laser clinics, for an effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) of caner. The same source would become a convenient tool for a pulsed hologram. (author)

  19. Continuous-wave operation of a room-temperature Tm: YAP-pumped Ho: YAG laser


    We report a continuous-wave (CW) 2.1-μm Ho:YAG laser operating at room temperature pumped by a diode-pumped 1.94-?m Tm:YAP laser.The maximum output power of 1.5 W is obtained from Ho:YAG laser,corresponding to Tm-to-Ho slope efficiency of 17.9% and diode-to-He conversion efficiency of 5.6%.

  20. The influence of surface roughness on the bond strength of composite to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser irradiation

    Gardner, Andrew K.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel


    The uniformity of laser treated hard tissue surfaces depends on the laser beam quality and the degree of spatial overlap between adjacent laser pulses. Since the surface roughness or surface topography is expected to influence adhesion, our aim in this study was to assess the influence of the surface topography on the adhesion of composite to both enamel and dentin treated at the optimal conditions for the efficient ablation of those tissues with the Er:YAG laser. Human dentin and bovine enamel samples were uniformly irradiated by an Er:YAG laser operating with a pulse duration of 20-30-μs. The laser pulses were 300-μm in diameter with the laser operating in a single TEM00 transverse mode, and the distance between laser spots was varied from 50-200-μm. A motion control system and a pressurized spray system incorporating a microprocessor controlled pulsed nozzle for water delivery, were used to ensure uniform treatment of the entire surface. Shear bond testing was used to evaluate the adhesive strength in order to assess the suitability of laser treated surfaces for bonding. The effect of the degree of overlap of adjacent laser pulses on the surface roughness and the shear bond strength of composite to enamel and dentin is reported.

  1. Effect of Er:YAG laser on enamel demineralization around restorations.

    Colucci, Vivian; de Souza Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Serra, Mônica Campos; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    This study evaluates in situ the effect of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser parameters on the development of caries-like lesions adjacent to dental restorations. One hundred fifty bovine enamel slabs were randomly allocated among 15 volunteers. The specimens were subdivided into ten groups: nine experimental groups prepared with Er:YAG laser (300 mJ output, frequency of 2, 4 or 6 Hz, water flow rate of 2.0, 5.0, or 8.0 mL/min) and one control group (high-speed handpiece). The prepared cavity was restored with a composite resin, and the slabs were mounted on palatal appliance to be installed in the volunteers to the cariogenic challenge. After this, the specimens were sectioned to the longitudinal microhardness measurements. Data were submitted to Friedman and Wilcoxon paired tests. All groups prepared with Er:YAG laser demonstrated microhardness values higher than those prepared with high-speed handpiece, which showed the lowest microhardness values (24.86). The group prepared with Er:YAG laser (2 Hz-2.0 mL/min) showed the highest microhardness values (152.43), followed by those prepared with Er:YAG laser (2 Hz-5.0 mL/min) (133.08) and Er:YAG laser (2 Hz-8.0 mL/min) (91.61), respectively. The groups Er:YAG laser with 4 and 6 Hz of frequency and water flow rates of 2.0, 5.0, and 8.0 mL/min showed microhardness values lower than the groups cited above and showed statistical similarity among them. The Er:YAG laser parameters employed to cavity preparation influenced the acid resistance of the irradiated substrate, and the Er:YAG laser was capable to control the development of caries-like lesions around composite resin restorations.

  2. Clinical evaluation of Er:YAG laser caries treatment

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav


    To prepare the enamel, the energy used was mainly 345 mJ and repetition rate 2 Hz, for dentine the optimal energy of Er:YAG drilling machine was 200 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 2 Hz, depending on cavity depth. Subject of treatment were caries of enamel and dentine and it was possible to remove the old insufficient fillings. The average number of pulses was 111.22, ranging from 16 to 489. During preparation, vibrations of microexplosions were felt by 8 patients, however, neither pain or unpleasant sensations were experienced. The filling materials used were composite resins and glassionomer cements. Their clinical evaluation 6 months post insertion was similar to that of the classical drilling system.

  3. Femtosecond pulses at 50-W average power from an Yb:YAG planar waveguide amplifier seeded by an Yb:KYW oscillator.

    Leburn, Christopher G; Ramírez-Corral, Cristtel Y; Thomson, Ian J; Hall, Denis R; Baker, Howard J; Reid, Derryck T


    We report the demonstration of a high-power single-side-pumped Yb:YAG planar waveguide amplifier seeded by an Yb:KYW femtosecond laser. Five passes through the amplifier yielded 700-fs pulses with average powers of 50 W at 1030 nm. A numerical simulation of the amplifier implied values for the laser transition saturation intensity, the small-signal intensity gain coefficient and the gain bandwidth of 10.0 kW cm(-2), 1.6 cm(-1), and 3.7 nm respectively, and identified gain-narrowing as the dominant pulse-shaping mechanism.

  4. Analysis of the thermal effects in diode-pumped Tm:YAG ceramic slab lasers

    Cheng, Xiaojin; Shang, Jianhua; Jiang, Benxue


    Tm:YAG ceramics with a quasi-three-level system are sensitive to temperature. The optical and thermodynamic properties of Tm:YAG ceramics can change with changing temperature, and this affects the output power stability and beam quality of lasers. Thus temperature control is a key and difficult problem for Tm:YAG lasers, especially for high power laser output. In combination with slab structure and grad-doping techniques for composite ceramics, the temperature distributions of Tm:YAG ceramics are analyzed. It is found that the temperature difference of a rationally designed grad-doping Tm:YAG ceramic can be reduced significantly with the same absorption pump power, which results in higher output power and beam quality.

  5. A Compact 532-nm Source by Frequency Doubling of a Diode Stack End-Pumped Nd:YAG Slab Laser

    ZHANG Heng-Li; LIU Xiao-Meng; LI Dai-Jun; SHI Peng; Alex Schell; Claus Rüdige Haas; Du Ke-Ming


    A near-diffraction-limited green source is generated at 1 kHz repetition rate by frequency doubling ofa diode stack end-pumped electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser. We obtain 9.7mJ green light with pulse width of 12.2ns at a repetition rates of 1 kHz. The pump to green optical conversion efficiency is 12.9%. The energy pulse stability at 532nm is about 0.8%.

  6. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber

    Shudi Pan; Kezhen Han; Hongmei Wang; Xiuwei Fan; Jingliang He


    @@ A diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was demonstrated by using saturable absorber of Cr4+:YAG. At the incident power of 7.74 W, pure passively Q-switched laser with per pulse energy of 210 Μj and pulse width of 19.6 ns at repetition rate of 1.78 kHz was obtained by using Cr4+:YAG with initial transmission of 80%. At the incident power of 8.70 W, a Q-switched mode-locking with average output power of 650 Mw was achieved, the overall slop efficiency was 16%, corresponding to the initial transmission of 85% of Cr4+ :YAG.

  7. Percussion hole drilling of metals with a fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG laser studied by defocused laser speckle correlation.

    Miroshnikova, Natalia; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Sárady, Istvan


    Defocused speckle correlation is introduced as a tool for measuring the response in metal sheets during percussion laser drilling. For this procedure the fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG wavelength (266 nm) was used in pulsed mode. The method provides a cost-efficient and robust alternative to speckle interferometry for the study of the small deformations that appear during laser processing. The accuracy was shown to be of the order of a few tens of microradians for the tilt component that is measured, which translates to a few nanometers in deflection when the component is spatially integrated. In the measurements, deflections in the form of craters as large as 50 nm were detected on the back sides of silver and copper sheets. The diameters of the craters were 300 microm in the silver and 150 microm in the copper sheet; the output diameter of the hole was -5 microm.

  8. Comparison of Dentin Permeability After Tooth Cavity Preparation with Diamond Bur and Er:YAG Laser

    Masoumeh Hasani Tabatabaei; Sara Shirmohammadi; Esmaeil Yasini; Mansoureh Mirzaei; Sakineh Arami; Hamid Kermanshah; Ladan Ranjbar Omrani; Azar Alimi; Nasim Chiniforush; Afrooz Nakhostin; Mahdi Abbasi


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of dentin after using diamond bur and Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two recently extracted, intact, and restoration-free human permanent molars were used in this study. The samples were randomly divided into three groups of 24 each and class I cavities were prepared as follows. Group 1: High speed diamond bur with air and water spray. Group 2: Er:YAG laser. Group 3: Er:YAG laser followed by additional sub-ablative...

  9. Preserving a diffraction-limited beam in Ho:YAG laser using coherent polarization locking.

    Tan, L H; Chua, C F; Phua, P B


    We overcome several thermal issues present in Ho:YAG lasers by distributing the gain over a larger volume and achieve a diffraction-limited beam using coherent polarization locking. Increased single-pass absorption, suppression of output power saturation, and improvement in beam quality were shown using the coherent polarization locking technique as compared to a conventional Ho:YAG laser cavity with the same pump and cavity configuration. Ten watts of CW Ho:YAG laser power was generated with >96% coherent combining efficiency.

  10. Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy of rabbit nasal septal cartilage following Nd:YAG-laser-mediated stress relaxation

    Kim, Charlton C.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Coleno, Mariah L.; Dao, Xavier; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Wong, Brian J.


    Laser irradiation of hyaline cartilage result in stable shape changes due to temperature dependent stress relaxation. In this study, we determined the structural changes in chondrocytes within rabbit nasal septal cartilage tissue over a 12-day period using a two-photon laser scanning microscope (TPM) following Nd:YAG laser irradiation. During laser irradiation surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance, were measured dynamically. Each specimen received one or two sequential laser exposures. The cartilage reached a peak surface temperature of about 61 degrees C during irradiation. Cartilage denatured in 50 percent EtOH was used as a positive control. TPM was performed to detect the fluorescence emission from the chondrocytes. Images of chondrocytes were obtained at depths up to 150 microns, immediately following laser exposure, and also following 12 days in culture. Few differences in the pattern or intensity of fluorescence was observed between controls and irradiated specimens imaged immediately following exposure, regardless of the number of laser pulses. However, following twelve days in tissue culture, the irradiated specimens increase, whereas the native tissue diminishes, in intensity and distribution of fluorescence in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the positive control shows only extracellular matrices and empty lacuna, feature consistent with cell membrane lysis.

  11. Effect of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy on refraction in multifocal apodized diffractive pseudophakia.

    Vrijman, V.; Linden, J.W.M. van der; Nieuwendaal, C.P.; Meulen, I.J. van der; Mourits, M.P.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect on refraction of neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy for posterior capsule opacification (PCO), and to evaluate the correlation between automated and subjective refraction in multifocal apodized diffractive pseudophakia. METHODS: A retrospective study

  12. Erbium:YAG laser as a method of deepithelization in corrective and reductive breast surgery.

    Trelles, Mario A; Pardo, Lourdes; Chamorro, Juan José; Bonanad, Enrique; Allones, Inés; Buil, Carmen; Luna, Ricardo


    Deepithelization of the breast in breast ptosis surgery is important, being associated with risks which could affect the clinical outcome. The role of Er:YAG laser deepithelization was investigated. A total of 12 bilateral mammoplasties were performed, randomly assigned to 2 groups, one of experienced and one of less-experienced surgeons. Results were compared between the 2 groups of surgeons for scalpel deepithelization on one breast and the Er:YAG laser on the contralateral breast. No complications; less edema, pain, and erythema; and quicker wound healing were observed in the laser-deepithelized breasts, with a shorter operation time even for the less-experienced surgeons. The authors do not suggest that the Er:YAG laser should replace the scalpel in the hands of the expert surgeon for breast deepithelization in breast ptosis surgery, but the results of the study suggest that Er:YAG laser ablation is a safe, precise, effective and complication-free method.

  13. Efficient intracavity frequency doubling of a high-repetition-rate diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Hanson, F; Poirier, P


    Efficient operation of a pulsed, high-repetition-rate diode-pumped and intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is reported. A 3-mm-diameter laser rod was side-pumped with a 5-bar stack of high-duty-cycle 1-cm diodearrays. The average Q-switched power at 1.06microum was 3.8 W at 1.33 kH(z), and more than 4 W at 0.532 ,microm wasobtained through intracavity frequency doubling with LiB(3)O(5).

  14. Diode-Pumped Self Q-Switched and Mode-Locking Nd3+,Cr4+:YAG Laser

    LI Chun-Yong; LI Ping-Xue; LI De-Hua; FENG Bao-Hua; FU Pan-Ming; ZHANG Zhi-Guo; ZHANG Shi-Wen


    @@ Using Nd3+,Cr4+ : YAG as a laser crystal and saturable absorber simultaneously, we obtain a self-Q-switched and mode-locking laser at 1.06 μm with straight cavity structure. Self mode-locking phenomenon was observed at an intracavity intensity of only about 2000 W/cm2. More than 90% modulation depth is achieved at an intracavity intensity of less than 3.0 × 104 W/cm2 for the first time. The Q-switched pulse width and repetition rate are found to be connected with the cavity length and the output power.

  15. Morphological assessment of dentine and cementum following apicectomy with Zekrya burs and Er:YAG laser associated with direct and indirect Nd:YAG laser irradiation.

    de Moura, Abilio Albuquerque Maranhão; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Vieira-Júnior, Nilson Dias; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula


    This study aimed to assess the apical surface morphology of maxillary central incisors resected 3.0 mm from the tooth apex using Zekrya burs or Er:YAG laser, with or without subsequent direct Nd:YAG laser irradiation (apical and buccal surfaces) and indirect irradiation (palatal surface). Forty maxillary central incisors were instrumented and obturated. The roots were divided into 4 groups according to the root resection method (Zekrya bur or Er:YAG laser - 1.8 W, 450 mJ, 4 Hz, 113 J/cm(2)) and further surface treatment (none or Nd:YAG laser - 2.0 W, 100 mJ, 20 Hz, 124 J/cm(2)). The teeth were prepared for SEM analysis. Scores ranging from 1 to 4 were attributed to cut quality and morphological changes. The data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and by Dunn's test. SEM images showed irregular surfaces on the apical portions resected with Zekrya burs, with smear layer and grooves in the resected dentine and slight gutta-percha displacement and plasticization. On the other hand, apicectomies carried out with Er:YAG laser showed morphological changes compatible with ablated dentine, with rough surfaces and craters. In spite of the presence of plasticized gutta-percha, with the presence of bubbles, an irregular adaptation of the filling material to the root walls was also observed. Direct Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the apical and buccal surfaces of the resected roots resulted in areas of resolidification and fusion in the dentine and cementum, with a vitrified aspect; indirect Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the palatal surfaces yielded a lower number of changes in the cementum, with irregular resolidification areas. There were no differences in terms of cut quality between the use of burs and Er:YAG laser or between the 2 surfaces (apical and buccal) treated with Nd:YAG laser with direct irradiation. However, morphological changes were significantly less frequent on surfaces submitted to indirect irradiation (palatal) when compared with those directly irradiated

  16. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel


    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  17. Effect of dental surface treatment with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers on bond strength of resin composite to recently bleached enamel.

    Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Del Moral de Lazari, Regina; Ribeiro, Carolina Ferraz; Borges, Alessandra Buhler


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of surface treatment with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers on resin composite bond strength to recently bleached enamel. In this study, 120 bovine incisors were distributed into two groups: group C: without bleaching treatment; group B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Each group was divided into three subgroups: subgroup N: without laser treatment; subgroup Nd: irradiation with Nd:YAG laser; subgroup Er: irradiation with Er:YAG laser. The adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2) was then applied and composite buildups were constructed with Filtek Supreme composite. The teeth were sectioned to obtain enamel-resin sticks (1 × 1 mm) and submitted to microtensile bond testing. The data were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests. The bond strength values in the bleached control group (5.57 MPa) presented a significant difference in comparison to the group bleached and irradiated with Er:YAG laser (13.18 MPa) or Nd:YAG (25.67 MPa). The non-bleached control group presented mean values of 30.92 MPa, with statistical difference of all the others groups. The use of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers on bleached specimens was able to improve the bond strengths of them.

  18. Investigation of lasing characteristics of domestic Yb : YAG laser ceramics

    Snetkov, I. L.; Palashov, O. V.; Osipov, V. V.; Mukhin, I. B.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Luk'yashin, K. E.


    We report on the synthesis and laser characteristics of Yb3+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12) optical ceramics. The ceramics was produced by solid-phase reactive sintering of a mixture of Yb (5 at %) : Y2O3 and Al2O3 nanopowders synthesised by laser ablation, using additional calcination of the mixture before compaction. In a thin disk geometry, multiwatt laser oscillation was obtained at a wavelength of 1030 nm with a power of 5.2 W and a slope efficiency of 37.0% at a pump pulse period-toduration ratio of 5.72.

  19. A novel dual‐wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond‐domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos

    Schomacker, Kevin T.; Basilavecchio, Lisa D.; Plugis, Jessica M.; Bhawalkar, Jayant D.


    Background and Objectives Although nanosecond‐domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q‐switched lasers that generate picosecond‐domain pulses. Study A picosecond‐domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency‐doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. Results The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper‐ or hypo‐pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. Conclusion The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:542–548, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26175187

  20. In vitro study of hydroxy apatite and enamel powder fused in human enamel by Nd:YAG laser; Estudo in vitro da fusao de hidroxiapatita e esmalte em superficies de esmalte humano pelo laser de Nd:YAg

    Ferrreira, Marcus Vinicius Lucas


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite and enamel powder fusion. This laser beam is not well absorbed by this two compounds for this reason they were mixed with vegetal coal to increase the absorption of the laser beam. Fifteen enamel flat surfaces and six occlusal enamel surfaces were prepared with three different substances: hydroxyapatite mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); enamel powder mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); vegetal coal. The occlusal surfaces were utilized to determine if the compounds could seal pits and fissures. Flat surfaces were utilized to determine fusion of hydroxyapatite and enamel powder. All samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the parameters: 80 mJ, 15 Hz, 1,2 W, 100 {mu}s pulse-width, 131,1 J/cm{sup 2}. Laser beam was delivered to the samples with a 300 {mu}m diameter fiber optic. Morphology of the irradiated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds with hydroxyapatite and enamel powder were fused to enamel surfaces. Only partial pits and fissures sealing could be observed. (author)