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Sample records for wwer nauchno-tekhnicheskie osnovy

  1. Application of the LBB concept to nuclear power plants with WWER 440 and WWER 1000 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of WWER type reactors in the Czech and Sloval Republics is summarized in this paper. Legislative bases, required procedures, and validation and verification of procedures are discussed. A list of significant issues identified during the application of LBB analysis is presented. The results of statistical evaluation of crack length characteristics are presented and compared for the WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 reactors and for the WWER 1000 Type 302, 320 and 338 reactors.

  2. Development of alternative fuel assembly for WWER-1000 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solonin, M.I.; Bibilashvili, Y.K.; Sokolov, N.B. [Vserossijskij Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Panyushkin, A.K.; Tsibulia, V. [Mashinostroitelniy Zavod, Karl Marx st. 12, Electrostal 144001 (Russian Federation); Samoylov, O.B.; Kurilev, V.B.; Kuul, V.S.; Kaidalov, V.B.; Peskov, R.A.; Ershov, V.F. [OKBM, N. Novgorod 603074 (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    An alternative design of fuel assembly has been developed for the WWER-1000 reactor with the aim of assuring a geometrical stability of the core during operation. The fuel assembly provides enhanced safety and substantial improvement in the WWER-1000 fuel cycle economics. (orig.)

  3. Steam generator collector integrity of WWER-1000 reactors. IAEA extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.; Strupczewski, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    At the Consultants` Meeting on `The Safety of WWER-1000 Model 320 Nuclear Power Plants` organized by the IAEA within the framework of its Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER-1000 NPPs, which was held in Vienna, 1-5 June 1992, the problem of WWER-1000 steam generator integrity was identified as an important issue of safety concern. Considering the safety importance of this issue, a Consultants` Meeting on `The Steam Generator Integrity of WWER-1000 Nuclear Power Plants` was convened in Vienna in May 1993, attended by 15 international experts in the area to compile information on the steam generator operating experience, deficiencies and corrective measures implemented and planned. In order to also include information from the main designer OKB Gidropress and to finalize the meeting report the IAEA convened a second meeting on the issue on 23-27 November 1993. The present paper summarizes the information and conclusions from those meetings.

  4. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L.; Wilam, M. [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M. [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  5. Evaluation of steam generator WWER 440 tube integrity criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Burda, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. (Czechoslovakia)

    1997-02-01

    The main corrosion damage in WWER steam generators under operating conditions has been observed on the outer surface of these tubes. An essential operational requirement is to assure a low probability of radioactive primary water leakage, unstable defect development and rupture of tubes. In the case of WWER 440 steam generators the above requirements led to the development of permissible limits for data evaluation of the primary-to-secondary leak measurements and determination of acceptable values for plugging of heat exchange tubes based on eddy current test (ECT) inspections.

  6. HARMONIJA GLASBE, CVETJA IN PLESA: TERAPEVTSKI CVETNI PLESI NA OSNOVI CVETNEGA ZDRAVLJENJA DR. EDWARDA BACHA

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrenčič, Katja

    2010-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi z naslovom Harmonija glasbe, cvetja in plesa: terapevtski cvetni plesi na osnovi cvetnega zdravljenja dr. Edwarda Bacha so v teoretičnem delu predstavljene krize vrednot novodobne družbe. Pozornost je usmerjena na vzgojne ustanove in otroke, in sicer na probleme zdravja ter razvojnih motenj otrok, ki izvirajo iz neustreznosti današnje šole. Drugo poglavje vsebuje predstavitev novega pojmovanja, ki prinaša novodobno razumevanje, postopke in metode, ki nam pomagajo reševa...

  7. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  8. German-Russian analysis simulator for WWER-1000/V-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukavin, A.; Fuks, R. [VNIIAES-GET, Ferganskaya str., 25, 109507 Moscow (Russian Federation); Richter, W.; Steinborn, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The analysis simulator for WWER-1000/V-320 has been developed in a working relationship of German Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, and Russian General Energy Technology (GET). The Balakovo NPP, Unit 4, has been selected as a reference plant for simulation. The thermo-fluid dynamics of the primary circuit including the steam generator secondary side is realised on the basis of the German system code ATHLET (GRS). The thermo-fluid dynamics of the secondary circuit is calculated on the basis of the Russian code CMS (GET). The detailed behaviour of plant regulator systems is simulated with the specially developed library of Balance-of-Plant modules BOP320. The conditions in the containment are analysed with the code CONDRU (GRS). As graphical envelope for the plant simulator interactive control as well as representation of the calculated information (the human-machine interface) the German ATLAS plant analyser tool developed at GRS is used.

  9. Power Distribution and Possible Influence on Fuel Failure in WWER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mikuš

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on the influence of investigation of some core heterogeneities and construction materials on the space power (fission rate distribution in WWER-1000-type cores, especially from viewpoint of the values and gradient occurrence that could result in static loads with some consequences, for example, fuel pin (FP or fuel assembly (FA bowing and possible contribution to the FP failure root causes. For this purpose, experimental data and their analysis from two earlier performed measurements on light water, zero-power reactor LR-0 were used, concerning the relative radial power distribution determined by measurements in a WWER-1000-type core containing single FPs with homogeneous gadolinium admixture (Gd2O3 and the relative radial power distribution determined by measurements in FA situated on the periphery of a WWER-1000-type core neighbouring the baffle (thermal shielding.

  10. Influence of feedwater and blowdown systems on the mineral distribution in WWER steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L. [Inst. of Material Engineering, Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    After modification of Dukovany NPP steam generator (SG) feedwater system, the increased concentration of minerals was measured in the cold leg of modified SG. Some modifications were performed on operating WWER 1000 steam generators with aim to optimize the water chemistry in the collectors area. Since the distribution of minerals can substantially affect on corrosion processes in steam generators, VITKOVICE, as a producer of WWER steam generators has focused the attention to the optimizing of these systems. To predict the mineral distribution on the secondary side of steam generators for considered feedwater/blowdown systems, the simple model of the flow distribution in the secondary side of SG was developed.

  11. Razvoj vmesnika možgani računalnik na osnovi premikanja oči

    OpenAIRE

    Loboda, Luka

    2017-01-01

    Diplomska naloga predstavlja proces razvoja vmesnika med možgani in računalnikom (angl. brain-computer interface - BCI), ki temelji na osnovi premikanja oči. BCI sistemi zajemajo in analizirajo možgansko aktivnost ter jo pretvorijo v ustrezne ukaze. Cilj diplomske naloge je bil razviti vmesnik, ki omogoča premikanje kazalca na zaslonu. Za merjenje možganske aktivnosti smo uporabili naglavni sistem Emotiv EPOC, ki je predstavnik cenovno zelo ugodnih sistemov, ki omogočajo zajemanje elektroence...

  12. Application of the LBB regulatory approach to the steamlines of advanced WWER 1000 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyov, V.A.; Sokov, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    The LBB regulatory approach adopted in Russia in 1993 as an extra safety barrier is described for advanced WWER 1000 reactor steamline. The application of LBB concept requires the following additional protections. First, the steamline should be a highly qualified piping, performed in accordance with the applicable regulations and guidelines, carefully screened to verify that it is not subjected to any disqualifying failure mechanism. Second, a deterministic fracture mechanics analysis and leak rate evaluation have been performed to demonstrate that postulated through-wall crack that yields 95 1/min at normal operation conditions is stable even under seismic loads. Finally, it has been verified that the leak detection systems are sufficiently reliable, diverse and sensitive, and that adequate margins exist to detect a through wall crack smaller than the critical size. The obtained results are encouraging and show the possibility of the application of the LBB case to the steamline of advanced WWER 1000 reactor.

  13. Insights from the IAEA extrabugetary program on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, L. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Instalation Safety; Goodison, D. [Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII), Formby (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, S. [Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), Villingen (Switzerland). Safety Research and International Affairs

    1999-06-01

    An IAEA Extrabudgetary Program commenced in 1990. The objective of the Program was to assist regulators and operators of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants to evaluate safety aspects related to the design and operation of these plants. The program terminated in 1998 and a comprehensive final report was published by the IAEA. The results showed that despite the improvements in safety already achieved, much remains to be done at individual NPPs, particularly at the WWER and RBMK plants of the first generation. Safety improvement work for these plants is essential if they are not decommissioned in the near future. The IAEA is continuing to provide specific assistance to Member States with WWER and RBMK NPPs. A specific project on WWER and RBMK safety has already been included in the IAEA Nuclear Safety program for 1999-2000. Three ongoing regional Technical Co-operation projects are also being extended until the year 2000. An important element of this assistance is to strengthen the national regulatory authorities in the countries operating these NPPs on the basis of IAEA recommendations and good international regulatory practices. Of utmost importance is to ensure that the operating organisations draw up a safety case for each NPP based on a plant specific safety analysis and that it is reviewed and approved by the national regulatory authorities. This will allow an assessment of the overall safety impact of plant modifications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahr 1990 begann ein Zusatzprogramm zum Haushalt der IAEO (Internationale Atomenergie-Organisation). Das Ziel dieses Programms war die Unterstuetzung der Regulierer und Betreiber der Kernkraftwerke des Typs WWER und RBMK bei der Bewertung der Sicherheitsaspekte hinsichtlich der Konstruktion und des Betriebs dieser KKWs. Das Programm lief im Jahr 1998 aus und die IAEO veroeffentlichte einen umfangreichen Abschlussbericht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass trotz der bereits erreichten sicherheitstechnischen Verbesserungen bei

  14. Analysis of WWER-440 and PWR RPV welds surveillance data to compare irradiation damage evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debarberis, L. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: luigi.debarberis@cec.eu.int; Acosta, B. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: beatriz.acosta-iborra@jrc.nl; Zeman, A. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sevini, F. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ballesteros, A. [Tecnatom, Avd. Montes de Oca 1, San Sebasitan de los Reyes, E-28709 Madrid (Spain); Kryukov, A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gillemot, F. [AEKI Atomic Research Institute, Konkoly Thege M. ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Brumovsky, M. [NRI, Nuclear Research Institute, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2006-04-15

    It is known that for Russian-type and Western water reactor pressure vessel steels there is a similar degradation in mechanical properties during equivalent neutron irradiation. Available surveillance results from WWER and PWR vessels are used in this article to compare irradiation damage evolution for the different reactor pressure vessel welds. The analysis is done through the semi-mechanistic model for radiation embrittlement developed by JRC-IE. Consistency analysis with BWR vessel materials and model alloys has also been performed within this study. Globally the two families of studied materials follow similar trends regarding the evolution of irradiation damage. Moreover in the high fluence range typical of operation of WWER the radiation stability of these vessels is greater than the foreseen one for PWR.

  15. Analyses of steam generator collector rupture for WWER-1000 using Relap5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabanov, E.; Ivanova, A. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents some of the results of analyses of an accident with a LOCA from the primary to the secondary side of a WWER-1000/320 unit. The objective of the analyses is to estimate the primary coolant to the atmosphere, to point out the necessity of a well defined operator strategy for this type of accident as well as to evaluate the possibility to diagnose the accident and to minimize the radiological impact on the environment.

  16. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment of WWER440 reactors prediction, quantification and management of the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to summarize probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants with WWER440 reactors and  demonstrate that the plants are safe enough for producing energy even in light of the Fukushima accident. The book examines level 1 and 2 full power, low power and shutdown PSA, and summarizes the author's experience gained during the last 35 years in this area. It provides useful examples taken from PSA training courses the author has lectured and organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Such training courses were organised in Argonne National Laboratory (

  18. Electromagnetism mechanism for enhancing the refueling cycle length of a WWER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursalehi, Navid; Nejati-Zadeh, Mostafa; Minuchehr, Abdolhamid [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Increasing the operation cycle length can be an important goal in the fuel reload design of a nuclear reactor core. In this research paper, a new optimization approach, electromagnetism mechanism (EM), is applied to the fuel arrangement design of the Bushehr WWER-1000 core. For this purpose, a neutronic solver has been developed for calculating the required parameters during the reload cycle of the reactor. In this package, two modules have been linked, including PARCS v2.7 and WIMS-5B codes, integrated in a solver for using in the fuel arrangement optimization operation. The first results of the prepared package, along with the cycle for the original pattern of Bushehr WWER-1000, are compared and verified according to the Final Safety Analysis Report and then the results of exploited EM linked with Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator (PARCS) and Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS) codes are reported for the loading pattern optimization. Totally, the numerical results of our loading pattern optimization indicate the power of the EM for this problem and also show the effective improvement of desired parameters for the gained semi-optimized core pattern in comparison to the designer scheme.

  19. Electromagnetism Mechanism for Enhancing the Refueling Cycle Length of a WWER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Poursalehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the operation cycle length can be an important goal in the fuel reload design of a nuclear reactor core. In this research paper, a new optimization approach, electromagnetism mechanism (EM, is applied to the fuel arrangement design of the Bushehr WWER-1000 core. For this purpose, a neutronic solver has been developed for calculating the required parameters during the reload cycle of the reactor. In this package, two modules have been linked, including PARCS v2.7 and WIMS-5B codes, integrated in a solver for using in the fuel arrangement optimization operation. The first results of the prepared package, along with the cycle for the original pattern of Bushehr WWER-1000, are compared and verified according to the Final Safety Analysis Report and then the results of exploited EM linked with Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator (PARCS and Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS codes are reported for the loading pattern optimization. Totally, the numerical results of our loading pattern optimization indicate the power of the EM for this problem and also show the effective improvement of desired parameters for the gained semi-optimized core pattern in comparison to the designer scheme.

  20. Modelling of WWER-1000 steam generators by REALP5/MOD3.2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Frogheri, M. [Univ. of Genova (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation summarises the results of best estimate calculations carried out with reference to the WWER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant, utilizing a qualified nodalization set-up for the Relap5/Mod3.2 code. The nodalization development has been based on the data of the Kozloduy Bulgarian Plant. The geometry of the steam generator imposed drastic changes in noding philosophy with respect to what is suitable for the U-tubes steam generators. For the secondary side a symmetry axis was chosen to separate (in the nodalization) the hot and the cold sides of the tubes. In this way the secondary side of the steam generators was divided into three zones: (a) the hot zone including the hot collector and the hot l/2 parts of the tubes; (b) the cold zone including the cold collector and the cold 1/2 parts of the tubes; (c) the downcomer region, where down flow is assumed. As a consequence of above in the primary side more nodes are placed on the hot side of the tubes. Steady state and transient qualification has been achieved, considering the criteria proposed at the University of Pisa, utilizing plant transient data from the Kozloduy and the Ukrainian Zaporosche Plants. The results of the application of the qualified WWER-1000 Relap5/Mod3.2 nodalization to various transients including large break LOCA, small break LOCA and steam generator tube rupture, together with a sensitivity analysis on the steam generators, are reported in the presentation. Emphasis is given to the prediction of the steam generators performances. 23 refs.

  1. Prediction of void swelling in the baffle ring of WWER-1000 reactors for service life of 30–60 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchenko, A.S., E-mail: kalchenko@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Bryk, V.V.; Lazarev, N.P.; Voyevodin, V.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Garner, F.A. [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Major internal components of WWER-type nuclear reactors are made from annealed 18Cr10NiTi steel, a close analog to AISI 321. Void swelling of the baffle ring in particular could be a major factor limiting operation of the reactor beyond the current 30 years license. A predictive swelling equation is needed to forecast the spatial variation of swelling so as to identify those areas requiring additional attention. Available data on the swelling of this steel arising from irradiation in the BOR-60 fast reactor was combined with data from a heavy ion accelerator at higher displacement rates to formulate a predictive equation of swelling for the WWER-relevant range of temperature, irradiation dose and dose rates. This equation was used to estimate the swelling distribution over a cross-section of the baffle ring of a WWER reactor during a service life up to 60 years, reaching a local maximum of ∼30% swelling. It was shown that void swelling extends over a larger portion of the baffle ring than previously expected and exhibits a very complex and irregular distribution in response to complex distributions of temperature and dpa rate. Most importantly, as operation is extended beyond 30 years several areas of the ring may experience swelling in excess of 10% where void-induced embrittlement begins and one area may exceed 20% after 45 years, a swelling level where a complete loss of ductility is known to occur.

  2. Effect of mass transfer processes on accumulation and crystallization of boric acid in WWER core in emergency cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Pityk, A. V.; Ragulin, S. V.; Sahipgareev, A. R.; Soshkina, A. S.; Shlepkin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper the processes of boric acid mass transfer in a WWER-TOI nuclear reactor in case of the accidents with main coolant circuit rupture and operation of passive safety systems (the hydro accumulators systems of the first, second and third stages, as well as the passive heat removal system) are considered. The results of the calculation of changes in the boric acid solution concentration in the core for the WWER emergency mode are presented. According to the results of the calculation a significant excess of the ultimate concentration of boric acid in accidents with main coolant circuit rupture after 43 hours of emergency mode is observed. The positive influence of the boric acid droplet entrainment on the processes of its crystallization and accumulation in the core is shown. The mass of boric acid deposits on the internals is determined. The received results allow concluding that the accumulation and crystallization of boric acid in the core may lead to blocking the flow cross section and to deterioration of heat removal from fuel rods. The necessity of an experimental studies of the processes of boric acid drop entrainment under conditions specific to the WWER emergency modes is shown.

  3. Fracture mechanics characterisation of the WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel beltline welding seam of Greifswald unit 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, Hans-Werner; Schuhknecht, Jan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Russian type WWER reactors are operated in Russia and many other European countries like Finland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. Surveillance specimen programmes for the inspection of the aging of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials were implemented for the second generation of WWER-440/V-213 reactors. The test results and the RPV integrity assessment has been evaluated according to national codes based on the Russian code PNAE G-7-002-86 ''Strength Calculation Norms for Nuclear Power Plant Equipment and Piping'' [1]. This is an indirect and correlative approach of determining the fracture toughness of the RPV steels in the initial and irradiated condition. The Master Curve (MC) approach as adopted in the test procedure ASTM E1921 [2] for assessing the fracture toughness of sampled irradiated materials has been gaining acceptance throughout the world [3]. The MC approach is more naturally suited to probabilistic analyses because it defines both a mean transition toughness value and a distribution around that value. It contains the assumptions of macroscopically homogenous material with uniform distribution of crack initiating defects along the crack front. In contrast to present indirect and correlative approach the specimen orientation and especially the crack extension direction in multilayer weld metal becomes more important for the direct measurement of the fracture toughness with Charpy size SE(B) specimens. The orientation of the Charpy- and SE(B) specimens is different for RPVs manufactured in Russia and by the SKODA company in the former Czechoslovakia [4,5]. Particularly with regard to weld metal it can be expected that the parameters of fracture toughness measured with Charpy-V or SE(B) specimens are strongly influenced by the specimen orientation. It raises the question whether the MC approach is also applicable when the structure varies along the crack front which is happen in TL oriented SE

  4. Mechanical properties and microstructure of long term thermal aged WWER 440 RPV steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluri, M.; Kryukov, A.; Magielsen, A. J.; Hähner, P.; Petrosyan, V.; Sevikyan, G.; Szaraz, Z.

    2017-04-01

    The integrity assessment of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is essential for the safe and Long Term Operation (LTO) of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Hardening and embrittlement of RPV caused by neutron irradiation and thermal ageing are main reasons for mechanical properties degradation during the operation of an NPP. The thermal ageing-induced degradation of RPV steels becomes more significant with extended operational lives of NPPs. Consequently, the evaluation of thermal ageing effects is important for the structural integrity assessments required for the lifetime extension of NPPs. As a part of NRG's research programme on Structural Materials for safe-LTO of Light Water Reactor (LWR) RPVs, WWER-440 surveillance specimens, which have been thermal aged for 27 years (∼200,000 h) at 290 °C in a surveillance channel of Armenian-NPP, are investigated. Results from the mechanical and microstructural examination of these thermal aged specimens are presented in this article. The results indicate the absence of significant long term thermal ageing effect of 15Cr2MoV-A steel. No age hardening was detected in aged tensile specimens compared with the as-received condition. There is no difference between the impact properties of as-received and thermal aged weld metals. The upper shelf energy of the aged steel remains the same as for the as-received material at a rather high level of about 120 J. The T41 value did not change and was found to be about 10 °C. The microstructure of thermal aged weld, consisting carbides, carbonitrides and manganese-silicon inclusions, did not change significantly compared to as-received state. Grain-boundary segregation of phosphorus in long term aged weld is not significant either which has been confirmed by the absence of intergranular fracture increase in the weld. Negligible hardening and embrittlement observed after such long term thermal ageing is attributed to the optimum chemical composition of 15Cr2MoV-A for high thermal stability.

  5. Relap5/Mod2.5 analyses of SG primary collector head rupture in WWER-440 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczurek, J. [Inst. of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents the results of the analyses of steam generator (SG) manifold cover rupture performed with RELAP5/MOD2.5 (version provided by RMA, Albuquerque, for PC PPS). The calculations presented are based on RELAP5 input deck for WWER-440/213 Bobunice NPP, developed within the framework of IAEA TC Project RER/9/004. The presented analyses are directed toward determining the maximum amount of reactor coolant discharged into the secondary coolant system and the maximum amount of contaminated coolant release to the atmosphere. In all cases considered in the analysis, maximum ECCS injection capacity is assumed. The paper includes only the cases without any operator actions within the time period covered by the analyses. In particular, the primary loop isolation valves are not used for isolating the broken steam generator. Two scenarios are analysed: with and without the SG safety valve stuck open. 3 refs.

  6. Large-scale experimental facility for emergency condition investigation of a new generation NPP WWER-640 reactor with passive safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniskevich, Y.N.; Vasilenko, V.A.; Zasukha, V.K.; Migrov, Y.A.; Khabensky, V.B. [Research Inst. of Technology NITI (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The creation of the large-scale integral experimental facility (KMS) is specified by the programme of the experimental investigations to justify the engineering decisions on the safety of the design of the new generation NPP with the reactor WWER-640. The construction of KMS in a full volume will allow to conduct experimental investigations of all physical phenomena and processes, practically, occurring during the accidents on the NPPs with the reactor of WWER type and including the heat - mass exchange processes with low rates of the coolant, which is typical during the utilization of the passive safety systems, process during the accidents with a large leak, and also the complex intercommunicated processes in the reactor unit, passive safety systems and in the containment with the condition of long-term heat removal to the final absorber. KMS is being constructed at the Research Institute of Technology (NITI), Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region, Russia. (orig.). 5 refs.

  7. SCK-CEN Contribution to the IAEA Round Robin Exercise on WWER-440 RPV Weld Material Irradiation, Annealing and Re-Embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Fabry, A.; Van de Velde, J

    1998-05-04

    The contribution of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN to the IAEA Round Robin Exercise on WWER-440 RPV weld material is reported. The objective of this contribution is twofold: (1) to gain experience in the field of the testing of WWER-440 steels; (2) to analyse the round-robin data according to in-house developed on used models in order to check their validity and applicability. Results from testing on unirradiated material are reported including data obtained from chemical analysis, Charpy-V impact testing, tensile testing and fracture toughness determination. Finally, irradiation strategies that can be used in the program to obtain irradiated, irradiated-annealed and irradiated-annealed-reirradiated conditions are outlined.

  8. Fracture mechanics characterisation of the WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel beltline welding seam of Greifswald unit 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, Hans-Werner; Schuhknecht, Jan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    WWER-440 second generation (V-213) reactor pressure vessels (RPV) were produced by IZHORA in Russia and by SKODA in the former Czechoslovakia. The surveillance Charpy-V and fracture mechanics SE(B) specimens of both producers have different orientations. The main difference is the crack extension direction which is through the RPV thickness and circumferential for ISHORA and SKODA RPV, respectively. In particular for the investigation of weld metal from multilayer submerged welding seams the crack extension direction is of importance. Depending on the crack extension direction in the specimen there are different welding beads or a uniform structure along the crack front. The specimen orientation becomes more important when the fracture toughness of the weld metal is directly determined on surveillance specimens according to the Master Curve (MC) approach as standardised in the ASTM Standard Test Method E1921. This approach was applied on weld metal of the RPV beltline welding seam of Greifswald Unit 8 RPV. Charpy size SE(B) specimens from 13 locations equally spaced over the thickness of the welding seam were tested. The specimens are in TL and TS orientation. The fracture toughness values measured on the SE(B) specimens with both orientations follow the course of the MC. Nearly all values lie within the fracture toughness curves for 5% and 95% fracture probability. There is a strong variation of the reference temperature T{sub 0} though the thickness of the welding seam, which can be explained with structural differences. The scatter is more pronounced for the TS SE(B) specimens. It can be shown that specimens with TS and TL orientation in the welding seam have a differentiating and integrating behaviour, respectively. The statistical assumptions behind the MC approach are valid for both specimen orientations even if the structure is not uniform along the crack front. By comparison crack extension, JR, curves measured on SE(B) specimens with TL and TS orientation

  9. Development of an improved methodology for the determination of the neutron load of the pressure vessel steel of WWER-1000 type reactors. Final report; Entwicklung einer fortgeschrittenen Methodik zur Bestimmung der Neutronenbelastung des Druckbehaeltermaterials vom Reaktor des Typs WWER-1000. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, H.U.; Boehmer, B.; Konheiser, J.; Stephan, I.

    1998-05-01

    The investigations, reported on here, are aimed at the theoretical and experimental determination of the neutron exposure of the VVER-1000 reactors Balakovo-3 and Rovno-3. The overall approach, partially developed and at least improved in the frame of this project, comprises the pure calculation part, the gamma spectrometric analysis of neutron activation detectors and the comparison of experimental and theoretical results using the spectrum adjustment procedure. The approach is not restricted to neutron embrittlement but can be applied to neutron fluence problems in general. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] In diesem Projekt wurden fuer die WWER-1000 Reaktoren Balakovo-3 und Rovno-3 die Parameter der Neutronenbelastung experimentell und theoretisch bestimmt. Der vorliegende Bericht beschreibt das methodische Vorgehen, welches aus dem reinen Berechnungsteil, der gammaspektrometrischen Analyse der Ativierungsdetektoren und dem Vergleich der gemessenen und berechneten Werte einschliesslich der Spektrumsjustierung besteht. Dieses Instrumentarium, welches allgemein bei der Bestimmung der Neutronenfluenz anwendbar ist, wurde im Projektzeitraum weiter verbessert. (orig./GL)

  10. Development of a parallel processing couple for calculations of control rod worth in terms of burn-up in a WWER-1000 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori-Kalkhoran, Omid; Ahangari, R. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research school; Shirani, A.S. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering

    2017-03-15

    In this study a code based method has been developed for calculation of integral and differential control rod worth in terms of burn-up for a WWER-1000 reactor. Parallel processing of WIMSD-5B, PARCS V2.7 and COBRA-EN has been used for this purpose. WIMSD-5B has been used for cell calculation and handling burn-up of core at different days. PARCS V2.7?has been used for neutronic calculation of core and critical boron concentration search. Thermal-hydraulic calculation has been performed by COBRA-EN. A Parallel processing algorithm has been developed by MATLAB to couple and transfer suitable data between these codes in each step. Steady-State Power Picking Factors (PPFs) of the core and Control rod worth have been calculated from Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) to 289.7 Effective full Power Days (EFPDs) in some steps. Results have been compared with Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) results. The results show great similarity and confirm the ability of developed coupling in calculation of control rod worth in terms of burn-up.

  11. Improving the refueling cycle of a WWER-1000 using cuckoo search method and thermal-neutronic coupling of PARCS v2.7, COBRA-EN and WIMSD-5B codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarizadeh-Beneh, M.; Mazaheri-Beni, H.; Poursalehi, N., E-mail: n_poursalehi@sbu.ac.ir

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The cuckoo search algorithm is applied to the loading pattern optimization of a nuclear reactor core. • Calculations during the cycle show a good agreement between results and reference for the original LP. • Results indicate the efficient performance of cuckoo search approach coupled with thermal-neutronic solvers. • Neutronic parameters of proposed core pattern are improved relative to original core pattern. - Abstract: The fuel loading pattern optimization is an important process in the refueling design of a nuclear reactor core. Also the analysis of reactor core performance during the operation cycle can be a significant step in the core loading pattern optimization (LPO). In this work, for the first time, a new method i.e. cuckoo search algorithm (CS) has been applied to the fuel loading pattern design of Bushehr WWER-1000 core. In this regard, two objectives have been chosen for finding the best configuration including the improvement of operation cycle length associated with flattening the radial power distribution of fuel assemblies. The core pattern optimization has been performed by coupling the CS algorithm to thermal-neutronic codes including PARCS v2.7, COBRA-EN and WIMSD-5B for earning desired parameters along the operation cycle. The calculations have been done for the beginning of cycle (BOC) to the end of cycle (EOC) states. According to numerical results, the longer operation cycle for the semi-optimized loading pattern has been achieved along with less power peaking factor (PPF) in comparison to the original core pattern of Bushehr WWER-1000. Gained results confirm the efficient and suitable performance of the developed program and also the introduced CS method in the LPO of a nuclear WWER type.

  12. Development of external coupling for calculation of the control rod worth in terms of burn-up for a WWER-1000 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori-Kalkhoran, Omid, E-mail: o_noori@yahoo.com [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yarizadeh-Beneh, Mehdi [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangari, Rohollah [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Calculation of control rod worth in term of burn-up. • Calculation of differential and integral control rod worth. • Developing an external couple. • Modification of thermal-hydraulic profiles in calculations. - Abstract: One of the main problems relating to operation of a nuclear reactor is its safety and controlling system. The most widely used control systems for thermal reactors are neutron absorbent rods. In this study a code based method has been developed for calculation of integral and differential control rod worth in terms of burn-up for a WWER-1000 nuclear reactor. External coupling of WIMSD-5B, PARCS V2.7 and COBRA-EN has been used for this purpose. WIMSD-5B has been used for cell calculation and handling burn-up of the core in various days. PARCS V2.7 has been used for neutronic calculation of core and critical boron concentration search. Thermal-hydraulic calculation has been performed by COBRA-EN. An external coupling algorithm has been developed by MATLAB to couple and transfer suitable data between these codes in each step. Steady-State Power Picking Factors (PPFs) of the core and control rod worth for different control rod groups have been calculated from Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) to 289.7 Effective Full Power Days (EFPDs) in some steps. Results have been compared with the results of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The results show a good agreement and confirm the ability of developed coupling in calculation of control rod worth in terms of burn-up.

  13. Validation of computer codes and modelling methods for giving proof of nuclear safety of transport and storage of spent VVER-type nuclear fuels. Pt. 2. Criticality safety during transport and storage of spent VVER fuel elements. Final report; Einschaetzung von Rechenprogrammen und Methoden zum Nachweis der nuklearen Sicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung von WWER-Kernbrennstoffen. T. 2. Kritikalitaetssicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung von WWER-Brennelementen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechse, H.; Langowski, A.; Lein, M.; Nagel, R.; Schmidt, H.; Stammel, M.

    1995-03-15

    The report gives the results of investigations on the validation of computer codes used to prove nuclear safety during transport and storage of spent VVER - fuel of NPP Greifswald and Rheinsberg. Characteristics of typical spent fuel (nuclide concentration, neutron source strength, gamma spectrum, decay heat) - calculated with several codes - and dose rates (e.g. in the surrounding of a loaded spent fuel cask) - based on the different source terms - are presented. Differences and their possible reasons are discussed. The results show that despite the differences in the source terms all relevant health physics requirements are met for all cases of source term. The validation of the criticality code OMEGA was established by calculation of appr. 200 critical experiments of LWR fuel, including VVER fuel rod arrangements. The mean error of the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} is -0,01 compared to the experiment for this area of applicability. Thus, the OMEGA error of 2% assumed in earlier works has turned out to be sufficiently conservative. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt die Ergebnisse von Untersuchungen zur Validierung von Rechenprogrammen, welche zum Nachweis der nukelaren Sicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung von WWER-Kernbrennstoff der KKW Greifswald und Rheinsberg eingesetzt wurden. Es werden eine Charakteristik des abgebrannten Brennstoffs (Nuklidkonzentrationen, Neutronenquellstaerke, Gammaspektrum, Nachzerfallsleistung) - berechnet mit verschiedenen Programmen - und Ortsdosisleistungen (z.B. in der Umgebung eines Transportbehaelters) - basierend auf den verschiedenen Quelltermen - angegeben. Differenzen und Ursachen werden diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass trotz der Differenzen in den Quelltermen alle strahlenschutztechnisch relevanten Aussagen unbeeinflusst bleiben. Fuer die Einschaetzung des Gueltigkeitsbereiches des Monte-Carlo-Programms OMEGA wurden ca. 200 kritische Experimente mit LWR-Brennstoff unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung

  14. RAZVOJ SPLETNIH REŠITEV NA OSNOVI OGRODJA YII

    OpenAIRE

    Žagar, Matej

    2014-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljeno PHP-ogrodje Yii, njegove prednosti, slabosti in uporaba pri razvoju spletnih rešitev. Raziskali smo izbrano ogrodje in razložili, zakaj sta na splošno vpeljava in uporaba ogrodja za razvoj spletnih aplikacij smiselni in kako izboljšata učinkovitost razvoja. Pri raziskovanju smo uporabili strokovno literaturo, izdelali nekaj primerov funkcionalnosti aplikacije z uporabo ogrodja in brez njegove uporabe ter naredili študijo primera brezplačne in odprtokodne apl...

  15. RAZVOJ SODOBNIH SPLETNIH APLIKACIJ NA OSNOVI ODPRTOKODNEGA OGRODJA LARAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Vetršek, Rok

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu sta podrobno predstavljeni odprtokodni ogrodji Bootstrap in Laravel. Prvo omogoča enostavno in hitro oblikovanje odzivnih spletnih aplikacij, drugo pa je eno od vodilnih ogrodij, ki temeljijo na jeziku PHP in MVC arhitekturi. Uporaba ogrodji je prikazana z izdelavo spletne aplikacije, ki omogoča vodenje preprostih zapiskov in deljenje le teh v obliki samo za branje. Aplikacija je dinamična in se prilagaja velikosti zaslona naprave, na kateri si jo ogledujemo. Iz pridobljenih...

  16. Analysis of WWER 1000 collector cracking mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matocha, K.; Wozniak, J. [Vitkovice J.S.C., Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the large experimental program, started in 1993 in Vitkovice, where the main aim was: (1) a detailed study of strain and thermal ageing, dissolved oxygen content and temperature on subcritical crack growth in 10NiMo8.5 (10GN2MFA) steel, (2) a detailed study of the effect of high temperature water and tube expansion technology on fracture behaviour of ligaments between holes for heat exchange tubes, and (3) a detailed study of the effect of drilling, tube expansion technology and heat treatment on residual stresses on the surface of holes for heat exchange tubes. The aim of all these investigations was to find a dominant damage mechanism responsible for collector cracking to be able to judge the efficiency of implemented modifications and suggested countermeasures and to answer a very important question whether proper operation conditions (mainly water chemistry) make the operation of steam generators made in Vitcovice safe throughout the planned lifetime. 10 refs.

  17. Qualification of the nuclear reactor core model DYN3D coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET, applied as an advanced tool for accident analysis of VVER-type reactors. Final report; Qualifizierung des Kernmodells DYN3D im Komplex mit dem Stoerfallcode ATHLET als fortgeschrittenes Werkzeug fuer die Stoerfallanalyse von WWER-Reaktoren. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Krepper, E.; Mittag, S; Rohde, U.; Schaefer, F.; Seidel, A.

    1998-03-01

    The nuclear reactor core model DYN3D with 3D neutron kinetics has been coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. In the report, activities on qualification of the coupled code complex ATHLET-DYN3D as a validated tool for the accident analysis of russian VVER type reactors are described. That includes: - Contributions to the validation of the single codes ATHLET and DYN3D by the analysis of experiments on natural circulation behaviour in thermohydraulic test facilities and solution of benchmark tasks on reactivity initiated transients, - the acquisition and evaluation of measurement data on transients in nuclear power plants, the validation of ATHLET-DYN3D by calculating an accident with delayed scram and a pump trip in VVER plants, - the complementary improvement of the code DYN3D by extension of the neutron physical data base, implementation of an improved coolant mixing model, consideration of decay heat release and xenon transients, - the analysis of steam leak scenarios for VVER-440 type reactors with failure of different safety systems, investigation of different model options. The analyses showed, that with realistic coolant mixing modelling in the downcomer and the lower plenum, recriticality of the scramed reactor due to overcooling can be reached. The application of the code complex ATHLET-DYN3D in Czech Republic, Bulgaria and the Ukraine has been started. Future work comprises the verification of ATHLET-DYN3D with a DYN3D version for the square fuel element geometry of western PWR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Reaktorkernmodell DYN3D mit 3D Neutronenkinetik wurde an den Thermohydraulik-Systemcode ATHLET angekoppelt. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Arbeiten zur Qualifizierung des gekoppelten Codekomplexes zu einem validierten Hilfsmittel fuer Stoerfallablaufanalysen zu Reaktoren des russischen Typs WWER dargestellt. Diese umfassten im einzelnen: - Beitraege zur Validierung der Einzelcodes ATHLET und DYN3D anhand der Nachrechnung von Experimenten zum

  18. Osnovy postroenija teorii bolezni. [The basis of the theory of the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gozhenko, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    A.I. Gozhenko BASICS OF CONSTRUCTION THEORY OF DISEASE Monograph Odessa Fenix 2015 UDC 616-02.001.1 BBK 52.522 G 57 Recommended for printing The Academic Council of the Ukrainian Ministry of Transport of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (Minutes No. 1 of 30.01.2015) Reviewers: Trakhtenberg IM, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academician of NAMS of Ukraine, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor ...

  19. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  20. Analysis of WWER 440 SG primary collector bolted joint damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matocha, K.; Wozniak, J. [Vitkovice J.S.C., Ostrava (Switzerland); Pochman, K. [NPP Dukovany (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The susceptibility of CHN35VT-VD and 08CH18N10T stainless steels to stress corrosion cracking in water environment, simulating water solution found in threaded holes, was investigated using rising load line displacement tests of precracked C(T) specimens. To judge the role of oxidant on stress corrosion cracking of both stainless steels, the effect of dissolved oxygen content (fully deaerated water, water aerated at the beginning of the test) was studied. 7 refs.

  1. Vibroacoustic diagnostics of main circulating pump of primary coolant circuit of WWER reactor power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarin, A.A.; Adamenkov, K.A.

    1983-02-01

    The theoretical foundations are briefly described of the method and the noise sources given. Measurements on the main circulating pumps of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant have shown that the range of frequencies of structural noises of the main circulating pumps lies within 10 and 20,000 Hz. These vibrations and noise have a broad band random character and therefore the mathematical apparatus of the theory of random processes is used for processing measured data. The ''signature'' method is used for diagnostics of the main circulating pumps - this is an analytical method consisting in that the measured spectrum is compared with a spectrum measured in a failure-free state. Experience with practical applications shows that a poor state of the main circulating pump is always accompanied by changes in noise spectrum.

  2. Initial data on protective containment for safety analysis of NPP with WWER-1000 Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubeladze Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article the nuclear safety issues with VVER-1000 reactor are considered. The study element is the protective containment (PC, the most important function of which is localization and retention of radioactive substances within the accident localization zone. The example of possible unregulated destructive forcing (UDF on the PC for the construction and installation work period is given.

  3. Određivanje poligona vidljivosti kao čimbenika vrednovanja nekretnina u urbanom području na osnovi vektorskog 3D modela prostora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Tomić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Učinkovito upravljanje prostornim resursima jedan je od glavnih čimbenika zdravoga gospodarskog rasta regije. Tehnološki napredak omogućava integraciju atributa vezanih uz prostor, stvarajući prostornu informacijsku podršku koja može servisirati sve kompleksnije društvene zajednice. Važna je komponenta tih sustava masovno vrednovanje nekretnina, posebice u urbanim područjima. U radu je, nakon objašnjenja modeliranja podataka te pohrane 3D modela prostora testnog područja u prostornu bazu podataka, opisan postupak računanja vidljivosti kao čimbenika vrednovanja nekretnina na području dijela grada Zagreba. Vidljivost je u radu predstavljena poligonom vidljivosti, dvodimenzionalnim geometrijskim likom, dobivenim presijecanjem neprekinute granice vidljivosti u svim smjerovima iz težišta objekta, uzimajući u obzir presjek horizontalne vizure i prepreka. Svakoj pojedinoj građevini na cijelom testnom području pridružen je pripadajući poligon vidljivosti, a pretpostavlja se kako je površinu tog poligona moguće korelirati s pozitivnim, odnosno negativnim utjecajem na vrijednost nekretnine. Obavljena su mjerenja brzine izvođenja funkcije računanja vidljivosti u testnom sustavu.

  4. Rubinstein S. L., Osnovy obshchei psikhologii (Les fondements de la psychologie générale. Professionnalisation et développement professionnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Namolovan-Stephan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage classique en langue russe « Les fondements de la psychologie générale » de S.L. Rubinstein appartient aux œuvres les plus reconnues de la psychologie russe. L’étendue des généralisations théoriques, l’envergure encyclopédique du matériel historique et expérimental, la clarté des principes méthodologiques exposés ont fait de cet ouvrage une référence pour plusieurs générations de psychologues, pédagogues et philosophes.Cet ouvrage présente trois intérêts majeurs :D’abord, il intègre ...

  5. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  6. Experience of integrated measurements using heterogeneous systems at different startup stages of a WWER-1200 power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pavelko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A major feature specific to commissioning of NPPs in Russia and of Russian-designed NPPs in foreign countries is a great deal of measurement involved at different pre-commissioning stages, which differs from foreign experience where emphases is placed on computational justification and the scope of in-situ commissioning testing is smaller. The use of various measuring systems in pre-commissioning operations requires the involvement of a large number of personnel from different organizations, infrequently with no data acquisition coordination among them. This leads to both measuring channels and the information gathered being multiply duplicated (assembly, installation, adjustment, which is one of the sources for its misrepresentation, and to a greatly increased cost of operations. At the same time, most modern power units are equipped with test systems (TS [1–4] consisting of heterogeneous measuring channels. The current TS commissioning practice required systems to be adjusted and started up only after the 100% unit power level was reached which did not make it possible to use test systems at pre-commissioning and power ascension stages. This study is an attempt to create an integrated information system composed of heterogeneous local systems to enable the largest possible number of standard channels to be used simultaneously with temporarily installed channels for pre-commissioning measurements to provide sound and high-quality information on the state of the unit.

  7. Osnovy formirovanija sistemy upravlenija riskami proektov innovacionnogo razvitija akvakul'tury v regione (Na primere Kaliningradskoj oblasti [The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbulov Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kaliningrad region. The article formulates and justifies the concept of “risk management projects in innovative development of aquaculture in the region” focusing on the classification of aquaculture risks in relation to innovative development projects, which expands the conceptual framework of risk management in view of the specific risks relating to economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The authors characterize modern methods and approaches to risk management projects and organizations in the context of their application in the framework of aquaculture development projects and offer mechanisms for risk management of aquaculture development projects, which make it possible to include risk management activity in the general context of activities of parent project organizations. The authors develop the concept and principal scheme of the formation of risk management system for innovative development projects in aquaculture.

  8. IMPACT OF THE CHEMICAL FORM OF IN-CONTAINMENT SOURCE ON FISSION PRODUCT RELEASE FROM WWER-1000/V-320 TYPE NPP CONTAINMENT DURING LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kecek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant accidents may be followed by a release of fission products into the environment. This release is dependent on several phenomena, such as chemistry, pressure, type of the accident etc. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the chemical form of iodine on the fission product release into the environment.

  9. STC Germany/Russia. Fluence calculations of surveillance specimens of the VVER-440. Final report; WTZ Russland. Fluenzberechnungen fuer Voreilproben beim WWER-440. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konheiser, J.; Grahn, A.

    2014-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessels (RPV) are non-restorable equipment and their lifetime may restrict the nuclear power plant-life as a whole. Surveillance specimen programs for RPV materials are among the most important measures of in-service inspection programs that are necessary for realistic and reliable assessment of the RPV residual lifetime. In addition to the chemical composition of the RPV steel, the radiation parameters (neutron and gamma fluences and spectra) have the most important impact on the RPV embrittlement characteristics. In this work, different geometric positions which have influence on the radiation conditions of the samples are investigated. Thus, the uncertainties can be determined in the fluence values of surveillance specimens. The fluence calculations were carried out by the codes TRAMO and DORT. This study was accompanied by ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments at Kola NPP, Unit 3 (VVER-440/213), which provide the basis for validation of calculated neutron fluences. The main neutron-activation monitoring reactions were {sup 54}Fe(n,p){sup 54}Mn and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The activity measurements were carried out by ''Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS). Good agreement between the deterministic and stochastic calculation results as well as between the calculations and the ex-vessel measurements was found. The average difference between measured and calculated values is 5%. The influence of the channels for surveillance specimens and the shielding effect of a baffle rib on the monitors and on the Monte-Carlo calculated results was studied. For the surveillance specimens in the maximum of the flux, an average flux of around 2.45 * 10{sup 12} neutrons/cm{sup 2} was calculated for the neutron flux E> 0.5 MeV. The differences in the surveillance specimens could be up to 20% depending on the direction to the core. Discrepancies up to 10% can be caused by the change of the position of the capsules in the irradiation channel. Based on these calculations the lead factor of specimens was determined. The maximum fluence of RPV may be achieved after two cycles. The calculated maximum gamma flux is around 3.4 * 10{sup 12} g/cm{sup 2}s for E> 1.0 MeV and around 8.4 * 10{sup 12} g/cm{sup 2}s for E> 0.5 MeV, with the largest part of the flux (around 97%) from the neutron reactions. The gamma fluxes in the surveillance specimens are two to three times bigger than the neutron fluxes. Nevertheless, the material damage by the gamma radiation is very small, because the dpa (displacement per atom) cross sections of gamma rays are about two to three orders of magnitude smaller. In order to exclude the possibility of healing effects of the samples due to excessive temperatures, the heat release in the surveillance specimens was determined based on the calculated gamma fluences. The analytic treatment of the heat conduction equation and simplified SS geometries were adopted to calculate the range of temperatures to be expected. The temperature increase of 20 K above the inlet coolant temperature was estimated using a conservative approach. Under comparatively realistic conditions, the heating was reduced to less than 5 K.

  10. Metodicheskie osnovy sravnitel'noj ocenki nauchno-tehnicheskogo potenciala Rossii i ES: regional'nyj i mezhdunarodnyj aspekty [The methodological bases of comparative evaluation of sci¬entific and technological potential of Russia and the EU: regional and international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses approaches to the definition of such categories as “scientific and technological potential” and “innovative potential” in view of their resource, structural, procedural and resultant components. The author gives a more accurate definition of the scientific and technological potential through identifying its resources and orientation towards transforming abilities. On the basis of the existing methods of comparative analysis used in Russia and abroad, the author proposes a methodology for evaluating scientific and technological potential in the context of regional and international comparison. The integral index is calculated on the basis of a customised information and statistical database of normalised indicators through the identification and convolution of subindices that characterise individual components of potential. These subindices include pecific indicators applied in different statistical systems, in particular, those used in Russia and the EU, which made it possible to compar the data. The article presents the result of the application of this methodology based on a comparative evaluation of the scientific and technological potential of Russia (Northwestern federal district and EU states of the Baltic region. The experimental check suggests that the methodology be further improved for future clustering of Russian and EU regions according to the level of their innovative development.

  11. Use of gadolinium burnable absorbers in VVER Type Reactors. Validation of WIMS-D/4 code; Empleo del gadolinio como absorbente quemable en los reactores nucleares VVER. Validacion del codigo WIMS-D/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Cardona, Caridad M.; Guerra Valdes, Ramiro; Lopez Aldama, Daniel [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    Burnable absorbers are not used in current operating WWERs, but in order to optimize the fuel cycle and enhance operational safety, one should also introduce gadolinium or a similar burnable absorber in these reactors. For this purpose adequate tools for properly calculating local effects in hexagonal geometries should be developed and validated. The present gives main results in validating the WIMS-D/4 lattice code for Gd burnable absorber bearing WWER lattices. To validate the code experimental and calculational benchmarks proposed in a IAEA Coordinated Research Program were solved. A code system for the optimization of the Gd axial distribution in a WWER reactor was developed and it also presented here. (author)

  12. Modeling of soluble impurities distribution in the steam generator secondary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum s.r.o., Brno (Switzerland); Kucak, L.; Urban, F. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    A model was developed to compute concentration of impurities in the WWER 440 steam generator (SG) secondary water along the tube bundle. Calculated values were verified by concentration values obtained from secondary water sample chemical analysis. (orig.). 2 refs.

  13. Nalaz tombusvirusa na vrsti Erigeron canadensis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeknić, Zoran; Erić, Živojin; Grbelja, Julijana

    1988-01-01

    Iz listova zaraženih primjeraka korovne biljke Erigeron canadensis L. koji su rasli na nekoliko lokaliteta u Sarajevu izoliran je virus iz skupine tombusvirusi. Identifikacija virusa izvršena je na osnovi reakcije pokusnih biljaka, analize ultratankih presjeka kroz zaraženo tkivo, morfologije i veličine virusnih čestica, te na osnovi seroloških reakcija metodom dvostruke imunodifuzije u agarskom gelu i čvrsto fazne imunoelektronske mikroskopije (SPIEM). U serološkim pokusima upotrijebljen je ...

  14. Konstruiranje preme električnega avtomobila

    OpenAIRE

    Zevnik, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Cilj magistrskega dela je konstruiranje preme električnega avtomobila, ki bo še vzdržala obremenitve pri danih pogojih obratovanja. Najprej je bila določena osnovna geometrija elementa, kjer je bilo potrebno upoštevati geometrijo celotnega vzmetenja. Na osnovi določene geometrije preme je bil izdelan 3D model, pri čemer je bila upoštevana tudi montaža v sklop vzmetenja. Nato so bili določeni obremenitveni primeri pri obratovanju vozila, na osnovi katerih so bile po analitičnem postopku izraču...

  15. Stress corrosion (Astm G30-90 standard) in 08x18H10T stainless steel of nuclear fuel storage pool in WWER reactors; Corrosion bajo esfuerzo (Norma ASTM G30-90) en acero inoxidable 08x18H10T de piscinas de almacenamiento de combustible nuclear en reactores V.V.E.R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, V.; Zamora R, L. [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (Cuba)

    1997-07-01

    At the water storage of the irradiated nuclear fuel has been an important factor in its management. The actual pools have its walls covered with inoxidable steel and heat exchangers to dissipate the residual heat from fuel. It is essential to control the water purity to eliminate those conditions which aid to the corrosion process in fuel and at related components. The steel used in this research was obtained from an austenitic inoxidizable steel standardized with titanium 08x18H10T (Type 321) similar to one of the two steel coatings used to cover walls and the pools floor. the test consisted in the specimen deformation through an U ply according to the Astm G30-90 standard. The exposition of the deformed specimen it was realized in simulated conditions to the chemical regime used in pools. (Author)

  16. Human reliability analysis in low power and shut-down probabilistic safety assessment: Outcomes of an international initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, and decommissioning. This aspect has been confirmed by the operating experience. A workshop was organized by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. One of the major objectives of the Workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and results of human reliability analyses for WWER 440 and WWER 1000, and gain insights for future application of human reliability analyses in Low Power and Shutdown scenarios. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of the workshops concerning human reliability analyses and human factors.

  17. KVANTITATIVNA GRAVIMETRIJSKA INTERPRETACIJA PODRUČJA PTUJSKOG POLJA

    OpenAIRE

    Šumanovac, Franjo; Zagorac, Željko; Lukačević, Mladen

    1991-01-01

    Računanjem oblika struktura uz upotrebu podataka dubina iz bušotina, gravimetrijskim dvo- i trodimenzionalnim modeliranjem, geofizičke veličine su interpretirane u dubine. Interpretacijom su riješeni osnovi strukturni odnosi, a prikazanim postupkom računanja i interpretacije dan je doprinos boljem i svestranijem korištenju gravimetrijskih podataka.

  18. Probabilistička ocjena robusnosti konstruckcija

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    čizmar, D.; Rajčić, V.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    Pregledno se navode različite definicije robusnosti konstrukcije i zahtjevi za robusnost prema konstrukcijskim Eurokodovima. Razmatraju se različiti matematički modeli - deterministički, probabilistički i modeli na osnovi teorije rizika, kojima se pokušava kvantificirati robusnost konstrukcije. P...

  19. TACIS 91: Application of leak-before-break concept in VVER 440-230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholome, G.; Faidy, C.; Franco, C. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The applicability of the leak-before-break (LBB) concept for primary piping in the first generation of WWER type plants in Russia is investigated. The procedures for LBB behavior used in France and Germany are applied, and the evaluation is discussed within the framework of the European Technical Assistance for the Community of Independent States (TACIS) project. Emphasis is placed on experimental validation of national and international engineering practice for evaluating and optimizing existing installations. Design criteria of WWER plants are compared to western standard design.

  20. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  1. The role of IAEA in the seismic assessment and upgrading of existing NPPs. Seismic safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerpinar, A.; Godoy, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (IAEA). Div. of Nuclear Installation Safety

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of safety reviews and applied research in support of programmes for the assessment and enhancement of seismic safety in Eastern Europe and in particular WWER type nuclear power plants during the past seven years. Three major topics are discussed; engineering safety review services in relation to external events, technical guidelines for the assessment and upgrading of WWER type nuclear power plants, and the Coordinated Research Programme on `Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type nuclear power plants`. These topics are summarized in a way to provide an overview of the past and present safety situation in selected WWER type plants which are all located in Eastern European countries. Main conclusion of the paper is that although there is now a thorough understanding of the seismic safety issues in these operating nuclear power plants, the implementation of seismic upgrades to structures, systems and components are lagging behind, particularly for those cases in which the re-evaluation indicated the necessity to strengthen the safety related structures or install new safety systems. (author)

  2. Developing the European Center of Competence on VVER-Type Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, Nikolay; Pironkov, Lyubomir; Kulikov, Evgeny; Glebov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the European educational projects CORONA and CORONA-II which are dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of VVER-type nuclear power reactors technologies (Water-Water Energetic Reactor, WWER or VVER). The development of the European Center of Competence for…

  3. Ranljivost okolja in vprašanje prostorske informacijske enote, kot ga je nakazal projekt ONIX-GPOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Predstavljen je problem določanja prostorske enote, ki naj bi bila nosilec okoljevarstveno pomembnih opredelitev o ranljivosti okolja ob posegih vanj. Ta problem se je pokazal kot eden ključnih za izvajanje okoljevarstvenih presoj v prostorskih planih. Slovenska okoljevarstvena zakonodaja je namreč vpeljala ekosistemske enote kot nosilke vednosti o prostorskih kakovostih. Pokazana sta pomembnost oblikovanja prostorske enote na osnovi informacije o razvojnem posegu in ne na osnovi ekosistemskih ali podobnih kompleksnih prostorskih/krajinskih enot, in vezanje vrednostnih podatkov, kakršen je tudi podatek o ranljivosti prostora, na tip zapisa, ki ga označujemo kot »zvezno polje«. Tako podatkovna osnova kot posebna programska podpora, pripravljena v ta namen, sta izhajali iz tega temeljnega spoznanja.

  4. SUVREMENO PROMIŠLJANJE OSNOVNIH FENOMENA LOGISTIČKOGA SUSTAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenika, Ratko; Pupovac, Drago

    2001-01-01

    Autori su elaborirali važnije logističke fenomene najvažnijih logističkih podsustava: megalogistiku, globalnu logistiku, makro-mikro-metalogistiku, inter- i intralogistiku, servisnu logistiku, informacijsku logistiku, menadžment logistiku, primarnu logistiku, sekundarnu logistiku, tercijarnu logistiku, kvartarnu logistiku, kvintarnu logistiku i logistiku održivoga razvitka. Elaborirali su i poslovnu politiku logističkih tvrtki na osnovi analize njihovih pet potpolitika: kadrovske politike, tr...

  5. Pasivnost nekih zubnih materijala u Ringerovoj otopini

    OpenAIRE

    Begić, Anita; Malina, Jadranka; Matković, Prosper

    2003-01-01

    U ovome radu ispitana je korozijska otpornost dviju eksperimentalnih zubnih slitina, Co-Cr-Mo i Co-Cr-Ni, jedne komercijalne Co-Cr-Mo (Wironit®) slitine, titana i Ag-amalgama (Permite®) u Ringerovoj otopini. Na osnovi elektrokemijskih mjerenja određen je relevantni pokazatelj lokalne korozije - piting potencijal Epit, pri kojem nastaje proboj pasivnoga sloja i pojava lokalne korozije. Vrjednovanjem materijala prema piting potencijalu pokazalo se da je korozijski najstabilniji čist titan, slij...

  6. Oplemenjivanje magnezitne rude s većim udjelom dolomita

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, S.; Rashani, Sh.; Berisha, K.; Shaqiri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Glavne primjese magnezitne rude rudnika "Strezovce" su minerali silicija i kalcija koji nepovoljno utječu na vatrostalnost proizvoda na osnovi magnezijevog oksida. Stoga se proizvodnja i prerada magnezitne rude provodi s ciljem smanjenja njihovog masenog udjela. Za uklanjanje primjesa minerala silicija postoje razrađeni tehnološki postupci, dok je uklanjanje primjesa minerala kalcija samo na osnovu mehaničkih separacijskih operacija nezadovoljavajuće. U ovom su radu prikazani rezultati ist...

  7. Učinki manualnih postopkov na proprioceptivni priliv pri bolečini v vratu in spodnjem delu hrbta

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lenardo, Fanika

    2017-01-01

    Uvod: Bolečina v vratni hrbtenici in v spodnjem delu hrbtenice lahko oslabi delovanje proprioceptivnega sistema. Za izboljšanje proprioceptivnega priliva se poleg drugih fizioterapevtskih postopkov uporablja tudi manualne tehnike, kot so manipulacija in mobilizacija mehkih tkiv ter sklepov. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je bil na osnovi pregleda tuje in domače literature ugotoviti učinek manualnih tehnik na povečanje proprioceptivnega priliva pri zdravih odraslih in preiskovancih z okvarami ...

  8. Termodinamika mešanic polimerov v raztopini

    OpenAIRE

    Ulčnik-Krump, Manica; Malavašič, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Teoretična smo proučevali termodinamsko stanje raztopin mešanic sintetiziranega termoplastičnega poliuretana (TPU) in kloriranega termoplastičnega poliuretana (CTPU) s stiren/akrilonitrili (SAN) z različnimi vsebnostmi akrilonitrila. Na osnovi modificirane Flory-Hugginsove teorije raztopin smo izračunali interakcijski parameter (X12) mešanic različnih sestav.

  9. POLOŽAJNO VODENJE PCB MOTORJA

    OpenAIRE

    Hrastar, Rok

    2011-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljeno vodenje PCB motorja po položaju. PCB motor je dokaj nova tehnologija, katera deluje na principu piezoelektričnih aktuatorjev. Za komunikacijo med izbranim programskim okoljem LabVIEW in krmilnikom motorja smo uporabili karto NI PCI-6221. Izdelali smo svoj inkrementalni disk na osnovi optičnega senzorja, s katerim smo zaznavali položaj motorja.

  10. Materijali za novo tisućljeće - anorganski, polu-anorganski i organsko-anorganski hibridni polimer

    OpenAIRE

    Fleš, D.

    2002-01-01

    U referatu je naglašeno da iako su mnogi anorganski sintetski polimeri otkriveni prije organskih sintetskih polimera, anorganski polimeri značajno zaostaju u razvoju u usporedbi s organskiin polimerima koji se proizvode na osnovi petrokemijskih sirovina. Međutim i pored prednosti koje imaju organski sintetski polimeri u usporedbi s anorganskim polimerima, oni se ne mogu primjeniti u mnogim područjima visokih tehnologijja u kojima se zahtjevaju materijali otporni na visoke temperature uz uvjet...

  11. Variabilni sesalni kolektor za motor z notranjim zgorevanjem

    OpenAIRE

    MARKIČ, ROBERT

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo opisuje izdelavo variabilnega sesalnega sistema za motor z notranjim zgorevanjem in krmiljenje le-tega. Krmilnik je zasnovan na osnovi odprtokodnega mikrokrmilnika Genuino Mega 2560 ter podpornih vezij, ki delujejo kot vmesnik med tipali in krmilnikom. Premikanje sesalnega sistema je izvedeno s koračnim motorjem, ki preko jermenskega pogona premika zgornji del variabilnega sesalnega kolektorja. Cilj spreminjanja dolžine sesalnega kolektorja je v optimizaciji karakteristik motor...

  12. Plakati Zagrebačkog zbora u međuratnom razdoblju (1922.−1940.): prilog povijesti hrvatskoga grafičkog dizajna

    OpenAIRE

    Magaš Bilandžić, Lovorka

    2015-01-01

    U radu se na osnovi arhivske i periodične građe razmatra uloga Zagrebačkog zbora u promoviranju grafičkog dizajna i reklame, donosi tipologija zborskih plakata i interpretira doprinos autorskih osobnosti koje dosad nisu bile identificirane u povijesti hrvatskoga grafičkog dizajna. Korpus poznatih plakata nadopunjuje se dosad neobjavljenim rješenjima koja se promatraju kao reprezentativni primjeri vizualne kulture svoga vremena.

  13. Globalna procjena relativnog doprinosa klimatskih i neklimatskih čimbenika godišnjoj promjeni vegetacije

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiongwen; Li, Bai-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Utjecaj klimatskih i neklimatskih čimbenika na Zemljinu biosferu, kao i njihove promjene, izazivaju ozbiljnu zabrinutost zbog porasta ljudskih aktivnosti. U ovoj studiji koristili smo sistematsku metodu za procjenu relativne važnosti klimatskih i neklimatskih čimbenika na godišnju ukupnu i kontinentalnu dinamiku vegetacije na osnovi ukupnog normaliziranog indeksa razlike u vegetaciji (NDVI – Normalized Difference Vegetation Indeks) uz rezoluciju od 1 km i prizemnih klimatskih podataka iz mrež...

  14. STAVOVI PREMA OSOBAMA ISTOSPOLNE SEKSUALNE ORIJENTACIJE U SEKTORU ZDRAVSTVA I POLICIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Kozjak Mikić, Zlatka; Petković, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Stavovi prema različitim manjinskim skupinama ponekad se formiraju na osnovi premalog broja pojednostavljenih, pristranih i neopravdanih generalizacija. Iako zadnjih godina postaju pozitivniji, prema osobama istospolne orijentacije još prevladavaju negativni stavovi (Buck i sur., 2013.). Osnovni cilj rada bio je ispitati stavove prema istospolno orijentiranim osobama među učenicima i zaposlenicima u sektorima zdravstva i policije. Sudjelovalo je 990 sudionika (501 učenika i 489 zaposlenika). ...

  15. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  16. Modelling horizontal steam generator with ATHLET. Verification of different nodalization schemes and implementation of verified constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliaev, J.; Trunov, N.; Tschekin, I. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Luther, W. [GRS Garching (Germany); Spolitak, S. [RNC-KI (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Currently the ATHLET code is widely applied for modelling of several Power Plants of WWER type with horizontal steam generators. A main drawback of all these applications is the insufficient verification of the models for the steam generator. This paper presents the nodalization schemes for the secondary side of the steam generator, the results of stationary calculations, and preliminary comparisons to experimental data. The consideration of circulation in the water inventory of the secondary side is proved to be necessary. (orig.). 3 refs.

  17. Nuclear safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear risk in Eastern Europe and other regions. Scientific-technical cooperation with nuclear regulatory authorities and technical support organizations (TSOs); Einschaetzung der nuklearen Sicherheit von Kernkraftwerken sowie nuklearer Risiken in Osteuropa und anderen Regionen. Wissenschaftlich-technische Zusammenarbeit mit atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen (TSO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2014-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS project 3611I01512 formed the frame of the GRS for the scientifictechnical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety of NPPs and for the evaluation of nuclear risks in Eastern Europe and other regions for the period from September 2011 till June 2014. In the present final report main results of the project are described. The project comprised the following technical topics: - Record status of NPP modernisation programs, Monitoring and evaluation of modernisation programs; - Design basis and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000); - Cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3+ and on building NRA and safety evaluation capacities; - Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste; - Evaluation of new reactor concepts and their safety design; Panels at regulatory level. The work results are preceded by a summary on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  18. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit (WTZ) mit auslaendischen (insbesondere in Europa und INSC-Partnerstaaten) atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen zur nuklearen Sicherheit in Betrieb befindlicher Kernkraftwerke und zur Konzeptbewertung von Generation-3+-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3{sup +} plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3{sup +} and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  19. Relap5/mod2 post-test calculation of a loss of feedwater experiment at the Pactel test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protze, M. [Siemens-KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Post-test calculations for verification purposes of the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 are of fundamental importance for the licensing procedure. The RELAP5/MOD2 code has a large international assessment base regarding western PWR. WWER-reactors are russian designed PWRs with some specific differences compared with the western PWR`s, especially the horizontal steam generators. For that reason some post-test calculations have to be performed to verify the RELAP5/MOD2 code for these WWER typical phenomena. The impact of the horizontal steam generators on the accident behaviour during transients or pipe ruptures on the secondary side is significant. The nodalization of the test facility PACTEL was chosen equally to WWER plant nodalization to verify the use of a coarse modelling of the steam generator secondary side for analyses of transient with decreasing water level in the SG secondary side. The calculational results showed a good compliance to the test results, demonstrating the correct use of a coarse nodalization. To sum up, the RELAP5/ MOD2 results met the test results appropriately thereby the RELAP5/ MOD2 code is validated for analyses of transients with decreasing water level in a horizontal steam generator secondary side. (orig.). 4 refs.

  20. IAEA activities on steam generator life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Lyssakov, V.; Trampus, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Div. of Nuclear Power, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries out a set of activities in the field of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) life management. Main activities within this area are implemented through the Technical Working Group on Life Management of NPPs, and mostly concentrated on studies of understanding mechanisms of degradation and their monitoring, optimisation of maintenance management, economic aspects, proven practices of and approaches to plant life management including decommissioning. The paper covers two ongoing activities related to steam generator life management: the International Database on NPP Steam Generators and the Co-ordinated Research Project on Verification of WWER Steam Generator Tube Integrity (WWER is the Russian designed PWR). The lifetime assessment of main components relies on an ability to assess their condition and predict future degradation trends, which to a large extent is dependent on the availability of relevant data. Effective management of ageing and degradation processes requires a large amount of data. Several years ago the IAEA started to work on the International Database on NPP Life Management. This is a multi-module database consisting of modules such as reactor pressure vessels materials, piping, steam generators, and concrete structures. At present the work on pressure vessel materials, on piping as well as on steam generator is completed. The paper will present the concept and structure of the steam generator module of the database. In countries operating WWER NPPs, there are big differences in the eddy current inspection strategy and practice as well as in the approach to steam generator heat exchanger tube structural integrity assessment. Responding to the need for a co-ordinated research to compare eddy current testing results with destructive testing using pulled out tubes from WWER steam generators, the IAEA launched this project. The main objectives of the project are to summarise the operating experiences of WWER

  1. Psychological Factors of Rehabilitation of Athletes After Knee Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masten Robert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Izhodišča. Večina raziskav s področja športnih poškodb se nanaša na specifične značilnosti, ki sprožijo, napovedujejo ali preprečujejo športne poškodbe. Raziskava preučuje možnost napovedovanja uspešnosti rehabilitacije na osnovi psiholoških značilnosti poškodovanih športnikov, in sicer spoprijemanja z bolečino, vedenja v procesu rehabilitacije (SIRBS, motivacije za rehabilitacijo, tesnobe kot stanja in socialne opore. Metode. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 68 športnikov po operaciji kolena zaradi resne poškodbe, definirane na osnovi izbranega sistema (1. Rehabilitacijski proces je trajal en mesec ali šest mesecev. Udeleženci so bili psihološko obravnavani pred procesom rehabilitacije in po njem. Rezultati. Rezultati so pokazali, da je uspešnost rehabilitacije večja, če se zmanjša anksioznost in poveča dojemljivost ter zaznata samoučinkovitost in katastrofiziranje. Le za 10 % športnikov lahko rečemo, da je bila pri njih rehabilitacija uspešna. Zaključki. Na osnovi raziskave lahko rečemo, da se konstruktivna vedenja, povezana z rehabilitacijo, povezujejo s psihološko rehabilitacijo poškodovanih športnikov.

  2. Regulacija temperature vode in čiščenje vode v masažnih bazenih

    OpenAIRE

    Reberčnik, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je opisana regulacija temperature vode v masažnih bazenih v podjetju Apartmaji in Wellnes center Korošec. Regulacijo upravljamo predvsem z električnim in plinskim grelcem vode. Regulacijo in krmiljenje izvaja krmilnik na osnovi Arduino platforme preko namensko izdelanega vezja. Predstavljeni so razlogi za posodobitev regulacije in cilji, ki smo jih želeli s tem doseči, navedene so tudi težave, ki so se pri tem pojavile. Predstavljena je platforma Arduino Yun, program v prog...

  3. Procjena smjera dolaska vala primjenom neuralnih mreža za sustave D-CDMA s preklapanjem snopa

    OpenAIRE

    Gotsis, Konstantinos; Kaifas, Theodoros N.; Siakavara, Katherine; Sahalos, John N.

    2008-01-01

    Prikazana je metodologija procjene smjera dolaska signala željenog pokretnog korisnika uz primjenu neuralnih mreža za sustave s višestrukim pristupom po kodnoj osnovi s asinkronom izravnom sekvencijom (DS-CDMA). U sustavima DS-CDMA, valja procijeniti smjer dolaska signala željenog korisnika u nazočnosti više korisnika koji stvaraju interferencije (smetnje) što vodi do interferencije višestrukog pristupa. U ovom se radu rabi algoritam neuralnih mreža za potiskivanje interferencije uz primjenu ...

  4. ANALITIČNI IN NUMERIČNI IZRAČUNI LASTNIH IN MEDSEBOJNIH INDUKTIVNOSTI TRANSFORMATORJA Z ZRAČNIM JEDROM

    OpenAIRE

    Nerat, Grega

    2016-01-01

    Induktivnost je snovno-geometrijska lastnost prostora, ki jo definirata magnetni pretok in električni tok. V diplomskem delu smo izračunali lastne in medsebojne induktivnosti posamičnih tuljav ter nadomestne induktivnosti istosmiselno in protismiselno povezanih tuljav linearnega 2D modela transformatorja z zračnim jedrom. Induktivnosti smo izračunali analitično, s programom EleFAnT2D pa še numerično na osnovi magnetostatične analize magnetnega polja. Izračunani rezultati so med seboj primerja...

  5. Metaboličke karakteristike sindroma policističnih jajanika u visceralnom masnom tkivu i leptinska rezistencija u hipotalamusu pacova tretiranog 5alfa-dihidrotestosteronom: uloga glukokortikosteroida

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    Sindrom policističnih jajnika (PCOS) je najčešća endokrinopatija žena u reproduktivnom životnom dobu i predstavlja heterogeno oboljenje, koje u osnovi karakterišu hiperandrogenizam, hronična anovulacija i policistični jajnici, a sa njim su povezane i karakteristike metaboličkog sindroma, kao što su insulinska rezistencija, gojaznost, dislipidemija i hipertenzija. Patofiziologija i etiologija PCOS-a, odnosno uzročno-posledična povezanost njegovih pojedinačnih simptoma, nisu do kraja razjašn...

  6. Analiza pretoka zraka in korozije lamelnih prenosnikov toplote v laboratorijskem preizkuševališču

    OpenAIRE

    Vučko, Matej

    2017-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo preučevali možnosti za izboljšanje hitrostnih razmer v pravokotnem zračnem kanalu laboratorijskega preizkuševališča. Na osnovi pregleda literature smo analizirali na trgu dosegljiva mrežna satovja in jih vgradili v zračni kanal. Pri tem smo v območju zračnega pretoka med 1000 m3/h in 2000 m3/h eksperimentalno določili hitrostne in temperaturne profile po prečnem preseku kanala pred in za prenosnikom toplote. Nadalje smo obravnavali korozijo na bakrenih ceveh lamelnega pr...

  7. Deep web

    OpenAIRE

    Bago, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Završnom radu „Deep Web“ je cilj da se u osnovi nauči što je on te koliko je rasprostranjen. Korištenjem programa TOR pristupa se „sakrivenom“ dijelu interneta poznatom kao Deep Web. U radu je opisan proces pristupanja Deep Webu pomoću spomenutog programa. Navodi sve njegove mogućnosti i prednosti nad ostalim web pretraživačima. Istražena je valuta BitCoin koja se koristi u online transakcijama zbog mogućnosti kojom pruža anonimnost. Cilj ovog rada je pokazati do koje mjere ...

  8. Upravljanje objektov znotraj razširjene resničnosti s pomočjo prepoznavanja kretenj

    OpenAIRE

    Jernejšek, Niko

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu bomo predstavili področje razširjene resničnosti in prepoznavanja gest. Pridobljeno znanje bomo aplicirali na izdelku, in sicer na aplikaciji, ki bo združevala obe področji. Aplikacija bo izdelana na Unity 3D-platformi v programskem jeziku C#. Razširjena resničnost bo delovala na osnovi prepoznave in sledenja unikatnega markerja, za prepoznavo kretenj pa bo uporabljala napravo Leap Motion. Aplikacija bo delovala tako, da bo prek uporabnikove kamere najprej poiskala marker i...

  9. Prikaz knjige: Berislav Pavišić i suradnici - KAZNENO POSTUPOVNO PRAVO, Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Rijeci, 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Trbojević Palalić, Milana

    2010-01-01

    U nakladi Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci iz tiska je 2010. godine izašlo treće izdanje udžbenika Kaznenopostupovnopravo. Uzdr. se. Berislava Pavišića, redovitog profesora, dio materijala na osnovi drugog izdanja pripremili su: dr. se. Eduard Kunštek, izvanredni profesor (odlomci 146.-149., 874.-880., 886.-891.), dr. se. Petar Veić, izvanredni profesor (odlomci 336.-388.), i dr. se. Tadija Bubalović, docent (odlomci 621.-766.). Knjigu su recenzirali i dali pozitivne ocjene prof. dr. se...

  10. Rezultati istraživanja groblja latenske kulture Zvonimirovo-Veliko polje 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Dizdar, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Zaštitna istraživanja na groblju latenske kulture Zvonimirovo-Veliko polje posljednjih nekoliko godina provode se na sjevernom dijelu uzvisine, gdje je zabilježena velika koncentracija grobova. U istraživanjima 2009. godine pronađeno je još osam paljevinskih grobova koji se na osnovi brojnih priloga naoružanja te predmeta ženske i muške nošnje mogu datirati u Mokronog IIb stupanj. Kod pojedinih dublje ukopanih grobova u slojeve ilovače dokumentirane su promjene u boji i vrstama zapuna kao i n...

  11. Razlikovanje vrst jagodnjakov (Fragaria L.) v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Katja

    2017-01-01

    V slovenski naravi uspevajo tri vrste jagodnjakov: Fragaria viridis, Fragaria vesca in Fragaria moschata. Čeprav se vrste med seboj dobro ločijo, jih je po domačem določevalnem ključu Mala flora Slovenije (Martinčič idr., 2007) težko razlikovati. Zato sem na osnovi pregleda tuje literature in lastnih opažanj izdelala določevalni ključ, ki upošteva več razlikovalnih znakov in je uporaben za določanje tako svežih kot herbariziranih primerkov, ki so lahko nabrani tudi brez podzemnih delov in pri...

  12. Kvaliteta lipida masti brojlera u zavisnosti od primijenjenog sojinog ulja i goveđeg loja u hranidbi brojlera

    OpenAIRE

    Čorbo, dr. sc. Selma; Omanović, dr.sc.Halil; Dedić, mr.sc. Samira; Makić, dr.sc. Halid

    2015-01-01

    U sklopu ovog istraživanja praćen je utjecaj rafiniranog sojinog ulja i goveđeg loja na kemijski sastav ispitivanih uzoraka masnog tkiva/ topljene masti. Kemijskom analizom na ispitivanom potkožnom i bubrežnom masnom tkivu brojlera čija je starosna dob do 42 dana određen je sadržaj vode, masti i proteina na osnovi čijih je dobivenih rezultata izračunata energetska vrijednost. Određivanje ukupnog kolesterola u masnom tkivu vršeno je spektrofotometrijski, a ekstrakcija masti iz masnog ...

  13. AVTOMATIZIRANE TRGOVALNE STRATEGIJE NA FOREX TRGU

    OpenAIRE

    Kresnik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Trgovanja brez točno določene strategije skoraj ni mogoče objektivno oceniti. Vsak trgovalec ima svojo predstavo o trgu in lahko iz enakih informacij naredi drugačne zaključke kot nek drug trgovalec. Zaradi tega je danes vse bolj v veljavi trgovanje na osnovi algoritmov, ki vedno sprejmejo enako odločitev, in sicer glede na parametre, ki jih trgovalec želi vstaviti v strategijo. Prav tako lahko rezultate ene strategije primerjamo z rezultati druge strategije, saj vemo, da je končni rezultat p...

  14. Etični kodeks specialnih in rehabilitacijskih pedagogov in dileme v šoli

    OpenAIRE

    Vulić, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Specialni in rehabilitacijski pedagogi v osnovni šoli se pri svojem delu dnevno vključujejo v različne odnose z ostalimi udeleženci vzgojno-izobraževalnega procesa, tako z učenci kot tudi z ostalimi učitelji in strokovnimi delavci šole, vodstvom, starši in strokovnjaki iz zunanjih institucij, zato je zelo pomembno, da pri svojem delu ohranjajo profesionalno in etično držo. V teoretičnem delu na osnovi literature spoznamo nekaj več o etiki in morali, profesionalnem delovanju, etičnih dil...

  15. Investicijska študija z idejno zasnovo za poslovno stanovanjsko gradnjo

    OpenAIRE

    Jarni, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Osnovi namen naloge je raziskava investicijske študije iz tehničnega, lokacijskega, ekonomskega in časovnega vidika gradnje poslovno stanovanjskega objekta v Mariboru. Uvod podajamo z naborom in vsebino posameznih investicijskih študij ter podrobneje predstavimo vsebino predinvesticijske zasnove. Tehnični opis izdelanih načrtov idejne zasnove, lokacijske možnosti, tržna raziskava in ocena stroškov in prihodkov iz naslova investicije so ključni dejavniki pri presojanju investicije. Generalni t...

  16. INFORMATIZACIJA RAČUNOVODSTVA V JAVNEM ZAVODU, PRIMER CENTRA ZA USPOSABLJANJE, DELO IN VARSTVO DOBRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Maksić, Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Javni zavod je posredni uporabnik proračuna, ki se pretežno financira iz proračuna državne ali lokalne skupnosti. Njegov cilj je zadovoljevanje družbenih potreb. Da lahko dosega zastavljene cilje, potrebuje razumljive in zanesljive informacije, na osnovi katerih sprejema odločitve. Nudi mu jih lahko računovodstvo. Ker je količina dela v računovodstvu ogromna, je v veliko pomoč računovodski informacijski sistem, ki je avtomatiziral pretežen del računovodskega dela. Brez dobrega računovodskega ...

  17. UPORABA COBIT 5 ZA SPREMLJANJE IN VREDNOTENJE IT REŠITEV

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    V diplomskem delu so predstavljeni ključni pristopi za razumevanje spremljanja vrednotenja in ocenjevanja informacijske rešitve skeniranja evidenčnih listov o ravnanju z odpadki po priporočilih COBIT 5. Ključen prispevek dela predstavlja proučitev priporočil COBIT 5 in izvedba praktičnega primera na osnovi omenjenih priporočil. V teoretičnem delu se po poglavjih zvrstijo področja, ki opisujejo podjetje, kjer smo izvajali vrednotenje po COBIT 5 priporočilih, ter predstavitev samega COBIT-a....

  18. Utjecaj organizacija civilnog društva u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Bežovan, Gojko

    2003-01-01

    U ovom se radu analizira utjecaj organizacija civilnog društva u Hrvatskoj na osnovi rezultata međunarodnog komparativnog istraživanja CIVICUS – Indeks civilnog društva. Pored toga analiziraju se glavni aspekti utjecaja koji civilno društvo ostvaruje u razvijenim i tranzicijskim zemljama. Utjecaj organizacija civilnog društva u Hrvatskoj mjeri se analizom posebno odabranih indikatora, koji nam pokazuju relativno malen utjecaj organizacija civilnog društva na javne politike te na njihov slab k...

  19. Ljubičasta pjegavost kupine Septocyta ruborum (Lib.) Petr. (sin. Rhabdospora ramealis (Roberge ex Desm.) Sacc.) u Tomislavgradu

    OpenAIRE

    Karačić, Ana; Ivić, Dario; Perić, Ivica; Rotim, Nino

    2011-01-01

    Na lokalitetu Duvanjsko polje - Kovači podižu se intenzivni nasadi kupina za što je potrebno osigurati kvalitetan sadni materijal. U nabavljenom sadnom materijalu tijekom 2009. godine zamijećeno je patološko sušenje izdanaka kupine. Na osnovi simptoma oboljenja i morfoloških osobina uzgojenih izolata (izgled, boja i veličina konidija, pojava i izgled piknida, izgled i veličina spora) identificiran je uzročnik navedenog propadanja izdanaka kupina kao Septocyta ruborum (Lib.) Petr. (sin. Rha...

  20. PAMETNA TELEVIZIJA KOT VMESNIK ZA UPRAVLJANJE NAPRAV INTERNETA STVARI

    OpenAIRE

    KUMER, JAN

    2016-01-01

    Magistrsko delo predstavlja glavne aspekte interneta stvari IoT s poudarkom na tehnični osnovi ter novodobnem upravljanju preko pametnega vmesnika TV, ki je tako rekoč ena bolj razširjenih naprav v gospodinjstvih. TV vmesnik ima veliko površino za prikaz relevantnih informacij ter kontrolnih elementov. Koncept upravljanja interneta stvari preko pametnih TV vmesnikov z integriranim IoT prehodom je ena od mnogih rešitev, ki bo v prihodnosti odigrala pomembno vlogo pri posvajanju pametnih naprav...

  1. Postopek izbire generatorskega odklopnika

    OpenAIRE

    VINTAR, PRIMOŽ

    2016-01-01

    V pričujočem delu je predstavljen postopek izbire generatorskega odklopnika na osnovi kratkostične analize. Opisani postopek je nato ovrednoten na primeru realnega sistema Nuklearne elektrarne Krško (NEK). Postopek določitve nazivnih parametrov predvideva izračun kratkostičnih tokov ob pojavu kratkega stika na transformatorski, kakor tudi na generatorski strani generatorskega odklopnika. Pri tem so izračuni narejeni po postopku ročnega izračuna, in ovrednoteni z rezultati analize, opravlj...

  2. Skrivne združbe : magistrsko delo

    OpenAIRE

    Brezovac, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Skrivne združbe že od svojih zgodnjih začetkov vzbujajo nemalo pozornosti in so pogosto predmet številnih polemik in preučevanj v družbi. To dejstvo ni presenetljivo, saj so vse te združbe (nekatere bolj, druge manj), povezane z ustvarjanjem dogodkov, ki imajo za svet različne posledice. V osnovi ločimo štiri različne tipe skrivnih združb

  3. PRENOVA INFORMACIJSKEGA SISTEMA V SKLADIŠČU EMBALAŽE V KRKI D.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Jantolek, Uroš

    2009-01-01

    Skladiščenje je zelo pomembno poslovno področje vsakega podjetja, saj mora imeti tekoče podatke o zalogah materiala, polizdelkov in končnih izdelkov. Odsev spremembe poslovanja se zelo močno pozna v logističnih procesih podjetij. Razvoj in uporaba novih informacijskih tehnologij že danes v osnovi spreminja sisteme v logistiki. Obseg logističnih operacij se iz dneva v dan močno povečuje, zato je v uspešnem podjetju nujno zagotoviti kakovostno in zanesljivo informacijsko podporo. V sodobnem čas...

  4. Reaktiviranje virusa Herpes Zostera u bolesnika liječenih hemodijalizom: očitovanje, liječenje, komplikacije i ishod

    OpenAIRE

    Mesar, Ines; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Katalinić, Lea; Kes, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Do reaktiviranja varicella zoster virusa dolazi u bolesnika s narušenim imunim sustavom, što je gotovo univerzalna pojava u bolesnika sa završnim stadijem kronične bubrežne bolesti. Iako je liječenje infekcije varicella zoster virusom dobro poznato, često se zaboravlja da je potrebna prilagodba doze aciklovira s obzirom na bubrežnu funkciju. Želimo naglasiti problem pojave kožnog oblika herpes zostera u kombinaciji s neurološkim simptomima. Na osnovi kliničkog nalaza ponekad nije moguće jasno...

  5. PRENOVA INFORMACIJSKEGA SISTEMA ODDELKA ZA ZBIRANJE PODATKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Cijan, Andrej

    2013-01-01

    Naloga obravnava proces zbiranja zahtev, analizo problemov in pripravo predloga za izdelavo programske rešitve za management pogodbenih delavcev pri izvedbi projektov zbiranja podatkov. Podjetja, katerih glavna dejavnost je izvajanje trženjskih in drugih podobnih raziskav, morajo za izvedbo takšnih raziskav zbrati podatke, na osnovi katerih se opravijo analize in nato izdelajo poročila, ki predstavljajo njihov izdelek. Ti podatki se večinoma zberejo s pomočjo anketiranja v zelo kratkem in...

  6. Vzroki za nastanek napak na robovih obdelovancev

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovec, Majda

    2014-01-01

    V proizvodnji nastajajo napake različnih vrst in imajo številne vzroke. V podjetju Alples d.d. je velik problem kakovosti robov samih obdelovancev, po ugotovitvah in izračunih je neskladnosti v zvezi z robovi kar 20,8 %. Vzroke za odstopanje iščemo v sami proizvodnji, kar pa ni vedno upravičeno. Na osnovi analize obstoječega stanja kakovosti smo ugotovili, da je vzroke za odstopanja treba iskati tudi v sami organizaciji proizvodnje. Seveda pa so lahko vzroki tudi drugje, na primer: obraba oro...

  7. The anthroponymy of Dragoslavec Breg

    OpenAIRE

    Škvorc Branda, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Nakon uvodnih napomena o gornjomeđimurskome naselju Dragoslavec Breg (s osobitim osvrtom na povijest njegova imena, neslužbeni etnik i kretanje broja stanovnika), u radu se na osnovi terenskim i arhivskim istraživanjem prikupljene građe analizira antroponimijski sustav toga naselja. Pokazuju se značajke osobnih imena (njihova službena i neslužbena uporaba te učestalost), prezimena njegovih stanovnika (učestalost, podrijetlo, značenje i tvorbena struktura) kao i njihovi obiteljski nadimci (mot...

  8. VZPOREDNO RAČUNANJE VIDNOSTI IN FRESNELOVIH CON NA GRAFIČNIH PROCESNIH ENOTAH

    OpenAIRE

    OSTERMAN, ANDREJ

    2015-01-01

    Delo opisuje inovativno metodo izračuna vidnosti [61, 62] in Fresnelovih con na digitalnih zemljevidih z uporabo grafično procesnih kartic CUDA NVIDIA. Izdelani so trije vzporedni algoritmi: • modificiran vzporedni algoritem R2 za računanje vidnosti (R2-P), • algoritem za izračun zakrivanj Fresnelovih con (FZC), • algoritem za izračun prečnega preseka Fresnelovih con med oddajnikom in sprejemnikom (FZTI). Na osnovi uveljavljenega sekvenčnega algoritma R2 za računanje vidn...

  9. Ocena uporabnosti modernega športnega karateja za samoobrambo

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovinski, Patricija

    2017-01-01

    Karate kot borilna veščina in karate kot športna veščina se med seboj razlikujeta. Cilj v športu je zmaga, cilj samoobrambe pa je preživetje, zato se način treniranja v športnem karateju razlikuje od treninga karateja kot veščine. Karate se kot sredstvo za samoobrambo uporablja v sistemih zagotavljanja notranje in zunanje varnosti, torej v policiji in v vojski. V osnovi gre za defenzivno borilno veščino — ima veliko obrambnih tehnik, ki so koristne v različnih situacijah, v katerih je potrebn...

  10. Istraživanje oplemenjivanja magnezitne rude

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, S.; Rashani, Sh.; Berisha, K.

    2009-01-01

    Proizvodnja i prerada magnezitne rude, pretežito MgCO3, ima cilj dobiti visokokvalitetne vatrostalne materijale na osnovi MgO. U rudi glavne primjese čine minerali silicija i kalcija, koji nepovoljno utječu na kvalitetu gotovog proizvoda. Dok za uklanjanje minerala silicija postoje razrađeni tehnološki postupci, za uklanjanje minerala kalcija do danas u svijetu nisu razvijene pogodne metode. Stoga obrada takvih magnezitnih ruda zahtijeva primjenu niza dostupnih tehnoloških jediničnih operacij...

  11. OSOBNI STEČAJ U HRVATSKOJ I SLOVENIJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Ivanjko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postupak osobnog stečaja bez obzira na pojedina dobra ili slaba rješenja u bilo kojoj državi neće naići na opću suglasnost u društvu, a osobitom u onim društvima gdje se svako neplaćanje dugova ocjenjuje negativnim moralnim predznakom i bez obzira na realne mogućnosti dužnika da plaća svoje dugove. Posebno to važi za neplaćanje obveza u poduzetništvu. Poduzetništvo je po svojoj osnovi amoralno - što znači da ga nije moguće ocjenjivati pozitivnim ili negativnim moralnim predznakom ako se poštuju pravila poduzetništva. Tako npr. stečaj gospodarskog subjekta nije u osnovi nemoralan jer je to nužna pojava u kapitalizmu. U prosjeku je potrebno da oko 300 sudionika u poduzetništvu na njih 10 000 mora u stečaj jer inače kapitalistički sustav ne može djelovati i ne može biti efikasan. U socijalizmu nismo imali stečajeva i zato poduzetništvo nije moglo biti konkurentno s partnerima u kapitalističkim sustavima.

  12. Comparison of radiation hazard of HLW in several spent nuclear fuel reprocessing scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilov D.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation hazard of radionuclide has been calculated as a product of Aε where A is an activity of radionuclide and ε is a dose coefficient through ingestion. The values Aε of 18 radionuclide in spent fuel of WWER-440 are calculated. Because the full division of americium and curium from HLW is very complicated a separation americium from curium is considered. It is shown that a separation of americium in a special fraction allows decreasing the radiation hazard of HLW by 97.6% after 1000 years.

  13. RISKAUDIT Report no. 7, Vol. 2: Safety evaluation of VVER 440/213 and VVER 1000/320 reactors in Rovno NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Final Report by AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, CIEMAT, ANPA, GRS, IPSN, AEA-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-15

    The Riskaudit 7 report has been made by a group of independent experts from Western European countries representing technical organizations specialized in the support of regulatory bodies of those countries. It represents a preliminary estimation of the Ukrainian WWER B 213 and B 320 reactors, based on the example of Rovno NPP, analysed with a Western practice. The second part of the document covers the following aspects of the report: accident analysis; systems analysis; plant operation; operating experience feedback; radio protection and health; probabilistic safety assessment; summary and future plans.

  14. RISKAUDIT Report no. 7, Vol. 1: Safety evaluation of VVER 440/213 and VVER 1000/320 reactors in Rovno NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Final Report by AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, CIEMAT, ANPA, GRS, IPSN, AEA-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-15

    The Riskaudit 7 report has been made by a group of independent experts from Western European countries representing technical organizations specialized in the support of regulatory bodies of those countries. It represents a preliminary estimation of the Ukrainian WWER B 213 and B 320 reactors, based on the example of Rovno NPP, analysed with a Western practice. The first part of the document covers the following aspects of the report: core design and fuel management; pressurized components; electrical supply; instrumentation and control; containment; internal events; site conditions and external events.

  15. The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

  16. Statistical analysis about corrosion in nuclear power plants; Analisis estadistico de la corrosion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C.; Medina F, A.; Zamora R, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, it has been carried out the investigations related with the structure degradation mechanisms, systems or and components in the nuclear power plants, since a lot of the involved processes are the responsible of the reliability of these ones, of the integrity of their components, of the safety aspects and others. This work presents the statistics of the studies related with materials corrosion in its wide variety and specific mechanisms. These exist at world level in the PWR, BWR, and WWER reactors, analysing the AIRS (Advanced Incident Reporting System) during the period between 1993-1998 in the two first plants in during the period between 1982-1995 for the WWER. The factors identification allows characterize them as those which apply, they are what have happen by the presence of some corrosion mechanism. Those which not apply, these are due to incidental by natural factors, mechanical failures and human errors. Finally, the total number of cases analysed, they correspond to the total cases which apply and not apply. (Author)

  17. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  18. Possible pressurized thermal shock events during large primary to secondary leakage. The Hungarian AGNES project and PRISE accident scenarios in VVER-440/V213 type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budabest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear power plants of WWER-440/213-type have several special features. Consequently, the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the behaviour of the PWRs of western design. The opening of the steam generator (SG) collector cover, as a specific primary to secondary circuit leakage (PRISE) occurring in WWER-type reactors happened first time in Rovno NPP Unit I on January 22, 1982. Similar accident was studied in the framework of IAEA project RER/9/004 in 1987-88 using the RELAP4/mod6 code. The Hungarian AGNES (Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety) project was performed in the period 1991-94 with the aim to reassess the safety of the Paks NPP using state-of-the-art techniques. The project comprised three type of analyses for the primary to secondary circuit leakages: Design Basis Accident (DBA) analyses, Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) study and deterministic analyses for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Major part of the thermohydraulic analyses has been performed by the RELAP5/mod2.5/V251 code version with two input models. 32 refs.

  19. Nuclear reactor core modelling in multifunctional simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Nuclear Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    The thesis concentrates on the development of nuclear reactor core models for the APROS multifunctional simulation environment and the use of the core models in various kinds of applications. The work was started in 1986 as a part of the development of the entire APROS simulation system. The aim was to create core models that would serve in a reliable manner in an interactive, modular and multifunctional simulator/plant analyser environment. One-dimensional and three-dimensional core neutronics models have been developed. Both models have two energy groups and six delayed neutron groups. The three-dimensional finite difference type core model is able to describe both BWR- and PWR-type cores with quadratic fuel assemblies and VVER-type cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies. The one- and three-dimensional core neutronics models can be connected with the homogeneous, the five-equation or the six-equation thermal hydraulic models of APROS. The key feature of APROS is that the same physical models can be used in various applications. The nuclear reactor core models of APROS have been built in such a manner that the same models can be used in simulator and plant analyser applications, as well as in safety analysis. In the APROS environment the user can select the number of flow channels in the three-dimensional reactor core and either the homogeneous, the five- or the six-equation thermal hydraulic model for these channels. The thermal hydraulic model and the number of flow channels have a decisive effect on the calculation time of the three-dimensional core model and thus, at present, these particular selections make the major difference between a safety analysis core model and a training simulator core model. The emphasis on this thesis is on the three-dimensional core model and its capability to analyse symmetric and asymmetric events in the core. The factors affecting the calculation times of various three-dimensional BWR, PWR and WWER-type APROS core models have been

  20. Razvitak naselja na kvarnerskim otocima - primjer Dobrinja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Bradanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Na dosad slabo poznatom i sa stajališta povijesti umjetnosti još posve neobrađenom primjeru Dobrinja na otoku Krku, raspravlja se o razvitku naselja na kvarnerskim otocima. Uz isticanje štetnosti dosad prevladavajućih uopćavanja, karakteristični položaj i razvitak Dobrinja tumače se u širem, komparativnom kontekstu. Analiziraju se prostiranje i obilježja pojedinih dijelova ovog naselja, a naglasak je na vremenu kasnog srednjeg i ranijeg novog vijeka. Tada je najuži dio povijesnog središta Dobrinja poprimio čvrstu, na tlorisnoj osnovi i danas, usprkos opsežnim pregradnjama i arhitektonskim preinakama, jasno uočljivu, urbanu fizionomiju.

  1. Stambene zgrade i održivi razvoj u Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Čok, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    U sklopu nove sociorazvojne paradigme u Sloveniji, načela planiranja i izgradnje stambenih zgrada također su doživjela promjene. Na osnovi analize tipičnih primjera „izgradnje za tržište” zaključuje se da su danas dominantna polazišta projekta isključivo ekonomski učinak investicije i formalni tehnološki standardi. Kako bi se poboljšalo stanje, trebalo bi u legislativu na učinkovit način uvesti odgovarajuće mjere, kao što su smjernice i kriteriji održivog planiranja.

  2. VERNACULAR TRANSHUMANS STRUCTURES IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Na osnovi dokumentacije nastale v okviru podoktorskegaprojekta ARRS Vrednote vernakularne arhitekture Gorenjskein Prekmurja pri strategiji zasnove dejavnosti v prostoru in naosnovi obstoječe dokumentacije vernakularnih objektov poSloveniji in suhozidnih objektov po svetu, ki smo jo s kolegi naUL FA (Katedra za teorijo in zgodovino arhitekture v zadnjihletih zbrali in izdelali, lahko zasnujemo celovite zaključeneenote namenjene aktivni predstavitvi naših raziskovalnihrezultatov širši znanstveni, strokovni in laični javnosti. Del našedokumentacije je nastalo v okviru meddržavnih znanstvenihsodelovanj (SLO -HR 2007-08, SLO -HR 2009-2010.Zaključene enote so zasnovane kot sklopi strokovnih predavanj,

  3. Model razmerij vrednosti lokacije nepremičnin na primeru Ljubljane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Predlog modela je računalniško podprt sistem za ocenjevanje vrednosti prostorske lokacije nepremičnin, tako zdajšnjih razmerij kot tudi simuliranje prihodnjih na osnovi domnevnih smeri razvoja, strateških ali konkretnih prostorskih odločitev. Model izhaja iz klasičnih metod množičnega vrednotenja nepremičnin, podprtega z geografskim informacijskim modelom. Uvaja pa precejšnjo novost na tem področju: uporabo metode analitičnega hierarhičnega procesiranja za določitev tehničnih koeficientov ugodnosti lokacije. Model je bil razvit v raziskavi Razvoj in implementacija regionalnega simulacijskega modela za ljubljansko urbano regijo, ki jo je financirala Mestna občina Ljubljana.

  4. VPLIV ZVOČNEGA OZADJA NA GLASBENE PREFERENCE UČENCEV

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Glasba predstavlja pomemben del našega vsakdana. Večino časa jo poslušamo pasivno. Kljub temu se nam vtisne v spomin in v nas vzbudi določena čustva, ki vplivajo na naklonjenost do glasbe in razvoj naših preferenc. Radio in televizija zelo vplivata na to, kakšna glasba nam bo všeč. V magistrskem delu smo predstavili teoretična izhodišča in empirične podatke že izvedenih raziskav. Na njihovi osnovi smo oblikovali empirično raziskavo, s pomočjo katere smo ugotavljali: povezanost čustvenih stanj...

  5. Pomen in vloga učitelja pri poučevanju otrok z disleksijo pri pouku glasbe

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvirt, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Zadnja leta so učne težave učencev aktualna tematika učiteljev, stroke in staršev. Disleksija je sicer že dobro raziskana, a ker se ta nanaša zlasti na težave z besedili, je raziskav na tovrstnem področju v povezavi s poukom glasbe občutno manj. Namen tega magistrskega dela je bil raziskati in predstaviti značilnosti, ki se pojavljajo pri učencih z disleksijo pri pouku glasbe, in na osnovi tega opredeliti vlogo učiteljev pri poučevanju otrok z disleksijo pri pouku glasbe. V metodološkem d...

  6. Konkurenčne prednosti srednjeevropskih mest v čezmejni regiji Alpe-Jadran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available V prispevku so obravnavane tekmovalne prednosti osrednjih mest regije Alpe-Jadran, ki sta jih avtorja opredelila na osnovi ankete izvedene med strokovnjaki in vodilnimi delavci različnih področij. Najprej so prikazana mnenja o mednarodni podobi mest, mednarodnih funkcijah, marketinških lastnostih in tekmecih. Naslednja tema je kakovost življenja v mestih, in sicer raziskana prek stanovanj, urbanih storitev, naravnega in poslovnega okolje. Sledi poglavje o razvojnih projektih in medmestnem sodelovanju. Prispevek zaključujejo tri poglavja z razmišljanji o usmeritvah za izboljšanje nadnacionalne prizoriščnosti in kakovosti življenja v mestih obravnavane regije, novih strategijah razvoja mest ter usmeritvah za izboljšanje nadnacionalnega položaja Ljubljane.

  7. Insight on the inconsistencies of Barkhausen signal measurements for radiation damage on nuclear reactor steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Soraia Pirfo; Fitzpatrick, Michael E. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Gillemot, Ferenc; Horváth, Marta; Horváth, Ákos; Szekely, Richard [Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK), P.O. Box 49 H-1525, Budapest 114 (Hungary)

    2014-02-18

    This paper focuses on the use of magnetic measurements, using Barkhausen signals to determine the irradiation effects, attempting to predict fracture toughness changes on nuclear reactor structural materials and correlating these measurements to mechanical testing and microstructure. For this study, two types of nuclear reactor materials were investigated: one sensitive to irradiation effects, the JRQ IAEA's reference material (A533B- -type); and one resistant material, 15KH2MFA WWER's reactor pressure vessel steel. The samples were carefully identified within the original heat block, i.e. forged or rolled plate. These calibrated samples were irradiated at different neutron fluences up to 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2}. We show how microstructural anisotropy can mask the irradiation effects in the magnetic measurements. A correlation between irradiation effects and the magnetic measurements is explained based on this study.

  8. Thermal-Hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactor core by using single heated channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactor as a basis of reactor safety has a very important role in reactor design and control. The thermal-hydraulic analysis provides input data to the reactor-physics analysis, whereas the latter gives information about the distribution of heat sources, which is needed to perform the thermal-hydraulic analysis. In this study single heated channel model as a very fast model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of pressurized water reactor core has been developed. For verifying the results of this model, we used RELAP5 code as US nuclear regulatory approved thermal hydraulics code. The results of developed single heated channel model have been checked with RELAP5 results for WWER-1000. This comparison shows the capability of single heated channel model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of reactor core.

  9. Relap5/Mod3.1 analysis of main steam header rupture in VVER- 440/213 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, P. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    The presentation is focused on two main topics. First the applied modelling of PGV-4 steam generator for RELAP5 code are described. The results of steady-state calculation under reference conditions are compared against measured data. The problem of longitudinal subdivision of SG tubes is analysed and evaluated. Secondly, a best-estimate analysis of main steam header (MSH) rupture accident in WWER-440/213 NPP is presented. The low reliability of initiation of ESFAS signal `MSH Rupture` leads in this accident to big loss of secondary coolant, full depressurization of main steam system, extremely fast cool-down of both secondary and primary system, opening of PRZ SV-bypass valve with later liquid outflow, potential reaching of secondary criticality by failure of HPIS. 7 refs.

  10. Estimation of the nuclear fuel assembly eigenfrequencies in the probability sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with upper and lower limits estimation of the nuclear fuel assembly eigenfrequencies, whose design and operation parameters are random variables. Each parameter is defined by its mean value and standard deviation or by a range of values. The gradient and three sigma criterion approach is applied to the calculation of the upper and lower limits of fuel assembly eigenfrequencies in the probability sense. Presented analytical approach used for the calculation of eigenfrequencies sensitivity is based on the modal synthesis method and the fuel assembly decomposition into six identical revolved fuel rod segments, centre tube and load-bearing skeleton linked by spacer grids. The method is applied for the Russian TVSA-T fuel assembly in the WWER1000/320 type reactor core in the Czech nuclear power plant Temelín.

  11. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostarev, V.; Schukin, A.; Berkovski, A. [CKTI-Vibroseism Co. Ltd. (Cape Verde)

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  12. Control of the axial offset in a nuclear reactor at power maneuvering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim V. Maksimov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High reliability and security of power unit are basic requirements when the power unit maneuvering mode operation. The reactor stability under disturbances both at steady load and maneuvering load embodies the guarantees of power unit safe and reliable operation. A quantitative measure of the reactor stability is assessed by the axial offset representing the technological characteristics of energy release uniformity, therefore the axial offset minimum deviation is WWER-1000 operation efficiency measure. The power unit capacity automated control systems’ influence on axial offset under maneuvering mode is investigated. Considered is the power unit compromise-combined control program, which maintains a constant axial offset value when power unit switching from one power level to another.

  13. Validation of lattice code 'EXCEL' with TIC experiments on uniform and regularly perturbed lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, A., E-mail: anantatmula.ramakrishna@gmail.co [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Niyamak Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jain, R.P. [IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2010-12-15

    Temporary International Collective (TIC) was established in 1972 by an agreement among seven countries, namely, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The main objective of TIC was to provide the experimental data for the reactor physics analysis of water cooled and water moderated power reactors (WWER). Extensive experimental work for different core configurations was carried out by TIC countries to investigate the physics behaviour of WWER lattices and the results were published in TIC volumes. Two VVER-1000 MWe reactors are currently in an advanced stage of construction and due for commissioning in Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu, India. Indigenous development of in-core fuel management computer codes for the analysis of hexagonal lattice cores is also in an advanced stage to address various design, operation and safety issues of VVER type cores. The validation of the above TIC lattice experiments will help in the identification of deficiencies in reactor physics design computational codes and the associated nuclear data libraries. In this paper, TIC experiments on uniform and regularly perturbed lattices have been analyzed as part of the validation of indigenous computer codes, EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN developed at Light Water Reactors Physics Section, B.A.R.C. Neutron-nuclear multi-group cross-section libraries in WIMS/D format in 69/172 energy groups have been released by IAEA at the conclusion of WIMS library update project (WLUP). In the present study we have used libraries based on ENDF/B-6, ENDF/B-7, JEFF3.1 and JENDL3.2 evaluated nuclear datasets. The results of the theoretical analyses bring out the performance of the code system and various cross-section libraries.

  14. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  15. Analiza kontinualnih frekvencijski modulisanih radarskih signala primenom vremensko-frekvencijskih transformacija i korelacionih tehnika / FMCW radar signal analysis by time-frequency representations and correlation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Simić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su analizirana dva metoda za detekciju i procenu parametara radarskih signala s malom verovatnoćom presretanja, pri čemu ne postoji saradnja između prijemnika i predajnika. Prvi algoritam čini analiza signala pomoću vremensko-frekvencijskih transformacija zajedno sa tehnikama za prepoznavanje oblika. U osnovi drugog algoritma detekcije je procena periodične autokorelacione funkcije. Analizirani su kontinualni frekvencijski modulisani radarski signali (FMCW, često primenjivani u radarima s malom verovatnoćom presretanja. Korišćeni su test-signali, dobijeni eksperimentalnim putem. Realizovan je eksperiment s realnim predajnikom i prijemnikom FMCW signala, a rezultati obrade primljenih signala prikazani su u radu. / Two LPI signal detection and parameter estimation methods are analyzed in a non-cooperative context. The first method is based on the time-frequency signal analysis along with pattern recognition techniques. The second one is based on the estimation of a periodic autocorrelation function. Frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW signals are analyzed as a class of waveforms often used in LPI radars. Experimentally obtained signals are used in tests. An experiment with a real FMCW signal transceiver and a receiver is carried out and the obtained signal analysis results are presented.

  16. Kultura i politika kao dobitnici suvremenog moderniziranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ante Pažanin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Autor u članku elaborira normativno određenje “svijeta kulture” kao “druge prirode”,ističući kulturu kao najvišu svrhu čovjeka kao umnog bića i ljudskog roda uopće. Posebnu pozornost unutar tog određenja autor posvećuje razlikovanju kulture i civilizacije u klasičnoj i suvremenoj filozofskoj misli. Na osnovi tako određenog pojma kulture autor razmatra temeljne značajke kulturnog i povijesnog identiteta Europe, usmjeravajući svoju pozornost na problem kulturnog zajedništva Europe. U članku se opsežno rikazuju stajališta jednog od najznačajnijih europskih teoretičara o tom pitanju, Jacquesa le Goffa. U Zadnjem dijelu članka razmatra se doprinos njemačkog fi lozofa politike Hermanna Lübbea razmatranju filozofskih aspekata političkog ujedinjenja Europe.

  17. Fundamentals of Cosmological Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu

    2012-01-01

    This current updated and expanded (this is an up-dated English translation of Prof. Khlopov's book "Osnovy kosmomikrofiziki", URSS, 2004) text reflects the large number of scientific advances, both theoretical and experimental, within the discipline of cosmic particle physics in the last 10 years. Some of the topics that have been added or updated include but are not limited to: HND or CMD+HND scenarios being implemented into sterile neutrino scenarios, the ramifications of extending the forms of dark matter with respect to our view of neutrinos, the origin of baryon matter and the need for nonbaryonic matter in current theories, problems the existence of dark matter raises with respect to cosmic particle physics and the relationship with (meta) stable (super) weakly interacting particles predicted by the extension of the standard model, restrictions on baryon and lepton photons, as well as problems associated with expansion, just to name a few. These and many other topics are readdressed in light of recent b...

  18. Outcomes of an international initiative for harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many probabilistic safety assessment studies completed to the date have demonstrated that the risk dealing with low power and shutdown operation of nuclear power plants is often comparable with the risk of at-power operation, and the main contributors to the low power and shutdown risk often deal with human factors. Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, decommissioning and dismantling. The importance of this aspect has been confirmed by recent operating experience. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of a workshop organized in 2007 by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. The major objective of the workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and the results of human reliability analyses and gain insights in the enhanced handling of human factors.

  19. Dynamic model of nuclear power plant steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkowski Karol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamic multivariable model of Nuclear Power Plant steam turbine. Nature of the processes occurring in a steam turbine causes a task of modeling it very difficult, especially when this model is intended to be used for on-line optimal process control (model based over wide range of operating conditions caused by changing power demand. Particular property of developed model is that it enables calculations evaluated directly from the input to the output, including pressure drop at the stages. As the input, model takes opening degree of valve and steam properties: mass flow and pressure. Moreover, it allows access to many internal variables (besides input and output describing processes within the turbine. The model is compared with the static steam turbine model and then verified by using archive data gained from researches within previous Polish Nuclear Power Programme. Presented case study concerns the WWER-440 steam turbine that was supposed to be used in Żarnowiec. Simulation carried out shows compliance of the static and dynamic models with the benchmark data, in a steady state conditions. Dynamic model also shows good behavior over the transient conditions.

  20. Current Status of Development of High Nickel Low Alloy Steels for Commercial Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, B. S.; Park, S. G.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels have been used for nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels up to now. Currently, the design goal of nuclear power plant is focusing at larger capacity and longer lifetime. Requirements of much bigger pressure vessels may cause critical problems in the manufacturing stage as well as for the welding stage. Application of higher strength steel may be required to overcome the technical problems. It is known that a higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel could be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. Therefore, SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel is very attractive as eligible RPV steel for the next generation PWR systems. In this report, we propose the possibility of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for an application of next generation commercial RPV, based on the literature research result about development history of the RPV steels and SA508 specification. In addition, we have surveyed the research result of HSLA(High Strength Low Alloy steel), which has similar chemical compositions with SA508 Gr.4N, to understand the problems and the way of improvement of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel. And also, we have investigated eastern RPV steel(WWER-1000), which has higher Ni contents compared to western RPV steel.

  1. SYSMOD: user-interface for data processing, calculation codes and analysis of PWR lattices; SYSMOD: una interfase-usuario para el procesamiento, calculo y analysis de redes PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Alejandro; Milian, Daniel [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologias Nucleares (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba). E-mail: agg@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    The task of the physical calculation of the reactor demand of the management of a great volume of information and inclose the stages for processing of data, calculations and analysis of their results. These stages are highly sensible to human mistakes, that's why is imprescindible that them undergo automatization, doing tracked all the process against mistake or unexpected result. The user-interface SYSMOD was developed over the platform IDE Delphi 3.0, visual language driven to events. It to consist in of the principal menu, which inclose between its options the preparation of the input data (File and Edit) to the pre-processors for the calculation codes of reactors. The output information may be showed in graphic and/or alphanumeric format (Data-Process). SYSMOD endures two applications for the management of the data base for the data during the preparation of the input for the pre-processors of the spectral calculation, so as for the organization, conservation and presentation for the obtained results. The carried out of the lattices and global codes, takes place from this application, over the platform MS-DOS (Run). SYSMOD regards the possibility for the debugging of the codes (Debugging), so as the benchmarks qualified to so effect (Benchmark). SYSMOD has been applied for the analysis of te WWER-440 of the first unity of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  2. The vver severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

  3. Irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steel at very high neutron fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, A.; Debarberis, L.; von Estorff, U.; Gillemot, F.; Oszvald, F.

    2012-03-01

    For the prediction of radiation embrittlement of RPV materials beyond the NPP design time the analysis of research data and extended surveillance data up to a fluence ˜23 × 1020 cm-2 (E > 0.5 MeV) has been carried out. The experimental data used for the analysis are extracted from the International Database of RPV materials. Key irradiation embrittlement mechanisms, direct matrix damage, precipitation and element segregation have been considered. The essential part of the analysis concerns the assessment of irradiation embrittlement of WWER-440 steel irradiated with very high neutron fluence. The analysis of several surveillance sets irradiated at a fluence up to 23 × 1020 cm-2 (E > 0.5 MeV) has been performed. The effect of the main influencing chemical elements phosphorus and copper has been verified up to a fluence of 4.6 × 1020 cm-2 (E > 0.5 MeV). The data are indicating good radiation stability, in terms of the Charpy transition temperature shift and yield strength increase for steels with relatively low concentrations of copper and phosphorus. The linear dependence between ΔTk and ΔRp0.2 can be an evidence of strengthening mechanisms of irradiation embrittlement and absence of non-hardening embrittlement even at very high neutron fluence.

  4. The evaluation of validity of the RELAP5/Mod3 flow regime map for horizontal small diameter tubes at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Banati, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    RELAP5/MOD3 code was developed for Western type power water reactors with vertical steam generators. Thus, this code should be validated also for WWER design with horizontal steam generators. In application for horizontal steam generators the situation with two-phase flow inside small diameter tubes is possible when the first circuit pressure drops in accident below the pressure level in the boiling water. It is known that computer codes have not always modelled correctly the two-phase flow inside horizontal tubes at low pressures (less than 4-6 MPa). It may be the result of erroneous prediction of the flow regime. Correct prediction of the flow regime is especially important for the fully or partly stratified flow in horizontal tubes. The aim of this study is the attempt of verification of the flow regime map, which is used in the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code for two-phase flow in horizontal small diameter tubes. `Small diameter tube` means according RELAP5/MOD3 that the inner diameter of the tube is less (or equal) than 0.018 m. The inner tube diameter in horizontal steam generators is equal 0.013 m. (orig.). 19 refs.

  5. Prometni koridorji in poselitev v regiji. Navezovanje poselitve na javni promet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Sašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Navezovanje poselitve na javni promet na regionalni in mestni ravni je osnovna vsebina tega prispevka. Kot je značilno za zahodno Evropo, se tudi v Sloveniji v širših zaledjih večjih mest pojavljajo izraziti poselitveni pritiski in problemi, ki so vezani na razvoj suburbanizacije. V območjih regionalnih središč, kjer so močni prometni tokovi s pogostimi zastoji motornega prometa, bi moral biti javni promet osnova prometnega sistema. Pomemben je tudi pri konsolidaciji večjih gravitacijskih območij, zlasti somestij. Vendar pa ugotavljamo, da vzporedno s povečano rabo osebnega avtomobila upada uporaba javnih transportnih sredstev. Zato sedanje stanje zahteva sanacijo transportnih sistemov in primerno zgostitev poselitve, vezano predvsem na razvoj javnega prometa. To pa lahko dosežemo le s sinergetskim povezovanjem razvoja javnega potniškega prometa in prostorskega načrtovanja v trajnostno usmerjen poselitveni sistem. Na območju ljubljanske funkcijske regije smo še posebej obdelali povezovanje poselitve z regionalnim sistemom javnega prometa, predvsem s predvideno regionalno lahko železnico oziroma tramvajskim sistemom na ožjem mestnem območju. Predstavljen je model decentralizirane zgostitve poselitve. Na osnovi študije o konceptu razvoja naselij v koridorjih tirnega prometa je bil narejen predlog za potencialne možnosti zgostitve poselitve v ožjih območjih postaj primestne železnice v severnem delu regije od Črnuč do Kamnika.

  6. Resistance to antibiotics in Lacid acid bacteria - strain Lactococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipić Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in the food industry, especially in the production of fermented dairy products and meat. The most studied species among Lis Lactococcus lactis. L. lactis strains are of great importance in the production of fermented dairy products such as yogurt, butter, fresh cheese and some kind of semi-hard cheese. Although L. lactis acquired the „Generally Regarded As Safe“ (GRAS status, many investigations indicated that lactococci may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which could be transferred to other bacterial species in human gastrointestinal tract includ­ing pathogens. The genome analysis of L. lactis indicated the presence of at least 40 putative drug transporter genes, and only four multidrug resistance (MDR transporters are functionally characterized: LmrA, LmrP, LmrCD i CmbT. LmrA is the first described MDR transporter in prokaryotes. LmrCD is responsible for resistance to cholate, which is an integral part of human bile and LmrCD is important for intestinal survival of lactococci that are used as probiotics. Secondary multidrug transporter LmrP confers resistance to lincosamides, macrolides, streptogramins and tetracyclines. CmbT protein has an effect on the host cell resistance to lincomycin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, rifampicin, puromycin and sulfametox­azole. Since the food chain is an important way of transmitting resistance genes in human and animal population, it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of resistance in lactococci and other LAB, intended for the food industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019: Izučavanje gena i molekularnih mehanizama u osnovi probiotičke aktivnosti bakterija mlečne kiseline izolovanih sa područja Zapadnog Balkana

  7. Uslovi patentibilnosti za zaštitu pronalazaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 Sažetak: Pronalasci se javljaju kao jedan od rezultata stvaralačkog rada koji se štite patentom ili malim patentom, pod uslovom da je podneta patentna prijava. Pronalasci su vrsta inovacija koji imaju tehnički karakter jer nude rešenja nekog tehničkog problema i mogu da se odnose na bilo koju oblast tehnike. U osnovi pronalaska su određene tehničke karakteristike, kao predmet (tačno definisan kroz patentne zahteve za koje se traži zaštita. Patentna zaštita je pravo koje se priznaje njegovom nosiocu sa ciljem ekonomskog iskorišćavanja pronalaska. Da bi neki pronalazak dobio patentnu zaštitu mora da bude patentibilan odnosno da ispunjava sledeće uslove: postojanje pronalaska, novost, inventivni nivo i industrijska primenljivost pronalaska. Uopšte, kod ispitivanja ovih uslova, treba poći od nacionalne zakonske regulative iz oblasti patentne zaštite, koja precizira šta se sve ne smatra pronalaskom i šta se ne može štititi patentom odnosno malim patentom. Ispitivanje uslova patentibilnosti vrši se u određenoj fazi postupka ispitivanja prijave patenta od strane stručnih lica iz oblasti tehnike na koju se pronalazak odnosi. Ako su ispunjeni svi zahtevani uslovi, kaže se da je pronalazak patentibilan i da se može vršiti njegova patentna zaštita. Ključne reči: Pronalazak, Patentibilnost, Patent, Mali patent, Novost pronalaska, Inventivni nivo pronalaska, Industrijska primenljivost pronalaska.

  8. Analysis of regularly perturbed lattices and reaction rate distributions from TIC experiments for X7 lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, A., E-mail: anantatmula.ramakrishna@gmail.com [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Niyamak Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jain, R.P. [IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > We conducted analysis of TIC experiments on regularly perturbed lattice experiments using indigenously developed EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN code system. > Analysis uses diffusion iterative technique (DIT) method which iteratively adjusts the absorber cell cross sections. > For simulation of dry lattice above the critical moderator height a suitable gamma boundary condition has been used. > The calculated fission rate and activation reaction rate distributions are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: Temporary International Collective (TIC) was established in 1972 by an agreement among seven countries, namely, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The main objective of TIC was to provide the experimental data for the reactor physics analysis of water cooled and water moderated power reactors (WWER). Extensive experimental work for different core configurations was carried out by TIC countries to investigate the physics behavior of WWER lattices and the results were published in TIC volumes. In this paper, TIC experiments on regularly perturbed cores have been analyzed as part of the validation of indigenous computer codes, EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN developed at Light Water Reactors Physics Section, B.A.R.C. The few group homogenized parameters of assembly cell or individual lattice cells were obtained by the hexagonal lattice burn-up code EXCEL and the core diffusion calculations were then performed using hexagonal assembly geometric code TRIHEX-FA and the pin-by-pin diffusion code HEXPIN. A transport-diffusion theory correction to the absorber cell cross section by a diffusion iterative technique (DIT) was used to iteratively adjust the absorber cell cross sections such that the transport leakage into the absorber cell is reproduced by diffusion theory. Neutron-nuclear multi-group cross-section libraries in WIMS/D format in 69/172 energy groups have been released by IAEA

  9. Comparison of four NDT methods for indication of reactor steel degradation by high fluences of neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomáš, I., E-mail: tomas@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, Prague 18221 (Czech Republic); Vértesy, G. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Pirfo Barroso, S. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); The Open University, Walton Hall, MK92BS Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Kobayashi, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Results of 4 NDT methods on highly irradiated steel are normalized and compared. • Two of the methods (MAT and HV) correlate well with DBTT. • Magnetic Adaptive Testing gives the most sensitive and the best correlated results. • Measurements and sample shapes for an NDT surveillance program are suggested. - Abstract: Results of three magnetic nondestructive methods, Magnetic Barkhausen Emission (MBE), magnetic minor loops Power Scaling Laws (PSL) and Magnetic Adaptive Testing (MAT), and of one reference mechanical measurement, Vickers Hardness (HV), applied on the same series of neutron heavily irradiated nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel materials, were normalized and presented here for the purpose of their straightforward quantitative mutual comparison. It is uncommon to carry out different round-robin testing on irradiated materials, and if not answering all open questions, the comparison alone justifies this paper. The assessment methods were all based on ferromagnetism, although each of them used a different aspect of it. The presented comparison yielded a justified recommendation of the most reliable nondestructive method for indication of the reactor steel irradiation hardening and embrittlement effects. The A533 type B Class 1 steel (JRQ), and the base (15Kh2MFA) and welding (10KhMFT) steels for the WWER 440-type Russian reactors were used for the investigations. The samples were irradiated by high-energy neutrons (>1 MeV) with up to 11.9 × 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} fluences. From all the applied measurements, the results of MAT produced the most satisfactory correlation with independently measured ductile-brittle-transition temperature (DBTT) values of the steel. The other two magnetic methods showed a weaker correlation with DBTT, but some other aspects and information could be assessed by them. As MAT and MBE were sensitive to uncontrolled fluctuation of surface quality of the steel, contact-less ways of testing and more

  10. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  11. Influence of the composition on the radiation embrittlement alloys; Einfluss der Zusammensetzung auf die Strahlenversproedungslegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmert, J.; Kryukov, A.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Erak, D.Yu.; Gerashenko, S.S.

    1999-02-01

    behaviour as the weld metal. For the Ni rich alloys such well-validated references are missing. The experiment is part of an extended research programme. It is supposed to continue in order to gain information about the synergistic effects of these elements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Strahlenversproedung der Reaktordruckbehaelter ist bei Reaktoren des Types WWER ein Problem von hoher sicherheitstechnischer Relevanz. Sie wird entscheidend durch die Zusammensetzung des Druckbehaeltermaterials bestimmt. Mit einem Bestrahlungsexperiment auf Surveillancepositionen zweier russischer WWER-440-Reaktoren sollte der Einfluss von Kupfer, Phosphor und Nickel auf die Strahlenversproedung nachgewiesen werden. Dazu wurden 8 Testlegierungen ausgewaehlt, deren Zusammensetzung zwischen 0,015-0,42% Cu, 0,002-0,039% P, 0,01-1,98% Ni, 0,09-0,37% Si und 0,35-0,49% Mn variierte. An Proben aus diesen Legierungen wurden Kerbschlagbiege- und Zugversuche im Ausgangszustand, in 2 bestrahlten Zustaenden (Fluenx: 1x10{sup 19} und 8x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} [E>0,5 MeV]) und nach einer Ausheilgluehung bei 475 C/100 h durchgefuehrt. Die Legierungen haben im Ausgangszustand ein ferritisches Gefuege, die Legierungselemente koennen, vom Kupfer abgesehen, als geloest angenommen werden. Nach Bestrahlung tritt ein ausgepraegter Haertungs- und Versproedungseffekt auf. Der Effekt steigt mit dem Gehalt an Cu und P. Im Bereich von 1,1-1,98% bewirkt Nickel eine zusaetzliche, von der Ni-Konzentration unabhaengige Versproedung. Sie manifestiert sich in einer Verschiebung der Uebergangstemperatur bei einer Fluenz von 1x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} und einer Flussdichte von 4x10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s [E>0,5 MeV] um ca. 120 C, die nicht abhaengig vom Cu- und P-Gehalt ist. Ausserdem wird bei Ni-Legierungen die Kerbschlagarbeit in der Zaehigkeitshochlage besonders stark abgesenkt. Bei sehr niedrigen Gehalten an P und Cu gelten diese Zusammenhaenge nicht. Durch eine Ausheilgluehung kann bei Legierungen mit niedrigem Cu- und P-Gehalt der

  12. CHANGES IN SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND GLUCOSE LEVELS OF OBESE PEOPLE DURING A 8 WEEK LONG CYCLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY COMBINED WITH ENERGY DEFFICIENT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassimir Petkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The rate of obesity among people in many countries escalated in recent years. A lot of different methodologies were implemented to address this problem. To address these problems in this study we tried to evaluate the impact of a daily schedule, consisting of physical activity of anaerobic-lactic type (duration of 20-30 sec, combined with an energy deficient diet on the blood cholesterol and glucose levels in obese people. Methods: The participants were 20 healthy adults of both sexes with Body Mass Index (BMI values above 27. They were randomly assigned to 2 groups – the first one underwent an energy deficient diet with a energy restriction of 30% of the theoretically calculated energy balance. The second group was the control one with no dietary restrictions. All participants performed 30 min. circuit training sessions of resistance exercises 3 times a week. The study was 8 weeks long. We measured the following blood components twice – once in the beginning and once at the end of the experiment: 1. Glucose; 2. Total cholesterol; 3. High density lipoproteins (HDL; 4. Low density lipoproteins (LDL; 5. Triglycerides. Results. We found no statistically significant differences (p≤0.05 in all of the blood serum variables we studied in both groups of participants. Discussion: We found no evidence of any favorable effects of a daily regimen consisting of anaerobic-lactic type of physical exercises and low caloric diet on the serum levels of cholesterol and glucose. When interpreting the results one must consider two facts (important in our opinion: 1. The relatively low number of the subjects and 2. the duration of the study, which was only 8 weeks. It is possible that such a methodology has to be applied for longer periods of time for the achievement of significant results. This could be a topic for future studies. References: References: 1. Želяzkov CV, Daseva D (2002. Osnovi na sportnata trenirovka.[Basics of sports training

  13. Behavior of a VVER fuel element tested under severe accident conditions in the CORA facility. Test results of experiment CORA-W1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Schanz, G.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1994-01-01

    Bereich unversehrt. nach dem Versuch zeigte das Versuchsbuendel ausschliesslich im oberen Buendelbereich Brennstoffaufloesung durch die Wechselwirkung ZrNb1/UO{sub 2} und eine starke Zerstoerung des Abstandshalters in der Hoehe 600 mm aufgrund chemischer Wechselwirkungen zwischen Stahl und dem ZrNb1-Huellrohrmaterial. Ebenso ergab sich eine Umverlagerung von Schmelzmassen aus dem oberen Buendelbereich in die mittlere Zone zwischen 400 und 650 mm unter Bildung einer Teilblockade des Kuehlkanals in der Hoehe von 420 mm. Abgesehen von einigen spezifischen Merkmalen ist das Materialverhalten des WWER-1000-Buendels vergleichbar mit dem der DWR- und SWR-Versuche, in denen fuer westliche Reaktoren typische Brennstabbuendel eingesetzt wurden. (orig./HP)

  14. Comparison of the applicability of commercial computer programs to study the thermodynamic stability of metal oxides; Vertailu kaupallisten laskentaohjelmien soveltuvuudesta metallioksidien termodynaamiseen stabiilisuustarkasteluun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukkari, P.; Olin, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, T. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland); Sippola, H. [GEM Systems Oy (Finland)

    1999-04-01

    The oxide films formed on primary circuit surfaces incorporate radioactive species from the coolant and influence different corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. One approach to improve the understanding on the formation and properties of these oxide films is to evaluate their thermodynamic stability. The aim of this work was to compare and demonstrate the applicability of different commercial thermodynamic computer programs to model the deposition of oxides containing iron, chromium and/or nickel in various nuclear power plant environments. The programs considered in this evaluation comprised the EQ3/6 program and a product group including such products as ChemSage, HSC (including SOLGASMIX and GIBBS), H+PLUS and ChemSheet. In the group the transfer of data between different products is relatively easy. The goal was to find out which programs can be applied to evaluate the stability of oxide films, but not to assess the absolute accuracy of the calculations. The evaluation was done by means of applying the programs to calculate the stability of pure and mixed oxides of iron, nickel and chromium on stainless steel both in WWER and BWR conditions at different temperatures and coolant compositions. The comparison showed that EQ3/6 is suitable for most thermodynamic calculations. EQ3/6 can be characterised as a professional tool, for which no commercial training is available. ChemSage is a versatile and reliable program, which can be well used together with HSC and H+PLUS. ChemSage is mainly a professional tool, while HSC is easier to operate by an occasional user. Commercial training and support is available for both ChemSage and HSC. ChemSheet has been designed to utilise the properties of ChemSage in a user-friendly spreadsheet environment. All the products tested calculate thermodynamic equilibrium. Thus they are suitable to characterise such conditions in which the formation of a certain phase is or becomes possible. On the other hand, the modelling of the

  15. Dora Sečić, Kraljevska sveučilišna knjižnica u Zagrebu. Razvoj i djelovanje srednjoeuropske knjižnice od 1874. do 1918. Lokve: Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica — Benja, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Stančić

    2008-01-01

    osnovi dosad najvećim dijelom nekorištene građe, istraženo djelovanje prvog ravnatelja Ivana Kostrenčića, a zatim, od 1911., Velimira Deželića. Monografija donosi cjelovit, znanstveno utemeljen prikaz djelovanja današnje Nacionalne i sveučilišne knjižnice u razdoblju od njezina osnivanja 1874. do 1918. godine, njezine uloge u razvoju knjižničarske struke u Hrvatskoj i položaja u sklopu znanstvenih knjižnica na srednjoeuropskim prostorima. Monografija je istodobno, u širem smislu, prilog poznavanju procesa stvaranja hrvatskih središnjih nacionalnih kulturnih i znanstvenih institucija u sklopu modernizacijskih procesa druge polovice 19. i početkom 20. stoljeća, koji su položili institucionalnu osnovicu suvremenoj hrvatskoj kulturi i znanosti. (Nikša Stančić

  16. The Language Teacher’s Role in the Age of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagisa MORITOKI

    2011-09-01

    žja študentom japonskega jezika. Najprej si ogledamo rezultate splošnega vprašalnika o sedanjem položaju učenja japonskega jezika v Sloveniji in identificiramo prednosti in slabosti uporabe medmrežja pri učenju jezika. Slabosti medmrežja, ki povzročajo težave učencem, so pravzaprav težave, s katerimi se soočimo tudi mi v vsakodnevni komunikaciji. Zato kot učitelj predlagam strategijo naslednjih treh postopkov, s katerimi laže in bolj spretno vodimo učence: prvič, pustimo prostor za učenčevo zanimanje, ki ga lahko spodbuja k raziskovanju širšega in globljega sveta okoli sebe; drugič, naj učenec skuša rekonstruirati svoj svet; in tretjič, pustimo učenca k samoizražanju in pri tem mu pomagajmo, da pravilno razvije svoje komunikacijske spretnosti, da se ga razume. Takšna je učiteljeva vloga za medsebojno sporazumevanje na osnovi posameznega stališča in pogleda na svet. Takšno razmišljanje je aktualno tudi v pedagogiki japonskega jezika, ko učenec išče jezikovne spretnosti ne le za praktične namene. Dodatno predlagam, da bodimo pozorni na ideologijo Skupnega evropskega okvirja referenc (CEFR, ki z omenjeno strategijo skuša doseči ‘ekspertizo o odnosih z Drugim’ (Zarate et al., 2004, str. 11.

  17. The Construction of a Database to Support the Compilation of Japanese Learners’ Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Jae-ho

    2012-10-01

    ponuditi na spletu, zato da bi s tem podprli urejanje japonskih učnih slovarjev za srednjo in nadaljevalno stopnjo. Projekt bo trajal 4 leta, od leta 2011 do leta 2014. Da bi izbrali besedišče, ki naj se vključi v bazo podatkov, smo doslej izvedli raziskavo besedišča učbenikov japonščine kot tujega jezika ter kvantitativno raziskavo ciljnega jezika v obsežnem korpusu. Sestavljen je bil tudi seznam osnovnega besedišča japonščine za splošno rabo. Trenutno sta v teku urejanje primerov rabe na osnovi izoblikovanega seznama besedišča ter razvoj računalniškega sistema, pri čemer je že razvit prototip spletnega vmesnika za iskanje po bazi podatkov in prenašanje podatkov iz baze. Načrtuje se vključitev informacij, za katere se predvideva, da bodo koristne učencem, kot so informacije o slovnici, glasoslovju, sinonimih, kolokacijah, slogu in kulturi. Delo poteka s ciljem, da se baza javno objavi leta 2014.

  18. INFLUENCE OF FOOD SUBSTITUTES’ DIET ON WEIGHT REDUCTION IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE OBESE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Panayotov

    2014-06-01

    findings were due to the relatively short duration of the study. When interpreting the results of the study we have to consider the relatively small number of participants in all 3 groups. References: 1. Želяzkov CV, Daseva D (2002. Osnovi na sportnata trenirovka.[Basics of sports training. In Bulgarian]. Sofiя, Gera art. Brill JB, Perry AC, Parker L et al. (2002. Int J Obes; 26(11, 1484-93. Borsheim E, Bahr R (2003. Sports Med, 33(14, 1037-60. De Feo P, Di Loreto C, Lucidi P et al. (2003. J Endocrinol Invest, 26(9, 851-4. Demling RH, DeSanti L (2000. Ann Nutr Metab, 44(1, 21-9.

  19. Struktura i svojstva plazma sprej Aps - Nikal - Aluminid prevlake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Rade Mrdak

    2013-06-01

    neistopljene čestice praha. Osnova prevlake sastoji se od čvrstog rastvora α - Ni svetlosive boje i intermetalnih faza γ'-Ni3Al i NiAl (Sl.4. U lamelarnoj osnovi čvrstog rastvora i intermetalnih faza jasno se uočavaju tanki međulamelarni oksidni filmovi NiO i Υ- Al2O3 koji potiču od oksidacije Ni i Al u procesu hlađenja i očvršćavanja  istopljenih čestica praha (Knotek, Lugscheider, 1976, pp.244-251, (Knotek, et al., 1980, pp. 282-286. Kroz slojeve osnove jasno se uočavaju tamne inter-lamelarne i sferne pore. U slojevima prevlake se u manjem udelu uočavaju precipitati sfernog oblika. Precipitati su posledica sudara istopljenih čestica praha sa substratom i prethodno deponovanim slojem. Na slici 5. prikazana je (SEM skening elektronska mikrofotografija površine Ni20Al prevlake deponovane sa plazma sprej odstojanjem 80 mm. Na mikrofotografiji se vidi da su istopljene čestice praha pravilno razlivene. U mikrostrukturi na površini prevlake nisu prisutne neistopljene čestice. U manjem udelu uočavaju se precipitati sfernog oblika. Duž granica deponovanih čestica uočavaju se među-lamelarne pore i pore nepravilnog oblika. Mikrostruktura  površine Ni20Al prevlake tipična je za (APS atmosferski plazma sprej prevlake. Na slici 6. prikazana je mikrofotografija loma slojeva Ni20Al prevlake deponovane sa plazma sprej odstojanjem od 80 mm. Na prelomu se vidi morfologija loma NiAl prevlake. Prelom prevlake je žilav. Na mikrofotografiji se jasno vide interlamelarne pore i pore nepravilnog oblika koje su prisutne po celom preseku prevlake koje nisu bitno uticale na kohezionu i adhezionu čvrstoću.     Zaključak Atmosferski plazma sprej postupkom su deponovane Ni20Al prevlake sa tri različita (PS plazma sprej odstojanja 80, 90 i 100 mm. U ovom radu, istraživane su i analizirane mehaničke i mikrostrukturne karakteristike deponovanih slojeva na svetlosnom mikroskopu i (SEM skening elektronskom mikroskopu, na osnovu čega se došlo do sledećih zaklju

  20. Premišljevanja o govorici nekega reliefa iz leta 1512: ne renesansa ne gotika ali kako preseči meje umetnostne zgodovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Krašovec

    2011-12-01

    čno nemogoče, da bi se na njihovi osnovi lotili medbesedilnega branja, ki bi razkrilo avtorja, osebo, ki ji je delo posvečeno/naročnika, gledalca. Tudi ni več sledu o razpravah o »arhitekturni govorici«, toda interpretacije Vitruvija so bile še zelo polemične – in torej vir svobode. Dejansko kamin ustreza izjemno nenavadnemu ukvarjanju z oblikami, do katerega je v Avstriji in Evropi prišlo v letih 1500–1520. Torej je treba kamin škofijske palače v Ljubljani poskusiti gledati in obravnavati zunaj vsakega referenčnega sistema, osredotočenega na Italijo ali na kakšno drugo pokrajino. To delo se opredeljuje samo kot lastno središče svojega referenčnega sistema. Če analiziramo like kot sintagme s sistemom paradigem in leksemov, je mogoče razbrati »jezikovno strukturo«. Najprej, površina ali praznina nimata vrednosti paradigme, če uporabimo teorije Aloisa Riegla in Clauda Zilberberga, liki so torej omejeni na preprost diskurz brez razmerja s kaminom, ki je njihov nosilec. Kar zadeva slovnična obrazila, je sistem števila in spolov zelo poenostavljen, interakcije med različnimi prvinami kamina so torej omejene na najmanjšo možno mero. Sami liki so sestavljeni iz leksikalnih in ne gramatikalnih sintagem, s prehodnimi glagolskimi razmerji. Ta poenostavitev govorice, v kateri pa ostaja nekaj jasnih pravil, vendarle osvetljuje napor in premišljevanje obdobja, kako narediti za svojo govorico in kulturo preteklosti, z namenom utrditi in poveličati sedanjost ter ne obuditi v življenje časa, ki so ga takrat že imeli za mrtvega. Na semantični ravni je velik problem, kako na novo izraziti svoje znanje, da bi ga mogli prenesti dalje. Na primer: obrtnik, ki je delal kamin, ni imel jezikoslovnega, kulturnega in teoretičnega znanja, da bi razumel napotila humanistov škofovskega dvora v Ljubljani, in iz tehničnega vidika je njegova izdelava slab prevod namenov naročnikov. Zakaj je vredno, da se posvetimo kaminu škofijske palače v Ljubljani in ne kak

  1. Svojstva i struktura wolframkarbid-kobalt prevlake deponovane plazma-sprej postupkom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Rade Mrdak

    2013-10-01

    , 2011, (Turbojet engine-standard practices manuel TURBOMECA. Mikrostruktura svih prevlaka je lamelarna. Na mikrofotografijama se vidi da su istopljene čestice praha pravilno razlivene. Slojevi prevlake deponovani su kontinualno bez prisutnih mikro i makropukotina kroz slojeve. U slojevima nisu prisutne neistopljene čestice praha, precipitati i interlamelarne pore. U deponovanim slojevima svih prevlaka jasno se uočavaju ravnomerno distribuirane karbidne faze u žilavoj osnovi kobalta. Na svim mikrofotografijama jasno se uočavaju svetla polja metalnih faza i tamnosiva polja karbidnih faza. U svetlim poljima prisutna je polazna metalna faza Co i metalna faza W koja potiče od delimične razgradnje polaznog kubnog monocarbidea WC (Saha, et al., 2010, pp.592-595. U sivim poljima prisutna je polazna faza kubnog monokarbidea WC i karbidne faze koje su nastale razlaganjem kubnog karbida WC u karbide tipa W2C,W3C i mešoviti karbid ή - Co3W3C (Saha, et al., 2010, pp.592-595, (de Villiers Lovelock, 1998, pp.357–373. Zaključak Plazma-sprej postupkom (APS deponovane su prevlake WC17Co sa  protocima plazma gasa od 12 l/min, 22 l/min i 32 l/ min He. U radu su analizirane mehaničke karakteristike deponovanih slojeva i mikrostrukturne karakteristike na svetlosnom mikroskopu. Morfologija čestica praha ispitana je na (SEM skening elektronskom mikroskopu. Na osnovu izvršenih analiza došlo se do određenih zaključaka. Morfologija čestica praha WC17Co je sfernog oblika i tipična je za čestice praha koje se proizvode tehnikom  suvo  raspršavanje/sinterovanje. Vrednosti mikrotvrdoće i čvrstoće spoja deponovanih slojeva bili su u direktnoj vezi sa protocima helijuma kao plazma gasa. Svi deponovani slojevi imali su vrednosti mikrotvrdoće u propisanim granicama od 850 do 1300 HV0.3. Najravnomerniju raspodelu mikrotvrdoće imali su slojevi deponovani sa protokom plazma gasa od 22 l/min He.  Ti su slojevi imali najmanju razliku  mikrotvrdoće između maksimalnih i

  2. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies