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Sample records for wu hseh pao

  1. A GAO hiding among the PAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater...... by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial...

  2. Enhanced thermophysical properties via PAO superstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournorouz, Zahra; Mostafavi, Amirhossein; Pinto, Aditya; Bokka, Apparao; Jeon, Junha; Shin, Donghyun

    2017-01-01

    For the last few years, molten salt nanomaterials have attracted many scientists for their enhanced specific heat by doping a minute concentration of nanoparticles (up to 1% by weight). Likewise, enhancing the specific heat of liquid media is important in many aspects of engineering such as engine oil, coolant, and lubricant. However, such enhancement in specific heat was only observed for molten salts, yet other engineering fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, and oil have shown a decrease of specific heat with doped nanoparticles. Recent studies have shown that the observed specific heat enhancement resulted from unique nanostructures that were formed by molten salt molecules when interacting with nanoparticles. Thus, such enhancement in specific heat is only possible for molten salts because other fluids may not naturally form such nanostructures. In this study, we hypothesized such nanostructures can be mimicked through in situ formation of fabricated nano-additives, which are putative nanoparticles coated with useful organic materials (e.g., polar-group-ended organic molecules) leading to superstructures, and thus can be directly used for other engineering fluids. We first applied this approach to polyalphaolefin (PAO). A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), a rheometer, and a customized setup were employed to characterize the heat capacity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of PAO and PAO with fabricated nano-additives. Results showed 44.5% enhanced heat capacity and 19.8 and 22.98% enhancement for thermal conductivity and viscosity, respectively, by an addition of only 2% of fabricated nanostructures in comparison with pure PAO. Moreover, a partial melting of the polar-group-ended organic molecules was observed in the first thermal cycle and the peak disappeared in the following cycles. This indicates that the in situ formation of fabricated nano-additives spontaneously occurs in the thermal cycle to form nanostructures. Figure of merit analyses have

  3. [Analysis of professor WU Lianzhong's experience of neck acupoints application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiandong; Zheng, Hongyan; Wang, Yingshu

    2015-09-01

    Professor WU Lianzhong's experience of neck acupoints application is introduced. The characteristics,locations, acupuncture manipulations ,efficiency and main functions of neck acupoints including Tiandixue (Extra), Jingbixue (Extra), and cervical Jiaji (EX-B 2) are stated. According to the TCM thought of treatment based on syndrome differentiation,WU Lianzhong's special theory of neck acupoints application is explained so as to provide experience for improving acupuncture effects.

  4. Genome diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 laboratory strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, Jens; Munder, Antje; Neugebauer, Jens; Davenport, Colin F; Stanke, Frauke; Larbig, Karen D; Heeb, Stephan; Schöck, Ulrike; Pohl, Thomas M; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is the most commonly used strain for research on this ubiquitous and metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen. Strain PAO1, a derivative of the original Australian PAO isolate, has been distributed worldwide to laboratories and strain collections. Over decades discordant phenotypes of PAO1 sublines have emerged. Taking the existing PAO1-UW genome sequence (named after the University of Washington, which led the sequencing project) as a blueprint, the genome sequences of reference strains MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM (stored at the German Collection for Microorganisms and Cell Cultures [DSMZ]) were resolved by physical mapping and deep short read sequencing-by-synthesis. MPAO1 has been the source of near-saturation libraries of transposon insertion mutants, and PAO1-DSM is identical in its SpeI-DpnI restriction map with the original isolate. The major genomic differences of MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM in comparison to PAO1-UW are the lack of a large inversion, a duplication of a mobile 12-kb prophage region carrying a distinct integrase and protein phosphatases or kinases, deletions of 3 to 1,006 bp in size, and at least 39 single-nucleotide substitutions, 17 of which affect protein sequences. The PAO1 sublines differed in their ability to cope with nutrient limitation and their virulence in an acute murine airway infection model. Subline PAO1-DSM outnumbered the two other sublines in late stationary growth phase. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa PAO1 shows an ongoing microevolution of genotype and phenotype that jeopardizes the reproducibility of research. High-throughput genome resequencing will resolve more cases and could become a proper quality control for strain collections.

  5. [Dialectic research on family lineage of Wu Kun, a Xin'an famous physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Yao, S

    2000-07-01

    The records on the family lineage of a personage in the medical circle should be as accurate as possible. In Textual Research on Xin'an Famous Doctor, it is said that the Xin'an famous physician Wu Kun was the grandson of Wu Znenglun. Through dialectic research, this saying was proved to be untrue. Wu Kun's grandfather is Wu Yuan - chang, who had no direct blood relationship with Wu Zhenglun.

  6. [Textual research on the edition of WU Kun's books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Guang; Lu, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    WU Kun is a famous physician of the Xin'an School. He wrote a 6-volume Yi fang kao (Textual Research on Recipes) in 1584, a 24-volume Wu zhu su wen (Wu's Annotation of Plain Questions) in 1594, a 6-volume Zhen fang liu ji (Six Collections of Acupuncture and Prescription) in 1618 block-printed and funded by CHENG Biao, and a 2-volume Mai yu (Language of Pulse) with writing date unknown. For Yi fang kao, there were 4 editions, including Ming-dynasty block-printed edition, Japanese and Korean block-printed edition, old hand-copied edition and modern printing edition. For Wu zhu su wen, there were 5 editions, Ming-Qing-dynasty block-printed edition, Japanese block-printed edition, old hand-copied edition, photocopy and modern edition. For Zhen fang liu ji, there were Ming-dynasty block-printed edition, hand-copied edition, photocopy and modern edition. Mai yu always was printed together with Yi fang kao, and its editions were same as those of Yi fang kao, except some modern printing edition with Mai yu excluded.

  7. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WLS formula is a promising adjunct to surgical and medical management of kidney stones. Active therapy with WLS formula has a positive effect on diuresis without leading to electrolyte imbalance. Key words: Calcium oxalate, Urinary Stone, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wu-Ling-San Formula, Nephrolithiasis.

  8. Open treatment of dysplasia—other than PAO: does it have to be a PAO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Safran, Marc R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hip dysplasia is a developmental disorder that results in anatomic abnormalities in which the acetabular coverage is insufficient. In the absence of severe degenerative changes, younger active patients with these symptomatic structural abnormalities are increasingly managed with joint-preserving operations. Historically there have been numerous reconstructive pelvic osteotomies. In recent years, the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) has become the preferred osteotomy by many surgeons. Even so, as our understanding of the hip advances and new diagnostic and treatment techniques are developed, we sought to put a focus on the long-term results of augmental osteotomies and pelvic osteotomies other than the PAO, to see if any of these surgeries still have a place in the current algorithm of treatment for the dysplastic hip. As the longevity of the treatment is the focal point for joint preservation surgeries for the dysplastic hip, these authors have searched databases for articles in the English literature that reported results of long-term follow-up with a minimum of 11-year survivorship after surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Reconstruction osteotomies for the dysplastic hip are intended to restore normal hip anatomy and biomechanics, improve symptoms and prevent degenerative changes, in this manuscript each procedure is independently assessed on the ability to achieve these important characteristics. PMID:28630734

  9. The retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neirinckx, R D; Burke, J F; Harrison, R C

    1988-01-01

    chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH...... concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1...

  10. Towards a Collective Intelligence: Transmediality and the Wu Ming Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Anne Masterson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dagli albori della Seconda Repubblica in Italia,  le strategie di dominio sui mass media dell’ex premier Silvio Berlusconi hanno avuto un effetto considerevole sull’immaginario culturale italiano. In un approccio multisensoriale e multimediale alla scrittura, il collettivo Wu Ming mette in questione i paradigmi culturali che negli ultimi venti anni sono diventati egemonici. L’esperienza di un romanzo dei Wu Ming va ben oltre la parola stampata poiché cerca di stimolare tutti i cinque sensi per arricchire il modo in cui il lettore vive quello che c’è sulla pagina, dimostrando esempi chiari della «convergence culture» coniata da Henry Jenkins. Questo saggio esamina l’interazione tra parola e immagine messa in atto dal collettivo tramite il sito Pinterest e illustra come questo aspetto del loro progetto rappresenti un microcosmo di un approccio complessivo alla creazione estetica e alla pratica culturale. Inoltre, questo saggio descrive in che modo il processo collettivo di consumo portato avanti dai Wu Ming contribuisca alla formazione delle «communities of sentiment» di Arjun Appadurai e alla «intelligenza collettiva» di Jenkins. Queste sono formazioni che rivitalizzano il concetto di cultura popolare per la nostra epoca digitale e offrono un’alternativa ad un immaginario culturale italiano sovra-determinato dalle pratiche del Berlusconismo.

  11. Multiorgan WU Polyomavirus Infection in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebrasse, Erica A; Nguyen, Nang L; Willby, Melisa J; Erdman, Dean D; Menegus, Marilyn A; Wang, David

    2016-01-01

    WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) was detected in a bone marrow transplant recipient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome who died in 2001. Crystalline lattices of polyomavirus-like particles were observed in the patient's lung by electron microscopy. WUPyV was detected in the lung and other tissues by real-time quantitative PCR and identified in the lung and trachea by immunohistochemistry. A subset of WUPyV-positive cells in the lung had morphologic features of macrophages. Although the role of WUPyV as a human pathogen remains unclear, these results clearly demonstrate evidence for infection of respiratory tract tissues in this patient.

  12. Topological field theories on manifolds with Wu structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Samuel

    We construct invertible field theories generalizing abelian prequantum spin Chern-Simons theory to manifolds of dimension 4ℓ + 3 endowed with a Wu structure of degree 2ℓ + 2. After analyzing the anomalies of a certain discrete symmetry, we gauge it, producing topological field theories whose path integral reduces to a finite sum, akin to Dijkgraaf-Witten theories. We take a general point of view where the Chern-Simons gauge group and its couplings are encoded in a local system of integral lattices. The Lagrangian of these theories has to be interpreted as a class in a generalized cohomology theory in order to obtain a gauge invariant action. We develop a computationally friendly cochain model for this generalized cohomology and use it in a detailed study of the properties of the Wu Chern-Simons action. In the 3-dimensional spin case, the latter provides a definition of the “fermionic correction” introduced recently in the literature on fermionic symmetry protected topological phases. In order to construct the state space of the gauged theories, we develop an analogue of geometric quantization for finite abelian groups endowed with a skew-symmetric pairing. The physical motivation for this work comes from the fact that in the ℓ = 1 case, the gauged 7-dimensional topological field theories constructed here are essentially the anomaly field theories of the 6-dimensional conformal field theories with (2, 0) supersymmetry, as will be discussed elsewhere.

  13. AKUNTABILITAS DAN TRANSPARANSI PENGELOLAAN DANA ALOKASI DESA DI DESA PAO-PAO KECAMATAN TANETE RILAU KABUPATEN BARRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Nahruddin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine accountability and transparency in the management of the allocation of funds in the village of Pao - Pao village Tanete Rilau Barru Subdistrict . This study uses quantitative methods . The results showed that the accountability of the management of allocated funds performing well overall dimensions , including the dimension of transparency that shows the management of funds allocated to Village Walk trasparan this happens because the information is easily accessible and good communication by village so pengengelolaan allocations village to be transparent , The same thing happened on the dimensions reabiliy , responsibility and responsiveness going well but on the dimension control is still categorized as good enough and need to be optimized to support accountability in the management of funds of the village.   Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui akuntabilitas dan transparansi dalam pengelolaan dana alokasi desa di Desa Pao-Pao Kecamatan Tanete Rilau Kabupaten Barru. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa akuntabilitas pengelolaan dana alokasi berjalan dengan baik dari keseluruhan dimensi, termasuk dalam dimensi transparansi yang menunjukkan pengelolaan dana alokasi desa berjalan trasparan hal ini terjadi karena adanya informasi yang mudah diakses serta komunikasi yang baik oleh perangkat desa sehingga pengengelolaan dana alokasi desa dianggap transparan. Hal yang sama terjadi pada dimensi reabiliy, responsibilitas dan responsivitas berjalan dengan baik tetapi pada dimensi control masih termasuk kategori cukup baik dan perlu dioptimalkan untuk menunjang akuntabilitas pengelolaan dana desa.

  14. Governing Civil Service Pay in China, by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014. xvi+236 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014.......Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014....

  15. Chien-Shiung Wu: An Icon of Physicist and Woman Scientist in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuelin

    2014-03-01

    Chien-Shiung Wu, the first female president of APS, is a well-known figure in China, a figure who serves as an inspiration for youths, especially young women, to study science and particularly physics. In this presentation, a historical perspective will be used to show how such an icon was formed. Born in 1912, the year of the Republic Revolution, Wu was in the first generation of physicists in China and her college mentor was a student of Marie Curie. When Wu came to the U.S. for graduate studies in the 1930s, it was a ``golden age'' for nuclear physics, and the invention of the cyclotron by E. O. Lawrence put UC Berkeley at the frontier. Wu was trained there, with Lawrence as her advisor, and later became an expert in Beta-decay. In 1956, Wu conceived and initiated the experiment of Cobalt-60, which, together with other two experiments, eventually proved the asymmetry of parity in weak-interactions, a hypothesis proposed by T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang. The importance of the experiment gained Wu an enormous reputation which spread even to China, when this was a period of hostility in Sino-American relations, and near total isolation due to the Cold-War. Wu was the daughter of a revolutionary, and an activist in college in patriotic student movements, and she combined this background with her scientific career as the way of ``Saving China with Science,'' a common belief reflecting the Zeitgeist of her time. Although she spent most of her life in the U.S., Wu never wavered in her love for or loyalty to her motherland. Her patriotism, as well as her scientific achievement, made Wu a legend in China, being called ``the Chinese Madam Curie.'' Even during the Cultural Revolution, a novel supposedly taking Wu as the original model was very popular in underground circles, widely spread by hand-written-copies. From 1979-1988, the CUSPEA program enrolled hundreds of China's best graduate students into physics departments in American universities. Although Wu herself was not

  16. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in Cn – II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 127, No. 3, June 2017, pp. 463–470. DOI 10.1007/s12044-017-0330-y. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in Cn – II ... In general, the Wu met- ric may fail to be upper ... metric on E2m. Note that E2m is a balanced pseudoconvex domain in Cn and hence the. Kobayashi metric at the ...

  17. Acute and Two-Week Inhalation Toxicity Studies in Rats for Polyalphaolefin (PAO) Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    consistent with euthanasia unrelated to PAO exposure. In the recovery cohort, only one rat had an effect that was a single area of minimal...consistent with euthanasia protocol; the lesion is unrelated to PAO exposure. In the recovery cohort, 16 out of 20 rats had lungs that were fully...lesion can be induced during euthanasia , it was considered unrelated to the PAO exposure. 5.7.2 High Exposure Group - Nasal Cavities. The NL4

  18. Lattice models and integrability: a special issue in honour of F Y Wu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, A. J.; Jacobsen, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Fa Yueh (Fred) Wu was born on 5 January 1932 in Nanking (now known as Nanjing), China, the capital of the Nationalist government. Wu began kindergarten in 1937 in a comfortable setting, as his father held a relatively high government position. But the Sino-Japanese war broke out in July 1937, and Nanking fell to Japanese hands in November. Fleeing the Japanese, his parents brought Wu to their hometown in Hunan, and then to the war capital Chungking (now Chongqing) in 1938, where they lived for eight years until the end of the war. Around that time the Japanese began bombing Chungking, and Wu's childhood memories were dominated by air raids, bombings and burning not dissimilar to those experienced by Londoners during the war. At times the air raids lasted for days disrupting everyday lives in Chungking, including Wu's schooling. One day during a fierce bombing raid, a bomb fell in their garden reducing a pavilion and the surrounding pond to a huge crater; another bomb fell just a few metres from the tunnel where his family took shelter, almost sealing the only entrance. The family moved the very next day to the countryside. As a result of the war, Wu attended seven schools before finishing his primary education. Fortunately, by the time he entered junior high school in 1943, the Japanese forces were on the wane and Wu entered the elite middle school, Nankai. His early academic performance in Nankai seemed to him mediocre, but he nevertheless impressed his geometry teacher by showing bursts of talent. With hindsight, this early interest in geometry may have led to his later insights in graphical analyses of statistical systems. The family returned to Nanking in 1946 after the Victory over Japan Day. By this time his father had become elected to the Legislative Yuan, the equivalent of the US Senate. Wu entered high school in Nanking in 1946. Since he came from an elite school in Chungking, he excelled in most of his classes, especially mathematics. Notwithstanding his

  19. Ray Wu as Fifth Business: Deconstructing collective memory in the history of DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    The concept of 'Fifth Business' is used to analyze a minority standpoint and bring serious attention to the role of scientists who play a galvanizing role in a science but for multiple reasons appear less prominently in more common recounts of any particular development. Biochemist Ray Wu (1928-2008) published a DNA sequencing experiment in March 1970 using DNA polymerase catalysis and specific nucleotide labeling, both of which are foundational to general sequencing methods today. The scant mention of Wu's work from textbooks, research articles, and other accounts of DNA sequencing calls into question how scientific collective memory forms. This alternative history seeks to understand why a key figure in nucleic acid sequence analysis has remained less visibly connected or peripheral to solidifying narratives about the history of DNA sequencing. The study resists predictable dismissals of Wu's work in order to seriously examine the formation of his nucleic acid sequence analysis research program and how he shared his knowledge of sequencing during a period of rapid advancement in the field. An analysis of Wu's work on sequencing the cohesive ends of lambda bacteriophage in the 1960s and 1970s exemplifies how a variety of individuals and groups attempted to develop protocol for sequencing the order of nucleotide base pairs comprising DNA. This historical examination of the sociality of scientific research suggests a way to understand how Wu and others contributed to the very collective memory of DNA sequencing that Wu eventually tried to repair. The study of Wu, who was a Chinese immigrant to the United States, provides a foundation for further critical scholarship on the heterogeneous histories of Asian American bioscientists, the sociality of their scientific works, and how the resulting knowledge produced is preserved, if not evenly, in a scientific field's collective memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quorum quenching by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sio, CF; Otten, LG; Cool, RH; Diggle, SP; Braun, PG; Daykin, M; Camara, M; Williams, P; Quax, WJ; Bos, R

    The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is controlled by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing system. During functional analysis of putative acylase genes in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, the PA2385 gene was found to encode an acylase

  1. The Hintermann-Merlini-Baxter-Wu and the infinite-coupling-limit Ashkin-Teller models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yuan, E-mail: huangy22@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Deng Youjin, E-mail: yjdeng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke, E-mail: jacobsen@lpt.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Salas, Jesus, E-mail: jsalas@math.uc3m.es [Grupo de Modelizacion, Simulacion Numerica y Matematica Industrial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Grupo de Teorias de Campos y Fisica Estadistica, Instituto Gregorio Millan, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Unidad asociada al IEM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-03-11

    We show how the Hintermann-Merlini-Baxter-Wu model (which is a generalization of the well-known Baxter-Wu model to a general Eulerian triangulation) can be mapped onto a particular infinite-coupling-limit of the Ashkin-Teller model. We work out some mappings among these models, also including the standard and mixed Ashkin-Teller models. Finally, we compute the phase diagram of the infinite-coupling-limit Ashkin-Teller model on the square, triangular, hexagonal, and kagome lattices.

  2. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): Genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Krul, C.A.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  3. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.; Krul, C.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  4. Anoxic growth of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Rong; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, research on the growth performance of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was conducted based on literature and experimental investigations on biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (BNRAS) systems. The research aims at presenting the occurrence of denitrifying PAOs (DPAOs), abstracting information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of PAOs under anoxic conditions and determining the conditions that stimulate the PAO growth under anoxic conditions. The research results indicate that the PAOs are capable of utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor instead of oxygen in BNRAS systems, particularly in external nitrification BNRAS (ENBNRAS) systems. However, the growth yield of PAOs under anoxic conditions should be reduced to about 70% of that under aerobic conditions, and further the stoichiometric coefficient for anoxic P uptake per PHB COD utilized should be reduced to about 80% of that under aerobic conditions as the DPAOs show a significantly lower BEPR performance and use the influent RBCOD less "efficiently" compared with aerobic PAOs (APAOs). The research results also indicate that the major factor influencing the occurrence of DPAOs and associated anoxic P uptake is the nitrate load into the anoxic reactor, i.e. the nitrate load should be large enough or exceeds the denitrification potential of ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHOs), i.e. non-PAO organisms in the anoxic reactor to stimulate DPAOs in the system as the specific denitrification rate of OHOs (K'2 OHO) is significantly larger than that of PAOs (K'2 PAO). In terms of this competition, if the nitrate load into the main anoxic reactor is less than the denitrification potential of OHOs, then the OHOs will outcompete PAOs for using the limited nitrate, while if the nitrate load in the main anoxic reactor exceeds the denitrification potential of OHOs, then the PAOs would have opportunities to use the "excess" nitrate and so develop in the system. The other factors that

  5. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in Cn–I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∣ z 1 ∣ 2 m + ∣ z 2 ∣ 2 + ⋯ + ∣ z n − 1 ∣ 2 + ∣ z n ∣ 2 < 1 } , where m ≥ 1 / 2 , m ≠ 1 . The Wu metric is shown to be real analytic everywhere except on a lower dimensional subvariety where it fails to be C 2 -smooth. Overall however, the ...

  6. Thinking of the safety application of TCM By You Gu Wu Yun , A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: You Gu Wu Yun (有故无殒), a Chinese ancient medicine application principle, has played an important role in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) clinical practice so far. Materials and Methods: It emphasized that disease, medicine and treatment method were interconnecting and the relationship among these ...

  7. WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Siebrasse, Erica A.; Pastrana, Diana V.; Nguyen, Nang L.; Wang, Annie; Roth, Mark J.; Holland, Steven M.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; McDyer, John; Buck, Christopher B.; Wang, David,

    2015-01-01

    We detected WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from lungs transplanted into a recipient with Job syndrome by using immunoassays specific for the WUPyV viral protein 1. Co-staining for an epithelial cell marker identified most WUPyV viral protein 1?positive cells as respiratory epithelial cells.

  8. Strength-based Supervision: Frameworks, Current Practice, and Future Directions A Wu-wei Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Chen, Mei-Whei

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a method of counseling supervision similar to the wu-wei practice in Zen and Taoism. Suggests that this strength-based method and an understanding of isomorphy in supervisory relationships are the preferred practice for the supervision of family counselors. States that this model of supervision potentiates the person-of-the-counselor.…

  9. Phase transitions in self-dual generalizations of the Baxter-Wu model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Guo, W.; Heringa, J.R.; Blöte, H.W.J.; Nienhuis, B.

    2010-01-01

    We study two types of generalized Baxter-Wu models, by means of transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo techniques. The first generalization allows for different couplings in the up- and down-triangles, and the second generalization is to a q-state spin model with three-spin interactions. Both

  10. The Effects of (99mTc Hm-Pao Labeling on Lymphocyte Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Ülker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (99mTc HM-PAO labeled leucocytes have been used as a standard diagnostic procedure for the detection of infection and inflammation. Although, some investigators have already pointed out that labeling of leucocytes with (99mTc HM-PAO has detrimental effects on the cells, still very little is known regarding the effects of ionizing radiation on lymphocyte functions. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effects of (99mTc HM-PAO labeling on lymphocyte adhesion, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. We used NC-NC lymphoblastoid cell line as the lymphocyte population. (99mTc HM-PAO labeling decreased cell adhesion, proliferation and motility whereas induced apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Proliferation assays were performed both using MTT and ELISA tests with 24 hours intervals following labeling. Results: It was recorded that the rate of decrease in proliferation was up to 70% by the 4th day after labeling. (99mTc HMPAO labeling led a 35% decrease on adhesion ability of the cells on fibronectin. By using Boyden chamber motility assay, we showed that both spontaneous and MCP-1 induced lymphocyte motility were potently blocked by (99mTc HM-PAO labeling. The rate of decrease in motility was approximately five times. In addition, we observed a 12 times increase in the apoptosis rate within the (99mTc HM-PAO treated cells compared to the control cells. Besides it was observed that cell cycle arrest was induced starting from 3rd day after (99mTc HM-PAO treatment. Conclusion: Based on our data (99mTc HM-PAO labeling has damaging effects on lymphocyte functions including cell adhesion, proliferation, motility and viability in in vitro

  11. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO; Sintesis del d,I-HM-PAO y formulacion de nucleo-equipos para la obtencion de {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezama C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Alcazar A, P

    1991-09-15

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. {sup 99m} Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99} {sup m} Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  12. Autoinducer-2 Facilitates Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Pathogenicity in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communication systems, such as quorum sensing (QS, have provided new insights of alternative approaches in antimicrobial treatment. We recently reported that one QS signal, named as autoinducer-2 (AI-2, can affect the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AI-2 on P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation and virulence factors production in vitro, and in vivo using a pulmonary infection mouse model. Exogenous AI-2 resulted in increased biofilms architecture, the number of viable cells, and the yield of pyocyanin and elastase virulence factors in wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1. However, no such effect was observed in P. aeruginosa lasR rhlR mutant strain. In vivo, the use of AI-2 significantly increased the mortality, lung bacterial count and histological lung damage of mice with acute P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection. Our data suggest that AI-2 promotes the formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and the production of virulence factors by interfering with P. aeruginosa QS systems, resulting in decreased host survival. AI-2 may be a therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of a co-infection of P. aeruginosa and AI-2 producing bacteria.

  13. The retention of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the human brain after intracarotid bolus injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO (HM-PAO) was injected rapidly into the internal carotid artery and its retention in the brain was recorded by external scintillation cameras in eight human subjects. A model is described based on three compartments: the lipophilic tracer in the blood pool of the brain, the lipo......[99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO (HM-PAO) was injected rapidly into the internal carotid artery and its retention in the brain was recorded by external scintillation cameras in eight human subjects. A model is described based on three compartments: the lipophilic tracer in the blood pool of the brain...

  14. Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2017-08-17

    In this work, a universal methodology for ignition delay time (IDT) correlation of multicomponent fuel mixtures is reported. The method is applicable over wide ranges of temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. n-Heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and their blends are investigated in this study because of their relevance to gasoline surrogate formulation. The proposed methodology combines benefits from the Livengood-Wu integral, the cool flame characteristics and the Arrhenius behavior of the high-temperature ignition delay time to suggest a simple and comprehensive formulation for correlating the ignition delay times of pure components and blends. The IDTs of fuel blends usually have complex dependences on temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and composition of the blend. The Livengood-Wu integral is applied here to relate the NTC region and the cool flame phenomenon. The integral is further extended to obtain a relation between the IDTs of fuel blends and pure components. Ignition delay times calculated using the proposed methodology are in excellent agreement with those simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model for n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and blends of these components. Finally, very good agreement is also observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.

  15. Phylogeography of Sophora moorcroftiana Supports Wu's Hypothesis on the Origin of Tibetan Alpine Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanmei; Qiong, La; Lu, Fan; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Yin, Ganqiang; Song, Zhiping; Wang, Yuguo; Yang, Ji; Zhang, Wenju

    2017-06-01

    Wu hypothesized that the Tibetan flora originated mostly from the paleotropical Tertiary flora in the Hengduan Mountains by adapting to the cold and arid environments associated with the strong uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Here, we combine the phylogeographic history of Sophora moorcroftiana with that of Sophora davidii to explore the speciation of S. moorcroftiana to test this hypothesis. We collected 151 individuals from 17 populations and sequenced 2 chloroplast fragments and the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA. Five chlorotypes and 9 ribotypes were detected but no significant phylogeographic structure was revealed. The integrated results of phylogeographic studies of these 2 species clearly support the progenitor-derivative relationship between them. We infer that the western peripheral population of S. davidii migrated westwards from the Hengduan Mountains to the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and differentiated from its ancestor in the process of adaptation to increasingly cold and arid environments with the uplift of the QTP and finally evolved into S. moorcroftiana during the Late Pliocene. In addition, our findings shed light on the idea that natural selection, as imposed by climate differentiation (especially mean diurnal range and precipitation seasonality), directly drove this peripatric speciation event after geographic isolation. The speciation of S. moorcroftiana is a strong case supporting Wu's hypothesis about the origin of Tibet's flora. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Regulation of Amidase Formation in Mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO Lacking Glutamine Synthetase Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Herst, Patricia M.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    The formation of amidase was studied in mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO lacking glutamine synthetase activity. It appeared that catabolite repression of amidase synthesis by succinate was partially relieved when cellular growth was limited by glutamine. Under these conditions, a correlation

  17. Gene identification and functional analysis of methylcitrate synthase in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2013-01-01

    Methylcitrate synthase (EC 2.3.3.5; MCS) is a key enzyme of the methylcitric acid cycle localized in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and related to propionic acid metabolism. In this study, cloning of the gene mcsA encoding MCS and heterologous expression of it in Escherichia coli were performed for functional analysis of the MCS of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L. Only one copy of mcsA (1,495 bp) exists in the A. niger WU-2223L chromosome. It encodes a 51-kDa polypeptide consisting of 465 amino acids containing mitochondrial targeting signal peptides. Purified recombinant MCS showed not only MCS activity (27.6 U/mg) but also citrate synthase (EC 2.3.3.1; CS) activity (26.8 U/mg). For functional analysis of MCS, mcsA disruptant strain DMCS-1, derived from A. niger WU-2223L, was constructed. Although A. niger WU-2223L showed growth on propionate as sole carbon source, DMCS-1 showed no growth. These results suggest that MCS is an essential enzyme in propionic acid metabolism, and that the methylcitric acid cycle operates functionally in A. niger WU-2223L. To determine whether MCS makes a contribution to citric acid production, citric acid production tests on DMCS-1 were performed. The amount of citric acid produced from glucose consumed by DMCS-1 in citric acid production medium over 12 d of cultivation was on the same level to that by WU-2223L. Thus it was found that MCS made no contribution to citric acid production from glucose in A. niger WU-2223L, although MCS showed CS activity.

  18. Memoria, trauma e mitopoiesi: Lawrence d'Arabia e Stella del mattino di Wu Ming 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Piga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reconsiders the narrative construnction of the historical novel in the light of recent critical debates. Bearing in mind the overarching theme of the hybridization of the historiographic and literary genres, the article examines in detail Wu Ming 4’s solo novel, Stella del mattino (2008. In this work, the rewriting of real, once existing historical characters follows a thread of verisimilitude against the backdrop of meticulously reconstructed historical scenarios. By focusing on the use of history, allegory and myth in the novel, the aim of this study is to examine the narration of the overcoming of Trauma of the First World War through the therapeutic value of writing. In so doing, emphasis is given to passages in which the reader is able to grasp, between  the scattered fragments of history, moments of the utopian impetus, thanks to the narration of communal moments of being and everyday life practices.

  19. Gentamicin Delivery to Burkholderia cepacia Group IIIa Strains via Membrane Vesicles from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Nick D.; Beveridge, Terry J.

    2003-01-01

    When Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is treated with gentamicin, it releases membrane vesicles containing gentamicin (g-MVs) and peptidoglycan hydrolase, which makes the MVs bactericidal. We evaluate the ability of g-MVs to deliver gentamicin past the intrinsic permeability barrier of group IIIa Burkholderia cepacia and show that strain CEP0248 with low resistance to gentamicin is killed but the highly resistant strain C5424 is not. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that gentamicin was delivered...

  20. Extracts of Cordia gilletii de wild (Boraginaceae) quench the quorum sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusa, Philippe N; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Vandeputte, Olivier; Stévigny, Caroline; Jaziri, Mondher El; Duez, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The fight against infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistances needs the exploration of new active compounds with new proprieties like disrupting quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which is a cell-to-cell communication that regulates bacterial virulence factors. In this work, leaves and root barks extracts of a Congolese medicinal plant, Cordia gilletii, were investigated for their effect on the production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa major virulence factors regulated by QS. The effect of C. gilletii extracts on virulence factors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was studied by the evaluation of the production of pyocyanine, elastase and biofilm; and by the measurement of the expression of QS-related genes. The dichloromethane extract from root barks was found to quench the production of pyocyanin, a QS-dependent virulence factor in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Moreover, this extract specifically inhibits the expression of several QS-regulated genes (i.e. lasB, rhlA, lasI, lasR, rhlI, and rhlR) and reduces biofilm formation by PAO1. This study contributes to explain the efficacy of C. gilletii in the traditional treatment of infectious diseases caused by P. aeruginosa.

  1. Involvement of the TCA cycle in the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Pijuan, Maite; Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-03-01

    For decades, glycolysis has been generally accepted to supply the reducing power for the anaerobic conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). However, the importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has also been raised since 1980s. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the involvement of the TCA cycle in the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs. To achieve this goal, the glycogen pool of an activated sludge highly enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter Phosphatis (hereafter referred to as Accumulibacter), a putative PAO was reduced substantially through starving the sludge under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions. After the starvation, acetate added was still taken up anaerobically and stored as PHA, with negligible glycogen degradation. The metabolic models proposed by Pereira, Hesselmann and Yagci, which predict the formation of reducing power through glycolysis and the full or partial TCA cycle, were used to estimate the carbon fluxes. The results demonstrate that Accumulibacter can use both glycogen and acetate to generate reducing power anaerobically. The anaerobic production of reducing power from acetate is likely through the full TCA cycle. The proportion of TCA cycle involvement depends on the availability of degradable glycogen.

  2. Effect of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides isolated from probiotic on P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Harjai, Kusum; Shukla, Geeta

    2017-09-14

    Microorganisms develop biofilms on indwelling medical devices and are associated with biofilm-related infections, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to prevent and control biofilm-associated infections, the present study was designed to assess the anti-biofilm potential of postbiotics derived from probiotic organisms against most prevalent biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Eighty lactic acid bacteria isolated from eight neonatal fecal samples possessed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among these, only four lactic acid bacteria produced both bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides but only one isolate was found to maximally attenuate the P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. More specifically, the phenotypic and probiotic characterization showed that the isolated lactic acid bacteria were gram positive, non-motile, and catalase and oxidase negative; tolerated acidic and alkaline pH; has bile salt concentration; showed 53% hydrophobicity; and was found to be non-hemolytic. Phylogenetically, the organism was found to be probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum with accession no. KT998657. Interestingly, pre-coating of a microtiter plate either with bacteriocin or with exopolysaccharides as well as their combination significantly (p postbiotics that had 72.4% biofilm-forming viable cells as observed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, it can be anticipated that postbiotics as the natural biointerventions can be employed as the prophylactic agents for medical devices used to treat gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections.

  3. A Response to Professor Wu Zongjie's "Interpretation, Autonomy, and Transformation: Chinese Pedagogic Discourse in a Cross-Cultural Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    In response to an essay by Prof Wu Zongjie that was published in the "Journal of Curriculum Studies" [43(5), (2011), 569-590], I argue that, despite dramatic changes that have taken place in the language of Chinese academic discourse and pedagogy, evidence derived from the fields of psychology and the history of Chinese educational…

  4. 31 july 2014 - H. WU Ambassador Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations

    CERN Multimedia

    Egli, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Hailong WU Ambassador Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton and the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  5. UPLC-QTOF-MS with chemical profiling approach for rapidly evaluating chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Erxin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction was rapidly evaluated by UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx software. Two different kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction: water extract of mixed six constituent herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and dispensing granules decoction: mixed water extract of each individual herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, were prepared. Results Chemical difference was found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, and albiflorin, paeoniflorin, gallic acid, amygdalin, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were identified as the significantly changed components during decocting Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction. All the peaks of mass spectrum from Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction and each herb were extracted and integration by using QuanLynx™. And the optimized data was used for linear regression analysis. The contribution of each herb in Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and the optimal compatibility proportion of dispensing granule decoction were derived from the linear regression equation. Conclusions The optimal dosage proportionality of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu dispensing granule decoction was obtained as 2.5:0.2:1:0.5:0.6:0.1 (DG : CX : BS : SD : TR : HH, which guided better clinic application of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction as dispensing granule decoctions usage, and it also provided some experimental data to reveal the compatibility rule of the relative TCM formulae.

  6. Functional Integral Approach to Parisi-Wu Stochastic Quantization and Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Ennio

    A path-integral formulation is given of the Parisi -Wu method of stochastic quantization. The connection between the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations is rederived in functional form bringing to light new aspects of these equations. The relation between this functional method and the recent approach by De-Alfaro-Fubini-Furlan is clarified. In particular we present the non-local transformation that connects the two formulations. In this dissertation we also investigate the hidden supersymmetry recently discovered by Parisi and Sourlas in Langevin processes. The Kelvin relations, for diffusion processes out of equilibrium, are shown to be a necessary and sufficient condition to have supersymmetry. This proves that this symmetry is a manifestation, at the path-integral level, of the Onsager principle of microreversibility present in the stochastic process. We analyze, in particular, the interesting interplay between forward and backward Fokker-Planck dynamics and, as an application, we rederive the fluctuation-dissipation theorem as a Ward-identity of this supersymmetry.

  7. Pao-Lu Hsu (Xu, Bao-lu): The Grandparent of Probability and Statistics in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dayue; Olkin, Ingram

    2012-01-01

    The years 1910–1911 are auspicious years in Chinese mathematics with the births of Pao-Lu Hsu, Luo-Keng Hua and Shiing-Shen Chern. These three began the development of modern mathematics in China: Hsu in probability and statistics, Hua in number theory, and Chern in differential geometry. We here review some facts about the life of P.-L. Hsu which have been uncovered recently, and then discuss some of his contributions. We have drawn heavily on three papers in the 1979 Annals of Statistics (v...

  8. Upper respiratory tract tumors in Cpb:WU (Wistar random) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, V J; Woutersen, R A; van Garderen-Hoetmer, A; Dreef-van der Meulen, H C

    1990-01-01

    A survey is given of upper respiratory tract tumors in Cpb:WU (Wistar random) rats. Data were collected from ten 24- to 30-month toxicity/carcinogenicity studies and from one 12-month study. Nasal tumors may lead to dyspnea, mouth breathing, and nasal discharge. These clinical signs mainly occurred in rats bearing squamous cell carcinomas. The large nasal tumors were often osteolytic, they invaded the subcutis over the premaxilla, resulting in swellings on the back of the nose, and extended into the brain. The incidence of nasal tumors in untreated male controls was 1.1% (7/661), the tumors invariably being squamous cell carcinomas. There were no nasal tumors found in untreated female controls. The type of compound-induced nasal tumor most frequently observed was adenocarcinoma (of the olfactory epithelium) followed, in order of decreasing incidence, by squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, polypoid adenoma, Schwannoma, and carcinosarcoma. It was proposed that adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium should be classified as neuroepitheliomas. It was also suggested that squamous cell carcinomas, seen in association with necrotizing inflammation of an incisor tooth, should be considered as part of the malocclusion syndrome. No spontaneous tracheal tumors were observed, and only one out of 422 untreated female controls (0.2%) was seen to have a laryngeal tumor, an adenoma. Induced laryngeal tumors included carcinoma in situ, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma was the only type of treatment-related tracheal tumor found. The incidences of induced laryngeal and tracheal tumors were very low, and in no case were these tumors statistically significantly different from the respective incidences in controls. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PMID:2384064

  9. No evidence for WU polyomavirus infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringshausen Felix C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human polyomaviruses are known to cause persistent or latent infections, which are reactivated under immunosuppression. Polyomaviruses have been found to immortalize cell lines and to possess oncogenic properties. Moreover, the recently discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus shows a strong association with human Merkel cell carcinomas. Another novel human polyomavirus, WU polyomavirus (WUPyV, has been identified in respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI. WUPyV has been proposed to be a pathogen in ARTI in early life and immunocompromised individuals, but so far its role as a causative agent of respiratory disease remains controversial. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of WUPyV infections in adult hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and to establish its potential clinical relevance by comparison to patients with stable COPD hospitalized for other reasons than acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD. A total of 378 respiratory specimens, each 189 induced sputum and nasal lavage samples from 189 patients, who had been recruited in a prospective 2:1 ratio case-control set-up between 1999 and 2003, were evaluated for the presence of WUPyV DNA by real-time PCR. In the present study we could not detect WUPyV DNA in 378 respiratory specimens from 189 adult hospitalized patients with AE-COPD and stable COPD in four consecutive years. Persistence of viral replication or reactivation of latent WUPyV infection did not occur. WUPyV may not play a major role in adult immunocompetent patients with AE-COPD and stable COPD.

  10. KI and WU Polyomaviruses and CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-1–infected Patients, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2010-01-01

    To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1–positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1–positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1–positive patients. PMID:20735940

  11. PLE-wu, a new member of piggyBac transposon family from insect, is active in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wang, Shu

    2014-10-01

    piggyBac, a highly active transposon in insect and mammalian cells, is a very useful tool in genome manipulation. A new piggyBac-like element (PLE), named PLE-wu, was identified from a mutant baculovirus cultured in sf9 insect cells. This new transposon is 2931 bp in length and encodes two active forms of transposase, a 708-amino acid-long transposase and a short 576-residue-long transposase translated from a downstream in-frame initiation codon. PLE-wu has asymmetric terminal structures, containing 6-bp inverted terminal repeats, 32-bp imperfect inverted and direct sub-terminal repeats. Similar to piggyBac, PLE-wu exhibits traceless excision activity in both insect and mammalian cells, restoring the original TTAA target sequence upon excision. It also retains the insertion activity in mammalian cells with a plasmid to chromosome transposition rate about 10-fold higher than random integration. Plasmid rescue assays revealed that the TTAA target sequence was duplicated at the junctions of the insertion site. Deletion of the terminal sequences including the sub-terminal repeats decreased the transposition activity of the 708-residue-long transposase, while the transposition activity of the short form of transposase was not affected. With its low sequence similarity to piggyBac, PLE-wu will contribute to the understanding the mechanism of PLE transposition, as well as design of new transposon systems with higher activity. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 DNA Methyltransferase, Its Targets, and Physiological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Doberenz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is widespread among prokaryotes, and most DNA methylation reactions are catalyzed by adenine DNA methyltransferases, which are part of restriction-modification (R-M systems. R-M systems are known for their role in the defense against foreign DNA; however, DNA methyltransferases also play functional roles in gene regulation. In this study, we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing to uncover the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We identified a conserved sequence motif targeted by an adenine methyltransferase of a type I R-M system and quantified the presence of N6-methyladenine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Changes in the PAO1 methylation status were dependent on growth conditions and affected P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in a Galleria mellonella infection model. Furthermore, we found that methylated motifs in promoter regions led to shifts in sense and antisense gene expression, emphasizing the role of enzymatic DNA methylation as an epigenetic control of phenotypic traits in P. aeruginosa. Since the DNA methylation enzymes are not encoded in the core genome, our findings illustrate how the acquisition of accessory genes can shape the global P. aeruginosa transcriptome and thus may facilitate adaptation to new and challenging habitats.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown at both body and elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional genomics research can give us valuable insights into bacterial gene function. RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq can generate information on transcript abundance in bacteria following abiotic stress treatments. In this study, we used the RNA-seq technique to study the transcriptomes of the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following heat shock. Samples were grown at both the human body temperature (37 °C and an arbitrarily-selected temperature of 46 °C. In this work using RNA-seq, we identified 133 genes that are differentially expressed at 46 °C compared to the human body temperature. Our work identifies some key P. aeruginosa PAO1 genes whose products have importance in both environmental adaptation as well as in vivo infection in febrile hosts. More importantly, our transcriptomic results show that many genes are only expressed when subjected to heat shock. Because the RNA-seq can generate high throughput gene expression profiles, our work reveals many unanticipated genes with further work to be done exploring such genes products.

  14. Gene PA2449 is essential for glycine metabolism and pyocyanin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Benjamin R; Thornton, William; Dornan, Mark H; Villegas-Peñaranda, Luis Roberto; Boddy, Christopher N; Nomura, Christopher T

    2013-05-01

    Many pseudomonads produce redox active compounds called phenazines that function in a variety of biological processes. Phenazines are well known for their toxicity against non-phenazine-producing organisms, which allows them to serve as crucial biocontrol agents and virulence factors during infection. As for other secondary metabolites, conditions of nutritional stress or limitation stimulate the production of phenazines, but little is known of the molecular details underlying this phenomenon. Using a combination of microarray and metabolite analyses, we demonstrate that the assimilation of glycine as a carbon source and the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 are both dependent on the PA2449 gene. The inactivation of the PA2449 gene was found to influence the transcription of a core set of genes encoding a glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine dehydratase. PA2449 also affected the transcription of several genes that are integral in cell signaling and pyocyanin biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study sheds light on the unexpected relationship between the utilization of an unfavorable carbon source and the production of pyocyanin. PA2449 is conserved among pseudomonads and might be universally involved in the assimilation of glycine among this metabolically diverse group of bacteria.

  15. In vitro antibiofilm activity of Murraya koenigii essential oil extracted using supercritical fluid CO₂ method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Vittal, Ravishankar Rai

    2015-01-01

    The antibiofilm activity of Murraya koenigii essential oil (EO) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in this study. A decrease in the production of rhamnolipid, extracellular polymeric substance and swarming motility was observed by the EO treatment (0.3% v/v). The static microtitre plate assay revealed 80% reduction in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PAO1 on M. koenigii EO treatment. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the reduction of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 when treated with M. koenigii EO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the EO revealed the presence of well-known antibiofilm agents such as spathulenol (5.85%), cinnamaldehyde (0.37%) and linalool (0.04%). Cinnamaldehyde has not been previously reported in M. koenigii EO. The potent antibiofilm properties of M. koenigii EO may be effectively exploited in food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in controlling Pseudomonas biofilms on indwelling medical devices.

  16. Experimental evidence of a xylose-catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans

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    Marius Mihasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine. A putative sugar catabolic pathway consisting of 11 ORF's organized as a single operon were previously described. The current work brings experimental data supporting the existence of a D-Xylose catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid. When grown on D-xylose containing media, the cells harboring the pAO1 megaplasmid grow to higher cell densities and also express the OxRe protein coded by the megaplasmid. A putative pathway similar to Weimberg pentose pathway is postulated, in which D-xylose is transported in the cell by the ABC-type transport system and then transformed using the putative sugar-dehidrogenase OxRe to D-xylonate, which is further degrated to 2-ketoglutarate and integrated into the general metabolism of the cell

  17. Chinese Herbal Formulas Si-Wu-Tang and Er-Miao-San Synergistically Ameliorated Hyperuricemia and Renal Impairment in Rats Induced by Adenine and Potassium Oxonate

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    Yongping Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Here, we examined the combined protective effects of Chinese herbal formula Si-Wu-Tang and Er-Miao-San on hyperuricemia and renal impairment in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into normal rats, hyperuricemic rats, and hyperuricemic rats orally administrated with benzbromarone (4.5 mg·kg-1·d-1, Si-Wu-Tang (3.78 g·kg-1·d-1 and Si-Wu-Tang plus Er-Miao-San (6.48 g·kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks. Hyperuricemic rats were orally gavaged with adenine (0.1 g·kg-1·d-1 and potassium oxonate (1.5 g·kg-1·d-1 daily for 4 weeks. Serum uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol (TCH, triglyceride and blood urea nitrogen (BUN concentrations, as well as urinary uric acid and microalbuminuria were measured weekly. Serum xanthine oxidase (XOD activity and renal histopathology were also evaluated. The renal expression of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1 and organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3 was detected by western blot. Results: Si-Wu-Tang plus Er-Miao-San lowered serum uric acid, creatinine, triglyceride and BUN levels to a greater degree than did Si-Wu-Tang alone. Si-Wu-Tang plus Er-Miao-San ameliorated microalbuminuria and renal histopathology, as well as decreased serum TCH concentration and XOD activity in hyperuricemic rats. Combination of Si-Wu-Tang and Er-Miao-San also led to a greater increase in OAT1 and OAT3 expression than did Siwutang alone. Conclusion: Si-Wu-Tang and Er-Miao-San synergistically ameliorated hyperuricemia and renal impairment in rats through upregulation of OAT1 and OAT3.

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaishi, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu; Kamayachi, Satoshi; Fujita, Takehisa; Enokido, Hisashi; Komatsuzaki, Hideki; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hirayama, Tsunenori [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.).

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exopolysaccharides are important for mixed species biofilm community development and stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Saravanan; Nair, Harikrishnan A S; Lee, Kai W K; Ong, Jolene; Goh, Jie Q J; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces three polysaccharides, alginate, Psl, and Pel that play distinct roles in attachment and biofilm formation for monospecies biofilms. Considerably less is known about their role in the development of mixed species biofilm communities. This study has investigated the roles of alginate, Psl, and Pel during biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa in a defined and experimentally informative mixed species biofilm community, consisting of P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas protegens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide had the biggest impact on the integration of P. aeruginosa in the mixed species biofilms, where the percent composition of the psl mutant was significantly lower (0.06%) than its wild-type (WT) parent (2.44%). In contrast, loss of the Pel polysaccharide had no impact on mixed species biofilm development. Loss of alginate or its overproduction resulted in P. aeruginosa representing 8.4 and 18.11%, respectively, of the mixed species biofilm. Dual species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were not affected by loss of alginate, Pel, or Psl, while the mucoid P. aeruginosa strain achieved a greater biomass than its parent strain. When P. aeruginosa was grown with P. protegens, loss of the Pel or alginate polysaccharides resulted in biofilms that were not significantly different from biofilms formed by the WT PAO1. In contrast, overproduction of alginate resulted in biofilms that were comprised of 35-40% of P. aeruginosa, which was significantly higher than the WT (5-20%). Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly reduced the percentage composition of P. aeruginosa in dual species biofilms with P. protegens (<1%). Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly disrupted the communal stress resistance of the three species biofilms. Thus, the polysaccharide composition of an individual species significantly impacts mixed species biofilm development and the emergent properties of such communities.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exopolysaccharides are important for mixed species biofilm community development and stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan ePeriasamy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces three polysaccharides, alginate, Psl and Pel that play distinct roles in attachment and biofilm formation for monospecies biofilms. Considerably less is known about their role in the development of mixed species biofilm communities. This study has investigated the roles of alginate, Psl and Pel during biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa in a defined and experimentally informative mixed species biofilm community, consisting of P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas protegens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide had the biggest impact on the integration of P. aeruginosa in the mixed species biofilms, where the percent composition of the psl mutant was significantly lower (0.06% than its wild-type parent (2.44%. In contrast, loss of the Pel polysaccharide had no impact on mixed species biofilm development. Loss of alginate or its overproduction resulted in P. aeruginosa representing 8.4% and 18.11%, respectively, of the mixed species biofilm. Dual species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were not affected by loss of alginate, Pel or Psl, while the mucoid P. aeruginosa strain achieved a greater biomass than its parent strain. When P. aeruginosa was grown with P. protegens, loss of the Pel or alginate polysaccharides resulted in biofilms that were not significantly different from biofilms formed by the wild-type PAO1. In contrast, overproduction of alginate resulted in biofilms that were comprised of 35-40% of P. aeruginosa, which was significantly higher than the wild-type (5-20%. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly reduced the percentage composition of P. aeruginosa in dual species biofilms with P. protegens (<1%. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly disrupted the communal stress resistance of the three species biofilms. Thus, the polysaccharide composition of an individual species significantly impacts mixed species biofilm development and the emergent properties of such

  1. Feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans is an indicator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence

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    Shawn Lewenza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as an infection model for pathogenesis studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The standard virulence assays rely on the slow and fast killing or paralysis of nematodes but here we developed a behaviour assay to monitor the preferred bacterial food sources of C. elegans. We monitored the food preferences of nematodes fed the wild type PAO1 and mutants in the type III secretion (T3S system, which is a conserved mechanism to inject secreted effectors into the host cell cytosol. A ΔexsEΔpscD mutant defective for type III secretion served as a preferred food source, while an ΔexsE mutant that overexpresses the T3S effectors was avoided. Both food sources were ingested and observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Using the slow killing assay, we showed that the ΔexsEΔpscD had reduced virulence and thus confirmed that preferred food sources are less virulent than the wild type. Next we developed a high throughput feeding behaviour assay with 48 possible food colonies in order to screen a transposon mutant library and identify potential virulence genes. C. elegans identified and consumed preferred food colonies from a grid of 48 choices. The mutants identified as preferred food sources included known virulence genes, as well as novel genes not identified in previous C. elegans infection studies. Slow killing assays were performed and confirmed that several preferred food sources also showed reduced virulence. We propose that C. elegans feeding behaviour can be used as a sensitive indicator of virulence for P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  2. Newly described human polyomaviruses Merkel Cell, KI and WU are present in urban sewage and may represent potential environmental contaminants

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    Carratala Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, three new polyomaviruses (KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus have been reported to infect humans. It has also been suggested that lymphotropic polyomavirus, a virus of simian origin, infects humans. KI and WU polyomaviruses have been detected mainly in specimens from the respiratory tract while Merkel cell polyomavirus has been described in a very high percentage of Merkel cell carcinomas. The distribution, excretion level and transmission routes of these viruses remain unknown. Here we analyzed the presence and characteristics of newly described human polyomaviruses in urban sewage and river water in order to assess the excretion level and the potential role of water as a route of transmission of these viruses. Nested-PCR assays were designed for the sensitive detection of the viruses studied and the amplicons obtained were confirmed by sequencing analysis. The viruses were concentrated following a methodology previously developed for the detection of JC and BK human polyomaviruses in environmental samples. JC polyomavirus and human adenoviruses were used as markers of human contamination in the samples. Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 7/8 urban sewage samples collected and in 2/7 river water samples. Also one urine sample from a pregnant woman, out of 4 samples analyzed, was positive for this virus. KI and WU polyomaviruses were identified in 1/8 and 2/8 sewage samples respectively. The viral strains detected were highly homologous with other strains reported from several other geographical areas. Lymphotropic polyomavirus was not detected in any of the 13 sewage neither in 9 biosolid/sludge samples analyzed. This is the first description of a virus isolated from sewage and river water with a strong association with cancer. Our data indicate that the Merkel cell polyomavirus is prevalent in the population and that it may be disseminated through the fecal/urine contamination of water. The procedure developed may

  3. His Excellency Mr Ken WU Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the People’s Republic of China to Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Claude Gadmer

    2011-01-01

    Photo 1-5:The delegation visiting the ATLAS visitor Center with P.Jenni, ATLAS Collaboration former Spokesperson Photo 6-14,15-20:visiting the ATLAS experimental area Photo 15:Y. YANG,Attaché-Q. WAN,First Secretary-Z. Ren,ATLAS Collaboration,High Energy Group,Shandong University-H.E. Mr K. Wu-P. Jenni-R. Voss,Adviser for the People’s Republic of China-H. FENG,Counsellor Photo 21-38:Signature of the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

  4. Technetium-99m HM-PAO SPECT in patients with delayed neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I. S.; Lee, M. S.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HM-PAO) in 14 studies on 6 patients with delayed neurologic sequelae from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to determine whether any changes in cerebral blood flow could be correlated with clinical or computed tomographic evidence of delayed deficits. Among the six initial CT brain scans, two showed low density of both basal ganglia and two showed decreased density of the cerebral white matter. There was no correlation between the clinical outcome and the findings of the follow-up CT brain scans. Of the two SPECTS with 99mTc-HM-PAO performed during acute anoxic insult, one showed focal hypoperfusion which appeared 20 days prior to the onset of delayed neurologic sequelae after CO poisoning. Seven SPECTs in the six patients performing the delayed phase showed diffuse patched patterns of hypoperfusion which improved on follow-up images. There was good correlation between the clinical outcome and the findings of the 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT. In preliminary conclusion, 9Tc-HM-PAO brain SPECT can be used for predicting or evaluating the outcome of delayed neurologic sequelae after CO poisoning. Cerebral vascular changes may be the possible cause of hypoperfusion in patients with CO poisoning. PMID:1418757

  5. Characterization of the indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Monica L; Nigon, Laura V; Patrick, Wayne M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic infections in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis. It is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, and resistance is emerging rapidly to those drugs that currently remain efficacious. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify new anti-pseudomonal drug targets. To this end, we have characterized the P. aeruginosa indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (PaIGPS). PaIGPS catalyzes the fifth reaction in the synthesis of tryptophan from chorismate--a reaction that is absent in mammals. PaIGPS was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, and purified with high yields. The purified enzyme is active over a broad pH range and has the highest turnover number of any characterized IGPS (k (cat) = 11.1 ± 0.1 s(-1)). These properties are likely to make PaIGPS useful in coupled assays for other enzymes in tryptophan biosynthesis. We have also shown that deleting the gene for PaIGPS reduces the fitness of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in synthetic cystic fibrosis sputum (relative fitness, W = 0.89 ± 0.02, P = 0.001). This suggests that de novo tryptophan biosynthesis may play a role in the establishment and maintenance of P. aeruginosa infections, and therefore that PaIGPS is a potential target for the development of new anti-pseudomonal drugs.

  6. CLONING AND PURIFICATION OFA REPRESSOR PROTEIN FROM ARTHROBACTER NICOTINOVORANS PAO1

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    Roderich Brandsch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine The putative sugar catabolic pathway consists of 11 ORFś organized as a single operon and coding for an ABC-type sugar-transport system and several putative oxidoreductases and dehydrogenases. The current work is focused on orf32, a putative PdhR related protein, most probably involved in the control of the whole operon. The approx. 700 kb orf32 gene was cloned in the pH6EX3 plasmid vector and the gene product purified to homogeneity as a 29 kDa His-tagged recombinant protein. As indicated by GPC, it consists of a monomeric protein with a native molecular weight of 32 kDa. The specific UV/Vis spectra showed only a single peak at 280 nm common for all proteins and did not indicated the presence of any colored cofactors. This is in good agreement with the fact that PdhR-family proteins contain a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH domain responsible for DNA binding, and not a Zn-finger or any other metal containing domains

  7. Hmong American Leadership and Unity in the Post-Vang Pao Era

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    Nengher N. Vang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The passing of General Vang Pao (GVP in a hospital in Clovis, California, in 2011 ended an historical era for Hmong Americans and the larger Hmong diaspora. This historical essay explores the changing meanings of leadership and unity for Hmong Americans in the post-GVP era. It first uses sociologist Max Weber's leadership criteria (rational, charismatic, and traditional authority to explain Vang Pao’s enormous influence on the Hmong in Laos and as refugees in the Hmong diaspora. The essay then reviews current sources of rational, charismatic, and traditional leadership in Hmong American communities: electoral politics, non-profit organizations, religion, and clans. The essay concludes that it is unlikely that a large segment of Hmong Americans will ever again coalesce around one leader. Instead, two new political orientations may become more prevalent as the Hmong reconsider their place in the world: one that favors the local over the national, and another which favors transnationalism rather than the quest for their own nation-state

  8. Kinetic modeling of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including cell density-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

  9. The Tribological Properties of Multi-Layered Graphene as Additives of PAO2 Oil in Steel–Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bao Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-layered graphene was prepared by supercritical CO2 exfoliation of graphite. As the additives of polyalphaolefin-2 (PAO2 oil, its tribological properties were investigated using four-ball test method. The friction reduction and anti-wear ability of pure lubricant was improved by the addition of graphene. With a favorable concentration, the graphene was dispersive. The PAO2 oil with 0.05 wt % graphene showed better tribological properties than that for the other concentration of graphene additives. It could be used as a good lubricant additive for its excellent tribological characteristics, and the multi-layered graphene can bear the load of the steel ball and prevent direct contact of the mating metal surfaces. However, a higher concentration would cause the agglomeration of graphene and weaken the improvement of tribological properties.

  10. Intraoperative PaO2 is not related to the development of surgical site infections after major cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fierro Inma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perioperative use of high inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2 for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs has demonstrated a reduction in their incidence in some types of surgery however there exist some discrepancies in this respect. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between PaO2 values and SSIs in cardiac patients. Methods We designed a prospective study in which 1,024 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed. Results SSIs were observed in 5.3% of patients. There was not significant difference in mortality at 30 days between patients with and without SSIs. In the uni and multivariate analysis no differences in function of the inspired oxygen fraction administrated were observed. Conclusions We observed that the PaO2 in adult cardiac surgery patients was not related to SSI rate.

  11. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) with multiple vertebral fragility fractures: diagnosis and treatment in a young primigravid woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, E; Colangelo, D; Nasto, L A; Pambianco, V; Autore, G; Formica, V M; Maccauro, G

    2016-01-01

    PAO is an uncommon condition affecting pregnant women during last trimester or early post-delivery period; it is often asymptomatic or presents with pain related to some acute fragility fractures. The diagnosis is often delayed or missed, the etiology remains unknown and no guidelines about treatment have been published. We present one case of PAO in a 33-year-old primigravid woman presenting acute worsening back pain. Our patient was treated with a TLSO brace, oral 25 (OH)-vitamin D supplementation and Teriparatide for 6 months. A short review of the literature has been included and useful advice about how to suspect and diagnose this uncommon disease were given in order to recognize and treat such a debilitating and severe condition for young mothers as best as possible, based on the available scientific evidences.

  12. Two Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cycle Inhibitory Cyclodepsipeptides from a Hydrothermal Vent Crab-Associated Fungus Aspergillus clavatus C2WU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two novel cyclodepsipeptides containing an unusual anthranilic acid dimer and a d-phenyllactic acid residues, clavatustides A (1 and B (2, were identified from cultured mycelia and broth of Aspergillus clavatus C2WU isolated from Xenograpsus testudinatus, which lives at extreme, toxic habitat around the sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents in Taiwan Kueishantao. This is the first example of cyclopeptides containing an anthranilic acid dimer in natural products, and the first report of microbial secondary metabolites from the hydrothermal vent crab. Clavatustides A (1 and B (2 suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines (HepG2, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402 in a dose-dependent manner, and induced an accumulation of HepG2 cells in G1 phase and reduction of cells in S phase.

  13. Assessment of the arterial input curve for (/sup 99m/Tc)-d,l-HM-PAO by rapid octanol extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, A.R.; Friberg, H.; Lassen, N.A.; Kristensen, K.; Neirinckx, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The in vitro conversion of the lipophilic molecule (99mTc)-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (( 99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO) to a hydrophilic form was studied in saline, plasma, and blood at 37 degrees C by paper chromatography and by octanol extraction. The octanol:saline ratio was 79.9. From this value and the corresponding octanol: plasma and octanol:blood partitioning values, an estimate of the transport of the lipophilic compound by various components of blood was made: 20% is carried in hemoglobin, 53% by the plasma proteins and 27% by the water phases of the red blood cell and plasma. Octanol extraction provided a rapid method for measuring the radiochemical purity (RCP) of lipophilic (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO. In saline, the RCP declined with a half-life of more than 1 h. In human plasma and whole blood, the conversion of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO was biexponential due to the differences in the conversion rates of the d and l isomeric forms. The initial half-life representing the conversion rate of the l form was 1.7 min in blood and 1.4 min in plasma, while the conversion half-life of the d form was 7.4 and 24.4 min, respectively. In vivo, the RCP of arterial blood sampled after an i.v. bolus injection showed an initial peak value of 75% (68-79%) during the initial, first passage of the bolus. It declined to approximately 35% (29-40%) after 1.5 min and reached very low levels (about 1%) at 6 to 10 min. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow using (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO necessitates a rapid method for RCP determination in arterial blood such as the one described here.

  14. Etika v čínské debatě o vědě a životních názorech: Wu Zhihui

    OpenAIRE

    Typl, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to eleborate a detailed analysis of Wu Zhihui`s essay: New faith and its view of the universe and of man and attempts to fill the still large gap in secondary literature. The method focuses on basic interpretations of Wu Zhihui's ideas and putting them into the context of Western philosophy. It emphasizes direct quotations and translations of key texts to Czech language. Through the analysis of his view of faith, knowledge, metaphysics, cosmology, ontology and human ...

  15. Global metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (AtPAO4 loss-of-function mutants exhibiting delayed dark-induced senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Iranzu Sequera-Mutiozabal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Early and more recent studies have suggested that some polyamines (PAs, and particularly spermine (Spm, exhibit anti-senescence properties in plants. In this work, we have investigated the role of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (PAO4, encoding a PA back-conversion oxidase, during dark-induced senescence. Two independent PAO4 (pao4-1 and pao4-2 loss-of-function mutants have been found that accumulate 10-fold higher Spm, and this associated with delayed entry into senescence under dark conditions. Mechanisms underlying pao4 delayed senescence have been studied using global metabolic profiling by GC-TOF/MS. pao4 mutants exhibit constitutively higher levels of important metabolites involved in redox regulation, central metabolism and signaling that support a priming status against oxidative stress. During senescence, interactions between PAs and oxidative, sugar and nitrogen metabolism have been detected that additively contribute to delayed entry into senescence. Our results indicate the occurrence of metabolic interactions between PAs, particularly Spm, with cell oxidative balance and transport/biosynthesis of amino acids as a strategy to cope with oxidative damage produced during senescence.

  16. No Evidence of Human Polyomavirus 9, WU and KI DNA in Kidney and Urinary Bladder Tumour Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoma, Eszter; Bidiga, László; Méhes, Gábor; Gergely, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) has been proposed, but so far only Merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus seems to be associated with a human tumour. The role of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) in human tumourigenesis remains controversial. BKPyV establishes persistent infection in the urinary tract, and renal and bladder neoplasms have been studied extensively, but conflicting prevalence data are reported. KI, WU and HPyV9 were detected in urine samples suggesting that these viruses may also infect the urinary tract, but their presence in urinary tract tumours has not been studied. The aim of this work was to examine the prevalence of KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV9 and BKPyV by PCR in renal and bladder neoplasms. A total of 190 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal neoplasms, bladder cancer and kidney biopsy samples were analysed for the presence of BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV and HPyV9 DNA by real-time and nested PCR. Amplifiable DNA was extracted from all the samples, but none of the studied viruses were detected in benign renal neoplasia (0/23), malignant renal tumours (0/89) or bladder cancer (0/76). Our study did not find any evidence that BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV or HPyV9 are associated with bladder and renal tumours. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Influence of arterial dissolved oxygen level on venous oxygen saturation: don't forget the PaO2!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Vallée, Fabrice; Mateo, Joaquim; Payen, Didier

    2014-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen (i.e., unbound to hemoglobin) is often neglected as a determinant of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in review articles and textbooks. These statements may lead to potential misinterpretation of SCvO2 value across FiO2 changes. In this study, we aimed to explore the influence of PaO2 and FiO2 on ScvO2 in ventilated critically ill patients. This was a prospective observational study in two surgical intensive care units. Mechanically ventilated and sedated patients with cardiac output and ScvO2 monitoring and PaO2/FiO2 > 200 with inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 0.5 were enrolled (cohort [ScvO2]). A second cohort of brain-injured patients with jugular venous oxygen saturation monitoring was studied to assess the application of the results to regional circulation (cohort [SjvO2]). Central venous oxygen saturation was measured at baseline FiO2 and at FiO2 = 1. We finally estimated the participation of the dissolved oxygen (PadissolvO2) to the ScvO2 variations. Twenty patients formed the cohort ScvO2 and eight formed the cohort SjvO2. Central venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (69%-76%) to 84% (78%-88%) after increasing FiO2, whereas PaO2 rose from 100 (85-124) mmHg to 387 (360-449) mmHg. The rise of ScvO2 was mostly ascribable to the dissolved oxygen. The increase of ScvO2 was not explained by changes in cardiac output or hemoglobin levels. Jugular venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (58%-78%) to 83% (78%-89%) after increasing FiO2. Arterial dissolved oxygen level can significantly influence the ScvO2 value. Therefore, PaO2 should not be overlooked while considering the ScvO2 value as a therapeutic goal. Interpretation of ScvO2 variations in response to a therapeutic challenge (i.e., fluid challenge, inotropic drug initiation) should be performed at constant FiO2.

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in five patients with MELAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Shinako; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masashi; Horiike, Shigeharu; Kan, Shinichi; Ishii, Katsumi; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Fumihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Cerebral perfusion was studied in five patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) or {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO). In four cases, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by the method reported by Mastuda et al. Immediately after the stroke-like episodes, accumulation of the tracer was relatively increased in the temporooccipital lobe, and also increased rCBF was shown in the same area. However, the region showed decreased radioactivity at the chronic stage, and rCBF decreased also. These findings are consistent with positron emission tomography (PET) at the acute stage and autopsy. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the progress of the MELAS. (author)

  19. [A Study on the quotations in the Wu xing da yi (The Gist of Five Phases) cited from Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Shan; Zhang, Qi-Cheng

    2013-07-01

    In the Wu xing da yi (The Gist of Five Phases), written by Xiao Ji of the Sui Dynasty, there were 9 quotations cited from Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi). By comparison with current version of Huang di nei jing, most of the descriptions are similar, yet still with some differences, such as yin-yang nature of the five zang visceras, the liver being the root of "pi ji", the spleen being the root of "cang lin" etc. Wu xing da yi epitomizes the books about yin-yang and five phases before the Sui Dynasty, while Xiao Ji's quotations from Huang di nei jing interpreted from the views of yin-yang and five phases, are different from the annotations of later ages.

  20. Chemical profiling of Di-Wu-Yang-Gan Granules by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with MSE technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dong; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hong-Mei; Yu, Meng; Chang, Xing; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Ba, Yuan-Ming; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2017-08-08

    Di-Wu-Yang-Gan Granules is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription used for the treatment of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients in China. It consists of five commonly used Chinese herbs. However, the chemical constituents of the whole prescription had not been clarified yet. Hence, in this study, the chemical profiling of Di-Wu-Yang-Gan Granules was explored by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, which can provide accurate molecular weight within 5-ppm error and sufficient MS/MS fragment ions without the need for precursor ion selection. As a result, 116 compounds were identified, including lignans, triterpenesaponins, flavonoids, coumarins, iridoids, nortriterpenoids, phenolic acids, and sesquiterpenes. All compounds were further assigned to the individual herbs. In conclusion, this established method was reliable and effective for the separation and identification of the constituents in Di-Wu-Yang-Gan Granules. The findings are beneficial for quality control of the prescription during production and provide helpful chemical information for exploring its efficacy and the mechanism of action. The fragmentation regularity summarized in this study also provided important information for the rapid identification of the chemical composition in herbal medicines or their prescription.

  1. Influence of filling-drawdown cycles of the Three Gorges reservoir on deformation and failure behaviors of anaclinal rock slopes in the Wu Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da; Gu, Dong Ming

    2017-10-01

    The upper Wu Gorge on the Yangtze River has been the site of tens of reservoir-induced landslides since the filling of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. These landslides have been occurring in heavily fractured carbonate rock materials along the rim of the reservoir in the Wu Gorge. A detailed investigation was carried out to examine the influence of reservoir operations (filling and drawdown) on slope stabilities in the upper Wu Gorge. Field investigations reveal many collapses of various types occurred at the toe of the anaclinal rock slopes, owing to the long-term intensive river erosion caused by periodic fluctuation of the reservoir level. Analysis of data from deformation monitoring suggests that the temporal movement of the slopes shows seasonal fluctuations that correlate with reservoir levels and drawdown conditions, with induced slope acceleration peaking when reservoir levels are lowest. This may illustrate that the main mechanism is the reservoir drawdown, which induces an episodic seepage force in the highly permeable materials at the slope toes, and thus leads to the episodic rockslides. The coupled hydraulic-mechanical (HM) modeling of the G2 landslide, which occurred in 2008, shows that collapse initiated at the submerged slope toe, which then caused the upper slope to collapse in a rock topple-rock slide pattern. The results imply that preventing water erosion at the slope toe might be an effective way for landslide prevention in the study area.

  2. Nonlinear Imputation of PaO2/FIO2 From SpO2/FIO2 Among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the ICU: A Prospective, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Duggal, Abhijit; Hou, Peter C; Tidswell, Mark; Khan, Akram; Exline, Matthew; Park, Pauline K; Schoenfeld, David A; Liu, Ming; Grissom, Colin K; Moss, Marc; Rice, Todd W; Hough, Catherine L; Rivers, Emanuel; Thompson, B Taylor; Brower, Roy G

    2017-08-01

    In the contemporary ICU, mechanically ventilated patients may not have arterial blood gas measurements available at relevant timepoints. Severity criteria often depend on arterial blood gas results. Retrospective studies suggest that nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 from SpO2/FIO2 is accurate, but this has not been established prospectively among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The objective was to validate the superiority of nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 among mechanically ventilated patients and understand what factors influence the accuracy of imputation. Simultaneous SpO2, oximeter characteristics, receipt of vasopressors, and skin pigmentation were recorded at the time of a clinical arterial blood gas. Acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria were recorded. For each imputation method, we calculated both imputation error and the area under the curve for patients meeting criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300) and moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 150). Nine hospitals within the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury network. We prospectively enrolled 703 mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the emergency departments or ICUs of participating study hospitals. None. We studied 1,034 arterial blood gases from 703 patients; 650 arterial blood gases were associated with SpO2 less than or equal to 96%. Nonlinear imputation had consistently lower error than other techniques. Among all patients, nonlinear had a lower error (p < 0.001) and higher (p < 0.001) area under the curve (0.87; 95% CI, 0.85-0.90) for PaO2/FIO2 less than or equal to 300 than linear/log-linear (0.80; 95% CI, 0.76-0.83) imputation. All imputation methods better identified moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 150); nonlinear imputation remained superior (p < 0.001). For PaO2/FIO2 less than or equal to 150, the sensitivity and specificity for nonlinear imputation were 0

  3. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  4. [A molecular epidemiological study of KI polyomavirus and WU polyomavirus in children with acute respiratory infection in Tianjin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Wei; Yang, Hong-Jiang; Ma, Bai-Cheng; Fang, Yu-Lian; Xu, Yong-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) and WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) with acute respiratory infection in children in Tianjin, China. A total of 3 730 nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection in Tianjin Children's Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. Viral nucleic acid was extracted, and virus infection (KIPyV and WUPyV) was determined by PCR. Some KIPyV-positive and WUPyV-positive PCR products were subjected to sequencing. Sequencing results were aligned with the known gene sequences of KIPyV and WUPyV to construct a phylogenetic tree. Amplified VP1 fragments of KIPyV were inserted into the cloning vector (PUCm-T) transformed into E. coli competent cells. Positive clones were identified by PCR and sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank. In addition, another seven common respiratory viruses in all samples were detected by direct immunofluorescence assay. In the 3 730 specimens, the KIPyV-positive rate was 12.14% (453/3 730) and the WUPyV-positive rate was 1.69% (63/3 730). The mean infection rate of KIPyV was significantly higher in June and July, while the mean infection rate of WUPyV peaked in February and March. Most of the KIPyV-positive or WUPyV-positive children were infections with KIPyV, WUPyV, and other respiratory viruses were observed in the children. The co-infection rate was 2.31% (86/3 730) and there were nine cases of co-infections with WUPyV and KIPyV. Thirty-five KIPyV-positive and twelve WUPyV-positive PCR products were sequenced and the alignment analysis showed that they had high homology with the known sequences (94%-100% vs 95%-100%). The VP1 gene sequences obtained from two KIPyV strains in this study were recorded in GenBank with the accession numbers of KY465925 and KY465926. For some children with acute respiratory infection in Tianjin, China, the acute respiratory infection may be associated with KIPyV and WUPy

  5. Anti-quorum sensing activity of flavonoid-rich fraction from Centella asiatica L. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavi, H S; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS), a cell-density dependent regulation of gene expression in bacteria by autoinducers is an attractive strategy for the development of antipathogenic agents. In this study, the anti-QS activity of the ethanolic extract of the traditional herb Centella asiatica was investigated by the biosensor bioassay using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. The effect of ethyl acetate fraction (CEA) from the bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility, and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were evaluated. Possible mechanism of QS-inhibitory action on autoinducer activity was determined by measuring the acyl homoserine lactone using C. violaceum ATCC31532. Anti-QS compounds in the CEA fraction were identified using thin layer chromatography biosensor overlay assay. Ethanol extract of C. asiatica showed QS inhibition in C. violaceum CV026. Bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract revealed that CEA was four times more active than the ethanol extract. CEA, at 400 μg/mL, completely inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 without significantly affecting growth. CEA also showed inhibition of QS-regulated phenotypes, namely, pyocyanin production, elastolytic and proteolytic activities, swarming motility, and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Thin layer chromatography of CEA with biosensor overlay showed anti-QS spot with an Rf value that corresponded with that of standard kaempferol. The anti-QS nature of C. asiatica herb can be further exploited for the formulation of drugs targeting bacterial infections where pathogenicity is mediated through QS. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Anti-quorum sensing activity of Psidium guajava L. flavonoids against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady-Devasya

    2014-05-01

    Psidium guajava L., which has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, was explored for anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity. The anti-QS activity of the flavonoid (FL) fraction of P. guajava leaves was determined using a biosensor bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Detailed investigation of the effects of the FL-fraction on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was performed using standard methods. Possible mechanisms of QS-inhibition were studied by assessing violacein production in response to N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis in the presence of the FL-fraction in C. violaceum ATCC31532 and by evaluating the induction of violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026 by AHL extracted from the culture supernatants of C. violaceum 31532. Active compounds in the FL-fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Inhibition of violacein production by the FL-fraction in a C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay indicated possible anti-QS activity. The FL-fraction showed concentration-dependent decreases in violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 and inhibited pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, the FL-fraction did not inhibit AHL synthesis; AHL extracted from cultures of C. violaceum 31532 grown in the presence of the FL-fraction induced violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside in the FL-fraction. Both quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum 12472, at 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Results of this study provide scope for further research to exploit these active molecules as anti-QS agents. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing

  7. Functional Analysis of Genes for Biosynthesis of Pyocyanin and Phenazine-1-Carboxamide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Delaney, Shannon M.; Soule, Marilyn J.; Phillips, Greg; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Two seven-gene phenazine biosynthetic loci were cloned from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The operons, designated phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1 and phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2, are homologous to previously studied phenazine biosynthetic operons from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. Functional studies of phenazine-nonproducing strains of fluorescent pseudomonads indicated that each of the biosynthetic operons from P. aeruginosa is sufficient for production of a single compound, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). Subsequent conversion of PCA to pyocyanin is mediated in P. aeruginosa by two novel phenazine-modifying genes, phzM and phzS, which encode putative phenazine-specific methyltransferase and flavin-containing monooxygenase, respectively. Expression of phzS alone in Escherichia coli or in enzymes, pyocyanin-nonproducing P. fluorescens resulted in conversion of PCA to 1-hydroxyphenazine. P. aeruginosa with insertionally inactivated phzM or phzS developed pyocyanin-deficient phenotypes. A third phenazine-modifying gene, phzH, which has a homologue in Pseudomonas chlororaphis, also was identified and was shown to control synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxamide from PCA in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Our results suggest that there is a complex pyocyanin biosynthetic pathway in P. aeruginosa consisting of two core loci responsible for synthesis of PCA and three additional genes encoding unique enzymes involved in the conversion of PCA to pyocyanin, 1-hydroxyphenazine, and phenazine-1-carboxamide. PMID:11591691

  8. SPECT with [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HM-PAO) compared with regional cerebral blood flow measured by PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonekura, Y; Nishizawa, S; Mukai, Thomas Søgaard

    1988-01-01

    In order to validate the use of technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) as a flow tracer, a total of 21 cases were studied with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and compared to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by position emission tomography...

  9. DdaR (PA1196) Regulates Expression of Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase for the Metabolism of Methylarginines in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Benjamin R; Bailey, Frank J; Moley, Gabriella; Nomura, Christopher T

    2017-04-15

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs) catalyze the hydrolysis of methylarginines to yield l-citrulline and methylamines as products. DDAHs and their central roles in methylarginine metabolism have been characterized for eukaryotic cells. While DDAHs are known to exist in some bacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the physiological importance and genetic regulation of bacterial DDAHs remain poorly understood. To provide some insight into bacterial methylarginine metabolism, this study focused on identifying the key elements or factors regulating DDAH expression in P. aeruginosa PAO1. First, results revealed that P. aeruginosa can utilize NG ,NG -dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA) as a sole source of nitrogen but not carbon. Second, expression of the ddaH gene was observed to be induced in the presence of methylarginines, including NG -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) and ADMA. Third, induction of the ddaH gene was shown to be achieved through a mechanism consisting of the putative enhancer-binding protein PA1196 and the alternative sigma factor RpoN. Both PA1196 and RpoN were essential for the expression of the ddaH gene in response to methylarginines. On the basis of the results of this study, PA1196 was given the name DdaR, for dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase regulator. Interestingly, DdaR and its target ddaH gene are conserved only among P. aeruginosa strains, suggesting that this particular Pseudomonas species has evolved to utilize methylarginines from its environment.IMPORTANCE Methylated arginine residues are common constituents of eukaryotic proteins. During proteolysis, methylarginines are released in their free forms and become accessible nutrients for bacteria to utilize as growth substrates. In order to have a clearer and better understanding of this process, we explored methylarginine utilization in the metabolically versatile bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Our results show that the transcriptional

  10. Facile green synthesis of baicalein fabricated gold nanoparticles and their antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumari, Jobina; Busi, Siddhardha; Vasu, Aneesh Cherukunnel; Reddy, Palarajasekhar

    2017-06-01

    Biofilm formation is one of the major problems associated with chronic diseases and also attributes for the antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In recent times nanoparticles have been utilized to improve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobial and anti-biofilm agents. The ease in functionalization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) makes them a potential carrier for antimicrobial agents. However, the use of physical or chemical methods of the production of nanoparticles is expensive, labour intensive and hazardous to ecosystem. On the other hand, the use of plant based compounds serve as an eco-friendly way for the synthesis of nanoparticles with improved biocompatibility and therapeutic applicability. In the present study, phytocompound, baicalein was used as a reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of spherical shape AuNPs. The baicalein decorated gold nanoparticles (BCL-AuNPs) were characterized and evaluated for their anti-biofilm efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The biosynthesized BCL-AuNPs was characterized using UV-Visible spectra, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDAX), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). The biosynthesized BCL-AuNPs were determined to be spherical in shape with an average size of 26.5 nm. The sub-MIC concentration of BCL-AuNPs exhibited significant anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1. On treatment with BCL-AuNPs (100 g mL(-1)), a reduction in biofilm formation by 58.74 ± 5.8% and 76.51 ± 4.27% was observed in microtiter plate assay and tube method, respectively. A significant reduction in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by 81.29± 2.96% was observed. The swimming and swarming motility were also effectively arrested in presence of BCL-AuNPs. Further, Light microscope and CLSM studies were carried out to examine the effect of BCL-AuNPs on the surface

  11. Overexpression of the NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icdA) in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Hayashi, Rie; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    In the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitric acid to form α-ketoglutaric acid with NADP(+) as a cofactor. We constructed an NADP(+)-ICDH gene (icdA)-overexpressing strain (OPI-1) using Aspergillus niger WU-2223L as a host and examined the effects of increase in NADP(+)-ICDH activity on citric acid production. Under citric acid-producing conditions with glucose as the carbon source, the amounts of citric acid produced and glucose consumed by OPI-1 for the 12-d cultivation period decreased by 18.7 and 10.5%, respectively, compared with those by WU-2223L. These results indicate that the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger can be altered with the NADP(+)-ICDH activity. Therefore, NADP(+)-ICDH is an important regulator of citric acid production in the TCA cycle of A. niger. Thus, we propose that the icdA gene is a potentially valuable tool for modulating citric acid production by metabolic engineering.

  12. Age and gender distribution of Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotypes of individuals of physical examination in WuHan, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, ZhiLi; Zhang, PingAn; Tong, YongQing

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). There are no published population based studies about the prevalence of HCV genotypes and the associations of genotype and Infection frequency with gender and age in WuHan. We aimed to investigate the distribution of HCV prevalence and genotypes among different gender and age patients with chronic HCV infection in WuHan from 2011 to 2015. A total of 2685 anti-HCV positive serum samples from individuals of physical examinationwere recruited from the Renmin Hospital of WuHan University, Hubei Province in China from January 2011 to December 2015. From these 2685 anti-HCV positive serum samples, 496 samples were with a positive PCR for HCV RNA. The number of HCV infection showed an increase with year, but the annual infection rate has remained similar (χ(2) = 2.94, P = 0.568). 2685 cases were infected with HCV from 2011 to 2015 in WuHan city of China. Blood transfusion (18.14 %) was the main routs of transmission, followed by Surgery (8.94 %). The highest prevalence of HCV infection was at the age group 50-59 (25.85 % of 2685) and the lowest prevalence was 0-9 (0.93 % of 2685). HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent (73.39 %), followed by genotypes 2 (17.14 %), 3 (5.25 %) and 6 (3.22 %). Genotype 4 and 5 was not detected in these patients. The most prevalent subtype was subtype 1b (71.98 %), followed by genotypes 2a (17.14 %). Five patients had mixed infection across the HCV subtypes. Among all genotypes, genotype 1 was highest in both male (73.27 %) and female (73.47 %) patients, followed by genotype 2. Genotype 1 (male: 29.84 % of 496, vs female: 43.55 % of 496, χ(2) = 20.07, P < 0.0001), genotype 2 (male: 6.25 % of 496, vs female: 10.89 % of 496, χ(2) = 6.81, P = 0.009), and 6 (male: 1.41 % of 496, vs female: 1.81 % of 496, χ(2) = 0.626, P = 0.401) were more common in female patients than males, while no significant gender differences were

  13. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  14. Structure and characterization of a NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Teng, Xiaozhen; Su, Li; Mao, Guannan; Xu, Yueyang; Li, Tingting; Liu, Riuhua; Zhang, Qionglin; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the function of the pa4079 gene from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, we determined its crystal structure and confirmed it to be a NAD(P)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Structural similarity and activity for a broad range of substrates indicate that PA4079 functions as a carbonyl reductase. Comparison of apo- and holo-PA4079 shows that NADP stabilizes the active site specificity loop, and small molecule binding induces rotation of the Tyr183 side chain by approximately 90° out of the active site. Quantitative real-time PCR results show that pa4079 maintains high expression levels during antibiotic exposure. This work provides a starting point for understanding substrate recognition and selectivity by PA4079, as well as its possible reduction of antimicrobial drugs. Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) under the following accession numbers: apo PA4079 (condition I), 5WQM; apo PA4079 (condition II), 5WQN; PA4079 + NADP (condition I), 5WQO; PA4079 + NADP (condition II), 5WQP. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. In silico Analysis and Molecular Modeling of RNA Polymerase, Sigma S (RpoS Protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sedighi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sigma factors are proteins that regulate transcription in bacteria. Sigma factors can be activated in response to different environmental conditions. The rpoS (RNA polymerase, sigma S gene encodes sigma-38 (σ38, or RpoS, a 37.8 kDa protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains. RpoS is a central regulator of the general stress response and operates in both retroactive and proactive manners; not only does it allow the cell to survive environmental challenges; it also prepares the cell for subsequent stresses (cross-protection. Methods: The significance of RpoS for stress resistance and protein expression in stationary-phase P. aeruginosa cells was assessed. The goal of the current study was to characterize RpoS of P. aeruginosa PAO1 using bioinformatics tools. Results: The results showed that RpoS is an unstable protein that belongs to the sigma-70 factor family. Secondary structure analysis predicted that random coil is the predominant structure followed by extended alpha helix. The three-dimensional (3D structure was modeled using SWISS-MODEL Workspace. Conclusion: Determination of sequence, function, structure, and predicted epitopes of RpoS is important for modeling of inhibitors that will help in the design of new drugs to combat multi-drug-resistant (MDR strains. Such information may aid in the development of new diagnostic tools, drugs, and vaccines for treatment in endemic regions.

  16. Specific features of the control systems of new-modification 310-330-MW steam turbines manufactured by PAO turboatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.

    2017-07-01

    Principal engineering solutions taken by PAO Turboatom when developing the control systems of the 310-325-MW turbines for thermal power stations are set forth. A schematic diagram of the control system is presented and the designs of the retrofitted basic mechanisms, viz., high-pressure steam-distribution unit and the cutoff valve, are described. It is noted that the accepted principles of designing the control systems allow retaining the following advantages of the latter: use of the condensate as a cheap nonflammable working fluid, valveless switches to control the locking servomotors, a mechanical ring-type turbine trip mechanism (TTM) in combination with an actuator fitted with two double-seated actuator valves to control the pressure in the pulse security lines, and a rotary valve to block the triggering of the actuator valves during successive testing of the TTM rings by filling the oil during the operation of the turbine and the subsequent raising of the above valves. The control systems of the new-modification turbines are based on microprocessor hardware using electromechanical converters to drive every cutoff valve as a universal solution that is not oriented towards a particular manufacturer of the control system electronics. Application of a mechanical turbine trip mechanism is acknowledged as indispensable for unconditional guarantee of the safe operation of the turbines irrespective of the presence of the electronic turbine trip mechanism.

  17. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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    Vincent Ouedraogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL, A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds.

  18. Analysis of antioxidant activities in vegetable oils and fat soluble vitamins and biofactors by the PAO-SO method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuo; Kino, Satoko; Takeuchi, Masao; Ochi, Tairin; Da Cruz, Giuseppe; Tomita, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Accumulated evidences indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of aging process. Antioxidants are believed to play an important role in the defense system to counteract ROS in the body. While excess hydrophilic antioxidants can be excreted easily in urine, lipophilic antioxidants can penetrate into blood lipoproteins and cell membranes, and may maintain long and high bioavailability. These lipophilic antioxidants are thus expected to contribute greatly to the prevention of age-related diseases. Oils extracted from plant seeds are known to contain various lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and carotenoids. They are known to not only decrease serum low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) level, but also prevent oxidation of LDL. In addition to vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and carotenoids, other lipophilic antioxidants such as gamma-oryzanol and sesaminol (from sesamolin) are in rice bran and sesame, respectively. They are sometimes called "vitamin-like food factors" or "biofactors." Although there are several methods for measuring the total antioxidant activities for various plant extracts, most of these methods are designed for hydrophilic antioxidants, and not for lipophilic antioxidants present in various plant seed oils. In this report, we present an assay method for the total potency of antioxidants that are soluble in oil (PAO-SO) utilizing bathocuproine (BC) as a chromogen. BC-based antioxidant activity assay shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9986), good reproducibility (CV < 10%), and good recovery (86-91%) when dl-alpha-tocopherol, for example, is added to sesame oil. Total antioxidant activity of rape-seed oil, olive oil, and sesame oil could also be successfully measured.

  19. Alterations in airway microbiota in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 after burn and inhalation injury.

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    Dana M Walsh

    Full Text Available Injury to the airways after smoke inhalation is a major mortality risk factor in victims of burn injuries, resulting in a 15-45% increase in patient deaths. Damage to the airways by smoke may induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, which is partly characterized by hypoxemia in the airways. While ARDS has been associated with bacterial infection, the impact of hypoxemia on airway microbiota is unknown. Our objective was to identify differences in microbiota within the airways of burn patients who develop hypoxemia early after inhalation injury and those that do not using next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes.DNA was extracted from therapeutic bronchial washings of 48 patients performed within 72 hours of hospitalization for burn and inhalation injury at the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center. DNA was prepared for sequencing using a novel molecule tagging method and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Bacterial species were identified using the MTToolbox pipeline. Patients with hypoxemia, as indicated by a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300, had a 30% increase in abundance of Streptococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae and 84% increase in Staphylococcaceae as compared to patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 300. Wilcoxon rank-sum test identified significant enrichment in abundance of OTUs identified as Prevotella melaninogenica (p = 0.042, Corynebacterium (p = 0.037 and Mogibacterium (p = 0.048. Linear discriminant effect size analysis (LefSe confirmed significant enrichment of Prevotella melaninognica among patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 (p<0.05. These results could not be explained by differences in antibiotic treatment.The airway microbiota following burn and inhalation injury is altered in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 early after injury. Enrichment of specific taxa in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 may indicate airway environment and patient changes that favor these microbes. Longitudinal studies are

  20. Europaanika / Adele Pao

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pao, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Finantskriisist eurotsoonis, kus probleemid ei alanud mitte siis, kui raskused avalikuks tulid, vaid headel aegadel, mil riigid eelarvepuudujäägiga ettenähtud norme ületama hakkasid. Tsiteeritud on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvest

  1. Improvement of automatic control systems of high-power turbines of PAO tubroatom for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    The main technical solutions applied by PAO Turboatom used as the compensatory measures at the increase of the period of nonstop operation of nuclear power plants' (NPP) turbines with VVER-1000 type reactors up to 18 months are (1) replacing the standard hydraulic speed controller with an electronic one, (2) introduction of overclocking protection, (3) modernization of units of stop-control valves of high pressures, (4) installation of locking dampers on the receiver tubes of turbines of the first and second modification, and (5) improving the quality of repairs by reviewing the requirements for their implementation. The introduction of complex diagnostics of a control system on the basis of automatic treatment of results of registration of working parameters of the turbine is allocated as a separate prospective direction. Using an electronic controller of speed makes it possible to simplify the procedure of its inclusion in work at the failure of an electro-hydraulic system of control and vice versa. The regimes of maintaining the turbine rotor speed, steam pressure on the outlet of turbine, and the positions of main servomotors were introduced into the functions of the electronic controller. An electronic controller of speed includes its own electro-hydraulic transducer, turbine rotor speed sensor, and sensors of the position of main servomotors. Into the functions of electro- hydraulic control system and electronic speed controller, the function of overclocking protection, which determines the formation of commands for stopping the turbine at the exceeding of both the defined level of rotation speed and the defined combination of achieved rotation speed and angular acceleration of rotor, was introduced. To simplify the correction of forces acting on the control valve cups, the design of the cups was changed, and it has the profiled inserts. The solutions proposed were implemented on K-1100-60/1500-2M turbines of Rostov NPP. From the composition of control system

  2. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  3. Electrical Wiring of the Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC with a Polymer Containing Osmium Redox Centers: Biosensors for Benzaldehyde and GABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artavazd Badalyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below −0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl. The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A “reagentless” biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10–150 µM and the detection limit of 5 µM (signal to noise ratio 3:1 of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13 for 200 µM benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer.

  4. Ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. downregulate the expression of quorum sensing genes to attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence.

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    Sajal Sarabhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7, obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001 in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05 reduced with enhanced (20% susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C(12HSL and C(4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C(4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C(12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors

  5. The icmF3 locus is involved in multiple adaptation- and virulence-related characteristics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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    Jinshui eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Three separate T6SSs called H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS have been discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the H1-T6SS that targets prokaryotic cells, H2-T6SS and H3-T6SS are involved in interactions with both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, the detailed functions of T6SS components are still uncharacterized. The intracellular multiplication factor (IcmF protein is conserved in type VI secretion systems (T6SS of all different bacterial pathogens. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that IcmF3 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is different from other IcmF homologues and may represent a new branch of these proteins with distinct functions. Herein, we have investigated the function of IcmF3 in this strain. We have shown that deletion of the icmF3 gene in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is associated with pleiotropic phenotypes. The icmF3 mutant has variant colony morphology and an hypergrowth phenotype in iron-limiting medium. Surprisingly, this mutant is also defective for the production of pyoverdine, as well as defects in swimming motility and virulence in a C. elegans worm model. The icmF3 mutant exhibits higher conjugation frequency than the wild type and increased biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, expression of two phenazine biosynthetic loci is increased in the icmF3 mutant, leading to the overproduction of pyocyanin. Finally, the mutant exhibits decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides such as tobramycin and gentamicin. And the detected phenotypes can be restored completely or partially by trans complementation of wild type icmF3 gene. The pleiotropic effects observed upon icmF3 deletion demonstrate that icmF3 plays critical roles in both pathogenesis and environmental adaptation in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  6. A new type of discrepancy between cerebral blood flow measured with {sup 133}Xe and HmPAO-{sup 99}Tc perfusion; Discordances entre la mesure du debit sanguin cerebral au xenon 133 et de la perfusion cerebrale au HmPAO {sup 99m}Tc: un nouveau cas de figure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinling, M.; Amegassi, F.; Mazingue, A.; Rousseaux, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    2000-09-01

    We report a clinical case of a new type of discrepancy between two tracers usable for brain functional imaging: the Xenon 133 and the HmPAO-{sup 99m}Tc. A 66 year old men had presented a brutal left hemiplegia with transient troubles of consciousness in relation with a right protuberant infarct without hemispheric lesions. The functional studies were performed 4 months after the onset, successively by the Xe inhalation method and immediately after the HmPAO study. On a patient kept still on the camera bed when cerebral blood flow (CBF) study depicted both a right cerebellar low flow and a slightly decreased CBF in the controlateral hemisphere ('hemispheric diaschisis'), the HmPAO SPECT was normal. This observation illustrates both the crossed hemispheric diaschisis and a new type of discrepancy: indeed, the known cases were until now in relation with alterations of the blood: brain barrier, which doses not exist in our report. The explanation of this type of discrepancy remains unclear but is probably linked with the HMPAO retention mechanisms. (author)

  7. Modification of Sako-Wu-Prausnitz equation of state for fluid phase equilibria in polyethylene-ethylene systems at high pressures

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    F. Gharagheizi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to model phase equilibria at all pressures, it is necessary to have an equation of state. We have chosen the Sako-Wu-Prausnitz cubic equation of state, which had shown some promising results. However, in order to satisfy our demands, we had to modify it slightly and fit new pure component parameters. New pure component parameters have been determined for ethylene and the n-alkane series, using vapor pressure data, saturated liquid volume and one-phase PVT-data. For higher n-alkanes, where vapor pressure data are poor or not available, determination of the pure component parameters was made in part by extrapolation and in part by fitting to one-phase PVT-data. Using one-fluid van der Waals mixing rules, with one adjustable interaction parameter, good correlation of binary hydrocarbon system was obtained, except for the critical region. The extension of the equation of state to polyethylene systems is covered in this work. Using the determined parameters, flash and cloud point calculations were performed, and treating the polymer as polydisperse. The results fit data well.

  8. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

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    Yi-Ling Lo

    Full Text Available The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA, a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa.

  9. Inactivation of pyocyanin synthesis genes has no effect on the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 toward the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieda, Yuuka; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yasunaga-Aoki, Chisa; Shimizu, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of pyocyanin to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against the silkworm Bombyx mori was studied. First, purified pyocyanin was injected into the hemocoel of B. mori. Acute toxicity was observed only when a high dose of pyocyanin was injected. The lethal dose 50% value of pyocyanin was found to be 9.52 microg per larva. Next, mutant strains of phzM and phzS, which encode putative phenazine-specific methytransferase and flavin-containing monooxygenase, respectively, were created, and their virulence was compared with that of the PAO1 parent strain. Although the ability to produce pyocyanin was completely lost in the phz-mutant strains, they maintained the same level of virulence as the PAO1 parent strain. In addition, the complementation of the corresponding gene in trans in the mutant strains did not have any effect on the virulence of those mutant strains. These results indicated that pyocyanin does not act as a virulence factor in B. mori after invasion, which was different from the results obtained in other Lepidopteran host models.

  10. Alteration of Leukocyte Count Correlates With Increased Pulmonary Vascular Permeability and Decreased PaO2:FiO2 Ratio Early After Major Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Joakim; Steinvall, Ingrid; Herwald, Heiko; Lindbom, Lennart; Sjöberg, Folke

    2015-01-01

    Leukocytes are activated systemically and their numbers increase soon after a burn followed by a rapid decline to low normal or subnormal levels, possibly by increased extravasation. Experimental data support that an important target for such extravasation is the lungs and that leukocytes when they adhere to endothelial cells cause an increase in vascular permeability. The authors investigated a possible relation between early increased pulmonary vascular permeability or a decreased PaO2:FiO2 ratio and the dynamic change in concentration of blood leukocytes after a burn. This is a prospective, exploratory, single-center study. The authors measured the dynamic changes of leukocytes in blood starting early after the burn, pulmonary vascular permeability index by thermodilution, and PaO2:FiO2-ratios in 20 patients during the first 21 days after a major burn (>20% TBSA%). Median TBSA was 40% interquartile range (IQR, 25-52) and full thickness burn 28% (IQR, 2-39). There was a correlation between the early (leukocytes and pulmonary failure early after burns.

  11. Relationship between preoperative pulmonary blood flow measured by lung perfusion scanning with /sup 99m/Tc-MAA and values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, Yukiko

    1985-04-01

    Occassionally one-lung anaesthesia may cause severe hypoxia. The author analyzed the relationship between preoperative pulmonary blood flow by means of lung perfusion scanning with /sup 99m/Tc-MAA and values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia in 30 adult patients undergoing elective thoracotomy. The ratio of perfusion partition between the dependent lung and the non-dependent one was 67.5 +- 3.6 percent (mean +- SE). Mean value of PaO2 of 30 minutes after one lung ventilation (FlO2 0.99) was 216.7 +- 21.5 mmHg. These values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia were well correlated with the preoperative lung perfusion partition ratios (el=0.893). Meanwhile, in eight cases whose lung perfusion ratios of the dependent lung were less than 50 percent, marked hypoxemia with mean values of PaO2 of 69.8 +- 3.5 mmHg was observed. These results indicated that preoperative evaluation of lung perfusion could predict the values of PaO2 during one-lung anaesthesia. (author).

  12. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang

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    Mandy M. Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT, comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA. In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  13. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  14. [Research on Japanese monograph of comprehensive dietetic materia medica, the Pao chu bei yong wo ming ben cao (Japanese Materia Medica Prepared for Kitchen)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Ye, J

    2017-11-28

    Japanese physicians of Edo Period (1603-1867) wrote many dietetic books, by combining the knowledge system (content and compiling style) and thoughts of diet therapy from China with local condition in Japan. Among them, the Pao chu bei yong wo ming ben cao(Japanese Materia Medica Prepared for Kitchen), written by Mukai Genshou, a physician in the early Edo, is the earliest comprehensive work of dietetic materia medica. In this book, the choice and usage of Japanese dietetic materia medica reveals obvious Japanese local color, including the name, morphology, cultivation, collection, identification, nature and flavor, and indication etc., reflecting the sprouting idea of edible herbal plant at the beginning of Edo period and the characteristic of absorbing Chinese diet thoughts by Japanese physician. This is the important first-hand historical material to understand the development of Japanese dietetic herbalism in early Edo and its dietotherapy culture.

  15. Terpenoids from Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton Alter the Expression of Quorum Sensing-Related Virulence Factors and the Formation of Biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Ngezahayo, Jérémie; Pottier, Laurent; Oliveira Ribeiro, Sofia; Souard, Florence; Hari, Léonard; Stévigny, Caroline; El Jaziri, Mondher; Duez, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton aerial parts are widely used in Burundi traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. In order to investigate their probable antibacterial activities, crude extracts from P. rotundifolium were assessed for their bactericidal and anti-virulence properties against an opportunistic bacterial model, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Whereas none of the tested extracts exert bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal proprieties, the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts exhibit anti-virulence properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 characterized by an alteration in quorum sensing gene expression and biofilm formation without affecting bacterial viability. Bioguided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of major anti-virulence compounds that were identified from nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution molecular spectroscopy spectra as cassipourol, β-sitosterol and α-amyrin. Globally, cassipourol and β-sitosterol inhibit quorum sensing-regulated and -regulatory genes expression in las and rhl systems without affecting the global regulators gacA and vfr, whereas α-amyrin had no effect on the expression of these genes. These terpenoids disrupt the formation of biofilms at concentrations down to 12.5, 50 and 50 µM for cassipourol, β-sitosterol and α-amyrin, respectively. Moreover, these terpenoids reduce the production of total exopolysaccharides and promote flagella-dependent motilities (swimming and swarming). The isolated terpenoids exert a wide range of inhibition processes, suggesting a complex mechanism of action targeting P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms which support the wide anti-infectious use of this plant species in traditional Burundian medicine. PMID:28613253

  16. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qinna; Lv, Huinan; Qi, Zhuangzhuang; Jiang, Bei; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Linde; Ge, Yihe; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1) and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2)] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  17. Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Biofilm Protein Profile After Exposure to n-Butanolic Cyclamen coum Extract Alone and in Combination with Ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Morvarid; Abdi-Ali, Ahya; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Vali, Hojatollah; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-related infections are the major cause of premature death in cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies to induce biofilm dispersal are of interest, because of their potential in preventing biofilm-related infections. Our previous work demonstrated that n-butanolic Cyclamen coum extract with ciprofloxacin could eliminate 1- and 3-day-old P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. To gain new insights into the role of C. coum extract and its synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin in eliminating P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification were used. Changes in the bacterial protein expression were analyzed when 3-day-old biofilm cells were exposed to the C. coum extract alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin. Proteins involved in alginate biosynthesis, quorum sensing, adaptation/protection, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism showed a weaker expression in the C. coum extract-ciprofloxacin-treated biofilm cells compared to those in the untreated cells. Interestingly, the proteome of C. coum extract-ciprofloxacin-treated biofilm revealed more resemblance to the planktonic phenotype than to the biofilm phenotype. It appears that saponin extract in combination with ciprofloxacin causes biofilm disruption due to several mechanisms such as motility induction, cell envelope integrity perturbation, stress protein expression reduction, and more importantly, signal transduction perturbation. In conclusion, exposure to a combination of biofilm dispersal such as saponin extract and antimicrobial agents may offer a novel strategy to control preestablished, persistent P. aeruginosa biofilms and biofilm-related infections.

  18. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple, using a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W; Chen, M; Chen, A; Dong, W; Hou, X; Pu, B

    2015-04-01

    To isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella inoculated on fresh-cut apple, using a modelling method. Four kinds of pao cai were selected. A total of 122 isolates exhibited typical LAB characteristics: Gram-positive and catalase negative, among which 104 (85·24%) colonies showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella by the well diffusion assay. Four colonies showing maximum antibacterial radius against Salmonella were selected to co-inoculate with Salmonella on fresh-cut apple and stored at 10°C, further identified as three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of Lactobacillus brevis by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. The modified Gompertz model was employed to analyse the growth of the micro-organisms on apple wedges. Two of the four selected strains showed antagonistic activity against Salmonella on fresh-cut apple, one of which, RD1, exhibited best inhibitory activity (Salmonella were greatly inhibited when co-inoculated with RD1 at 10°C at 168 h). No deterioration in odour or appearance of the apple piece was observed by the triangle test when fresh-cut apple was inoculated with RD1. The mathematical modelling method is essential to select LAB with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple. LAB RD1 holds promise for the preservation of fresh-cut apple. This study provided a new method on fresh-cut product preservation. Besides, to make the LAB isolating procedure a more correct one, this study first added the mathematical modelling method to the isolating procedure. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

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    Qinna Cui

    Full Text Available Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1 and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  20. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy`s bodies; Tomoscintigraphie cerebrale au HmPAO Tc: diagnostic differenntiel entre Parkinson, Alzheimer et maladie a corps de Lewy diffus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, V. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Lecouffe, P. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Defebvre, L.; Pasquier, F. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Pham, T.; Lamy, C. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Destee, A. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Steinling, M. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson`s Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes` criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  1. The influence of essential oils from Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction on its non-volatile components and its application for pharmacokinetics in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-08-15

    Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD) has been used to treat gynecology diseases in clinical practice for hundreds of years in China, especially for primary dysmenorrheal of QiZhi Type. In previous researches, both essential oils (XEO) and non-volatile components (NXEO) extracted from XFSWD showed significant pharmacological activities, but the influence of XEO on NXEO was unclear. The purpose of this paper was to develop a validated analytical method for simultaneous determination of ten components including Vanillic acid, Ferulic acid, Caffeic acid, Gallic acid, Paeoniflorin, Albiflorin, Tetrahydropalmatine, Protopine, Berberine and Tetrahydrocolumbamine, and to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of these components to illustrate the influences of XEO on NXEO in normal rats. After being extracted by methanol (1:3, v/v), the plasma samples were analyzed with Clarithromycin (IS 1 ) and Chloramphenicol (IS 2 ) as mixed internal standard (IS). Then the analytes were separated on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (100×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column with gradient mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. All analytes and mixed IS were performed on an electrospray ionization source (ESI) using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive and negative ionization mode. The calibration curves of all the analytes showed good linearity (r >0.99), and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.66-46.88ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions ranged 1.24-12.45% and 2.49-13.24% for all the analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of the analytes were in the range of 73.10-93.71% and the average matrix effects were within 82.39-93.18%. The validated method has been fully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ten components in rat plasma after oral administration of NXEO, NXEO+β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), NXEO+XEO, and NXEO+β-XEO (the inclusion of XEO by β-CD). It was found that the area under the concentration

  2. 吴燕平分期治疗经期延长的经验%Experience of Wu Yanping in Treating Prolonged Menstruation with the Method of the Installment of Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左海红; 吴燕平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]总结吴燕平教授分期治疗经期延长的经验.[方法]分别从病因病机、辨证与辨病结合、分期论治等方面论述吴燕平教授治疗经期延长的经验.[结果]本病病机多为“虚、热、瘀”,与肾和冲任关系密切.根据以上病机,提倡辨证与辨病相结合,西医明确病因,中医辨证论治,分期治疗.用药组方多从脾肾入手,攻补兼施,标本兼治.[结论]吴燕平教授采用分期论治,健脾益肾的综合疗法,调整月经周期,调节内分泌,缩短经期,疗效明显.%[Objecrive]The article summarized and discoursed the experience of professor Wu Yanping treating prolonged menstruation with the method of the installment of governance. [Method] Discoursed the experience of professor Wu Yanping treating prolonged menstruation from cause of disease,ptho-genesis.combination of syndrome differentiation and disease.installment of governance and so on.[Result]The cause of disease and pthogenesis are "debilita-tion,heat,stasis".The disease closely relates to kidney, thoroughfare and conception vessels. Professor Wu Yanping advocated the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease and installment of governance according to the cause of disease and pthogenesis.Western medicine makes the causes clear.and TCM treats disease based on syndrome differentiation.The formula mainly relates to spleen and kidney .The treatments combinate both the reinforcement and elimination,and focus on relieving both the secondary and primary symptoms. [Conclusions] Wu Yanping takes stage treatment, the comprehensive therapy of reinforcing spleen to nourish kidney, regulates endocrine and shortens menstruation, with good cure effect.

  3. Flagella but not type IV pili are involved in the initial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzaud, Jérôme; Tarrade, Jeanne; Coudreuse, Arnaud; Canette, Alexis; Herry, Jean-Marie; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric; Guilbaud, Morgan; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decades, surface biocontamination has become a major concern in food industries and medical environments where its outcomes could vary from financial losses to public health issues. Understanding adhesion mechanisms of involved microorganisms is essential to develop new strategies of prevention and control. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a nosocomial pathogenic bacterium, relies on several bacterial features, among which are bacterial appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. Here, we examine the role of P. aeruginosa PAO1 flagella and type IV pili in the adhesion to abiotic surfaces with various hydrophobicities. Adhesion kinetics showed, that after 60min, flagella increased the adhesion of the strain to surfaces with high hydrophobicity while no effect was observed on hydrophilic surfaces. Flagella of adherent bacteria exhibited specific and conserved pattern on the surfaces that suggested a higher affinity of flagella for hydrophobic surfaces. Based on these results and on previous studies in the literature, we proposed a model of flagella-mediated adhesion onto hydrophobic surfaces where these appendages induce the first contact and promote the adhesion of the bacterial body. These findings suggest that anti-bioadhesive surface design should take into consideration the presence of bacterial appendages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Lactate, Albumin, C-reactive Protein, PaO2/FiO2 and Glucose Levels of Trauma Patients at the Time of Administration to Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Blood analyses are preferred in the observation of cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU following a trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP, PaO2/FiO2 and glucose levels of trauma patients at time of admission with mortality. Material and Method: The patients who were admitted into ICU following a trauma between the years of 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. 200 trauma cases were included in the study. Their demographic data, APACHE II scores, Glasgow Coma Scales (GCS, and arterial blood gas in the lactate and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, CRP, glucose and albumin levels in the first collected arterial blood gas, as well as, the presence of thoracic, cardiac, renal, abdominal and head trauma, length of ICU stay and mortality were recorded. Results: Of the patients included in the study 84% were male, with an average age of 38.3 and an average APACHE II score of 16.6. 64% suffered from head trauma and the average GCS was calculated to be 11.2. The patients were observed in the ICU for an average of 18.7 days and the rate of mortality was 33.5%. GCS, PaO2/FiO2, age and elevated lactate levels increased mortality as independent risk factors. Conclusion: It has been concluded that parameters like age and the first GCS, lactate, glucose, albumin and PaO2/FiO2 at time of acceptance into the ICU were found to be related with mortality.

  5. Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Characterization of PauR and Its Role in Control of Putrescine and Cadaverine Catabolism through the γ-Glutamylation Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Peng, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grows on a variety of polyamines as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Catabolism of polyamines is mediated by the γ-glutamylation pathway, which is complicated by the existence of multiple homologous enzymes with redundant specificities toward different polyamines for a more diverse metabolic capacity in this organism. Through a series of markerless gene knockout mutants and complementation tests, specific combinations of pauABCD (polyamine utilization) genes were deciphered for catabolism of different polyamines. Among six pauA genes, expression of pauA1, pauA2, pauA4, and pauA5 was found to be inducible by diamines putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) but not by diaminopropane. Activation of these promoters was regulated by the PauR repressor, as evidenced by constitutively active promoters in the pauR mutant. The activities of these promoters were further enhanced by exogenous PUT or CAD in the mutant devoid of all six pauA genes. The recombinant PauR protein with a hexahistidine tag at its N terminus was purified, and specific bindings of PauR to the promoter regions of most pau operons were demonstrated by electromobility shift assays. Potential interactions of PUT and CAD with PauR were also suggested by chemical cross-linkage analysis with glutaraldehyde. In comparison, growth on PUT was more proficient than that on CAD, and this observed growth phenotype was reflected in a strong catabolite repression of pauA promoter activation by CAD but was completely absent as reflected by activation by PUT. In summary, this study clearly establishes the function of PauR in control of pau promoters in response to PUT and CAD for their catabolism through the γ-glutamylation pathway. PMID:23794626

  7. Comparative molecular docking analysis of cytoplasmic dynein light chain DYNLL1 with pilin to explore the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Kausar

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1 is a component of large protein complex, which is implicated in cargo transport processes, and is known to interact with many cellular and viral proteins through its short consensus motif (K/RXTQT. Still, it remains to be explored that bacterial proteins also exhibit similar recognition sequences to make them vulnerable to host defense mechanism. We employed multiple docking protocols including AUTODOCK, PatchDock, ZDOCK, DOCK/PIERR and CLUSPRO to explore the DYNLL1 and Pilin interaction followed by molecular dynamics simulation assays. Subsequent structural comparison of the predicted binding site for DYNLL1-Pilin complex against the experimentally verified DYNLL1 binding partners was performed to cross check the residual contributions and to determine the binding mode. On the basis of in silico analysis, here we describe a novel interaction of DYNLL1 and receptor binding domain of Pilin (the main protein constituent of bacterial type IV Pili of gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO, which is the third most common nosocomial pathogen associated with the life-threatening infections. Evidently, our results underscore that Pilin specific motif (KSTQD exhibits a close structural similarity to that of Vaccinia virus polymerase, P protein Rabies and P protein Mokola viruses. We speculate that binding of DYNLL1 to Pilin may trigger an uncontrolled inflammatory response of the host immune system during P. aeruginosa chronic infections thereby opening a new pioneering area to investigate the role of DYNLL1 in gram negative bacterial infections other than viral infections. Moreover, by manifesting a strict correspondence between sequence and function, our study anticipates a novel drug target site to control the complications caused by P. aeruginosa infections.

  8. Proteomic profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AES-1R, PAO1 and PA14 reveals potential virulence determinants associated with a transmissible cystic fibrosis-associated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Nathan J; Solis, Nestor; Harmer, Christopher; Marzook, N Bishara; Rose, Barbara; Harbour, Colin; Crossett, Ben; Manos, Jim; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2012-01-22

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While most CF patients are thought to acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment, person-person transmissible strains have been identified in CF clinics worldwide. The molecular basis for transmissibility and colonization of the CF lung remains poorly understood. A dual proteomics approach consisting of gel-based and gel-free comparisons were undertaken to analyse protein profiles in a transmissible, early (acute) isolate of the Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1R), the virulent burns/wound isolate PA14, and the poorly virulent, laboratory-associated strain PAO1. Over 1700 P. aeruginosa proteins were confidently identified. AES-1R protein profiles revealed elevated abundance of proteins associated with virulence and siderophore biosynthesis and acquisition, antibiotic resistance and lipopolysaccharide and fatty acid biosynthesis. The most abundant protein in AES-1R was confirmed as a previously hypothetical protein with sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding proteins and database search revealed this gene is only found in the CF-associated strain PA2192. The link with CF infection may suggest that transmissible strains have acquired an ability to rapidly interact with host mucosal glycoproteins. Our data suggest that AES-1R expresses higher levels of proteins, such as those involved in antibiotic resistance, iron acquisition and virulence that may provide a competitive advantage during early infection in the CF lung. Identification of novel proteins associated with transmissibility and acute infection may aid in deciphering new strategies for intervention to limit P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients.

  9. The outer membrane protein I of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a possible pollutant of dialysate in hemodialysis, induces cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, M; Nagase, S; Nagasawa, T; Koyama, A; Tachibana, S

    1999-01-01

    The finding of outer membrane protein I (OprI) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hemodialyzers used by patients with end-stage renal failure led us to study the possible role of OprI as cytokine inducer. However, there are few reports on the biological activity of OprI, because it is difficult to obtain highly purified OprI. In this study, we attempt to establish a procedure for the efficient purification of OprI, which does not include lipopolysaccharide, from the bacterial culture broth, not hemodialyzers, to demonstrate that OprI is a potent cytokine inducer. From bacterial culture broth (1 liter), P. aeruginosa PAO1, which was confirmed previously by the sequence coding, was separated by centrifugation, high-performance liquid chromatography, and disk electrophoresis. Mouse bone marrow cells were stimulated by purified OprI, and the supernatants of the culture were analyzed by several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The tumor necrosis factor alpha production stimulated by purified OprI was confirmed and degraded within 24 h. Furthermore, interleukin (IL) 1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were also induced by OprI despite the absence of lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that OprI has the potential to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha production in mouse bone marrow cells and that tumor necrosis factor alpha contributes to the induction of inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, while lipopolysaccharide has little effect on these cells. These results suggest the presence of a pathway of inflammatory signal transduction triggered by OprI. In addition, OprI is possibly one of the harmful dialysate pollutants in hemodialysis patients besides the well-known lipopolysaccharide.

  10. Kinetic modeling of the time course of N-butyryl-homoserine lactone concentration during batch cultivations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Quorum sensing affects the regulation of more than 300 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, influencing growth, biofilm formation, and the biosynthesis of several products. The quorum sensing regulation mechanisms are mostly described in a qualitative character. Particularly, in this study, the kinetics of N-butyryl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and rhamnolipid formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 were of interest. In this system, the expression of the rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes rhlAB is directly coupled to the C4-HSL concentration via the rhl system. Batch cultivations in a bioreactor with sunflower oil have been used for these investigations. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3o-C12-HSL) displayed a lipophilic character and accumulated in the hydrophobic phase. Degradation of C4-HSL has been found to occur in the aqueous supernatant of the culture by yet unknown extracellular mechanisms, and production was found to be proportional to biomass concentration rather than by autoinduction mechanisms. Rhamnolipid production rates, as determined experimentally, were shown to correlate linearly with the concentration of autoinducer C4-HSL. These findings were used to derive a simple model, wherein a putative, extracellular protein with C4-HSL degrading activity was assumed (putative C4-HSL acylase). The model is based on data for catalytic efficiency of HSL-acylases extracted from literature (k cat/K m), experimentally determined basal C4-HSL production rates (q C4 - HSL (basal)), and two fitted parameters which describe the formation of the putative acylase and is therefore comparatively simple.

  11. Un imaginaire dévoilé/déphasé. Stratégies narratives et mémoire culturelle dans le roman 54 des Wu Ming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Martelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the narrative strategies through which cultural memory is portrayed in 54, a novel in which Wu Ming (a collective of four Italian fiction writers suggests a literary mapping of the Fifties. This is obtained by a recovery of a shared imaginary tradition which is close to the reader, mixing fictional and historical characters, films, books, different genres of popular literature. Nevertheless, the rewriting of these imaginary traditions involves their displacement, a presentation which is constantly created from an unusual point of view. Thus, shifting the image of what is already known, the text inquires into several modalities of a questioning about cultural memory and its redefinition in relation to contemporary culture. By focusing on these elements, this study proposes an analysis which starts from the construction of the characters, the role of suspense and the adoption of multiple traditions of novel writing.

  12. Retracted: Sirt3 activation attenuated oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells' apoptosis by sustaining autophagy by Luo, X, Yang, Z, Zheng, S, Cao, Y and Wu, Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The above article, published online on 05 May 2014 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbin.10291/full), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor, Sergio Schenkman, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the authors discovered that the results of section 3 in this paper were irreproducible. In addition, Zhiqiang Yang, a co-author, states conflict of interest in this paper. The authors and publisher apologize for any inconvenience. Reference Luo X, Yang Z, Zheng S, Cao Y, Wu Y (2014) Sirt3 activation attenuated oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells' apoptosis by sustaining autophagy. Cell Biol Int, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10291. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Transport of industrial PVP-stabilized silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand coated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm of variable age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzel, Michael R; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental fate and transport of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of paramount importance for the formation and validation of regulatory guidelines regarding these new and increasingly prevalent materials. The present study assessed the transport of an industrial formulation of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-stabilized silver nanoparticle (PVP-nAg) in columns packed with water-saturated quartz sand and the same sand coated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm of variable age (i.e., growth period). Physicochemical characterization studies indicate that the PVP-nAg is stable in suspension and exhibits little change in size or electrophoretic mobility with changing ionic strength (IS) in either NaNO3 or Ca(NO3)2. The collector surface had a relatively homogeneous biofilm coating, as determined by CLSM, and a near uniform distribution of biomass and biofilm thickness following column equilibration. Transport experiments in clean sand revealed changes in the particle deposition behavior only at and above 10 mM IS Ca(NO3)2 and showed no discernible change in PVP-nAg transport behavior in the presence of 1 to 100 mM NaNO3. Transport experiments in P. aeruginosa-coated sand indicated significantly reduced retention of PVP-nAg at low IS compared to clean sand, irrespective of biofilm age. Nanoparticle retention was also generally reduced in the biofilm-coated sand at the higher IS, but to a lesser extent. The decreased retention of PVP-nAg in biofilm-coated sand compared to clean sand is likely due to repulsive electrosteric forces between the PVP coatings and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the biofilm. Additionally, the slope of the rising portion of the PVP-nAg breakthrough curve was noticeably steeper in biofilm conditions than in clean sand. More mature biofilm coating also resulted in earlier breakthrough of PVP-nAg compared to younger biofilm coatings, or to the clean sand, which may be an indication of the effect of repulsive surface

  14. A risk tertiles model for predicting mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: age, plateau pressure, and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) at ARDS onset can predict mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Jesús; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Basaldúa, Santiago; Blanco, Jesús; Aguilar, Gerardo; Toral, Darío; Zavala, Elizabeth; Romera, Miguel A; González-Díaz, Gumersindo; Nogal, Frutos Del; Santos-Bouza, Antonio; Ramos, Luís; Macías, Santiago; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Predicting mortality has become a necessary step for selecting patients for clinical trials and defining outcomes. We examined whether stratification by tertiles of respiratory and ventilatory variables at the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) identifies patients with different risks of death in the intensive care unit. We performed a secondary analysis of data from 220 patients included in 2 multicenter prospective independent trials of ARDS patients mechanically ventilated with a lung-protective strategy. Using demographic, pulmonary, and ventilation data collected at ARDS onset, we derived and validated a simple prediction model based on a population-based stratification of variable values into low, middle, and high tertiles. The derivation cohort included 170 patients (all from one trial) and the validation cohort included 50 patients (all from a second trial). Tertile distribution for age, plateau airway pressure (P(plat)), and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) at ARDS onset identified subgroups with different mortalities, particularly for the highest-risk tertiles: age (> 62 years), P(plat) (> 29 cm H(2)O), and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) (< 112 mm Hg). Risk was defined by the number of coexisting high-risk tertiles: patients with no high-risk tertiles had a mortality of 12%, whereas patients with 3 high-risk tertiles had 90% mortality (P < .001). A prediction model based on tertiles of patient age, P(plat), and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) at the time the patient meets ARDS criteria identifies patients with the lowest and highest risk of intensive care unit death.

  15. Inhibitory effects of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) on acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated virulence factor production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Chan; Zhang, Can; Moon, Sooyoung; Oh, Young-Sook

    2014-09-01

    4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF), a non-halogenated furanone found in a variety of fruits, has been shown to have antimicrobial activity. However, few studies have focused on its inhibitory effect on bacterial quorum sensing (QS) at levels below the non-inhibitory concentration. In this study, 0.1 μM HDMF decreased the production of QS signal molecules and inhibited QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 without causing growth inhibition. In the presence of 0.1 and 1.0 μM HDMF, biofilm production by PAO1 was reduced by 27.8 and 42.6%, respectively, compared to that by untreated control cells. HDMF (1.0 μM) also significantly affected virulence factor expression (regulated by the las, rhl, and pqs system), resulting in a significant reduction in the production of LasA protease (53.8%), rhamnolipid (40.9%), and pyocyanin (51.4%). This HDMF-dependent inhibition of virulence factor expression was overcome by increasing the levels of two QS signal molecules of P. aeruginosa, N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone, suggesting reversible competitive inhibition between HDMF and these molecules. The results of this study indicate that HDMF has great potential as an inhibitor of QS, and that it may be of value as a therapeutic agent and in biofilm control, without increasing selective pressure for resistance development.

  16. Study to establish Ojeok-San (Five Accumulation Powder: wu ji san) administration criteria and a questionnaire to evaluate the holistic effects of Ojeok-San on patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Nam, Dongwoo; Ahn, Byung-Jin; Lee, Seung-Deok; Lee, Jae-Dong; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2013-11-01

    The study objectives were to establish ojeok-san (Five Accumulation Powder: wu ji san) administration criteria and a questionnaire to evaluate the holistic effects of ojeok-san on patients with low back pain (LBP). Texts and literatures, recommended by specialists, were searched to gather ojeok-san-related symptoms. Then, the opinions of Oriental medicine doctors (OMDs) practicing in Seoul were surveyed to ask which symptoms they consider the most in clinical practice. Based on the survey, selection of potential items for the questionnaire was made. The final version was established based on the results of the survey and Delphi process of musculoskeletal diseases specialists. In order to evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed assessment tool (Ojeok-san Low Back Questionnaire: OLQ), patients with chronic LBP were recruited. OLQ and other tools such as visual analogue scale, numeric rating scale, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Modified-Modified Schober test, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were applied to the subjects in a 2-week interval. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent and discrimination validity were assessed. A total of 90 potential items were generated by the research team. One hundred and two (102) OMDs fully replied to the survey. Based on the survey results, 34 items were initially selected as potential items. Through Delphi method of experts, 10 top items, rated more than 5 points on a scale of 10, were finally established. The 10 items were each established as a response scale of 0-10 (0 as no symptom and 10 as the most excessive form of symptom). Based on the above stages, an initial OLQ was established and used in the evaluation phase. The validity and reliability of OLQ assessment results showed high test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation coefficient, and internal consistency. The newly developed Ojeok-san administration criteria and questionnaire may be a promising tool for

  17. Evaluation of SPECT with N-isopropyl (I-123)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) or technetium-99m ( sup 99m Tc)-d,1-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (d,1-HM-PAO) in cerebral concussion patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Ryuichiro; Hayashi, Takashi; Anegawa, Shigetaka (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan)); Harada, Katsuhiko; Matsuo, Hiromasa; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    1991-06-01

    {sup 123}I-IMP and Tc-PAO SPECT were performed in 20 cases of cerebral concussion ranging in age from 4 to 20 years old, including six cases of the juvenile head trauma syndrome (JHTS). The SPECT findings were divided into two main types: six cases in the normal group with no blood flow abnormalities, and 14 cases in abnormal group showing reduced blood flow, mainly in cerebellum and occipital lobe except in one case. In 10 cases of reduced blood flow which could be analyzed, calculation of the blood flow ratio in the temporal and occipital lobes and the cerebellum with the frontal lobe taken as 100 showed values of 93.5% for the temporal lobe, 82.7% for the occipital lobe and 76.8% for the cerebellum. A statistically significant reduction in blood flow occurred in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. In blood examination, abnormally high values of white blood cell counts were observed transiently in 94% of cerebral concussion cases. Abnormalities in brain stem and hypothalamus appeared to cause these abnormal WBC values. From these findings, it was suggested that the blood flow regions of the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries, i.e., the brain stem and hypothalamus are closely connected with the lesions responsible for cerebral concussion. It also appeared that the JHTS occurs in cerebral concussion cases where recovery of the abnormal blood flow in these regions in poor. (author).

  18. Enhanced thermophysical properties via PAO superstructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pournorouz, Zahra; Mostafavi, Amirhossein; Pinto, Aditya; Bokka, Apparao; Jeon, Junha; Shin, Donghyun

    2017-01-01

    .... However, such enhancement in specific heat was only observed for molten salts, yet other engineering fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, and oil have shown a decrease of specific heat with doped nanoparticle...

  19. Reply to the comment by Wu et al. (2016) on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisberg, Laurie; Michels, Raymond; Mahdaoui, Fatima

    2016-08-01

    We reply here to the questions raised by Wu et al. concerning the results published by Mahdaoui et al. (2015). This paper describes experiments in which aqueous solutions containing ReO4- and OsCl62- were brought in contact with natural oils at various ranges of concentration, time and temperature. The main observation is that the transfer of Re and Os to oils is very efficient under all experimental conditions. Wu et al. argue that thermodynamic equilibrium was not achieved in these experiments as apparent partition coefficients are inconsistent. They conclude that the experiments were flawed by possible leaking of reactors and that the conclusions by Mahdaoui et al. (2015) were not justified. In the following reply we explain that Mahdaoui et al. (2015) never claimed that thermodynamic equilibrium was achieved. Any calculations or considerations in this context are therefore meaningless. We recall the objectives of our publication, which were to experimentally test the behavior of ReO4- and OsCl6- (two plausible chemical forms of Re and Os in deep aquifers of petroleum systems) in aqueous solution-oil systems. To our knowledge these are the first experiments of their kind. The parameters that could influence the precision and reproducibility of our results were discussed in detail in Mahdaoui et al. (2015). The essential point is that all 60 of the experiments provide evidence of substantial transfer of Re and Os from water to oil. In contrast to what was mistakenly understood by Wu et al., the paper does not challenge the use of Re-Os to date geological events affecting petroleum. Instead, by providing a mechanism that might allow Os isotopic homogenization on a basin-wide scale, a critical step missing from most current models, it offers a possible explanation of how Re-Os geochronology in oils could potentially work. More generally, our study suggests that transfer of Re and Os from waters to oil may be an important phenomenon that should not be overlooked.

  20. Molecular characterization of lysR-lysXE, gcdR-gcdHG and amaR-amaAB operons for lysine export and catabolism: a comprehensive lysine catabolic network in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuri Indurthi, Sai; Chou, Han-Ting; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-05-01

    Among multiple interconnected pathways for l-Lysine catabolism in pseudomonads, it has been reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 employs the decarboxylase and the transaminase pathways. However, up until now, knowledge of several genes involved in operation and regulation of these pathways was still missing. Transcriptome analyses coupled with promoter activity measurements and growth phenotype analyses led us to identify new members in l-Lys and d-Lys catabolism and regulation, including gcdR-gcdHG for glutarate utilization, dpkA, amaR-amaAB and PA2035 for d-Lys catabolism, lysR-lysXE for putative l-Lys efflux and lysP for putative l-Lys uptake. The gcdHG operon encodes an acyl-CoA transferase (gcdG) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (gcdH) and is under the control of the transcriptional activator GcdR. Growth on l-Lys was enhanced in the mutants of lysX and lysE, supporting the operation of l-Lys efflux. The transcriptional activator LysR is responsible for l-Lys specific induction of lysXE and the PA4181-82 operon of unknown function. The putative operator sites of GcdR and LysR were deduced from serial deletions and comparative genomic sequence analyses, and the formation of nucleoprotein complexes was demonstrated with purified His-tagged GcdR and LysR. The amaAB operon encodes two enzymes to convert pipecolate to 2-aminoadipate. Induction of the amaAB operon by l-Lys, d-Lys and pipecolate requires a functional AmaR, supporting convergence of Lys catabolic pathways to pipecolate. Growth on pipecolate was retarded in the gcdG and gcdH mutants, suggesting the importance of glutarate in pipecolate and 2-aminoadipate utilization. Furthermore, this study indicated links in the control of interconnected networks of lysine and arginine catabolism in P. aeruginosa.

  1. Biosynthesis of the Common Polysaccharide Antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: Characterization and Role of GDP-D-Rhamnose:GlcNAc/GalNAc-Diphosphate-Lipid α1,3-D-Rhamnosyltransferase WbpZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Hao, Youai; Lam, Joseph S; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Szarek, Walter A; Vinnikova, Anna; Veselovsky, Vladimir V; Brockhausen, Inka

    2015-06-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces two major cell surface lipopolysaccharides, characterized by distinct O antigens, called common polysaccharide antigen (CPA) and O-specific antigen (OSA). CPA contains a polymer of D-rhamnose (D-Rha) in α1-2 and α1-3 linkages. Three putative glycosyltransferase genes, wbpX, wbpY, and wbpZ, are part of the CPA biosynthesis cluster. To characterize the enzymatic function of the wbpZ gene product, we chemically synthesized the donor substrate GDP-D-Rha and enzymatically synthesized GDP-D-[(3)H]Rha. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we showed that WbpZ transferred one D-Rha residue from GDP-D-Rha in α1-3 linkage to both GlcNAc- and GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid acceptor substrates. WbpZ is also capable of transferring D-mannose (D-Man) to these acceptors. Therefore, WbpZ has a relaxed specificity with respect to both acceptor and donor substrates. The diphosphate group of the acceptor, however, is required for activity. WbpZ does not require divalent metal ion for activity and exhibits an unusually high pH optimum of 9. WbpZ from PAO1 is therefore a GDP-D-Rha:GlcNAc/GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid α1,3-D-rhamnosyltransferase that has significant activity of GDP-D-Man:GlcNAc/GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid α1,3-D-mannosyltransferase. We used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the Asp residues of the two DXD motifs with Ala. Neither of the mutant constructs of wbpZ (D172A or D254A) could be used to rescue CPA biosynthesis in the ΔwbpZ knockout mutant in a complementation assay. This suggested that D172 and D254 are essential for WbpZ function. This work is the first detailed characterization study of a D-Rha-transferase and a critical step in the development of CPA synthesis inhibitors. This is the first characterization of a D-rhamnosyltransferase and shows that it is essential in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the synthesis of the common polysaccharide antigen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for

  2. The multifaceted proteins MvaT and MvaU, members of the H-NS family, control arginine metabolism, pyocyanin synthesis, and prophage activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congran; Wally, Hassan; Miller, Shearman J; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2009-10-01

    The MvaT and MvaU proteins belonging to the H-NS family were identified as DNA-binding proteins that interact with the regulatory region of the aotJQMOP-argR operon for arginine uptake and regulation. Recombinant MvaT and MvaU proteins were purified, and binding of these purified proteins to the aotJ regulatory region was demonstrated using electromobility shift assays. Polyclonal antibodies against purified MvaT and MvaU were prepared and employed in supershift assays to support these observations. Knockout mutations resulting in a single lesion in mvaT or mvaU, as well as knockout mutations resulting in double lesions, were constructed using biparental conjugation, and the absence of MvaT and MvaU in the resulting mutants was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Using measurements of the beta-galactosidase activities from aotJ::lacZ fusions in the mutants and the parental strain, it was found that MvaT and MvaU serve as repressors in control of aotJ expression. The effects of MvaT and MvaU on pyocyanin synthesis and CupA fimbrial expression in these mutants were also analyzed. Pyocyanin synthesis was induced in the single mutants but was completely abolished in the double mutant, suggesting that there is a complicated regulatory scheme in which MvaT and MvaU are essential elements. In comparison, MvaT had a more profound role than MvaU as a repressor of cupA expression; however, a combination of MvaT depletion and MvaU depletion had a strong synergistic effect on cupA. Moreover, prophage Pf4 integrated into the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was activated in an mvaT mvaU double mutant but not in a single mutant. These results were supported by purification and nucleotide sequencing of replicative-form DNA and by the release of phage particles in plaque assays. In summary, the mvaT mvaU double mutant was viable, and depletion of MvaT and MvaU had serious effects on a variety of physiological functions in P. aeruginosa.

  3. People’s Republic of China Scientific Abstracts No. 179

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-08

    No 2, April 1977 7 CHIH-WU HSUEH-PAO [ACTA BOTANICA SINICA] No 2, June 1977 22 I-CH’UAN HSUEH-PAO [ACTA GENETICA SINICA] No 1...sources with fluorescent dyes and applications in forensic medicine. 10 ATITHOR: WU Min [O702 4t ] ORG: Institute of Oncology...photorespirators. 8650 C50J 4009 29 ACTA GENETICA SINICA AUTHOR: WU An-chiu [0702 1344 0036] ORG: Technique Staff of San-t’ai Commune Fu County

  4. Retraction: "Screening of candidate genes and fine mapping of drought tolerance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 4 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under drought stress" by Nie, Y. Y., L. Zhang, Y. H. Wu, H. J. Liu, W. W. Mao, J. Du, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The above article, published online on 15 October 2015 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.1786/abstract), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Allen Moore, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The authors have requested the retraction of their paper because they mistakenly analyzed the wrong backcross lines. This mistake was only recently discovered and they are now in the process of repeating the experiment using the correct Backcross Introgression Lines. The authors apologize for this mistake. Nie, Y. Y., L. Zhang, Y. H. Wu, H. J. Liu, W. W. Mao, J. Du, et al. 2015. Screening of candidate genes and fine mapping of drought tolerance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 4 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under drought stress. Ecology and Evolution 5(21):5007-5015. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1786. [This retracts the article DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1786.].

  5. Adapting Shakespeare from Western Drama to Chinese Opera | Wu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and forty years after his death, Shakespeare was introduced to China. It was in 1856 that the British missionary William Muirhead mentioned the Bard of Avon in his Chinese translation of British history. In 1878, the first Chinese ambassador in Britain, Guo Song-tao, saw a performance of a Shakespeare play at ...

  6. The Vicissitudes of Walden | Wu | Marang: Journal of Language and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce's semiotics to the reading of Walden Pond, leads to a discovery that the meanings of the pond can never be fixed or static, but will always be vicissitudinous. This insight underscores the point that any analysis of Walden that attempts to adopt a fixed focus is ...

  7. Supply chain management in selected clothing retail businesses / Jianling Wu

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jianling

    2004-01-01

    In today's highly competitive, global market place the pressure on organizations to find new ways to create and deliver value to customers grows ever strong. At the same time, market maturity combined with new sources of global competition has led to over-capacity in many industries leading to an inevitable pressure on price. Managers are increasingly interested in actively managing their supply chains because of environmental changes. The study is aimed to identify the importa...

  8. Selections from the Peiping TA KUNG PAO - Communist China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1961-01-01

    .... The articles contains topics such as the processing of tobacco, tea, cotton and flax, agricultural products, transportation production, textile industries, grain storage, weather forecasts, fishing...

  9. N(HI) and Jet Power/Emission in AGNs Zhongzu Wu1,∗ , Minfeng ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Neutral hydrogen (HI) 21-cm absorption has been detected against very powerful radio jets. In this paper, based on Gupta's sample. (Gupta et al. 2006), we present our preliminary study of the correlations between the HI column density N(HI) and the jet power, N(HI) versus the low frequency luminosity at 408 MHz, ...

  10. Reviving ancient Chinese mathematics mathematics, history and politics in the work of Wu Wen-Tsun

    CERN Document Server

    Hudecek, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Twentieth-century China has been caught between a desire to increase its wealth and power in line with other advanced nations, which, by implication, means copying their institutions, practices and values, whilst simultaneously seeking to preserve China's independence and historically formed identity. Over time, Chinese philosophers, writers, artists and politicians have all sought to reconcile these goals and this book shows how this search for a Chinese way penetrated even the most central, least contested area of modernity: science.Reviving Ancient Chinese Mathematics is a study of the life

  11. Restoration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the Wu Yi San oil spill, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Lee; Lee, Hyo Jin; Jeong, He Jin; Park, Shin Yeong; Yang, Won Ho; Kim, Heung-Yun; Kim, Gi Beum

    2016-10-15

    On January 31, 2014, an oil spill accident occurred in Yeosu, South Korea. A total 800-899kl of oil from the pipeline was spilled into the sea. After the oil spill, the KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) researched PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in various media, but sedimentary PAHs were not analyzed despite their longer persistency than in other media. Therefore, this study examined PAH levels in intertidal sediments around Gwangyang Bay and identified PAH sources using oil fingerprinting. PAH residual levels showed a dramatic decrease during the four months after the accident and then remained at a relatively constant level. Analysis through regression equations indicate that this study area is likely to be restored to the PAH levels prior to the accident. Furthermore, the source analysis and oil fingerprinting analysis showed that PAH contamination in this study was unlikely to have originated from the spilled oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. BN~r" .wU1!9 1\\ I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    email, postal and residential address, telephone numbers, academic qualifications starting from B.Sc 'onwards, teaching experience, courses taught, positions held and a statement indicating reasons for interest in participating in the course. Teachers applying for participation are also requested to indicate that necessary ...

  13. You Wei and Wu Wei: Ambivalence of Chinese outbound mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.

    2016-01-01

    China is assuming an increasingly prominent position in the world economy as the investment begins to flow from China to the world. Compared to the ‘West goes to China’, the institutional environment, the cultural roots and the corresponding managerial behaviours are quite distinct. These distinct

  14. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in Cn–II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. G P BALAKUMAR1 PRACHI MAHAJAN2. Indian Statistical Institute, Chennai 600 113, India; Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology – Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  15. Effect of Zhen-wu decoction on chronic heart failure in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    legislation_en.htm. 16. Seddon M, Looi YH, Shah AM. Oxidative stress and redox signalling in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Heart 2006; 12: 131-138. 17. Azevedo PS, Minicucci MF, Santos PP. Energy metabolism in cardiac remodeling and ...

  16. Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars Xue-Bing Wu1,∗ , FK Liu1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using this technique, the BLR size can be measured using the time lag between variations of continuum and emission line fluxes. The black hole mass can be derived from the BLR size and the characteristic velocity using the virial law. So far, reverberation mapping studies have yielded black hole masses of about 40.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of WU polyomavirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Teng; Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Wo, Ying; Zhuang, Lu; Zhang, Pan-He; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wei, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    To explore the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in China. A laboratory surveillance was performed to recruit pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections. WUPyV was detected using real-time PCR and complete genome was sequenced for randomly selected positive nasopharyngeal aspirate. Altogether 122 (7.5%) of 1617 children found to be infected with WUPyV and 88 (72.1%) were coinfected with other viruses during 2012-2015. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 strains from our study formed two new clusters (Id and IIIc) within the Branch I and Branch III, respectively. WUPyV is persistently circulating in China. Surveillance on WUPyV infection in wider areas and long persistence is warranted.

  18. Effect of healthy Qigong “WuQinXi” exercise on peripheral blood T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... tation in order to enhance their TCC skills and provide an exercise cool-down. All participants were asked to continue their normal living routines without restricting their diets or altering their eating habits. After 3 months (when subjects had fasted for at least 8 h), blood was collected, centrifuged at 3500 rpm ...

  19. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in ℂn – I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P BALAKUMAR

    imal metric η, form a new metric whose unit ball about the origin in each tangent space, is the ellipsoid of minimal volume containing the unit ball with respect to η. By an ellip- soid, we mean the image of a ball in the standard l2-norm, under a linear automorphism of. Cn. As ellipsoids furnish the simplest compact convex sets ...

  20. Effect of Zhen-wu decoction on chronic heart failure in rats | Liu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 10 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Translations of JEN-MIN JIH-PAO Articles on Sociological and Economic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-06-23

    was improved, the. domestic animals were successfully reaered 3anc1 the fruit trees bsgaa to take root. Today the farm raises 2,000 hogs, and...the workers succeeded in inventing a. new method for the growth of saplings, by ’-rafting an apply eaplißg- on a branch of a hai-tang tree; / malus ...and’popularized .•rood strains of crops, fruit trees, vegetables and domestic animals, new tools and new technical achievements. ■ ixeeently we

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Agmatine and Putrescine Catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han Ting; Kwon, Dong-Hyeon; Hegazy, Mohamed; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2008-01-01

    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are major organic polycations essential for a wide spectrum of cellular processes. The cells require mechanisms to maintain homeostasis of intracellular polyamines to prevent otherwise severe adverse effects. We performed a detailed transcriptome profile analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to agmatine and putrescine with an emphasis in polyamine catabolism. Agmatine serves as the precursor compound for putrescine (and hence spermidine and spermine), which was proposed to convert into 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) and succinate before entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle in support of cell growth, as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Two acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases, AphA and AphB, were found to be involved in the conversion of agmatine into putrescine. Enzymatic products of AphA were confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Interestingly, the alanine-pyruvate cycle was shown to be indispensable for polyamine utilization. The newly identified dadRAX locus encoding the regulator alanine transaminase and racemase coupled with SpuC, the major putrescine-pyruvate transaminase, were key components to maintaining alanine homeostasis. Corresponding mutant strains were severely hampered in polyamine utilization. On the other hand, an alternative γ-glutamylation pathway for the conversion of putrescine into GABA is present in some organisms. Subsequently, GabD, GabT, and PA5313 were identified for GABA utilization. The growth defect of the PA5313 gabT double mutant in GABA suggested the importance of these two transaminases. The succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity of GabD and its induction by GABA were also demonstrated in vitro. Polyamine utilization in general was proven to be independent of the PhoPQ two-component system, even though a modest induction of this operon was induced by polyamines. Multiple potent catabolic pathways, as depicted in this study, could serve pivotal roles in the control of intracellular polyamine levels. PMID:18192388

  3. Characterization of a Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Enzyme, PoxB, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zincke, Diansy; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Silver, Lynn L; Mathee, Kalai

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen often associated with severe and life-threatening infections that are highly impervious to treatment. This microbe readily exhibits intrinsic and acquired resistance to varied antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to penicillin-like compounds is commonplace and provided by the chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase. A second, chromosomally encoded β-lactamase, PoxB, has previously been reported in P. aeruginosa. In the present work, the contribution of this class D enzyme was investigated using a series of clean in-frame ampC, poxB, and oprD deletions, as well as complementation by expression under the control of an inducible promoter. While poxB deletions failed to alter β-lactam sensitivities, expression of poxB in ampC-deficient backgrounds decreased susceptibility to both meropenem and doripenem but had no effect on imipenem, penicillin, and cephalosporin MICs. However, when expressed in an ampCpoxB-deficient background, that additionally lacked the outer membrane porin-encoding gene oprD, PoxB significantly increased the imipenem as well as the meropenem and doripenem MICs. Like other class D carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases, PoxB was only poorly inhibited by class A enzyme inhibitors, but a novel non-β-lactam compound, avibactam, was a slightly better inhibitor of PoxB activity. In vitro susceptibility testing with a clinical concentration of avibactam, however, failed to reduce PoxB activity against the carbapenems. In addition, poxB was found to be cotranscribed with an upstream open reading frame, poxA, which itself was shown to encode a 32-kDa protein of yet unknown function. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Extraction of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Friberg, H; Knudsen, K B

    1988-01-01

    using the initial slope of the xenon-133 washout curve after intracarotid bolus injection. In rats, bolus size (20 or 120 microliters), bolus type (saline or 10% albumin), or CBF were changed. First-pass extraction was dependent on CBF (p less than 0.001): With a small bolus of saline and at resting CBF...

  5. Polyamines induce resistance to cationic peptide, aminoglycoside, and quinolone antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong H; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2006-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of human pathogens, is noted for its environmental versatility, enormous metabolic capacity, and resistance to antibiotics. Overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH and increased resistance to polycationic peptide antibiotics (e.g., polymyxin B) mediated by the PhoPQ two-component system on induction of a putative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification operon (PA3552-PA3559) have been reported as part of the adaptive responses to magnesium limitation in P. aeruginosa. Induction of the oprH-phoPQ operon and the LPS modification operon by exogenous spermidine was revealed from GeneChip analysis during studies of polyamine metabolism and was confirmed by the lacZ fusions of affected promoters. From the results of MIC measurements, it was found that addition of spermidine or other polyamines to the growth medium increased the MIC values of multiple antibiotics, including polycationic antibiotics, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and fluorescent dyes. MIC values of these compounds in the transposon insertion mutants of oprH, phoP, phoQ, and pmrB were also determined in the presence and absence of spermidine. The results showed that the spermidine effect on cationic peptide antibiotic and quinolone resistance was diminished in the phoP mutant only. The spermidine effect on antibiotics was not influenced by magnesium concentrations, as demonstrated by MICs and oprH::lacZ fusion studies in the presence of 20 muM or 2 mM magnesium. Furthermore, in spermidine uptake mutants, MICs of cationic peptide antibiotics and fluorescent dyes, but not of aminoglycosides and quinolones, were increased by spermidine. These results suggested the presence of a complicated molecular mechanism for polyamine-mediated resistance to multiple antibiotics in P. aeruginosa.

  6. Proteomic Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Adhering to Solid Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Guilbaud

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic micro-organism responsible for many hospital-acquired infections. It is able to adhere to solid surfaces and develop an immobilized community or so-called biofilm. Many studies have been focusing on the use of specific materials to prevent the formation of these biofilms, but the reactivity of the bacteria in contact to surfaces remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the abiotic surface on the physiology of adherent bacteria. Three different materials, stainless steel (SS, glass (G, and polystyrene (PS that were relevant to industrial or medical environments were characterized at the physicochemical level in terms of their hydrophobicity and roughness. We showed that SS was moderately hydrophilic and rough, potentially containing crevices, G was hydrophilic and smooth while PS was hydrophobic and smooth. We further showed that P. aeruginosa cells were more likely able to adhere to SS and G rather than PS surfaces under our experimental conditions. The physiological response of P. aeruginosa when adhering to each of these materials was then evaluated by global proteomic analysis. The abundance of 70 proteins was shown to differ between the materials suggesting that their abundance was modified as a function of the material to which bacteria adhered. Our data lead to enabling the identification of abundance patterns that appeared to be specific to a given surface. Taken together, our data showed that P. aeruginosa is capable of sensing and responding to a surface probably via specific programmes to adapt its physiological response accordingly.

  7. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effect of a novel BODIPY photosensitizer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandi, Viviana Teresa; Rybtke, Morten; Caruso, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines the use of organic dyes (photosensitizers, PSs) and visible light in order to elicit a photo-oxidative stress which causes bacterial death. GD11, a recently synthesized PS belonging to the boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) class, was demonstrated to be efficient...

  8. PAO Image Gallery = Public Affairs Photos of EROS Projects: 1972 - 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The EROS Image Gallery collection is composed of a wide variety of images ranging from low altitude aircraft to satellite and NASA imagery; oblique photographs and...

  9. 實徵研究/Information Literacy in the Workplace: A Cross-cultural Perspective/Yuhfen Diana Wu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhfen Diana Wu Yuhfen Diana Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study has two main purposes: to investigate how information literacy is perceived in the workplace and to discover how employees obtain information to carry out their jobs in an effective and timely fashion. This project applies a mix of research methods, including site visits, interviews, and a survey. More than 120 participants from forty companies were involved in this study. They were from a wide variety of industries in Taiwan and Silicon Valley, in Northern California, where many companies base offices or operations from around the world. Major obstacles in conducting cross-continent research are cost, time demands, scheduling, and adaptation to local culture. In this global economy, cross-cultural and cross-border research will help educators, such as librarians, understand the complexity of skills expected in the workplace. Much has been written on information literacy, yet very few can relate how information literacy is applied in the workplace. This primary study sheds some light to help academic librarians reposition themselves as researchers-educators integral to student success. 本論文為一跨文化性的研究,具有兩個主要目的:一是探討在職場中對於資訊素養的認知;二是探討員工如何及時有效的獲取和應用資訊來執行自己的任務。本研究採用混合式研究方法,包括實地考察、訪談和問卷調查。研究對象來自北加州矽谷和臺灣40家企業的120多名員工,他們分別從事不同行業。其中許多世界級的跨國企業選擇矽谷或臺灣作為公司總部或世界營運樞紐。進行跨洲研究的主要阻礙包括經費、時間、行程安排與適應當地的文化。跨文化和跨國界的研究將有助於教育工作者,如圖書館員,了解職場上所需技能的複雜性。目前已出版許多關於資訊素養的文獻,僅少涉及職場上資訊素養的應用。由於學術圖書館員在學生的學習過程中扮演不可或缺的角色,此初步研究,可幫助學術圖書館員重新為自己定位。 頁次:84-104

  10. A computational exploration of the McCoy-Tracy-Wu solutions of the third Painlevé equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasondini, Marco; Fornberg, Bengt; Weideman, J. A. C.

    2018-01-01

    The method recently developed by the authors for the computation of the multivalued Painlevé transcendents on their Riemann surfaces (Fasondini et al., 2017) is used to explore families of solutions to the third Painlevé equation that were identified by McCoy et al. (1977) and which contain a pole-free sector. Limiting cases, in which the solutions are singular functions of the parameters, are also investigated and it is shown that a particular set of limiting solutions is expressible in terms of special functions. Solutions that are single-valued, logarithmically (infinitely) branched and algebraically branched, with any number of distinct sheets, are encountered. The algebraically branched solutions have multiple pole-free sectors on their Riemann surfaces that are accounted for by using asymptotic formulae and Bäcklund transformations.

  11. Pigments influence the tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to photodynamically induced oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandi, Viviana T; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Chiodaroli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known to be resistant to different classes of antibiotics and disinfectants. P. aeruginosa also displays a certain degree of tolerance to photodynamic therapy (PDT), an alternative antimicrobial approach exploiting a photo-oxidative stress induced...

  12. Efeitos da adicao de fecula de biri e caseina sobre as caracteristicas fisicas e sensoriais de pao-de-queijo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Josiane C; de Souza, Luciana Bronzi; Leonel, Magali

    2009-01-01

    .... This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of Canna edulis starch and casein in the basic formulation of bread-cheese on the apparent density of mass, specific volume of baked products...

  13. Biological phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater at very short sludge ages mediated by novel PAO clade Comamonadaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jürg

    2015-02-01

    Recent increases in global phosphorus costs, together with the need to remove phosphorus from wastewater to comply with water discharge regulations, make phosphorus recovery from wastewater economically and environmentally attractive. Biological phosphorus (Bio-P) removal process can effectively capture the phosphorus from wastewater and concentrate it in a form that is easily amendable for recovery in contrast to traditional (chemical) phosphorus removal processes. However, Bio-P removal processes have historically been operated at medium to long solids retention times (SRTs, 10-20 days typically), which inherently increases the energy consumption while reducing the recoverable carbon fraction and hence makes it incompatible with the drive towards energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment plants. In this study, a novel high-rate Bio-P removal process has been developed as an energy efficient alternative for phosphorus removal from wastewater through operation at an SRT of less than 4 days. The process was most effective at an SRT of 2-2.5 days, achieving >90% phosphate removal. Further reducing the SRT to 1.7 days resulted in a loss of Bio-P activity. 16S pyrotag sequencing showed the community changed considerably with changes in the SRT, but that Comamonadaceae was consistently abundant when the Bio-P activity was evident. FISH analysis combined with DAPI staining confirmed that bacterial cells of Comamonadaceae arranged in tetrads contained polyphosphate, identifying them as the key polyphosphate accumulating organisms at these low SRT conditions. Overall, this paper demonstrates a novel, high-rate phosphorus removal process that can be effectively integrated with short SRT, energy-efficient carbon removal and recovery processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid inhibition of the accumulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 alginate, pyoverdin, elastase and LasA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laux, D.C.; Corson, J.M.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2002-01-01

    pyoverdin. MPPA also inhibited biofilm formation. The inhibitory effects of MPPA occur independently of rpoS expression and without affecting the accumulation of the autoinducers N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-(L)-homoserine lactone, and may be due, at least in part, to the ability...

  15. Inhibition of a Putative Dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Flavonoids and Substrates of Cyclic Amidohydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available Dihydropyrimidinase is a member of the cyclic amidohydrolase family, which also includes allantoinase, dihydroorotase, hydantoinase, and imidase. These metalloenzymes possess very similar active sites and may use a similar mechanism for catalysis. However, whether the substrates and inhibitors of other cyclic amidohydrolases can inhibit dihydropyrimidinase remains unclear. This study investigated the inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids and substrates of other cyclic amidohydrolases. Allantoin, dihydroorotate, 5-hydantoin acetic acid, acetohydroxamate, orotic acid, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole could slightly inhibit dihydropyrimidinase, and the IC50 values of these compounds were within the millimolar range. The inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids, such as myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, galangin, dihydromyricetin, and myricitrin, was also investigated. Some of these compounds are known as inhibitors of allantoinase and dihydroorotase. Although the inhibitory effects of these flavonoids on dihydropyrimidinase were substrate-dependent, dihydromyricetin significantly inhibited dihydropyrimidinase with IC50 values of 48 and 40 μM for the substrates dihydrouracil and 5-propyl-hydantoin, respectively. The results from the Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that dihydromyricetin was a competitive inhibitor. Results from fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that dihydromyricetin could form a stable complex with dihydropyrimidinase with the K(d value of 22.6 μM. A structural study using PatchDock showed that dihydromyricetin was docked in the active site pocket of dihydropyrimidinase, which was consistent with the findings from kinetic and fluorescence studies. This study was the first to demonstrate that naturally occurring product dihydromyricetin inhibited dihydropyrimidinase, even more than the substrate analogs (>3 orders of magnitude. These flavonols, particularly myricetin, may serve as drug leads and dirty drugs (for multiple targets for designing compounds that target several cyclic amidohydrolases.

  16. Evidence for polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO)-mediated phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms under alternating aerobic/anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient in freshwater ecosystems and excessive inputs can lead to eutrophication. In-stream cycling of P involves complex biological, chemical, and physical processes that are not fully understood. Microbial metabolisms are suspected to control oxygen-dependent up...

  17. Assessment of the arterial input curve for [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO by rapid octanol extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Friberg, H; Lassen, N A

    1988-01-01

    and the corresponding octanol: plasma and octanol:blood partitioning values, an estimate of the transport of the lipophilic compound by various components of blood was made: 20% is carried in hemoglobin, 53% by the plasma proteins and 27% by the water phases of the red blood cell and plasma. Octanol extraction provided...

  18. Selections from Kuang-Ming JIH-PAO (Source Span: 17 May - 26 June 1961), Number 8 Communist China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-08-31

    Flowers and Woman Basketball Player No. 5 are bright and active. They are comedy films that express the new morality in Chinese people’s livelihood. This...ircreasSfkSts^d obtaining "foreign exchange. There -e many specxal £Sicraf!s in China that are fine and beautiful and full of superior racial traditions in

  19. Impacts of land use change scenarios on hydrology and land use patterns in the Wu-Tu watershed in Northern Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin Yu-Pin,; Hong Nien-Ming,; Wu Pei-Jung,; Wu Chen-Fa,; Verburg, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Developing an approach for simulating and assessing land use changes and their effects on land use patterns and hydrological processes at the watershed level is essential in land use and water resource planning and management. This study provided a novel approach that combines a land use change

  20. 圖書館事業與交流/The Relationship of Leadership Development and Learning Organization Dimensions/Connie K. Haley, Yuhfen Diana Wu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie K. Haley, Yuhfen Diana Wu Connie K. Haley, Yuhfen Diana Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the relationship among learning organization dimensions, leadership development, employee development, and their interactions with two demographic variables (gender and ethnicity in the context of libraries. The researchers conducted a multivariate analysis of the variance to assess the differences by leadership training groups (low training hours vs. high training hours, or by gender; and by workplace training groups (low vs. high, or by ethnicity (white vs. all others on a linear combination of the seven dimensions of the learning organization. A conclusive summary is provided along with contributive discussion. Implications and contributions to librarians are discussed in addition to future research recommendations. Also included are conclusive final thoughts accompanied by the limitations of this research. 本研究旨在探討美國圖書館界學習型組織,領導智能與員工發展之間的關系,以及它們與兩項人口變量(性別、種族)的相互作用。作者採用線性組合研究了學習型組織的七個範疇,並且使用多變量變異數分析方法來評估領導智能培訓組的差異(培訓時數多寡對比),在職培訓組的差異(培訓時數多寡對比),及種族的差異(白人或其他族裔對比)。除了討論未來研究方向的建議,作者並提供人力資源發展工作者和圖書館員一些啟示。研究最後提出作者的想法及本研究的侷限性。 頁次:146-165

  1. Ambient air particulate concentrations and metallic elements principal component analysis at Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chung; Huang, Shih-Han; Rau, Jui-Yeh

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter of total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements Fe and Zn. And in WT sampling site, higher correlation coefficients displayed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn, Fe and Mn. Ambient airborne particle principal component analysis of metallic metals was used to identify the possible pollutant sources in this study. At the TH sampling site, 50.81% of the total variance of the data was observed in factor 1. Higher loading of Fe (0.86), Zn (0.79), Pb (0.76), and Mn (0.68) were contributed by traffic emission and the soil source. At the WT sampling site, factor 1 explained 53.74% of the total variance of the data and had high loading for Zn (0.86) and Cu (0.85), which were identified as industrial/traffic emission sources.

  2. Membrane topology mapping of the O-antigen flippase (Wzx), polymerase (Wzy), and ligase (WaaL) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 reveals novel domain architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Salim T; Taylor, Véronique L; Qi, Meng; Lam, Joseph S

    2010-08-24

    Biosynthesis of B-band lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa follows the Wzy-dependent pathway, requiring the integral inner membrane proteins Wzx (O-antigen [O-Ag] flippase), Wzy (O-Ag polymerase), and WaaL (O-Ag ligase). For an important first step in deciphering the mechanisms of LPS assembly, we set out to map the membrane topology of these proteins. Random and targeted 3'wzx, wzy, and waaL truncations were fused to a phoA-lacZalpha dual reporter capable of displaying both alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase activity. The results from truncation fusion expression and the corresponding differential enzyme activity ratios allowed for the assignment of specific regions of the proteins to cytoplasmic, transmembrane (TM), or periplasmic loci. Protein orientation in the inner membrane was confirmed via C-terminal fusion to green fluorescent protein. Our data revealed unique TM domain properties in these proteins, particularly for Wzx, indicating the potential for a charged pore. Novel periplasmic and cytoplasmic loop domains were also uncovered, with the latter in Wzy and WaaL revealing tracts consistent with potential Walker A/B motifs.

  3. Functional characterization of the agtABCD and agtSR operons for 4-aminobutyrate and 5-aminovalerate uptake and regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2014-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on diamines cadaverine, putrescine, and diaminopropane requires the γ-glutamylation pathway to convert these diamines into δ-aminovalerate (AMV), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and β-alanine. From DNA microarrays experiments the agtABCD operon (PA0603-0606) encoding components for an ABC transporter system was found inducible by exogenous AMV, GABA, and β-alanine, but not by diamines. Induction of the agtABCD operon was abolished in the mutants of upstream agtS (PA0600) or agtR (PA0601) genes encoding the membrane-anchored sensor and the response regulator of a two-component regulatory system, respectively. Growth phenotype analysis supports the physiological functions of these agt genes on utilization of AMV and GABA. Through measurements of β-galactosidase activities from an agtA::lacZ fusion, the requirement of a functional AgtS in control of the induction effect by exogenous AMV and GABA was further substantiated. The recombinant hexa-hisidine tagged agtR was constructed and purified to demonstrate its specific interactions with the agtA promoter region by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, this study establishes the functions of agtSR and agtABCD operons in AMV and GABA uptake, and provides a potential linkage between AMV/GABA metabolism and polymicrobial infection through the recently reported function of agtR in sensing of peptidoglycan shed by gram-positive bacteria (Korgaonkar et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:1059-1064, 2013).

  4. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients on Pharmacokinetics of (Acetyl)Salicylic Acid and Omeprazole : the ERY-PAO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrov-Winkelmolen, Lieke; van Buul-Gast, Marie-Christine W; Swank, Dingeman J; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van Schaik, Ron H N; Touw, Daan J

    Data on the absorption of orally administered drugs following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese patients are limited and inconclusive. As it is difficult to predict changes in absorption, studies on frequently used drugs in this population are necessary. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and

  5. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum Bud Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum, shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N‑hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract, swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract, pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract. This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  6. Functional characterization of the dguRABC locus for D-Glu and d-Gln utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiqing; Li, Guoqing; Yang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2014-10-01

    D-Glu, an essential component of peptidoglycans, can be utilized as a carbon and nitrogen source by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DNA microarrays were employed to identify genes involved in D-Glu catabolism. Through gene knockout and growth phenotype analysis, the divergent dguR-dguABC (D-Glu utilization) gene cluster was shown to participate in D-Glu and D-Gln catabolism and regulation. Growth of the dguR and dguA mutants was abolished completely on D-Glu or retarded on D-Gln as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The dguA gene encoded a FAD-dependent D-amino acid dehydrogenase with d-Glu as its preferred substrate, and its promoter was specifically induced by exogenous D-Glu and D-Gln. The function of DguR as a transcriptional activator of the dguABC operon was demonstrated by promoter activity measurements in vivo and by mobility shift assays with purified His-tagged DguR in vitro. Although the DNA-binding activity of DguR did not require D-Glu, the presence of D-Glu, but not D-Gln, in the binding reaction was found to stabilize a preferred nucleoprotein complex. The presence of a putative DguR operator was revealed by in silica analysis of the dguR-dguA intergenic regions among Pseudomonas spp. and binding of DguR to a highly conserved 19 bp sequence motif was further demonstrated. The dguB gene encodes a putative enamine/imine deaminase of the RidA family, but its role in D-Glu catabolism remains to be determined. Whilst a lesion in dguC encoding a periplasmic solute binding protein only affected growth on D-Glu slightly, expression of the previously characterized AatJMQP transporter for acidic l-amino acid uptake was found inducible by D-Glu and essential for D-Glu utilization. In summary, the findings of this study supported DguA as a new member of the FAD-dependent d-amino acid dehydrogenase family, and DguR as a D-Glu sensor and transcriptional activator of the dguA promoter. The Authors.

  7. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  8. Extracellular Signals of a Human Epithelial Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) Cell Line Facilitate the Penetration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Strain through the Mucin Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Naoki; Yokotani, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masami; Kososhi, Mariko; Morita, Mayu; Fukunishi, Chiaki; Nishizawa, Nagisa; Gotoh, Naomasa

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can penetrate the layer of mucus formed by host intestinal epithelial cells, often resulting in sepsis in immunocompromised patients. We have previously demonstrated that P. aeruginosa can penetrate the mucin layer by flagellar motility and the degradation of the mucin layer. However, it remains unclear how P. aeruginosa initially recognizes epithelial cells. Using the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell line, we investigated extracellular signaling that could facilitate the penetration of P. aeruginosa through the mucin layer. The supernatant from Caco-2 cell cultures increased penetration of P. aeruginosa through an artificial mucin layer. The Caco-2 cell supernatant increased bacterial flagella-dependent swarming motility, but it did not influence P. aeruginosa growth or protease activity. Filtering of the Caco-2 cell supernatant indicated that proteins weighing Caco-2 cell supernatant attracted P. aeruginosa cells. Finally, we identified that growth-regulated oncogene-α (GRO-α) secreted by Caco-2 cells was a factor facilitating flagellar filament rotation and swarming motility, although it did not attract the bacteria. We conclude that penetration of the mucin layer by P. aeruginosa is facilitated by small proteins (Caco-2 cells, both by inducing acceleration of flagellar motility and increasing chemotaxis.

  9. Expression and characterization of PhzE from P. aeruginosa PAO1: aminodeoxyisochorismate synthase involved in pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Justin E; Toney, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    PhzE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, pyocyanin, and other phenazines, which are virulence factors for Pseudomonas species. The reaction catalyzed converts chorismate into aminodeoxyisochorismate using ammonia supplied by a glutamine amidotransferase domain. It has structural and sequence homology to other chorismate-utilizing enzymes such as anthranilate synthase, isochorismate synthase, aminodeoxychorismate synthase, and salicylate synthase. Like these enzymes, it is Mg(2+) dependent and catalyzes a similar S(N)2" nucleophilic substitution reaction. PhzE catalyzes the addition of ammonia to C2 of chorismate, as does anthranilate synthase, yet unlike anthranilate synthase it does not catalyze elimination of pyruvate from enzyme-bound aminodeoxyisochorismate. Herein, the cloning of the phzE gene, high level expression of active enzyme in E. coli, purification, and kinetic characterization of the enzyme is presented, including temperature and pH dependence. Steady-state kinetics give K(chorismate)=20±4μM, K(Mg)(2+)=294±22μM, K(L-gln)=11±1mM, and k(cat)=2.2±0.2s(-1) for a random kinetic mechanism. PhzE can use NH(4)(+) as an alternative nucleophile, while Co(2+) and Mn(2+) are alternative divalent metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alterations in airway microbiota in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 after burn and inhalation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Injury to the airways after smoke inhalation is a major mortality risk factor in victims of burn injuries, resulting in a 15-45% increase in patient deaths. Damage to the airways by smoke may induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is partly character...

  11. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  12. Analisis harf واو العاملة /wāwu al-‘āmilah/ dalam Al-Qur`an Juz 30

    OpenAIRE

    Fatahillah, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    و اسباب احتيار هذا الموضوع لأن حرف واو العاملة في جزء ثلاثين من القران لها انواع و عامل و اعراب مختلفة عند اتصل باية . و اما الغرض الأقصى من هذا البحث هي لتعريف نوع و عامل و اعراب حرف واو العاملة في جزء ثلاثين من القران. , فا الكاتب يستعمل نظرية ما تقدمها شيخ "غلايينى" في كتابه "جامع الدروس العربية" فاما هذا البحث هي الدراسية المكتبية التي تستعمل طريقة الإستنتاجية. و الحاصلات من هذا البحث ان عدد حرف واو العاملة في جزء ثلاثين من القران ١٧٨حرفا, منها ١١ حرف واو قسم الذ...

  13. Parental Choice of School, Class Strategies, and Educational Inequality: An Essay Review of "School Choice in China--A Different Tale?" (X. Wu, New York, NY: Routledge, 2014, 168 pp. ISBN 978-0-415-81769-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasingly global nature of marketized school choice policies, this makes it even more crucial to investigate how the multiple scales, forms, and emphases of school choice in different countries are influenced by particular political, economic, and cultural conditions. While much of the critical research on school choice policies has…

  14. Reducing cytoplasmic polyamine oxidase activity in Arabidopsis increases salt and drought tolerance by reducing reactive oxygen species production and increasing defense gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H.M. eSagor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The link between polyamine oxidases (PAOs, which function in polyamine catabolism, and stress responses remains elusive. Here, we address this issue using Arabidopsis pao mutants in which the expression of the five PAO genes is knocked-out or knocked-down. As the five single pao mutants and wild type (WT showed similar response to salt stress, we tried to generate the mutants that have either the cytoplasmic PAO pathway (pao1 pao5 or the peroxisomal PAO pathway (pao2 pao3 pao4 silenced. However, the latter triple mutant was not obtained. Thus, in this study, we used two double mutants, pao1 pao5 and pao2 pao4. Of interest, pao1 pao5 mutant was NaCl- and drought-tolerant, whereas pao2 pao4 showed similar sensitivity to those stresses as WT. To reveal the underlying mechanism of salt tolerance, further analyses were performed. Na uptake of the mutant (pao1 pao5 decreased to 75% of WT. PAO activity of the mutant was reduced to 62% of WT. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide, a reaction product of PAO action, and superoxide anion in the mutant became 81% and 72% of the levels in WT upon salt treatment. The mutant contained 2.8-fold higher thermospermine compared to WT. Moreover, the mutant induced the genes of salt overly sensitive-, abscisic acid (ABA-dependent- and ABA-independent- pathways more strongly than WT upon salt treatment. The results suggest that the Arabidopsis plant silencing cytoplasmic PAOs shows salinity tolerance by reducing ROS production and strongly inducing subsets of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions.

  15. Copper(II) complex with 6-methylpyridine-2-carboxyclic acid: Experimental and computational study on the XRD, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, refractive index, band gap and NLO parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altürk, Sümeyye; Avcı, Davut; Başoğlu, Adil; Tamer, Ömer; Atalay, Yusuf; Dege, Necmi

    2018-02-05

    Crystal structure of the synthesized copper(II) complex with 6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylic acid, [Cu(6-Mepic)2·H2O]·H2O, was determined by XRD, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, the geometry optimization, harmonic vibration frequencies for the Cu(II) complex were carried out by using Density Functional Theory calculations with HSEh1PBE/6-311G(d,p)/LanL2DZ level. Electronic absorption wavelengths were obtained by using TD-DFT/HSEh1PBE/6-311G(d,p)/LanL2DZ level with CPCM model and major contributions were determined via Swizard/Chemissian program. Additionally, the refractive index, linear optical (LO) and non-nonlinear optical (NLO) parameters of the Cu(II) complex were calculated at HSEh1PBE/6-311G(d,p) level. The experimental and computed small energy gap shows the charge transfer in the Cu(II) complex. Finally, the hyperconjugative interactions and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) were studied by performing of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Presentatie handboek 'Categorisering wegen' : verslag van het onderdeel 'duurzaam-veilig' van de PAO-cursus 'De bakens verzetten in het verkeersveiligheidsbeleid', 9 t/m 11 december 1997, Delft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Voor de vormgeving van een duurzaam-veilig wegennet zijn vanuit drie veiligheidsprincipes, twaalf functionele eisen opgesteld. Voor het gemotoriseerde verkeer worden drie wegcategorieën voorgesteld. Elke categorie, met onderscheid naar bebouwing, moet vervolgens voldoen aan enkele operationele

  17. Polyamine oxidase 7 is a terminal catabolism-type enzyme in Oryza sativa and is specifically expressed in anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taibo; Kim, Dong Wook; Niitsu, Masaru; Maeda, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Masao; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2014-06-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO), which requires FAD as a cofactor, functions in polyamine catabolism. Plant PAOs are classified into two groups based on their reaction modes. The terminal catabolism (TC) reaction always produces 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), H2O2, and the respective aldehydes, while the back-conversion (BC) reaction produces spermidine (Spd) from tetraamines, spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm) and/or putrescine from Spd, along with 3-aminopropanal and H2O2. The Oryza sativa genome contains seven PAO-encoded genes termed OsPAO1-OsPAO7. To date, we have characterized four OsPAO genes. The products of these genes, i.e. OsPAO1, OsPAO3, OsPAO4 and OsPAO5, catalyze BC-type reactions. Whereas OsPAO1 remains in the cytoplasm, the other three PAOs localize to peroxisomes. Here, we examined OsPAO7 and its gene product. OsPAO7 shows high identity to maize ZmPAO1, the best characterized plant PAO having TC-type activity. OsPAO7 seems to remain in a peripheral layer of the plant cell with the aid of its predicted signal peptide and transmembrane domain. Recombinant OsPAO7 prefers Spm and Spd as substrates, and it produces DAP from both substrates in a time-dependent manner, indicating that OsPAO7 is the first TC-type enzyme identified in O. sativa. The results clearly show that two types of PAOs co-exist in O. sativa. Furthermore, OsPAO7 is specifically expressed in anthers, with an expressional peak at the bicellular pollen stage. The physiological function of OsPAO7 in anthers is discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. AcEST: BP915174 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available >tr|A8WU00|A8WU00_CAEBR CBR-ABTS-3 protein OS=Caenorhabditis briggsae GN=Cbr-abts-3 PE=4 SV=2 Length = 1016 ...sis protein OS=B... 33 9.1 tr|A8WU00|A8WU00_CAEBR CBR-ABTS-3 protein OS=Caenorhab

  19. ORF Sequence: NC_002516 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rase [Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1] MLKQRIITALVLLPIALGGFFLLEGAFFALFIGAVVSLGAWEWARLAGYEQQFGRVAYAATVAVLMVALYHLPQLAGAVLLLALVWWTLATVLVLTYP...ESVGYWGGRWRRLGMGLLILLPAWQGLVLLKQWPLANGLIIAVMVLVWGADIGAYFSGKAFGKRKLAPRVSPGKSWEGVYGGL

  20. Hip arthroscopy in patients with recurrent pain following Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia: operative findings and clinical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Heyworth, Benton E.; Murray, Kerri; Yen, Yi-Meng; Kocher, Mininder S.; Millis, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    To report the operative findings and outcomes of hip arthroscopy for recurrent pain following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for acetabular dysplasia. A departmental database was used to identify patients who underwent hip arthroscopy following PAO between 2000 and 2009. Demographic data, arthroscopic findings, functional outcome scores and patient satisfaction were analysed. Of 556 PAO patients, 17 hips in 16 patients (3.1%) underwent post-PAO hip arthroscopy. Mean age at PAO was 23.8 years,...

  1. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective: We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods: Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results: Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both; after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05. Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05. The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48

  2. Categorizing renal oncocytic neoplasms on core needle biopsy: a morphologic and immunophenotypic study of 144 cases with clinical follow-up. Alderman MA, Daignault S, Wolf JS Jr, Palapattu GS, Weizer AZ, Hafez KS, Kunju LP, Wu AJ. Hum Pathol.September 2016;55:1-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-06-01

    There is limited literature on renal oncocytic neoplasms diagnosed on core biopsy. All renal oncocytic neoplasm core biopsies from 2006 to 2013 were, retrospectively, reviewed. Morphologic features and an immunohistochemical panel of CK7, c-KIT, and S100A1 were assessed. Concordance with resection diagnosis, statistical analysis including a random forest classification, and follow-up were recorded. The postimmunohistochemical diagnoses of 144 renal oncocytic core biopsies were favor oncocytoma (67%), favor renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (12%), and cannot exclude RCC (21%). Diagnosis was revised following immunohistochemistry in 7% of cases. The most common features for oncocytoma (excluding dense granular cytoplasm) were nested architecture, edematous stroma, binucleation and tubular architecture; the most common features for favor RCC were sheet-like architecture, nuclear pleomorphism, papillary architecture, and prominent cell borders. High nuclear grade, necrosis, extensive papillary architecture, raisinoid nuclei, and frequent mitoses were not seen in oncocytomas. Comparing the pathologist and random forest classification, the overall out-of-bag estimate of classification error dropped from 23% to 13% when favor RCC and cannot exclude RCC was combined into 1 category. Resection was performed in 19% (28 cases) with a 94% concordance (100% of favor RCC biopsies and 90% of cannot exclude RCC biopsies confirmed as RCC; 83% of favor oncocytomas confirmed); ablation in 23%; and surveillance in 46%. Follow-up was available in 92% (median follow-up, 33 months) with no adverse outcomes. Renal oncocytic neoplasms comprise a significant subset (16%) of all core biopsies, and the majority (78%) can be classified as favor oncocytoma or favor RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 實徵研究/你用青春碰撞什麼?大學生閱讀行為的調查分析/黃焜煌;吳榮彬;張簡誌誠 | A Survey of the College Students' Reading Behavior in Taiwan/Kun-Huang Huarng;Jungpin Wu;Chih-Cheng Changchien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    黃焜煌、吳榮彬、張簡誌誠 Kun-Huang Huarng; Jungpin Wu; Chih-Cheng Changchien

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available 鑑於「閱讀」是學習者藉以獲取資訊來源、判讀知識內容、吸收經驗智慧的主要途徑,閱讀動機、能力以及風氣的強弱對於學習成效的影響甚巨,因此,希望透過較大規模的調查,以觀察現階段大學生閱讀行為的整體樣貌與發展趨勢。本文以自編問卷作為調查工具,大學在校學生為調查對象,在2008年2月18日至3月3日期間,選擇北、中、南10所大學院校,以無名冊的系統抽樣方式施測,總計發出1500份問卷,有效問卷1,077份,並利用SPSS統計軟體進行分析。本文以外在環境影響、內在個人因素以及行為產出結果等三個構面為主,同時針對圖書館、校園書店等閱讀補助機構進行分析與觀察,並據以描繪大學生閱讀行為的輪廓與問題,進而提供改善閱讀風氣的策略方案。The main purpose of this research is to explore the reading behavior of college students in Taiwan. The authors employed survey research method, and adopted a self-editing questionnaire, and used the systematic sampling to conduct the whole sampling survey. During February 18, 2008 to March 3, 2008, there were 1500 samples in total were surveyed. The number of the valid samples was 1077. Three factors consisted of the environmental factors, the individual factors, the outcome performance were used for data analysis. SPSS statistical software package was employed. This survey reported the college students’ reading behavior in Taiwan. Based on the research findings, the suggestions for reading improvement were proposed.頁次:37-54

  4. Commentary on "tissue-specific mutagenesis by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine as the basis for urothelial cell carcinogenesis." He Z, Kosinska W, Zhao ZL, Wu XR, Guttenplan JB, Department of Basic Science, New York University Dental College, NY, USA.: Mutat Res 2012;742(1-2):92-5 [Epub 2011 Dec 4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Douglas S

    2014-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the few cancers that have been linked to carcinogens in the environment and tobacco smoke. Of the carcinogens tested in mouse chemical carcinogenesis models, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is one that reproducibly causes high-grade, invasive cancers in the urinary bladder, but not in any other tissues. However, the basis for such a high-level tissue-specificity has not been explored. Using mutagenesis in lacI (Big Blue™) mice, we show here that BBN is a potent mutagen and it causes high-level of mutagenesis specifically in the epithelial cells (urothelial) of the urinary bladder. After a 2-6-week treatment of 0.05% BBN in the drinking water, mutagenesis in urothelial cells of male and female mice was about two orders of magnitude greater than the spontaneous mutation background. In contrast, mutagenesis in smooth muscle cells of the urinary bladder was about five times lower than in urothelial tissue. No appreciable increase in mutagenesis was observed in kidney, ureter, liver or forestomach. In lacI (Big Blue™) rats, BBN mutagenesis was also elevated in urothelial cells, albeit not nearly as profoundly as in mice. This provides a potential explanation as to why rats are less prone than mice to the formation of aggressive form of bladder cancer induced by BBN. Our results suggest that the propensity to BBN-triggered mutagenesis of urothelial cells underlies its heightened susceptibility to this carcinogen and that mutagenesis induced by BBN represents a novel model for initiation of bladder carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 天津圖書館專輯/網上資源自由存取與圖書館服務/吳慰慈;谷秀潔 | Free Access to the Internet Resources and the Library Service Response/ Wei-Ci Wu;Xiu-Jie Gu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳慰慈、谷秀潔

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    網上資源自由存取有廣義和狹義兩種理解,它既是一種理性的權利也是一種理性的活動。儘管技術、民主、利益和全球化四條主線並不能完全概括網上資訊自 由存取所面臨的困難或成因,但是筆者將之作為一種分析問題的視角提出來供大家探討。最後,結台國內外實際情況對我國圖書館服務回應提出一些建議。

    There are two ways to understand the meaning of free access to the Internet resources: broad sense and narrow sense. The free access not only means a sort of rational rights but also a kind of rational activity. Although technology, democracy, benefit and globalization would not cover all reasons which restrict the free access to Internet resources, the authors just try to use them as analysis perspectives. Finally, according to the fact, they suggest some library service response stratagems.

    頁次:67-75

  6. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Lysmer and Drake 1972), the Born approximation (Wu and Aki 1985a), the complex screen approach. (Wu 1994), Kirchoff-Helmhotz integration (Neu- berg and Pointer 1995), the boundary integral equation method (Benites, Aki and Yamogida.

  7. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ..., Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang...

  8. Is Intraarticular Pathology Common in Patients With Hip Dysplasia Undergoing Periacetabular Osteotomy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domb, Benjamin G; Lareau, Justin M; Baydoun, Hasan; Botser, Itamar; Millis, Michael B; Yen, Yi-Meng

    2014-01-01

    ... before PAO.We reviewed all 16 patients (17 hips; mean age at surgery, 21 years; range, 12–33 years) with hip dysplasia who underwent PAOs and concomitant hip arthroscopy at our institutions from October...

  9. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal : Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison

  10. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Gen Hua Wu. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 4 July 2009 pp 543-548. Highly sensitive optical chemosensor for the detection of Cu using a rhodamine B spirolatam · Gen Hua Wu Dong Xiang Wang Da Yu Wu Yuan Gao Zhu Qing Wang.

  11. Biisofraxidin on Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Power DG, Kelsen DP, Shah MA. Advanced gastric cancer show but steady progress. Cancer Treat Rev. 2010; 36: 384-392. 12. Yang L. Incidence and mortality of gastric cancer in. China. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 17-20. 13. Leung WK, Wu MS, Kakugawa Y, Kim JJ, Yeoh KG, Goh. KL, Wu KC, Wu DC, Sollano J, ...

  12. Effects of quorum-sensing on immunoglobulin G responses in a rat model of chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WU, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2004-01-01

    I, lasI), compared with the wild-type PAO1. Four out of 15 rats infected with wild-type PAO1 contained bacteria in the lungs on day 106, whereas no bacteria were found in the mutant PAO1 group. The results indicate that quorum signals contribute to the persistence of the infection and influence...

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasl and rhll quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2001-01-01

    number of lung bacteria, and minor serum IgG and IgG1 responses but increased lung interferon gamma production were detected in the group infected with the PAO1 double mutant when compared with the PAO1-infected group. Delayed immune responses were observed in the PAO1-infected group and they might...

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasI and rhlI quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H; Song, Z; Givskov, Michael

    2001-01-01

    number of lung bacteria, and minor serum IgG and IgG1 responses but increased lung interferon gamma production were detected in the group infected with the PAO1 double mutant when compared with the PAO1-infected group. Delayed immune responses were observed in the PAO1-infected group and they might...

  15. 中央政府公報的起源及性質 The Nature and Origins of Central Government Gazettes of the Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-cgeng Soong

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available 無The origin of Chinese government gazette (Kung Pao is the late Ch'ing dynasty Chen Chi Kuan Pao, as well as the form of its character is caused from Nei Ko Kuan Pao. Today's gazette has the character of giving the law, order and public document. It is indeed the most authoritative one among all government publications.

  16. Evaluation of a 99Tcm bound brain scanning agent for single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hasselbalch, S G; Paulson, O B

    1986-01-01

    D,L HM-PAO-99Tcm (PAO) is a lipophilic tracer complex which is avidly taken up by the brain. We have compared the regional distribution of PAO with regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by Tomomatic 64 after 133Xe inhalation in 41...... patients. With the same SPECT the distribution of PAO was measured after intravenous injection. High resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR) studies were performed yielding a resolution of 6-10 mm (HR) and 15-20 mm (LR). PAO images showed close resemblance to 133Xe CBF tomograms. Only 20 per cent...

  17. Less is more: standard warm-up causes fatigue and less warm-up permits greater cycling power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaras, Elias K; MacIntosh, Brian R

    2011-07-01

    The traditional warm-up (WU) used by athletes to prepare for a sprint track cycling event involves a general WU followed by a series of brief sprints lasting ≥ 50 min in total. A WU of this duration and intensity could cause significant fatigue and impair subsequent performance. The purpose of this research was to compare a traditional WU with an experimental WU and examine the consequences of traditional and experimental WU on the 30-s Wingate test and electrically elicited twitch contractions. The traditional WU began with 20 min of cycling with a gradual intensity increase from 60% to 95% of maximal heart rate; then four sprints were performed at 8-min intervals. The experimental WU was shorter with less high-intensity exercise: intensity increased from 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate over 15 min; then just one sprint was performed. The Wingate test was conducted with a 1-min lead-in at 80% of optimal cadence followed by a Wingate test at optimal cadence. Peak active twitch torque was significantly lower after the traditional than experimental WU (86.5 ± 3.3% vs. 94.6 ± 2.4%, P track cyclist's WU results in significant fatigue, which corresponds with impaired peak power output. A shorter and lower-intensity WU permits a better performance.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the polyamine oxidase gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-25

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are FAD-dependent enzymes associated with polyamine catabolism. In plants, increasing evidences support that PAO genes play essential roles in abiotic and biotic stresses response. In this study, six putative PAO genes (CsPAO1-CsPAO6) were unraveled in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using the released citrus genome sequences. A total of 203 putative cis-regulatory elements involved in hormone and stress response were predicted in 1.5-kb promoter regions at the upstream of CsPAOs. The CsPAOs can be divided into four major groups, with similar organizations with their counterparts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcripts of CsPAOs were detected in leaf, stem, cotyledon, and root, with the highest levels detected in the roots. The CsPAOs displayed various responses to exogenous treatments with polyamines and ABA and were differentially altered by abiotic stresses, including cold, salt, and mannitol. Overexpression of CsPAO3 in tobacco demonstrated that spermidine and spermine were decreased in the transgenic line, while putrescine was significantly enhanced, implying a potential role of this gene in polyamine back conversion. These data provide valuable knowledge for understanding the roles of the PAO genes in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemoselective biohydrogenation of chalcone (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one mediated by baker yeasts immobilized in polymeric supports; Bioidrogenacao quimioseletiva da chalcona (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-il)-1-fenil-2-propen-1-ona mediada por fermentos de pao imobilizado em suportes polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundstock, Flavia L.S.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: mundstock@qmc.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DQ/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast (BY) was immobilized in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin (G) films and in agar (A) and gelatin (G) gels, and used as a biocatalyst in the biohydrogenation reaction of (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxyl-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one (1). The transformation of (1) into the corresponding dehydro chalcone (2) through biohydrogenation reactions was carried out in n-hexane at 25 or 35 deg C, for 4-48 h reaction. The product conversion, under different experimental conditions, was evaluated by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, {sup 1}H NMR.The highest conversion degrees were achieved using BY immobilized in agar gel, (29-47%), depending also on the temperature. Using BY immobilized in PEO, PVA, SC and G films, the conversion into (2) was lower (0-21%). The results show the feasibility of the use of BY immobilized in polymeric materials to reduce a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (author)

  20. Risk factors for the need of hip arthroscopy following periacetabular osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Troelsen, Anders; Thillemann, Theis M

    2015-01-01

    was to identify risk factors predicting the need for a hip arthroscopy (HA) after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Ninety-nine patients (104 hips) scheduled for PAO were evaluated preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up. MRA was performed in all patients prior to PAO. At follow-up, patients were divided into a non-arthroscopy...... and arthroscopy group. The two groups were compared clinical and radiological, and risk factors for HA after PAO were calculated. Patient reported outcome measures (WOMAC, Oxford Hip and SF36) were filled out before PAO and at follow-up. Ninety-five hips (91.3%) were evaluated. Twenty-six hips (27%) required...... an arthroscopy within 2 years of the PAO. Risk factors were preoperative borderline dysplasia, acetabular retroversion and complete labral detachment. Labral tearing, degeneration or hypertrophy did not negatively affect the outcome of PAO. Patients not requiring an arthroscopy had a statistically significant...

  1. The effect of free nitrous acid on key anaerobic processes in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrite/FNA on the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) is investigated. The results clearly show that FNA has a detrimental effect on the acetate uptake rate by both PAOs and GAOs, but this adverse effect is much stronger on PAOs than on GAOs. Also, when FNA was increased, phosphate release to acetate uptake ratio by PAOs increased substantially (250-300% compared to control), which was accompanied by decreases (40-60%) in glycogen degradation and PHA production to VFA uptake. In contrast, these ratios for GAOs remained constant or increased slightly towards the highest FNA concentration applied. These results indicate that the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs is more adversely affected than that of GAOs when FNA is present. This might provide a competitive advantage to GAOs over PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems when nitrite is present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Different Warm-up Volumes on the 100-m Swimming Performance: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Teixeira, Ana M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 3 different warm-up (WU) volumes on 100-m swimming performance. Eleven male swimmers at the national level completed 3 time trials of 100-m freestyle on separate days and after a standard WU, a short WU (SWU), or a long WU (LWU) in a randomized sequence. All of them replicated some usual sets and drills, and the WU totaled 1,200 m, the SWU totaled 600 m, and the LWU totaled 1,800 m. The swimmers were faster after the WU (59.29 seconds; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 57.98-60.61) and after the SWU (59.38 seconds; CI 95%, 57.92-60.84) compared with the LWU (60.18 seconds; CI 95%, 58.53-61.83). The second 50-m lap after the WU was performed with a higher stroke length (effect size [ES] = 0.77), stroke index (ES = 1.26), and propelling efficiency (ES = 0.78) than that after the SWU. Both WU and SWU resulted in higher pretrial values of blood lactate concentrations [La] compared with LWU (ES = 1.58 and 0.74, respectively), and the testosterone:cortisol levels were increased in WU compared with LWU (ES = 0.86). In addition, the trial after WU caused higher [La] (ES ≥ 0.68) and testosterone:cortisol values compared with the LWU (ES = 0.93). These results suggest that an LWU could impair 100-m freestyle performance. The swimmers showed higher efficiency during the race after a 1200-m WU, suggesting a favorable situation. It highlighted the importance of the [La] and hormonal responses to each particular WU, possibly influencing performance and biomechanical responses during a 100-m race.

  3. China Report, Science & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    Contracting System Examined (Wang Shengqiao; KEXUEXUE YU KEXUE JISHU GUANLI, No 1, Jan 87) 3 Wu Wushu Discusses New Scientific, Technical Legislation...research units and must not impose uniformity on them across the board. 12581 CSO: 4008/2074 10 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS WU WUSHU DISCUSSES NEW...and Technical Legislation Research Work Conference, State Science and Technology Commission Secretary Wu Wushu [0702 2976 2885] made a request about

  4. Acta Aerodynamica Sinica,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-03

    Xttack; by Wang Zixing and Wu Genxing .............................. 110’) On the Investigation of Separated Flow in the lase,-by Bian Yinqui and Dong...1984). 109 Effect of Winglet on Spatial Vortex of a Solid in Rotation at /49 High Angle of Attack Wang Zixing and Wu Genxing (Nanjing Aeronautical...attract the separation vortex of the slender body. 120 References [1] Wu Genxing and Wang Zixing, Symposium of China Society of Mechanics on "Flow

  5. Poly(alkylene oxide) Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    Pluronic P85 In vivo, Human colon adenocarcinoma31 P[Asp(DET)]-PAO pCMV-luciferase reporter gene Pluronic P85, PEO MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells30 PEI pSV - β...Anti-GFP AON Jeffamine M-2070 CHO, A278038 DMAEMA-PAO pCMV-β galactosidase gene Pluronic L92, P123 CHO27 PLL-PAO polyplex pSV -β galactosidase gene PEO

  6. Pseudo-atomic orbitals as basis sets for the O(N) DFT code CONQUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, A S; Brazdova, V; Gillan, M J; Bowler, D R [Materials Simulation Laboratory, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Todorovic, M; Miyazaki, T [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Choudhury, R [London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: david.bowler@ucl.ac.uk

    2008-07-23

    Various aspects of the implementation of pseudo-atomic orbitals (PAOs) as basis functions for the linear scaling CONQUEST code are presented. Preliminary results for the assignment of a large set of PAOs to a smaller space of support functions are encouraging, and an important related proof on the necessary symmetry of the support functions is shown. Details of the generation and integration schemes for the PAOs are also given.

  7. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Arazi; Abbas Asadi; Morteza Purabed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours spac...

  8. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-13

    Grain Problems; Tianjin Port Handles More Exports; Inner Mongolia Personnel Reshuffles Noted; Origin of Taiwan Independence Movement Analyzed; Publisher Wu Feng-shan Discusses Political Trends; and others.

  9. Improving Undergraduates' Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fung, Yong Mei; Mei, Hooi Chee

    2015-01-01

    When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003...

  10. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Shan Wu,1 Pao-Yen Lin,1,2 Chih-Yen Chien,3 Fu-Min Fang,4 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Chi-Fa Hung,1 Yu Lee,1 Mian-Yoon Chong11Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, 3Department of Otolaryngology, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL between those with and without depressive disorders (depression.Materials and methods: Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements.Results: A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%. A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001, loss of speech (P<0.001, low libido (P=0.001, dry mouth (P<0.001, and weight loss (P=0.001 were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001 and nutrition supplements (P<0.001. The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001 and trouble with

  11. Amsacrine analog-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle to resolve insolubility for injection delivery: characterization and pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang YP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Ping Fang,1 Chih-Hung Chuang,2 Pao-Chu Wu,1 Yaw-Bin Huang,1 Cherng-Chyi Tzeng,3 Yeh-Long Chen,3 Ya-Ting Liu,1 Yi-Hung Tsai,1 Ming-Jun Tsai4–6 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Biomedical and Environment Biology, College of Life Science, 3School of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 4Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, 5School of Medicine, Medical College, China Medical University, Taichung, 6Department of Neurology, China Medical University An-Nan Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: Amsacrine analog is a novel chemotherapeutic agent that provides potentially broad antitumor activity when compared to traditional amsacrine. However, the major limitation of amsacrine analog is that it is highly lipophilic, making it nonconductive to intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to utilize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN to resolve the delivery problem and to investigate the biodistribution of amsacrine analog-loaded SLN. Physicochemical characterizations of SLN, including particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and stability, were evaluated. In vitro release behavior was also measured by the dialysis method. In vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution behavior of amsacrine analog were investigated and incorporated with a non invasion in vivo imaging system to confirm the localization of SLN. The results showed that amsacrine analog-loaded SLN was 36.7 nm in particle size, 0.37 in polydispersity index, and 34.5±0.047 mV in zeta potential. More than 99% of amsacrine analog was successfully entrapped in the SLN. There were no significant differences in the physicochemical properties after storage at room temperature (25°C for 1 month. Amsacrine analog-loaded SLN maintained good stability. An in vitro release study showed that amsacrine analog-loaded SLN sustained a release pattern and followed the zero equation. An

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_002516 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ruginosa (strain PAO1) ... Length = 109 ... Query: 100 PEAHHGLGLLALRNGDSXXXXXXXXXXXXXXPTES...RFRNDLGVALLKRGDRVGARFEFIT 159 ... PEAHHGLGLLALRNGDS ... PTESRFRNDLGVALLKRGDRVGA...RFEFIT Sbjct: 1 ... PEAHHGLGLLALRNGDSARAVLELREAARLRPTESRFRNDLGVALLKRGDRVGARFEFIT 60 ...

  13. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  14. Tropical-wood-induced bullous erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Chen, K R; Pratchyapruit, W O; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of bullous erythema multiforme caused by an exotic wood, pao ferro (Machaerium scleroxylon). A 25-year-old female, a luthier (guitar maker) who often handles a variety of woods, developed bullous erythema multiforme. A patch test confirmed a positive reaction to one of the exotic woods, pao ferro. A subsequent accidental short contact with pao ferro 5 months following the first incidence induced a similar exudative erythema. Exotic woods such as pao ferro should be added to the list of contact allergens that can induce bullous erythema multiforme. Copyright (R) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Involvement of polyamine oxidase-produced hydrogen peroxide during coleorhiza-limited germination of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xian Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulated enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. The action of polyamine oxidase (PAO produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which promotes dicot seed germination. However, whether and, if so, how PAOs regulate monocot seed germination via H2O2 production is unclear. Herein, we report that the coleorhiza is the main physical barrier to radicle protrusion during germination of rice seed (a monocot seed and that it does so in a manner similar to that of dicot seed micropylar endosperm. We found that H2O2 specifically and steadily accumulated in the coleorhizae and radicles of germinating rice seeds and was accompanied by increased PAO activity as the germination percentage increased. These physiological indexes were strongly decreased in number by guazatine, a PAO inhibitor. We also identified 11 PAO homologs (OsPAO1–11 in the rice genome, which could be classified into four subfamilies (I, IIa, IIb, and III. The OsPAO genes in subfamilies I, IIa, and IIb (OsPAO1–7 encode PAOs, whereas those in subfamily III (OsPAO8–11 encode histone lysine-specific demethylases. In silico–characterized expression profiles of OsPAO1–7 and those determined by qPCR revealed that OsPAO5 is markedly upregulated in imbibed seeds compared with dry seeds and that its transcript accumulated to a higher level in embryos than in the endosperm. Moreover, its transcriptional abundance increased gradually during seed germination in water and was inhibited by 5 mM guazatine. Taken together, these results suggest that PAO-generated H2O2 is involved in coleorhiza-limited rice seed germination and that OsPAO5 expression accounts for most PAO expression and activity during rice seed germination. These findings should facilitate further study of PAOs and provide valuable information for functional validation of these proteins during seed germination of monocot cereals.

  16. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.; Achterberg, van C.; Tan, J.-L.; Chen, X.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van

  17. Developing institutional collaboration between Wageningen university and the Chinese academy of agricultural sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, A.B.; Lin, Z.; Qu, L.; Jacobsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific co-operation between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and Wageningen University (WU) has been underway since 1990, especially in the field of plant sciences. In 2001, CAAS and WU initiated a formal joint PhD training programme to further structure their co-operation.

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Ding Wu. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 41 Issue 2 June 2016 pp 229-236 Article. Silencing of HMGA2 promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells · Zhan Shi Ding Wu Run Tang Xiang Li Renfu Chen Song Xue Chengjing Zhang ...

  19. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. ShaoFei Wu. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 4 June 2017 pp 48. Joint pattern of seasonal hydrological droughts and floods alternation in China's Huai River Basin using the multivariate L-moments · ShaoFei Wu Xiang Zhang DunXian ...

  20. DMPD: Mechanism of age-associated up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15331118 Mechanism of age-associated up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. Wu...e-associated up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. PubmedID 15331118 Title Mechanism of age-associated... up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. Authors Wu D, Meydani SN. Publicatio

  1. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Anhua Wu. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 27 Issue 4 August 2004 pp 333-336 Crystal Growth. Bridgman growth and defects of Nd : Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 laser crystals · Jiaxuan Ding Anhua Wu Jiayue Xu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  2. Women in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Indovino, Shaina

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be a physicist? Lise Meitner, Katharine Blodgett, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Chien-Shiung Wu, Ursula Franklin, Argelia Velez-Rodriguez, Sau Lan Wu, Shirley Ann Jackson, Lisa Randall and opportunities for women in physics today.

  3. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, Jun. 1980 (CHW) ( Chu , W. and Chew, P., "Computer Networks: A Tutorial", IEEE Comput. Soc., New York, 1980) (COD...Pragmatic View of Distributed Processing Systems", IEEE Conput. Soc., Los Alemedas, California, 1980) (WU) Wu, Chuan-lin, & Feng, Tsu -yun. "A software

  4. Nested Nanotherapeutics for Drug Synergy Enhancement in Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    feedback loop activation – Task 2, Aim 2 Reportable Outcomes • Refereed publications - Ruiz-Esparza, G.U.; Wu, S.; Segura-Ibarra, V.; Cara , F.E...32, 2309-23. *Contributed equally - Blanco, E.; Sangai, T.; Wu, S.; Hsiao, A.; Ruiz-Esparza, G.U.; Gonzalez- Delgado, C.A.; Cara , F.E.; Granados

  5. Free vibrations of a multi-span Timoshenko beam carrying multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu (2002) obtained the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the beams carrying any number of two-degrees of freedom spring-mass systems by using finite element method (FEM). Wu & Chen (2001) used the numerical assembly technique for free vibration analysis of a Timoshenko beam carrying multiple spring-mass.

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to full-length and functional fragments of HpaGXooc, a harpin protein from the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola · Xiaojing Wu Tingquan Wu Juying Long Qian Yin Yong Zhang Lei Chen Ruoxue Liu Tongchun Gao Hansong ...

  7. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. M-J Wu. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 5 October 2010 pp 631-647. Development of numerical modelling of analysis program for energy-dissipating behaviour of velocity dependent hydraulic damper · M-H Shih W-P Sung M-J Wu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A relief valve ...

  8. Fundamental Investigations into the Infrared Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    Vallejo , Rongtao Lu, Judy Wu. Development of Textured Magnesium Oxide Templates on Amorphous Polymer SurfacesUsing Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition, Applied...Applied Physics Letters 99, 023111 (2011) 18. A. Elliot, Vallejo , R.T. Lu, and J.Z. Wu, “Development of Textured Magnesium Oxides Templates on

  9. 团队悟性创新理论框架

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Wang; Li, Peter Ping

    2017-01-01

    ,imagination, symbolism, metaphor, analogy, and insight. Based on the literature about knowledge creation and organizational learning, the new framework of "Wu"-based team-level innovation emerges from four cases of "Wu"-based knowledge creation in a Chinese aerospace team, with a special reference to the Western notion...

  10. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 30, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, Hirshfeld surface analyses and magnetism of a 1D Mn(II) complex · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L. Lu, J. Wang, W. P. Wu, X. R. Wu, A. Kumar, 111-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v30i1.10 ...

  11. A Review of Cyanobacterial Odorous and Bioactive Metabolites: Impacts and Management Alternatives in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-06

    cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Phytochemistry 49, 2387–2389. Martin, J.F., McCoy, C.P., Greenleaf, W., Bennett, L., 1987. Analysis of 2...Bioactive natural products frommarine cyanobacteria for drug discovery. Phytochemistry 68, 954–979. Tang, J.W., Wu, Q.Y., Hao, H.W., Chen, Y., Wu, M

  12. Hopes for Confucian Pedagogy in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on Wu Zongjie's article "Interpretation, autonomy and transformation: Chinese pedagogic discourse in a cross-cultural perspective" begins by suggesting the usefulness of Wu's polar opposite depiction of Confucian and modern pedagogy as ideal types for comparative exploration. It goes on to suggest that the term…

  13. Reference: 188 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 188 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15753038i Wu Xuelin ...STIMPY/WOX9 for Arabidopsis meristem growth and maintenance. 5 436-40 15753038 2005 Mar Current biology Dabi Tsegaye|Weigel Detlef|Wu Xuelin

  14. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Alex Wu, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate Number: 40887-424 FMC Devens, Federal Medical Center, P.O... addresses at: Inmate Number: 40887-424, FMC Devens, Federal Medical Center, P.O. Box 879, Ayer, MA 01432 and... person, firm, corporation, or business organization related to Wu by affiliation, ownership, control or...

  15. Expression analysis and characteristics of hypothetical protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W Zhang, H Lan, T Wu, C Jiang, Z Lv, Z Nie, X Wu, Y Zhang. Abstract. We cloned a cDNA from silkworm pupal cDNA library and found that, it encodes LOC778500 protein (a “hypothetical protein” in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database). Thus, we named it BmLOC778500 (Bombyx mori ...

  16. Stability of (Bio)Functionalized Porous Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrassi, A.; Ribbera, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Wennekes, T.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO), a nanostructured support for, among others, culturing microorganisms, was chemically modified in order to attach biomolecules that can selectively interact with target bacteria. We present the first comprehensive study of monolayer-modified PAO using conditions that are

  17. Versatile (Bio)Functionalization of Bromo-Terminated Phosphonate-Modified Porous Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrassi, A.; Roeven, E.; Thijssen, S.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Vos, de W.M.; Wennekes, T.; Zuilhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a nanoporous material used for various (bio)technological applications, and tailoring its surface properties via covalent modification is a way to expand and refine its application. Specific and complex chemical modification of the PAO surface requires a stepwise

  18. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarun D; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a prospective analysis of the neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) across the three categories of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS), compare the prevalence and nature of the symptoms, and look at which symptoms could be helpful to better differentiate these PPA and PAOS categories. A total of 106 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of semantic variant (n = 13), logopenic variant (n = 37), agrammatic variant (n = 15) or PAOS (n = 41) were included in this prospective study. The NPS were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. There were 65 patients with PPA and 41 with PAOS diagnosis. The most distinguishing features between the two groups were anxiety, apathy, aberrant motor behavior and appetite, while among the subtypes of PPA they were disinhibition and appetite changes. PPA and PAOS patients initially exhibited depression, but with increased disease duration, PAOS patients showed apathy (55.5%) while PPA patients showed disinhibition (28.6%) and aberrant motor behavior (14.3%). Mood symptoms like anxiety and appetite changes are more likely to be present at initial stages of PPA, whereas behavioral symptoms like aberrant motor behavior and apathy are likely to occur early in PAOS. The NPS seem to evolve with the progression of the disease in both PPA and PAOS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Where bio meets nano: The many uses for nanoporous aluminium oxide in biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Maat, ter J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a ceramic formed by an anodization process of pure aluminum that enables the controllable assembly of exceptionally dense and regular nanopores in a planar membrane. As a consequence, PAO has a high porosity, nanopores with high aspect ratio, biocompatibility and the

  20. Polyamine Oxidase 5 loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana trigger metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming and promote salt stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarza, X.; Atanasov, K.E.; Marco, F.; Arbona, V.; Carrasco, P.; Kopka, J.; Fotopoulos, V.; Munnik, T.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Tiburcio, A.F.; Alcázar, R.

    The family of polyamine oxidases (PAO) in Arabidopsis (AtPAO1-5) mediates polyamine (PA) back-conversion, which reverses the PA biosynthetic pathway from spermine, and its structural isomer thermospermine (tSpm), into spermidine and then putrescine. Here, we have studied the involvement of PA

  1. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modelling inorganic material in activated sludge systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape 7707, South Africa. Abstract ..... Calculation method. In more detail, for each SB or SSP of a system in an investigation, the OHO and/or PAO active fractions (favOHO , favPAO) for FA, ND or. NDBEPR ...

  3. Biofunctionalized nanoporous aluminum oxide culture chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrassi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a nanostructured material used for various biotechnological applications, including the culturing microorganisms and other types of cells. The ability to chemically modify the PAO surface and tailor its surface properties is a promising way to expand and refine its

  4. What factors predict failure 4 to 12 years after periacetabular osteotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Troelsen, Anders; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2012-01-01

    The goal of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is to delay or prevent osteoarthritic development in dysplastic hips. However, it is unclear whether the surgical goals are achieved and if so in which patients. This information is essential to select appropriate patients for a durable PAO that achieves...

  5. Formation of hydroxyl radicals contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Briales, Alejandra; Brochmann, Rikke Prejh

    2014-01-01

    induction of cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals (OH˙) during antibiotic treatment of planktonically grown cells may contribute to action of the commonly used antibiotic ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa biofilms. For this purpose, WT PAO1, a catalase deficient ΔkatA and a ciprofloxacin resistant mutant of PAO1 (gyr...

  6. Variability in targeted arterial oxygenation levels in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, R. M.; Grønlykke, L.; Haase, N.

    2015-01-01

    of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) and mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from two Scandinavian clinical trials of ICU patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. We calculated average PaO2 and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) from trial inclusion and the following 5 days, and assessed the association between...

  7. Hip arthroscopy in patients with recurrent pain following Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia: operative findings and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Heyworth, Benton E; Murray, Kerri; Yen, Yi-Meng; Kocher, Mininder S; Millis, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    To report the operative findings and outcomes of hip arthroscopy for recurrent pain following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for acetabular dysplasia. A departmental database was used to identify patients who underwent hip arthroscopy following PAO between 2000 and 2009. Demographic data, arthroscopic findings, functional outcome scores and patient satisfaction were analysed. Of 556 PAO patients, 17 hips in 16 patients (3.1%) underwent post-PAO hip arthroscopy. Mean age at PAO was 23.8 years, and mean age at arthroscopy was 27.0 years. Common hip arthroscopy findings included labral tears (13 hips, 81.3%), significant (≥grade 2) chondral changes (12 hips, 75%), cam impingement (7 hips, 43.8%) and pincer impingement (6 hips, 37.5%). At mean follow-up 2.8 years after arthroscopy, additional procedures had been performed in six hips (37.5%), including total hip arthroplasty in one hip. Post-PAO arthroscopy questionnaire revealed 85.7% of patients with improved hip pain, 57.1% improved hip stiffness and 57.1% improved hip function. There was no significant difference in functional outcome measures. Common post-PAO hip arthroscopy findings include labral tears, chondral changes and femoroacetabular impingement. Many patients reported subjective hip improvement from post-PAO arthroscopy, but hip outcome scores were unchanged and one-third of patients had further surgery.

  8. The National Guard: A Future Homeland Security Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-14

    Next, the CD Public Affairs Officer (PAO) practices “real world” military PAO skills everyday, including OPSEC, media (print, news, TV), photojournalism ...emergencies, authorized law enforcement activities, environmental (Hazmat, CBRNE, and WMD), and community assistance/support § Linguist (Translator

  9. Stay-green protein, defective in Mendel's green cotyledon mutant, acts independent and upstream of pheophorbide a oxygenase in the chlorophyll catabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sylvain; Mani, Jan; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Type C stay-green mutants are defined as being defective in the pathway of chlorophyll breakdown, which involves pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), required for loss of green color. By analyzing senescence parameters, such as protein degradation, expression of senescence-associated genes and loss of photosynthetic capacity, we demonstrate that JI2775, the green cotyledon (i) pea line used by Gregor Mendel to establish the law of genetics, is a true type C stay-green mutant. STAY-GREEN (SGR) had earlier been shown to map to the I locus. The defect in JI2775 is due to both reduced expression of SGR and loss of SGR protein function. Regulation of PAO through SGR had been proposed. By determining PAO protein abundance and activity, we show that PAO is unaffected in JI2775. Furthermore we show that pheophorbide a accumulation in the mutant is independent of PAO. When silencing SGR expression in Arabidopsis pao1 mutant, both pheophorbide a accumulation and cell death phenotype, typical features of pao1, are lost. These results confirm that SGR function within the chlorophyll catabolic pathway is independent and upstream of PAO.

  10. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater...... by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial...... fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co- dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing...

  11. A Rare Cause of Back Pain after Pregnancy: Postpartum Osteoporosis and Treatment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy associated osteoporosis (PAO is a rare disease characterized by multiple vertebral compression fractures, limitation of movement and severe back pain. A positive family history of PAO, decreased body mass index, sedentary life style, smoking, malnutrition and low calcium intake are among the risk factors of this disease. PAO should be considered in patients with back pain during pregnancy and postpartum period. As a specified therapy option is lack for PAO, discontinuation of lactation and the supplementation of calcium and vitamin D are the main steps of the treatment in patients who are planning to become pregnant in the future. The current data show that bisphosphonates should be avoided and teriparatide may be a treatment option in patients who are planning to become pregnant. In this case report, it was aimed to highlight the diagnosis and treatment approaches of PAO in a patient with back pain during postpartum period.

  12. Risk factors for the need of hip arthroscopy following periacetabular osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Troelsen, Anders; Thillemann, Theis M.; Gelineck, John; Søballe, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Despite the frequency of labral tears in symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip, no consensus exists regarding the treatment of coexisting dysplasia of the hip and tearing of the acetabular labrum. The purpose of this prospective, MR arthrography (MRA) based 2-year follow-up study was to identify risk factors predicting the need for a hip arthroscopy (HA) after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Ninety-nine patients (104 hips) scheduled for PAO were evaluated preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up. MRA was performed in all patients prior to PAO. At follow-up, patients were divided into a non-arthroscopy and arthroscopy group. The two groups were compared clinical and radiological, and risk factors for HA after PAO were calculated. Patient reported outcome measures (WOMAC, Oxford Hip and SF36) were filled out before PAO and at follow-up. Ninety-five hips (91.3%) were evaluated. Twenty-six hips (27%) required an arthroscopy within 2 years of the PAO. Risk factors were preoperative borderline dysplasia, acetabular retroversion and complete labral detachment. Labral tearing, degeneration or hypertrophy did not negatively affect the outcome of PAO. Patients not requiring an arthroscopy had a statistically significant better outcome measured by patients reported outcome measures. After PAO, 27% of the hips needed intra-articular assessment. Conventional radiographs and MRA analysis can be used to identify predictors for patients requiring HA after PAO. At 2-year follow-up, the clinical outcome improved in all patients. However, those patients who had no need of a HA after their PAO had superior results. PMID:27011862

  13. An Experimental Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Ethanol/Polyalphaolefin Nanoemulsion Flowing Through Circular Minichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Vu; Xu, Jiajun

    2017-03-01

    This work experimentally studied the convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of a novel nanostructured heat transfer fluid: "ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion" flowing through 12 circular minichannels of 1-mm diameter each. Ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion is a thermodynamically stable system formed by dispersing ethanol into a mixture of "polyalphaolefin (PAO)" and surfactants. In this study, ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion is used as the working fluid to study the effect of ethanol nanodroplets on its convective flow and heat transfer characteristics. In addition, the effect of flow regime on its heat transfer is examined. It is found that using ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion fluids can improve convective heat transfer compared to that of pure PAO under both single- and two-phase flow regimes. For single-phase flow, there is no significant difference in Nusselt number between ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion and pure PAO in laminar flow regime. However, when entering transition flow regime, the ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion fluid showed a substantial increase in Nusselt number. Meanwhile, there is an increase in pressure drop and early onset of the laminar-turbulent transitional region for the ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion compared to pure PAO. The heat transfer coefficient of ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion can be further enhanced when the ethanol nanodroplets undergo phase change, which is hypothesized that such an effect is likely related to the enhanced interfacial thermal transport between the nanodroplets and base fluid under elevated temperature and the latent heat of phase changeable nanodroplets inside nanoemulsion. Further studies are needed to fully explore the convective heat transfer properties of nanoemulsion fluids.

  14. Patient Advocacy Organizations, Industry Funding, and Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susannah L; Highland, Janelle; Karafa, Matthew T; Joffe, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Patient advocacy organizations (PAOs) are influential health care stakeholders that provide direct counseling and education for patients, engage in policy advocacy, and shape research agendas. Many PAOs report having financial relationships with for-profit industry, yet little is known about the nature of these relationships. To describe the nature of industry funding and partnerships between PAOs and for-profit companies in the United States. A survey was conducted from September 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, of a nationally representative random sample of 439 PAO leaders, representing 5.6% of 7865 PAOs identified in the United States. Survey questions addressed the nature of their activities, their financial relationships with industry, and the perceived effectiveness of their conflict of interest policies. Amount and sources of revenue as well as organizational experiences with and policies regarding financial conflict of interest. Of the 439 surveys mailed to PAO leaders, 289 (65.8%) were returned with at least 80% of the questions answered. The PAOs varied widely in terms of size, funding, activities, and disease focus. The median total revenue among responding organizations was $299 140 (interquartile range, $70 000-$1 200 000). A total of 165 of 245 PAOs (67.3%) reported receiving industry funding, with 19 of 160 PAOs (11.9%) receiving more than half of their funding from industry. Among the subset of PAOs that received industry funding, the median amount was $50 000 (interquartile range, $15 000-$200 000); the median proportion of industry support derived from the pharmaceutical, device, and/or biotechnology sectors was 45% (interquartile range, 0%-100%). A total of 220 of 269 respondents (81.8%) indicated that conflicts of interest are very or moderately relevant to PAOs, and 94 of 171 (55.0%) believed that their organizations' conflict of interest policies were very good. A total of 22 of 285 PAO leaders (7.7%) perceived pressure to conform

  15. An investigation into the effects of different warm-up modalities on specific motor skills related to soccer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Iain M; Monte-Colombo, Mathew M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different warm-up stretch modalities on specific high-speed motor capabilities important to soccer performance. Twenty-seven male soccer players performed 3 warm-up conditions, active warm-up (WU), WU with static stretching (SPS), and WU with dynamic stretching (ADS). Heart rate, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Balsom agility tests were performed after each intervention. Vertical jump heights were significantly greater (p < 0.01) in the WU and ADS conditions compared to those in the SPS trial. The 20-m sprint and agility times showed that the SPS condition was significantly slower (p < 0.01) than the WU and ADS conditions, with the ADS trial being significantly faster (p < 0.05) than the WU condition. Heart rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for participants post-WU and -ADS trials compared to the SPS condition. These findings suggest that the superior performance of the dynamic stretch and warm-up-only conditions compared to the static stretch condition may be linked to increases in heart rate. The reasons for the dynamic stretch trial superiority compared to the warm-up condition are less clear and as yet to be established. We recommend for optimal performance, specific dynamic stretches be employed as part of a warm-up, rather than the traditional static stretches.

  16. Ancestral genome reconstruction identifies the evolutionary basis for trait acquisition in polyphosphate accumulating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Ben O; Moya, Francisco; Lawson, Christopher E; Garcia, Antonio L; Vogt, Mark; Heffernen, Mitchell; Noguera, Daniel R; McMahon, Katherine D

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of complex traits is hypothesized to occur incrementally. Identifying the transitions that lead to extant complex traits may provide a better understanding of the genetic nature of the observed phenotype. A keystone functional group in wastewater treatment processes are polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), however the evolution of the PAO phenotype has yet to be explicitly investigated and the specific metabolic traits that discriminate non-PAO from PAO are currently unknown. Here we perform the first comprehensive investigation on the evolution of the PAO phenotype using the model uncultured organism Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) through ancestral genome reconstruction, identification of horizontal gene transfer, and a kinetic/stoichiometric characterization of Accumulibacter Clade IIA. The analysis of Accumulibacter's last common ancestor identified 135 laterally derived genes, including genes involved in glycogen, polyhydroxyalkanoate, pyruvate and NADH/NADPH metabolisms, as well as inorganic ion transport and regulatory mechanisms. In contrast, pathways such as the TCA cycle and polyphosphate metabolism displayed minimal horizontal gene transfer. We show that the transition from non-PAO to PAO coincided with horizontal gene transfer within Accumulibacter's core metabolism; likely alleviating key kinetic and stoichiometric bottlenecks, such as anaerobically linking glycogen degradation to polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis. These results demonstrate the utility of investigating the derived genome of a lineage to identify key transitions leading to an extant complex phenotype.

  17. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite.

  18. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D; Rocco, Mark A; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-12-22

    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary "hitchhiker" mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria.

  19. Short-term temperature effects on the anaerobic metabolism of glycogen accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos M; Song, Young-Il; Hooijmans, Christine M; Brdjanovic, Damir; Moussa, Moustafa S; Gijzen, Huub J; van Loosdrecht, Mark M C

    2007-06-15

    Proliferation of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) has been identified as a potential cause of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) failure in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). GAO compete for substrate with polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) that are the microorganisms responsible for the phosphorus removal process. In the present article, the effects of temperature on the anaerobic metabolism of GAO were studied in a broad temperature range (from 10 to 40 degrees C). Additionally, maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO, between 20 and 40 degrees C, was also evaluated. It was found that GAO had clear advantages over PAO for substrate uptake at temperatures higher than 20 degrees C. Below 20 degrees C, maximum acetate uptake rates of both microorganisms were similar. However, lower maintenance requirements at temperature lower than 30 degrees C give PAO metabolic advantages in the PAO-GAO competition. Consequently, PAO could be considered to be psychrophilic microorganisms while GAO appear to be mesophilic. These findings contribute to understand the observed stability of the EBPR process in WWTP operated under cold weather conditions. They may also explain the proliferation of GAO in WWTP and thus, EBPR instability, observed in hot climate regions or when treating warm industrial effluents. It is suggested to take into account the observed temperature dependencies of PAO and GAO in order to extend the applicability of current activated sludge models to a wider temperature range.

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Acetabular Dysplasia: The Academic Network of Conservational Hip Outcomes Research (ANCHOR) Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Duncan, Stephen T; Baca, Geneva R; Beaulé, Paul E; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo; Peters, Christopher L; Podeszwa, David A; Schoenecker, Perry L; Sierra, Rafael J; Sink, Ernest L; Sucato, Daniel J; Trousdale, Robert T; Zaltz, Ira; Clohisy, John C

    2017-02-01

    Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an established treatment for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia, which is a well-recognized cause of hip pain, functional limitations, and secondary osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographics of patients undergoing PAO, the baseline patient-reported outcome measures for this population, and the types of adjunctive procedures performed at the time of PAO surgery. Demographics, disease characteristics, and patient-reported functional measures were prospectively collected from all patients who underwent PAO performed by 12 surgeons from 2008 to 2013. We enrolled 950 consecutive patients (982 hips) in the study; 83% were female and 17% were male, with an average age of 25.3 years and an average body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 kg/m. Most patients were Caucasian (87%), and 15% had undergone previous hip surgery. Before PAO was performed, most patients had had symptoms for 1 to 3 years. Baseline modified Harris Hip and University of California Los Angeles activity scores (61.8 and 6.6, respectively) indicated that patients had considerable functional limitations. Patients undergoing PAO for symptomatic dysplasia were predominantly young, female, and Caucasian with a normal BMI. Many patients had undergone prior hip surgery, and most had had symptoms for several years before treatment. Baseline patient-reported functional scores demonstrated marked functional limitations. Adjunctive procedures for intra-articular pathology, especially femoral osteochondroplasty and hip arthroscopy, are commonly performed at the time of PAO.

  1. Investigating the Control of Chlorophyll Degradation by Genomic Correlation Mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick P Ghandchi

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll degradation is an intricate process that is critical in a variety of plant tissues at different times during the plant life cycle. Many of the photoactive chlorophyll degradation intermediates are exceptionally cytotoxic necessitating that the pathway be carefully coordinated and regulated. The primary regulatory step in the chlorophyll degradation pathway involves the enzyme pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO, which oxidizes the chlorophyll intermediate pheophorbide a, that is eventually converted to non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites. There is evidence that PAO is differentially regulated across different environmental and developmental conditions with both transcriptional and post-transcriptional components, but the involved regulatory elements are uncertain or unknown. We hypothesized that transcription factors modulate PAO expression across different environmental conditions, such as cold and drought, as well as during developmental transitions to leaf senescence and maturation of green seeds. To test these hypotheses, several sets of Arabidopsis genomic and bioinformatic experiments were investigated and re-analyzed using computational approaches. PAO expression was compared across varied environmental conditions in the three separate datasets using regression modeling and correlation mining to identify gene elements co-expressed with PAO. Their functions were investigated as candidate upstream transcription factors or other regulatory elements that may regulate PAO expression. PAO transcript expression was found to be significantly up-regulated in warm conditions, during leaf senescence, and in drought conditions, and in all three conditions significantly positively correlated with expression of transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana activating factor 1 (ATAF1, suggesting that ATAF1 is triggered in the plant response to these processes or abiotic stresses and in result up-regulates PAO expression. The proposed regulatory

  2. High cumulative oxygen levels are associated with improved survival of children treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zellem, Lennart; de Jonge, Rogier; van Rosmalen, Joost; Reiss, Irwin; Tibboel, Dick; Buysse, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and in-hospital (IH) mortality in children after cardiac arrest (CA) using the conventional cutoff analysis, which was compared with the cumulative analysis, a new method in PaO2 analysis. Additionally, we analyzed this relationship for children with and without mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH; 32-34 °C). This observational cohort study included all children (aged >28 days) with CA and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) between 2002 and 2011. The first research question was the association between PaO2 and IH mortality after ROSC. This was analyzed for three hyperoxia cutoff values, and for three time intervals using the cumulative PaO2 determined with the area under the curve (AUC). For the second research question, these analyses were repeated for children with and without MTH. Of the 200 patients included (median age 2.6 years), 84 (42%) survived to hospital discharge. Fifty-eight children (29%) were treated with MTH. With the cutoff analysis and the AUC analysis we found no relationship between PaO2 and IH mortality. However, analysis of the MTH-group showed a lower IH mortality in children with high cumulative PaO2 levels on two of the three time intervals. Multivariable analysis showed significantly higher odds of survival (0.643 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.424-0.976), 0.554 (95% CI 0.335-0.916)). Cumulative PaO2 analysis showed that the IH mortality is significantly lower in MTH-treated children with high PaO2 levels. The effects of cumulative PaO2 on the outcome need to be studied further, and this will help us to achieve individualized goal-directed therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of in-band interference on a wake-up radio system in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J. M.; Murad, N. M.; Lorion, R.

    2017-05-01

    The energy efficiency of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is considerably improved with Wake-up Radio (WuR) systems. However, their resilience to interference is often neglected in the literature. This might be an issue due to the proliferation of wireless devices and the growing field of internet of things. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of in-band interference from wireless devices on a WuR system. The approach proves that WuR systems are still performing well when coexisting with external wireless networks, even if the energy-efficiency is slightly reduced.

  4. An Analysis of Mine Water Inrush Based on Fractal and Non-Darcy Seepage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinsui; Cai, Jianchao; Zhao, Dongyun; Chen, Xuexi

    2014-09-01

    Mining rock mechanics is a new cross subject of mechanics and mining engineering, the seepage theory is one of the important research directions. This paper combines Wu-fractal/Ergun high-speed flow theory and dynamic system instability, reveals the influence factors of mine water inrush. Research shows that: Mine water inrush related to rock porosity, particle size, shape, fractal dimension, ratio of pore and throat, and other factors. Compared the critical Reynolds number which are got from Wu-fractal model and Ergun equation, Wu-fractal model can reveal more influence factors of mine water inrush than Ergun equation.

  5. The Effect of a Winglet on the Spatial Vortex of a Slender Body at High Angle of Attack,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-07

    OF A SLENDER BODY AT HIGH 0)ANGLE OF ATTACK !,D) toF by ~Wang Zixing, Wu Genxing Approved for public release;L"’J Distribution unlimited. q Ui...ATTACK By: Wang Zixing, Wu Genxing English pages: 12 Source: Konggi Donglixue Xuebao, Vol. 3, Nr. 1, 1985, pp. 49-53 Country of origin: China Translated by...U ~ ~ ’~ IL--c-k. au -ILI . W THE EFFECT OF A WINGLET ON THE SPATIAL VORTEX OF A SLENDER BODY AT HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK Wang Zixing Wu Genxing

  6. Non-invasive measurement of the mean alveolar O(2) tension from the oxygen uptake versus tidal volume curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanoglou, J; Latsi, P; Chroneou, A; Koulouris, N G

    2007-10-01

    The classical equations for measuring the mean and the ideal alveolar O(2) tension are based on assumptions, which are shown to be invalid. So we thought to develop a new, non-invasive method for measuring the mean alveolar P,O(2) within the volume domain (PA,O(2(Bohr))). This method is based on the oxygen uptake vs. tidal volume curve (VO(2) vs. VT) obtained during tidal breathing of room air and/or air enriched with oxygen. PA,O(2(Bohr)) and the ideal alveolar PO(2) (PA,O(2(ideal))) were simultaneously measured in 10 healthy subjects and 34 patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) breathing tidally room air at rest. Additionally, 10 subjects (three healthy subjects and seven COPD patients) were studied while breathing initially room air and subsequently air enriched with oxygen. According to the results, PA,O(2(Bohr)) considerably differed from PA,O(2(ideal)) (P = 0.004). The cause of the difference, at the individual's R, is: (1) the difference between the arterial and Bohr's alveolar CO(2) tension, mainly in COPD patients, and (2) the inequality between Bohr's alveolar part of the tidal volume for CO(2) and O(2). Furthermore, end-tidal gas tension (PET,CO(2) and PET,O(2)) differed from Pa,CO(2) and PA,O(2(Bohr)) respectively. The deviation of PA,O(2(Bohr)) from PA,O(2(ideal)) has a definite impact on Bohr's dead space ratio for O(2) and CO(2), and on the alveolar-arterial O(2) difference. The difference (PA,O(2(Bohr)) - PA,O(2(ideal))) is not related to the pathology of the disease. So, gas exchange within the lungs should be assessed at the subject's R from PA,O(2(Bohr)) and PA,CO(2(Bohr)) but not from PA,O(2(ideal)) nor Pa,CO(2).

  7. A cobalt (II) complex with 6-methylpicolinate: Synthesis, characterization, second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties, and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altürk, Sümeyye; Avcı, Davut; Tamer, Ömer; Atalay, Yusuf; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    A cobalt(II) complex of 6-methylpicolinic acid, [Co(6-Mepic)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, was prepared and fully determined by single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis as well as FT-IR, FT-Raman. UV-vis spectra were recorded within different solvents, to illustrate electronic transitions and molecular charge transfer within complex 1. The coordination sphere of complex 1 is a distorted octahedron according to single crystal X-ray results. Moreover, DFT (density functional theory) calculations with HSEH1PBE/6-311 G(d,p) level were carried out to back up the experimental results, and form base for future work in advanced level. Hyperconjugative interactions, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), molecular stability and bond strength were researched by the using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. X-ray and NBO analysis results demonsrate that O-H···O hydrogen bonds between the water molecules and carboxylate oxygen atoms form a 2D supramolecular network, and also adjacent 2D networks connected by C-H···π and π···π interactions to form a 3D supramolecular network. Additionally, the second- and third-order nonlinear optical parameters of complex 1 were computed at DFT/HSEH1PBE/6-311 G(d,p) level. The refractive index (n) was calculated by using the Lorentz-Lorenz equation in order to investigate polarization behavior of complex 1 in different solvent polarities. The first-order static hyperpolarizability (β) value is found to be lower than pNA value because of the inversion symmetry around Co (II). But the second-order static hyperpolarizability (γ) value is 2.45 times greater than pNA value (15×10-30 esu). According to these results, Co(II) complex can be considered as a candidate to NLO material. Lastly molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbital energies and related molecular parameters for complex 1 were evaluated.

  8. 76 FR 27175 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ..., JR WINSTON WRIGHT MARTIN CLAUDE WU HO-MOU YANG HAN HSIANG YANG XUEMING YAU KEI YEE GLENN SEKKEMN... CHONG HWA YOUNG DESMOND W. YOUNG GILBERTO YOUNGER MATTHEW F YU XIAO YANG YUAN MARK FU-CHUN ZALATIMO ZADE...

  9. Periodic Solution of the Hematopoiesis Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wu and Liu (2012 presented some results for the existence and uniqueness of the periodic solutions for the hematopoiesis model. This paper gives a simple approach to find an approximate period of the model.

  10. 76 FR 55909 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Type: New NVO & OFF License. M & D Global Logistics, Inc. (NVO), 2211 S. Hacienda Blvd., Suite 200D, Hacienda Heights, CA 91745, Officers: Jeffrey Wu, Treasurer/CFO/ Director (Qualifying Individual), Bofei...

  11. 1 - 6_Abubakar and Muhammad_1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Navarro, 2000; Wu et al., 2005). Low phosphorus availability of many tropical and subtropical soils in combination with insufficient P fertilizer applicationhas been identified as one of the major factors responsible for low yields. (Kretzchmar et.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Potocki-Shaffer syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Page Hall CR, Wu Y, Shaffer LG, Hecht JT. Familial case of Potocki-Shaffer syndrome associated ... Sue WC, Sheffield LJ, Irons M, Gomez EG, Hecht JT, Potocki L, Shaffer LG. Construction of a ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    236 Article. Silencing of HMGA2 promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells · Zhan Shi Ding Wu Run Tang Xiang Li Renfu Chen Song Xue Chengjing Zhang Xiaoqing Sun · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  14. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Co- precipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    filtered through a clean muslin cloth to obtain a viscous filtrate (gum). The filtrate ..... Form Design, Churchill Livingston, Spain; 2007. Chap. 23; pp 383-405. 2. ... Wu S. Interfacial energy, structure and adhesion between polymers. In: Paul Dr.

  15. Requirement for capsule in colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magee, A D; Yother, J

    2001-01-01

    .... Using isolates containing defined mutations in the S. pneumoniae capsule locus, we found that expression of the capsular polysaccharide is essential for colonization by the type 2 strain D39 and the type 3 strains A66 and WU2...

  16. Intellectual Property Experimentalism By Way Of Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Wu

    2013-01-01

    Competition law and Intellectual Property have divergent intellectual cultures–the former more pragmatic and experimentalist; the latter influenced by natural law and vested rights. Tim Wu (US Federal Trade Commission)

  17. Autism and green space_clean

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Autism and green space metrics in California elementary school districts. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, J., and L. Jackson. Inverse...

  18. WHAT IS THE ANCIENT KOREAN RELIGION?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RICHARD D. MCBRIDE, II

    2006-01-01

    ...,” however, never use the term “shaman” (Kor. mu, Ch. wu) to describe the ritual and religious specialists, and yet they depict many kinds of beliefs and practices that we would call “religious...

  19. Identification of bacterial strains in viili by molecular taxonomy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of bacterial strains in viili by molecular taxonomy and their synergistic effects on milk curd and exopolysaccharides production. T Chen, Q Tan, M Wang, S Xiong, S Jiang, Q Wu, S Li, C Luo, H Wei ...

  20. Frequency-domain criterion for the chaos synchronization of time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    domain criterion for ... Wu1 2 Yun Chen1. College of Electronic Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, People's Republic of China; Guangzhou Naval Marine Academy, Guangzhou 510430, People's Republic of China ...

  1. Women and the Elements: The Role of Women in Element and Fission Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the scientific work of several women, including Marie Curie, Lise Meitner, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, Marguerite Perey, Chien-Shiung Wu, and Maria Mayer. Discusses the connections between their discoveries. Thirty-six references are listed. (YP)

  2. Editorial-Sharing Clinical Trial Data: A Proposal from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Darren B Taichman, Joyce Backus, Christopher Baethge, Howard Bauchner, Peter W de Leeuw, Jeffrey M Drazen, John Fletcher, Frank A Frizelle, Trish Groves, Abraham Haileamlak, Astrid James, Christine Laine, Larry Peiperl, Anja Pinborg, Peush Sahni, Sinan Wu ...

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 18 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical investigation of flow characteristics and irradiance history in a novel photobioreactor · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L.B Wu, Y.Z Song ...

  4. Pop / Andri Riid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riid, Andri, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Nice Try "Nice Try", Wu Tang Clan "8 Diagrams", Niki "Äike päike", Röövel Ööbik "Popsubterranea", Tijuana Mon Amour Broadcasting Inc. "Cold Jubilee (of the Snowqueen), "Holy Fuck "LP"

  5. Media and Security Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Media And Security Team led by Prof. Min Wu was established in Fall 2001 at University of Maryland, College Park. A number of research and education activities...

  6. Dancing with the Stars: An Asterid NLR Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathjen, John P; Dodds, Peter N

    2017-10-10

    Wu and co-workers show how a network of sensor and helper NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRs) act together to confer robust resistance to diverse plant pathogens. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NEW DATA ON SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEI FROM SOUTH-WESTERN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fomichev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available New records of 12 species found in Mongolia for the first time are provided. One of them – Dipoena yutian Hu et Wu, 1989 – previously known only from Xinjiang Province of China is illustrated.

  8. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison you. Most lead is present as an inorganic compound and does not move well through the ... D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 474. Wu, A. (© ...

  9. Supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids may improve hyperactivity, lethargy, and stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Shian Cheng,1 Ping-Tao Tseng,1,2 Yen-Wen Chen,3 Brendon Stubbs,4–6 Wei-Chieh Yang,7 Tien-Yu Chen,8,9 Ching-Kuan Wu,1 Pao-Yen Lin10,11 1Department of Psychiatry, Tsyr-Huey Mental Hospital, Kaohsiung Jen-Ai’s Home, 2WinShine Clinics in Specialty of Psychiatry, 3Prospect Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology & Neurology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, 5Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, 6Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK; 7Department of Pediatrics, DA-AN Women and Children Hospital, Tainan, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 9School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 10Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 11Institute for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China Aim: Deficiency of omega 3 fatty acids may be linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Evidence about the potential therapeutic effects of supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids is lacking in ASD patients.Methods: We searched major electronic databases from inception to June 21, 2017, for randomized clinical trials, which compared treatment outcomes between supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids and placebo in patients with ASD. An exploratory random-effects meta-analysis of the included studies was undertaken.Results and conclusion: Six trials were included (n=194. Meta-analysis showed that supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids improved hyperactivity (difference in means =-2.692, 95% confidence interval [CI] =-5.364 to -0.020, P=0.048, studies =4, n=109, lethargy (difference in means =-1.969, 95% CI =-3.566 to -0.372, P=0.016, studies =4, n=109, and

  10. Effect of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... organism remains unknown. .... The fully mature biofilm was clearly ... Left test tube, culture grown without curcumin demonstrating mature biofilm at ..... aeruginosa PAO1 in whole plant and animal pathogenicity models. J.

  11. Where bio meets nano: the many uses for nanoporous aluminum oxide in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Colin J; ter Maat, Jurjen; de Vos, Willem M

    2012-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a ceramic formed by an anodization process of pure aluminum that enables the controllable assembly of exceptionally dense and regular nanopores in a planar membrane. As a consequence, PAO has a high porosity, nanopores with high aspect ratio, biocompatibility and the potential for high sensitivity imaging and diverse surface modifications. These properties have made this unusual material attractive to a disparate set of applications. This review examines how the structure and properties of PAO connect with its present and potential uses within research and biotechnology. The role of PAO is covered in areas including microbiology, mammalian cell culture, sensitive detection methods, microarrays and other molecular assays, and in creating new nanostructures with further uses within biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  13. Dynamics of intracellular polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes under different organic carbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhen; Ren, Li; Tang, Bo; Wu, Guangxue; Guan, Yuntao

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  14. Effect of nitrite, limited reactive settler and plant design configuration on the predicted performance of simultaneous C/N/P removal WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Javier; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Guisasola, Albert

    2013-01-01

    of these new model extensions to correctly describe the nitrification behaviour and the carbon source competition between ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHO) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) under certain operation conditions. The economic and environmental aspects when meeting the P discharge...

  15. Characterization of the lubricating action of oils under boundary lubrication conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gee, A.W.J.; Lossie, C.M.; Stoop, W. [Univ. of Technology Delft and Univ. of Twente, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[TNO Institute of Production and Logistics Research, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1995-07-01

    Polyalphaolefin (PAO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-based lubricants as well as mineral oils were tested to characterize their wear reducing performance under boundary lubrication conditions, using the ISO 7148 test method, which was originally developed for the characterization of bearing materials. This test method has practical value with respect to developing lubricants for use in sliding contacts, such as occur in worm gear drives. It is found that the wear reducing action of PAO-based lubricants is significantly better than that of mineral oils. PPG fluids perform equally well or slightly better than PAOs. Provided that viscosities are in line and additives are compatible, contamination of PAOs with mineral oils has no or only marginal effect on wear reduction.

  16. Distinct roles of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Hu, Yifan; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    differentiation remain largely unknown. The distinct roles of different EPS have been addressed in the present report. Both Pel and Psl polysaccharides are required for type IV pilus‐independent microcolony formation in the initial stages of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Both Pel and Psl...... polysaccharides are also essential for subpopulation interactions and macrocolony formation in the later stages of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation. Pel and Psl polysaccharides have different impacts on Pseudomonas quinolone signal‐mediated extracellular DNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Psl...... polysaccharide is more important than Pel polysaccharide in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Our study thus suggests that different EPS materials play distinct roles during bacterial biofilm formation....

  17. Metabolic influence of lead on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production and phosphate uptake in activated sludge fed with glucose or acetic acid as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Tsai, Yung-Pin; Cho, Bo-Chuan; Chou, Yi-Hsiu

    2011-09-01

    Sludge in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) system was used to investigate the effect of lead toxicity on metabolisms of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) communities fed with acetic acid or glucose as their sole carbon source, respectively. Results showed that the effect of lead on substrate utilization of both PAOs and GAOs was insignificant. However, lead substantially inhibited both of phosphate release and uptake of PAOs. In high concentration of acetic acid trials, an abnormal aerobic phosphate release was observed instead of phosphate uptake and the release rate increased with increasing lead concentration. Results also showed that PAOs could normally synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the anaerobic phase even though lead concentration was 40 mg L(-1). However, they could not aerobically utilize PHB normally in the presence of lead. On the other hand, GAOs could not normally metabolize polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) in both the anaerobic and aerobic phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Glutamine-Requiring Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Herst, Patricia M.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    Revertants were isolated from a glutamine-requiring mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. One strain showed thermosensitive glutamine requirement and formed thermolabile glutamine synthetase, suggesting the presence of a mutation in the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. The mutation

  19. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    commitment to professional, ethical and legal standards and responsibilitie s. - Effective Crisis Communicatio n Planning - Full...coordination with MOI PAO - Production of effective Communicatio n work products including those using new Communicatio n technologies Policy

  20. [Kinetic model of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with mixed acetic and propionic acids as carbon sources. (I): Model constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-03-01

    Based on activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2), the anaerobic/aerobic kinetic model of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO) was established with mixed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the base substance in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The characteristic of the PAO model was that the anaerobic metabolism rates of glycogen degradation, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates synthesis and polyphosphate hydrolysis were expressed by SCFAs uptake equation, and the effects of anaerobic maintenance on kinetics and stoichiometry were considered. The PAO kinetic model was composed of 3 soluble components, 4 particulate components and a pH parameter, which constituted the matrix of stoichiometric coefficients. On the basis of PAO model, the GAO kinetic model was established, which included 7 processes, and phosphorus content influenced the aerobic metabolism only.

  1. Patient and disease characteristics associated with hip arthroscopy failure in acetabular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James R; Clohisy, John C; Baca, Geneva; Sink, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the clinical and disease characteristics in patients who fail hip arthroscopy and require periacetabular osteotomy. Thirty patients (30 hips) who underwent a PAO, following a failed hip arthroscopy were identified from a multicenter database. Eighty-seven percent were female and the average age was 27.3 years. The average LCE angle was 14.7°, acetabular inclination 16.3°, and ACE angle 16.8°. Labral abnormalities and acetabular chondral disease were noted at PAO surgery in 60 and 56%, respectively. The average clinical scores prior to the PAO were mHHS 53.5, WOMAC 56.9, and UCLA 5.4. Failed hip arthroscopy and the need for PAO are most commonly observed in young female patients with mild to moderate dysplasia, major functional limitations and associated intra-articular abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Balteco uued tooted

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Täiusliku massaazhisüsteemiga hüdromassaazhivann Pacific (disainer Matti Õunapuu), SolidSurface materjalist disainvann Pao (disainer Matti Õunapuu), dushikabiin Visio (disainer Aivar Habakukk), nurgavann Linea (disainer Aivar Habakukk)

  3. Commentary: A Framework for 21st Century Hmong Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pao Lor; Seethong Yang

    2012-01-01

    The passing of General Vang Pao in January 2011 invoked many emotions throughout the Hmong communities in America and abroad and became an impetus for transitional leadership efforts in the Hmong American community...

  4. Commentary: A framework for a twenty-first century Hmong leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lor, Pao; Yang, Seethong

    2012-01-01

    The passing of General Vang Pao in January 2011 invoked many emotions throughout the Hmong communities in America and abroad and became an impetus for transitional leadership efforts in the Hmong American community...

  5. 76 FR 53422 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision on the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... inquires from the media, please contact the USACE Omaha District Public Affairs Officer (PAO), Ms. Monique... overall ecology of the Missouri River. Concurrently with the ROD, an errata sheet is also being made...

  6. The effect of hypo-, normo-, and hypercapnia induced by mechanical ventilation on intrapulmonary shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, J H; Alvarez, F; Tejeda, M; Peydro, E; Olivares, D; Arnau, A

    1994-06-01

    The effects of hypo-, normo- and hypercapnia on the variations in arterial oxygenation and their indices in critical patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) receiving mechanical ventilation are studied. It is a prospective and randomized study carried out in multidisciplinary ICU. Fifteen ARF patients, intubated and mechanically ventilated, were studied within the first 48 h of evolution. Three stages were delimited: I) 30 min after the beginning of anaesthesia; II) 30 min after adding 30 cm of dead space (VD); III) 30 min after replacing the previous VD with VD of 60 cm. Ventilation parameters and FiO2 were kept stable. Stage I was characterized by respiratory alkalosis and stage II by normal acid-base balance with an increase in PaO2 (p < 0.01) and a decrease in intrapulmonary shunt (Qsp/Qt) (p < 0.001); the indices alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient [P(A-a)O2], respiratory index (R.I.) and estimated shunt (Est Shunt) also decreased significantly, whereas arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio (PaO2/PAO2) and arterial oxygen tension to inspired oxygen fraction ration (PaO2/FiO2) increased significantly. In stage III there was pure hypercapnic acidosis, with decreases in PAO2 (p < 0.001), P(A-a)O2 (p < 0.01) and R.I. (p < 0.05), while PaO2, Qsp/Qt, Est Shunt, PaO2/PAO2 and PaO2/FiO2 remained stable with respect to the previous situation. The observed PaO2 differs (p < 0.05) from the expected PaO2 in stage III. It is suggested that local or regional modifications of pulmonary perfusion are responsible for the observed variations. The P(A-a)O2 and R.I. indices do not make it possible to differentiate the causes of arterial hypoxemia in the presence of hypercapnia.

  7. Multifunctional Flexible Composites Based on Continuous Carbon Nanotube Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    emitters, solid-phase microextraction and catalysis . Different from graphene- based aerogels (GBAs) and membranes (GBMs), GBFs have demonstrated...nanotube dry-spun yarns, Carbon, 48, 2802–2811, 2010. 22. A. S. Wu and T. -W. Chou. Carbon nanotube fibers for advanced composites, Materials Today , 15...Applied Physics Letters, 100, 201908, 2012. 8. A. S. Wu and T. -W. Chou. Carbon nanotube fibers for advanced composites, Materials Today , 15, 302

  8. Synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-b] pyridine-4,3 -indoline] and spiro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    22 6031. 18. Sharma G V M, Reddy J J, Lakshmi P S and Krishna. P R 2004 Tetrahedron Lett. 45 7729. 19. Wu L Q, Yang X J, Wang X and Yan F L 2010 J. Sulfur. Chem. 31 509. 20. Bigdeli M A, Heravi M M and Mahdavinia G H 2007. Catal. Commun. 8 1595. 21. Sun P L, Fang L Z and Wu L Q 2011 J. Sulfur Chem. 32. 257.

  9. Development of Mouse Models of Ovarian Cancer for Studying Tumor Biology and Testing Novel Molecularly Targeted Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Fonseca BD, Sonenberg N. Dissecting the role of mTOR: lessons from mTOR inhibitors. Biochim Biophys Acta 2010;1804:433–9. 22. Chen XG, Liu F, Song XF...FROM THE RESEARCH EFFORT: Kathleen R. Cho (Initiating PI) Yali Zhai (Research Investigator, Cho Laboratory) Rong Wu (Research Assistant Professor...Clin Cancer Res Rong Wu, Tom C. Hu, Alnawaz Rehemtulla, et al. Mouse Model of Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Preclinical Testing of PI3K/AKT

  10. NFAT Signaling and the Tumorigenic Microenvironment of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    visible tumors. Interestingly, all double mutants (PCre/+;RT/+;TN/+;Ptenfl/fl) with both PTEN deficiency and NFATc1 activation developed significantly...Wyczalkowski, Kristine Wylie, Kai Ye, Reyka Jayasinghe, Mingchao Xie, Song Wu, Beifang Niu, Robert Grubb III, Kimberly J. Johnson, Hiram Gay , Ken Chen...Wyczalkowski, Kristine Wylie, Kai Ye, Reyka Jayasinghe, Mingchao Xie, Song Wu, Beifang Niu, Robert Grubb III, Kimberly J. Johnson, Hiram Gay , Ken

  11. A Survey of Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    which represent links about which annotators were uncertain, in particular “ idiomatic expressions , free translations, and missing function words” (Och...translational equivalence less computationally expensive than FST models (Wu, 1996). Numerous different approaches to SMT can be expressed in the SCFG... express the reordering relationship. A canonical example of this is the so-called inside-outside alignment, which is illustrated in Figure 9. Wu (1995b

  12. Application of Advanced Sensor Technology to DoD Soil Vapor Intrusion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    from 0.01 to 3.9 µg/m3 (0.002 to 0.71 ppb) with a mean of 0.88 µg/m3 (0.16 ppb) (Wu and Schaum , 2000). TCE air concentrations in urban areas were...from Sorption-based Sensor Arrays to Identify and Quantify the Composition of Analyte Mixtures, Langmuir, 23:13232-13241. Wu, C. and J. Schaum

  13. The efficacy and characteristics of warm-up and re-warm-up practices in soccer players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Amri; Zois, James; Slimani, Maamer; Russel, Mark; Bouhlel, Ezdine

    2018-01-01

    This review aimed 1) to evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of warm-up (WU) and re-warm-up (RWU) on physical performance; and 2) to highlight the WU and RWU characteristics that optimise subsequent performance in soccer players. A computerized search was performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar (from 1995 to December 2015) for English-language, peer-reviewed investigations using the terms "soccer" OR "football" AND "warm-up" OR "stretching" OR "post-activation potentiation" OR "pre-activity" OR "re-warm-up" AND "performance" OR "jump" OR "sprint" OR "running". Twenty seven articles were retrieved. Particularly, 22 articles examined the effects of WU on soccer performance and 5 articles focused on the effects of RWU. Clear evidence exists supporting the inclusion of dynamic stretching or postactivation potentiation-based exercises within a WU as acute performance enhancements were reported (pooled estimate changes of +3.46% and +4.21%, respectively). The FIFA 11+ WU also significantly increases strength, jump, speed and explosive performances (changes from 1% to 20%). At half-time, active RWU protocols including postactivation potentiation practices and multidirectional speed drills attenuate temperature and performance reductions induced by habitual practice. The data obtained in the present review showed that the level of play did not moderate the effectiveness of WU and RWU on soccer performance. This review demonstrated that a static stretching WU reduced acute subsequent performance, while WU activities that include dynamic stretching, PAP-based exercises, and the FIFA 11+ can elicit positive effects in soccer players. The efficacy of an active RWU during half-time is also justified.

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPRIETIES OF CRYSTALS MF2 (M=Cd, Sr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2012 ... [1] Ivanov S. P., Buchinskaya I. I. and Fedorov P.P. Distribution coefficients of impurities in Cdamium Fluoride. Inorganic Materials. 2000, 36(4), 484-488. [2] Vladimirov S.V. Characateristics of BaF2 scintillations crystals. Atomic Energy. 2001, 90(1), 55-62. [3] Wu X. and Wu Z. Theoretical calculations of the ...

  15. Quadric Resistive Sheet Profile for Wideband Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new type of a nonreflecting resistive dipole antenna with quadric continuous resistivity profile is presented in this paper. The antenna is mathematically described and compared with the antenna originally proposed by Wu and King. The verification of a proposed theory and the comparison between Wu-King and quadric profile are carried out by simulation models that were designed for this purpose. The attention is turned to the proper attenuation of a wave excited on the resistive sheet, especially.

  16. Unearthing the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2013-01-01

    Wu Wenguang, considered the father of independent Chinese documentary film, has since 2005 slowly but surely been handing over the camera to people on the margins and to younger generations of Chinese documentary filmmaking. In 2010 Wu and Caochangdi Workstation initiated the Folk Memory Document...... Documentary Project, where young filmmakers go to the countryside to gather and document memories of the Great Famine (1959-1961) from elderly villagers....

  17. The Role of Seat Belt in the Prevention of Fatalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    while the leut incidences were reoorded in. 2005 and 2006.The year of peak fatality index was 2005 and the leut wu 2009. The higbut number of death wu recorded in 2008 and tho lowestin2006(figuloe 2). Table 3: Meaa, 8taDdard deviation v.m. of RTA ouMmn• fur Pnl aDd Potlt- tmforaem.entperi.oda. Ple-...oJ!D . 1'111.

  18. Substance abuse and rehabilitation: responding to the global burden of diseases attributable to substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Tzy Wu

    2010-01-01

    Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the...

  19. Treatment of TBI and Concomitant Hemorrhage with Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Hemorrhage with Ghrelin PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rongqian Wu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research...Concomitant Hemorrhage with Ghrelin 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0400 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Rongqian Wu...concomitantly due to multiple injuries. In this project, we determined the long-term effect of ghrelin , a ‘gut-brain’ hormone, in a highly military

  20. AFOSR BRI: Co-Design of Hardware/Software for Predicting MAV Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-27

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0329 AFOSR BRI: Co-Design of Hardware/Software for Predicting MAV Aerodynamics Wu-Chun Feng VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND... Aerodynamics FA9550-12-1-0442 BAA-AFOSR-2012-0001 Feng, Wu-Chun VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE UNIVERSITY VIRGINIA TECH 1880 PRATT DR STE 2006...unstructured grid motifs found in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in support of aerodynamic predictions for micro-air vehicles (MAVs). While many

  1. Influence of rhlR and lasR on Polymyxin Pharmacodynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Implications for Quorum Sensing Inhibition with Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Zackery P; Ly, Neang S; Lenhard, Justin R; Holden, Patricia N; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Tsuji, Brian T

    2017-04-01

    The impact of quorum sensing on polymyxin and azithromycin pharmacodynamics was assessed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and an isogenic rhlR/lasR double knockout. For polymyxin B, greater killing against the rhlR/lasR knockout than against PAO1 was observed at 108 CFU/ml (polymyxin B half-maximal effective concentration [EC50], 5.61 versus 12.5 mg/liter, respectively; P aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Hemodynamic Effects of the Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet in a Hemorrhagic Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    acepromazine, and buprenex. After induction of general anesthesia with isoflurane and mechanical ventilation, lactated Ringer’s solution was administered as...mL of warmed Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Elec- trolyte Injection) was administered via the left jugular vein using a Belmont Rapid Infuser...central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and lactate . All these indices, with the exception of PaO2

  3. Effect of Polyphosphate-accumulating Organisms on Phosphorus Mobility in Variably Saturated Sand Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, M.; Rojas, C.; Regan, J. M.; Saia, S. M.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Walter, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Excessive application of phosphorus-containing fertilizer along with incomplete knowledge about the factors affecting phosphorus transport and mobility has allowed for a growing number of cases of eutrophication in water bodies. Previous research on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has identified polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are known to accumulate and release phosphorus depending on aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, intracellular polyphosphate (poly-P) bodies are hydrolyzed releasing phosphate, while under aerobic conditions phosphate is taken up and poly-P inclusions are reformed. The presence of PAOs outside of WWTPs has been shown, but their potential impact on phosphorus mobility in other contexts is not as well known. To study that potential impact, sand columns were subjected to alternating cycles of saturation and unsaturation to mimic variably saturated soils and the resultant anaerobic and aerobic conditions that select for PAOs in a WWTP. Pore water samples collected from sterile control columns and columns inoculated with PAOs from a WWTP were compared during each cycle to monitor changes in dissolved inorganic phosphate and total phosphorus concentrations. In addition, continuous redox data were collected to confirm reducing conditions developed during periods of saturation. Sand particles will be subjected to FISH and DAPI staining to visualize PAOs using probes developed for PAOs in EBPR processes and to determine if changes in intracellular poly-P are detectable between the two cycles in the inoculated columns. Studying the effects of PAOs on phosphorus mobility in these controlled column experiments can contribute to understanding phosphorus retention and release by naturally occurring PAOs in terrestrial system, which ultimately can improve the development of management practices that mitigate phosphorus pollution of water bodies.

  4. Microautoradiographic Study of Rhodocyclus-Related Polyphosphate-Accumulating Bacteria in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yunhong; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2004-01-01

    The ecophysiology of uncultured Rhodocyclus-related polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) present in three full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge plants was studied by using microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization. The investigations showed that these organisms were present in all plants examined and constituted 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and 17 to 22% of the community biomass. The behavior of these bacteria generally was consistent with the biochemical models proposed for PAO, based on studies of lab-scale investigations of enriched and often unknown PAO cultures. Rhodocyclus-related PAO were able to accumulate short-chain substrates, including acetate, propionate, and pyruvate, under anaerobic conditions, but they could not assimilate many other low-molecular-weight compounds, such as ethanol and butyrate. They were able to assimilate two substrates (e.g., acetate and propionate) simultaneously. Leucine and thymidine could not be assimilated as sole substrates and could only be assimilated as cosubstrates with acetate, perhaps serving as N sources. Glucose could not be assimilated by the Rhodocyclus-related PAO, but it was easily fermented in the sludge to products that were subsequently consumed. Glycolysis, and not the tricarboxylic acid cycle, was the source that provided the reducing power needed by the Rhodocyclus-related PAO to form the intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate storage compounds during anaerobic substrate assimilation. The Rhodocyclus-related PAO were able to take up orthophosphate and accumulate polyphosphate when oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite was present as an electron acceptor. Furthermore, in the presence of acetate growth was sustained by using oxygen, as well as nitrate or nitrite, as an electron acceptor. This strongly indicates that Rhodocyclus-related PAO were able to denitrify and thus played a role in the denitrification occurring in full-scale EBPR plants. PMID:15345424

  5. Is intraarticular pathology common in patients with hip dysplasia undergoing periacetabular osteotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Lareau, Justin M; Baydoun, Hasan; Botser, Itamar; Millis, Michael B; Yen, Yi-Meng

    2014-02-01

    Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) enables correction of bony acetabular deficiency in the setting of hip dysplasia. Patients with insufficient acetabular coverage often have intraarticular pathology, but the degree of this pathology has been incompletely characterized. We have used arthroscopy as an adjunct to PAO to further delineate intraarticular pathology in patients with hip dysplasia with mechanical symptoms. We documented the arthroscopic incidence of (1) femoral and acetabular chondral pathology, (2) femoral neck cam lesions, and (3) internal snapping or ligamentum teres pathology among patients having arthroscopy before PAO. We reviewed all 16 patients (17 hips; mean age at surgery, 21 years; range, 12-33 years) with hip dysplasia who underwent PAOs and concomitant hip arthroscopy at our institutions from October 2010 to March 2012. During this period, 80 patients underwent PAOs, making the arthroscopic cohort 21% of the total cohort. Indications for concomitant hip arthroscopy were mechanical symptoms consistent with labral pathology identified on MRI. We documented pathology involving the labrum, chondral surface, ligamentum teres, cam deformity, and psoas tendon. Arthroscopy revealed significant intraarticular pathology in all patients. Fourteen hips had anterosuperior labral tears, and three hips had preoperative findings of internal snapping hip. Eleven hips had femoral cam-type lesions in addition to dysplasia, and 16 hips had articular chondral injury. Two hips had full-thickness ligamentum tears, and 13 hips had partial-thickness tears. Intraarticular pathology at the time of PAO is common. Future studies are needed to rigorously address the use of arthroscopic intervention during PAO and the impact on clinical outcome compared to PAO alone.

  6. Multi-centered Comparison of Patient Reported Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopy versus Combined Hip Arthroscopy Alone and Peri-acetabular Osteotomy in Patients with Acetabular Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Domb, Benjamin G.; Kenney, Raymond James; Cook, Christopher; Lareau, Justin M.; Childs, Sean; Chaharbakhshi, Edwin; Giordano, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare prospectively collected patient reported outcomes (PRO) data in patients undergoing Hip Arthroscopy alone versus combined Hip Arthroscopy and Peri-acetubular Osteotomy (HA/PAO). Methods: Prospectively collected PRO data was reviewed in patients enrolled in IRB approved studies at two high volume hip preservation centers who underwent either Hip Arthroscopy alone or combined HA/PAO. Patients were included who had a lateral center edge angle

  7. Outcome after arthroscopic labral surgery in patients previously treated with periacetabular osteotomy: a follow-up study of 43 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Torsten G.; Lund, Bent; S?balle, Kjeld; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To identify factors predicting failure after hip arthroscopy in patients with previous periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) defined as a conversion to total hip replacement (THR) and to evaluate the patient reported outcome scores. Of 55 hips treated with hip arthroscopy after PAO from Aug 2008 to 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital, 43 hips were included (median age: 36.1 yrs, range 16.3?56.9 yrs). Indications were unacceptable pain, a positive FABER and impingement test and signs of labra...

  8. Risk factors for the need of hip arthroscopy following periacetabular osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Troelsen, Anders; Thillemann, Theis M.; Gelineck, John; S?balle, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Despite the frequency of labral tears in symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip, no consensus exists regarding the treatment of coexisting dysplasia of the hip and tearing of the acetabular labrum. The purpose of this prospective, MR arthrography (MRA) based 2-year follow-up study was to identify risk factors predicting the need for a hip arthroscopy (HA) after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Ninety-nine patients (104 hips) scheduled for PAO were evaluated preoperatively and at 2-year...

  9. An Experimental Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Ethanol/Polyalphaolefin Nanoemulsion Flowing Through Circular Minichannels

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Vu; Xu, Jiajun

    2017-01-01

    This work experimentally studied the convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of a novel nanostructured heat transfer fluid: ?ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion? flowing through 12 circular minichannels of 1-mm diameter each. Ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion is a thermodynamically stable system formed by dispersing ethanol into a mixture of ?polyalphaolefin (PAO)? and surfactants. In this study, ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion is used as the working fluid to study the effect of ethano...

  10. Performance-intensity functions of Mandarin word recognition tests in noise: test dialect and listener language effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danzheng; Shi, Lu-Feng

    2013-06-01

    This study established the performance-intensity function for Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin bisyllabic word recognition tests in noise in native speakers of Wu Chinese. Effects of the test dialect and listeners' first language on psychometric variables (i.e., slope and 50%-correct threshold) were analyzed. Thirty-two normal-hearing Wu-speaking adults who used Mandarin since early childhood were compared to 16 native Mandarin-speaking adults. Both Beijing and Taiwan bisyllabic word recognition tests were presented at 8 signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 4-dB steps (-12 dB to +16 dB). At each SNR, a half list (25 words) was presented in speech-spectrum noise to listeners' right ear. The order of the test, SNR, and half list was randomized across listeners. Listeners responded orally and in writing. Overall, the Wu-speaking listeners performed comparably to the Mandarin-speaking listeners on both tests. Compared to the Taiwan test, the Beijing test yielded a significantly lower threshold for both the Mandarin- and Wu-speaking listeners, as well as a significantly steeper slope for the Wu-speaking listeners. Both Mandarin tests can be used to evaluate Wu-speaking listeners. Of the 2, the Taiwan Mandarin test results in more comparable functions across listener groups. Differences in the performance-intensity function between listener groups and between tests indicate a first language and dialectal effect, respectively.

  11. An inductive narrow-pulse RFID telemetry system for gastric slow waves monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan-Khoskholgh, Amir; Abukhalaf, Zaid; Ji Li; Miller, Larry S; Kiani, Mehdi; Farajidavar, Aydin

    2016-08-01

    We present a passive data telemetry system for real-time monitoring of gastric electrical activity of a living subject. The system is composed of three subsystems: an implantable unit (IU), a wearable unit (WU), and a stationary unit (SU). Data communication between the IU and WU is based on a radio-frequency identification (RFID) link operating at 13.56 MHz. Since wireless power transmission and reverse data telemetry system share the same inductive interface, a load shift keying (LSK)-based differential pulse position (DPP) coding data communication with only 6.25% duty cycle is developed to guarantee consistent wireless downlink power transmission and uplink high data transfer rate, simultaneously. The clock and data are encoded into one signal by an MSP430 microcontroller (MCU) at the IU side. This signal is sent to the WU through the inductive link, where decoded by an MSP432 MCU. Finally, the retrieved data at the WU are transmitted to the SU connected to a PC via a 2.4 GHz transceiver for real-time display and analysis. The results of the measurements on the implemented test bench, demonstrate IU-WU 125 kb/s and WU-SU 2 Mb/s data transmission rate with no observed mismatch, while the data stream was randomly generated, and matching between the transmitted data by the IU and received by the SU verified by a custom-made automated software.

  12. Uncertainty of Wheat Water Use: Simulated Patterns and Sensitivity to Temperature and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarano, Davide; Roetter, Reimund P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Wallach, Daniel; Martre, Pierre; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Ruane, Alex C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Projected global warming and population growth will reduce future water availability for agriculture. Thus, it is essential to increase the efficiency in using water to ensure crop productivity. Quantifying crop water use (WU; i.e. actual evapotranspiration) is a critical step towards this goal. Here, sixteen wheat simulation models were used to quantify sources of model uncertainty and to estimate the relative changes and variability between models for simulated WU, water use efficiency (WUE, WU per unit of grain dry mass produced), transpiration efficiency (Teff, transpiration per kg of unit of grain yield dry mass produced), grain yield, crop transpiration and soil evaporation at increased temperatures and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]). The greatest uncertainty in simulating water use, potential evapotranspiration, crop transpiration and soil evaporation was due to differences in how crop transpiration was modelled and accounted for 50 of the total variability among models. The simulation results for the sensitivity to temperature indicated that crop WU will decline with increasing temperature due to reduced growing seasons. The uncertainties in simulated crop WU, and in particularly due to uncertainties in simulating crop transpiration, were greater under conditions of increased temperatures and with high temperatures in combination with elevated atmospheric [CO2] concentrations. Hence the simulation of crop WU, and in particularly crop transpiration under higher temperature, needs to be improved and evaluated with field measurements before models can be used to simulate climate change impacts on future crop water demand.

  13. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M, warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M, WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE was measured. Also, heart rate (HR, systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and rate pressure product (RPP were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  14. Phenylarsine Oxide Inhibits the Fusicoccin-Induced Activation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Claudio; Albumi, Cristina; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fusicoccin (FC) induces the activation of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, we used phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a known inhibitor of protein tyrosine-phosphatases. PAO was supplied in vivo in the absence or presence of FC to radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings and cultured Arabidopsis cells prior to PM extraction. Treatment with PAO alone caused a slight decrease of PM H+-ATPase activity and, in radish, a decrease of PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins. When supplied prior to FC, PAO drastically inhibited FC-induced activation of PM H+-ATPase, FC binding to the PM, and the FC-induced increase of the amount of 14-3-3 associated with the PM. On the contrary, PAO was completely ineffective on all of the above-mentioned parameters when supplied after FC. The H+-ATPase isolated from PAO-treated Arabidopsis cells maintained the ability to respond to FC if supplied with exogenous, nonphosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins. Altogether, these results are consistent with a model in which the dephosphorylated state of tyrosine residues of a protein(s), such as 14-3-3 protein, is required to permit FC-induced association between the 14-3-3 protein and the PM H+-ATPase. PMID:10677439

  15. Bernese periacetabular osteotomy in males: is there an increased risk of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) after Bernese periacetabular osteotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, K; Balakumar, J; Domayer, S; Kim, Y J; Millis, M B

    2011-02-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a popular option for treating symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. We noted symptomatic impingement after PAO in several male patients. We therefore determined (1) the incidence of clinical signs of FAI after PAO in the male population; and (2) whether any factors were associated with the positive impingement signs after PAO in males. We retrospectively reviewed 38 males who underwent 46 periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) between 2000 and 2007. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with the focus on pre- and postoperative incidence of femoroacetabular impingement. Minimum followup was 12 months (average, 43 months; range, 12-90 months). We found a positive impingement sign in 19 of the 46 hips during the preoperative examination compared to 22 (47.8%) hips postoperatively. The ROM (flexion and internal rotation) decreased postoperatively compared to preoperatively. Radiographic parameters of coverage LCE-, ACE- and Tönnis angle improved into the normal range. Twenty hips had postoperative heterotopic ossification to varying degrees, mostly minor. WOMAC scores improved in the function and pain domains postoperatively. Despite normalization of coverage we found a high postoperative rate of clinical signs of FAI after PAO in males. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. 1H NMR-Based Global Metabolic Studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon Exposure of the Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tongtong; Sheng, Jiyang; Fu, Yonghong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2017-02-03

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial communication that has been a novel target for drug discovery. Pyocyanin quantification assay confirmed that resveratrol was an effective quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In this study, the global metabolite changes of P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to QSI resveratrol were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. A total of 40 metabolites containing amino acids, organic acid, organic amine, and energy storage compounds were identified. The changed metabolic profile indicated that resveratrol influenced pathways including oxidative stress, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism. Oxidative stress could upregulate the expression of genes related to QS in P. aeruginosa. It suggested that resveratrol could inhibit the QS systems in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by relieving oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. On the other hand, resveratrol could attenuate the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by disturbing the TCA cycle so that anaerobic respiration could suppress the virulence because anaerobiosis could induce the loss of cytotoxicity regulated by QS in P. aeruginosa. These findings deepened our comprehending of the metabolic responses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to resveratrol and pinpointed the possible underlying mechanism of resveratrol's inhibition effect on QS in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  17. Toxicogenetic study of Persea americana fruit pulp oil and its effect on genomic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Neto, Francisco Rinaldi; Corrêa, Mariana Beltrame; Lopes, Danillo Henrique; Rondon, Edilaura Nunes; Dos Santos, Luiz Felipe Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Acésio, Nathália Oliveira; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Tozatti, Marcos Gomide; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Furtado, Ricardo Andrade; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2017-03-01

    Persea americana Mill., commonly known as avocado, is a tree native to Central America that is widely used as a food source and for the treatment of diseases. This plant has various biological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and total cholesterol-lowering activity. In view of its pharmacological potential, we conducted a toxicogenetic study of the fruit pulp oil of P. americana (PAO) and investigated its influence on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and doxorubicin. V79 cells and Swiss mice were used for the assays. The results showed no genotoxic effects of PAO in the in vitro or in vivo test systems. However, the highest PAO dose tested led to an increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, indicating hepatic/tissue damage. This effect may be related to high concentrations of palmitic acid, the main component of PAO. Furthermore, PAO was effective in reducing the chromosome damage induced by MMS and doxorubicin. These results contribute to the safety assessment of PAO as a medicinal plant for human use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Introducing a dimensioning and simulation model useful for engineering practice for the modelling/optimization of enhanced biological P elimination.; Vorstellung eines in der Ingenieurpraxis nutzbaren Bemessungs- und Simulationsmodelles zur Abbildung/Optimierung der vermehrten biologischen P-Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichern, M.; Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Binder, M.

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes in excerpts a stationary model, suitable for engineering practice, for assessing the efficiency of enhanced biological P elimination. Adapted to the latest state of knowledge and based on only a few measuring data, it can be used to dimension or optimize existing plant. It takes into account knowledge such as the following: growth of organisms with enhanced phosphorus accumulation (PAOs) in an anoxic environment, modelling of biomass die-back in an anaerobic environment, different yield and die-back rates of PAOs and non-bioP organisms, the share of denitrifying PAOs and degradation processes through hydrolysis/fermentation. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages wird ein in der Ingenieurpraxis anwendbares stationaeres Modell zur Abschaetzung der Leistungsfaehigkeit der vermehrten biologischen P-Elimination in Auszuegen vorgestellt, das, angepasst an neueste Erkenntnisse, auf Basis weniger Messdaten zur Bemessung sowie Optimierung von bestehenden Anlagen eingesetzt werden kann. Erkenntnisse, wie z.B. das Wachsen der vermehrt phosphorspeichernden Organismen (PAO) im Anoxischen, die Abbildung des Biomassensterbens im Anaeroben, die unterschiedlichen Ertrags- und Sterberaten von PAOs und Nicht-BioP-Organismen, der Anteil der denitrifizierenden PAOs und Abbauprozesse durch Hydrolyse/Fermentation sind im Modell beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  19. Concomitant Hip Arthroscopy and Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; LaReau, Justin M; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Gupta, Asheesh; Stake, Christine E; Redmond, John M

    2015-11-01

    To detail our early experience using concomitant hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia. We prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed the surgical and outcome data of 17 patients who underwent concomitant hip arthroscopy and PAO between October 2010 and July 2013. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion, outcome and pain scores, and radiographic data were collected. Intraoperative arthroscopic findings and postoperative complications were recorded. The group consisted of 3 male and 14 female patients with a mean follow-up period of 2.4 years. Three patients had undergone previous surgery on the affected hip. Chondrolabral pathology was identified in all 17 patients. Twelve patients underwent labral repair, and five patients underwent partial labral debridement. No patient was converted to total hip arthroplasty or required revision surgery at short-term follow-up. All 4 patient-reported outcome scores showed statistically significant changes from baseline to latest follow-up (P hip arthroscopy and PAO has been favorable. We noted that all our patients have evidence of chondrolabral damage at the time of PAO when the joint is distracted and evaluated. All patients in this series had intra-articular pathology treated arthroscopically and showed satisfactory mean clinical improvement. Hip arthroscopy with PAO did not appear to introduce complications beyond the PAO alone. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapidly progressive osteoarthritis after arthroscopic labral repair in patients with hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Khatod, Monti

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports of poor clinical outcomes after arthroscopic surgery in hips with marked dysplasia have emerged. Arthroscopic resection of the hypertrophic labrum in cases of dysplasia, especially in the absence of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), has been implicated. Some patients will refuse PAO because it is a major open procedure, opting for a less invasive arthroscopic procedure. We present the cases of 2 young adults with marked dysplasia who had rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis despite arthroscopic labral repair. Though perhaps beneficial as an isolated procedure in borderline or mild dysplasia cases, arthroscopic hip surgery, even labral repair, may best be performed with PAO in cases with more severe dysplasia. Albeit attractive as a less invasive labral-preserving surgery, arthroscopic labral repair not only may fail to provide symptomatic improvement but may compromise or preclude a later PAO if rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis ensues. Hip arthroscopy may best be performed concurrently with or after PAO but not proceeding PAO in patients requiring both procedures. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlorophyll breakdown in senescent Arabidopsis leaves. Characterization of chlorophyll catabolites and of chlorophyll catabolic enzymes involved in the degreening reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzinská, Adriana; Tanner, Gaby; Aubry, Sylvain; Anders, Iwona; Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Ongania, Karl-Hans; Kräutler, Bernhard; Youn, Ji-Young; Liljegren, Sarah J; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    During senescence, chlorophyll (chl) is metabolized to colorless nonfluorescent chl catabolites (NCCs). A central reaction of the breakdown pathway is the ring cleavage of pheophorbide (pheide) a to a primary fluorescent chl catabolite. Two enzymes catalyze this reaction, pheide a oxygenase (PAO) and red chl catabolite reductase. Five NCCs and three fluorescent chl catabolites (FCCs) accumulated during dark-induced chl breakdown in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Three of these NCCs and one FCC (primary fluorescent chl catabolite-1) were identical to known catabolites from canola (Brassica napus). The presence in Arabidopsis of two modified FCCs supports the hypothesis that modifications, as present in NCCs, occur at the level of FCC. Chl degradation in Arabidopsis correlated with the accumulation of FCCs and NCCs, as well as with an increase in PAO activity. This increase was due to an up-regulation of Pao gene expression. In contrast, red chl catabolite reductase is not regulated during leaf development and senescence. A pao1 knockout mutant was identified and analyzed. The mutant showed an age- and light-dependent cell death phenotype on leaves and in flowers caused by the accumulation of photoreactive pheide a. In the dark, pao1 exhibited a stay-green phenotype. The key role of PAO in chl breakdown is discussed.

  2. Chlorophyll Breakdown in Senescent Arabidopsis Leaves. Characterization of Chlorophyll Catabolites and of Chlorophyll Catabolic Enzymes Involved in the Degreening Reaction1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pružinská, Adriana; Tanner, Gaby; Aubry, Sylvain; Anders, Iwona; Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Ongania, Karl-Hans; Kräutler, Bernhard; Youn, Ji-Young; Liljegren, Sarah J.; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    During senescence, chlorophyll (chl) is metabolized to colorless nonfluorescent chl catabolites (NCCs). A central reaction of the breakdown pathway is the ring cleavage of pheophorbide (pheide) a to a primary fluorescent chl catabolite. Two enzymes catalyze this reaction, pheide a oxygenase (PAO) and red chl catabolite reductase. Five NCCs and three fluorescent chl catabolites (FCCs) accumulated during dark-induced chl breakdown in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Three of these NCCs and one FCC (primary fluorescent chl catabolite-1) were identical to known catabolites from canola (Brassica napus). The presence in Arabidopsis of two modified FCCs supports the hypothesis that modifications, as present in NCCs, occur at the level of FCC. Chl degradation in Arabidopsis correlated with the accumulation of FCCs and NCCs, as well as with an increase in PAO activity. This increase was due to an up-regulation of Pao gene expression. In contrast, red chl catabolite reductase is not regulated during leaf development and senescence. A pao1 knockout mutant was identified and analyzed. The mutant showed an age- and light-dependent cell death phenotype on leaves and in flowers caused by the accumulation of photoreactive pheide a. In the dark, pao1 exhibited a stay-green phenotype. The key role of PAO in chl breakdown is discussed. PMID:16113212

  3. Adsorption of uranium by amidoximated chitosan-grafted polyacrylonitrile, using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Tilong; Chen, Xia; Liu, Xunyue; Ding, Xingcheng

    2015-05-05

    The amidoximated chitosan-grafted polyacrylonitrile (CTS-g-PAO) was prepared for the adsorption of uranium from water. The effects of pH, concentration of uranium and the solid-liquid ratio on the adsorption of uranium by CTS-g-PAO were optimized using Doehlert design of response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption capacity and removal efficiency achieved 312.06 mg/g and 86.02%, respectively. The adsorption process attained equilibrium only in 120 min. More than 80% of the absorbed uranium could be desorbed by 0.1 mol/l HCl or EDTA-Na, and CTS-g-PAO could be reused at least 3 times. The CTS-g-PAO and U(VI) ions formed a chelate complex due to FTIR spectral analysis. The surface morphology of CTS-g-PAO was also investigated by SEM. The adsorption process was better described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetic model. Results obtained indicated that CTS-g-PAO was very promising in adsorption of uranium from water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin-fold thickness, body mass, and obesity indexes and the arterial to skin-surface PO2 gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, T D; Morrero, O

    1983-10-01

    Trends in transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) correlate closely with Pao2 in the absence of circulatory insufficiency. Individual variation, however, in the arterial to skin-surface Po2 gradient (Pao2-tcPo2 gradient) have limited the usefulness of tcPo2 measurements as precise indicators of Pao2. This individual variability in the Pao2-tcPo2 gradient has been speculated as being caused by "skin factors." This study was performed to examine the relationship between skin-fold thickness (triceps and infraclavicular), body mass index, body surface area, and ponderal index and the Pao2-tcPo2 gradient with a view to delineating correction factors that might be useful in increasing the accuracy of tcPo2 as an estimate of the absolute value of the corresponding Pao2. Skin-fold thickness measurements, body mass index, body surface area, and ponderal index were unrelated to the Po2 gradient. This was thought to be primarily due to an inherent inaccuracy of these measurements as indicators of stratum corneum thickness and dermal capillary depth, the major involved variables.

  5. Synthesis, X-ray structure, spectroscopic characterization and nonlinear optical properties of triaqua(1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylato)manganese(II) dihydrate: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin; Zorlu, Yunus; Erkovan, Mustafa; Yerli, Yusuf

    2015-11-01

    The triaqua(1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylato)manganese(II) dihydrate complex was prepared and its crystal structure was determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Its structure was also characterized by the applying of FT-IR, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The manganese(II) ion was located to center of distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurement was carried out on the Mn(II) complex. In order to support experimental results, density functional theory calculations were performed at HSEH1PBE level and LanL2DZ basis set. Obtained results indicated that theoretical results can replace the experimental ones. The relatively active ν(CO) ν(CC) and ν(CN) stretching vibration peaks appeared in IR and Raman spectra of complex 1 which are indicators of charge transfer within complex 1 suggest that complex 1 is a good candidate for nonlinear optical materials. The HOMO and LUMO energies determined that complex 1 is stable and the charge transfer occurs within complex 1.

  6. BN and BN oxide nanosheets based nanosensor for paracetamol adsorption: a first principles simulation

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    Miguel Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects that the adsorption of the paracetamol molecule produce on the structural and electronic properties of boron nitride (hBNNs; B27N27H18 and boron nitride oxide (hBNONs; B27N27H17 + O + (OH3 + COOH hexagonal symmetry nanosheets were studied by means of Density Functional Theory. The generalized gradient approximation proposed by Heyd—Scuseria—Ernzerhof ((HSEh1PBE―GGA was used in concert with 6-31G(d basis sets. Several candidate structures, 9 and 13 for the hBNNs―Paracetamol and BNONs―Paracetamol interactions, respectively, were used for the geometry optimization procedure. The results show that in the lowest energy absorption site the paracetamol molecule reaches a parallel orientation to the surface of the nanosheets, producing physisorption for hBNNs―Paracetamol and chemisorption for BNONs―Paracetamol. Besides, the adsorption process yields an increase of the polarity opening the possibility for the solubility and dispersion of these compounds. The paracetamol molecule promotes also a decrease of the reactivity parameter, which is crucial for biological applications of these systems. Referred to pristine hBNNs and BNONs, the work functions of hBNNs-Paracetamol and BNONs―Paracetamol are diminished. That is, these functionalized 2D systems yields appropriate conditions for field emission and they may be used as sensors of such pharmaceutical compound.

  7. Conformational, spectroscopic and nonlinear optical investigations on 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propen-1-one: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altürk, Sümeyye; Boukabcha, Nourdine; Benhalima, Nadia; Tamer, Ömer; Chouaih, Abdelkader; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Hamzaoui, Fodil

    2017-05-01

    The density functional theory calculations on 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propen-1-one (CPCPP) are performed by using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels. These methods along with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine optimized molecular geometries, vibrational frequencies, electronic absorption wavelengths and bonding features of CPCPP. The solvent effect on the electronic absorption properties of CPCPP is examined at polar (ethanol and water) and nonpolar (toluene and n-hexane) solvents. In order to find the most stable conformers, conformational analysis is carried out by using B3LYP level. The computed small energy gaps between HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfers occur within CPCPP. DFT calculations have been also performed to investigate the dipole moment (μ), mean polarizability (α), anisotropy of polarizability (Δα), first order static hyperpolarizability (β) for CPCPP. The obtained values show that CPCPP is an excellent candidate to nonlinear optical materials. NBO analysis has been used to investigate the bond strengths, molecular stability, hyperconjugative interactions and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT).

  8. A Critical Assessment of the Microorganisms Proposed to be Important to Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; McIlroy, Simon J.; Nierychlo, Marta; Karst, Søren M.; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P) removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades. The current study collectively assessed the abundance and diversity of all proposed PAOs and GAOs in 18 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with well-working biological nutrient removal over a period of 9 years using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbial community structure in all plants was relatively stable over time. Evidence for the role of the proposed PAOs and GAOs in EBPR varies and is critically assessed, in light of their calculated amplicon abundances, to indicate which of these are important in full-scale systems. Bacteria from the genus Tetrasphaera were the most abundant of the PAOs. The “Candidatus Accumulibacter” PAOs were in much lower abundance and appear to be biased by the amplicon-based method applied. The genera Dechloromonas, Microlunatus, and Tessaracoccus were identified as abundant putative PAO that require further research attention. Interestingly, the actinobacterial Micropruina and sbr-gs28 phylotypes were among the most abundant of the putative GAOs. Members of the genera Defluviicoccus, Propionivibrio, the family Competibacteraceae, and the spb280 group were also relatively abundant in some plants. Despite observed high abundances of GAOs (periodically exceeding 20% of the amplicon reads), P removal performance was maintained, indicating that these organisms were not

  9. A Critical Assessment of the Microorganisms Proposed to be Important to Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per H. Nielsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs. Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs, which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades. The current study collectively assessed the abundance and diversity of all proposed PAOs and GAOs in 18 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with well-working biological nutrient removal over a period of 9 years using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbial community structure in all plants was relatively stable over time. Evidence for the role of the proposed PAOs and GAOs in EBPR varies and is critically assessed, in light of their calculated amplicon abundances, to indicate which of these are important in full-scale systems. Bacteria from the genus Tetrasphaera were the most abundant of the PAOs. The “Candidatus Accumulibacter” PAOs were in much lower abundance and appear to be biased by the amplicon-based method applied. The genera Dechloromonas, Microlunatus, and Tessaracoccus were identified as abundant putative PAO that require further research attention. Interestingly, the actinobacterial Micropruina and sbr-gs28 phylotypes were among the most abundant of the putative GAOs. Members of the genera Defluviicoccus, Propionivibrio, the family Competibacteraceae, and the spb280 group were also relatively abundant in some plants. Despite observed high abundances of GAOs (periodically exceeding 20% of the amplicon reads, P removal performance was maintained, indicating that these organisms

  10. A Critical Assessment of the Microorganisms Proposed to be Important to Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; McIlroy, Simon J; Nierychlo, Marta; Karst, Søren M; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P) removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades. The current study collectively assessed the abundance and diversity of all proposed PAOs and GAOs in 18 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with well-working biological nutrient removal over a period of 9 years using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbial community structure in all plants was relatively stable over time. Evidence for the role of the proposed PAOs and GAOs in EBPR varies and is critically assessed, in light of their calculated amplicon abundances, to indicate which of these are important in full-scale systems. Bacteria from the genus Tetrasphaera were the most abundant of the PAOs. The "Candidatus Accumulibacter" PAOs were in much lower abundance and appear to be biased by the amplicon-based method applied. The genera Dechloromonas, Microlunatus, and Tessaracoccus were identified as abundant putative PAO that require further research attention. Interestingly, the actinobacterial Micropruina and sbr-gs28 phylotypes were among the most abundant of the putative GAOs. Members of the genera Defluviicoccus, Propionivibrio, the family Competibacteraceae, and the spb280 group were also relatively abundant in some plants. Despite observed high abundances of GAOs (periodically exceeding 20% of the amplicon reads), P removal performance was maintained, indicating that these organisms were not outcompeting

  11. Molecular evolution of the polyamine oxidase gene family in Metazoa

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    Polticelli Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyamine oxidase enzymes catalyze the oxidation of polyamines and acetylpolyamines. Since polyamines are basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation, their homeostasis is crucial for cell life. Members of the polyamine oxidase gene family have been identified in a wide variety of animals, including vertebrates, arthropodes, nematodes, placozoa, as well as in plants and fungi. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs from yeast can oxidize spermine, N1-acetylspermine, and N1-acetylspermidine, however, in vertebrates two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase (SMO and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO, specifically catalyze the oxidation of spermine, and N1-acetylspermine/N1-acetylspermidine, respectively. Little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. However, since the yeast PAO is able to catalyze the oxidation of both acetylated and non acetylated polyamines, and in vertebrates these functions are addressed by two specialized polyamine oxidase subfamilies (APAO and SMO, it can be hypothesized an ancestral reference for the former enzyme from which the latter would have been derived. Results We analysed 36 SMO, 26 APAO, and 14 PAO homologue protein sequences from 54 taxa including various vertebrates and invertebrates. The analysis of the full-length sequences and the principal domains of vertebrate and invertebrate PAOs yielded consensus primary protein sequences for vertebrate SMOs and APAOs, and invertebrate PAOs. This analysis, coupled to molecular modeling techniques, also unveiled sequence regions that confer specific structural and functional properties, including substrate specificity, by the different PAO subfamilies. Molecular phylogenetic trees revealed a basal position of all the invertebrates PAO enzymes relative to vertebrate SMOs and APAOs. PAOs from insects constitute a monophyletic clade. Two PAO variants sampled in the amphioxus are basal to the dichotomy between two well supported

  12. Acute and Time-Course Effects of Traditional and Dynamic Warm-Up Routines in Young Elite Junior Tennis Players.

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    Francisco Ayala

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of studies that have examined the acute effects of different warm up modalities (WU on physical performance, none of them have documented the time course of potential performance recovery in tennis players. The aim of this study was twofold: (a to analyze and compare the acute effects of two different WU modalities (traditional WU [TWU] and dynamic WU [DWU] on physical performance (i.e., CMJ, sprint, serve speed and accuracy in elite junior players, as well as (b to monitor the time course of any WU-induced changes after 30 and 60 min of simulated match-play. Twelve junior elite players completed both WUs modalities (TWU and DWU in a counterbalanced order on separate days. In each experimental session, counter movement jump (CMJ, 20-m sprint, tennis serve speed and accuracy tests were performed before (immediately after TWU or DWU during (30 min and after 60 min of a simulated match play. Measures were compared via four factorial (WU intervention and time repeated measures ANOVAs. There were main effects of WU (TWU and DWU throughout the time for all the variables analysed. The results indicate that DWU routine led to significantly faster 20 m sprint times and higher CMJs as well as faster and more accurate tennis serves at both post warm-up and 30 min match-play testing moments in comparison with the scores reported by the TWU routine (p 75-99%. No significant intergroup differences were found at 60-min match-play testing moment in any variable (except for the 20 m sprint. Therefore, the findings of this study recommend for optimal performance in these elite tennis players, DWU routines should be performed prior to formal training and competition rather than TWU routines.

  13. Effects of general, specific and combined warm-up on explosive muscular performance

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    David Cristobal Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of general, specific and combined warm-up (WU on explosive performance. Healthy male (n=10 subjects participated in six WU protocols in a crossover randomized study design. Protocols were: passive rest (PR; 15 min of passive rest, running (Run; 5 min of running at 70% of maximum heart rate, stretching (STR; 5 min of static stretching exercise, jumping [Jump; 5 min of jumping exercises – 3x8 countermovement jumps (CMJ and 3x8 drop jumps from 60 cm (DJ60], and combined (COM; protocols Run + STR + Jump combined. Immediately before and after each WU, subjects were assessed for explosive concentric-only (i.e. squat jump – SJ, slow stretch-shortening cycle (i.e. CMJ, fast stretch-shortening cycle (i.e. DJ60 and contact time (CT muscle performance. PR significantly reduced SJ performance (p =0.007. Run increased SJ (p =0.0001 and CMJ (p =0.002. STR increased CMJ (p =0.048. Specific WU (i.e. Jump increased SJ (p =0.001, CMJ (p =0.028 and DJ60 (p =0.006 performance. COM increased CMJ performance (p =0.006. Jump was superior in SJ performance vs. PR (p =0.001. Jump reduced (p =0.03 CT in DJ60. In conclusion, general, specific and combined WU increase slow stretch-shortening cycle (SSC muscle performance, but only specific WU increases fast SSC muscle performance. Therefore, to increase fast SSC performance, specific fast SSC muscle actions must be included during the WU.

  14. Role of O2 in regulating tissue respiration in dog muscle working in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M. C.; Arthur, P. G.; Bebout, D. E.; Hochachka, P. W.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of tissue oxygenation in some of the factors that are thought to regulate muscle respiration and metabolism. Tissue oxygenation was altered by reductions in O2 delivery (muscle blood flow x arterial O2 content), induced by decreases in arterial PO2 (PaO2). O2 uptake (VO2) was measured in isolated in situ canine gastrocnemius at rest and while working at two stimulation intensities (isometric tetanic contractions at 0.5 and 1 contractions/s) on three separate occasions, with only the level of PaO2 (78, 30, and 21 Torr) being different for each occasion. Muscle blood flow was held constant (pump perfusion) at each work intensity for the three different levels of PaO2. Muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each rest and work period. Muscle VO2 was significantly less (P less than 0.05) at both stimulation intensities for the hypoxemic conditions, whereas [ATP] was reduced only during the highest work intensity during both hypoxemic conditions (31% reduction at 21 Torr PaO2 and 17% at 30 Torr). For each level of PaO2, the relationships between the changes that occurred in VO2 and levels of phosphocreatine, ADP, and ATP/ADP.P(i) as the stimulation intensity was increased were significantly correlated; however, the slopes and intercepts of these lines were significantly different for each PaO2. Thus a greater change in any of the proposed regulators of tissue respiration (e.g., phosphocreatine, ADP) was required to achieve a given VO2 as PaO2 was decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Disassociating Lung Mechanics and Oxygenation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Nadir; Thomas, Neal J

    2017-07-01

    Both oxygenation and peak inspiratory pressure are associated with mortality in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Since oxygenation and respiratory mechanics are linked, it is difficult to identify which variables, pressure or oxygenation, are independently associated with outcome. We aimed to determine whether respiratory mechanics (peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP [PIP minus PEEP], tidal volume, dynamic compliance [Cdyn]) or oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2) was associated with mortality. Prospective, observational, cohort study. University affiliated PICU. Mechanically ventilated children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (Berlin). None. Peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP, tidal volume, Cdyn, and PaO2/FIO2 were collected at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset and at 24 hours in 352 children between 2011 and 2016. At acute respiratory distress syndrome onset, neither mechanical variables nor PaO2/FIO2 were associated with mortality. At 24 hours, peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP were higher, and Cdyn and PaO2/FIO2 lower, in nonsurvivors. In multivariable logistic regression, PaO2/FIO2 at 24 hours and ΔPaO2/FIO2 (change in PaO2/FIO2 over the first 24 hr) were associated with mortality, whereas pressure variables were not. Both oxygenation and pressure variables were associated with duration of ventilation in multivariable competing risk regression. Improvements in oxygenation, but not in respiratory mechanics, were associated with lower mortality in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Future trials of mechanical ventilation in children should focus on oxygenation (higher PaO2/FIO2) rather than lower peak inspiratory pressure or ΔP, as oxygenation was more consistently associated with outcome.

  16. Análise dos efeitos da manobra de recrutamento alveolar na oxigenação sanguínea durante procedimento bariátrico Análisis de los efectos de la maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar en la oxigenación sanguínea durante el procedimiento bariátrico Analysis of the effects of the alveolar recruitment maneuver on blood oxygenation during bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Paiva de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A manobra de recrutamento alveolar (MRA é indicada no tratamento de atelectasias intraoperatórias. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de MRA por meio da resposta da relação PaO2/FiO2 e da soma [PaO2+PaCO2], em pacientes obesos grau III. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo aberto em pacientes adultos, obesos grau III, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico bariátrico em ventilação controlada a volume, pressão positiva no final da expiração (PEEP de 5 cmH2O e divididos em três grupos: G CONT: PEEP de 5 cmH2O; G MRA10/15/20 após sutura da aponeurose: aumento progressivo da PEEP para 10,15 e 20 cmH2O, pausa de 40 segundos e manutenção de cada valor da PEEP por 2 minutos; G MRA30: após sutura da aponeurose: aumento súbito da PEEP para 30 cmH2O, 40 segundos de pausa e manutenção da PEEP em 30 cmH2O por dois minutos. Foram analisadas as variáveis frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial média, sistólica, diastólica, pressão média das vias aéreas (P MVA e de platô (P PLAT, pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2, pressão arterial de CO2 (PaCO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 (fração inspiratória de oxigênio e soma [PaO2+PaCO2]. RESULTADOS: As variáveis que apresentaram diferença estatística significativa entre os três grupos foram: P PLAT, P MVA, PaO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 e soma [PaO2+PaCO2] (p JUSTIFICATIVAS Y OBJETIVOS: La maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar (MRA se indica en el tratamiento de atelectasias intraoperatorias. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar dos técnicas de MRA por medio de la respuesta de la relación PaO2/FiO2 y de la suma [PaO2+PaCO2], en pacientes obesos con grado III. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo abierto en pacientes adultos, obesos grado III, sometidos a procedimiento quirúrgico bariátrico en ventilación controlada a volumen, presión positiva al final de la expiración (PEEP de 5 cmH2O y divididos en tres grupos: G CONTROL: PEEP de 5 cmH2O; G MRA10

  17. Temperature sensitivity (Q10), and dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in permafrost soils with different carbon quality and under experimental warming. R. Bracho1, E.A.G Schuur1, E. Pegoraro1, K.G. Crummer1, S. Natali2, J. Zhou, Y Luo3, J. L. Wu3, M. Tiedje4, K. Konstantinidis5 1Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA. 3Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 4Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; 5Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics and School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, R. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Pegoraro, E.; Crummer, K. G.; Natali, S.; Zhou, J.; Wu, L.; Luo, Y.; Tiedje, J. M.; Konstantinidis, K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost soils contain approximately1700 Pg of carbon (C), twice the amount of C in the atmosphere. Temperatures in higher latitudes are increasing, inducing permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of previously frozen C. This process is one of the most likely positive feedbacks to climate change. Understanding the temperature sensitivity (Q10) and dynamics of SOM decomposition under warming is essential to predict the future state of the earth - climate system. Alaskan tundra soils were exposed to two winter warming (WW) seasons in the field, which warmed the soils by 4°C to 40 cm depth. Soils were obtained from three depths (0 - 15, 15 - 25 and 45 - 55 cm) and differed in initial amounts of labile and recalcitrant C. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic conditions, at 15 and 25°C over 365 days. Q10 was estimated at 14, 100 & 280 days of incubation (DOI); C fluxes were measured periodically and dynamics of SOM decomposition (C pool sizes and decay rates) were estimated by fitting a two pool C model to cumulative respired C (Ccum, mgC/ginitialC). After two WW seasons, initial C content tended to decrease through the soil profile and C:N ratio was significantly decreased in the top 15 cm. After one year of incubation, Ccum was twice as high at 25°C as at 15°C and significantly decreased with depth. No significant WW field treatment was detected, although Ccum tended to be lower in warmed soils. Labile C accounted for up to 5% of initial soil C content in the top 15 cm and decreased with depth. Soils exposed to WW had smaller labile C pools, and higher labile C decay rates in the top 25 cm. Q10 significantly decreased with time and depth as labile pool decreased, especially for WW. This decrease with time indicates a lower temperature sensitivity of the most recalcitrant C pool. The deepest WW soil layer, where warming was more pronounced, had significantly lower Q10 compared to control soils at the same depth. After two seasons, the warming treatment affected decomposition by reducing labile C pools and increasing its decay rates. Warming also reduced temperature sensitivity, showing acclimation of the most recalcitrant C pool in the tundra ecosystem.

  18. Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Gordon, E. M.; Kalu, A.; Hepp, Aloysius F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology (SORET) program is an education program involving three Historically Black Colleges and Universities and NASA's John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. These three universities; Central State University (CSU), Savannah State University (SSU) and Wilberforce University (WU) are working together with NASA Glenn to use the theme of renewable energy to improve the science, engineering and technology education of minority students and to attract minority students to these fields. In this vein, a renewable energy laboratory course is being offered at WU with the goal of giving the students of WU and CSU hands on experiences. As part of this course, the students are constructing solar light posts for a local high school with a high minority population. A Physics teacher from this school and some of his high school students are involved with this project. A lecture course on energy systems and sustainability is being developed by SSU to be delivered via distance reaming to the other institutions. Summer activities are being planned at all three institutions involving student projects in renewable energy. For example, WU students will work on a study of the synthesis and properties of photovoltaic materials. In addition, CSU will present a weeklong summer program to high school students with the assistance of WU. This presentation will focus on the student involvement and achievements in the educational area to date and plot the future course of this program.

  19. Progress toward understanding the distribution of Accumulibacter among full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaomei; Gu, April Z; McMahon, Katherine D

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Accumulibacter-related bacterial populations and factors influencing their distribution in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems in the USA. For this purpose, five full-scale wastewater treatment facilities performing EBPR were surveyed. The facilities had different configurations but were all treating primarily domestic wastewater. Two facilities had history of poor EBPR performance. Batch-scale acetate uptake and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) release and uptake experiments were conducted to evaluate the EBPR activity of each sludge. Typical P(i) and acetate profiles were observed, and EBPR activity was found to be positively correlated to polyphosphate (polyP)-accumulating organism (PAO) abundance, as determined by staining intracellular polyP. The abundance of Accumulibacter-related organisms was investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Accumulibacter-related organisms were present in all full-scale EBPR facilities, at levels ranging from 9 to 24% of total cells. More than 80% of Accumulibacter-related organisms were estimated to have high polyP content, confirming their involvement in EBPR in these five facilities. However, Accumulibacter-related PAOs were only a fraction (40-69%) of the total PAO population. The variation of Accumulibacter-related PAO abundance among these EBPR systems suggests that multiple interacting factors such as wastewater characteristics and operational conditions are structuring PAO communities.

  20. Effect of EP additives in synthetic base oils. Goseiyu ni taisuru kyokuatsuzai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, S.; Akiba, K.; Yokomori, Y. (National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Accompanying the spread of applicability of synthetic base oils, the effects of various additives on them have been discussed. As a link of a study relating to additives for synthetic oils, the anti-seizure effects of sulfur-based extreme pressure additives (abbreviated S-additives), phosphates and zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP) on three kinds of synthetic base oil- poly-[alpha] olefin (PAO), dialkyl adipate (DA), trimethylol propane ester (TMP) - were investigated in this work. In addition, various additives in these oils were compared in adsorptivity to iron powder, and pyrolytic characteristic or hydrolytic characteristic on iron powder. The anti-seizure effects of extreme pressure additives on each kind of synthetic base oil were compared as shown in the following: DA>PAO, TMP, or PAO[ge]DA>TMP in S-additives; PAO>DA, TMP in phosphates; and PAO>TMP>DA in ZDP. These relations are controlled mainly by pyrolysis in S-additives, by adsorptivity in phosphates and by both of them in ZDP. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Dietary pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides improve the pulmonary bacterial clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice by modulating intestinal microbiota and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Henry; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Bartke, Nana; Kleinjans, Lennart; Stahl, Bernd; Belzer, Clara; Knol, Jan; Gottrand, Frédéric; Husson, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    A predominantly T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response is critical in the prognosis of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. But the mucosal and systemic immune responses can be influenced by the intestinal microbiota. We assessed the effect of microbiota compositional changes induced by a diet enriched in 5% acidic oligosaccharides derived from pectin (pAOS) on the immune response and outcome of chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in mice. pAOS promoted Th1 polarization by increasing interferon γ release, upregulating t-bet gene expression, decreasing interleukin 4 secretion, and downregulating gata3 gene expression. pAOS also sustained the release of keratinocyte chemoattractant, recruited polynuclear leukocytes and macrophages, stimulated M1 macrophage activation and interleukin 10 release, and decreased tumor necrosis factor α release in the lung. These effects led to increased bacterial clearance after the first and second P. aeruginosa infections. pAOS modified the intestinal microbiota by stimulating the growth of species involved in immunity development, such as Bifidobacterium species, Sutturella wadsworthia, and Clostridium cluster XIVa organisms, and at the same time increased the production of butyrate and propionate. These results suggest that pAOS may have beneficial effects by limiting the number and severity of pulmonary exacerbations in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa, such as individuals with cystic fibrosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared.

  3. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization for efficient enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Kee Fui; Shoji, Tadashi; Ong, Ying Hui; Chua, Adeline Seak May; Yeoh, Hak Koon; Ho, Pei Yee

    2015-04-01

    A recently reported stable and efficient EBPR system at high temperatures around 30 °C has led to characterization of kinetic and stoichiometric parameters of the Activated Sludge Model no. 2d (ASM2d). Firstly, suitable model parameters were selected by identifiability analysis. Next, the model was calibrated and validated. ASM2d was found to represent the processes well at 28 and 32 °C except in polyhyroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation of the latter. The values of the kinetic parameters for PHA storage (q PHA), polyphosphate storage (q PP) and growth (μ PAO) of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at 28 and 32 °C were found to be much higher than those reported by previous studies. Besides, the value of the stoichiometric parameter for the requirement of polyphosphate for PHA storage (Y PO4) was found to decrease as temperature rose from 28 to 32 °C. Values of two other stoichiometric parameters, i.e. the growth yield of heterotrophic organisms (Y H) and PAOs (Y PAO), were high at both temperatures. These calibrated parameters imply that the extremely active PAOs of the study were able to store PHA, store polyphosphate and even utilize PHA for cell growth. Besides, the parameters do not follow the Arrhenius correlation due to the previously reported unique microbial clade at 28 and 32 °C, which actively performs EBPR at high temperatures.

  4. An efficient process for wastewater treatment to mitigate free nitrous acid generation and its inhibition on biological phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA), which is the protonated form of nitrite and inevitably produced during biological nitrogen removal, has been demonstrated to strongly inhibit the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Herein we reported an efficient process for wastewater treatment, i.e., the oxic/anoxic/oxic/extended-idle process to mitigate the generation of FNA and its inhibition on PAOs. The results showed that this new process enriched more PAOs which thereby achieved higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the conventional four-step (i.e., anaerobic/oxic/anoxic/oxic) biological nutrient removal process (41 +/- 7% versus 30 +/- 5% in abundance of PAOs and 97 +/- 0.73% versus 82 +/- 1.2% in efficiency of phosphorus removal). It was found that this new process increased pH value but decreased nitrite accumulation, resulting in the decreased FNA generation. Further experiments showed that the new process could alleviate the inhibition of FNA on the metabolisms of PAOs even under the same FNA concentration.

  5. Validity of Spo2 in Measuring of Oxygenation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pulse-oximetry (Spo2 widely uses as a help tools for therapeutic interventions in the pediatric intensive care units (PICU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of Spo2 in measuring of oxygenation index (OI in children. Materials and Methods In a descriptive analytical study, 100 patients who were admitted to PICU Tabriz Children's Hospital were studied. Oxygenation index measured by using two methods, including SpO2 which obtained from Spo2 and  partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2 which obtained from Arterial Blood Gases analysis. Results Based on findings, there was a linear correlation between SpO2 and PaO2, and also about OI which measured with Spo2 and PaO2.  Based on Receiver Operating Curve (ROC, sensitivity and specificity of OI with considering PaO2 as denominator and in values less or more than 0.145, were 100%, and 76.9%, respectively; and with considering SpO2 as denominator and in values less or more than 0.145, were 98.6%, and 67.7%, respectively. Conclusion This study indicates that SpO2 instead of pao2 for measuring OI can be useful.

  6. Microcolony imaging of Aspergillus fumigatus treated with echinocandins reveals both fungistatic and fungicidal activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The echinocandins are lipopeptides that can be employed as antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-glucans within the fungal cell wall. Anidulafungin and caspofungin are echinocandins used in the treatment of Candida infections and have activity against other fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus. The echinocandins are generally considered fungistatic against Aspergillus species. METHODS: Culture of A. fumigatus from conidia to microcolonies on a support of porous aluminium oxide (PAO, combined with fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, was used to investigate the effects of anidulafungin and caspofungin. The PAO was an effective matrix for conidial germination and microcolony growth. Additionally, PAO supports could be moved between agar plates containing different concentrations of echinocandins to change dosage and to investigate the recovery of fungal microcolonies from these drugs. Culture on PAO combined with microscopy and image analysis permits quantitative studies on microcolony growth with the flexibility of adding or removing antifungal agents, dyes, fixatives or osmotic stresses during growth with minimal disturbance of fungal microcolonies. SIGNIFICANCE: Anidulafungin and caspofungin reduced but did not halt growth at the microcony level; additionally both drugs killed individual cells, particularly at concentrations around the MIC. Intact but not lysed cells showed rapid recovery when the drugs were removed. The classification of these drugs as either fungistatic or fungicidal is simplistic. Microcolony analysis on PAO appears to be a valuable tool to investigate the action of antifungal agents.

  7. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  8. The Association Between Arterial Oxygen Tension and Neurological Outcome After Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas J; Dodampahala, Kalani; Rosselot, Babette; Perman, Sarah M; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Goyal, Munish; Gaieski, David F; Grossestreuer, Anne V

    2017-03-01

    A number of observational studies have evaluated the association between arterial oxygen tensions and outcome after cardiac arrest with variable results. The objective of this study is to determine the association between arterial oxygen tension and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the Penn Alliance for Therapeutic Hypothermia registry. Adult patients who experienced return of spontaneous circulation after in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and had a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) recorded within 48 hours were included. Our primary exposure of interest was PaO2. Hyperoxemia was defined as PaO2 > 300 mmHg, hypoxemia as PaO2 arrests were witnessed, and pulseless electrical activity was the most common initial rhythm (40%). More than 72% of the patients had cardiac etiology for their arrests, and 55% underwent targeted temperature management. A total of 38% of patients survived to hospital discharge. There was no significant association between PaO2 at any time interval and neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Hyperoxemia at 12 hours after cardiac arrest was associated with decreased odds of survival (OR 0.17 [0.03-0.89], p = 0.032). There was no significant association between arterial oxygen tension measured within the first 48 hours after cardiac arrest and neurological outcome.

  9. Role of the quorum-sensing system in experimental pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesprit, Philippe; Faurisson, Francois; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Roudot-Thoraval, Francoise; Foglino, Maryline; Vissuzaine, Christiane; Carbon, Claude

    2003-06-01

    The virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is partly controlled by the las quorum-sensing system. A rat model of acute pneumonia was used to investigate the pathophysiological impact of this system by comparing the virulence of the wild-type virulent laboratory strain PAO1 with that of its lasR-deleted mutant PAOR. In comparison with PAO1, PAOR was avirulent after an instillation of 106 cfu (mortality rates, 72 versus 0%, respectively; p < 0.0001). A ten-fold higher inoculum slightly increased the mortality rate induced by PAOR (25%), which remained lower than that induced by PAO1 (75%, p = 0.0001). In addition, with both inocula lung and bronchoalveolar lavage bacterial counts were significantly lower in rats infected with PAOR than with PAO1 (p PAO1 induced a drastic vascular congestion and neutrophil infiltration of the lungs, whereas lung injury in rats infected with PAOR was mild with predominantly macrophage infiltration. This study adds evidence that the quorum-sensing system has an important role in the pathophysiology of P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection.

  10. Polyamine Oxidase and Diamine Oxidase Activities in Human Milk during the First Month of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Dusica; Jonovic, Marina; Pop-Trajkovic, Zoran

    2012-06-01

    Human milk (HM) is the ideal food for all newborns and infants. Apart from various bioactive compounds, including cytokines, antibodies, hormones, vitamines, it also contains polyamines, such as spermine (Sp), spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put). The present study investigated polyamine metabolism in colostrum and mature human milk by measuring the polyamine oxidase (PAO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) enzyme activities, which are necessary for polyamine catabolism, as well as by determining the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, the final product of polyamine biodegradation. The PAO, DAO activity and MDA levels were quantified in colostrum (1st and 2nd day) as well as in mature human milk, 30th day of lactation. We found the steady increase of PAO activity and steady decrease of DAO activity and MDA levels during first month of lactation. Since the products of PAO activity such as, amino aldehydes and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) might have potential antimicrobial effects, promoting the oxidative stress, it is likely that human milk PAO throughout the lactation period, contributes to the protective effects of human milk.

  11. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  13. Low-Dose Oxygen Enhances Macrophage-Derived Bacterial Clearance following Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Bain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common, smoking-related lung disease. Patients with COPD frequently suffer disease exacerbations induced by bacterial respiratory infections, suggestive of impaired innate immunity. Low-dose oxygen is a mainstay of therapy during COPD exacerbations; yet we understand little about whether oxygen can modulate the effects of cigarette smoke on lung immunity. Methods. Wild-type mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 weeks, followed by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 and 21% or 35–40% oxygen. After two days, lungs were harvested for PAO1 CFUs, and bronchoalveolar fluid was sampled for inflammatory markers. In culture, macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen (40% for 24 hours and then incubated with PAO1, followed by quantification of bacterial phagocytosis and inflammatory markers. Results. Mice exposed to 35–40% oxygen after cigarette smoke and PAO1 had improved survival and reduced lung CFUs and inflammation. Macrophages from these mice expressed less TNF-α and more scavenger receptors. In culture, macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen also demonstrated decreased TNF-α secretion and enhanced phagocytosis of PAO1 bacteria. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate a novel, protective role for low-dose oxygen following cigarette smoke and bacteria exposure that may be mediated by enhanced macrophage phagocytosis.

  14. High-resolution microcontact printing and transfer of massive arrays of microorganisms on planar and compartmentalized nanoporous aluminium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Colin; Bomer, Johan; Sprenkels, Ad; van den Berg, Albert; de Vos, Willem; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan

    2010-06-07

    Handling microorganisms in high throughput and their deployment into miniaturized platforms presents significant challenges. Contact printing can be used to create dense arrays of viable microorganisms. Such "living arrays", potentially with multiple identical replicates, are useful in the selection of improved industrial microorganisms, screening antimicrobials, clinical diagnostics, strain storage, and for research into microbial genetics. A high throughput method to print microorganisms at high density was devised, employing a microscope and a stamp with a massive array of PDMS pins. Viable bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Esherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungal spores (Aspergillus fumigatus) were deposited onto porous aluminium oxide (PAO) using arrays of pins with areas from 5 x 5 to 20 x 20 microm. Printing onto PAO with up to 8100 pins of 20 x 20 microm area with 3 replicates was achieved. Printing with up to 200 pins onto PAO culture chips (divided into 40 x 40 microm culture areas) allowed inoculation followed by effective segregation of microcolonies during outgrowth. Additionally, it was possible to print mixtures of C. albicans and spores of A. fumigatus with a degree of selectivity by capture onto a chemically modified PAO surface. High resolution printing of microorganisms within segregated compartments and on functionalized PAO surfaces has significant advantages over what is possible on semi-solid surfaces such as agar.

  15. Implementation of envelope detection based Wake-Up Receiver for IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN from off-the-shelf components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption in wireless networks is crucial. In most scenarios the transmission time is short compared to the idle listening time for data transmission, the most power is consumed by the receiver. In low latency systems there is a need for low power wake-up receivers (WuRx that reduce the power consumption when the node is idle, but keep it responsive. This work presents a WuRx designed out of commercial components to investigate the needs of a WuRx when it is embedded in a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN system in a real environment setup including WLAN and LTE communication and considering interferer rejection. The calculation necessary for the attenuation of those interferers is explained in detail. Furthermore, a system design is presented that fulfills the requirements for this environment and is build from off-the-shelf components.

  16. Regulation of alternative oxidase at the transcription stage in Aspergillus niger under the conditions of citric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takasumi; Kino, Kuniki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2009-04-01

    The citric acid-producing fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L possesses a cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway catalyzed by alternative oxidase. The regulation of the alternative oxidase under the conditions of citric acid production was determined from the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1). PCR and Southern blot analyses revealed that there is only one copy of aox1 on the chromosome of WU-2223L and no homologous gene of aox1. To confirm the regulation stage of alternative oxidase, alternative oxidase activities and aox1 transcription levels were measured under several cultivation conditions, including those for citric acid production. On each cultivation day, the changes in the specific activity of the alternative oxidase were found to be comparable to those in the transcription level of aox1. These results indicate that the activity of the alternative oxidase encoded by aox1 is regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for A. niger WU-2223L.

  17. Correction: Long, H. et al. More Wind Power Integration with Adjusted Energy Carriers for Space Heating in Northern China. Energies 2012, 5, 3279-3294.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the original version of the article published in Energies [1], insufficient acknowledgement was given for the contributors Mr. Li Guo and Prof. Kai Wu in Xi’an Jiaotong University. The main work was completed by the research group in Xi’an Jiaotong University led by Prof. Kai Wu.  Mr. Li Guo was his master student who gave a lot of efforts in the measurement of daily loads of heating and electricity in different families, and his data was used in Section 2.1. Prof. Kai Wu was involved in the whole work; he put forward the basic idea, made the research plan and participated in the detailed discussion about the algorithm for calculation. [...

  18. Implementation of envelope detection based Wake-Up Receiver for IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN from off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Josua; Krystofiak, Lukas; Bonehi, Vahid; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Power consumption in wireless networks is crucial. In most scenarios the transmission time is short compared to the idle listening time for data transmission, the most power is consumed by the receiver. In low latency systems there is a need for low power wake-up receivers (WuRx) that reduce the power consumption when the node is idle, but keep it responsive. This work presents a WuRx designed out of commercial components to investigate the needs of a WuRx when it is embedded in a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) system in a real environment setup including WLAN and LTE communication and considering interferer rejection. The calculation necessary for the attenuation of those interferers is explained in detail. Furthermore, a system design is presented that fulfills the requirements for this environment and is build from off-the-shelf components.

  19. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process; Efecto del proceso de eliminacion biologica de fosforo en enfluentes con elevadas concentraciones de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya Martinez, T.; Aguado Garcia, D.; Ferrer Polo, J.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the Y{sub P}O4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant Y{sub P}O4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  20. [Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-07-01

    As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor.

  1. Is Cup Positioning Challenged in Hips Previously Treated With Periacetabular Osteotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Stilling, Maiken; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    After periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), some patients develop osteoarthritis with need of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). We evaluated the outcome of THA following PAO and explored factors associated with inferior cup position and increased polyethylene wear. Follow-up were performed 4 to 10years...... after THA in 34 patients (38 hips) with previous PAO. Computer analysis evaluated cup position and wear rates. No patient had dislocations or revision surgery. Median scores were: Harris hip 96, Oxford hip 38 and WOMAC 78. Mean cup anteversion and abduction angles were 22(o) (range 7°-43°) and 45......° (range 28°-65°). Outliers of cup abduction were associated with persisting dysplasia (CE...

  2. Hip dysplasia in wrestlers: three lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Clohisy, John C; Kim, Young-Jo; Gwathmey, F Winston; Jones, Kay S; Millis, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Hip problems due to dysplasia are commonly associated with female athletes in sports demanding supraphysiologic motion, such as ballet, gymnastics and figure skating. However, hip problems are rarely mentioned among wrestlers, a male sport in which flexibility is advantageous. Dysplasia may have a mostly unrecognized prevalence among wrestlers that can lead to problems and benefit from reorientation periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Study design in this research is Level 4 evidence case reports. Three consecutive intercollegiate wrestlers ages 20, 21 and 22 years underwent PAO for dysplasia and are reported. Two underwent concomitant arthroscopy. Each returned successfully to intercollegiate wrestling at 6, 8 and 11 months. There were no complications. This work concludes that dysplasia has an unknown but mostly unrecognized prevalence among wrestlers. With proper recognition and treatment with PAO, there is a reasonable expectation that they could return to wrestling.

  3. Transparent Aluminum Oxide Films by Edge Anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jonathan; Greenwood, Thomas; Winn, David

    In this paper we present our recent work on manufacturing thin (3 - 5 μm) films of porous aluminum(III) oxide [PAO] using a novel edge-anodization technique. With this modified anodization process, we are able to create transparent PAO films on top of insulating substrates such as glass or plastic. By controlling the processing parameters, the index of refraction of PAO films can be engineered to match the substrate, which gives us a durable reflection-free and scratch-resistant coating over conventional optics or LCD displays. Eventually we hope to create ordered porous aluminum oxide cladding around an optical fiber core, which could have a number of interesting optical properties if the pore spacing can be matched to the wavelength of light in the fiber. This work was funded by Fairfield University startup funding.

  4. Performance evaluation and comparative analysis of SubCarrier Modulation Wake-up Radio systems for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Joaquim; Demirkol, Ilker; Casademont, Jordi; Paradells, Josep; Gamm, Gerd Ulrich; Reindl, Leonhard

    2013-12-19

    Energy-efficient communication is one of the main concerns of wireless sensor networks nowadays. A commonly employed approach for achieving energy efficiency has been the use of duty-cycled operation of the radio, where the node's transceiver is turned off and on regularly, listening to the radio channel for possible incoming communication during its on-state. Nonetheless, such a paradigm performs poorly for scenarios of low or bursty traffic because of unnecessary activations of the radio transceiver. As an alternative technology, Wake-up Radio (WuR) systems present a promising energy-efficient network operation, where target devices are only activated in an on-demand fashion by means of a special radio signal and a WuR receiver. In this paper, we analyze a novel wake-up radio approach that integrates both data communication and wake-up functionalities into one platform, providing a reconfigurable radio operation. Through physical experiments, we characterize the delay, current consumption and overall operational range performance of this approach under different transmit power levels. We also present an actual single-hop WuR application scenario, as well as demonstrate the first true multi-hop capabilities of a WuR platform and simulate its performance in a multi-hop scenario. Finally, by thorough qualitative comparisons to the most relevant WuR proposals in the literature, we state that the proposed WuR system stands out as a strong candidate for any application requiring energy-efficient wireless sensor node communications.

  5. Performance Evaluation and Comparative Analysis of SubCarrier Modulation Wake-up Radio Systems for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Oller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient communication is one of the main concerns of wireless sensor networks nowadays. A commonly employed approach for achieving energy efficiency has been the use of duty-cycled operation of the radio, where the node’s transceiver is turned off and on regularly, listening to the radio channel for possible incoming communication during its on-state. Nonetheless, such a paradigm performs poorly for scenarios of low or bursty traffic because of unnecessary activations of the radio transceiver. As an alternative technology, Wake-up Radio (WuR systems present a promising energy-efficient network operation, where target devices are only activated in an on-demand fashion by means of a special radio signal and a WuR receiver. In this paper, we analyze a novel wake-up radio approach that integrates both data communication and wake-up functionalities into one platform, providing a reconfigurable radio operation. Through physical experiments, we characterize the delay, current consumption and overall operational range performance of this approach under different transmit power levels. We also present an actual single-hop WuR application scenario, as well as demonstrate the first true multi-hop capabilities of a WuR platform and simulate its performance in a multi-hop scenario. Finally, by thorough qualitative comparisons to the most relevant WuR proposals in the literature, we state that the proposed WuR system stands out as a strong candidate for any application requiring energy-efficient wireless sensor node communications.

  6. A pilot assessment of alpha-stat vs pH-stat arterial blood gas analysis after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Glenn M; Suzuki, Satoshi; Lluch, Cristina; Schneider, Antoine G; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-02-01

    Resuscitated cardiac arrest (CA) patients typically receive therapeutic hypothermia, but arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often assessed after adjustment to 37°C (alpha-stat) instead of actual body temperature (pH-stat). We sought to compare alpha-stat and pH-stat assessment of PaO2 and PaCO2 in such patients. Using ABG data obtained during the first 24 hours of intensive care unit admission, we determined the impact of measured alpha vs calculated pH-stat on PaO2 and PaCO2 on patient classification and outcomes for CA patients. We assessed 1013 ABGs from 120 CA patients with a median age of patients 66 years (interquartile range, 50-76). Median alpha-stat PaO2 changed from 122 (95-156) to 107 (82-143) mm Hg with pH-stat and median PaCO2 from 39 (34-46) to 35 (30-41) mm Hg (both P < .001). Using the categories of hyperoxemia, normoxemia, and hypoxemia, pH-stat estimation of PaO2 reclassified approximately 20% of patients. Using the categories of hypercapnia, normocapnia, and hypocapnia, pH stat estimation of PaCO2 reclassified approximately 40% of patients. The mortality of patients in different PaO2 and PaCO2 categories was similar for pH-stat and alpha-stat. Using the pH-stat method, fewer resuscitated CA patients admitted to intensive care unit were classified as hyperoxemic or hypercapnic compared with alpha-stat. These findings suggest an impact of ABG assessment methodology on PaO2, PaCO2 , and patient classification but not on associated outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  8. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set.

  9. Patient-oriented rehabilitation in the management of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, M; Tavernese, E; Cacchio, A; Tattoli, M; Melis, L; Ronconi, R; Santilli, V

    2013-06-01

    Management of chronic mechanical neck pain (CMNP) still represents a challenge. A patient-oriented (Pa-O) therapeutic approach could be considered as the one in which therapies are scheduled at the start of each therapeutic session according to the patient's current physical status, and differs from a prescription-oriented (Pr-O) therapeutic approach, in which therapies are prescribed at the first medical referral and are not adjusted at any time during the treatment period. To determine if a Pa-O approach may be more beneficial for CMNP patients when compared to a Pr-O one. Randomized controlled trial. 220 CMNP outpatients randomized to either Pa-O group (N.=114) or Pr-O group (N.=106). Each group received 10 therapeutic sessions over 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain assessment, evaluated by Visual-Analog-Scale (VAS), and disability level, evaluated by the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS-I). Secondary outcome measures included patients' response to treatment and treatment failures. Measurements were carried out at baseline (T0) and 1 month after treatment ended (T1). Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Patients in both groups displayed at T1 a significant reduction in VAS and NPDS-I scores. The relative changes at T1 were greater in Pa-O group when compared with Pr-O group both for VAS (61.5% versus 48.8%; Pup in suffers from CMNP. However, the occurrence of a performance-bias due to the increased level of attention from physicians to patients in Pa-O group, cannot be ruled-out. A Pa-O approach should be considered for CMNP also in an outpatient facility.

  10. Modelling the population dynamics and metabolic diversity of organisms relevant in anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, A; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Carvalho, G; Reis, M A M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-08-01

    In this study, enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) metabolic models are expanded in order to incorporate the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) under sequential anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions, which are representative of most full-scale EBPR plants. Since PAOs and GAOs display different denitrification tendencies, which is dependent on the phylogenetic identity of the organism, the model was separated into six distinct biomass groups, constituting Accumulibacter Types I and II, as well as denitrifying and non-denitrifying Competibacter and Defluviicoccus GAOs. Denitrification was modelled as a multi-step process, with nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and di-nitrogen gas (N(2)) being the primary components. The model was calibrated and validated using literature data from enriched cultures of PAOs and GAOs, obtaining a good description of the observed biochemical transformations. A strong correlation was observed between Accumulibacter Types I and II, and nitrate-reducing and non-nitrate-reducing PAOs, respectively, where the abundance of each PAO subgroup was well predicted by the model during an acclimatization period from anaerobic-aerobic to anaerobic-anoxic conditions. Interestingly, a strong interdependency was observed between the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic kinetic parameters of PAOs and GAOs. This could be exploited when metabolic models are calibrated, since all of these parameters should be changed by an identical factor from their default value. Factors that influence these kinetic parameters include the fraction of active biomass, relative aerobic/anoxic fraction and the ratio of acetyl-CoA to propionyl-CoA. Employing a metabolic approach was found to be advantageous in describing the performance and population dynamics in such complex microbial ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling the metabolic shift of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, B; Borrás, L; Oehmen, A; Barat, R

    2014-11-15

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most important methods of phosphorus removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants, having been described by different modelling approaches. In this process, the PAOs (polyphosphate accumulating organisms) and GAOs (glycogen accumulating organisms) compete for volatile fatty acids uptake under anaerobic conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the metabolic pathways used by PAOs in order to obtain the energy and the reducing power needed for polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis could change depending on the amount of polyphosphate stored in the cells. The model presented in this paper extends beyond previously developed metabolic models by including the ability of PAO to change their metabolic pathways according to the content of poly-P available. The processes of the PAO metabolic model were adapted to new formulations enabling the change from P-driven VFA uptake to glycogen-driven VFA uptake using the same process equations. The stoichiometric parameters were changed from a typical PAO coefficient to a typical GAO coefficient depending on the internal poly-P with Monod-type expressions. The model was calibrated and validated with seven experiments under different internal poly-P concentrations, showing the ability to correctly represent the PAO metabolic shift at low poly-P concentrations. The sensitivity and error analysis showed that the model is robust and has the ability to describe satisfactorily the change from one metabolic pathway to the other one, thereby encompassing a wider range of process conditions found in EBPR plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strain-dependent induction of neutrophil histamine production and cell death by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Hong; Song, Yuanlin; Lynch, Susan V.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Caughey, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Airway diseases often feature persistent neutrophilic inflammation and infection. In cystic fibrosis bronchitis, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated frequently. Previously, this laboratory revealed that neutrophils become major sources of histamine in mice with tracheobronchitis caused by the wall-less bacterium Mycoplasma pulmonis. To test the hypothesis that more-broadly pathogenic P. aeruginosa (which expresses cell wall-associated LPS and novel toxins) has similar effects, we incubated naïve mouse neutrophils with two strains of P. aeruginosa. Strain PAO1 greatly increased neutrophil histamine content and secretion, whereas strain PA103 depressed histamine production by killing neutrophils. The histamine-stimulating capacity of PAO1, but not PA103-mediated toxicity, persisted in heat-killed organisms. In PAO1-infected mice, lung and neutrophil histamine content increased. However, PAO1 did not alter production by mast cells (classical histamine reservoirs), which also resisted PA103 toxicity. To explore mechanisms of neutrophil-selective induction, we measured changes in mRNA encoding histidine decarboxylase (rate-limiting for histamine synthesis), probed involvement of endotoxin-TLR pathways in Myd88-deficient neutrophils, and examined contributions of pyocyanin and exotoxins. Results revealed that PAO1 increased histamine production by up-regulating histidine decarboxylase mRNA via pathways largely independent of TLR, pyocyanin, and type III secretion system exotoxins. PAO1 also increased histidine decarboxylase mRNA in neutrophils purified from infected lung. Stimulation required direct contact with neutrophils and was blocked by phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. In summary, Pseudomonas-augmented histamine production by neutrophils is strain-dependent in vitro and likely mediated by up-regulation of histidine decarboxylase. These findings raise the possibility that Pseudomonas-stimulated neutrophils can enhance airway inflammation by

  13. Inhibition of polyamine oxidase activity affects tumor development during the maize-Ustilago maydis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Robles, Francisco Ignacio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; García de la Cruz, Ramón Fernando; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2016-05-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic plant pathogenic fungus that leads to tumor development in the aerial tissues of its host, Zea mays. These tumors are the result of cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and are accompanied by the reprograming of primary and secondary metabolism of infected plants. Up to now, little is known regarding key plant actors and their role in tumor development during the interaction with U. maydis. Polyamines are small aliphatic amines that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. In a previous study, we found substantial increases of polyamine levels in tumors. In the present work, we describe the maize polyamine oxidase (PAO) gene family, its contribution to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and its possible role in tumor development induced by U. maydis. Histochemical analysis revealed that chlorotic lesions and maize tumors induced by U. maydis accumulate H2O2 to significant levels. Maize plants inoculated with U. maydis and treated with the PAO inhibitor 1,8-diaminooctane exhibit a notable reduction of H2O2 accumulation in infected tissues and a significant drop in PAO activity. This treatment also reduced disease symptoms in infected plants. Finally, among six maize PAO genes only the ZmPAO1, which encodes an extracellular enzyme, is up-regulated in tumors. Our data suggest that H2O2 produced through PA catabolism by ZmPAO1 plays an important role in tumor development during the maize-U. maydis interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pectin-Derived Acidic Oligosaccharides Improve the Outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bernard

    Full Text Available The administration of prebiotics as oligosaccharides (OS, by acting on intestinal microbiota, could modulate the immune and inflammatory response and represent a new strategy to improve the outcome of bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS could modulate the outcome of pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA infection in C57BL/6 mice, which develop a Th1 response to PA lung infection. Mice were randomized for 5 weeks to consume a control or a 5% pAOS diet and chronically infected by PA. Resistance to a second PA infection was also analyzed by reinfecting the surviving mice 2 weeks after the first infection. Compared with control mice, mice fed pAOS had reduced mortality (P<0.05. This improvement correlated with a better control of the inflammatory response with a lower neutrophil count on day 1 (P<0.05, a sustained neutrophil and macrophage recruitment on days 2 and 3 (P<0.01 a greater and sustained IL-10 release in lung (P<0.05 and a reduction of the Th1 response and M1 activation with a lower IFN-γ/IL-4 (P<0.01 and nos2/arg1 (P<0.05 ratios. These results coincided with a modulation of the intestinal microbiota as shown by an increased butyric acid concentration in feces (P<0.05. Moreover, pAOS decreased the bacterial load (P<0.01 in mice reinfected 2 weeks after the first infection, suggesting that pAOS could reduce pulmonary exacerbations. In conclusion, pAOS improved the outcome of PA infection in C57BL/6 mice by modulating the intestinal microbiota and the inflammatory and immune responses.

  15. Severe Pulmonary Arteriopathy Is Associated with Persistent Hypoxemia after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Jujo

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is characterized by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by organized chronic thrombi. Persistent hypoxemia and residual pulmonary hypertension (PH following successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA are clinically important problems; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously reported that residual PH is closely related to severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypothesize that this arteriopathy might also be involved in impaired gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hypoxemia and pulmonary arteriopathy after PEA.Between December 2011 and November 2014, 23 CTEPH patients underwent PEA and lung biopsy. The extent of pulmonary arteriopathy was quantified pathologically in lung biopsy specimens. We then analyzed the relationship between the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy and gas exchange after PEA. We observed that the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was negatively correlated with postoperative and follow-up PaO2 (postoperative PaO2: r = -0.73, p = 0.0004; follow-up PaO2: r = -0.66, p = 0.001, but not with preoperative PaO2 (r = -0.373, p = 0.08. Multivariate analysis revealed that the obstruction ratio and patient age were determinants of PaO2 one month after PEA (R2 = 0.651, p = 0.00009. Furthermore, the obstruction ratio and improvement of pulmonary vascular resistance were determinants of PaO2 at follow-up (R2 = 0.545, p = 0.0002. Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and impair diffusion capacity, resulting in hypoxemia following PEA.The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was closely associated with postoperative and follow-up hypoxemia.

  16. On the security of a novel probabilistic signature based on bilinear square Diffie-Hellman problem and its extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo; Shi, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic signature scheme has been widely used in modern electronic commerce since it could provide integrity, authenticity, and nonrepudiation. Recently, Wu and Lin proposed a novel probabilistic signature (PS) scheme using the bilinear square Diffie-Hellman (BSDH) problem. They also extended it to a universal designated verifier signature (UDVS) scheme. In this paper, we analyze the security of Wu et al.'s PS scheme and UDVS scheme. Through concrete attacks, we demonstrate both of their schemes are not unforgeable. The security analysis shows that their schemes are not suitable for practical applications.

  17. Methods for space-time parameter estimation in DS-CDMA arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Rui Wu tutki väitöstyössään radiokanavan eri ominaisuuksien arviointia. Tietämys radiokanavan ominaisuuksista on monesti välttämätöntä, jotta radiovastaanottimen vastaanottama signaali voidaan purkaa ymmärrettävään muotoon. Wu tutki hajaspektrijärjestelmiä, joissa esimerkiksi puhe- tai datasignaalin kaistanleveys moninkertaistetaan radiolähettimessä. Näin tehdään muun muassa jo toiminnassa olevissa 3G-puhelimissa ja -tukiasemissa. Kaistanleveyden moninkertaistamisella pyritään satunnaistamaan...

  18. Chemically Tunable 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    2015, 44, 5861- 5896. 18 J. Zhao, Z. Wang, J. C. White and B. Xing , Environ. Sci. Techno/., 2014, 48, 9995-10009. 19 V. C. Sanchez, A. jachak, R. H...143. 117 T. Tong, A. Shereef, J. Wu , C. T. T. Binh, J. J. Kelly, J.-F. Gaillard and K. A. Gray, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47, 12486- 12495. 118...S. Liu, M. Hu, T. H. Zeng, R. Wu , R. Jiang,]. Wei, L. Wang, J. Kong andY. Chen, Langmuir, 2012, 28, 12364- 12372. 119 ]. Fan, Y. Li, H. N. Nguyen, Y

  19. Fuzzy linear programming approach for solving transportation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALI EBRAHIMNEJAD

    DEFINITION 2.3 ([28]). Let ˜AL ∈ FT N (wL) and ˜AU ∈ FT N (wU ). A level (wL, wU )- interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy number ˜˜A, denoted by ˜˜A = [. ˜AL, ˜AU. ] = 〈. (aL ...... Appl. Math. Sci. 4(2): 79–90. [14] Kumar A and Kaur A 2010 Application of linear program- ming for solving fuzzy transportation problems. J. Appl. Math.

  20. Some Applications of Generalized Char-Sets of Ordinary Differential Polynomial Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Farkhanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of characteristic sets, which are a special kind of triangular sets, is introduced by J. F Ritt and W.T. Wu. Wu extended Ritt’s work and developed the characteristic set method not only in theory but in algorithms, efficiency and its numerous applications. Triangular sets are widely considered as a good representation for the solution of polynomial systems. After the introduction of characteristic sets by Ritt, triangular sets have become an alternative tool for representing the ideal besides the Gröbner bases. This paper is about implementation and applications of generalized characteristic sets of ordinary differential polynomial sets defined by author.

  1. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu,Zheng-Yi; Wu,Xiao-liang; Lu,Xiao-Yang; Zhang,Xing-Guo; Wu,Bao-hua

    2014-01-01

    Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on drug removal is complicated...

  2. Retinal Drug Delivery System, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    B.M. Wu, S.W. Borland, B.M. Wu, L.G. Cima, E.M. Sachs, M.J. Cima, "Mechanical Properties of Dense Polylactic Acid Structures Fabricated by Three...constant drug release of 80 .Lg/day was achieved. This research project demonstrated the potential of the TheriForm process to manufacture unique...and 5% have dose-limiting thrombocytopenia.’ In addition , systemic drugs usually have to be administered frequently. For example, ganciclovir has a

  3. Lumped-parameter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. The lumped-parameter model development have been reported by (Wolf 1991b; Wolf 1991a; Wolf and Paronesso 1991; Wolf and Paronesso 1992......; Wolf 1994; Wolf 1997; Wu and Lee 2002; Wu and Lee 2004). In this technical report the the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation (Section 1.1), Simple lumped-parameter models (Section 1.2) and Advanced...... lumped-parameter models (Section 1.3)....

  4. From the transnational to the Sinophone: lesbian representations in Chinese-language films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alvin Ka Hin

    2012-01-01

    This article theorizes global lesbian cinema in Chinese-language films through regionalism, diaspora studies, and Sinophone studies. Through an inter-regional analysis of Butterfly (Yan Yan Mak, 2004, Hong Kong) and diasporic and Sinophone readings of Saving Face (Alice Wu, 2005, USA), I argue that Mak's film illustrates a Hong Kong regional retranslation of a Taiwanese lesbian story, which complicates any claim to a stable "Chinese" identity. Finally, Wu's representation of lesbianism also troubles the politics of Chineseness by pointing to the ways diasporic reproduction of "community" works through the disciplining of other non-normative sexualities.

  5. The Explicit and Implicit Qualities of Alternative Fuels: Issues to Consider for Their Use in Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    petroleum diesel) for a diesel-like biofuel derived from pyrolysis (Adebanjo et al. 2005), making the validity of the cetane index from such fuels...engine performance. F-T fuel has a 2.7% higher gravimetric energy density (Wu et al. 2007) and engine thermal efficiency (Abu-Jrai et al. 2006). Based...6), the volumetric energy density of F-T is 14% lower than diesel, even though the gravimetric energy density of F-T is 2.7% higher (Wu et al. 2007

  6. 0173 Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Morten Vejs; Schlünssen, Vivi; Basinas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    (n = 751), and 3 occupational levels: sector (n = 7), profession (n = 46), and job title (n = 77). Exposures, calculated as means of items scored on 5-point Likert scales, included psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, effort, reward, and procedural and relational justice......); 0.12(jt), procedural justice: 0.24(wu); 0.14(jt), and relational justice: 0.29(wu); 0.04(jt). CONCLUSIONS: Grouping by work unit gave the most consistent contrasts (0.19-0.29), while grouping by job title varied considerably (0.04-0.32). These preliminary findings suggest that grouping by work unit...

  7. Return to Play After Periacetabular Osteotomy for Treatment of Acetabular Dysplasia in Adolescent and Young Adult Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Benton E; Novais, Eduardo N; Murray, Kerri; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Zurakowski, David; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo

    2016-06-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective surgical treatment option for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Little evidence exists regarding the results of PAO and rates of return to play (RTP) in an athletic population. The majority of athletes will demonstrate improvements in functional outcome measures, such as the modified Harris Hip Score and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and will be able to return to sports after PAO. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A comprehensive surgical hip database at an academic referral center was used to identify a subpopulation of athletes on whom PAO was performed. Data analyzed included preceding surgeries, reoperations, and RTP timing and features. Standard pre- and postoperative radiologic parameters and validated functional outcome measures were assessed, and a regression model assessed risk factors for prolonged time to RTP. Of 245 PAOs performed over the 5-year study period, 46 were performed in 41 patients who met inclusion criteria for being an athlete (mean age, 26.2 years; range, 13-41 years; 36 females; 19% of all PAOs), representing a variety of sports. Prior surgery had been performed on 9 hips (20%). Only 1 post-PAO procedure (2%), excision of heterotopic ossification, was performed during the study period. At final follow-up (median, 3.1 years; range, 1.2-4.4 years), significant mean improvements were observed in modified Harris Hip Score (from 71 to 90; P athletes, 27 (73%) returned to the same level, although this was significantly less common (P = .06) in competitive athletes (11 of 19; 58%) than in recreational athletes (16 of 18; 89%). Among those who did return at the same level, 23 of 27 (85%) were able to maintain this level over time, but this was not significantly different between competitive (8 of 11; 73%) and recreational (15 of 16; 94%) athletes (P = .27). Most athletic patients undergoing PAO are female patients and show postoperative improvements in function and

  8. [Review on the main microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Zhu, Wei-Jing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is applied widely for removing phosphorus from wastewater. Studies on functional microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms are fundamental to effective regulation for stable operation and performance improvement of EBPR process. Two main types of microorganisms in EBPR systems, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were selected to summarize their metabolic mechanisms such as substrate uptake mechanisms, glycogen degradation pathways, extent of TCA cycle involvement and metabolic similarity between PAOs and GAOs. Application of molecular biology techniques in microbiology and metabolic mechanisms involved in the EBPR system was evaluated. Potential future research areas for the EBPR system and process optimization were also proposed.

  9. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Gladkochub; T. V. Donskaya; Shihong Zhang; S. A. Pisarevsky; A. M. Stanevich; A. M. Mazukabzov; Z. L. Motova

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC) is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB) on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan ...

  10. Metagenomics and in situ analyses reveal Propionivibrio spp. to be abundant GAO in biological wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely applied for phosphorus removal from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth. However, glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) may...... and genome annotation supported that the “Ca. Accumulibacter” and Propionivibrio were behaving as PAO and GAO, respectively. FISH analyses of full-scale EBPR systems revealed that Propionivibrio spp. can be abundant. The discovery of Propionivibrio, a putative GAO closely related to “Ca. Accumulibacter...

  11. Effects of ambroxol on biofilm adhesion and viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing defective strain

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qi; Hai-ying ZHONG; Lin, Li-Hua; Ya-yin LIN; Xi-qiang YANG; Yu, Jia-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ambroxol on the biofilm viability and pristine adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild (PAO1) and quorum sensing defective strain (QS, gene deletion of ∆lasI and ∆rhlI). Methods The biofilm was treated by different concentrations (0, 1.875, 3.75mg/ml) of ambroxol. The number of colony was measured with agar plate, multifunction fluorometer was used to measure the fluorescence intensity of PAO1 and QS strains at the bottom of 96-well plate. The adhesion ...

  12. Lack of arterial PO2 downregulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during long-term normoxia and hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, T; Rosseland, B O; Kiessling, A; Djordevic, B; Massabau, J C

    2010-12-01

    Regulation of arterial partial pressure of O2 (PaO2) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated during resting conditions in normoxic and hyperoxic water. Dorsal aorta cannulated adult Atlantic salmon (1.2-1.6 kg, n=8) were exposed to 2 week sequential periods of normoxia [16.7±1.1 kPa (mean±SD)] and hyperoxia (34.1±4.9 kPa) in individual tanks containing seawater (33.7±0.2 ppt) at stable temperature conditions (8.7±0.7°C) and a light regime of L:D=12:12. Tank design and sampling procedures were optimized to provide suitable shelter and current for the fish, and to allow repeated, undisturbed sampling of blood from free-swimming fish. Fish were sampled regularly through the experimental period. PwO2, PaO2, blood ion composition (Na+, K+, Cl-), acid-base status (pH, PCO2, HCO3-), haematocrit and glucose were measured. The most frequently observed PaO2 values were in the range of 60-80% of PwO2, both during normoxia and hyperoxia, and PaO2 values were significantly lower during normoxia than during hyperoxia. Blood pH, PCO2 and HCO3- were significantly elevated during hyperoxia, while, Na+, Cl- and Hct were significantly lower. K+ and glucose showed no significant differences. This study demonstrates a lack PaO2 regulation in Atlantic salmon to low partial pressures, in contrast to previous reports for many aquatic gill breathing animals. Both during normoxia and hyperoxia, PaO2 reflects PwO2, and alterations in external PO2 consequently result in proportional arterial PO2 changes. Physiological adaptation to hyperoxia, as illustrated by changes in several blood parameters, does not include down-regulation of PaO2 in Atlantic salmon. The lack of PaO2 regulation may make Atlantic salmon vulnerable to the oxidative stress caused by increased free radical formation in hyperoxic conditions.

  13. Collective Protection Factors Methodology Development Using High Concentration Polydisperse Inert Aerosols: Results of FY09 Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    at 0.528 urn mass median aerodynamic diameter ( MMAD ) and sodium fluorcscein dye at 2.4 urn MMAD were disseminated using an industry standard ATI-TDA...aerosol MMAD of 2.4 jam and a log geometric standard deviation (ag) of 1.7 jam 31 15. APS mass size distribution comparison of sodium fluorescein in the...1 at 1134 h on 5 October 2009, illustrate the limited utility of the APS for monitoring PAO. The manufacturer reported NMD and MMAD for PAO at 0.245

  14. Chemotaxis and Binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Scratch-Wounded Human Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwarzer

    Full Text Available Confocal imaging was used to characterize interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA, expressing GFP or labeled with Syto 11 with CF airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o-, grown as confluent monolayers with unknown polarity on coverglasses in control conditions and following scratch wounding. Epithelia and PAO1-GFP or PAK-GFP (2 MOI were incubated with Ringer containing typical extracellular salts, pH and glucose and propidium iodide (PI, to identify dead cells. PAO1 and PAK swam randomly over and did not bind to nonwounded CFBE41o- cells. PA migrated rapidly (began within 20 sec, maximum by 5 mins and massively (10-80 fold increase, termed "swarming", but transiently (random swimming after 15 mins, to wounds, particularly near cells that took up PI. Some PA remained immobilized on cells near the wound. PA swam randomly over intact CFBE41o- monolayers and wounded monolayers that had been incubated with medium for 1 hr. Expression of CFTR and altered pH of the media did not affect PA interactions with CFBE41o- wounds. In contrast, PAO1 swarming and immobilization along wounds was abolished in PAO1 (PAO1ΔcheYZABW, no expression of chemotaxis regulatory components cheY, cheZ, cheA, cheB and cheW and greatly reduced in PAO1 that did not express amino acid receptors pctA, B and C (PAO1ΔpctABC and in PAO1 incubated in Ringer containing a high concentration of mixed amino acids. Non-piliated PAKΔpilA swarmed normally towards wounded areas but bound infrequently to CFBE41o- cells. In contrast, both swarming and binding of PA to CFBE41o- cells near wounds were prevented in non-flagellated PAKΔfliC. Data are consistent with the idea that (i PA use amino acid sensor-driven chemotaxis and flagella-driven swimming to swarm to CF airway epithelial cells near wounds and (ii PA use pili to bind to epithelial cells near wounds.

  15. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    OpenAIRE

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P D

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature...

  16. USAF Summer Research Program - 1995 High School Apprenticeship Program Final Reports, Volume 12A, Armstrong Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    soy agar (TSA) and peptone glucose acid agar (PGAA) were prepared in order to grow the bacteria and the yeast. Both PAO-1 and Fleischmann’s Yeast was...to use liquid cultures, peptone glucose acid broth(PGAB) and tryptic soy broth(TSB), to grow the yeast and PAO-1 cells. PGAB and TSB were each placed...consistent, but this is not the case (Caplan 1985). Many researchers find that there are no differences in spatial abilities but do not publish their work

  17. Early Functional Outcomes of Periacetabular Osteotomy After Failed Hip Arthroscopic Surgery for Symptomatic Acetabular Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Fields, Kara G; Wentzel, Catherine; Kelly, Bryan T; Sink, Ernest L

    2017-09-01

    Persistent acetabular dysplasia is a common reason for the failure of hip arthroscopic surgery; however, the effect of prior hip arthroscopic surgery on functional outcomes after subsequent periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is unknown. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to (1) compare demographic and radiological findings in patients who had and had not undergone previous hip arthroscopic surgery before PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia and (2) compare the short-term, hip-specific patient-reported outcomes in these same patient populations. It was hypothesized that prior hip arthroscopic surgery is associated with worse early functional outcomes in PAO. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective cohort study design was utilized. Patients undergoing PAO were enrolled from a single-center, prospective hip preservation registry from March 2011 to April 2015. Patients with a minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up with preoperative and postoperative outcome scores undergoing PAO were eligible for inclusion (n = 93 patients; mean clinical follow-up, 24 months [range, 11-58 months]). The study group consisted of patients undergoing PAO for symptomatic hip dysplasia after prior hip arthroscopic surgery (PREVSCOPE group; 22 patients, 25 hips). Patients undergoing PAO without prior hip arthroscopic surgery (PAOALONE group; 71 patients, 85 hips) were included as a comparison group. Demographic and radiological variables were recorded. Postoperative functional outcome scores (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS], Hip Outcome Score [HOS], and International Hip Outcome Tool [iHOT-33]) were recorded at 6 months and annually postoperatively. There were no demographic differences between the 2 groups at baseline. Acetabular version, femoral version, Tönnis grade, preoperative lateral center edge angle, and intraoperative procedures were not different between the 2 groups. At 1-year follow-up from the last hip surgical procedure, the mean (±SD) mHHS (73 ± 14

  18. Continuous distending pressure effects on variables contributing to oxygenation in healthy and ARDS model pigs during HFOV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Marianna; Hajny, Ondrej; Roubik, Karel

    2014-10-01

    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation. HFOV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and may represent an effective lung-protective ventilation in patients where conventional ventilation is failing. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on variables that contribute to the oxygenation in healthy and ARDS lung model pigs. Methods. In order to simulate a lung disease, lung injury was induced by lavage with normal saline with detergent in three pigs. HFOV ventilation was applied before and after the lung lavage. CDP was stepwise increased by 2 cmH2O, until the maximum CDP (before the lung lavage 32 cmH2O and after the lung lavage 42 cmH2O) and then it was stepwise decreased by 2 cmH2O to the initial value. In this paper we analyzed the following parameters acquired during our experiments: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), cardiac output (CO) and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2). In order to find how both PaO2 and CO affected SvO2 during the increase of CDP before and after lavage, a nonlinear regression fitting of the response in SvO2 on the predictors (PaO2 and CO) was implemented. Results. Before the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 remained constant, CO strongly decreased and SvO2 slightly decreased. After the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 strongly increased, CO decreased and SvO2 increased. So, development of SvO2 followed the PaO2 and CO trends. Changes in PaO2 and CO occur at decisive CDP step and it was much higher after the lung lavage compared to the healthy lungs. The implemented nonlinear model gives a good goodness of fitting in all three pigs. The values of PaO2 and CO estimated coefficients changed at the same decisive step of CDP identified by the trends. Also the algorithm identified a CDP step much higher after the lung lavage

  19. Arterial desaturation during exercise in man: implication for O2 uptake and work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henning Bay

    2003-12-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia is defined as a reduction in the arterial O2 pressure (PaO2) by more than 1 kPa and/or a haemoglobin O2 saturation (SaO2) below 95%. With blood gas analyses ideally reported at the actual body temperature, desaturation is a consistent finding during maximal ergometer rowing. Arterial desaturation is most pronounced at the end of a maximal exercise bout, whereas the reduction in PaO2 is established from the onset of exercise. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia is multifactorial. The ability to maintain a high alveolar O2 pressure (PAO2) is critical for blood oxygenation and this appears to be difficult in large individuals. A large lung capacity and, in turn, diffusion capacity seem to protect PaO2. A widening of the PAO2-PaO2 difference does indicate that a diffusion limitation, a ventilation-perfusion mismatch and/or a shunt influence the transport of O2 from alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries. An inspired O2 fraction of 0.30 reduces the widened PAO2-PaO2 difference by 75% and prevents a reduction of PaO2 and SaO2. With a marked increase in cardiac output, diffusion limitation combined with a fast transit time dominates the O2 transport problem. Furthermore, a postexercise reduction in pulmonary diffusion capacity suggests that the alveolo-capillary membrane is affected. An antioxidant attenuates oxidative burst by neutrophilic granulocytes, but it does not affect PaO2, SaO2 or O2 uptake (VO2), and the ventilatory response to maximal exercise also remains the same. It is proposed, though, that increased concentration of certain cytokines correlates to exercise-induced hypoxaemia as cytokines stimulate mast cells and basophilic granulocytes to degranulate histamine. The basophil count increases during maximal rowing. Equally, histamine release is associated with hypoxaemia and when the release of histamine is prevented, the reduction in PaO2 is attenuated. During maximal exercise, an extreme lactate spill-over to blood

  20. Evolution of the defensin-like gene family in grass genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Jiandong Wu, Xiaolei Jing, Yang Zhao, Qing Dong, Haiyang Jiang and Qing Ma. J. Genet. 95, 53–62. Table 1. Information about DEFL genes in B. distachyon, O. sativa, S. bicolor and Z. mays. Species. Gene name. Gene identifer. ORF (aa).

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wu, Kejian. Vol 19 (2011) - Articles Prediction of Multiphase Flow Properties from Network Models Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  2. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Li Yajiang. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 24 Issue 6 December 2001 pp 639-642 Alloys and Steels. Fine structure at the diffusion welded interface of Fe3Al/Q235 dissimilar materials · Wang Juan Li Yajiang Wu Huiqiang · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  3. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    76 proteins, out of the 95 differentially expressed proteins, were subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS Of these,. 46 identities were identified by ... metabolisms such as photosynthesis, photorespiration and protein biosynthesis in C. roseus leaves were without ...... Wu X, Hong FS, Liu C, Su MY, Zheng L (2008). PbCl2 on the nitrogen.

  4. Microwave-assisted efficient synthesis of 2-arylbenzo[b]furans and 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    enhanced Sonogashira coupling and cyclization reactions on alumina,10c but his ..... Kabalka G W, Wang L and Pagni R M 2001 Tetrahedron. 57 8017; (d) Wu X-Y and Larhed M 2005 Org. Lett. 7 3327; (e) Goossen L J, Manjolinho F and Khan B A.

  5. P Phytoch the hemica leaf ex al scre xtract o eening of Enta and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    diameter zo and 6.25 m concentratio vely. The lea coside which acterial pote ense, antimcro large forest tr from the bas ery smooth. edicine: as or treatment ulcer activity the compou to be met that most pla sess inhibito me pathoge wu, 2006). es of chemi nt therapeu tment of hum. The studies hoo.com. anently open a and a.

  6. Sparsity-Based Representation for Classification Algorithms and Comparison Results for Transient Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    timed on the same desktop with an Intel quad-core 3.60-GHz CPU that has 16-GB memory, running Windows 7 and Matlab version 8.3.0. Note that these running...Battlefield Acoustic and Seismic Sensing. Magnetic and Electric Field Sensors (BAMS); 2010. 26. Wu H, Gurram P, Kwon H, Prasad S. A hybrid csvm-hmm model

  7. On Rational Interpolation-Based List-Decoding and List-Decoding Binary Goppa Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde

    2013-01-01

    We derive the Wu list-decoding algorithm for generalized Reed–Solomon (GRS) codes by using Gröbner bases over modules and the Euclidean algorithm as the initial algorithm instead of the Berlekamp–Massey algorithm. We present a novel method for constructing the interpolation polynomial fast. We give...

  8. Effects of in-water and dryland warm-ups on 50-meter freestyle performance in child swimmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effectiveness of 3 warm-up (WU modes on 50m free style on child swimmers has been evaluated. In repeated-measures counterbalanced design, 10 male swimmers of a local sports club (10-12 ages have tried out 50m freestyle after each WU on different days. Each WU took 15 minutes and the intensity of WU has been checked over by Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE 15-point scale. a no warm-up (NWU: the swimmers sat or laid down for 15 minutes, b dryland warmup (DWU: continuous rope-jumping at RPE 12 for 5 minutes, 2 sets 10x15s calisthenics with 15s breathing spaces and continuous ropejumping at RPE 14 for 5 minutes, c in-water warm up (SWU: continuous freestyle swimming at RPE 12 for 5 minutes, freestyle swimming with 8x15m maximum performance with 30s breathing spaces and continuous freestyle swimming at RPE 14 for 5 minutes. RPE, stroke count and heart rate (HR have been evaluated together with the best time in swimming performance. Compared with NWU swimming time post DWU was faster, however the fastest swimming time was achieved post SWU. After NWU swimming RPE was significantly higher. Significant difference could not be found in terms of HR and stroke count. Consequently, SWU is better for swimming performance and DWU can be used when swimming pool is not available.

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. XIAOQING SUN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 41 Issue 2 June 2016 pp 229-236 Article. Silencing of HMGA2 promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells · Zhan Shi Ding Wu Run Tang Xiang Li Renfu Chen Song Xue ...

  10. Enhanced high temperature performance of LiMn2O4 coated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Liu Jinlian1 Wu Xianming1 2 Chen Shang1 2 Liu Jianben1 2 He Zeqiang1 2. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, China; Xiangxi Ores and New Materials Development and Service Centre, Jishou 416000, China ...

  11. The Role of Polymerase Gamma Mutations in Breast Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Chau GY, Wu YT, Li SH, Lui WY, et al. Alteration of the copy number and deletion of mitochondrial DNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Br. J...481–484. [PubMed: 16020738] 47. Alonso A, Martin P, Albarran C, Aquilera B, Garcia O, Guzman A, et al. Detection of somatic mutations in the

  12. Role of Polymerase Gamma Mutations in Breast Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    HC, Chau GY, Wu YT, Li SH, Lui WY, et al. Alteration of the copy number and deletion of mitochondrial DNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Br. J...2005;309:481–484. [PubMed: 16020738] 47. Alonso A, Martin P, Albarran C, Aquilera B, Garcia O, Guzman A, et al. Detection of somatic mutations in the

  13. Fast Parallel Algorithms for Graphs and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    loosing the nth game of badminton to him. Valerie King and .Joel Friedman showed me the wonders of cross-country skiing in Yosemite. Steven Rudich was...2), both W(u) and L(v) have no more than 7s/8 vertices. Let x be some ver- tex. We can describe the history of x throughout the algorithm by a zero

  14. Disease: H00469 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A, Wu P, Faqeih EA, Al-Asmari AM, Saleh MA, Eyaid W, Hadeel A, He L, Smith F, Yau S, Simcox EM, Miwa S, Don...opathy. Hum Mol Genet 14:3079-88 (2005) PMID:23993193 Bonnen PE, Yarham JW, Besse

  15. Isolation and characterization of sixty sequences of cot-1 DNA from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... genetic structure of U. thibetanus. Recent studies have examined polymorphic microsatellite loci (Kitahara et al.,. 2000; Wu et al., 2010), the mitochondrial genome (Hwang et al., 2008; Yasukochi et al., 2009), Y chromosome gene divergence (Nakagome et al., 2008; Slattery et al., 2000), and nuclear genes ...

  16. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study of erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Til, H.P.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie sugar substitute, were examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Groups of 50 rats of each sex consumed diets with 0, 2, 5, or 10% erythritol, or 10% mannitol, for a period of 104-107 weeks. To each of these main groups, two

  17. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    repress SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 expression to negatively regulate plant innate immunity in. Arabidopsis; Plant Cell 21 2527−2540. Chen L, Qian J, Qu S, Long J, Yin Q, Zhang C, Wu X, Sun F et al. 2008a Identification of specific fragments of HpaGXooc, a harpin from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, ...

  18. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    induced endogenous salicylic acid and overexpression of this gene enhances tolerance to cadmium stress in Arabidopsis. Plant. Cell Rep. 34, 871–884. Guan C., Ji J., Wu D., Li X., Jin C., Guan W. et al. 2015b The glutathione synthesis may be regulated by cadmium-induced endogenous ethylene in Lycium chinense, and ...

  19. Study of the relationship between non-dimensional roughness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    0.0068, Smith and Banke (1975) gave 0.0130, Gar- rat (1977) suggested 0.0144, and Wu (1980) pro- posed 0.0185. A possible reason for the disagree- ment might be poor quality and quantity of wind stress measurements. Also effects of waves on the wind stress should be considered explicitly. Stewart (1974) presented a ...

  20. The 2011 ming k jeang award for excellence in cell & bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun-Bo

    2012-05-08

    Two research groups led by Dr T.C. Wu of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions and Dr P. Liu of National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, respectively, have won the 2011 Ming K Jeang Award for Excellence in Cell & Bioscience.

  1. Persistent alterations in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptophysin levels following pre- and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.; Plug, A.; Wesseling, W.; Berg, K.J. van den; Brouwer, A.

    1996-01-01

    Pregnant Wistar WU rats were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg of the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 per kilogram of body weight on Days 10 to 16 of gestation. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on Gestation Day 20 to observe effects on fetal body and brain weights. Male and

  2. Original Research Validation and reliability of the Chichewa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -5D quality of life questionnaire in adults with orthopaedic injuries in Malawi. Linda Chokotho1,2, Nyengo Mkandawire3, Devin Conway4, Hao-Hua Wu4, David D. Shearer4, Geir. Hallan5, Jan-Erik Gjertsen2,5, Sven Young5,6, Brian C. Lau4.

  3. ONLINE RESOURCES Characterization of 108 novel expressed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    breeding programs, and perform marker-assisted selection. Over recent years, high ... characteristics, such as growth, reproduction, nutritional content, and resistance to disease in aquatic organisms .... Wu H. X. and Chai X. L. 2004 The reproductive habit and growth character of bloody clam. Tegillarca granosa in Yueqing ...

  4. Using random matrix theory to determine the number of endmembers in a hyperspectral image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawse, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available sensing, vol. 17(9), pp. 1623–1632, 1996. [4] D. Gillis, J. Bowles, E.J. Ientilucci, D.W. Messinger, “A generalised linear mixing model for hyperspectral im- agery,” Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6966, pp. 1–11, 2008. [5] C-C. Wu, W. Liu, C-I. Chang...

  5. Genomewide identification, classification and analysis of NAC type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaojian Peng, Yang Zhao, Xiaoming Li, Min Wu, Wenbo Chai, Lei Sheng, Yu Wang, Qing Dong,. Haiyang Jiang and Beijiu Cheng. J. Genet. 94, 377–390. Table 1. Detailed information of NAC proteins in maize. Gene name. Sequence ID. Chromosome. Size (aa). Mass (da). pI. ZmNAC1. GRMZM2G406204_P01. 1. 664.

  6. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Xudong Chen. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 36 Issue 3 June 2011 pp 357-369. Influence of free water content on the compressive mechanical behaviour of cement mortar under high strain rate · Jikai Zhou Xudong Chen Longqiang Wu Xiaowei Kan · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  7. 1256-IJBCS-Article-Edward Bayer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Polar and dispersive contributions of the surface tension were obtained by calculation while the polarities of the liquids and solutions were determined applying Wu equations. This method gave the different results for solutions prepared from macromolecular compounds (acroleine- ethanolamine macromolecular solution 1 ...

  8. The Ringworld Throne

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... what effectively is a plague of Protectors (superbeings common to many Niven novels) whose rivalries threaten Ringworld's existence. The battle against the vampires is the more exciting of the two stories, filled with action, scenes of the Ringworld and explorations of ritualistic interspecies sex. Wu's pursuit of the Protectors displays Niven's deft ha...

  9. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds of extra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 2High School of Food Industry of Tunisia, Laboratory of Preservation and Valorisation of Food Products, 58, Rue Alain. SAVARY, Cité Elkhadra, Tunis 1003, ... ing, and their roles as food preservatives has been evaluated (Wu et al., 2008). ..... Detection of olive oil adulteration by measuring its authenticity ...

  10. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. PRACHI MAHAJAN. Articles written in Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Volume 127 Issue 2 April 2017 pp 323-335 Research Article. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in C C n – I · G P BALAKUMAR PRACHI MAHAJAN · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  11. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. G P BALAKUMAR. Articles written in Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Volume 127 Issue 2 April 2017 pp 323-335 Research Article. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in C C n – I · G P BALAKUMAR PRACHI MAHAJAN · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  12. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  13. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with γ-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Verhagen, F.J.J.; Bär, A.

    1998-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. γ-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, and 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. A comparison group received a diet with 20% lactose. The

  14. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. α-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, or 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. An additional group received a diet with 20% lactose. The

  15. Developmental toxicity study of vegetable oil-derived stanol fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slesinski, R.S.; Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In a standard developmental toxicity study, a mixture of vegetable oil- derived stanol fatty acid esters was administered in the diet to groups of 28 mated female HsdCpb:WU Wistar rats at concentrations that provided 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% total stanols (equivalent to 0, 1.75, 4.38, and 8.76% plant

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Wu-Ling-San (WLS) formula has been proved to prevent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial of WLS in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis prevention. All patients who enrolled were asked to drink enough fluid to urinate at least 2 L ...

  17. Bilateral concomitant intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-18

    Nov 18, 2015 ... Arevalo JF, Fromow-Guerra J, Quiroz-Mercado H, Sanchez JG, Wu L, Maia M, et al. Primary intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for diabetic macular edema: Results from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 6-month follow-up. Ophthalmology 2007;114:743-50. 4. Lalwani GA, Rosenfeld PJ ...

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of high-loading, highly dispersed Pt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon nanofiber, and tungsten carbide were studied as cat- alyst supports. Recently carbon aerogel (CA) has attracted attention as a new support material for electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Carbon aerogel is a new kind of carbon material. (Pekala 1989; Saliger et al 1998; Maldonado-Hodar et al. 1999; Liang et al 2000; Wu ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 10, No 77 (2011), cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and analysis of the ribosomal protein L37A gene (RPL37A) from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and its overexpression, Abstract PDF. C Wu, J Sun, W Hou. Vol 10, No 20 (2011), cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of cytochrome c ...

  20. Total Gastric Necrosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... KEY MESSAGES: Total gastric necrosis is a rare disease with no specific clinical manifestation. When it is suspected, surgical treatment should be carried out immediately. ... causing celiac artery trunk thrombosis. JOP 2008;9:512-4. 10. Han J, Wu MC, Yang T. Challenge of China's rural health. BMJ. 2016 ...

  1. QTL Information Table: 248 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntitative characters in rice using RFLP markers. Euphytica V89, 349-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00022292 ... ...ant RFLP C)Interval F2 Palawan IR42 A RG143 RG214 pha Wu, P., Zhang, G., and Huang, N. (1996). Identification of QTLs controlling qua

  2. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yiming Shao of China's Centre for Disease Control, and Jianhong Wu of York University are beginning a project to create mathematical models predicting the future spread of HIV infection in China. Effective disease control ... “The industry needs to increase speed and reliability of its products. It also needs to decrease ...

  3. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 3. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in females with metabolic syndrome. Shanshan Sun Miao Wang Haiyan Song Tao Wu Huafeng Wei Songhua He Zhaoguo Ding Guang Ji. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 3 December ...

  4. Development of In-Mold Assembly Methods for Producing Mesoscale Revolute Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    molded and the processing parameters. Schlatter et al [28] conducted a numerical investigation based on the transport equation to determine the...defects during injection molding in a complex part," Materiale Plastice. 44(3), pp. 180-184. 62. S.J. Liu, J.Y. Wu, J.H. Chang, and S.W. Hung, 2000

  5. Two-generation reproduction study of erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Smits- Prooije, A.E. van; Wijnands, M.V.M.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    Erythritol was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10% to Crl:(WI) WU BR rats of both sexes through two successive generations (F0 and F1). Twenty-four rats of each sex were mated in each group. For each generation one litter was reared until the pups were 21 days old. In the 10%

  6. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Kuilman-Wahls, M.E.M.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found to

  7. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits- Prooije, A.E. van; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie polyol sugar substitute, was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Erythritol was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% to groups of 32 female rats from Day 0 to 21 of gestation. The treatment was generally well tolerated

  8. Afro-pessimist discourse as a war song against the enemy, Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francis

    Suzuki, 2009; Topping, Smith, Swanson & Elliot, 2000; Van Zundert, Sluijsmans & Van Merriënboer,. 2010; Wu, 2012). Broadly speaking, peer assessment may be said to occur when students comment on or evaluate the quality of their fellow students' work, using a set of agreed criteria, and providing each other.

  9. Human platelet releasates combined with polyglycolic acid scaffold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... ogous and highly concentrated growth and differentiation factors (Wu et al. 2007; Sawamura et al. 2009), whose application in clinical practice (Borzini and Mazzucco,. 2005; Smith and Roukis, 2009; Lopez-Vidriero et al. 2010;. Andia et al. 2011) as well as in cartilage tissue engineering. (Anitua et al. 2005 ...

  10. Distribution and sources of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009; Jennerjahn. 2012). Post-deposition bottom sediments and the constituents associated with them, such as organic matter, are likely to undergo a number of. Keywords. Organic carbon ... Smith 1983; Jennerjahn et al. 2004; Wu et al. 2007). Silicon ...... nitrogen during the decomposition of detritus derived from estuarine ...

  11. Transcriptome atlas of eight liver cell types uncovers effects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... 1995). Studies have shown that histidine and its catabolites have important physiological activities (Wu 2009), there- fore this study is concentrated on the relevance between his- tidine metabolism and liver regeneration. Biosynthesis of histidine consists of three steps: first, phosphoribosyl py- rophosphate ...

  12. Genetic polymorphism in FOXP3 gene: imbalance in regulatory T ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Genetic polymorphism in FOXP3 gene. The −924 (rs2232365) SNP is significantly associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion in the. Chinese Han population, highlighting the important role of. FOXP3 in successful pregnancy (Wu et al. 2012). But no associations were found between this ...

  13. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of numerical modelling of analysis program for energy-dissipating behaviour of velocity dependent hydraulic damper · M-H Shih W-P Sung M-J Wu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A relief valve parallel to the throttle valve is added to a Velocity dependent hydraulic damper (VDHD) so that the orifice size ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 6451 - 6500 of 11090 ... Vol 9, No 23 (2010), Inhibition of inflammatory factors by parthenolide in human renal mesangial cells under hyperglycemic condition, Abstract PDF. W Wang, F Wu, Y Qian, L Cheng, X Shao, X Tong, H Li. Vol 5, No 12 (2006), Inhibition of paracetamol-induced oxidative stress in rats by extracts of ...

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Oxides on sp2-Graphitic Carbon Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    and saturated Ag/ AgCl reference electrodes (BASi) were used for these measurements. 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Growth on HOPG Figure 2...capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13978–80 (2010). 8. Wu, Z. et al. Graphene Anchored with Co3O4 Nanoparticles as

  16. Theoretical studies on energetic materials bearing pentaflurosulphyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and organometallic compounds (New York: Academic. Press) pp. 218. 26. Zheng Z Q, Wu T H, Mao F L, Zhang Q N and Chen F. 2005 Chem. Eng. Oil Gas 34 87. 27. Balepin A A, Lebedev V P, Miroshnichenko E A,. Koldobskii G I, Ostovskii V A, Larionov B P, Gidaspov. B V and Lebedev Yu A 1977 Svoistva Veshchestv Str.

  17. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 405-416 Article. Knockdown of Cripto-1 inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis in prostate carcinoma cells · DING WU ZHAN SHI HAO XU RENFU CHEN SONG XUE XIAOQING SUN · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  19. 199 An X-Ray of the Level of Electronic Purse Usage in Nigeria (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 5 (6), Serial No. 23, November .... this customer inertia towards e-purse acceptance and usage cannot be without reasons. This paper therefore .... also transaction related benefits like speed, efficiency, accessibility, etc. Wu et al., (2006) argues that to ...

  20. Ethnographic Research and Globalization: A Discussion of Joseph Tobin's Model of Video-Cued Multivocal Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joseph Tobin made an impact on the field of comparative education in 2009 when he used a unique form of ethnography to illuminate the effects of world-wide forces, such as modernization, on schools in specific countries. Earlier, in 1989, he published "Preschool in Three Cultures" with co-authors David Wu and Dana Davidson. The…