Sample records for wsr polyox wsr

  1. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Eyster, R. S.; Wolf, W. W.


    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated ( r 2 = 0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed ( r 2 = 0.56) and wind direction ( r 2 = 0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  2. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration (United States)

    Flying insects, birds, and bats contribute to radar reflectivity and radial velocity measured by Doppler weather radars. A study was conducted in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas to determine the capability of Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) to monitor migratory flights of corn ea...

  3. Report on the comparison of the scan strategies employed by the Patrick Air Force Base WSR-74C/McGill radar and the NWS Melbourne WSR-88D radar (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory; Evans, Randolph; Manobianco, John; Schumann, Robin; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann


    The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the current standard WSR-88D radar (NEXRAD) scan strategies permit the use of the Melbourne WSR-88D to perform the essential functions now performed by the Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) WSR-74C/McGill radar for evaluating shuttle weather flight rules (FR) and launch commit criteria (LCC). To meet this objective, the investigation compared the beam coverage patterns of the WSR-74C/McGill radar located at PAFB and the WSR-88D radar located at the Melbourne National Weather Service (NWS) Office over the area of concern for weather FR and LCC evaluations. The analysis focused on beam coverage within four vertical 74 km radius cylinders (1 to 4 km above ground level (AGL), 4 to 8 km AGL, 8 to 12 km AGL, and 1 to 12 km AGL) centered on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 39A. The PAFB WSR-74C/McGill radar is approximately 17 km north-northeast of the Melbourne WSR-88D radar. The beam coverage of the WSR-88D using VCP 11 located at the Melbourne NWS Office is comparable (difference in percent of the atmosphere sampled between the two radars is 10 percent or less) within the area of concern to the beam coverage of the WSR-74C/McGill radar located at PAFB. Both radars provide good beam coverage over much of the atmospheric region of concern. In addition, both radars provide poor beam coverage (coverage less than 50 percent) over limited regions near the radars due to the radars' cone of silence and gaps in coverage within the higher elevation scans. Based on scan strategy alone, the WSR-88D radar could be used to perform the essential functions now performed by the PAFB WSR-74C/McGill radar for evaluating shuttle weather FR and LCC. Other radar characteristics may, however, affect the decision as to which radar to use in a given case.

  4. Forecasting Downdraft Wind Speeds Associated with Airmass Thunderstorms for Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, Using the WSR-88D

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steen, Travis


    .... This thesis seeks to assist Air Force forecasters at Peterson Air Force Base (PAFB), Colorado, in forecasting airmass thunderstorm downdraft wind speeds using the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis MAIER


    Full Text Available CLUJ-NAPOCA precipitation forecast using WSR-98D Doppler radar. Forecasting inundations requires accurate spatial and temporal estimation of rainfalls in an area. Depending on the Z-R relationship (reflectivity-precipitation rate, the thresholds, maximum reflectivity data processing, VIL, cloud height or speed, provided by the WSR-98D affects the estimated precipitation used in the prediction of inundations. How much precipitation receives a watershed during an extreme event and what response will result depends on the basin hydrographic characteristics. A study of summer weather events between the years 2004-2008 and a new method in establishing relations between the radar estimated and recorded precipitations led to the determination of new relations between them which will balance the connections between them.

  6. Research and Measurement of Software Complexity Based on Wuli, Shili, Renli (WSR and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang


    Full Text Available Complexity is an important factor throughout the software life cycle. It is increasingly difficult to guarantee software quality, cost and development progress with the increase in complexity. Excessive complexity is one of the main reasons for the failure of software projects, so effective recognition, measurement and control of complexity becomes the key of project management. At first, this paper analyzes the current research situation of software complexity systematically and points out existing problems in current research. Then, it proposes a WSR framework of software complexity, which divides the complexity of software into three levels of Wuli (WL, Shili (SL and Renli (RL, so that the staff in different roles may have a better understanding of complexity. Man is the main source of complexity, but the current research focuses on WL complexity, and the research of RL complexity is extremely scarce, so this paper emphasizes the research of RL complexity of software projects. This paper not only analyzes the composing factors of RL complexity, but also provides the definition of RL complexity. Moreover, it puts forward a quantitative measurement method of the complexity of personnel organization hierarchy and the complexity of personnel communication information based on information entropy first and analyzes and validates the scientificity and rationality of this measurement method through a large number of cases.

  7. A Research Methodology for Green IT Systems Based on WSR and Design Science: The Case of a Chinese Company (United States)

    Zhong, Yinghong; Liu, Hongwei

    Currently green IT has been a hotspot in both practice and research fields. Much progress has been made in the aspect of green technologies. However, researchers and designers could not simply build up a green IT system from technological aspect, which is normally considered as a wicked problem. This paper puts forward a research methodology for green IT systems by introducing WSR and design science. This methodology absorbs essence from soft systems methodology and action research. It considers the research, design and building of green IT systems from a systemic perspective which can be divided into as technological dimension, management dimension and human dimension. This methodology consists of 7 iterated stages. Each stage is presented and followed by a case study from a Chinese company.

  8. PA01.81. Impact of globalisation on health w.s.r. metabolic syndrome and its ayurvedic management) (United States)

    Layeeq, Shaizi; Srivastava, Alok K


    Purpose: According to WHO report 2002,Cardiovacular diseases (CVD) will be the largest cause of death and disability in India by 2012. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a constellation of dyslipidemia, elevated blood glucose, hypertension and obesity is emerging as the most common risk factor for CVD. The rising prevalence of individual components of Metabolic Syndrome is mainly attributed to globalisation which has made available cheap, unhealthy food on the main menu & also brought with it sedentary lifestyle. It is a need of time to pay due consideration on the problem and search for alternative medicine. So the aim of the study is: 1. To study the impact of globalisation on health w.s.r Metabolic Syndrome. 2. To assess the clinical efficacy of Panchakarma in its management. Method: For the study large-scale survey, other documented data and published articles were studied. For clinical contrieve 20 patients were registered and were given Virechana Karma followed by administration of Shuddha Guggulu as palliative measure. Result: The results show that globalisation has a great impact on all the components of Metabolic Syndrome. However on management with Panchakarma (Virechana Karma) followed by Shuddha Guggulu encouraging results were found. The overall effect of therapy was found to be 82.5%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in India and it is a need of time to consider alternative treatment for its management alongwith change in lifestyle to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. New software methods in radar ornithology using WSR-88D weather data and potential application to monitoring effects of climate change on bird migration (United States)

    Mead, Reginald; Paxton, John; Sojda, Richard S.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.


    Radar ornithology has provided tools for studying the movement of birds, especially related to migration. Researchers have presented qualitative evidence suggesting that birds, or at least migration events, can be identified using large broad scale radars such as the WSR-88D used in the NEXRAD weather surveillance system. This is potentially a boon for ornithologists because such data cover a large portion of the United States, are constantly being produced, are freely available, and have been archived since the early 1990s. A major obstacle to this research, however, has been that identifying birds in NEXRAD data has required a trained technician to manually inspect a graphically rendered radar sweep. A single site completes one volume scan every five to ten minutes, producing over 52,000 volume scans in one year. This is an immense amount of data, and manual classification is infeasible. We have developed a system that identifies biological echoes using machine learning techniques. This approach begins with training data using scans that have been classified by experts, or uses bird data collected in the field. The data are preprocessed to ensure quality and to emphasize relevant features. A classifier is then trained using this data and cross validation is used to measure performance. We compared neural networks, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Empirical evidence is provided showing that this system can achieve classification accuracies in the 80th to 90th percentile. We propose to apply these methods to studying bird migration phenology and how it is affected by climate variability and change over multiple temporal scales.

  10. Optimization Studies on Compression Coated Floating-Pulsatile Drug Delivery of Bisoprolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize compression coated floating pulsatile drug delivery systems of bisoprolol. Floating pulsatile concept was applied to increase the gastric residence of the dosage form having lag phase followed by a burst release. The prepared system consisted of two parts: a core tablet containing the active ingredient and an erodible outer shell with gas generating agent. The rapid release core tablet (RRCT was prepared by using superdisintegrants with active ingredient. Press coating of optimized RRCT was done by polymer. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization. The amount of Polyox WSR205 and Polyox WSR N12K was selected as independent variables. Lag period, drug release, and swelling index were selected as dependent variables. Floating pulsatile release formulation (FPRT F13 at level 0 (55 mg for Polyox WSR205 and level +1 (65 mg for Polyox WSR N12K showed lag time of 4 h with >90% drug release. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, and P<0.05 was statistically significant. Release kinetics of the optimized formulation best fitted the zero order model. In vivo study confirms burst effect at 4 h in indicating the optimization of the dosage form.

  11. Interpolymer Complexation Between Polyox and Carbopol, and Its Effect on Drug Release From Matrix Tablets. (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Lubach, Joseph; Na, Watson; Momin, Samad


    Interaction between Polyox N12K and Carbopol 907 was pH dependent. A hydrogen bond-induced complexation began between pH 5.0 and 6.0 in an aqueous medium, and the interpolymer complex started to precipitate when the pH fell to 4.0. This complex was amorphous with a glass transition temperature of 3.17°C. The molar ratio between ethylene oxide and acrylic acid units in the complex was 1.3:1. About 46% of the COOH groups in Carbopol 907 were H bonded to ether oxygen in Polyox. Theophylline release from tablets containing both polymers was a function of dissolution media pH, due to the pH-dependent interactions. In 0.01 N HCl, an insoluble tablet matrix formed in situ. 93% drug was released over 27 h via Fickian diffusion. In acetate buffer pH 4.0, the insoluble tablet matrix formed in situ disintegrated into tiny gel particles. Gel erosion controlled drug release at pH 4.0. These 2 polymers were unable to complex in a phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Therefore, the tablet matrix dissolved, and drug release followed the anomalous transport mechanism at pH 6.8. The release profiles in an acetate buffer pH 4.0 and phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were statistically same, and a sustained release over 12 h was achieved. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



    Babasaheb D. Patil; Manoj L. Sonaje


    Osteoarthritis is most widespread form of arthritis seen in elderly and knee joint pain is the most common complaint for which medical advice is sought in such circumstances. Major treatment for this complaint is prescription of established calcium compounds with NSAID’s. But with this established treatment also total eradication of the pain is not possible. Basti (a medicated enema) in Ayurveda is practiced in many connective tissue disorders like Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Gout,...

  13. Comparative phytochemical analysis of Shorea robusta Gaertn (oleoresin) WSR to its seasonal collection. (United States)

    Poornima, B


    The oleoresin of the Shorea robusta Gaertn is called as Shala niryasa, Kala, Sarja rasa which has the chemical constituents such as nor-triterpene, dammarenolic acid, asiatic acid, dipterocarpol, triterpenic acid, tannic acid and phenolic content and possesses antibacterial, analgesic and wound healing effect.The medicinal property of the plant is highly influenced by the the season in which it is cultivated and collected. The classical texts of Ayurveda provide guidelines on the time of collection of raw drugs. Hence following these indications the oleoresin was collected in two seasons as per reference of Acharya Charaka and Susrutha in Hemantha rutu (Dec-Jan) and Vasantha rutu (April-May) respectively. Analytical studies revealed that the oleoresin collected in Vasantha rutu contained more tannin, resin, volatile matter, phenolic content, which are the active ingredients of the drug as compared to the oleoresin collected in Hemantha rutu .This is a preclinical work and further clinical study has to be done to prove efficacy of the seasonally collected samples.

  14. Comparative phytochemical analysis of Shorea robusta Gaertn (oleoresin) WSR to its seasonal collection


    Poornima, B.


    The oleoresin of the Shorea robusta Gaertn is called as Shala niryasa, Kala, Sarja rasa which has the chemical constituents such as nor-triterpene, dammarenolic acid, asiatic acid, dipterocarpol, triterpenic acid, tannic acid and phenolic content and possesses antibacterial, analgesic and wound healing effect. The medicinal property of the plant is highly influenced by the the season in which it is cultivated and collected. The classical texts of Ayurveda provide guidelines on the time of col...

  15. Fire Fighter Trainer Environmental Considerations. Phase II. (United States)


    Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate . Two products that we evaluated containing sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate ...with those that satisfied the most criteria is as follows: * Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (higher ranked) - Ultrawet K (Arco) * Ethoxylated octyl...glycols (lower ranked) - Polyox WSR-N 10 - Pluronic P-94. 31 Mi al i ..- 4 0 0.f "r 32 As shown in Figure 9, sodium dodecyl benzene

  16. Optimization of the Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) Algorithm’s Adaptable Parameters in the WSR-88D System (United States)


    Farris, B.S. Captain, USAF Approved: JASON P. TUELL , Maj, USAF Date Chairman, Advisory Committee MICHAEL K. WALTERS, Lt Col, USAF Date Memb Advisory...Savior, Jesus Christ. Everything I do is for the glory of Him. I am indebted to my advisor, Maj Jason Tuell , whose insight and guidance were...AFIT/GM/ENP/97M-05 Attn: Maj Jason Tuell 9. SPONSORINGIMONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORINGIMONITORING NEXRAD OSF AGENCY REPORT

  17. Clinical study on Sandhigata Vata w.s.r. to Osteoarthritis and its management by Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu. (United States)

    Akhtar, Babul; Mahto, Raja Ram; Dave, A R; Shukla, V D


    Sandhigata Vata is the commonest form of articular disorder. It is a type of Vatavyadhi which mainly occurs in Vriddhavastha due to Dhatukshaya, which limits everyday activities such as walking, dressing, bathing etc. thus making patient disabled / handicapped. It being a Vatavyadhi, located in Marmasthisandhi and its occurrence in old age makes it Kashtasadhya. Vata Dosha plays main role in the disease. Shula Pradhana Vedana is the cardinal feature of the disease associated with Sandhishotha with Vata Purna Druti Sparsha, lack of movements of the joints or painful movement of the joints. In this study total 49 patients having the complaints of Osteoarthritis were randomly divided into 2 groups. In Group A, patients were treated with Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu Vati along with Abhyanga and Nadi Swedana and in group B patients were treated with only Abhyanga and Nadi Swedana. The data shows that Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu along with local Abhyanga and Nadi Swedana i.e. group A has provided better relief in the disease Sandhigata Vata.

  18. Forecasting Downdraft Wind Speeds Associated with Airmass Thunderstorms for Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, Using the WSR-88D

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steen, Travis


    .... During the same summer, Air Force Space Command units issued nearly 65% of their weather warnings for convective winds, making the forecasting of convective winds the most frequent challenge to forecasters...

  19. A comparative study of Vamana and Virechana Karma in the management of Sthula Pramehi w.s.r. to Type-2 diabetes. (United States)

    Pandey, Rajeev Kumar; Bhatt, N N; Singhala, T M; Shukla, V D


    In the present study, Vamana and Virechana along with palliative treatment was given to patients of Sthula Prameha (Diabetes mellitus or DM). An attempt was made to compare and evaluate the role of Shodhana therapy (Vamana and Virechana). Total 47 patients of Sthula Pramehi were registered in this study, out of which 38 completed the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups, viz. Vamana with Shamana (Group A) and Virechana with Shamana (Group B). Eighteen patients completed the treatment in Group A and 20 in Group B. Neem giloy satva capsule was used as Shamana drug at a dose of 500 mg twice daily after meals for 30 days in both the groups. The efficacy of therapy was assessed based on relief in cardinal signs and symptoms and blood sugar, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters etc. The results showed that the Vamana provided better relief in signs and symptoms as well as on fasting blood sugar (FBS) and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) in comparison to Virechana.

  20. PA01.70. A clinical study on the efficacy of Jalaukawacharana in the management of janu sandhigata vata w.s.r. To osteoarthritis of knee joint (United States)

    Vardhan, S Ashok; Balakrishnan, T. V.; Rao, S Dattatreya; Rao, M Bhaskar; Kumar, K Srinivasa; Bhaskara Reddy, K. V. V. Vijaya


    Purpose: The sandhigata vata described in Ayurveda causes the symptomatology such as shula, sotha, stambhana, sparsha asahyata, sputana, akunchana prasarana vedana etc. whereas the osteoarthritis described in modern science can be correlated with sandhigata vata because it also produces the features such as inflammation, pain, stiffness, limited movements and deformity in severe cases. Osteoarthritis is the 2nd most common illness with 22 29% of prevalence in global population. Presently available modern medication is causing many side and toxic effects which sometimes may need hospitalization also. Hence it requires the need to find such a therapy which gives better relief without any side or toxic effects and also natural, cost effective and easily available. Hence the non surgical biological therapeutic means such jalaukawacharana was selected. Method: Total of 20 patients were selected on the basis of selection criteria (inclusion and exclusion criteria) and then they are grouped into two i.e. 10 each in Jalukawacharana and Yogaraja guggulu group. The jalukawacharana was done with 7 day interval for about 6 sittings in 1st group where as in 2nd group yogaraja guggulu 125mg thrice a day was given for 6 weeks. For assessment, the Koos was taken as subjective and range of motion was taken as objective parameter for proper assessment and they are subjected for statistical validity. Result: After analyzing, the jalukawacharana shown significant and remarkable result in comparison with Yogaraja guguulu. The symptomatology was reduced to great extent and range of motion is also improved a lot by jalukawacharana than with yogaraja guggulu. Conclusion: The janu sandhi gata vata can correlate or compared with osteoarthritis of knee joint. The non surgical, biological therapeutic means i.e. jalukawacharana shown good result in treating with janu sandhigata vata i.e. osteoarthritis of knee joint in comparison with standard group i.e. yogaraja guggulu.

  1. PA01.70. A clinical study on the efficacy of Jalaukawacharana in the management of janu sandhigata vata w.s.r. To osteoarthritis of knee joint


    Vardhan, S Ashok; Balakrishnan, T. V.; Rao, S. Dattatreya; Rao, M. Bhaskar; Kumar, K Srinivasa; Bhaskara Reddy, K. V. V. Vijaya


    Purpose: The sandhigata vata described in Ayurveda causes the symptomatology such as shula, sotha, stambhana, sparsha asahyata, sputana, akunchana prasarana vedana etc. whereas the osteoarthritis described in modern science can be correlated with sandhigata vata because it also produces the features such as inflammation, pain, stiffness, limited movements and deformity in severe cases. Osteoarthritis is the 2nd most common illness with 22 29% of prevalence in global population. Presently avai...

  2. PA02.04. A comparative study of loha rasayana prepared by ayaskriti and modified method w.s.r. disintegration of Iron. (United States)

    Baijnath, P Anjali; Meena, Moharpal


    Purpose: Loha Rasayana one of the important Rasayana referred in Charaka Samhita is known for its Rasayana effect. This approach to the formulations was so rational and perfect that it fulfils the expectation of the scientific masses even also in terms of today's Nanoparticle theory. This technique got improvised with time and experience and is now used to make the Bhasmas. Purpose of present study was to scrutinize the validation of the process referred in Charaka Samhita to render the metal therapeutically suitable to the body and procedure by which the Bhasmas are prepared and to analyse them on ancient and modern parameters. Method: •Loha Rasayana was prepared as per Cha.Chi. 13/1523 by using Ayaskriti. •Samples were collected and subjected to analysis at different interval of time to trace the ongoing changes in the medicine. •Loha Rasayana was analytically compared with the Bhasma and also with a sample of Loha Rasayana prepared by using Bhasma on ancient and modern parameters. •The samples were subjected to XRD, ICPAES, SEM, Organoleptic tests, Physico chemical, Assay of Iron Content, Particle size, TLC and Alcohol Content. Result: Analytical Tests: LRA LRB Particle Size(200) 68.0% 88%, Particle Size (325) 4% 7%, TLC (Rf) 0.25 0.024, Alcohol content %2.12% 4.28%, ICP AES (Fe) % 66.45% 51.32%, Total Iron Content %36.40 43.50, Ferrous Content %7.23 7.09, Ferric Content % 29.49 37.91, XRD Hematite & Magnetite Hematite Conclusion: Submersion of Iron in Acidic media for 12 months reduced Iron to 68% and 88% of the Ayaskriti and Bhasma to pass through 200 mess size. Alcohol content of the samples was well within the limit (2.12% and 4.28) and Ferrous content were found to increase in both samples to 7.23% & 7.09%.

  3. On the Potential Use of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar Gust Front Detection Algorithm on the WSR-88D System. Part II: Detecting Non-gust Front Convergent Weather Phenomena (United States)


    convergence lines collide with other lines or with old thunderstorms (Wilson and Schreiber, 1986). In a similar instance, Roberts and Wilson (1989) show a...vary in width, depth, length, strength, and location within a synoptic-scale storm ( Houze , et al., 1976). Rain and snow bands, for instance, are...of a warm frontal region. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 2093-2107. Houze , R. A., P. V. Hobbs, K. Biswas, W. M. Davis, 1976: Mesoscale rain bands in extratropical

  4. On the Potential Use of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar Gust Front Detection Algorithm on the WSR-88D System. Part 2: Detecting Non-Gust Front Convergent Weather Phenomena (United States)


    Wilson and Schreiber, 1986). In a similar instance, Roberts and Wilson (1989) show a DCVZ case where a terrain induced boundary dissipated (presumably...enhanced precipitation are commonly observed and they can vary in width, depth, length, strength, and location within a synoptic-scale storm ( Houze , et al...Doppler radar study of a warm frontal region. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 2093-2107. Houze , R. A., P. V. Hobbs, K. Biswas, W. M. Davis, 1976: Mesoscale rain bands

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart W of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart W (United States)


    ... Subpart W 1 Table 1 to Subpart W of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Polyamides Production Pt. 63, Subpt. W, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart W of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart W Reference Applies to subpart W BLR WSR WSR alternative standard, and BLR equipment...

  6. Wall Shear Rate Measurement: Validation of a New Method Through Multiphysics Simulations. (United States)

    Ricci, Stefano; Swillens, Abigail; Ramalli, Alessandro; Segers, Patrick; Tortoli, Piero


    Wall shear stress is known to affect the vessel endothelial function and to be related to important pathologies like the development of atherosclerosis. It is defined as the product of the blood viscosity by the blood velocity gradient at the wall position, i.e., the wall shear rate (WSR). The WSR measurement is particularly challenging in important cardiovascular sites, like the carotid bifurcation, because of the related complex flow configurations characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients, wall movement, and clutter noise. Moreover, accuracy of any method for WSR measurement can be effectively tested only if reliable gold standard WSR values, considering all the aforementioned disturbing effects, are available. Unfortunately, these requirements are difficult to achieve in a physical phantom, so that the accuracy test of the novel WSR measurement methods was so far limited to straight pipes and/or similar idealistic configurations. In this paper, we propose a new method for WSR measurement and its validation based on a mathematical model of the carotid bifurcation, which, exploiting fluid-structure simulations, is capable of reproducing realistic flow configuration, wall movement, and clutter noise. In particular, the profile near the wall, not directly measurable because affected by clutter, is estimated through a power-law fitting and compared with the gold standard provided by the model. In this condition, the WSR measurements featured an accuracy of ±20 %. A preliminary test on a volunteer confirmed the feasibility of the WSR method for in vivo application.

  7. Wall Shear Rate Measurement: Validation of a New Method through Multi-Physics Simulations. (United States)

    Ricci, Stefano; Swillens, Abigail; Ramalli, Alessandro; Segers, Patrick; Tortoli, Piero


    Wall shear stress is known to affect the vessel endothelial function and to be related to important pathologies like the development of atherosclerosis. It is defined as the product of the blood viscosity by the blood velocity gradient at the wall position, i.e. the Wall Shear Rate (WSR). The WSR measurement is particularly challenging in important cardiovascular sites like the carotid bifurcation, because of the related complex flow configurations characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients, wall movement and clutter noise. Moreover, the accuracy of any method for WSR measurement can be effectively tested only if reliable gold standard WSR values, considering all of the aforementioned disturbing effects, are available. Unfortunately, these requirements are difficult to achieve in a physical phantom, so that the accuracy test of novel WSR measurement methods was so far limited to straight pipes and/or similar idealistic configurations. In this work, we propose a new method for WSR measurement and its validation based on a mathematical model of the carotid bifurcation, which, exploiting fluid-structure simulations, is capable of reproducing realistic flow configuration, wall movement, and clutter noise. In particular, the profile near the wall, not directly measurable because affected by clutter, is estimated through a power-law fitting and compared to the gold standard provided by the model. In this condition, the WSR measurements featured an accuracy of ±20%. A preliminary test on a volunteer confirmed the WSR method's feasibility for in-vivo application.

  8. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  9. Radar Analysis of Fall Bird Migration Stopover Sites in the Northeastern U.S. (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The national network of weather surveillance radars (WSR-88D/NEXRAD) detects birds in flight, and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological...

  10. Development of a Multi-Sensor System for Measurement of 4-D Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knupp, Kevin


    ...) upgrade a WSR-74C Doppler radar, and (e) instrument a 30 m tower. The primary goal is to integrate measurements from these systems with those from other nearby instruments used by the Army for operations on Redstone Arsenal (RSA...

  11. TOR (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A tornado warning is issued by the local NWS Weather Forecast Office (WFO) when a tornado is indicated by the WSR-88D radar or sighted by spotters.

  12. Thinking Inside the Box: Simple Methods to Evaluate Complex Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Menke


    Full Text Available We risk ignoring cheaper and safer medical treatments because they cannot be patented, lack profit potential, require too much patient-contact time, or do not have scientific results. Novel medical treatments may be difficult to evaluate for a variety of reasons such as patient selection bias, the effect of the package of care, or the lack of identifying the active elements of treatment. Whole Systems Research (WSR is an approach designed to assess the performance of complete packages of clinical management. While the WSR method is compelling, there is no standard procedure for WSR, and its implementation may be intimidating. The truth is that WSR methodological tools are neither new nor complicated. There are two sequential steps, or boxes, that guide WSR methodology: establishing system predictability, followed by an audit of system element effectiveness. We describe the implementation of WSR with a particular attention to threats to validity (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002; Shadish & Heinsman, 1997. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v2i1.12365

  13. Determination of new anthropometric cut-off values for obesity screening in Indonesian adults. (United States)

    Hastuti, Janatin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) have increasingly been used as screening tools for obesity. However, optimal cut-off values may be different between populations. The current study determined the optimum cut-off values for BMI, WC, WHR, and WSR for obesity screening in Indonesian adults using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Stature, body weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured on 600 Indonesians aged 18-65 years (males, n=292; females, n=308) and BMI, WHR, and WSR calculated. Percentage of body fat (%BF) was determined using the deuterium isotope (D2O) dilution technique. Some existing cut-off points for obesity determination were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. The existing cutoff values showed low sensitivity in our sample (between 18.4 and 71.1%) and new proposed cut-offs increased the sensitivity to reach 66.7 to 88.5%. The new cut-offs for BMI, WC, WHR, and WSR for determination of obesity were 21.9 (kg/m2), 76.8 (cm), 0.86, and 0.48, respectively, for males and 23.6 (kg/m2), 71.7 (cm), 0.77, and 0.47, respectively, for females. WC and WSR are the most predictive both for males and females, and therefore are considered as better screening tools for obesity in this population.

  14. An evaluation of New Zealand's iterative Workforce Service Reviews: a new way of thinking about health workforce planning. (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Greenstock, Louise; Wraight, Brenda


    To ensure New Zealand's health workforce was fit for purpose, Health Workforce New Zealand (HWNZ) funded Workforce Service Reviews (WSRs) to develop visions for service reconfiguration and workforce for 2020. This paper describes what makes the WSR processes work, for whom, and in what circumstances. Semi-structured interviews informed by a realist evaluation approach were conducted to obtain perceptions and experiences of WSR participants from four WSRs: eye health, palliative care, anaesthesia and aged care. The WSR process was a successful means of bringing together professionals from across the health disciplines and building sector capacity to develop new ways of thinking about service and workforce planning. WSRs were constrained by: mixed signals about process and outcomes; being challenged not milestone focussed; lacking clarity about ownership of visions; and variable clarity about next steps. WSRs were optimised by having: a lead clinician with policy know-how, ability to inspire, bring people together, distil ideas into coherent frameworks; and a project manager with project enablement skill sets and expertise in complex systems, implementation, change management. Evidence now exists at a point in time about what makes the WSR processes work. Implications for HWNZ are presented using a capacity-building framework to inform future decision making regarding WSRs. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? More appropriate workforce planning is required to meet the challenges facing the health workforce, from both the demand and the workforce side. To ensure New Zealand's healthcare workforce was fit for purpose, HWNZ initiated an iterative WSR process in topic specific areas. The WSRs process was designed to develop a vision of the relevant health service and workforce for 2020, and models of care that were patient-centred and team-based. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? The paper provides evidence that the WSR process was a successful means for bringing together

  15. Water Dancer II-a: a Non-tethered Telecontrollable Water Strider Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Wu


    Full Text Available Water Strider Robot (WSR is a kind of bio‐ inspired micro robot that can stand and move on water surface via surface tension. In this paper, a design method is presented with algorithms for designing driving leg. Structure, control system and software of the robot are also discussed in details. A prototype Water Dancer II‐a that is driven with two electric motors is presented as successfully tested in lab. The proposed WSR is tele‐controlled with infrared signals and has the capability of turning and speed regulation with features of light tiny volume and low power consumption. Experimental results are reported and discussed to show practical feasibility of the presented WSR prototype. The new results in the paper are related also to the WSR prototype design with a robot body of less than 30 x 30 mm size and with ten leg rods of 90 mm length and 0.2 diameter that are able to provide lifting force for a water walk of the 6.0 grams robot at a forward speed of 20 cm/s or angular velocity of 9 degree/s with two micro DC motors (RoomFlight 4 x 8 mm, 28 Ohm.

  16. Water Dancer II-A: A Non-Tethered Telecontrollable Water Strider Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Wu


    Full Text Available Water Strider Robot (WSR is a kind of bio-inspired micro robot that can stand and move on water surface via surface tension. In this paper, a design method is presented with algorithms for designing driving leg. Structure, control system and software of the robot are also discussed in details. A prototype Water Dancer II-a that is driven with two electric motors is presented as successfully tested in lab. The proposed WSR is tele-controlled with infrared signals and has the capability of turning and speed regulation with features of light tiny volume and low power consumption. Experimental results are reported and discussed to show practical feasibility of the presented WSR prototype. The new results in the paper are related also to the WSR prototype design with a robot body of less than 30 × 30 mm size and with ten leg rods of 90 mm length and 0.2 diameter that are able to provide lifting force for a water walk of the 6.0 grams robot at a forward speed of 20 cm/s or angular velocity of 9 degree/s with two micro DC motors(RoomFlight 4 × 8 mm, 28 Ohm.

  17. Weighted Sum-Rate Maximization Using Weighted MMSE for MIMO-BC Beamforming Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Agarwal, Rajiv


    This paper studies linear transmit filter design for weighted sum-rate (WSR) maximization in the multiple input multiple output broadcast channel (MIMO-BC). The problem of finding the optimal transmit filter is non-convex and intractable to solve using low complexity methods. Motivated by recent...

  18. In vitro antibacterial effect of Withania somnifera root extract on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kumari


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, an Indian traditional medicinal plant against Escherichia coli O78, a pathogenic strain. Materials and Methods: Two-fold serial dilutions of 20% aqueous W. somnifera root (WSR extract were inoculated with E. coli O78 @ 1x107 colony forming units grown in nutrient broth. Following inoculation, turbidity optical density was measured by spectrophotometer at 600 nm in all the tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Result: The results revealed that the maximum inhibition of bacterial growth was observed at 1:8 dilution of WSR extract. The highest dilution of the extract that showed inhibited growth of the test organism when compared with control was 1:16. Therefore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous extract of WSR is 1:16. Conclusion: It is concluded that WSR possessed good antibacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds and its rationalizing use in health care.

  19. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice. (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas


    Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1(st), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) day of the experiment. On the 11(th) and 12(th) treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them.

  20. Total Lightning as an Indicator of Mesocyclone Behavior (United States)

    Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.


    Apparent relationship between total lightning (in-cloud and cloud to ground) and severe weather suggests its operational utility. Goal of fusion of total lightning with proven tools (i.e., radar lightning algorithms. Preliminary work here investigates circulation from Weather Suveilance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) coupled with total lightning data from Lightning Mapping Arrays.

  1. Centripetal fat patterning in Nigerian children | Goon | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stature ratio (WSR) as a measure of centripetal fat patterning in Nigerian children. A cross-sectional study of 2015 children, aged 9-12 years of age who were attending primary schools in Makurdi, Nigeria was undertaken. Anthropometric ...

  2. Effects of lorazepam tolerance and withdrawal on GABA[sub A] receptor operated chloride channels in mice selected for differences in ethanol withdrawal severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, A.M.; Baier, L.D.; Zhang, Xiaoying (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States))


    Withdrawal seizure prone (WSP) and withdrawal seizure resistant (WSR) mice were treated with 5 mg/kg lorazepam for 7 days via implanted osmotic mini pumps. Following chronic drug treatment, brains were assayed for GABA-mediated chloride flux (GABA-Cl[sup [minus

  3. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root in fructose fed male rats. (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samadi Noshahr, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Nakhaie, Alireza


    Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder which affects the diabetes mellitus pathophysiology and alters the cell excitability. This study has been designed to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of chronic administration of Withania somnifera root (WSR) in fructose drinking water rats. An experiment was carried out on 48 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighting 200±30 g, which were divided into six groups (n=8): control group (C), control morphine (CM), W. somnifera group (WS) which received WSR (62.5 mg/g diet), W. somnifera naloxone group (WSN) which received WSR and naloxone, fructose (F) group which received fructose drinking water and FWS group which received fructose-enriched drinking water and WSR during the trial period. A biphasic pain response was induced after intraplantar injection of formalin (50 μL, 1%). Pain behavior was measured using Dubuisson methods. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software V. 18, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. The results showed that the insulin resistance index, blood sugar, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α, and acute and chronic pain score in the F group were significantly increased in comparison with the control group, but these parameters in the FWS group were significantly decreased compared with the F group (p<0.001). Our findings indicated that chronic oral administration of WSR has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in fructose drinking water rats and causes improved insulin resistance index.

  4. Coronal pulpotomy for cariously exposed permanent posterior teeth with closed apices: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Alqaderi, Hend; Lee, Chun-Teh; Borzangy, Sary; Pagonis, Tom C


    This systematic review was performed to evaluate the clinical outcome of coronal pulpotomy treatment to manage carious vital pulp exposure in permanent posterior teeth with closed root apices. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guideline was used. A search of articles published between 1960 January and 2015 July was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases. Only studies that performed full coronal pulpotomy for carious vital pulp exposure of permanent posterior teeth and had clinical and radiographic assessments during at least one-year follow-up were qualified for data analyses. The weighted mean success rate (WSR) was the primary outcome and estimated using DerSimonian-Laird random effects model. Out of 299 articles, six studies were included for the analysis of one-year WSR, and five studies were included in the analysis of two-year WSR. The one-year and two-year WSR were 94% (95% confidence interval (CI): [90,99]) and 92% (CI: [84,100]) respectively. Differences in pulp capping and restoration materials did not significantly affect success rates (Two-year WSR in the MTA and MTA-like products group vs. the calcium hydroxide group: 92% (CI: [85,99]) vs. 88% (CI: [76,100]); the amalgam group vs. the composite group: 92% (CI: [81,100]) vs. 93% (CI: [81,100])). Generally, full coronal pulpotomy had a favorable success rate in treating carious vital pulp exposure of permanent mature teeth with closed root apices. More studies with control group of root canal treated teeth and longer follow-up periods are needed. Coronal pulpotomy treatment can be considered as an intermediate treatment option in managing carious vital pulp exposures of permanent teeth with closed root apices. This option may also serve as a substitute to extraction when root canal treatment cannot be performed for low income and uninsured patients or in underserved areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and evaluation of a chronotherapeutic drug delivery system of torsemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songa Ambedkar Sunil


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems (ChrDDs of torsemide. Compression coated tablets (CCT containing torsemide in the core tablet were prepared by the compression coating technique with different grades of polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR 301 & 1105. The optimized formulations were characterised for tabletting parameters and drug polymer interaction by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR.The hardness of all the CCT using PEO WSR 301 & PEO WSR 1105 were in the range 6-8 kg/cm² & 5.5 to 7 kg/cm² respectively. Their friability values were 99%. The FTIR studies showed no interaction throughout the process of development. Formulations of F7 and of P7 were considered optimized formulations since they yielded a predetermined lag time of 6h before burst release. Hence, these formulations can be exploited to achieve chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems of Torsemide for the treatment of hypertension at the time the patient needs it.O objetivo deste estudo foi preparar e avaliar sistemas cronoterapêuticos de liberação de fármacos (ChrDDs de torsemida. Comprimidos revestidos por compressão (CCT contendo torsemida no (núcleo foram preparados pela técnica de revestimento por compressão, com diferentes categorias de óxido de polietileno (PEO WSR 301 & 1105. As formulações otimizadas foram caracterizadas por parâmetros de compressão e interação fármaco polímero por Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier (FTIR. A dureza dos CCT utilizando PEO WSR 301 e PEO WSR 1105 foi entre 6-8 kg/cm² e 5,5 a 7 kg/cm², respectivamente. Os valores de friabilidade foram 99%. Os estudos de FTIR mostraram que não h[a interação durante o processo de desenvolvimento. As formulações F7 e P7 foram consideradas otimizadas, uma vez que resultaram em tempo de retardo pré-determinado de 6 h antes da liberação por meio de explosão. Dessa forma, estas formulações podem ser exploradas para

  6. One-Dimensional Modeling of an Entrained Coal Gasification Process Using Kinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonkyeong Hwang


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional reactor model was developed to simulate the performance of an entrained flow gasifier under various operating conditions. The model combined the plug flow reactor (PFR model with the well-stirred reactor (WSR model. Reaction kinetics was considered together with gas diffusion for the solid-phase reactions in the PFR model, while equilibrium was considered for the gas-phase reactions in the WSR model. The differential and algebraic equations of mass balance and energy balance were solved by a robust ODE solver, i.e., an semi-implicit Runge–Kutta method, and by a nonlinear algebraic solver, respectively. The computed gasifier performance was validated against experimental data from the literature. The difference in product gas concentration from the equilibrium model, and the underlying mechanisms were discussed further. The optimal condition was found after parameter studies were made for various operating conditions.

  7. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David


    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dynamic Water Surface Detection Algorithm Applied on PROBA-V Multispectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bertels


    Full Text Available Water body detection worldwide using spaceborne remote sensing is a challenging task. A global scale multi-temporal and multi-spectral image analysis method for water body detection was developed. The PROBA-V microsatellite has been fully operational since December 2013 and delivers daily near-global synthesis with a spatial resolution of 1 km and 333 m. The Red, Near-InfRared (NIR and Short Wave InfRared (SWIR bands of the atmospherically corrected 10-day synthesis images are first Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV color transformed and subsequently used in a decision tree classification for water body detection. To minimize commission errors four additional data layers are used: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Water Body Potential Mask (WBPM, Permanent Glacier Mask (PGM and Volcanic Soil Mask (VSM. Threshold values on the hue and value bands, expressed by a parabolic function, are used to detect the water bodies. Beside the water bodies layer, a quality layer, based on the water bodies occurrences, is available in the output product. The performance of the Water Bodies Detection Algorithm (WBDA was assessed using Landsat 8 scenes over 15 regions selected worldwide. A mean Commission Error (CE of 1.5% was obtained while a mean Omission Error (OE of 15.4% was obtained for minimum Water Surface Ratio (WSR = 0.5 and drops to 9.8% for minimum WSR = 0.6. Here, WSR is defined as the fraction of the PROBA-V pixel covered by water as derived from high spatial resolution images, e.g., Landsat 8. Both the CE = 1.5% and OE = 9.8% (WSR = 0.6 fall within the user requirements of 15%. The WBDA is fully operational in the Copernicus Global Land Service and products are freely available.

  9. The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak: Synthetic Dual Doppler Analysis of Contrasting Tornadic Storm Types (United States)

    Knupp, Kevin R.; Coleman, Timothy; Carey, Larry; Peterson, Walt; Elkins, Calvin


    During the Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak on 5-6 February, a significant number of storms passed within about 40 km of WSR-88D radars. This distance, combined with the significant motion vector (from the southwest at 20-25 m per second) of relatively steady storms, is amenable to a synthetic dual Doppler analysis during the times when the storms passed the WSR-88D locations. Nine storms will be analyzed using the SDD technique. The following table provides their general characteristics and nearest approach to the 88D radars. For this data set, storm structure ranges from isolated supercell to QLCS. Each storm will be analyzed for a 40-60 min period during passage by the WSR-88D radar to determine general storm properties. Analysis of high-resolution single Doppler data around the time of passage (plus or minus 30 min), combined with 1-2 SDD analyses, will be used to examine the kinematic structure of low-level circulations (e.g., mesocyclone, downdraft) and the relation to the parent storm. This analysis may provide insights on the fundamental differences between cyclonic circulations in supercell storms and those within QCLS's.

  10. Soot and Spectral Radiation Modeling for a High-Pressure Turbulent Spray Flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreryo-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)


    Simulations are performed of a transient high-pressure turbulent n-dodecane spray flame under engine-relevant conditions. An unsteady RANS formulation is used, with detailed chemistry, a semi-empirical two-equation soot model, and a particle-based transported composition probability density function (PDF) method to account for unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. Results from the PDF model are compared with those from a locally well-stirred reactor (WSR) model to quantify the effects of turbulence-chemistry-soot interactions. Computed liquid and vapor penetration versus time, ignition delay, and flame lift-off height are in good agreement with experiment, and relatively small differences are seen between the WSR and PDF models for these global quantities. Computed soot levels and spatial soot distributions from the WSR and PDF models show large differences, with PDF results being in better agreement with experimental measurements. An uncoupled photon Monte Carlo method with line-by-line spectral resolution is used to compute the spectral intensity distribution of the radiation leaving the flame. This provides new insight into the relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation, and the importance of turbulent fluctuations on radiative heat transfer.

  11. Flood Hydrograph Restoration in Increasingly-urbanized Area Based on Low Elevation Greenbelt (United States)

    GAO, Cheng; Yang, Tao


    In increasingly urbanized area, water surface ratio descends and storage capacity of water decreases rapidly associated with lakes, branches, wetlands and floodplains buried. In addition, land surface impermeability enlarges runoff coefficients and runoff velocity. Urban flood, with higher peak discharge, larger volume and shorter concentration time, brings higher risk than rural area. Flood hydrograph restoration is to restore the flood hydrograph after urbanization by specific strategies, by compensating water surface ratio (WSR) and pervious surface proportion (PSP) for peak attenuation, volume reduction and concentration time increase. This paper presents the equivalent effect of low elevation greenbelt- a type of low impact development practices and WSR, PSP by the model SWMM, based on which, the corresponding compensative water surface ratio (CWSR) and compensative pervious surface proportion (CPSP) were obtained according to the equal peak discharge, volume of flood and concentration time- the three parameters determining the flood hydrograph. Then a relationship was found out between the ratio of low elevation greenbelt and WSR, PSP. Finally, the just ratio of low elevation greenbelt and the amount of rainwater resource utilization can be got by comparison of flood hydrograph with the one before urbanization for the restoration based on the three parameters to reduce effect of urbanization on flood hydrograph.

  12. Confocal Raman observation of the efflorescence/deliquescence processes of individual NaNO3 particles on quartz. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Feng; Lu, Pei-Dong; Dong, Jin-Ling; Wang, Liang-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Hong


    Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to study the structural changes of bulk NaNO3 solutions with molar water-to-solute ratios (WSRs) of 54.0-12.3 and NaNO3 droplets (10-100 microm) with WSRs of 9.5-1.0 on a quartz substrate. Upon reduction of the WSR, a blue shift of the symmetric stretching band (nu(1)(NO3-)) from approximately 1048 to approximately 1058 cm(-1) was observed in the confocal Raman spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios. Accordingly, the full width at half-height of the nu(1)(NO3-) band increased from approximately 8.4 cm-1 for the dilute solution (WSR = 54.0) to approximately 15.6 cm-1 for the extremely supersaturated droplet (WSR = 1.0), suggesting the formation of contact ion pairs with different structures. For the O-H stretching band, the ratio of weak hydrogen-bonding components to strong ones, i.e., I(3488)/I(3256), increased from approximately 1.2 at WSR = 54.0 to approximately 7.3 at WSR = 1.0, indicating that the strong hydrogen bonds were heavily destroyed between water molecules especially in the supersaturated droplets. In the humidifying process, two hygroscopic behaviors were observed depending on the morphology of solid NaNO3 particles. No surface water was detected for a solid NaNO3 particle with rhombohedral shape at relative humidities (RHs) below 86%. When the RH increased from 86% to 93%, it suddenly absorbed water and turned into a solution droplet. For a maple-leaf-shaped NaNO3 particle with a rough surface, however, a trace of residual water originally remained on the rough surface even at very low RH according to its Raman spectrum. Its initial water uptake from the ambient occurred at approximately 70% RH. The small amount of initially adsorbed water induced surface rearrangement of the maple-leaf-shaped particle. A further increase of RH made the particle gradually turn into a regular solid core swathed in a solution layer. Eventually, it completely deliquesced in the RH region of 86-93%, similar to the case of the NaNO3

  13. Value of a dual-polarized gap-filling radar in support of southern California post-fire debris-flow warnings (United States)

    Jorgensen, David P.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L; Staley, Dennis M.; Kean, Jason W.; Restrepo, Pedro J.


    A portable truck-mounted C-band Doppler weather radar was deployed to observe rainfall over the Station Fire burn area near Los Angeles, California, during the winter of 2009/10 to assist with debris-flow warning decisions. The deployments were a component of a joint NOAA–U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research effort to improve definition of the rainfall conditions that trigger debris flows from steep topography within recent wildfire burn areas. A procedure was implemented to blend various dual-polarized estimators of precipitation (for radar observations taken below the freezing level) using threshold values for differential reflectivity and specific differential phase shift that improves the accuracy of the rainfall estimates over a specific burn area sited with terrestrial tipping-bucket rain gauges. The portable radar outperformed local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) National Weather Service network radars in detecting rainfall capable of initiating post-fire runoff-generated debris flows. The network radars underestimated hourly precipitation totals by about 50%. Consistent with intensity–duration threshold curves determined from past debris-flow events in burned areas in Southern California, the portable radar-derived rainfall rates exceeded the empirical thresholds over a wider range of storm durations with a higher spatial resolution than local National Weather Service operational radars. Moreover, the truck-mounted C-band radar dual-polarimetric-derived estimates of rainfall intensity provided a better guide to the expected severity of debris-flow events, based on criteria derived from previous events using rain gauge data, than traditional radar-derived rainfall approaches using reflectivity–rainfall relationships for either the portable or operational network WSR-88D radars. Part of the reason for the improvement was due to siting the radar closer to the burn zone than the WSR-88Ds, but use of the dual-polarimetric variables

  14. Prospective Study of Optimal Obesity Index Cut-Off Values for Predicting Incidence of Hypertension in 18–65-Year-Old Chinese Adults (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing


    Background Overweight and obesity increase the risk of elevated blood pressure; most of the studies that serve as a background for the debates on the optimal obesity index cut-off values used cross-sectional samples. The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off values of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in Chinese adults with data from prospective cohort. Methods This study determines the best cut-off values for the obesity indices that represent elevated incidence of hypertension in 18–65-year-old Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006–2011 prospective cohort. Individual body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:stature ratio (WSR) were assessed. ROC curves for these obesity indices were plotted to estimate and compare the usefulness of these obesity indices and the corresponding values for the maximum of the Youden indices were considered the optimal cut-off values. Results Five-year cumulative incidences of hypertension were 21.5% (95% CI: 19.4–23.6) in men and 16.5% (95% CI: 14.7–18.2) in women, and there was a significant trend of increased incidence of hypertension with an increase in BMI, WC, WHR or WSR (P for trend Obesity in China (WGOC), the cut-off values for WHR that were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and a global WSR cut-off value of 0.50 may be the appropriate upper limits for Chinese adults. PMID:26934390

  15. Prospective Study of Optimal Obesity Index Cut-Off Values for Predicting Incidence of Hypertension in 18-65-Year-Old Chinese Adults. (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing


    Overweight and obesity increase the risk of elevated blood pressure; most of the studies that serve as a background for the debates on the optimal obesity index cut-off values used cross-sectional samples. The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off values of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in Chinese adults with data from prospective cohort. This study determines the best cut-off values for the obesity indices that represent elevated incidence of hypertension in 18-65-year-old Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006-2011 prospective cohort. Individual body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:stature ratio (WSR) were assessed. ROC curves for these obesity indices were plotted to estimate and compare the usefulness of these obesity indices and the corresponding values for the maximum of the Youden indices were considered the optimal cut-off values. Five-year cumulative incidences of hypertension were 21.5% (95% CI: 19.4-23.6) in men and 16.5% (95% CI: 14.7-18.2) in women, and there was a significant trend of increased incidence of hypertension with an increase in BMI, WC, WHR or WSR (P for trend Obesity in China (WGOC), the cut-off values for WHR that were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and a global WSR cut-off value of 0.50 may be the appropriate upper limits for Chinese adults.

  16. An in vitro and in vivo investigation into the suitability of compression coated tablets of indomethacin for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis which follow circadian rhythms. (United States)

    Songa, Ambedkar Sunil; Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Nali, Sreenivasa Rao; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy


    The aim of this study was to develop chronotherapeutic drug delivery system of indomethacin using polyethylene oxide (PEO) with a predetermined lag time of 6 h by compression coating technique. Solid dispersions (SD) of indomethacin were prepared using novel carrier sucrose fatty acid ester (SFE 1815) to increase the in vitro dissolution. The optimized SD was formulated as immediate release core tablet which were further coated with PEO (WSR Coagulant or WSR N12 K) using compression coating technique. Compression coated tablets formulated with PEO WSR Coagulant in 1:1.7 ratio of core tablet weight and coating polymer was considered as optimized formulation, which was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that there was no chemical incompatibility and slight change in surface properties. C(max), area under the curve (AUC(0-t)), and T(max) following oral ingestion of commercial capsule (Indocap) and optimized formulation (CT 4) were found to be 1973.18 ± 36.89 ng/mL, 11090.09 ± 131.21 ng/mL/h, 0.99 ± 0.02 h and 2115.46 ±6 2.61, 10413.14 ± 299.66 ng/mL/h, 7.00±0.02 h, respectively. Unaltered AUC(0-t) and C(max), but delayed T(max) indicated clear lag time before immediate release of drug which is suitable for treating rheumatoid arthritis following circadian rhythm.

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08 (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph


    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  18. Weighted MMSE Beamforming Design for Weighted Sum-rate Maximization in Coordinated Multi-Cell MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth


    This paper proposes a low-complexity design for the linear weighted MMSE (WMMSE) transmit filters of a coordinated multi-cell system with multiple users per cell. This design is based on a modified WMMSE approach applied to each transmitting base station individually incorporating the signals sent...... the linear transmit filter maximizing the weighted sum-rate of the multicell system. This algorithm is based on WMMSE where the MSE weights are optimally adjusted so that the WMMSE optimum coincides with the WSR optimum....

  19. FALCON: A Rule-Based Strategic Force Allocation Model. Version 2 (United States)


    error messages for the subroutines PDCLC4 and PDCALC. See the source code for PDCLC4 for a description of the passed variables. EVALDE evaluates the...WSORTT ........WSR1T2 WSORTA WSORTD WSPRDE WSORTP REQMOB REQTIM REQDE REQWOC..SWOC WSELCT WALLOC EVALDE ..SCNDE1 SCNDE2 RCAST1 Subroutines called solely...5.0, 1989. -89- FALCON+ ABUMP+DNCALC+ERRMS4+ EVALDE +OBPRIO+PDCALC+PDCLC4+ PDEXEC+RCAST1+RCAST2+READID+READOD+READWD+RE INIT+ REQDE+REQDE2+REQLEG+REQMOB

  20. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.


    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  1. Alexander Bort and the Bortian Blobs (United States)

    McCormack, Alan J.


    Presents an imaginative story to be used to introduce elementary school students to the different properties and uses of "Polyox." Various ideas for using "Polyox" in elementary science are given. (MDR)

  2. New adhesive system based in metals cross-linking methacrylate. (United States)

    Rubin Cocco, Alexandra; de Oliveira da Rosa, Wellington Luiz; Luque Peralta, Sônia; Timm Maske, Tamires; da Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Andrade Hartwig, Carla; Foster Mesko, Marcia; Piva, Evandro; Guerra Lund, Rafael


    This study evaluated the anti-antibiofilm potential of silver methacrylate (Ag) or di-n-butyldimethacrylatetin (Sn) in experimental adhesive systems. Ag and Sn methacrylates were incorporated at 0.5mol%, 1mol% and 2mol% in an adhesive resin. The anti-antibiofilm potential, degree of conversion (DC), microtensile bond strength (μTBS), water sorption/solubility (WSR/SL), bonded interfaces pattern (SEM), cytotoxicity and leaching of Ag and Sn ions were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed considering α = 0.05. Only Ag at 2% affected DC and μTBS. Ag at 1% and 2% and Sn at 1% and 2% showed anti-biofilm potential against Mutans streptococci. Ag at 1% and 2% and Sn at 2% showed a statistically significant difference to the control in WSR/SL (p adhesive resins statistically similar to controls. Leached metals of Ag were more than 100x higher than for Sn. Between the concentration tested, Ag and Sn methacrylate at 1% presented an anti-biofilm effect without altering the mechanical properties evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Masculine somatotype and hirsuteness as determinants of sexual attractiveness to women. (United States)

    Dixson, Alan F; Halliwell, Gayle; East, Rebecca; Wignarajah, Praveen; Anderson, Matthew J


    Five questionnaire studies asked women to rate the attractiveness of outline drawings of male figures that varied in somatotype, body proportions, symmetry, and in distribution of trunk hair. In Study 1, back-posed figures of mesomorphic (muscular) somatotypes were rated as most attractive, followed by average, ectomorphic (slim), and endomorphic (heavily built) figures by both British and Sri Lankan women. In Study 2, computer morphing of somatotypes to produce an intergraded series resulted in a graded response in terms of perceived attractiveness which mirrored the findings of Study 1. In Study 3, back-posed figures were manipulated in order to change waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) and waist-to-shoulder ratios (WSR). A WHR of 0.8-0.9 and a WSR of 0.6 were rated as most attractive and these effects were more pronounced when modeling mesomorphic figures. In Study 4, symmetric figures of a mesomorphic somatotype were rated as less attractive than a normal (asymmetric) version of the same man. Study 5 showed that presence of trunk hair had a marked, positive effect upon women's ratings of attractiveness for both mesomorphic and endomorphic male figures. Women also judged figures with trunk hair as being older and they consistently rated endomorphic figures as being older than mesomorphs. These results are consistent with effects of sexual selection upon visual signals that advertise health, physical prowess, age, and underlying endocrine condition in the human male.

  4. Comparisons Between Total Lightning Data, Mesocyclone Strength, and Storm Damage Associated with the Florida Tornado Outbreak of February 23, 1998 (United States)

    Hodanish, S; Sharp, D.; Williams, E.; Boldi, B.; Goodman, Steven J.; Raghavan, R.; Matlin, A.; Weber, M.


    During the early morning hours of February 23 1998, the worst tornado outbreak ever recorded occurred over the central Florida peninsula. At least 7 confirmed tornadoes, associated with 4 supercells, developed, with 3 of the tornadoes reaching F3 intensity. Many of the tornadoes where on the ground for tens of miles, uncommon for the state of Florida. A total of 42 people were killed, with over 250 people injured. During the outbreak, National Weather Service Melbourne, in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was collecting data from a unique lightning observing system called Lightning Imaging Sensor Data Applications Display (LISDAD, Boldi, this conference). This system marries radar data collected from the KMLB WSR-88D, cloud to ground data collected from the National Lightning Detection Network, and total lightning data collected from NASKs Lightning Detection And Ranging system. This poster will display, concurrently, total lightning data (displayed in 1 minute increments), time/height storm relative velocity products from the KMLB WSR-88D, and damage information (tornado/hail/wind) from each of the supercell thunderstorms. The primary objective of this poster presentation is to observe how total lightning activity changes as the convective storm intensifies, and how the lightning activity changes with respect to mesocyclone strength (vortex stretching) and damaging weather on the ground.

  5. NASA ER-2 Doppler radar reflectivity calibration for the CAMEX project (United States)

    Caylor, I. J.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Bidwell, S. W.; Ameen, S.


    The NASA ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) was flown aboard the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft in September and October 1993 for the Convection and Moisture Experiment. During these flights, the first reliable reflectivity observations were performed with the EDOP instrument. This report details the procedure used to convert real-time engineering data into calibrated radar reflectivity. Application of the calibration results produces good agreement between the EDOP nadir pointing reflectivity and ground truth provided by a National Weather Service WSR-88D radar. The rms deviation between WSR-88D and EDOP is 6.9 dB, while measurements of the ocean surface backscatter coefficient are less than 3 dB from reported scatterometer coefficients. After an initial 30-minute period required for the instrument to reach thermal equilibrium, the radar is stable to better than 0.25 dB during flight. The range performance of EDOP shows excellent agreement with aircraft altimeter and meteorological sounding data.

  6. Design and in vitro evaluation of effervescent gastric floating drug delivery systems of propanolol HCl. (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Songa, Ambedkar Sunil; Nali, Sreenivasa Rao; Battu, Janaki Ram; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy


    Abstract. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate effervescent gastric floating tablets of propranolol HCl. The oral delivery of antihypertensive propranolol HCl was facilitated by preparing an effervescent floating dosage form which could increase its absorption in the stomach by increasing the drug's gastric residence time. In the present work, effervescent floating tablets were prepared with a hydrophilic carrier such as polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR N 60K and PEO WSR 303) as a release retarding agent and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all their physicochemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, drug release and rate order kinetics. From the results, P9 was selected as an optimized formulation based on their 12 h drug release, minimal floating lag time and maximum total floating time. The optimized formulation followed first order rate kinetics with erosion mechanism. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR studies and no interaction between the drug and the polymers were observed.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of a novel pulsed and controlled osmotic pump capsule. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenji; Zhang, Lina; Qu, Xukai; Zhu, Zhihong; Pan, Yusheng; Guan, Jin; Pan, Weisan


    For better treatment of circadian cardiovascular events, a novel Propranolol hydrochloride (PNH) delayed-release osmotic pump capsule was developed. The capsule body was designed of asymmetric membrane and the capsule cap was made impermeable. The physical characteristics of capsule body walls and membrane permeability were compared among different coating solutions. The formulation with the glycerin and diethyl phthalate (DEP) ratio of 5:4 appeared to be the best. The lag time and subsequent drug release were investigated through assembling the capsule body with capsule caps of different length. WSR N-10 was chosen as the suspending for its moderate expanding capacity. The influence of factors (WSR N-10 content, NaCl content and capsule cap length) on the responses (lag time and drug release rate) was evaluated using central composite design-response surface methodology. A second-order polynomial equation was fitted to the data and actual response values were in good accordance with the predicted ones. The optimized formulation displayed complete drug delivery, zero-order release rate with 4-h lag time. The results of in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs clearly suggested the controlled and sustained release of PNH from the system and that the relative bioavailability of this preparation was about 1.023 comparing the marketed preparation. These results indicate that by the adjustment of capsule cap length, PNH could be developed as a novel pulsatile and controlled drug delivery system.

  8. Formulation development of carvedilol compression coated tablet. (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Patel, Sachin; Patel, Hetal; Pandey, Sonia; Shah, Shailesh; Shah, Dinesh


    The aim of present research was to produce carvedilol compression coated tablet to provide biphasic drug release. A compressed coated tablet made of a sustained release core tablet and an immediate release coat tablet. Both the core and the coat contained carvedilol. The sustained release effect was achieved with polymers (HPMC K4M and PEO WSR 205) to modulate the release of the drug. The powder blends for core and coat tablets were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index, and drug content. Compressed coated tablets were evaluated for thickness, diameter, weight variation test, drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro release studies. The powder blends showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility, drug content and all the tablet formulations showed acceptable pharmaco-technical properties. Carvedilol contained in the fast releasing component was released within 3 min, whereas the drug in the core tablet was released at different times up to 24 h, depending on the composition of the matrix tablet. The mechanism of drug release was fickian diffusion or anomalous behavior. Batch F7, containing 10 mg PEO WSR 205 and 5 mg HPMC K4M, showed maximum similarity with theoretical profile and zero order drug release kinetic.

  9. Solar car (2); Soraka (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujinaka, Masaharu [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)


    (87) The running performance of solar car for the game. The second report:' The running performance in 98 WSR in Akita. (88) Output characteristics of solar cell mounted small motor car. (89) The development research of electric automobile for second car. (Part 1: The development objective and basic consideration.) (90) Trial manufacture of nickel, hydrogen battery and application to the solar automobile. (91) Solar wheelchair (2). Electric automobile (EV) is noticed from the environmental problem. EV which required the energy source for a solar cell output is a solar car. 2 and 3 miniature EV application were announced for the optimum lace for the solar car development in this session. The estimated result of solar car which won championship by the high improvement result at '98 WSR in AKITA be shown by the for lace. And, the solar car of latest nickel, hydrogen battery installation produced experimentally in the university laboratory was also announced, and trial manufacture and characteristics of the battery were shown. It was supposed at the content the description which the enjoyment of solar car race matched the engineering education in working. The application to the small automobile was the report of the high contribution effect by the solar cell panel installation in trial manufacture of second car EV and roof of wheelchair EV. In 2015 years in our country, 1 person was a lecture as miniature EV became 4 persons for old people society of over of 65-year-old with the need. (translated by NEDO)

  10. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study. (United States)

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A


    Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5

  11. Influence of Hydrodynamic Sorting on the Composition and Age of Yellow River Suspended Particulate Organic Matter (United States)

    Yu, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Haghipour, N.; Montluçon, D. B.; Wacker, L.; Hou, P.; Zhao, M.


    The transport of organic carbon (OC) by rivers to coastal oceans is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The Yellow River (YR), the second largest river in China, transports large amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the Chinese marginal seas, with fossil and pre-aged (ca, 1600 yr) OC comprising the dominant components. However, the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the origin, composition and age of POC exported by the YR remains poorly understood, yet these processes likely ultimately play an important role in determining OC fate in the Chinese marginal seas. We address this question through bulk, biomarker and carbon isotopic (δ13C and Δ14C) characterization of organic matter associated with different grain size fractions of total suspended particles (TSP) in the YR. Surface TSP samples were collected in the spring, summer, fall and during the Water-Sediment Regulation period (WSR, July) of 2015. TSP samples were separated into five grain-size fractions (63μm) for organic geochemical and isotope analysis. Generally, the 16-32 and 32-63μm fractions contributed most of the TSP mass and the majority of OC resided in 16-32μm fraction. TOC% decreased with increasing grain size and 14C ages exhibited significant variability, ranging from 3,335 yr (63μm fraction in autumn), but did not show any systematic trend among grain size fractions or across sampling times. In contrast, compound-specific 14C analysis of long-chain n-fatty acids (C26-30 FAs) revealed two clear patterns: first, C26-30 FAs age decreased with increasing grain size for all sampling times; second, the C26-30 FAs age difference was the largest among the different size fractions during the WSR period, and smallest after the WSR. These findings have important implications for our understanding of riverine POC transport mechanisms and their influence on the dispersal and burial efficiency of terrestrial OC in coastal oceans.

  12. Confocal Raman studies of Mg(NO3)2 aerosol particles deposited on a quartz substrate: supersaturated structures and complicated phase transitions. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Li-Jun; Dong, Jin-Ling; Xiao, Han-Shuang; Zhang, Yun-Hong


    Individual Mg(NO3)2 aerosol particles deposited on a quartz substrate were investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. With decreasing the relative humidity (RH) from 92.0% to 1.8%, Raman spectra were obtained of Mg(NO3)2 droplets with water-to-solute molar ratios (WSRs) from 43.1 to 5.2, as well as of amorphous particles. At WSR < 6.0, contact ion pairs between Mg2+ and NO3(-) occurred abundantly, while at RHs of 2.2% and 1.8% with even lower WSRs, amorphous particles appeared with quasi-lattice structures. Two components, one at 3259.0 cm(-1) (C1) and the other at approximately 3480.0 cm(-1) (C2), were resolved for the water O-H stretching envelope through nonlinear curve fittings. The area ratio of C1 to C2, that is, A1/A2, declined with the decrease of WSR, reflecting the breakage of strong hydrogen bonds induced by the hydration of NO3(-). Curve fittings were also carried out for the water O-H stretching envelope of NaNO3 droplets. The value of A1/A2 for Mg(NO3)2 droplets was always higher than that for NaNO3 droplets at the same WSR, indicating a much stronger "structure-making" effect of Mg2+ than of Na+. In the efflorescence process, aerosol particles followed different paths of phase transition from droplets to Mg(NO3)2.6H2O or amorphous states. Reversing somewhat the phase transitions in the efflorescence process, aerosol particles dissolved into droplets with the increase of RH in the deliquescence process. Heterogeneous particles prepared by dehydrating Mg(NO3)2.6H2O were investigated by the depth profiling technique. About 15 h later, the main body of particles changed into Mg(NO3)2.2H2O, a small quantity of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O scattered around particle edges, and some particles were in amorphous states. About 10 days later, a new solid phase occurred on particle surfaces, while the interiors were still Mg(NO3)2.2H2O. With increasing the RH to approximately 11%, significant Mg(NO3)2.6H2O formed on particle surfaces, covering the interior Mg(NO3)2.2H2O.

  13. The combined use of weather radar and geographic information system techniques for flood forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baltas


    Full Text Available A distributed rainfall-runoff model capable for real time flood forecasting utilizing highly spatial and time resolution data was developed. The study region is located under the WSR-74 S-band 100 km radar umbrella and is equipped with a number of rain gauge recording stations, a permanent installation for flow measurement and a stage recorder. The entire basin was digitized to 2×2 km2 grid squares by implying GIS techniques. A series of rainfall events recorded producing floods were analyzed and processed. The linear channel parameter assigned to each grid-square is based on its location measured by the centroid of the grid square along the channel network. The estimation of the hill-slope and the stream velocity are calculated based on the Geographic Information System (GIS procedures.

  14. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server


    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  15. Chemistry and materials science research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  16. Error and Uncertainty Quantification in Precipitation Retrievals from GPM/DPR Using Ground-based Dual-Polarization Radar Observations (United States)

    Chandra, Chandrasekar V.; Chen*, Haonan; Petersen, Walter


    The active Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and passive radiometer onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory extend the observation range attained by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) from tropical to most of the globe [1]. Through improved measurements of precipitation, the GPM mission is helping to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, as well as climate changes. Ground Validation (GV) is an indispensable part of the GPM satellite mission. In the pre-launch era, several international validation experiments had already generated a substantial dataset that could be used to develop and test the pre-launch GPM algorithms. After launch, more ground validation field campaigns were conducted to further evaluate GPM precipitation data products as well as the sensitivities of retrieval algorithms. Among various validation equipment, ground based dual-polarization radar has shown great advantages to conduct precipitation estimation over a wide area in a relatively short time span. Therefore, radar is always a key component in all the validation field experiments. In addition, the radar polarization diversity has great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through the identification of raindrop size distribution and different hydrometeor types [2]. Currently, all the radar sites comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88DP) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. However, most of the operational radar based precipitation products are produced at coarse resolution typically on 1 km by 1 km spatial grids, focusing on precipitation accumulations at temporal scales of 1-h, 3-h, 6-h, 12-h, and/or 24-h (daily). Their capability for instantaneous GPM product validation is severely limited due to the spatial and temporal mismatching between observations from the ground and space. This paper first presents the rationale and

  17. Formulation of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system using hydrophilic polymers and its in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Srikanth Meka


    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate the gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of antihypertensive drug, propranolol HCl. Gastroretentive floating tablets (GRFT were prepared by using a synthetic hydrophilic polymer polyethylene oxide of different grades such as PEO WSR N-12 K and PEO 18 NF as release retarding polymers and calcium carbonate as gas generating agent. The GRFT were compressed by direct compression strategy and the tablets were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, swelling studies, in vitro dissolution studies and release mechanism studies. From the dissolution and buoyancy studies, F 9 was selected as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation followed zero order rate kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The optimized formulation was characterised with FTIR studies and observed no interaction between the drug and the polymers.

  18. A New Approach to Inventorying Army Hazardous Materials, A Study Done for the Eighth U.S. Army, Korea. Volume 2. Hazardous Material Data (United States)


    AC 1 WT4J8S WT4J8S BT 66 66 6520010610665 RESIN ACRYLIC DENTAL 4 WT4J8S WT4J8S PG 7 7 6605001296330 TESTER,MASTER COMPA 1 W81C1E WT4KDV EA 1 1... RESIN US 1 WT4J8S WT4J8S BT 104 74 6505012104450 OXYCODONE HCL AND AC 1 WT4J8S WT4J8S ST 66 66 6520010610665 RESIN ACRYLIC DENTAL 4 WT4J8S WT4J8S PG 7 7...6840004025411 INSECTICIDE,DURSBAN CG 3 WT4R44 YOOOOO CN 2 2 6840005843129 DISINFECTANT DETERG 2 WT4WRT W807M8 GL 30 30 2 WT4WTD W807M8 GL 100 50 2 WT4WSR

  19. Performance analysis of wind turbine systems under different parameters effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, Salih Mohammed; Taha, Mohammed Qasim; Alawsaj, Mohammed K. [College of Engineering, University of Anbar (Iraq)


    In this paper, simulation models are used to study the performance of small power systems based on different weather parameters. The results are extracted using Matlab software program for analyzing the performance of two wind turbines: Whisper-500 3.2KW and NY-WSR1204 600W which have the same type of permanent magnetic alternators (three phase and 16 poles). Different parameters can affect on the performance of wind turbines which are: the wind speed air density, air pressure, temperature and the length of blades for wind generators. The mathematical results related the previous mentioned parameters are analyzed in order to determine the sensitivity of input power on the output of wind generators.

  20. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents]. (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza


    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. (United States)

    Cajochen, Christian; Frey, Sylvia; Anders, Doreen; Späti, Jakub; Bues, Matthias; Pross, Achim; Mager, Ralph; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Stefani, Oliver


    Many people spend an increasing amount of time in front of computer screens equipped with light-emitting diodes (LED) with a short wavelength (blue range). Thus we investigated the repercussions on melatonin (a marker of the circadian clock), alertness, and cognitive performance levels in 13 young male volunteers under controlled laboratory conditions in a balanced crossover design. A 5-h evening exposure to a white LED-backlit screen with more than twice as much 464 nm light emission {irradiance of 0,241 Watt/(steradian × m(2)) [W/(sr × m(2))], 2.1 × 10(13) photons/(cm(2) × s), in the wavelength range of 454 and 474 nm} than a white non-LED-backlit screen [irradiance of 0,099 W/(sr × m(2)), 0.7 × 10(13) photons/(cm(2) × s), in the wavelength range of 454 and 474 nm] elicited a significant suppression of the evening rise in endogenous melatonin and subjective as well as objective sleepiness, as indexed by a reduced incidence of slow eye movements and EEG low-frequency activity (1-7 Hz) in frontal brain regions. Concomitantly, sustained attention, as determined by the GO/NOGO task; working memory/attention, as assessed by "explicit timing"; and declarative memory performance in a word-learning paradigm were significantly enhanced in the LED-backlit screen compared with the non-LED condition. Screen quality and visual comfort were rated the same in both screen conditions, whereas the non-LED screen tended to be considered brighter. Our data indicate that the spectral profile of light emitted by computer screens impacts on circadian physiology, alertness, and cognitive performance levels. The challenge will be to design a computer screen with a spectral profile that can be individually programmed to add timed, essential light information to the circadian system in humans.

  2. Radar analysis of fall bird migration stopover sites in the northeastern U.S. (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Dawson, Deanna K.


    The national network of weather surveillance radars (WSR-88D) detects flying birds and is a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. We used data collected during fall 2008 and 2009 by 16 WSR-88D radars in the northeastern U.S. to quantify the spatial distribution of landbirds during migratory stopover. We geo-referenced estimates based on radar reflectivity, of the density of migrants aloft at their abrupt evening exodus from daytime stopover sites, to the approximate locations from which they emerged. We classified bird stopover use by the magnitude and variation of radar reflectivity across nights; areas were considered “important” stopover sites for conservation if bird density was consistently high. We developed statistical models that predict potentially important stopover sites across the region, based on land cover, ground elevation, and geographic location. Large areas of regionally important stopover sites were located along the coastlines of Long Island Sound, throughout the Delmarva Peninsula, in areas surrounding Baltimore and Washington, along the western edge of the Adirondack Mountains, and within the Appalachian Mountains of southwestern Virginia and West Virginia. Locally important stopover sites generally were associated with deciduous forests embedded within landscapes dominated by developed or agricultural lands, or near the shores of major water bodies. Preserving or enhancing patches of natural habitat, particularly deciduous forests, in developed or agricultural landscapes and along major coastlines could be a priority for conservation plans addressing the stopover requirements of migratory landbirds in the northeastern U.S. Our maps of important stopover sites can be used to focus conservation efforts and can serve as a sampling frame for fieldwork to validate radar observations or for ecological studies of landbirds on migratory stopover.

  3. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery from indomethacin compression coated tablets for early morning pain associated rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Sunil, Songa Ambedkar; Srikanth, Meka Venkata; Rao, Nali Sreenivasa; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana


    As the main intent of delivering maximum concentration of drug available from the dosage form, an oral compression coated tablet (CCT) was intended to develop with a predetermined lag time of 6 hrs before immediate release of drug to target circadian rhythms of rheumatoid arthritis. Solid dispersions are promising approach to enhance drug release, which later will be developed as core tablet formulation and compression coated with polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR 303). Solid dispersions were formulated with different ratio of drug and carrier (sucrose fatty acid esters 1811) using solvent evaporation and melt granulation technique, optimized solid dispersion was formulated as core tablet with different diluents. Optimized core tablet was compression coated with PEO WSR 303 along with a channeling agent (DCL 21, mannitol, HPMC 5 cps and starch 1500). Lag time before immediate release of drug was markedly dependent on weight ratios of polymer and channeling agent used, which ranged from 4 to 12 hrs. Optimized solid dispersion (S9) was used for formulating optimized core tablet formulation (C8). CCT (T8) prepared with core tablet (C8) along with mannitol provided a lag time of 6 hrs with minimum concentration of channeling agent used, which was also supported from the permeability study results. Incompatibility and characterization was confirmed from DSC, XRD, FTIR and SEM studies. Unaltered Cmax and AUC0-t but delayed Tmax following oral ingestion of optimized formulation (T8) to human volunteers indicated clear lag time before immediate release of drug, which is suitable for treating rheumatoid arthritis following circadian rhythm.

  4. Configuration and Evaluation of a Dual-Doppler 3-D Wind Field System (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred C.


    Current LSP, GSDO, and SLS space vehicle operations are halted when wind speeds from specific directions exceed defined thresholds and when lightning is a threat. Strong winds and lightning are difficult parameters for the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to forecast, yet are important in the protection of customer vehicle operations and the personnel that conduct them. A display of the low-level horizontal wind field to reveal areas of high winds or convergence would be a valuable tool for forecasters in assessing the timing of high winds, or convection initiation and subsequent lightning occurrence. This is especially important for areas where no weather observation platforms exist. Developing a dual-Doppler radar capability would provide such a display to assist forecasters in predicting high winds and convection initiation. The wind fields can also be used to initialize a local mesoscale numerical weather prediction model to help improve the model forecast winds, convection initiation, and other phenomena. The 45 WS and NWS MLB tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a dual- Doppler wind field display using data from the 45th Space Wing radar, known as the Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR), NWS MLB Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (KMLB), and the Orlando International Airport Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (KMCO). They also stipulated that the software used should be freely available. The AMU evaluated two software packages and, with concurrence from NWS MLB and the 45 WS, chose the Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II). The AMU collected data from two significant weather cases: a tornadic event on 14 April 2013 and a severe wind and hail event on 12 February 2014. For the 14 April case, the data were from WSR and KMLB. For the 12 February case, the data were from KMCO and KMLB. The AMU installed WDSS-II on a Linux PC, then processed and quality controlled the radar data for display and analysis using WDSS-II tools

  5. The paired t test and beyond: Recommendations for testing the central tendencies of two paired samples in research on speech, language and hearing pathology. (United States)

    Rietveld, Toni; van Hout, Roeland


    In this tutorial we review current practice in the analysis of data obtained in designs involving two dependent samples and evaluate two conventional statistics: the t test for paired samples and its non-parametric alternative, the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSR). It is a sequel to our tutorial on the analysis of designs with two independent samples on the basis of non-count data (Rietveld & van Hout, 2015). The frequency with which these statistics are used is assessed on the basis of publications on disordered communication in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, Journal of Communication Disorders and Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research for the time interval 2006-2015. We conclude with a number of recommendations for the analysis and presentation of data. Researchers should more consistently present the relevant characteristics of their data (means, medians, SD, skewness, tailedness, outliers etc.) and explicitly consider the assumptions that apply to their statistical methods, such as correlations between data obtained on two occasions, interactions between participants and treatment, and the symmetry of difference scores, many of which are hardly ever reported or even tested. Two recommendations are particularly relevant. First, the WSR is not a proper test for central tendencies as a replacement of the conventional t test for paired samples whenever assumptions about the dependent variable are in doubt. Second, researchers should choose statistical procedures on the basis of the null hypothesis (H0) to be tested and not primarily on the basis of the type of data (ordinal or interval). Two relevant H0's in the field of speech-language pathology are: (1) μ1=μ2 (the mean obtained in condition 1 is equal to the mean in condition 2) and (2) p=0.5, which says: the probability to obtain (for instance) higher scores in condition 2 than in condition 1 is 0.5. We recommend the permuted t test for paired samples to test the first H0 and the permuted Brunner

  6. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.


    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  7. Methods and Results for a Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Validation Network Prototype (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew R.


    As one component of a ground validation system to meet requirements for the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a quasi-operational prototype a system to compare satellite- and ground-based radar measurements has been developed. This prototype, the GPM Validation Network (VN), acquires data from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and from ground radar (GR) networks in the continental U.S. and participating international sites. PR data serve as a surrogate for similar observations from the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) to be present on GPM. Primary goals of the VN prototype are to understand and characterize the variability and bias of precipitation retrievals between the PR and GR in various precipitation regimes at large scales, and to improve precipitation retrieval algorithms for the GPM instruments. The current VN capabilities concentrate on comparisons of the base reflectivity observations between the PR and GR, and include support for rain rate comparisons. The VN algorithm resamples PR and GR reflectivity and other 2-D and 3-D data fields to irregular common volumes defined by the geometric intersection of the instrument observations, and performs statistical comparisons of PR and GR reflectivity and estimated rain rates. Algorithmic biases and uncertainties introduced by traditional data analysis techniques are minimized by not performing interpolation or extrapolation of data to a fixed grid. The core VN dataset consists of WSR-88D GR data and matching PR orbit subset data covering 21 sites in the southeastern U. S., from August, 2006 to the present. On average, about 3.5 overpass events per month for these WSR-88D sites meet VN criteria for significant precipitation, and have matching PR and GR data available. This large statistical sample has allowed the relative calibration accuracy and stability of the individual ground radars, and the quality of the PR reflectivity

  8. Verification of Rapid Focused-Recharge in Depressions of Kuwait and the Arabian Peninsula Using Thermal and VNIR Remote Sensing (United States)

    Rotz, R. R.; Milewski, A.


    In the Arabian Peninsula, freshwater recharge from rainfall is infrequent. Recharge is typically focused in small depressions that fill with seasonal runoff and potentially form freshwater lenses. This phenomenon has been verified in the Raudhatain watershed in Kuwait. This study aims to substantiate previously hypothesized lens locations and detect water in the subsurface by using thermal remote sensing and rainfall data. Potential freshwater lenses (~142) have been previously postulated throughout Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but lack verification due to inadequate monitoring networks. We hypothesize that due to water's unique heat capacity, recharge zones can be detected by identifying areas with lower changes in surface radiance values than neighboring dry areas between day and night after peak or sustained rainfall. If successful, recharge zones and freshwater lenses can be identified and verified in remote hyper-arid regions. We collected 320 high-resolution (15m - 90m), low cloud cover (images in the visible near-infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths obtained from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer sensor (ASTER) between 2004 and 2012. Overlapping day and night images were subtracted from each other to show surface radiance fluctuations and difference images were compared with rainfall data from Daily TRMM_3B42v7a between 2004 and 2012. Several lens locations, runoff channels, agricultural regions, and wetlands were detected in areas where radiance values change between 0.067 - 2.25 Wsr-1m-2 from day to night scenes and verified by Google Earth (15m), Landsat (30m), and ASTER VNIR (15m) images. Additionally, two seasonal peak rainfall (~35mm/day) events positively correlate with the surface radiance difference values. Surface radiance values for dry areas adjacent to the postulated lens locations range between 2.25 - 12.2 Wsr-1m-2. Results demonstrate the potential for shallow groundwater detection through the

  9. Association between obesity indices and type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged and elderly people in Jinan, China: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Wang, Shukang; Ma, Wei; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Shu-Mei; Yi, Xiangren; Jia, Hongying; Xue, Fuzhong


    The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies with geographical area and race. To investigate the prevalence of T2DM and the proportion of subjects with undiagnosed T2DM. In addition, to compare the associations between different obesity indices and T2DM for middle-aged and elderly people from six communities in Jinan, China. A cross-sectional study was designed and the study subjects were chosen from blocks which were randomly selected in the 6 communities of Jinan, China in 2011-2012. A total of 3277 residents aged ≥50 years were eligible for this study, but 1563 people were excluded because they did not provide anthropometric data such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) or information about their current medication use. Hence, 1714 participants were included in the final data analysis. The prevalence of T2DM among people aged ≥50 years was 16.6% (19.3% for men and 15.3% for women) and the proportion of patients with undiagnosed T2DM was 32.7%. Compared with the lowest levels of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-hip ratio or waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), the ORs and 95% CIs of the highest levels for men, after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hypertension, TG and TC, were 1.607 (0.804 to 3.210), 2.189 (1.118 to 4.285), 1.873 (0.968 to 3.623) and 2.572 (1.301 to 5.083), respectively, and for women, 2.764 (1.622 to 4.712), 2.407 (1.455 to 3.985), 2.500 (1.484 to 4.211) and 2.452 (1.447 to 4.155), respectively. Among adults aged ≥50 years in Jinan, China, the best indicator of the relationship between obesity and T2DM is WSR for men and BMI for women, respectively. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. GPM Level 1 Science Requirements: Science and Performance Viewed from the Ground (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Kirstetter, P.; Wolff, D. B.; Kidd, C.; Tokay, A.; Chandrasekar, V.; Gatlin, P. N.; Grecu, M.; Huffman, G. J.; Skofronick Jackson, G.


    In this study we describe the GPM Ground-Validation (GV) framework for demonstrating Level-1 (L1) performance of GPM Core satellite precipitation products (rain rate, drop size distribution, detection of snow). L1 requirements evaluations are based on GV data sources including: 1) NOAA multi-radar multi-sensor (MRMS) rain rate products and precipitation types (rain/snow) over the continental U.S.; 2) GV radar estimates of rain rate over the ocean using the K-Pol radar at Kwajalein Atoll and the Middleton Island WSR-88D radar, located in the Gulf of Alaska; and 3) combined disdrometer and polarimetric radar-based raindrop size distributions (DSDs) covering numerous regimes and diagnosed using U.S. WSR-88D and GV polarimetric radar networks. The results suggest that the GPM Core satellite meets its L1 science requirements. Particularly notable in the analysis is the "maturity" of GPM radar-based algorithms that have clearly evolved in capability from their TRMM heritage to the GPM era. Specifically, Version-04 GPM radar-based products are solid performers as it pertains to enabling the GPM Core to meet its L1 requirement thresholds for rain rate, and these products also compare well to GV radar estimates of mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm). Version-04 GPM GMI-GPROF rain rate products exhibit reasonable agreement with GV, but currently do not meet L1 requirements due to excessive random error ( 75%) at 1 mm/hr and lighter rain rates. The excessive random error may be due in part to the new DPR-based a priori precipitation profile database used by the radiometer algorithm and associated behavior in convective and stratiform precipitation profiles represented in the database. With further analysis, to include continuous review of GV datasets and methods, it is expected that the GPROF radiometer-based rainrate products will also surpass the L1 specification at 1 mm h-1. With regard to snow, GPM L1 requirements stipulate "demonstrating detection of snowfall" at instrument

  11. Atmosphere-Truth Z-R Rainfall Estimates: A Fresh Approach to an Old Problem (United States)

    Henz, J. F.


    Common modeling practice for basin calibration uses rainfall fields developed by the statistical use of surface rain gauge observed data or the direct application of NEXRAD National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar Storm Total Rainfall or 1-hr rainfall estimations. Each of these approaches has significant limitations. Rain gages often lack sufficient spatial coverage to measure true storm intensity or the distribution of rainfall in a basin. The NWS WSR-88D Doppler radar algorithms are constantly being improved but still fail to deliver consistent rainfall estimates. Significant problems are caused by an under-estimation of warm coalescence rains and an over-estimation of rainfall in both dry environments and storms with hail contamination. Finally, storm updraft areas are frequently counted as raining portions of the storm producing immediate errors. The statistical techniques often under-estimate rainfall when the heavy rain core of the storm misses the rain gauges or if high winds cause an under-catchment of rainfall. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates are also dependant on the core of the storm being observed by a gauge. Statistical approaches often under-estimate rainfall producing insufficient runoff to drive the observed flooding runoffs. The Atmosphere-Truth ZR (ATZR) technique uses an atmosphere-truthed algorithm to produce highly accurate estimates of surface rainfall from Doppler radar data. This approach relies on using a cloud physics approach to determine the atmosphere’s ability to produce 15-min to hourly rain rates. The atmsopheric rainfall is utilizes surface, boundary layer and cloud layer observations of temperature and moisture from conventional National Weather Service observations. The depth of the thunderstorm updraft region that exceeds 0C is used with the precipitable water index and updraft speeds to provide estimates of 15-min to hourly rainfall rates from radar reflectivity areas in the storm greather than 50 dBZ. Rainfall rates

  12. Lightning Characteristics During the Merger of Two Supercell Storms on 29-30 May 2012 Observed in Oklahoma During DC3 (United States)

    DiGangi, E.; MacGorman, D. R.


    The 29 May 2012 Kingfisher supercell was sampled during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment. The storm was within range of the 3-D Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OK LMA) and the Oklahoma City Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler (WSR-88D), KTLX for its entire lifetime, but the behavior of lightning during a period late in its lifetime in which it merged with a left moving supercell storm has not been studied previously. The merger occurred toward the end of its lifetime and produced maximum flash rates of almost 500 flashes min-1. The storm decayed rapidly following the merger. This study will focus on the electrical characteristics of the storm in the last 1.5 hours of its life: before, during, and following the merger process. Reflectivity and radial velocity data from KTLX will be used to support the discussion of lightning characteristics. Initial results show that cloud-to-ground (CG) flash rates increased markedly during the merger and increased even more following the merger. Additionally, the vertical distribution of very high frequency (VHF) source densities from lightning flashes were maintained while total flash rates decreased. The interactions of charge regions and lightning flashes between the two merging supercells will be the primary focus of this study, as well as how those interactions affected the evolution of the rates and average spatial extent of flashes and the evolution of the spatial distribution of flash initiations and CG lightning.

  13. Particle-size distribution and phosphorus forms as a function of hydrological forcing in the Yellow River. (United States)

    Yao, Qing-Zhen; Du, Jun-Tao; Chen, Hong-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Gang


    Samples were collected monthly from January to December in 2010, and daily observations were made during the water-sediment regulation event in June-July 2010. Sequential extractions were applied to determine the forms of P in different particle-size fractions and to assess the potential bioavailability of particulate phosphorus (PP). The results indicated that exchangeable phosphorus, organic phosphorus, authigenic phosphorus, and refractory phosphorus increased with the decreasing of particulate size; conversely, detrital phosphorus decreased with the decreasing of particulate size. The content of bioavailable particulate phosphorus (BAPP) varied greatly in different sizes of particles. In general, the smaller the particle size, the higher the content of bioavailable phosphorus and its proportion in total phosphorous was found in these particles. Hydrological forcing controlled the variability in the major P phases found in the suspended sediments via changes in the sources and the particle grain-size distribution. The variation of particle sizes can be attributed also to different total suspended sediment (TSS) sources. Water-sediment regulation (WSR) mobilized only particulate matter from the riverbed, while during the rainstorm soil erosion and runoff were the main source. The BAPP fluxes associated with the "truly suspended" fraction was approximately 200 times larger than the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) flux. Thus, the transfer of fine particles to the open sea is most probably accompanied by BAPP release to the DIP and can support greater primary and secondary production.

  14. Vertical air motion retrievals in deep convective clouds using the ARM scanning radar network in Oklahoma during MC3E (United States)

    North, Kirk W.; Oue, Mariko; Kollias, Pavlos; Giangrande, Scott E.; Collis, Scott M.; Potvin, Corey K.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site includes a heterogeneous distributed scanning Doppler radar network suitable for collecting coordinated Doppler velocity measurements in deep convective clouds. The surrounding National Weather Service (NWS) Next Generation Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (NEXRAD WSR-88D) further supplements this network. Radar velocity measurements are assimilated in a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) algorithm that retrieves horizontal and vertical air motions over a large analysis domain (100 km × 100 km) at storm-scale resolutions (250 m). For the first time, direct evaluation of retrieved vertical air velocities with those from collocated 915 MHz radar wind profilers is performed. Mean absolute and root-mean-square differences between the two sources are of the order of 1 and 2 m s-1, respectively, and time-height correlations are of the order of 0.5. An empirical sensitivity analysis is done to determine a range of 3DVAR constraint weights that adequately satisfy the velocity observations and anelastic mass continuity. It is shown that the vertical velocity spread over this range is of the order of 1 m s-1. The 3DVAR retrievals are also compared to those obtained from an iterative upwards integration technique. The results suggest that the 3DVAR technique provides a robust, stable solution for cases in which integration techniques have difficulty satisfying velocity observations and mass continuity simultaneously.

  15. Critical behavior and its correlation with magnetocaloric effect in amorphous Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8} (x=8, 10 and 13.7) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutahar, A., E-mail: [LPMMAT,Université Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, BP 5366 Mâarif–Casablanca (Morocco); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT,Université Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, BP 5366 Mâarif–Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K.; Fruchart, D. [Institue Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    The critical exponents in Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8} (x=8, 10 and 13.7) amorphous alloys were investigated near ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition temperature. All amorphous alloys exhibit a second order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition (SOMT). The critical exponents (β, γ and δ) were estimated using the modified Arrott plot technique (MAP), the Widom scaling relation (WSR), and the critical isotherm analysis (CIA). In addition, an independent analysis of the critical behavior is presented in terms of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). It shows in accordance with conclusion from magnetization data analysis. The estimated critical exponent values are found to be consistent and comparable to those predicted by the mean field model. This result points out to the ferromagnetic exchange interaction of long-range type. - Highlights: • Amorphous Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8} was prepared by melt spinning method. • The β, γ and δ critical exponents are determined with various techniques. • The estimated critical exponent values match very well with the mean field theory. • The existence of a long-range ferromagnetic interaction in Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8}.

  16. Escalation of Intake Under Intermittent Ethanol Access in Diverse Mouse Genotypes (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M.; Fixaris, Michael C.; Crabbe, John C.; Brooks, Peter C.; Ascheid, Sonja


    Experimental animals offered continuous 24-hour free choice access to ethanol rarely display voluntary ethanol consumption at levels sufficient to induce intoxication or to engender dependence. One of the simplest ways to increase voluntary ethanol intake is to impose temporal limitations on ethanol availability. Escalation of ethanol intake has been observed in both rats and mice under a variety of different schedules of alternating ethanol access and deprivation. While such effects have been observed in a variety of rat and mouse genotypes, little is known concerning possible genetic correlations between responses to intermittent ethanol access and other ethanol-related phenotypes. In the present study, we examined the effects of intermittent ethanol access in mouse genotypes characterized by divergent responses to ethanol in other domains, including ethanol preference (C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice), binge-like ethanol drinking (HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice), and ethanol withdrawal severity (WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice). While intermittent ethanol access resulted in escalated ethanol intake in all tested genotypes, the robustness of the effect varied across genotypes. On the other hand, we saw no evidence that the effects of intermittent access are correlated with either binge-like drinking or withdrawal severity, and only weak evidence for a genetic correlation with baseline ethanol preference. Thus, these different ethanol-related traits appear to depend on largely unique sets of genetic mediators. PMID:22862671

  17. Education effect of solar car for technical high school student; Kogyo kokosei ni taisuru solar car no kyoiku koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T.


    The solar car race which technical high school students can join in was determined to be held at Ogata village, Akita prefecture. To join in the solar bicycle race, the author working in Ofuna technical high school called on 3 schools of Yokosuka, Fujisawa and Kanagawa technical high schools which joined in World Solar-Car Rally in Akita (WSR) in 1997, before fabrication of a racing bicycle. This paper describes the survey results at the above technical high schools, and the spirit as the teacher of Ofuna technical high school on joining in the race and fabrication of the solar bicycle, and the past, current and future situations. Club activities of high school students incline too toward sports such as soccer, baseball, volleyball and rugby, and are apt to keep honest cultural events and technical events at a distance. The author says that the challenge spirit to the solar car race using environment-friendly solar energy by both dedicated teachers and students of technical high schools summoned up the author`s courage. 15 figs.

  18. The influences on radar-based rainfall estimation due to complex terrain (United States)

    Craciun, Cristian; Stefan, Sabina


    One of the concerns regarding radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is the level of reliability of radar data, on which the forecaster should trust when he must issue warnings regarding weather phenomena that might put human lives and good in danger. The aim of the current study is to evaluate, by objective means, the difference between radar estimated and gauge measured precipitation over an area with complex terrain. Radar data supplied for the study comes from an S-band, single polarization, Doppler weather system, Weather Surveillance Radar 98 Doppler (WSR-98D), that is located in center part of Romania. Gage measurements are supplied by a net of 27 weather stations, located within the coverage area of the radar. The approach consists in a few steps. In the first one the field of reflectivity data is converted into rain rate, using the radar's native Z-R relationship, and the rain rate field is then transformed into rain accumulation over certain time intervals. In the next step were investigated the differences between radar and gauge rainfall accumulations by using four objective functions: mean bias between radar estimations and ground measurements, root mean square factor, and Spearman and Pearson correlations. The results shows that the differences and the correlations between radar-based accumulations and rain gauge amounts have rather local significance than general relevance over the studied area.

  19. Lightning Behavior and its Dependence on Storm Kinematic and Precipitation Processes in Northern Alabama (United States)

    Johnson, Elsie V.; Petersen, W. A,


    Numerous case studies and recent modeling studies have found that various metrics of updraft intensity appear to be reasonably well correlated to lightning production in thunderstorms, particularly severe thunderstorms. Indeed, the relationship between updraft and lightning flash rate is hypothesized to be the physical connection between a lightning "jump" signature and manifestations of severe weather such as tornadic activity. This study further examines this connection using a combination of dual Doppler wind retrievals made with the UAH ARMOR dual polarimetric and KHTX WSR 88D Doppler radar pair, together with northern Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data. The dual Doppler data were used to construct three dimensional wind fields and the retrieved vertical velocity fields were subsequently compared to collocated total lightning flash rates observed by the LMA. Particular attention was paid to the timing of updraft pulses relative to changes in the flash rate, with the goal of assessing impacts on warning decision lead time. Results from the analysis of severe and non severe thunderstorms in Northern Alabama will be presented including the EF 4 tornado producing supercell on 6 February 2008.

  20. On polarimetric radar signatures of deep convection for model evaluation: columns of specific differential phase observed during MC3E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Lier-Walqui, Marcus; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew S; Collis, Scott; Helmus, Jonathan; MacGorman, Donald R; North, Kirk; Kollias, Pavlos; Posselt, Derek J


    The representation of deep convection in general circulation models is in part informed by cloud-resolving models (CRMs) that function at higher spatial and temporal resolution; however, recent studies have shown that CRMs often fail at capturing the details of deep convection updrafts. With the goal of providing constraint on CRM simulation of deep convection updrafts, ground-based remote sensing observations are analyzed and statistically correlated for four deep convection events observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Since positive values of specific differential phase observed above the melting level are associated with deep convection updraft cells, so-called columns are analyzed using two scanning polarimetric radars in Oklahoma: the National Weather Service Vance WSR-88D (KVNX) and the Department of Energy C-band Scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR). KVNX and C-SAPR volumes and columns are then statistically correlated with vertical winds retrieved via multi-Doppler wind analysis, lightning flash activity derived from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, and KVNX differential reflectivity . Results indicate strong correlations of volume above the melting level with updraft mass flux, lightning flash activity, and intense rainfall. Analysis of columns reveals signatures of changing updraft properties from one storm event to another as well as during event evolution. Comparison of to shows commonalities in information content of each, as well as potential problems with associated with observational artifacts.

  1. Formulation optimization of gastroretentive drug delivery system for allopurinol using experimental design. (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Shah, Mahek V; Parikh, Dhaivat C; Mehta, Tejal A


    The objective of the study was to develop gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) for allopurinol (ALP) using combined approaches of mucoadhesion and floating systems. GRDF was systematically optimized using 3(2)-full factorial design. Concentrations of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (X1) and concentration of polyoxyethylene oxide WSR 303 (X2) were selected as independent variables, whereas gastroretentive parameters like total floating time (TFT) (Y1), mucoadhesive force (MF) (Y2), time required for 10% drug release (Y3) and time required for 80% drug release (Y4) were selected as dependent variables in development of robust GRDF of ALP. GRDF was evaluated for gastroretentive parameters such as floating lag time (FLT) and TFT, MF using texture analyzer and ex vivo residence time using modified disintegration test apparatus. Roentgenography study of optimized formulation was conducted to evaluate in vivo gastro retentive behavior using albino rabbits. Developed tablets showed immediate in situ gas generation and exhibited FLT of 1.68 s after placing into simulated gastric fluid, which lead to buoyancy as well as controlled drug release for 24 h with zero-order drug release kinetics. The optimized formulation was selected based on in vitro drug release characteristics. In vivo retention of optimized formulation was corroborated using roentgenography studies. The study concluded that the combination of mucoadhesive and floating approaches for GRDF aids to achieve desired gastroretentive performance and drug release properties for ALP. The formulation scientists may adopt these formulation strategies for drugs suitable for the development of GRDF.

  2. Clinical efficacy of Amalaki Rasayana in the management of Pandu (Iron deficiency anemia). (United States)

    Layeeq, Shaizi; Thakar, Anup B


    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide, which can be correlated to Pandu described in ayurvedic classics. Poor absorption of iron is one of the main reasons of IDA. Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.) has Tridoshahara, especially Pittashamaka (pacifying Pitta) and Rasayana (rejuvenative) properties, thus nourishes the Dhatus and is also known to enhance the absorption of iron. To evaluate the efficacy of Amalaki Rasayana in the management of Pandu w.s.r. IDA. A randomized controlled open clinical trial was conducted at Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar. Iron deficient anemic patients (n = 25) having Hb Rasayana thrice a day with unequal quantity of honey and ghee for 45 days, while Group B was given 150 mg ferrous fumarate + 1500 mcg folic acid (standard control) once a day with water for 45 days. Assessment was done on the basis of relief in cardinal symptoms of Pandu and hematological parameters. The formulation showed highly significant relief in Panduta (pallor), Daurbalya (weakness), Shirahshoola (headache), Shrama (fatigue), and Gaurava (heaviness) while statistically significant relief in Aruchi (anorexia) and Pindikodweshtan (leg cramps) was reported. On hematological parameters statistically significant increase was found in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin while on biochemical markers statistically significant decrease was found in total iron binding capacity only. However the formulation was not found as effective as standard control.

  3. Statistical design and evaluation of a propranolol HCl gastric floating tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meka Venkata Srikanth


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to apply statistical design for the preparation of a gastric floating tablet (GFT of propranolol HCl and to investigate the effect of formulation variables on drug release and the buoyancy properties of the delivery system. The contents of polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR coagulant and sodium bicarbonate were used as independent variables in central composite design of the best formulation. Main effects and interaction terms of the formulation variables were evaluated quantitatively using a mathematical model approach showing that both independent variables have significant effects on floating lag time, % drug release at 1 h (D1 h and time required to release 90% of the drug (t90. The desired function was used to optimize the response variables, each with a different target, and the observed responses were in good agreement with the experimental values. FTIR and DSC studies of the statistically optimized formulation revealed there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer. The statistically optimized formulation released drug according to first order kinetics with a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Evaluation of the optimized formulation in vivo in human volunteers showed that the GFT was buoyant in gastric fluid and that its gastric residence time was enhanced in the fed but not the fasted state.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of controlled-release matrix tablets of highly water-soluble drug applying different Mw polyethylene oxides (PEO) as retardants. (United States)

    Wen, Haoyang; Li, Xue; Li, Yuenan; Wang, Haiying; Yanyan, Wang; Tuanjie, Wang; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang


    The aim of the work presented is to prepare a controlled-release hydrophilic matrix tablet (CMT) controlling release of highly water-soluble drug applying pure combination of high and low Mw PEO as matrix materials, to avoid the lag time of drug release, and to overcome incomplete release in later stages. The influences of types and amounts of different Mw PEOs used, drug loading, pH of release medium and agitation rate on drug release were evaluated. The study of uptake and erosion of matrix was conducted and mechanism of improving drug release was discussed. In vivo pharmacokinetics of the CMT and reference preparation self-made controlled-release osmotic pump tablets (COPT) were performed in beagle dogs. The optimized formulation containing 43% PEO WSR 303 and 32% PEO N750 showed a zero order release from 1h to 12h. In vivo results demonstrated that the CMT had similar AUC0-48h and Cmax with the COPT but smaller Tmax than the COPT and provided a more stable therapeutic concentration compared to the COPT. In conclusion, hydrophilic matrix tablet combining only different Mw PEOs as matrix materials had very good potential to be developed into a controlled-release drug delivery system for highly water-soluble drug. Besides, its manufacturing processes were succinct which would be preferable for modern medicine industry.

  5. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems (United States)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.


    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  6. Simultaneous Radar and Satellite Data Storm-Scale Assimilation Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter Approach for 24 May 2011 (United States)

    Jones, Thomas A.; Stensrud, David; Wicker, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra


    Assimilating high-resolution radar reflectivity and radial velocity into convection-permitting numerical weather prediction models has proven to be an important tool for improving forecast skill of convection. The use of satellite data for the application is much less well understood, only recently receiving significant attention. Since both radar and satellite data provide independent information, combing these two sources of data in a robust manner potentially represents the future of high-resolution data assimilation. This research combines Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13 (GOES-13) cloud water path (CWP) retrievals with Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) reflectivity and radial velocity to examine the impacts of assimilating each for a severe weather event occurring in Oklahoma on 24 May 2011. Data are assimilated into a 3-km model using an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter approach with 36 members over a 2-h assimilation window between 1800 and 2000 UTC. Forecasts are then generated for 90 min at 5-min intervals starting at 1930 and 2000 UTC. Results show that both satellite and radar data are able to initiate convection, but that assimilating both spins up a storm much faster. Assimilating CWP also performs well at suppressing spurious precipitation and cloud cover in the model as well as capturing the anvil characteristics of developed storms. Radar data are most effective at resolving the 3D characteristics of the core convection. Assimilating both satellite and radar data generally resulted in the best model analysis and most skillful forecast for this event.

  7. Evaluation of formulation and effects of process parameters on drug release and mechanical properties of tramadol hydrocloride sustained release matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nenad D.


    Full Text Available This study investigates using of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR Coagulant for the preparation of sustained release matrix tablets containing high dose, highly water soluble drug, tramadol HCl. Proportion of PEO polymer, type of insoluble filler, proportion of tramadol HCl, amount of drug in tablet, tablet diameter and compression pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters and their influence on drug release and tablet mechanical properties was evaluated. Percentages of tramadol HCl released after 30 and 240 minutes were selected for evaluation of drug release, while tensile strength was used as indicator of tablet mechanical properties. Only proportion of tramadol HCl exhibits statistically significant effect on percentages of tramadol HCl released after 30 and 240 minutes, with higher, wherein increasing of the tramadol HCl proportion increased its release rate among the evaluated variables in selected ranges. All of the investigated factors exhibit statistically significant effect on tablets tensile strength, with the largest influence of filler type. Tablets prepared with highly compressible filler (microcrystalline celullose exhibit higher tensile strength and therefore better mechanical properties to those prepared with partially pregelatinised starch (Strach 1500. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34007

  8. Improved Doppler Velocity Dealiasing for Radar Data Assimilation and Storm-Scale Vortex Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu


    Full Text Available The Doppler velocity dealiasing technique based on alias-robust VAD and variational (AR-Var analyses developed at the National Severe Storms Laboratory for radar data quality control and assimilation is further improved in its two-step procedures: the reference check in the first step and the continuity check in the second step. In the first step, the alias-robust variational analysis is modified adaptively and used in place of the alias-robust velocity-azimuth display (VAD analysis for all scan modes (rather than solely the WSR-88D volume coverage pattern 31 with the Nyquist velocity vN reduced below 12 m s−1 and the TDWR Mod80 with vN reduced below 15 m s−1, so more raw data can pass the stringent threshold conditions used by the reference check in the first step. This improves the dealiased data coverage without false dealiasing to better satisfy the high data quality standard required by radar data assimilation. In the second step, new procedures are designed and added to the continuity check to increase the dealiased data coverage over storm-scale areas threatened by intense mesocyclones and their generated tornados. The performances of the improved dealiasing technique versus the existing techniques are exemplified by the results obtained for tornadic storms scanned by the operational KTLX radar in Oklahoma.

  9. Gastroretentive Pulsatile Release Tablets of Lercanidipine HCl: Development, Statistical Optimization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagganapalli Santhoshi Reddy


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at the development of gastroretentive floating pulsatile release tablets (FPRTs of lercanidipine HCl to enhance the bioavailability and treat early morning surge in blood pressure. Immediate release core tablets containing lercanidipine HCl were prepared and optimized core tablets were compression-coated using buoyant layer containing polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR coagulant, sodium bicarbonate, and directly compressible lactose. FPRTs were evaluated for various in vitro physicochemical parameters, drug-excipient compatibility, buoyancy, swelling, and release studies. The optimized FPRTs were tested in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits for buoyancy and pharmacokinetics. DoE optimization of data revealed FPRTs containing PEO (20% w/w with coat weight 480 mg were promising systems exhibiting good floating behavior and lag time in drug release. Abdominal X-ray imaging of rabbits after oral administration of the tablets, confirmed the floating behavior and lag time. A quadratic model was suggested for release at 7th and 12th h and a linear model was suggested for release lag time. The FPRT formulation improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to immediate release tablet formulation in terms of extent of absorption in rabbits. As the formulation showed delay in drug release both in vitro and in vivo, nighttime administration could be beneficial to reduce the cardiovascular complications due to early morning surge in blood pressure.

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 10 (International Bus MCHS Corp, New Orleans, Louisiana - Lemmen Pontiac and Farm Equipment Co Inc, Coopersville, Michigan), FY1991 (United States)


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  11. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues. (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Haiyang; Yang, Shengke; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Yanhua


    To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  12. Role of the hydrophobicity on the thermodynamic and kinetic acidity of Fischer thiocarbene complexes. (United States)

    Andrada, Diego M; Michoff, Martin E Zoloff; de Rossi, Rita H; Granados, Alejandro M


    Rate constants for the reversible deprotonation of (CO)(5)W=C(SR)CH(3) (W-SR) by OH(-), water and a number of primary aliphatic and secondary alicyclic amines, have been determined in 50% MeCN:50% water at 25 degrees C. In addition, solvation energy and proton affinities values for M-SR (M = Cr and W) in the gas phase and in acetonitrile have been computed at DFT level. Although there is not a linear correlation between the calculated proton affinities and the measured pK(a)s, the calculations reveal that when solvent effects are taken into account the substituted compounds studied show differences in their proton affinities. There is a good correlation between the change in cavitation energy (DeltaG(cav)) for the Fischer carbene complexes and log P of the thioalkyl substituents. In proton transfer reactions with amines, steric effects are more important for W complexes with respect to their Cr analogues as a consequence of differences in transition state progress. On the other hand, in reactions with OH(-), hydrophobicity of the R substituent is responsible for the observed changes in intrinsic kinetic acidities, which is supported by the good correlation obtained between log k(0) and log P. W complexes are more sensitive to hydrophobic effects due to the tighter solvation sphere with respect to their Cr counterparts. However, in the limit of log P = 0, the energy involved in the solvent reorganization process is the same regardless of the metal.

  13. Verification and implementation of microburst day potential index (MDPI) and wind INDEX (WINDEX) forecasting tools at Cape Canaveral Air Station (United States)

    Wheeler, Mark


    This report details the research, development, utility, verification and transition on wet microburst forecasting and detection the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) did in support of ground and launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The unforecasted wind event on 16 August 1994 of 33.5 ms-1 (65 knots) at the Shuttle Landing Facility raised the issue of wet microburst detection and forecasting. The AMU researched and analyzed the downburst wind event and determined it was a wet microburst event. A program was developed for operational use on the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) weather system to analyze, compute and display Theta(epsilon) profiles, the microburst day potential index (MDPI), and wind index (WINDEX) maximum wind gust value. Key microburst nowcasting signatures using the WSR-88D data were highlighted. Verification of the data sets indicated that the MDPI has good potential in alerting the duty forecaster to the potential of wet microburst and the WINDEX values computed from the hourly surface data do have potential in showing a trend for the maximum gust potential. WINDEX should help in filling in the temporal hole between the MDPI on the last Cape Canaveral rawinsonde and the nowcasting radar data tools.

  14. Radar-Derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Based on Precipitation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang


    Full Text Available A method for improving radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. Tropical vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs are first determined from multiple VPRs. Upon identifying a tropical VPR, the event can be further classified as either tropical-stratiform or tropical-convective rainfall by a fuzzy logic (FL algorithm. Based on the precipitation-type fields, the reflectivity values are converted into rainfall rate using a Z-R relationship. In order to evaluate the performance of this rainfall classification scheme, three experiments were conducted using three months of data and two study cases. In Experiment I, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D default Z-R relationship was applied. In Experiment II, the precipitation regime was separated into convective and stratiform rainfall using the FL algorithm, and corresponding Z-R relationships were used. In Experiment III, the precipitation regime was separated into convective, stratiform, and tropical rainfall, and the corresponding Z-R relationships were applied. The results show that the rainfall rates obtained from all three experiments match closely with the gauge observations, although Experiment II could solve the underestimation, when compared to Experiment I. Experiment III significantly reduced this underestimation and generated the most accurate radar estimates of rain rate among the three experiments.

  15. Use of DOE SGP Radars in Support of ASR Modeling Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    The objective of this work was to use the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) precipitation radars to investigate physical characteristics of clouds and precipitation, and use this knowledge in support of DOE ASR modeling efforts. The goal was to develop an integrated data set based on the SGP instrumentation to yield statistically robust fields to aid in the task of verifying simulated cloud dynamical and microphysical fields. For this effort we relied heavily on the ARM scanning precipitation radars, X-SAPR’s and C-SAPR, and also incorporating data from wind profilers, surface disdrometers and the nearby WSR-88D radar, KVNX. Initially we lent our expertise to quality controlling the data from the newly installed ARM radars, particularly the X-band polarimetric data, and additionally assessed automatic radial velocity unfolding algorithms developed by other ASR researchers. We focused our efforts on four cases from the MC3E field campaign in 2011 and developed a dataset including microphysical information derived from hydrometeor identification and kinematic analysis using multiple-Doppler retrieval techniques. This dataset became a PI product and was released to the community in 2014. This analysis was used to investigate the source of big drops (> 5 mm) observed with disdrometers at the surface. It was found that the big drops were coincident with the strongest updrafts, suggesting they resulted from the melting of large precipitation ice, likely hail. We teamed up with W-K Tao and T. Matsui to statistically compare radar-derived observational kinematics and microphysics to WRF model output for the 25 April 2011. Comparisons highlighted some areas where the model may need improvement, such as generating too much hail and big drops, as well as overly-strong updrafts and overly-weak of downdrafts.

  16. Kinematic and Microphysical Control of Lightning Flash Rate over Northern Alabama (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Bain, Anthony L.; Matthee, Retha; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Deierling, Wiebke; Petersen, Walter A.


    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment seeks to examine the relationship between deep convection and the production of nitrogen oxides (NO (sub x)) via lightning (LNO (sub x)). A critical step in estimating LNO (sub x) production in a cloud-resolving model (CRM) without explicit lightning is to estimate the flash rate from available model parameters that are statistically and physically correlated. As such, the objective of this study is to develop, improve and evaluate lightning flash rate parameterizations in a variety of meteorological environments and storm types using radar and lightning mapping array (LMA) observations taken over Northern Alabama from 2005-2012, including during DC3. UAH's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) and the Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR 88D) located at Hytop (KHTX) comprises the dual-Doppler and polarimetric radar network, which has been in operation since 2004. The northern Alabama LMA (NA LMA) in conjunction with Vaisala's National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) allow for a detailed depiction of total lightning during this period. This study will integrate ARMOR-KHTX dual Doppler/polarimetric radar and NA LMA lightning observations from past and ongoing studies, including the more recent DC3 results, over northern Alabama to form a large data set of 15-20 case days and over 20 individual storms, including both ordinary multicell and supercell convection. Several flash rate parameterizations will be developed and tested, including those based on 1) graupel/small hail volume; 2) graupel/small hail mass, and 3) convective updraft volume. Sensitivity of the flash rate parameterizations to storm intensity, storm morphology and environmental conditions will be explored.

  17. Using long-term air monitoring of semi-volatile organic compounds to evaluate the uncertainty in polyurethane-disk passive sampler-derived air concentrations. (United States)

    Holt, Eva; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Borůvková, Jana; Harner, Tom; Kalina, Jiří; Melymuk, Lisa; Klánová, Jana


    Much effort has been made to standardise sampling procedures, laboratory analysis, data analysis, etc. for semi volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs). Yet there are some unresolved issues in regards to comparing measurements from one of the most commonly used passive samplers (PAS), the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk PAS (PUF-PAS), between monitoring networks or different studies. One such issue is that there is no universal means to derive a sampling rate (Rs) or to calculate air concentrations (Cair) from PUF-PAS measurements for SVOCs. Cair was calculated from PUF-PAS measurements from a long-term monitoring program at a site in central Europe applying current understanding of passive sampling theory coupled with a consideration for the sampling of particle associated compounds. Cair were assessed against concurrent active air sampler (AAS) measurements. Use of "site-based/sampler-specific" variables: Rs, calculated using a site calibration, provided similar results for most gas-phase SVOCs to air concentrations derived using "default" values (commonly accepted Rs). Individual monthly PUF-PAS-derived air concentrations for the majority of the target compounds were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed-rank (WSR) test; p < 0.05) to AAS regardless of the input values (site/sampler based or default) used to calculate them. However, annual average PUF-PAS-derived air concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as AAS measurements except for the particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Underestimation of PUF-derived air concentrations for particle-phase PAHs was attributed to a potential overestimation of the particle infiltration into the PUF-PAS chamber and underestimation of the particle bound fraction of PAHs. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Weather and eared grebe winter migration near the Great Salt Lake, Utah. (United States)

    Williams, Augusta A; Laird, Neil F


    This study provides insight from the use of weather radar observations to understand the characteristics of the eared grebe migration near the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provides unique information on weather conditions connected to these migration events. Doppler weather radar measurements from the Salt Lake City, Utah WSR-88D radar site (KMTX), along with meteorological surface and rawinsonde data, were used to identify and examine 281 eared grebe migration events across 15 winters from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012. An average of about 19 migration events occurred each winter with considerable interannual variability, as well as large variance in the spatial area and number of birds departing the GSL during each event. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures. Migration events began 55 min after sunset, on average across the winter seasons, and in one case we demonstrate that an extended, nonstop flight was initiated of the departing eared grebes to northern Mexico. Eared grebes leaving the GSL largely flew above the freezing level with a mean northerly tailwind at flight altitude of 3.1 m s -1 and a westerly, cross-flight wind of 5.0 m s -1 while having an average flight speed at cruising altitude of 16.9 m s -1 , or 61 km h -1 . In addition to determining the variability of meteorological conditions during migration events across the 15 winters, atmospheric conditions during the largest migration event observed are presented and discussed.

  19. The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array: Recent Severe Storm Observations and Future Prospects (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.; Koshak, W.; Bailey, J.; Hall, J.; McCaul, E.; Buechler, D.; Darden, C.; Burks, J.


    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array became operational in November 2001 as a principal component of a severe weather test bed to infuse new science and technology into the short-term forecasting of severe and hazardous weather, principally within nearby National Weather Service forecast offices. Since the installation of the LMA, it has measured the total lightning activity of a large number of severe weather events, including three supercell tornado outbreaks, two supercell hailstorm events, and numerous microburst-producing storms and ordinary non-severe thunderstorms. The key components of evolving storm morphology examined are the time rate-of-change (temporal trending) of storm convective and precipitation characteristics that can be diagnosed in real-time using NEXRAD WSR-88D Doppler radar (echo growth and decay, precipitation structures and velocity features, outflow boundaries), LMA (total lightning flash rate and its trend) and National Lightning Detection Network (cloud-to- ground lightning, its polarity and trends). For example, in a transitional season supercell tornado outbreak, peak total flash rates for typical supercells in Tennessee reached 70-100/min, and increases in the total flash rate occurred during storm intensification as much as 20-25 min prior to at least some of the tornadoes. The most intense total flash rate measured during this outbreak (over 800 flashes/min) occurred in a storm in Alabama. In the case of a severe summertime pulse thunderstorm in North Alabama, the peak total flash rate reached 300/min, with a strong increase in total lightning evident some 9 min before damaging winds were observed at the surface. In this paper we provide a sampling of LMA observations and products during severe weather events to illustrate the capability of the system, and discuss the prospects for improving the short-term forecasting of convective weather using total lightning data.

  20. Characterizing the Relationships Among Lightning and Storm Parameters: Lightning as a Proxy Variable (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Raghavan, R.; William, E.; Weber, M.; Boldi, B.; Matlin, A.; Wolfson, M.; Hodanish, S.; Sharp. D.


    We have gained important insights from prior studies that have suggested relationships between lightning and storm growth, decay, convective rain flux, vertical distribution of storm mass and echo volume in the region, and storm energetics. A study was initiated in the Summer of 1996 to determine how total (in-cloud plus ground) lightning observations might provide added knowledge to the forecaster in the determination and identification of severe thunderstorms and weather hazards in real-time. The Melbourne Weather Office was selected as a primary site to conduct this study because Melbourne is the only site in the world with continuous and open access to total lightning (LDAR) data and a Doppler (WSR-88D) radar. A Lightning Imaging Sensor Data Applications Demonstration (LISDAD) system was integrated into the forecaster's workstation during the Summer 1996 to allow the forecaster to interact in real-time with the multi-sensor data being displayed. LISDAD currently ingests LDAR data, the cloud-to-ground National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data, and the Melbourne radar data in f real-time. The interactive features provide the duty forecaster the ability to perform quick diagnostics on storm cells of interest. Upon selection of a storm cell, a pop-up box appears displaying the time-history of various storm parameters (e.g., maximum radar reflectivity, height of maximum reflectivity, echo-top height, NLDN and LDAR lightning flash rates, storm-based vertically integrated liquid water content). This product is archived to aid on detailed post-analysis.

  1. Weather and eared grebe winter migration near the Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Williams, Augusta A.; Laird, Neil F.


    This study provides insight from the use of weather radar observations to understand the characteristics of the eared grebe migration near the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provides unique information on weather conditions connected to these migration events. Doppler weather radar measurements from the Salt Lake City, Utah WSR-88D radar site (KMTX), along with meteorological surface and rawinsonde data, were used to identify and examine 281 eared grebe migration events across 15 winters from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012. An average of about 19 migration events occurred each winter with considerable interannual variability, as well as large variance in the spatial area and number of birds departing the GSL during each event. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures. Migration events began 55 min after sunset, on average across the winter seasons, and in one case we demonstrate that an extended, nonstop flight was initiated of the departing eared grebes to northern Mexico. Eared grebes leaving the GSL largely flew above the freezing level with a mean northerly tailwind at flight altitude of 3.1 m s-1 and a westerly, cross-flight wind of 5.0 m s-1 while having an average flight speed at cruising altitude of 16.9 m s-1, or 61 km h-1. In addition to determining the variability of meteorological conditions during migration events across the 15 winters, atmospheric conditions during the largest migration event observed are presented and discussed.

  2. Improving Satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using GOES-Retrieved Cloud Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenz, Ronald; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Kuligowski, Robert J.


    To address significant gaps in ground-based radar coverage and rain gauge networks in the U.S., geostationary satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) such as the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrievals (SCaMPR) can be used to fill in both the spatial and temporal gaps of ground-based measurements. Additionally, with the launch of GOES-R, the temporal resolution of satellite QPEs may be comparable to that of Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scans as GOES images will be available every five minutes. However, while satellite QPEs have strengths in spatial coverage and temporal resolution, they face limitations particularly during convective events. Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) have large cloud shields with similar brightness temperatures (BTs) over nearly the entire system, but widely varying precipitation rates beneath these clouds. Geostationary satellite QPEs relying on the indirect relationship between BTs and precipitation rates often suffer from large errors because anvil regions (little/no precipitation) cannot be distinguished from rain-cores (heavy precipitation) using only BTs. However, a combination of BTs and optical depth (τ) has been found to reduce overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions (Stenz et al. 2014). A new rain mask algorithm incorporating both τ and BTs has been developed, and its application to the existing SCaMPR algorithm was evaluated. The performance of the modified SCaMPR was evaluated using traditional skill scores and a more detailed analysis of performance in individual DCS components by utilizing the Feng et al. (2012) classification algorithm. SCaMPR estimates with the new rain mask applied benefited from significantly reduced overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions and overall improvements in skill scores.

  3. Comparison Of Quantitative Precipitation Estimates Derived From Rain Gauge And Radar Derived Algorithms For Operational Flash Flood Support. (United States)

    Streubel, D. P.; Kodama, K.


    To provide continuous flash flood situational awareness and to better differentiate severity of ongoing individual precipitation events, the National Weather Service Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM) is being implemented over Hawaii and Alaska. In the implementation process of RDHM, three gridded precipitation analyses are used as forcing. The first analysis is a radar only precipitation estimate derived from WSR-88D digital hybrid reflectivity, a Z-R relationship and aggregated into an hourly ¼ HRAP grid. The second analysis is derived from a rain gauge network and interpolated into an hourly ¼ HRAP grid using PRISM climatology. The third analysis is derived from a rain gauge network where rain gauges are assigned static pre-determined weights to derive a uniform mean areal precipitation that is applied over a catchment on a ¼ HRAP grid. To assess the effect of different QPE analyses on the accuracy of RDHM simulations and to potentially identify a preferred analysis for operational use, each QPE was used to force RDHM to simulate stream flow for 20 USGS peak flow events. An evaluation of the RDHM simulations was focused on peak flow magnitude, peak flow timing, and event volume accuracy to be most relevant for operational use. Results showed RDHM simulations based on the observed rain gauge amounts were more accurate in simulating peak flow magnitude and event volume relative to the radar derived analysis. However this result was not consistent for all 20 events nor was it consistent for a few of the rainfall events where an annual peak flow was recorded at more than one USGS gage. Implications of this indicate that a more robust QPE forcing with the inclusion of uncertainty derived from the three analyses may provide a better input for simulating extreme peak flow events.

  4. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Paths Associated with EF-4 and EF-5 Tornadoes over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011 (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chrstopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Darden, Christopher B.


    An historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by a large number of tornadoes, including several that reached EF-4 and EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of more people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Two long-track and violent (EF-4 and EF-5) tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes on the ground. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures and identify the associated debris paths of the long-track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes near ARMOR. The relative locations of the debris and damage paths for each tornado will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys. With the ongoing upgrade of the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler) operational network to dual-polarimetry and a similar process having already taken place or ongoing for many private sector radars, dual-polarimetric radar signatures of tornado debris promise the potential to assist in the situational awareness of government and private sector forecasters and emergency managers during tornadic events. As such, a companion abstract (Schultz et al.) also submitted to this conference explores The use of dual-polarimetric tornadic debris

  5. Examining In-Cloud Convective Turbulence in Relation to Total Lightning and the 3D Wind Field of Severe Thunderstorms (United States)

    Al-Momar, S. A.; Deierling, W.; Williams, J. K.; Hoffman, E. G.


    Convectively induced turbulence (CIT) is commonly listed as a cause or factor in weather-related commercial aviation accidents. In-cloud CIT is generated in part by shears between convective updrafts and downdrafts. Total lightning is also dependent on a robust updraft and the resulting storm electrification. The relationship between total lightning and turbulence could prove useful in operational aviation settings with the use of future measurements from the geostationary lightning mapper (GLM) onboard the GOES-R satellite. Providing nearly hemispheric coverage of total lightning, the GLM could help identify CIT in otherwise data-sparse locations. For a severe thunderstorm case on 7 June 2012 in northeast Colorado, in-cloud eddy dissipation rate estimates from the NCAR/NEXRAD Turbulence Detection Algorithm were compared with cloud electrification data from the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array and radar products from the Denver, Colorado WSR-88D. These comparisons showed that high concentrations of very high frequency (VHF) source densities emitted by lightning occurred near and downstream of the storm's convective core. Severe turbulence was also shown to occur near this area, extending near the melting level of the storm and spreading upward and outward. Additionally, increases/decreases in VHF sources and turbulence volumes occurred within a few minutes of each other; although, light turbulence was shown to increase near one storm's dissipation. This may be due to increased shear from the now downdraft dominate storm. The 3D wind field from this case, obtained by either a dual-Doppler or a Variational Doppler Radar Assimilation System (VDRAS) analysis, will also be examined to further study the relationships between total lightning and thunderstorm kinematics. If these results prove to be robust, lightning may serve as a strong indicator of the location of moderate or greater turbulence.

  6. Advances in the application of the SWAT model for water resources management (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Santhi, C.; Arnold, J. G.


    Developments in computer technology have revolutionized the study of hydrologic systems and water resources management. Several computer-based hydrologic/water quality models have been developed for applications in hydrologic modelling and water resources studies. Distributed parameter models, necessary for basin-scale studies, have large input data requirements. Geographic information systems (GIS) and model-GIS interfaces aid the efficient creation of input data files required by such models. One such model available for the water resources professional is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed parameter model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. This paper describes some recent advances made in the application of SWAT and the SWAT-GIS interface for water resources management. Four case studies are presented. The Hydrologic Unit Model for the United States (HUMUS) project used SWAT to conduct a national-scale analysis of the effect of management scenarios on water quantity and quality. Integration of the SWAT model with rainfall data available from the WSR-88D radar network helps us to incorporate the spatial variability of rainfall into the modelling process. This study demonstrates the usefulness of radar rainfall data in distributed hydrologic studies and the potential of SWAT for application in flood analysis and prediction. A hydrologic modelling study of the Sondu river basin in Kenya using SWAT indicates the potential for application of the model in African watersheds and points to the need for development of better model input data sets in Africa, which are critical for detailed water resources studies. The application of SWAT for water quality analysis in the Bosque river basin, Texas demonstrates the strength of the model for analysing different management scenarios to minimize point and non-point pollution, and its potential for application in total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies.

  7. Modelling Atmospheric Rivers and the Potential for Southeast Texas Flooding: A Case Study of the Maya Express and the March 2016 Sabine River Flood (United States)

    McIntosh, J.; Lander, K.


    For three days in March of 2016, southeast Texas was inundated with up to 19 inches of rainfall, swelling the Sabine River to record flood stages. This event was attributed to an atmospheric river (AR), regionally known as the "Maya Express," which carried moisture from the Gulf of Mexico into the Sabine River Basin. Studies by the NOAA/NWS Climate Prediction Center have shown that ARs are occurring more frequently due to the intensification of El Niño that increases the available moisture in the atmosphere. In this study, we analyzed the hydrological and meteorological setup of the event on the Sabine River to characterize the flood threat associated with AR rainfall and simulated how an equivalent AR event would impact an urban basin in Houston, Texas. Our primary data sources included WSR-88D radar-based rainfall estimates and observed data at USGS river gauges. Furthermore, the land surface parameters evaluated included land cover, soil types, basin topology, model-derived soil moisture states, and topography. The spatial distribution of precipitation from the storm was then translated west over the Houston and used to force a hydrologic model to assess the impact of an event comparable to the March 2016 event on Houston's San Jacinto River Basin. The results indicate that AR precipitation poses a flood risk to urbanized areas in southeast Texas because of the low lying topography, impervious pavement, and limited flood control. Due to this hydrologic setup, intense AR rainfall can yield a rapid urban runoff response that overwhelms the river system, potentially endangering the lives and property of millions of people in the Houston area. Ultimately, if the frequency of AR development increases, regional flood potential may increase. Given the consequences established in this study, more research should be conducted in order to better predict the rate of recurrence and effects of Maya Express generated precipitation.

  8. Measurements of DSD Second Moment Based on Laser Extinction (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Jones, Linwood; Kasparis, Takis C.; Metzger, Philip


    Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through rain (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the 2nd moment of the particle cloud, and rainfall drop size distribution (DSD) in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rainfall make in direct measurements of the DSD. Most common of these instruments are the rainfall rate gauge measuring the 1 1/3 th moment, (when using a D(exp 2/3) dependency on terminal velocity). Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-880, vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the 6th moment of the DSD. By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain, yield a measurement of the DSD 2nd moment, using the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required, depending on the intensity of the rainfall rate. For moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in optical extinction using a digital camera. A photo-detector could replace the camera, for automated installations. In order to spatially correlate the 2nd moment measurements to a collocated disdrometer or tipping bucket, the laser's beam path can be reflected multiple times using mirrors to restrict the spatial extent of the measurement. In cases where a disdrometer is not available, complete DSD estimates can be produced by parametric fitting of DSD model to the 2nd moment data in conjunction with tipping bucket data. In cases where a disdrometer is collocated, the laser extinction technique may yield a significant improvement to insitu disdrometer validation and calibration strategies

  9. Estimation of precipitation over the OLYMPEX domain during winter 2015-2016 using radar, gauge precipitation and ASO snow estimates (United States)

    Cao, Q.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Painter, T. H.; Lundquist, J. D.; Petersen, W. A.


    A primary goal of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) is to measure precipitation globally especially in areas lacking ground observations. In order to better assess precipitation products based on GPM and other satellites in cold seasons and where orographic factors exert strong controls on precipitation, the Olympic Mountain Experiment (OLYMPEX) was conducted on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State during winter 2015-2016. OLYMPEX aims to provide validation data for satellite precipitation products such as NASA's IMERG. We constructed estimates of daily and finer scale precipitation at 1/32 degree spatial resolution over the OLYMPEX domain, which for our purposes was defined as the Olympic Peninsula plus the Chehalis River basin. The observation-based estimates we produced are based on NOAA WSR-88D (primarily the site at Langley Hill, on the Washington Coast), and gauge estimates as incorporated in NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) gauge-corrected radar QPE product, augmented with additional 135 gauges that were operational during at least 50% of the period Nov 1 2015 - Mar 31 2016. Few stations are located in the interior of the Olympic Peninsula at elevations higher than about 500m, and in this part of the domain we utilized snow depth maps from two flights of NASA/JPL's Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) on Feb 8 and Mar 29 2016. We converted the depth maps to Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) maps using snow density fields integrated from a combination of simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model adjusted by in-situ point measurements conducted close to the ASO flight dates. We used the VIC model to invert the ASO-derived SWE estimates for precipitation through adjustment of the temperature lapse rate and precipitation on a grid cell by grid cell basis. We compare IMERG precipitation over our entire domain with our precipitation estimates, and find that IMERG tends to underestimate winter precipitation and especially

  10. Promiscuity is related to masculine and feminine body traits in both men and women: evidence from Brazilian and Czech samples. (United States)

    Varella, Marco Antonio Correa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Pereira, Kamila Janaina; Bussab, Vera Silvia Raad


    One of the possible explanations for human within-sex variation in promiscuity stems from conditional strategies dependent on the level of body sex-dimorphism. There is some evidence that masculine men and feminine women are more promiscuous than their sex-atypical counterparts, although mixed results persist. Moreover, another line of evidence shows that more promiscuous women are rather sex-atypical. We tested whether diverse sex-dimorphic body measures (2D:4D, WHR/WSR, handgrip strength, and height and weight) influence sociosexual desires, attitudes, promiscuous behavior, and age of first intercourse in a sex-typical or sex-atypical direction. Participants were 185 young adults, 51 men and 54 women from Brazil, and 40 men and 40 women from the Czech Republic. In men stronger handgrip and more feminine 2D:4D predicted higher sociosexual behaviors, desires, and lower age of the first sexual intercourse. While in women, sociosexual desires were predicted by lower handgrip strength and more feminine 2D:4D. It thus seems that it is rather a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in men, and feminine traits in women that increase their sociosexuality. Masculine traits (height) predicting female promiscuous behavior were specific for only one population. In conclusion, a mosaic combination of sex-typical but also sex-atypical independent body traits can lead to higher promiscuity, particularly in men. Limitations, implications, and future directions for research are considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital Mapping and Environmental Characterization of National Wild and Scenic River Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bosnall, Peter [National Park Service; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL


    Spatially accurate geospatial information is required to support decision-making regarding sustainable future hydropower development. Under a memorandum of understanding among several federal agencies, a pilot study was conducted to map a subset of National Wild and Scenic Rivers (WSRs) at a higher resolution and provide a consistent methodology for mapping WSRs across the United States and across agency jurisdictions. A subset of rivers (segments falling under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service) were mapped at a high resolution using the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). The spatial extent and representation of river segments mapped at NHD scale were compared with the prevailing geospatial coverage mapped at a coarser scale. Accurately digitized river segments were linked to environmental attribution datasets housed within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory s National Hydropower Asset Assessment Program database to characterize the environmental context of WSR segments. The results suggest that both the spatial scale of hydrography datasets and the adherence to written policy descriptions are critical to accurately mapping WSRs. The environmental characterization provided information to deduce generalized trends in either the uniqueness or the commonness of environmental variables associated with WSRs. Although WSRs occur in a wide range of human-modified landscapes, environmental data layers suggest that they provide habitats important to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and recreation important to humans. Ultimately, the research findings herein suggest that there is a need for accurate, consistent, mapping of the National WSRs across the agencies responsible for administering each river. Geospatial applications examining potential landscape and energy development require accurate sources of information, such as data layers that portray realistic spatial representations.

  12. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian


    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  13. Effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā w.r. to lunar cycles. (United States)

    Tavhare, Swagata Dilip; Nishteswar, Karra; Shukla, Vinay J


    Suśruta, Caraka and other ācāryas advocate the collection of medicinal plants keeping in view the part used, season, soil in which the herb grows and the desired pharmacological actions or therapeutic benefits. The logic behind such recommendations is being validated by modern scientific research. To assess the effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā (Withania somnifera L. Dunal) w.s.r. to lunar cycles. The plant specimens were collected from Jamnagar identified pharmacognostically and cultivated under a defined habitat in a herbal garden of IPGT and RA on 7 Oct 2013. The root samples were collected on every paurṇimā (full moon) and amāvāsyā (new moon) days in śiśira and grīṣṃa ṛtu (as per classics) of the year 2013-14. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, ash values, extractive value, total alkaloid content, total flavonoids content (UV spectrometer with AlCl3 reagent), total phenolic content (Singleton and Rossi method), total carbohydrate content (UV spectroscopy with glucose as standard), UV-VIS-NIR and HPTLC were determined. The results of the analytical studies clearly validate the logic of the recommendations of Suśruta and Cakrapāṇi. According to these recommendations, uṣṇa vīrya drugs must be collected during āgneya ṛtu i.e. grīṣṃa ṛtu. In present study, total phenolic, flavonide and carbohydrate content were found more in pournima samples. GAP samples showed maximum differentiation from rest of the samples with regards to TCA, TCW, TFW, MEx, WEX, pH etc. parameters. The Grīṣṃa Jyeṣṭha Paurṇimā (GJP) and Āṣāḍha Paurṇimā (GAP) samples were found to be superior than amāvāsyā samples w.r.t. functional groups and withanoloid content respectively on HPTLC. The observations of experimental studies validate the concept of seasonal as well as lunar collection of herb Ashwagandha to yield a drug of superior quality of active principles.

  14. Flash Location, Size, and Rates Relative to the Evolving Kinematics and Microphysics of the 29 May 2012 DC3 Supercell Storm (United States)

    MacGorman, D. R.; DiGangi, E.; Ziegler, C.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D.; Bruning, E. C.


    A supercell thunderstorm was observed on 29 May 2012 during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment. This storm was part of a cluster of severe storms and produced 5" hail, an EF-1 tornado, and copious lightning over the course of a few hours. During a period in which flash rates were increasing rapidly, observations were obtained from mobile polarimetric radars and a balloon-borne electric field meter (EFM) and particle imager, while aircraft sampled the chemistry of the inflow and anvil. In addition, the storm was within the domain of the 3-dimensional Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and the S-band KTLX WSR-88D radar. The focus of this paper is the evolution of flash rates, the location of flash initiations, and the distribution of flash size and flash extent density as they relate to the evolving kinematics and microphysics of the storm for the approximately 30-minute period in which triple-Doppler coverage was available. Besides analyzing reflectivity structure and three-dimensional winds for the entire period, we examine mixing ratios of cloud water, cloud ice, rain, and graupel/hail that have been retrieved by a Lagrangian analysis for three select times, one each at the beginning, middle, and end of the period. Flashes in an around the updraft of this storm were typically small. Flash size tended to increase, and flash rates tended to decrease as distance from the updraft increased. Although flash initiations were most frequent near the updraft, some flashes were initiated near the edge of 30 dBZ cores and propagated into the anvil. Later, some flashes were initiated in the anvil itself, in vertical cells that formed and became electrified tens of kilometers downshear of the main body of the storm. Considerable lightning structure was inferred to be in regions dominated by cloud ice in the upper part of the storm. The continual small discharges in the overshooting top of the storm tended to be near or within 15 dBZ contours, although

  15. Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM): A Winter Weather Nowcasting System. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Roy; Dixon, Mike; Hage, Frank; Cole, Jeff; Wade, Chuck; Tuttle, John; McGettigan, Starr; Carty, Thomas; Stevenson, Lloyd; Fellner, Warren; Knight, Shelly; Karplus, Eli; Rehak, Nancy


    This paper describes a winter weather nowcasting system called Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM), designed to provide airline, airport, and air traffic users with winter weather information relevant to their operations. The information is provided on an easy to use graphical display and characterizes airport icing conditions for nonmeteorologists. The system has been developed and refined over a series of winter-long airport demonstrations at Denver's Stapleton International Airport, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and New York's LaGuardia Airport. The WSDDM system utilizes commercially available weather information in the form of Next Generation Weather Radar WSR-88D radar reflectivity data depicted as color coded images on a window of the display and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) surface weather reports from Automated Surface Observating System stations and observers. METAR information includes wind speed and direction, air temperature, and precipitation type/rate, which are routinely updated on an hourly basis or more frequently if conditions are changing. Recent studies have shown that the liquid equivalent snowfall rate is the most important factor in determining the holdover time of a deicing fluid. However, the current operational snowfall intensity reported in METARs is based on visibility, which has been shown to give misleading information on liquid equivalent rates in many cases due to the wide variation in density and shape of snow. The particular hazard has been identified as high visibility-high snowfall conditions. The WSDDM system addresses this potentially hazardous condition through the deployment of snow gauges at an airport. These snow gauges report real-time estimates of the liquid equivalent snowfall rate once every minute to WSDDM users. The WSDDM system also provides 30-min nowcasts of liquid equivalent snowfall rate through the use of a real-time calibration of radar reflectivity and snow gauge snowfall

  16. Wiedza studentek Instytuty Pielęgniarstwa Państwowej Medycznej Wyższej Szkoły Zawodowej w Opolu dotycząca naturalnego karmienia niemowląt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kopitza


    Full Text Available [b]Wstęp[/b]. W Polsce w 2011 r. weszły w zycie nowe standardy opieki okołoporodowej.Zawarte tam wytyczne dotyczą postępowania okołoporodowego, w tym postępowania w laktacji. Z dokumentu wynika, że promocja karmienia piersią stała się obowiązkiem uregulowanym prawnie, który musi być udokumentowany, analizowany i rozliczany. W związku z powyższym bardzo ważna okazuje się kompetencja personelu medycznego i wyczerpująca wiedza na temat naturalnego żywienia neimowląt. [b]Cel pracy[/b]. Zbadanie stanu wiedzy dotyczącej naturalnego karmienia niemowląt, posiadanej i ropowszechnianej przez pielęgniarki-studentki PMWSZ w Opolu. [b]Materiał i metody[/b]. Badanie przeprowadzono metodą ankietową w grudniu 2011 r. wśród 136 pielęgniarek studiujacych w Państwowej Medycznej Wyższej Szkole Zawodowej w Opolu. [b]Wyniki[/b]. Większość grupy badawczej miała 31-40 lat (54%.Wsród nich największy odsetek stanowiły osoby z 10-19. letnim stażem pracy (46%, pochodzące z miast (61%. Większość respondentek karmiła swoje dzieci piersią (85%, miała na ten temat wyczerpującą wiedzę (42% i propagowała ten sposób żywienia wśród znajomych (99%. [b]Wnioski[/b]. 1. Ankietowane niezależnie od wieku, miejsca zamieszkania oraz stażu pracy karmiły swoje dzieci piersią. 2.Badane zdecydowanie zalecają karmienie piersią swoim podopiecznym. 3.Ankietowane pielęgniarki oceniają swoją wiedzę na temat laktacji na bardzo wysokim poziomie.

  17. Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Sturdevant-Rees, P.; Baeck, M.L.; Larsen, M.C.


    Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Rio Grande de Lo??iza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the

  18. Effects of different shear rates on the attachment and detachment of platelet thrombi. (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jichun; Huang, Jiansong; Long, Zhangbiao; Ruan, Zheng; Xiao, Bing; Xi, Xiaodong


    Thrombosis and hemostasis take place in flowing blood, which generates shear forces. The effect of different shear rates, particularly pathological forces, on platelet thrombus formation remains to be fully elucidated. The present study observed the morphological characteristics and hierarchical structure of thrombi on the collagen surface at a wide range of wall shear rates (WSRs) and examined the underlying mechanisms. Calcein AM‑labeled whole blood was perfused over a collagen‑coated surface at different shear rates set by a Bioflux 200 microfluidic device and the thrombi formed were assessed for area coverage, the height and the hierarchical structure defined by the extent of platelet activation and packing density. The factors that affect thrombus formation were also investigated. Platelet thrombus formation varied under different WSRs, for example, dispersed platelet adhesion mixed with erythrocytes was observed at 125‑250 s(‑1), extensive and thin platelet thrombi were observed at 500‑1,500 s(‑1), and sporadic, thick thrombi were observed at pathological WSRs of 2,500‑5,000 s(‑1), which showed a tendency to be shed. With increasing WSRs, the height of the thrombi showed an increasing linear trend, whereas the total fluorescence intensity and area of the thrombi exhibited a parabolic curve‑like change, with a turning point at a WSR of 2,500 s(‑1). The number of thrombi, the average fluorescence intensity and the area per thrombus showed similar trends, with an initial upwards incline followed by a decline. The thrombi formed at higher WSRs had a thicker shell, which led to a more densely packed core. Platelet thrombus formation under shear‑flow was regulated by the adhesive strength, which was mediated by receptor‑ligand interaction, the platelet deposition induced by shear rates and the detachment by the dynamic force of flow. This resulted in a balance between thrombus attachment, including adhesion and aggregation, and detachment

  19. Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Warnings at Raleigh, North Carolina. (United States)

    Hoium, Debra K.; Riordan, Allen J.; Monahan, John; Keeter, Kermit K.


    The National Weather Service issues public warnings for severe thunderstorms and tornadoes when these storms appear imminent. A study of the warning process was conducted at the National Weather Service Forecast Office at Raleigh, North Carolina, from 1994 through 1996. The purpose of the study was to examine the decision process by documenting the types of information leading to decisions to warn or not to warn and by describing the sequence and timing of events in the development of warnings. It was found that the evolution of warnings followed a logical sequence beginning with storm monitoring and proceeding with increasingly focused activity. For simplicity, information input to the process was categorized as one of three types: ground truth, radar reflectivity, or radar velocity.Reflectivity, velocity, and ground truth were all equally likely to initiate the investigation process. This investigation took an average of 7 min, after which either a decision was made not to warn or new information triggered the warning. Decisions not to issue warnings were based more on ground truth and reflectivity than radar velocity products. Warnings with investigations of more than 2 min were more likely to be triggered by radar reflectivity, than by velocity or ground truth. Warnings with a shorter investigation time, defined here as "immediate trigger warnings," were less frequently based on velocity products and more on ground truth information. Once the decision was made to warn, it took an average of 2.1 min to prepare the warning text. In 85% of cases when warnings were issued, at least one contact was made to emergency management officials or storm spotters in the warned county. Reports of severe weather were usually received soon after the warning was transmitted-almost half of these within 30 min after issue. A total of 68% were received during the severe weather episode, but some of these storm reports later proved false according to Storm Data.Even though the WSR

  20. Effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā w.r. to lunar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Dilip Tavhare


    Aim: To assess the effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā (Withania somnifera L. Dunal w.s.r. to lunar cycles. Material and Methods: The plant specimens were collected from Jamnagar identified pharmacognostically and cultivated under a defined habitat in a herbal garden of IPGT and RA on 7 Oct 2013. The root samples were collected on every paurṃimā (full moon and amāvāsyā (new moon days in śiśira and grīşṃa ṃṛtu (as per classics of the year 2013-14. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, ash values, extractive value, total alkaloid content, total flavonoids content (UV spectrometer with AlCl3 reagent, total phenolic content (Singleton and Rossi method, total carbohydrate content (UV spectroscopy with glucose as standard, UV-VIS-NIR and HPTLC were determined. Result: The results of the analytical studies clearly validate the logic of the recommendations of Suśruta and Cakrapāṃi. According to these recommendations, uşṃa vīrya drugs must be collected during āgneya ṃṛtu i.e. grīşṃa ṃṛtu. In present study, total phenolic, flavonide and carbohydrate content were found more in pournima samples. GAP samples showed maximum differentiation from rest of the samples with regards to TCA, TCW, TFW, MEx, WEX, pH etc. parameters. The Grīşṃa Jyeşṃha Paurṃimā (GJP and Āşāḍha Paurṃimā (GAP samples were found to be superior than amāvāsyā samples w.r.t. functional groups and withanoloid content respectively on HPTLC. Conclusion: The observations of experimental studies validate the concept of seasonal as well as lunar collection of herb Ashwagandha to yield a drug of superior quality of active principles.

  1. Observing and Predicting Vog Dispersion from Hawai'i's K¯i lauea Volcano (United States)

    Businger, Steven; Pattantyus, Andre; Horton, Keith; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff


    aerosols on convective precipitation and electrification, associated with tropical cyclones. Results from the Vog Model are compared qualitatively with satellite observations, lightning data from Vaisala's GLD-360, and National Weather Service WSR-88 Dual-Polarmetric radar to document the interaction of volcanic emissions and the storm circulation and electrification.

  2. GIS Services, Visualization Products, and Interoperability at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) (United States)

    Baldwin, R.; Ansari, S.; Reid, G.; Lott, N.; Del Greco, S.


    The main goal in developing and deploying Geographic Information System (GIS) services at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is to provide users with simple access to data archives while integrating new and informative climate products. Several systems at NCDC provide a variety of climatic data in GIS formats and/or map viewers. The Online GIS Map Services provide users with data discovery options which flow into detailed product selection maps, which may be queried using standard "region finder" tools or gazetteer (geographical dictionary search) functions. Each tabbed selection offers steps to help users progress through the systems. A series of additional base map layers or data types have been added to provide companion information. New map services include: Severe Weather Data Inventory, Local Climatological Data, Divisional Data, Global Summary of the Day, and Normals/Extremes products. THREDDS Data Server technology is utilized to provide access to gridded multidimensional datasets such as Model, Satellite and Radar. This access allows users to download data as a gridded NetCDF file, which is readable by ArcGIS. In addition, users may subset the data for a specific geographic region, time period, height range or variable prior to download. The NCDC Weather Radar Toolkit (WRT) is a client tool which accesses Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data locally or remotely from the NCDC archive, NOAA FTP server or any URL or THREDDS Data Server. The WRT Viewer provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service backgrounds, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WRT Data Exporter allows for data export in both vector polygon (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, NetCDF, GrADS) formats. As more users become accustom to GIS, questions of better, cheaper, faster access soon follow. Expanding use and availability can best be accomplished through

  3. Evaluation of the drug solubility and rush ageing on drug release performance of various model drugs from the modified release polyethylene oxide matrix tablets. (United States)

    Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed


    Hydrophilic matrix systems are currently some of the most widely used drug delivery systems for controlled-release oral dosage forms. Amongst a variety of polymers, polyethylene oxide (PEO) is considered an important material used in pharmaceutical formulations. As PEO is sensitive to thermal oxidation, it is susceptible to free radical oxidative attack. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of PEO based formulations containing different model drugs with different water solubility, namely propranolol HCl, theophylline and zonisamide. Both polyox matrices 750 and 303 grade were used as model carriers for the manufacture of tablets stored at 40 °C. The results of the present study suggest that the drug release from the matrix was affected by the length of storage conditions, solubility of drugs and the molecular weight of the polymers. Generally, increased drug release rates were prevalent in soluble drug formulations (propranolol) when stored at the elevated temperature (40 °C). In contrast, it was not observed with semi soluble (theophylline) and poorly soluble (zonisamide) drugs especially when formulated with PEO 303 polymer. This indicates that the main parameters controlling the drug release from fresh polyox matrices are the solubility of the drug in the dissolution medium and the molecular weight of the polymer. DSC traces indicated that that there was a big difference in the enthalpy and melting points of fresh and aged PEO samples containing propranolol, whereas the melting point of the aged polyox samples containing theophylline and zonisamide was unaffected. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Improvement of resource efficiency by efficient waste shipment inspections; Steigerung der Ressourceneffizienz durch effiziente Kontrollen von Abfallverbringungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Stephanie [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany)


    Illegal shipment of waste as well as enforcement related to waste shipment have been regularly the centre of attention of public and professional debates and are also a topic of cross-national relations. In addition, the fear persists that by illegal waste shipments waste is treated in plants neither adapted to protect the environment and health nor having sufficient recuperation capabilities for precious raw materials. This project therefore intends to clarify the status quo of waste shipment inspections in the 16 federal states of Germany (Bundeslaender, in the following cited as states or federal states) to identify potential for development regarding the organisation and execution of inspections and to elaborate recommendations to optimise enforcement activities and further development of European and German legislative regulations. In order to optimise the enforcement of the European Waste Shipment Regulation (WSR) and the German Waste Shipment Act (AbfVerbrG), an adequate number of qualified personnel is necessary within all bodies involved into waste shipment inspections. Those bodies are namely the competent waste authorities, customs, police, the Federal Office for Transport of Goods (BAG), the Federal Railway Authority (EBA) and the prosecution offices. An adequate number of qualified personnel is not provided for in all states/authorities. This is also reflected in the number of transport and plant inspections which deviate between zero to a fixed number per year as well as being continuously performed and based occasion-/cause oriented inspections. Tangible means like access to IT-systems and the Internet should be provided for on-site inspections. Besides qualified and experienced personnel also IT-Systems have a relevant impact on the preselection of the entity to be inspected as well as for on-the-spot investigations. Therefore IT-System can increase the efficiency of inspections (inspections per time unit resp. exposure of illegal shipments per time

  5. Analysis of Vertical Velocities and Elevated Instability in the Comma-Head of Continental Winter Cyclones (United States)

    Rosenow, Andrew

    The vertical motion and physical structure of elevated convection and generating cells within the comma heads of three continental winter cyclones are investigated using the Wyoming W-band Cloud Radar mounted on the NSF/NCAR C-130, supplemented by analyses from the Rapid Update Cycle model and WSR-88D data. The cyclones followed three distinct archetypical tracks and were typical of those producing winter weather in the Midwestern United States. In two of the cyclones, dry air in the middle and upper troposphere behind the Pacific cold front intruded over moist Gulf of Mexico air at lower altitudes within the comma head, separating the comma head into two zones. Elevated convection in the southern zone extended from the cold frontal surface to the tropopause. The stronger convective updrafts ranged from 2 to 7 m s-1 and downdrafts from -2 to -6 m s-1. The horizontal scale of the convective cells was ˜5 km. The poleward zone of the comma head was characterized by deep stratiform clouds topped by cloud top generating cells that reached the tropopause. Updrafts and downdrafts within the generating cells ranged from 1-2 m s-1, with the horizontal scale of the cells ˜1-2 km. Precipitation on the poleward side of the comma head conformed to a seeder-feeder process, the generating cells seeding the stratiform cloud, which was forced by synoptic scale ascent. In one case, shallow clouds behind the cyclone's cold front were also topped by cloud top generating cells, with vertical motions ranging from 1 2 m s-1. The development and distribution of potential instability in the elevated convective region of one of these cyclones is examined using a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation. The strong 8-9 December 2009 cyclone is simulated with a large outer domain and convection-allowing nest to simulate the convective region of the cyclone. The distribution of Most Unstable Convective Available Potential Energy (MUCAPE) is presented, with MUCAPE values up to

  6. The NASA GPM Iowa Flood Studies Experiment (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Wolff, D. B.


    The overarching objective of NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) integrated hydrologic ground validation (GV) is to provide a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. Accordingly, the NASA GPM GV program recently completed the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS was conducted in central Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. IFloodS science objectives focused on: a) The collection of reference multi-parameter radar, rain gauge, disdrometer, soil moisture, and hydrologic network measurements to quantify the physical character and space/time variability of rain (e.g., rates, drop size distributions, processes), land surface- state and hydrologic response; b) Application of the ground reference measurements to assessment of satellite-based rainfall estimation uncertainties; c) Propagation of both ground and satellite rainfall estimation uncertainties in coupled hydrologic prediction models to assess impacts on predictive skill; and d) Evaluation of rainfall properties such as rate and accumulation relative to basin hydrologic characteristics in modeled flood genesis. IFloodS observational objectives were achieved via deployments of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars (operating in coordinated scanning modes), four University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, four Micro Rain Radars, a network of 25 paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a network of six 2D Video and 14 Parsivel disdrometers, and 15 USDA-ARS rain gauge and soil-moisture stations (collaboration with the USDA-ARS and NASA Soil Moisture Active-Passive mission). The aforementioned platforms complemented existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar, USGS streamflow, and Iowa Flood Center-affiliated stream monitoring and rainfall measurements. Coincident

  7. Ground Validation Assessments of GPM Core Observatory Science Requirements (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Huffman, George; Kidd, Chris; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail


    NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission science requirements define specific measurement error standards for retrieved precipitation parameters such as rain rate, raindrop size distribution, and falling snow detection on instantaneous temporal scales and spatial resolutions ranging from effective instrument fields of view [FOV], to grid scales of 50 km x 50 km. Quantitative evaluation of these requirements intrinsically relies on GPM precipitation retrieval algorithm performance in myriad precipitation regimes (and hence, assumptions related to physics) and on the quality of ground-validation (GV) data being used to assess the satellite products. We will review GPM GV products, their quality, and their application to assessing GPM science requirements, interleaving measurement and precipitation physical considerations applicable to the approaches used. Core GV data products used to assess GPM satellite products include 1) two minute and 30-minute rain gauge bias-adjusted radar rain rate products and precipitation types (rain/snow) adapted/modified from the NOAA/OU multi-radar multi-sensor (MRMS) product over the continental U.S.; 2) Polarimetric radar estimates of rain rate over the ocean collected using the K-Pol radar at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands and the Middleton Island WSR-88D radar located in the Gulf of Alaska; and 3) Multi-regime, field campaign and site-specific disdrometer-measured rain/snow size distribution (DSD), phase and fallspeed information used to derive polarimetric radar-based DSD retrievals and snow water equivalent rates (SWER) for comparison to coincident GPM-estimated DSD and precipitation rates/types, respectively. Within the limits of GV-product uncertainty we demonstrate that the GPM Core satellite meets its basic mission science requirements for a variety of precipitation regimes. For the liquid phase, we find that GPM radar-based products are particularly successful in meeting bias and random error requirements

  8. Problematyka samotności i poczucie osamotnienia młodzieży, wychowanków młodzieżowych ośrodków wychowawczych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Szafrańska


    Full Text Available Alienacja w początkowej fazie adolescencji jest zjawiskiem powszechnym i zrozumiałym ze względu na etap rozwojowy. Może być traktowana jako zjawisko sprzyjające kształtowaniu się tożsamości młodego człowieka i osiąganiu przez niego autonomii. Erich Fromm zwraca uwagę, że przezwyciężanie jej jest elementem usprawniającym podmiot i daje możliwość uzyskania odpowiedzi na ważne pytania natury egzystencjalnej (Fromm 1996. Pewien poziom samotności sprzyja kształtowaniu osobistej dojrzałości i integracji. Istotne jest to, że młody człowiek szukając odpowiedzi na nurtujące go pytania potrzebuje kontaktów z bliskimi i rówieśnikami ale także czasu na przemyślenia i intelektualną refleksję w odosobnieniu. Wytyczając własną drogę uczy się zaspokojenia dwóch pozornie sprzecznych ze sobą potrzeb: autonomii i bliskości z innymi – z jednej strony bycia razem, a z drugiej oddalenia się z relacji społecznych. Erikson przyjmuje, że okres adolescencji wiąże się z koniecznością przezwyciężania kryzysu określanego jako intymność-izolacja (Erikson 2000. Nastolatek, który odnalazł już własną tożsamość poszukuje możliwości połączenia jej z tożsamością innych. Pojawiające się u młodzieży zachowania wspólnotowe nacechowane serdecznością, bliskością i otwartością łączą się z pozytywnym rozwiązaniem kryzysu związanego z intymnością i izolacją, a tym samym gotowością do zaangażowania się w określone związki i wspólnoty. Poczucie alienacji wsród adolescentów tłumaczyć można prawidłowościami rozwojowymi i kryzysem normatywnym. Naturalne w procesie rozwojowym tendencje alienacyjne u młodzieży, których istotą jest doznawanie poczucia odłączenia czy obcości wobec jakiegoś obszaru rzeczywistościzewnętrznej lub wewnętrznej człowieka powinny jednak mieć charakter przejściowy. Negatywne następstwa braku rozwiązania kryzysu rozwojowego, łączące się z

  9. COSMO-SkyMed measurements in precipitation over the sea: analysis of Louisiana summer thunderstorms by simultaneous weather radar observations (United States)

    Roberto, N.; Baldini, L.; Gorgucci, E.; Facheris, L.; Chandrasekar, V.


    Radar signatures of rain cells are investigated using X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) images acquired from COSMO-SkyMed constellation over oceans off the coast of Louisiana in summer 2010 provided by ASI archive. COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) monitoring of Deepwater Horizon oil spill provided a big amount of data during the period April-September 2010 and in July-August when several thunderstorms occurred in that area. In X-SAR images, radar signatures of rain cells over the sea usually consist of irregularly shaped bright and dark patches. These signatures originate from 1) the scattering and attenuation of radiation by hydrometers in the rain cells and 2) the modification of the sea roughness induced by the impact of raindrops and by wind gusts associated with rain cell. However, the interpretation of precipitation signatures in X-SAR images is not completely straightforward, especially over sea. Coincident measurements from ground based radars and an electromagnetic (EM) model predicting radar returns from the sea surface corrugated by rainfall are used to support the analysis. A dataset consisting of 4 CSK images has been collected over Gulf of Mexico while a WSR-88D NEXRAD S-band Doppler radar (KLIX) located in New Orleans was scanning the nearby portion of ocean. Terrestrial measurements have been used to reconstruct the component of X-SAR returns due to precipitation by modifying the known technique applied on measurements over land (Fritz et al. 2010, Baldini et al. 2011). Results confirm that the attenuation signature in X-SAR images collected over land, particularly pronounced in the presence of heavy precipitation cells, can be related to the S-band radar reflectivity integrated along the same path. The Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) of land is considered to vary usually up to a few dBs in case of rain but with strong dependency on the specific type and conditions of land cover. While the NRCS of sea surface in clear weather condition can be

  10. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.


    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  11. Investigation of Drug Release from PEO Tablet Matrices in the Presence of Vitamin E as Antioxidant. (United States)

    Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali; Cumming, Iain; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem


    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of drug type on the release of drug from PEO matrix tablets accompanied with the impact of vitamin E succinate as antioxidant. The result showed that the presence of vitamin E promoted a stable release rate of soluble drug propranolol HCl from aged PEO matrix tablets, which was similar to fresh sample, regardless of molecular weight (MW) of PEO. However, the influence of the presence of vitamin E on the release rate of partially soluble drug, theophylline, was dependent on the MW of PEO; i.e., fast and unstable drug release was obtained in the case of low MW PEO 750 whereas stable drug release was obtained in the case of high MW PEO 303. The release of low water-soluble drug zonisamide was stable regardless of both the presence of vitamin E and the MW of PEO. The presence of vitamin E slightly slowed the release of zonisamide from aged PEO 303 matrices but not PEO 750 matrices. Therefore, in order to achieve a suitable controlled release profile from PEO matrices, not only the presence of vitamin E but also the solubility of the drug and the MW of polyox should be considered.