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Sample records for wrought nickel base

  1. Physical Metallurgy of Rene 65, a Next-Generation Cast and Wrought Nickel Superalloy for use in Aero Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Andrew Ezekiel

    Advancements in the design of turbine engines are in large part made possible by advancements in the capability of nickel based superalloys. Greater temperature and stress capabilities in these materials allow for increased operating temperatures and speeds in the engines, which lead to increased fuel efficiency. Early jet engines were built using austenitic stainless steels, and moved to cast and wrought nickel alloys as higher temperatures were required. By the 1970s, the state of the art nickel superalloy was Inconel 718, which is strengthened by the Ni3Nb phase known as gamma double prime. This alloy performs well and is still in heavy use in turbine engines at temperatures up to approximately 650°C (1200°F), but at higher temperatures the main strengthening precipitate phase, gamma', is thermodynamically unstable, resulting in a loss of strength following exposure to high temperature. Further advancements in nickel superalloys generally involved alloys strengthened by the Ni3Al phase known as gamma'. This precipitate is stable at much higher temperatures, but due to compositional segregation in cast and wrought processing, these alloys were processed using powder metallurgy methods, at considerable economic cost. This study will examine the microstructure of a next generation cast and wrought nickel superalloy that can provide increased temperature capability relative to Inconel 718, at lower cost than powder metallurgy superalloys. The alloy chemistry is similar to that of the powder metallurgy superalloy Rene 88DT, with changes to make it better suited for cast and wrought processing and with a different processing route from billet processing through to final part heat treatment. It is a gamma prime strengthened superalloy. The alloy has been recently introduced into service in turbine engines by GE Aviation as the alloy Rene 65, the composition of which is shown below. In this work, the following has been shown: • Rene 65 gamma' precipitate structure

  2. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  3. New wrought Ni-based superalloys with low thermal expansion for 700C steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Kadoya, Y. [Takasago Research and Development Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan); Kawai, H.; Magoshi, R. [Takasago Machinery Works, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan); Noda, T.; Hamano, S.; Ueta, S.; Isobe, S. [Research and Development Lab., Daido Steel Co., Ltd., Minamiku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Advanced 700C class steam turbines require austenitic alloys to replace conventional ferritic 12Cr steels, which lose creep strength and oxidation resistance above 650C. The austenitic alloys, however, possess a higher thermal expansion coefficient than ferritic 12Cr steels. Therefore, Ni-based superalloys were tailored to reduce their coefficients to the level of 12Cr steels. A regression analysis of commercial superalloys proves that Ti, Mo and Al decrease the coefficient quantitatively in this order, while Cr increases it so significantly that Cr should be limited to 12wt% to secure oxidation resistance. The newly designed Ni-18Mo-12Cr-1.1Ti-0.9Al alloy is strengthened by gamma-prime [Ni{sub 3}(Al,Ti)] and also Laves [Ni{sub 2}(Mo,Cr)] phase precipitates. It bears a RT/700C mean expansion coefficient equivalent to that of 12Cr steels and far lower than that of low-alloyed heat resistant steels. It surpasses a current turbine alloy, Refractaloy 26, in tensile strength at RT to 700C and SCC life in 330C deaerated pure water. Its creep rupture life at 700C is equivalent to that of Refractaloy 26. The developed alloy will be suitable for fasteners and/or blades in steam turbines at present and future USC power plants. (orig.)

  4. Low temperature impact testing of welded structural wrought iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Zachary

    , welding, and impact testing is also presented in an effort to provide those writing codes and standards, designing, or working with historic structural wrought iron more data, analysis, and research based recommendations.

  5. Effects of carbon and hafnium concentrations in wrought powder-metallurgy superalloys based on NASA 2B-11 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A candidate alloy for advanced-temperature turbine engine disks, and four modifications of that alloy with various C and Hf concentrations were produced as cross-rolled disks from prealloyed powder that was hot isostatically compacted. The mechanical properties, microstructures, and phase relations of the alloys are discussed in terms of their C and Hf concentrations. A low-C and high-Hf modification of IIB-11 had the best balance of mechanical properties for service below about 750 C. Because of their finer grain sizes, none of the powder-metallurgy alloys produced had the high-temperature rupture strength of conventionally cast and wrought IIB-11.

  6. Role of cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R.; Barefoot, J.; Tien, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt or substituting for cobalt on the mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys is discussed. Waspaloy, UDIMET 700, and NIMONIC 115, which are representative of Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Ti-Mo superalloys having different gamma prime contents which are strengthened by a heavily alloyed matrix, coherent gamma prime precipitates, and carbides at the grain boundaries. Microstructure and in situ and extracted phase STEM micro-analysis were used to evaluate the three alloys.

  7. Arts-Based Research: Trojan Horses and Shibboleths. The Liabilities of a Hybrid Research Approach. "What Hath Eisner Wrought?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David

    2009-01-01

    The term "arts-based research" has been debated for some time now. In an article strongly in favor of this approach Bean (2007) identifies three species: "Research on the arts (italics in the original) (art history, visual and cultural studies, media studies etc.)...Research for the arts, refers to research into applied techniques, materials and…

  8. Nickel-base alloys for severe environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.K.; Flower, H.L. [Inco Alloys International Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Hack, G.A.J. [Inco Alloys Ltd., Hereford (United Kingdom); Isobe, S. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Inconel alloys MA754 and MA758 are nickel-base, oxide dispersion-strengthened superalloys made by mechanical alloying. The simple nickel-chromium matrix, when combined with the strengthening effect of the yttrium oxide dispersoid during mechanical alloys, provides excellent creep properties, resistance to thermal fatigue, and surface stability suitable for operation without protective coatings. Gas turbine engine components are primary applications for alloy MA754, but this aerospace alloy has been applied in many other products that operate in severe conditions, and alloy MA758 was developed specifically for aggressive, elevated temperature industrial environments. Billets for large bar and plate are typically consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), because this technology allows production of forms suitable for a variety of industrial components. Material consolidated by HIP and conventionally worked by extrusion and hot rolling generally exhibits properties that are more isotropic than those of material consolidated by extrusion. However, the degree of anisotropy depends strongly on the specific processing of the consolidated billet. This article describes production of new mill shapes from HIP billets, and reviews current and potential applications such as skid rails for high-temperature walking-beam furnaces, heat treating furnace parts, equipment for handling molten glass, and furnace tubes.

  9. Nickel base welds in nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinovitch, M.; Faure, F. [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris La Defense, (France). Material and Technology Dept.; Dunand-Roux, L. [Societe Fanco-Amaricaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), Saint Marcel (France). Manufacturing Div.; Buisine, D.; Milleville, P.H.; Vaillant, F. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Research and Development Div.; Vidal, P. [Electricite de France, 91 - Evry (France). Metallurgy and Technology Dept.

    1997-07-01

    By the end of 1991, FRAMATOME and EDF decided to replace all the nickel base alloy 600 components in the primary side of power plants by alloy 690 with higher chromium content and to look for a new filler metal, corrosion resistant and having a weldability as good as the welding products (alloys 182 et 82) presently used. Inconel 152 et 52 developed by INCO ALLOYS INTERNATIONAL have been selected after qualification tests and they have been implemented into the fabrication process since the beginning of 1993. The main results of studies made by FRAMATOME and EDF to evaluate are presented. These studies include: mechanical properties of undiluted weld deposit and of the interface with low alloy steels; weldability by means of Varestraint tests, and by the performance of numerous welding operations in industrial manufacturing conditions; structural stability after long term aging. All this work was done to qualify these new products, and demonstrate their corrosion resistance, making it possible to use them in fabrication. (author)

  10. Flexibility and hardness of dental stainless steel wrought wires used in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, P; Cheunarrom, C; Ongthiemsak, C

    2001-03-01

    Stainless steel wrought wires used as clasp arms for removable partial dentures in Thailand were compared with those used in some other countries (in the as-received condition) in terms of flexibility, Vickers microhardness and composition. The results showed that there were significant differences (Psteel wire (SK) was obviously different from the others. It had the lowest proportional limit and microhardness, but its flexibility was almost the same. The chemical composition of each wire was not greatly different. The wires were about 18-20 wt% chromium and 8-9 wt% nickel, except for the SK wire, which had about 12 wt% nickel.

  11. Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 4. Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base superalloys for gas turbines and strategies for manufacture. O P Sinha M Chatterjee V V R S Sarma S N Jha. Volume 28 Issue 4 July 2005 pp 379-382 ...

  12. A fluorescence-based sensing system for the environmental monitoring of nickel using the nickel binding protein from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salins, Lyndon L.E.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S.; Ensor, Mark C.; Daunert, Sylvia [Departments of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A sensing system for nickel based on the nickel binding protein (NBP) from Escherichia coli is shown to be feasible. The versatility of NBP was demonstrated by its use in three different assay formats. When the NBP binds nickel, it undergoes a conformational change that can be used as the basis for an optical sensing system for nickel. The NBP gene was overexpressed in E. coli and the protein purified in a single step using perfusion anion-exchange chromatography. A unique cysteine residue at position 15 in the NBP was labeled with the fluorophore, N-[2-(1-maleimidyl)ethyl]-7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxamide (MDCC). In a spectrofluorimetric assay, there was a maximum of 65% quenching of the fluorescence signal produced by NBP-MDCC in the presence of nickel. A response curve for nickel using NBP-MDCC revealed a detection limit of 8 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. NBP-MDCC was also used to develop assays in microtiter plate and fiber optic bundle formats. Detection limits for nickel using these formats were also in the submicromolar range. Selectivity studies conducted with other divalent metals, including copper, cobalt, iron, cadmium, and manganese, showed that fluorescence quenching for cobalt was similar in magnitude but with a detection limit more than 10-fold higher than for nickel. The quenching responses were lower for the other metals, with detection limits at least 10 to 100 times higher than for nickel. These results suggest that fluorescently labeled NBP is potentially useful in the development of a sensing system for nickel. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of wrought ASTM F1058 cobalt alloy properties for permanent surgical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C O; Jedwab, M R; Mayer, D W; Thompson, P J; Stinson, J S

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of the ASTM F1058 wrought cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloy (commonly referred to as Elgiloy or Phynox) is evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, magnetic resonance imaging, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. The data found in the literature, the experimental corrosion and biocompatibility results presented in this article, and its long track record as an implant material demonstrate that the cobalt superalloy is an appropriate material for permanent surgical implants that require high yield strength and fatigue resistance combined with high elastic modulus, and that it can be safely imaged with magnetic resonance.

  14. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC -FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER-METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC -FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER-METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...the Plastic -Flow Response of a Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloy Under Nominally-Isothermal and Transient-Heating Hot-Working Conditions S.L

  15. Nickel-based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha A.

    2015-11-02

    The demand for energy storage technologies is rapidly increasing in portable electronics, transportation, and renewable energy systems. Thus, the objective of this research is to develop and enhance the performance of Ni-based electrochemical supercapacitors by optimizing synthesis conditions and design of the electrode materials. Conventional and on-chip supercapacitors were developed with notable performance enhancement. For conventional supercapacitors, a uniform and conformal coating process was developed to deposit Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon microfibers in-situ by a simple chemical bath deposition at room temperature. The microfibers conformally-coated with Ni(OH)2 make direct physical contacts with essentially every single nanoflakes, leading to more efficient electron transport. Using this strategy, we have achieved devices that exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 on the carbon microfibers (1416 F/g vs. 275 F/g). For on-chip storage applications, microfabricated supercapacitors were developed using a combination of top-down photolithography and bottom-up CBD. The resulting Ni(OH)2 micro-supercapacitors show high-rate redox activity up to 500 V/s and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF/cm2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F/cm3. This volumetric capacitance is 2-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based micro-supercapacitors. Furthermore, these micro-supercapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh/cm3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. To enhance cycling stability, Ni-Cu-OH and Ni-Co-OH ternary electrodes have been prepared with different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios by CBD at room temperature on carbon microfibers. It is observed that the electrodes with Ni:Cu and Ni:Co composition ratio of 100:10 results in an optimum capacitance and cycling stability. For the optimum composition, Ni-Co-OH with

  16. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0-20Fe, 10-30Cr, 2-12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05-3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01-0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni.

  17. Evaluation of mechanical properties of a low-cobalt wrought superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.

    1993-08-01

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, cobalt was subjected to significant supply and market pressures. Those pressures caused renewed attention to the use of cobalt in aircraft engines. A NASA-sponsored program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) was created in response to the supply problems with cobalt and other aerospace metals. Among the work performed in the COSAM program and simultaneously by others were several studies on laboratory-size heats of wrought nickel-base super-alloys. These studies suggested that the cobalt levels of the alloys might be reduced by about half, with minimal negative impact on mechanical properties. The Lewis Research Center procured a 1365-kg (3000-lb) heat of a modified Waspaloy having a reduced cobalt level. This article reports the results of a program performed at four gas turbine manufacturers which evaluated the mechanical properties of forgings fabricated from that heat. The alloy chemistry selected reduced the nominal cobalt level from 13.5 to 7.75 wt%. To compensate for the anticipated strength reduction caused by a slight reduction in the amount of γ, the nominal aluminum was increased from 1.3 to 1.5% and the titanium was increased from 3.0 to 3.2%. The increase in aluminum and titanium were intended to increase the amount of γ in the al-loy. Tensile, creep-rupture, low-cycle fatigue, and cyclic crack growth tests were performed. In addition the effect of hydrogen on the alloy was determined. It was concluded that, in the event of a cobalt short-age, a low-cobalt modification of Waspaloy alloy could be substituted for Waspaloy with little develop-ment in those applications that are not creep-rupture limited. With some additional development to better control the grain size, it is probable that most of the current Waspaloy requirements might be met with a lower cobalt alloy.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Amorphous Nickel-Base Alloys in a Boiling Concentrated Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, SHIMAMURA; Kimikado, MIURA; Asahi, Kawashima; Katsuhiko, Asami; Koji, Hashimoto; Institute for Materials Research:Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.; Institute for Materials Research

    1988-01-01

    Polarization curves were measured in a boiling 50% NaOH solution, and the specimen surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A combined addition of chromium and molybdenum to amorphous nickel-phosphorus alloys significantly enhances the corrosion resistance. Addition of copper and lead are also effective in improving the corrosion resistance. The surface film formed on amorphous nickel-base alloys consists mainly of hydrated nickel oxyhydroxide. Chromium is concentrated in the...

  19. Nickel speciation in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils via bulk synchrotron-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-07-01

    Serpentine soils have elevated concentrations of trace metals including nickel, cobalt, and chromium compared to non-serpentine soils. Identifying the nickel bearing minerals allows for prediction of potential mobility of nickel. Synchrotron-based techniques can identify the solid-phase chemical forms of nickel with minimal sample treatment. Element concentrations are known to vary among soil particle sizes in serpentine soils. Sonication is a useful method to physically disperse sand, silt and clay particles in soils. Synchrotron-based techniques and sonication were employed to identify nickel species in discrete particle size fractions in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils to better understand solid-phase nickel geochemistry. Nickel commonly resided in primary serpentine parent material such as layered-phyllosilicate and chain-inosilicate minerals and was associated with iron oxides. In the clay fractions, nickel was associated with iron oxides and primary serpentine minerals, such as lizardite. Linear combination fitting (LCF) was used to characterize nickel species. Total metal concentration did not correlate with nickel speciation and is not an indicator of the major nickel species in the soil. Differences in soil texture were related to different nickel speciation for several particle size fractionated samples. A discussion on LCF illustrates the importance of choosing standards based not only on statistical methods such as Target Transformation but also on sample mineralogy and particle size. Results from the F-test (Hamilton test), which is an underutilized tool in the literature for LCF in soils, highlight its usefulness to determine the appropriate number of standards to for LCF. EXAFS shell fitting illustrates that destructive interference commonly found for light and heavy elements in layered double hydroxides and in phyllosilicates also can occur in inosilicate minerals, causing similar structural features and leading to false positive results in

  20. High strength nickel base alloy, WAZ-16, for applications up to 2200 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Alloy product is high strength, high temperature nickel base material with higher incipient melting temperature than all known nickel base alloys. It is microstructurally stable and has high impact resistance both before and after prolonged thermal exposure. It contains relatively few alloying constitutents and low content of expensive and rare metals.

  1. Investigations of the microstructural stability of wrought Ni-(Fe)-based syperalloys for steam turbine rotor application beyond 700 C; Untersuchungen der Strukturstabilitaet von Ni-(Fe)-Basislegierungen fuer Rotorwellen in Dampfturbinen mit Arbeitstemperaturen ueber 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliga, T.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuous trend to improve the efficiency of modern power plants with steam turbine require operating steam temperature from 700 to 720 C. For substantial parts like turbine rotors and discs this means increased requirements on the high temperature resistance, which can not longer be fulfilled by the presently used steel. As new materials for the components, which are thermo-mechanically loaded, only Ni-based superalloys are suitable for their fabrication, structure stability and thermo-mechanical characteristics. With view on creep and creep crack growth resistance as suitable candidates in the context a DFG research project wrought Ni-based superalloy Waspaloy and Ni-Fe-based alloy Inconel 706 were selected, which exhibited different hardening mechanisms. Waspaloy is a {gamma}'-hardened material with small portion of carbides on the grain boundaries. Inconel 706 is a particle hardened alloy with a very complex microstructure, it consists of {gamma}', {gamma}{sup ''}-particle, {eta}-phase und carbides. Concerning to their castability, forgeability, creep and creep crack growth and microstructural stability these candidate materials have been investigated and modelled. The knowledge about their long time stability of the microstructure, castability, forgeability and mechanical properties leads to the two new modification (Waspaloy{yields}DT750 and Inconel 706{yields}DT706). The modification of the Waspaloy to DT 750 served better castability (elimination of the Freckle formation). An improvement of the long-term stability of the microstructure was not necessary, by a changed heat treatment was reached a homogeneous, monomodale {gamma}'-particle distribution. The modification of Inconel 706 to DT 706 served to stabilize the {gamma}'-phase and to reduce of the {gamma}{sup ''} phase without suppressing the cellular {eta}-phase colonies on the grain boundaries. This work presents the test results for the structural

  2. Recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihang You

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wrought magnesium alloys attract special interests as lightweight structural material due to their homogeneous microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties compared to as-cast alloys. In this contribution, recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys are reviewed from the viewpoint of the alloy design, focusing on Mg-Al, Mg-Zn and Mg-rare earth (RE systems. The effects of different alloying elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties are described considering their strengthening mechanisms, e.g. grain refinement, precipitation and texture hardening effect. Finally, the new alloy design and also the future research of wrought magnesium alloys to improve their mechanical properties are discussed.

  3. Recovery of Nickel from Nickel-Based Superalloy Scraps by Utilizing Molten Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Ryohei; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    With the purpose of developing a new process for recycling nickel (Ni) directly from superalloy scraps, a fundamental study on the extraction and separation of Ni was carried out using molten zinc (Zn) as the extraction medium. In order to examine the reaction between molten Zn and the Ni-based superalloy, superalloy samples and Zn shots were heated at 1173 K (900 °C) for 6 hours. After heating, the superalloy samples fully reacted with Zn and dissolved in molten Zn. The Zn-alloyed sample obtained by slow cooling consisted of two separated upper and lower phases. In the upper part of the sample, only Zn and the Zn-Ni alloys were found; in the lower part, an intermetallic alloy consisting of refractory metals such as rhenium (Re) and tantalum (Ta) was found. This result shows that Ni and refractory metals contained in the scrap can be separated by utilizing the density differences between the Zn-Ni alloy and the refractory metals in molten Zn. Vacuum treatment of the upper part of the Zn-alloyed sample at 1173 K (900 °C) reduced the concentration of Zn in the sample from 97.0 to 0.4 mass pct. After Zn removal, a Ni alloy containing Ni with a purity of 85.3 to 86.1 mass pct and negligible quantities (<0.1 mass pct) of Re and Ta was obtained. Moreover, recovered Zn metal after distillation had a purity of more than 99.9 mass pct. Therefore, this process could be an environmentally sound recycling process that can recover Ni from superalloy scraps without the consumption of Zn or the generation of toxic wastes solutions.

  4. Creep curve modelling of a conventionally cast nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinc, V.; Maldini, M. [CNR - IENI, Milan (Italy); Poggio, E.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Constant load creep tests on Rene 80, a nickel base superalloy for gas turbine blade application, were run in the temperature interval 800-950 C with applied stresses producing rupture times up to 1000 h. Creep curves are generally dominated by a long accelerating/tertiary creep that follows a relatively small decelerating/primary creep. No steady state stage has been observed. Analysis of the creep curves has shown that a single damage parameter can describe the long accelerating/tertiary state in the explored temperature range. The damage appears to be dependent on the accumulated creep strain and, as a first approximation, independent on the applied stress and temperature. The whole creep curve, primary and tertiary stages, has been modelled by a simple set of coupled differential equations obtained using the formalism of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The proposed set of equations has an analytical solution, strain vs. time, for creep curves at constant temperature and stress. (orig.)

  5. Thermophysical properties of nickel-based cast superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Przeliorz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tests results of specific heat storage capacity and oxidation resistance of nickel - based cast Mar M - 200, Mar - M - 247 and Rene 80 superalloys. Specific heat measurements were conducted with the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, with the use of high - temperature calorimeter multi (HTC Setaram. Oxidation resistance tests were conducted with the use of cyclic temperature change method. Each cycle consisted of heating by temperature of 1 100 °C and next quick cooling in air. It was proved that the biggest value of specific heat Cp was found in alloy Mar - M - 200, and the lowest in alloy Mar - M - 247. Relatively good oxidation resistance has been found in alloy Mar - M - 247.

  6. PRODUCTION OF THE WROUGHT INGOTS OF HYPOEUTECTIC SILUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ju. Stetsenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that casting in crystallizer with flood-fluid power cooling system allows to produce the wrought ingots out of hypereutectic silumin without application of additional operations of thermoplastic deformation and annealing.

  7. Electrochemical balancing of lithium-ion cells by nickel-based cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexander U.; Eringer, Ludwig; Lambidis, Ioannis; Birke, Kai Peter

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a topology to passively balance two types of lithium-ion cells without using additional active electrical components or employing any algorithm based balancing management systems. We connect nickel-metal hydride or nickel-zinc cells in parallel to lithium-ion cells. The hydrogen/oxygen recombination process of the nickel-based cells can be used to balance lithium-ion cells. Two serially connected lithium iron phosphate cells, combined each with two serially connected nickel-zinc cells, show a successful balancing of 8% of the lithium iron phosphate cell's initial capacity. A lithium titanate cell connected in parallel to two nickel-metal hydride cells can be fully charged without suffering from over-voltage effects by constant current charging.

  8. Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

  9. Nickel Oxide (NiO nanoparticles prepared by solid-state thermal decomposition of Nickel (II schiff base precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plate-like NiO nanoparticles were prepared by one-pot solid-state thermal decomposition of nickel (II Schiff base complex as new precursor. First, the nickel (II Schiff base precursor was prepared by solid-state grinding using nickel (II nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO32∙6H2O, and the Schiff base ligand N,N′-bis-(salicylidene benzene-1,4-diamine for 30 min without using any solvent, catalyst, template or surfactant. It was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHN. The resultant solid was subsequently annealed in the electrical furnace at 450 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of NiO were produced and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD at 2θ degree 0-140°, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD and FT-IR results showed that the product is pure and has good crystallinity with cubic structure because no characteristic peaks of impurity were observed, while the SEM and TEM results showed that the obtained product is tiny, aggregated with plate-like shape, narrow size distribution with an average size between 10-40 nm. Results show that the solid state thermal decomposition method is simple, environmentally friendly, safe and suitable for preparation of NiO nanoparticles. This method can also be used to synthesize nanoparticles of other metal oxides.

  10. Nickel Aluminides for Structural Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. T.; Sikka, V. K.

    1986-05-01

    Nickel aluminides with the following compositions (at.%) have been developed: Ni—18±2% Al—8±2% Cr—1.0±0.8% Zr (orHf)—0.15±0.1% B. These aluminides possess superb mechanical and metallurgical properties and have potential to be used as new structural materials at elevated temperatures. This paper discusses the behavior of nickel aluminides and updates progress in developing methods of fabrication. Additional studies are expected to lead to optimum alloy compositions to further improve the creep resistance of the aluminides, particularly in wrought conditions.

  11. Eutectic gamma (Nickel)/gamma vprime(Nickel Aluminide) delta (Nickel Niobium) polycrystalline nickel-base superalloys: Chemistry, processing, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengtao

    Directionally solidified (D.S.) gamma(Ni)/gamma'(Ni 3A1)-delta(Ni3Nb) eutectic alloys were considered as candidate turbine blade materials. Currently, the properties of polycrystalline gamma/gamma'-delta alloys are of interest as they inherit many advantageous attributes from the D.S. gamma/gamma'-delta alloys. This thesis is therefore dedicated towards the development of a fundamental understanding of these novel eutectic alloys from several important perspectives. This thesis will first be focused on quantifying the effect of several elements. A set of Ni-Cr-Al-Nb alloy compositions with increasing levels of Cr was designed to investigate the influence of Cr on the primary phase formation, solidus and liquidus temperatures and g-d eutectic morphology. A matrix of complex gamma/gamma'-delta alloy compositions with the same (Ta+Nb) content but varying Ta/Nb ratios was designed to study the influence of Ta on elemental segregation and solid state partitioning behaviors. Thermodynamic predicaitons using the Computherm Pandat database (PanNi7) were compared to experimental results in these investigations. The second part of this thesis will provide a more general understanding of the effects of common elements. A large number of experimental alloys covering a broad range of compositions were selected for the analysis. Important alloy attributes were characterized as a function of element concentration. Linear regression analysis was performed to reveal the relative effectiveness of different elements. An extensive comparison between the experimental observations and Pandat predictions was provided to critically evaluate the strength and weakness of existing thermodynamic database model in this novel alloy system. The last part of this thesis emphasizes the development of cast and wrought processes for cast gamma/gamma'-delta alloys as a cost effective alternative to the powder metallurgy route. Hot rolling of workpieces encapsulated within a steel can was performed on

  12. ISOTHERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE OF A NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho Engler-Pinto Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gradients arising during transient regimes of start-up and shutdown operations produce a complex thermal and mechanical fatigue loading which limits the life of turbine blades and other engine components operating at high temperatures. More accurate and reliable assessment under non-isothermal fatigue becomes therefore mandatory. This paper investigates the nickel base superalloy CM 247LC-DS under isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF. Test temperatures range from 600°C to 1,000°C. The behavior of the alloy is strongly affected by the temperature variation, especially in the 800°C-1,000°C range. The Ramberg-Osgood equation fits very well the observed isothermal behavior for the whole temperature range. The simplified non-isothermal stress-strain model based on linear plasticity proposed to represent the thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior was able to reproduce the observed behavior for both in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycling.

  13. Corrosion of nickel-based dental casting alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Christopher M; Shelton, Richard M; Fleming, Garry J P; Davenport, Alison J

    2007-06-01

    To study the microstructure, corrosion behaviour and cell culture response of two nickel-based dental casting alloys before and after a heat treatment to simulate porcelain firing. The microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Corrosion behaviour was evaluated by electrochemical measurements in artificial saliva at different values of pH in the presence of a crevice. 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were exposed indirectly to alloy specimens and the number of viable cells counted after 3 and 6 days compared to a control culture. Small changes in microstructure were observed after heat treatment but had a negligible effect on the corrosion properties in the conditions tested. The alloy with a lower bulk level of Cr (12.6 wt.%) showed lower corrosion resistance, indicated by an increased passive current density and this stability was greatly reduced at pH 2.5, where crevice corrosion was observed. Selective dissolution occurred at regions within the microstructure containing lower levels of Cr and Mo. Furthermore, the proliferation of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts was reduced (pcorrosion resistance, which was associated with a more uniform distribution of Cr in the alloy microstructure. The presence of crevices combined with an inhomogeneous distribution of Cr in the microstructure can lead to accelerated corrosion of Ni-based alloys with lower Cr contents. This effect can be avoided by increasing the Cr content of the alloy.

  14. Environmental Degradation of Nickel-Based Superalloys Due to Gypsiferous Desert Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    temperature readings were within 2.86% of the solid line. 58 IV. Characterization of Desert Dust Chemistry The first objective of this research effort was...ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF NICKEL -BASED SUPERALLOYS DUE TO GYPSIFEROUS DESERT DUSTS DISSERTATION Matthew B. Krisak, Major, USAF AFIT-ENY-DS-15-S...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-DS-15-S-066 ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF NICKEL -BASED SUPERALLOYS

  15. Fabrication technology of CNT-Nickel Oxide based planar pseudocapacitor for MEMS and NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, E. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Gavrilin, I. M.; Gromov, D. G.; Gruzdev, N. E.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Dronov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication technology of planar pseudocapacitor (PsC) based on carbon nanotube (CNT) forest, synthesized using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method, covered with thin nickel oxide layer deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, is demonstrated. Dependences of deposited oxide layers thickness on device specific capacities is studied. It is shown that pseudocapacity of nickel oxide thin layer increases specific capacity of the CNT's based device up to 2.5 times.

  16. MACHINING OF NICKEL BASED ALLOYS USING DIFFERENT CEMENTED CARBIDE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASIM A. KHIDHIR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental work in dry turning of nickel based alloys (Haynes – 276 using Deferent tool geometer of cemented carbide tools. The turning tests were conducted at three different cutting speeds (112, 152, 201and 269 m/min while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant at 0.2 mm/rev and 1.5 mm, respectively. The tool holders used were SCLCR with insert CCMT-12 and CCLNR – M12-4 with insert CNGN-12. The influence of cutting speed, tool inserts type and workpiece material was investigated on the machined surface roughness. The worn parts of the cutting tools were also examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that cutting speed significantly affected the machined surface finish values in related with the tool insert geometry. Insert type CCMT-12 showed better surface finish for cutting speed to 201 m/min, while insert type CNGN-12 surface roughness increased dramatically with increasing of speed to a limit completely damage of insert geometer beyond 152 m/min.

  17. Mathematical Method for Predicting Nickel Deposit Based on Data from Drilling Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Cahyono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss several methods for predicting nickel ore content inside the soil under a given area/region. The prediction is the main objective of the exploration activity which is very important for conducting the exploitation activity from economic point of view. The prediction methods are based on the data obtained from the drilling activity at several ‘points’. The data yields information on the nickel density at those points. Nickel density over the region is approximated (with an approximate function by applying interpolation and/or extrapolation based on the data from those points. The nickel content is predicted by applying integral of the approximate function over the given region

  18. Corrosion Properties of Sintered and Wrought Stainless Seel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1997-01-01

    The corrosion properties of a range of stainless steels produced by powder metallurgy (PM) are compared with wrought AISI304 and AISI316 Steel. Characterisation of the passivation properties in 0.5M H2SO4 and pittingresistance in 0.3% chloride solution by polarisation show properties of the sinte......The corrosion properties of a range of stainless steels produced by powder metallurgy (PM) are compared with wrought AISI304 and AISI316 Steel. Characterisation of the passivation properties in 0.5M H2SO4 and pittingresistance in 0.3% chloride solution by polarisation show properties...

  19. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier ...

  20. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ{sup '} microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ{sup '} phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  1. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  2. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

  3. Forgeability of modified AZ and ZK wrought magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurz, G.; Sillekens, W.H.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Letzig, D.

    2009-01-01

    Wrought magnesium alloy products have favourable attributes compared to castings with regard to mechanical properties. In addition they provide a complementary class of shapes and geometries. These are the current drivers for developments within the field of magnesium forging technology. Within this

  4. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  5. Effects of cobalt on the hot workability of nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Collier, J. P.; Tien, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the workability of nickel-base superalloys is examined with reference to experimental results for four heats of alloys based on the Nimonic 115 composition with varying amounts of nickel substituted for the nominal 14 percent cobalt. It is shown that Co lowers the gamma-prime solvus, which in turn lowers the Cr23C6 carbide solvus. It is further shown that these solvus temperatures bracket the hot working range for the alloys. However, thermomechanical processing modifications reflecting the effect of Co on the gamma-prime and carbide solvi are shown to restore the workability and the properties of alloys with little or no cobalt.

  6. Non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor based on nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle film modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yun; Banks, Craig E; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2010-07-01

    A non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor based on the modification of functional nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles was prepared via electrochemical deposition. The electrochemical deposition of the nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles was obtained by potential cycling in a solution containing nickel (II) and hexacyanoferrate (III) producing a modified surface with a high degree of uniformity. The modified electrode is exemplified towards the non-enzymatic sensing of glucose where using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, low micro-molar up to milli-molar glucose concentrations are readily detectable. The non-enzymatic sensing of glucose also shows a modest selectivity over ascorbic acid. This platform offers a novel route for glucose sensors with wide analytical applications. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Trace Elements in Nickel Base Gas Turbine Parts by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation is described to ascertain whether or not atomic absorption spectrophotometry could be used to determine the concentration of trace ... elements such as silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in nickel base alloys such as IN100, B1900 and 713C, without interference from

  8. Synthesis and characterization of iron (ii) and nickel (ii) schiff base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complexes of iron (II) and nickel (II) with schiff base derived from benzoin and 2-amino benzoic acid have been prepared. Solubility, melting point, decomposition temperature, conductance measurement, infrared (IR) and UV – Visible spectrophotometric studies were used in characterizing the compounds. The melting ...

  9. Synthesis of novel chelating benzimidazole-based carbenes and their nickel(II) complexes: activity in the Kumada coupling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel(II) halide complexes of novel chelating bidentate benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbenes have been prepared from Ni(OAc)2 and bisbenzimidazolium salts. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination on four complexes revealed a cis-geometry on a square-planar nickel center. The complexes

  10. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  11. Heavy Wrought Armor Metallurgical Evaluation of Commercially Produced Heavy Wrought Armor to Improve the Specification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-02-02

    being basically low manganese , 4% nickel, 2% chromium steels. The molybdenum varied from residual to .50%. Four plates contained vanadium. The carbon...ti ~ .J.~ \\d&I ~> AW Ki R kq >_\\rU% r ~ ’ ~ ~ I~~~~~~~~~~ pvP~*i~~ ~ IQ *Q~i .zt 0 M..~A. *J - io’.I \\~’Off( *o~ , Rd , ~ ft0 A’ 144 ~ t21 f~lvW ŝ. l... Iq 0’ I . ~to Pf4 !T ~ ’-:1.-I Op %. REPRIODUlCE( AT GOVERNMENT EXPENSE p1; to J~k - e3-’reations of sulfide and silieptto type ,,o.,- -M4t lc. ’o

  12. High gas velocity oxidation and hot corrosion testing of oxide dispersion-strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) nickel-base alloys were tested in high velocity gases for cyclic oxidation resistance at temperatures to 1200 C and times to 500 hours and for hot corrosion resistance at 900 C for 200 hours. Nickel-chromium-aluminum ODS alloys were found to have superior resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion when compared to bare and coated nickel-chromium ODS alloys. The best of the alloys tested had compositions of nickel - 15.5 to 16 weight percent chromium with aluminum weight percents between 4.5 and 5.0. All of the nickel-chromium-aluminum ODS materials experienced small weight losses (less than 16 mg/sq cm).

  13. Static and dynamic crack toughness of brazed joints of Inconel 718 nickel-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.Z. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa); Steffens, H.D.; Englehart, A.H.; Wielage, B.

    1979-10-01

    The crack toughness of brazed joints of Inconel 718 nickel-base alloy was investigated at different strain rates. The brazing filler metal used was BNi5. The results were compared with those obtained on specimens made of the base material. The brazed joints were heat-treated after the brazing process in order to achieve a desirable distribution of the brittle phases in the joint.

  14. Creep properties and microstructure of the new wrought austenitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasak, T.; Hakl, J.; Novak, P. [SVUM a.s., Prague (Czech Republic); Vyrostkova, A. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials Research

    2010-07-01

    The contribution is oriented on the new wrought austenitic steel BGA4 (Cr23Ni15Mn6Cu3W1.5NbVMo) developed by the British Corus Company. Our main aim is to present creep properties studied in SVUM a.s. Prague during COST 536 programme. The dependencies of the creep strength, strength for specific creep strain and minimum creep strain rate were evaluated on the basis of long term creep tests carried out at temperature interval (625; 725) C. Important part of a paper is metallographic analysis. (orig.)

  15. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Conductivity of Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive measurement of residual stress at the subsurface of nickel-based alloys using eddy current method has been limited by its sensitivity to its microstructure, especially to the precipitates. This paper investigates the effect of heat treatment on the electrical conductivity of RR1000, a nickel-based superalloy with a large fraction of γ’ precipitates. Different heat treatment conditions, ranging from solution heat treatment to precipitation hardening with different aging times and temperatures, are used to achieve varying initial microstructures. Hardness of the samples is measured first to quantify the heat treated samples followed by the measurement of electrical conductivity using the conductivity probes of frequencies between 1 MHz and 5 MHz. The relationship between the hardness and conductivity of the heat treated samples is then correlated further. The results highlight the significant influence of heat treatment on the sample hardness and the electrical conductivity of RR1000.

  16. Preparation and testing of nickel-based superalloy/sodium heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Han, Haitao; Hu, Longfei; Chen, Siyuan; Yu, Jijun; Ai, Bangcheng

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a kind of uni-piece nickel-based superalloy/sodium heat pipe is proposed. Five models of high temperature heat pipe were prepared using GH3044 and GH4099 nickel-based superalloys. And their startup performance and ablation resistance were investigated by quartz lamp calorifier radiation and wind tunnel tests, respectively. It is found that the amount of charging sodium affects the startup performance of heat pipes apparently. No startup phenomenon was found for insufficient sodium charged model. In contrast, the models charged with sufficient sodium startup successfully, displaying a uniform temperature distribution. During wind tunnel test, the corresponding models experienced a shorter startup time than that during quartz lamp heating. GH4099/sodium heat pipe shows excellent ablation resistance, being better than that of GH3044/sodium heat pipe. Therefore, it is proposed that this kind of heat pipe has a potential application in thermal protection system of hypersonic cruise vehicles.

  17. The elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloy in molten salt corrosion by using nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiantao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaolin; Shen, Hao; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys as candidate materials for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR), need to be used under high temperature in molten salt environment. In order to ensure the safety of the reactor running, it is necessary to study the elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloys in the high temperature molten salts. In this work, the scanning nuclear microprobe at Fudan University was applied to study the elemental move. The Nickel-based alloy samples were corroded by molten salt at different temperatures. The element concentrations in the Nickel-based alloys samples were determined by the scanning nuclear microprobe. Micro-PIXE results showed that the element concentrations changed from the interior to the exterior of the alloy samples after the corrosion.

  18. Some Properties of Platinum and Palladium Modified Aluminide Coatings Deposited by CVD Method on Nickel-Base Superalloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zagula-Yavorska, M; Sieniawski, J; Gancarczyk, T

    2012-01-01

    In the paper some functional properties (hardness and oxidation resistance) of platinum and palladium modified aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD method on a nickel-based superalloy were determined...

  19. The role of carbide phases in the secondary recrystallization of nickel-base ODS-superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Lempenauer, Klaus; Arzt, Eduard

    1991-01-01

    In ODS nickel-base alloys with high r'-content (e.g. MA760) the rate of heating to the recrystallization temperature plays an important role for the success of the recrystallization treatment. Previous results (Jongenburger et al., 1990) revealed the existence of a heating rate window for secondary recrystallization. While the lower limit of this window (Tmin) is well understood, an attempt is made in this paper to explain the upper limit (Tmax) by the influence of carbide phases. Furthermore...

  20. Microstructural evolution of a delta containing nickel-base superalloy during heat treatment and isothermal forging

    OpenAIRE

    Mignanelli, P.M.; Jones, N. G.; Perkins, K. M.; Hardy, M C.; Stone, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509314013252#. The next generation of aerospace gas turbine engines need to operate at higher temperatures and stresses to improve their efficiency and reduce emissions. These operating conditions are beyond the capability of existing nickel-base superalloys requiring the development of new high temperature materials. Controlling the microstructures of these new materials is key...

  1. Mechanism of beneficial effect of tantalum in hot corrosion of nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analyses were used to examine a prominent NaTaO3 pattern formed in a number of nickel-base superalloys. It is found that a beneficial effect of tantalum with respect to hot corrosion attack arises from the ability of Ta2O5 to tie up Na2O and prevent the formation of a molten Na2MoO4 phase.

  2. Characterisation of an Advanced Nickel Based Superalloy Post Cold Work by Swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Bache

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical bars of the advanced nickel based superalloy RR1000 were subjected to swaging to induce approximately 30% cold work. Grain size analysis demonstrated a distinct modification to the microstructure whilst electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD measurements confirmed the evolution of a relatively strong <111> texture parallel with the longitudinal bar axis. Intragranular strain damage was identified. The effects of the swaging on bulk mechanical properties are illustrated across a range of test temperatures.

  3. Nickel, cobalt and titanium-based alloys – from aircraft vehicles to medical applications - REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Jovanović

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of nickel, cobalt and titanium-based alloys in the early 1950s, these materials in a relatively short time became backbone materials for the aerospace, energy, chemical industry and even medicine. The combination of excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility renders these alloys the best material choice for many critical applications. This review describes the results realized through the research in the Department of Materials Science i...

  4. A concept for the EQ coating system for nickel-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, K.; Sato, A.; Harada, H.

    2008-07-01

    Nickel-based single-crystal superalloys with high concentrations of refractory elements are prone to generate a diffusion layer called a secondary reaction zone (SRZ) beneath their bond coating during long exposure to high temperatures. The SRZ causes a reduction of the load-bearing cross section and it is detrimental to the creep properties of thin-walled turbine airfoils. In this study, a new bond coat system, “EQ coating,” which is thermodynamically stable and suppresses SRZ has been proposed. Diffusion couples of coating materials and substrate alloys were made and heat treated at 1,100°C for 300 h and 1,000 h. Cyclic oxidation examinations were carried out at 1,100°C in air and the oxidation properties of EQ coating materials were discussed. High-velocity frame-sprayed EQ coatings designed for second-generation nickel-based superalloys were deposited on fourth-and fifth-generation nickel-based superalloys, and the stability of the microstructure at the interface and creep property of the coating system were investigated.

  5. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Li, Liucheng Zhou, Weifeng He, Guangyu He, Xuede Wang, Xiangfan Nie, Bo Wang, Sihai Luo and Yuqin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation.

  6. Study of alumina-trichite reinforcement of a nickel-based matric by means of powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, A.; Hivert, A.

    1982-01-01

    Research was conducted on reinforcing nickel based matrices with alumina trichites by using powder metallurgy. Alumina trichites previously coated with nickel are magnetically aligned. The felt obtained is then sintered under a light pressure at a temperature just below the melting point of nickel. The halogenated atmosphere technique makes it possible to incorporate a large number of additive elements such as chromium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum, niobium, aluminum, etc. It does not appear that going from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale in production would create any major problems.

  7. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of KNiHCF homogeneous phase on the fabric surface, which consisted of crystalline cubic-shaped nanoparticles (70 to 100 nm). The efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent for removal of cesium ions was evaluated under various experimental conditions. It has demonstrated a rapid adsorption process, high adsorption capacity over a wide pH range, and selectivity in Cs ion removal from model solutions with high concentration of sodium ions.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Crack Propagation in Nanoscale Polycrystal Nickel Based on Different Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the strain rates of 2 × 108 s−1 and 2 × 1010 s−1, molecular dynamics simulation was conducted so as to study mechanisms of crack propagation in nanoscale polycrystal nickel. The strain rate has an important effect on the mechanism of crack propagation in nanoscale polycrystal nickel. In the case of a higher strain rate, local non-3D-crystalline atoms are induced and Lomer-Cottrell locks are formed, which plays a critical role in crack initiation and propagation. Orientation difference between adjacent grains leads to the slipping of dislocations along the different directions, which results in the initiation of a void near the triple junction of grain boundaries and further contributes to accelerating the crack propagation.

  9. A nanometallic nickel-coated, glass-fibre-based structural health monitoring system for polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, R.; Sasikumar, M.

    2017-09-01

    Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites are widely used in various industries because of their unique high strength to weight ratio. Unlike metals, strain-induced and damage states of composites are complicated to predict under real-time loading due to their anisotropic nature. With that focus, a piezoresistive nanomaterial-based structural health monitoring system for laminated polymer composites is proposed to measure the strain induced in the composite under real-time loading. Nanometallic nickel-coated glass fibres are embedded into the polymer composites to monitor the strain and damage induced in them. The nanometallic nickel is coated over the glass fibre by a dip coating technique using epoxy as the binding agent. A microcontroller-based electrical resistance measurement system is used to measure the piezoresistive variation in the coated glass fibre under real-time loading. Using the piezoresistance variation of the embedded nanometallic nickel-coated glass fibre, the real-time strain and damage induced in the composite can be correlated. The piezoresistive response of the coated glass fibre is descibed in two phases, the deformation phase and the failure phase, which clearly show the various states of strain and damage induced in the composites.

  10. Functional nickel-based deposits synthesized by focused beam induced processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, R.; Barcones, B.; Roelfsema, E.; Verheijen, M. A.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.; Koopmans, B.

    2016-02-01

    Functional nanostructures fabricated by focused electron/ion beam induced processing (FEBIP/FIBIP) open a promising route for applications in nanoelectronics. Such developments rely on the exploration of new advanced materials. We report here the successful fabrication of nickel-based deposits by FEBIP/FIBIP using bis(methyl cyclopentadienyl)nickel as a precursor. In particular, binary compounds such as nickel oxide (NiO) are synthesized by using an in situ two-step process at room temperature. By this method, as-grown Ni deposits transform into homogeneous NiO deposits using focused electron beam irradiation under O2 flux. This procedure is effective in producing highly pure NiO deposits with resistivity of 2000 Ωcm and a polycrystalline structure with face-centred cubic lattice and grains of 5 nm. We demonstrate that systems based on NiO deposits displaying resistance switching and an exchange-bias effect could be grown by FEBIP using optimized parameters. Our results provide a breakthrough towards using these techniques for the fabrication of functional nanodevices.

  11. Heat resistant nickel base alloy excellent in workability and high temperature strength properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susukida, H.; Itoh, H.; Kawai, H.; Kojima, T.; Sahira, K.; Takeiri, T.; Tsuji, I.; Yuge, M.

    1984-10-02

    A heat resistant nickel base alloy which is excellent in not only hot and cold workability but also high temperature strength properties and which also possesses satisfactory oxidation resistance. The nickel base alloy consists essentially of 0.001-0.15 percent carbon, 0.0005-0.05 percent calcium, 20.0-126.0 percent chromium, 4.7-9.4 percent cobalt, 5.0-16.0 percent molybdenum, 0.5-4.0 percent tungsten, with the total of molybdenum plus tungsten being from 9.0 to 16.5 percent, and the balance nickel and inevitable impurities. The alloy may further contain one selected from the group consisting of (1) 0.3-1.5 percent aluminum and 0.1-1.0 percent titanium, (2) 0.001-0.30 percent at least one of yttrium and rare earth elements, and (3) 0.001-1.0 percent at least one of niobium, vanadium and tantalum, whereby the aforementioned characteristics are further enhanced.

  12. Electroless Nickel-Based Catalyst for Diffusion Limited Hydrogen Generation through Hydrolysis of Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P. Anderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts based on electroless nickel and bi-metallic nickel-molybdenum nanoparticles were synthesized for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation. The catalysts were synthesized by polymer-stabilized Pd nanoparticle-catalyzation and activation of Al2O3 substrate and electroless Ni or Ni-Mo plating of the substrate for selected time lengths. Catalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts was tested for the hydrolyzation of alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for hydrogen generation. The effects of electroless plating time lengths, temperature and NaBH4 concentration on hydrogen generation rates were analyzed and discussed. Compositional analysis and surface morphology were carried out for nano-metallized Al2O3 using Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDAX. The as-plated polymer-stabilized electroless nickel catalyst plated for 10 min and unstirred in the hydrolysis reaction exhibited appreciable catalytic activity for hydrolysis of NaBH4. For a zero-order reaction assumption, activation energy of hydrogen generation using the catalyst was estimated at 104.6 kJ/mol. Suggestions are provided for further work needed prior to using the catalyst for portable hydrogen generation from aqueous alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for fuel cells.

  13. Dendritic growth and structure of undercooled nickel base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, M. C.; Shiohara, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The principal objectives of this overall investigation are to: study means for obtaining high undercooling in levitation melted droplets, and study structures produced upon the solidification of these undercooled specimens. Thermal measurements are made of the undercooling, and of the rapid recalescence, to develop an understanding of the solidification mechanism. Comparison of results is made with the modeling studies. Characterization and metallographic work is done to gain an understanding of the relationship between rapid solidification variables and the structures so produced. In ground based work to date, solidification of undercooled Ni-25 wt percent Sn alloy was observed by high-speed cinematography and the results compared with optical temperature measurements. Also in ground based work, high-speed optical temperature measurements were made of the solidification behavior of levitated metal samples within a transparent glass medium. Two undercooled Ni-Sn alloys were examined. Measurements were carried out on samples at undercoolings up to 330 K. Microstructures of samples produced in ground based work were determined by optical metallography and by SEM, and microsegregation by electron microprobe measurements. A series of flight tests were planned to conduct experiments similar to the ground based experiments. The Space Shuttle Columbia carried an alloy undercooled experiment in the STS 61-C mission in January 1986. A sample of Ni-32.5 wt percent Sn eutectic was melted and solidified under microgravity conditions.

  14. Combined thermodynamic study of nickel-base alloys. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, C. R.; Meschter, P. J.

    1981-02-15

    Achievements during this period are the following: (1) initiation of a high-temperature study of the Ni-Ta system using the galvanic cell technique, (2) emf study of high-temperature thermodynamics in the Ni-Mo system, (3) measured heat capacity data on ordered and disordered Ni/sub 4/Mo, (4) heat capacities of Ni and disordered Ni/sub 3/Fe, and (5) computer correlation of thermodynamic and phase diagram data in binary Ni-base alloys. (MOW)

  15. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Hideki; Kimura, Masahiko; Ando, Akira; Omiya, Suetake; Kubodera, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax) of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed. PMID:28793646

  16. Conception de nouveaux superalliages MdP base nickel pour disques de turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Augustins-Lecallier, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Co-encadrement de la thèse : Loïc Nazé; In order to upgrade the SNECMA M88 engine, new specifications were issued for the material of the parts that are currently made by forging and machining N18 superalloy, including, essentially, turbine discs. This study focuses on the development of new Nickel base polycrystalline superalloys which meet these specifications, i.e. which generally exhibit mechanical properties and microstructural stability better than that of alloy N18, in spite of a signi...

  17. Understanding the roles of the strategic element cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. B.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research progress in understanding the effects of cobalt and some possible substitute on microstructure, mechanical properties, and environmental resistance of turbine alloys is discussed. The United States imports over 90 percent of its cobalt, chromium, tantalum and columbium, all key elements in high temperature nickel base superalloys for aircraft gas turbine disks and airfoils. NASA, through joint government/industry/university teams, undertook a long range research program aimed at reducing or eliminating these strategic elements by examining their basic roles in superalloys and identifying viable substitutes.

  18. Crystallographic Orientation Dependence of Corrosion Behavior of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. N.; Ojo, O. A.

    2018-01-01

    Crystallographic orientation dependence of corrosion behavior of a nickel-based single crystal alloy IN738 was studied. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show that corrosion performance of the single crystal alloy varies with crystallographic orientation. The dependence of passivation behavior on crystallographic orientation is influenced by environmental concentration. Potentiostatic polarization, scanning probe microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to understand the variation in passivation of different crystallographic orientations. The crystallographic orientation dependence of corrosion performance of the alloy can be explained by the difference of passive films in terms of chemical compositions, compactness, and porosity properties, as well as surface roughness.

  19. The machinability of nickel-based alloys in high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kramar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, nickel-based alloys are generally included among materials that are hard to machine. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional and high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning of hard-to-machine materials, namely Inconel 718. The capabilities of different hard turning procedures are compared by means of chip breakability. The obtained results show that HPJA method offers a significant increase in chip breakability, under the same cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nickel complexes derived from Schiff-Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Y. Matsumoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic Schiff-Bases constitute a large class of organic compounds containing the imine group (C=N [1-3]. 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (salicylaldehyde which has been frequently used for the synthesis of aromatic Schiff-Bases, it has many biological applications, such as analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and bactericidal activities [4-6]. From above, this project proposed the synthesis of three Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde prepared by condensation between salicylaldehyde with different p-substituted anilines (H, NO2 and MeO. Schiff-Bases synthesized were used as starting compound for the synthesis of nickel complexes. The synthesis of nickel complexes were carried out by adding of alcoholic solution of ligands (2 eq. in aqueous solution of NiCl2.6 H2O (1 eq. contain KOH (1eq. 3 hours. After thisMatsumoto et al. time, the reaction was kept to r.t. to obtain a precipitates. The precipitates were filtered under vacuum and they were characterized by GC-MS, FT-IR and UV-Vis

  1. Moringa oleifera-based diet protects against nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Adeyemi, Oluyomi; Sokolayemji Aroge, Cincin; Adewumi Akanji, Musbau

    2017-01-01

    Multiple health-promoting effects have been attributed to the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves, as part of diet without adequate scientific credence. This study evaluated the effect of M. oleifera-based diets on nickel (Ni) - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male rats assigned into six groups were given oral administration of 20 mg/kg body weight nickel sulfate in normal saline and either fed normal diet orM. oleifera-based diets for 21 days. All animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 24 hours after the last treatment. Ni exposure elevated the rat plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase significantly. Ni exposure also raised the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol while depleting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Further, Ni exposure raised rat plasma malondialdehyde but depleted reduced glutathione concentrations. The histopathological presentations revealed inflammation and cellular degeneration caused by Ni exposure. We show evidence thatM. oleifera-based diets protected against Ni-induced hepatotoxicity by improving the rat liver function indices, lipid profile as well as restoring cellular architecture and integrity. Study lends credence to the health-promoting value ofM. oleifera as well as underscores its potential to attenuate hepatic injury. PMID:28808207

  2. Brushing-induced surface roughness of nickel-, palladium-, and gold-based dental casting alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataha, John C; Lockwood, Petra E; Messer, Regina L W; Lewis, Jill B; Mettenburg, Donald J

    2008-06-01

    Alloys with high nickel content have been increasingly used for dental prostheses. These alloys have excellent hardness, elastic modulus, and strength, yet have high corrosion rates when exposed to chemical or physical forces that are common intraorally. The purpose of the current study was to measure the susceptibility of several types of nickel-based alloys to brushing abrasion relative to gold- and palladium-based alloys. Au-Pt, Au-Pd, Pd-Ag, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Cr-Be dental alloys were brushed with a toothbrush (Oral-B Soft) and toothpaste (Ultrabrite) in a linear brushing machine, then the surface roughness was measured by profilometry (R(a), R(v), R(p)). Specimens (n=4) were brushed for 48 hours in a saline solution (pH 7). The effect of brushing was determined using 2-sided t tests (alpha=.05), and roughness among alloys postbrushing was compared using 1-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analyses (alpha=.05). All polished alloy surfaces (before brushing) had roughnesses of 1 microm (R(a)). Ni-Cr alloys without Be had a postbrushing surface roughness of 0.25 microm (R(a)). Postbrushing roughness of all other alloys ranged from 0.1-0.25 microm (R(a)). R(v) and R(p) values behaved similarly to R(a) values for all alloys. Although they have many excellent mechanical properties, Ni-Cr-Be alloys may be prone to degradation from brushing.

  3. Solid particle erosion of steels and nickel based alloys candidates for USC steam turbine blading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Guardamagna, Cristina; Lorenzoni, Lorenzo [ERSE SpA, Milan (Italy); Robba, Davide [CESI, Milan (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of COST536 Action is to develop highly efficient steam power plant with low emissions, from innovative alloy development to validation of component integrity. In this perspective, to improve the operating efficiency, materials capable of withstanding higher operating temperatures are required. For the manufacturing of components for steam power plants with higher efficiency steels and nickel-based alloys with improved oxidation resistance and creep strength at temperature as high as 650 C - 700 C have to be developed. Candidate alloys for manufacturing high pressure steam turbine diaphragms, buckets, radial seals and control valves should exhibit, among other properties, a good resistance at the erosion phenomena induced by hard solid particles. Ferric oxide (magnetite) scales cause SPE by exfoliating from boiler tubes and steam pipes (mainly super-heaters and re-heaters) and being transported within the steam flow to the turbine. In order to comparatively study the erosion behaviour of different materials in relatively short times, an accelerated experimental simulation of the erosion phenomena must be carried out. Among different techniques to induce erosion on material targets, the use of an air jet tester is well recognised to be one of the most valid and reliable. In this work the results of SPE comparative tests performed at high temperatures (550 C, 600 C and 650 C) at different impaction angles on some steels and nickel based alloys samples are reported. (orig.)

  4. Precious-metal-modified nickel-based superalloys: Motivation and potential industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcavage, A.; Helmink, R. C.

    2010-10-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are extensively used in the hot sections of gas turbine engines and other propulsive power machines because they possess an excellent combination of high-temperature strength and resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion degradation. The γ-γ' microstructure inherent in nickel-based superalloys is designed with respect to composition and morphology so as to achieve a balance of strength versus environmental resistance. Often, aluminide and platinum-modified aluminide coatings are applied to the component surface to further improve the resistance to environmental degradation by supporting the formation of a protective aluminum oxide scale. The potential exists to utilize alloying concepts from novel platinum and hafnium-modified γ-γ' diffusion coatings so as to create in-situ a new class of superalloy that combines enhanced environmental resistance while maintaining sufficient strength at high temperatures. This paper describes how precious-metal-modified superalloys can offer advantages for structural applications in gas turbine engines. Several examples that illustrate component performance benefits are also presented.

  5. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  6. Modeling of self-controlling hyperthermia based on nickel alloy ferrofluids: Proposition of new nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavari, H. Hamid, E-mail: Hamid.delavari@gmail.com [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 145888-9694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Madaah Hosseini, Hamid R. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 145888-9694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 145888-9694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wolff, Max, E-mail: Max.wolff@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    In order to provide sufficient heat without overheating healthy tissue in magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), a careful design of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles is essential. We perform a systematic calculation of magnetic properties of Ni-alloy nanoparticles. Stoner–Wohlfarth model based theories (SWMBTs) are considered and the linear response theory (LRT) is used to extract the hysteresis loop of nickel alloy nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that in the safe range of magnetic field intensity and frequency the LRT cannot be used for the calculation of the area in the hysteresis for magnetic fields relevant for hyperthermia. The best composition and particle size for self-controlling hyperthermia with nickel alloys is determined based on SWMBTs. It is concluded that Ni–V and Ni–Zn are good candidates for self-controlling hyperthermia. - Highlights: ► Systematic calculation of magnetic properties of Ni-alloy NPs with composition has been performed. ► Optimum composition and particle size for self-controlling hyperthermia (SCH) have been determined. ► Ni–V and Ni–Zn nanoparticles are more appropriate candidates for SCH.

  7. Optical modeling of nickel-base alloys oxidized in pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    The knowledge of the aging process involved in the primary water of pressurized water reactor entails investigating a mixed growth mechanism in the corrosion of nickel-base alloys. A mixed growth induces an anionic inner oxide and a cationic diffusion parallel to a dissolution-precipitation process forms the outer zone. The in situ monitoring of the oxidation kinetics requires the modeling of the oxide layer stratification with the full knowledge of the optical constants related to each component. Here, we report the dielectric constants of the alloys 600 and 690 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and fitted to a Drude-Lorentz model. A robust optical stratification model was determined using focused ion beam cross-section of thin foils examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric constants of the inner oxide layer depleted in chromium were assimilated to those of the nickel thin film. The optical constants of both the spinels and extern layer were determined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic ellipsometry of Ni-base alloy oxidation in pressurized water reactor Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements of the dielectric constants of the alloys Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical simulation of the mixed oxidation process using a three stack model Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattered crystallites cationic outer layer; linear Ni-gradient bottom layer Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the refractive index of the spinel and the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers.

  8. Prediction of recrystallisation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys during investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwisawas Chinnapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of gas turbines for jet propulsion and power generation requires the manufacture of turbine blades from single crystal nickel-based superalloys, most typically using investment casting. During the necessary subsequent solution heat treatment, the formation of recrystallised grains can occur. The introduction of grain boundaries into a single crystal component is potentially detrimental to performance, and therefore manufacturing processes and/or component geometries should be designed to prevent their occurrence. If the boundaries have very low strength, they can degrade the creep and fatigue properties. The root cause for recrystallisation is microscale plasticity caused by differential thermal contraction of metal, mould and core; when the plastic deformation is sufficiently large, recrystallisation takes place. In this work, numerical and thermo-mechanical modelling is carried out, with the aim of establishing computational methods by which recrystallisation during the heat treatment of single crystal nickel-based superalloys can be predicted and prevented prior to their occurrence. Elasto-plastic law is used to predict the plastic strain necessary for recrystallisation. The modelling result shows that recrystallisation is most likely to occur following 1.5–2.5% plastic strain applied at temperatures between 1000 ∘C and 1300 ∘C; this is validated with tensile tests at these elevated temperatures. This emphasises that high temperature deformation is more damaging than low temperature deformation.

  9. Hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming over cerium and nickel based oxyhydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalowiecki-Duhamel, L.; Pirez, C.; Capron, M.; Dumeignil, F.; Payen, E. [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Bat. C3, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming (H{sub 2}O/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH = 3) was investigated over cerium-nickel CeNi{sub x}O{sub Y} (0 < x {<=} 5) mixed oxide catalysts. The influence of different parameters was analysed, such as reaction temperature, Ni content and in-situ pre-treatment in H{sub 2}. While an ethanol conversion of 100% is reached at 400 C, a stable activity i.e., ethanol conversion, and H{sub 2} selectivity can be obtained at very low temperature (200 C) when the solid is previously in-situ treated in H{sub 2} in a temperature range between 200 C and 300 C. After such a treatment, the solids studied are hydrogen reservoirs, called oxyhydrides, with the presence of hydrogen species of hydride nature in the anionic vacancies of the solid. Different physicochemical techniques, including XPS, ion sputtering, XRD, TPR were used to characterize the catalysts. Depending on the composition and metal loading, a solid solution and/or a highly dispersed nickel oxide in ceria can be obtained. Ion sputtering followed by XPS analysis allowed estimating the size of NiO nanoparticles (2-3 nm) present in the compounds, too small to be detected by XRD. The characterization of CeNi{sub x}O{sub Y} solids, evidenced the existence of high interactions between Ce and Ni cations located either in the solid solution of cerium-nickel or at the interface between NiO and CeO{sub 2} (or solid solution). The active nickel species belonging to the small particles and/or to the solid solution, participating actively in the catalytic reaction, present the characteristic of being able to be reduced and reoxidized easily and reversibly (redox process), allowed by their close interaction with Ce species. Finally, correlations among the species present in the solid, and the catalytic performances are discussed, and an active site based on the formation of anionic vacancies and a mechanism involving a heterolytic abstraction of a hydride species from ethanol are envisaged

  10. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi

  11. Thermodynamic Considerations of Contamination by Alloying Elements of Remelted End-of-Life Nickel- and Cobalt-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and nickel are high-value commodity metals and are mostly used in the form of highly alloyed materials. The alloying elements used may cause contamination problems during recycling. To ensure maximum resource efficiency, an understanding of the removability of these alloying elements and the controllability of some of the primary alloying elements is essential with respect to the recycling of end-of-life (EoL) nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys by remelting. In this study, the distribution behaviors of approximately 30 elements that are usually present in EoL nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys in the solvent metal (nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy), oxide slag, and gas phases during the remelting were quantitatively evaluated using a thermodynamic approach. The results showed that most of the alloying elements can be removed either in the slag phase or into the gas phase. However, the removal of copper, tin, arsenic, and antimony by remelting is difficult, and they remain as tramp elements during the recycling. On the other hand, the distribution tendencies of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten can be controlled by changing the remelting conditions. To increase the resource efficiency of recycling, preventing contamination by the tramp elements and identifying the alloying compositions of EoL superalloys are significantly essential, which will require the development of efficient prior alloy-sorting systems and advanced separation technologies.

  12. Probability of Occurrence of Life-Limiting Fatigue Mechanism in P/M Nickel-Based Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Microstructures 8 and 9 in Figure 3(b) can be considered to correspond to the " Small " and "Large" seeded specimens under no peening with volumetric...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0146 PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF LIFE-LIMITING FATIGUE MECHANISM IN P/M NICKEL-BASED ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) M.J...February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF LIFE-LIMITING FATIGUE MECHANISM IN P/M NICKEL-BASED ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a

  13. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  14. Formability of a wrought Mg alloy evaluated by impression testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Walid; Gollapudi, Srikant; Charit, Indrajit; Murty, K. Linga

    2018-01-17

    This study is focused on furthering our understanding of the different factors that influence the formability of Magnesium alloys. Towards this end, formability studies were undertaken on a wrought Mg-2Zn-1Mn (ZM21) alloy. In contrast to conventional formability studies, the impression testing method was adopted here to evaluate the formability parameter, B, at temperatures ranging from 298 to 473 K. The variation of B of ZM21 with temperature and its rather limited values were discussed in the light of different deformation mechanisms such as activation of twinning, slip, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX). It was found that the material characteristics such as grain size, texture and testing conditions such as temperature and strain rate, were key determinants of the mechanism of plastic deformation. A by-product of this analysis was the observation of an interesting correlation between the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, and the ability of Mg alloys to undergo DRX.

  15. SIMS and TEM investigation of hydrogen trapping on implantation defects in a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, Fanny, E-mail: fanny.jambon@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Étude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marchetti, Loïc [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Étude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude du Comportement à Long Terme des Matériaux de conditionnement, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Sennour, Mohamed [MINES ParisTech, PSL – Research University – Centre des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7633, B.P. 87, 91003 Evry (France); Jomard, François [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (CNRS and University of Versailles Saint Quentin), 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chêne, Jacques [UMR 8587 CEA/CNRS, Équipe Hydrogène/Matériaux de structure, CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Étude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    This study aims at characterizing the interactions of hydrogen with point defects and their clusters in nickel-based superalloys. For this, nickel ion implantation was used to create defects in the sub-surface of alloy 690 coupons. The interaction of hydrogen with these defects was studied thanks to SIMS depth profile analysis performed after deuterium cathodic charging, and different annealing treatment. In parallel, TEM observations were carried out in order to qualify and quantify the defects responsible for the trapping, and to observe their evolution in the presence of hydrogen. All the results exhibit a strong interaction of hydrogen with implantation-defects, up to high temperatures (325 °C). Also, hydrogen is shown to assist defects reorganisation, in a way similar to the effect of temperature. The effect of hydrogen on the alloy atoms as explored by SIMS, combined with the TEM investigation of defects evolution in the presence of hydrogen, allows to suggest that the main mechanism for hydrogen-assisted motion of defects is by lowering the lattice friction, thus decreasing the activation volume for the unfaulting or motion of point defect clusters, up to dislocation loops.

  16. Method of improving fatigue life of cast nickel based superalloys and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzine, Allen F.; Kolakowski, Thomas A.; Wallace, John F.

    1978-03-14

    The invention consists of a method of producing a fine equiaxed grain structure (ASTM 2-4) in cast nickel-base superalloys which increases low cycle fatigue lives without detrimental effects on stress rupture properties to temperatures as high as 1800.degree. F. These superalloys are variations of the basic nickel-chromium matrix, hardened by gamma prime [Ni.sub.3 (Al, Ti)] but with optional additions of cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, columbium, tantalum, boron, zirconium, carbon and hafnium. The invention grain refines these alloys to ASTM 2 to 4 increasing low cycle fatigue life by a factor of 2 to 5 (i.e. life of 700 hours would be increased to 1400 to 3500 hours for a given stress) as a result of the addition of 0.01% to 0.2% of a member of the group consisting of boron, zirconium and mixtures thereof to aid heterogeneous nucleation. The alloy is vacuum melted and heated to 250.degree.-400.degree. F. above the melting temperature, cooled to partial solidification, thus resulting in said heterogeneous nucleation and fine grains, then reheated and cast at about 50.degree.-100.degree. F. of superheat. Additions of 0.1% boron and 0.1% zirconium (optional) are the preferred nucleating agents.

  17. LDRD Final Report - In Operando Liquid Cell TEM Characterization of Nickel-Based Electrocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-07

    A commercial electrochemistry stage for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was tested to determine whether to purchase one for the microscopes at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Deposition of a nickel-based electrocatalyst was pursued as a material system for the purpose of testing the stage. The stage was found to be problematic with recurring issues in the electrical connections and vacuum sealing, which has thus far precluded a systematic investigation of the original material system. However, the electrochemical cells purchased through this FS will allow the Lawrence Fellow (Nielsen) to continue testing the stage. Furthermore, discussions with a second vendor, which released a similar electrochemical TEM stage during the course of this FS, have resulted in an upcoming longterm loan of their stage at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) for testing. In addition, low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements on nickel-bearing electrolyte solutions led to a broader EELS investigation of solvents and salt solutions. These measurements form the basis of a manuscript in preparation on EELS measurements of the liquid phase.

  18. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Negri, R. Martín, E-mail: rmn@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Química Física de Materiales, Ambiente y Energía (INQUIMAE), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, Oscar E. [Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Butera, Alejandro [Centro Atómico Bariloche (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina) and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, Cristiano L. P. [Grupo de Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-12-07

    Nickel (Ni) based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures (referred as needles) oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing. Nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature, under air ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure) and then calcined at 400 °C (in air atmosphere also). The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at (10.0 ± 0.6) nm with polydispersivity given by σ = (8.0 ± 0.2) nm. The SAXS, X-ray powder diffraction, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) experiments are consistent with single crystal nanoparticles of spherical shape (average particle diameter obtained by TEM: (12 ± 1) nm). Nickel-based nanochains (average diameter: 360 nm; average length: 3 μm, obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy; aspect ratio = length/diameter ∼ 10) were obtained at 85 °C and ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure). The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects. Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles. Magnetization curves, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra, and strain-stress curves of low filler's loading composites (2% w/w of fillers) were determined as functions of the relative orientation with respect to the needles. The results indicate that even at low loadings it is

  19. A magnetostrictive phased array sensor using a nickel comb patch for guided Lamb wave-based damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the development of an ultrasonic guided Lamb wave (GLW)-based magnetostrictive phased array sensor (MPAS) using a circular comb-shaped nickel disc patch with 1" in diameter. And its damage detection capability to identify loosened joint bolts is experimentally demonstrated. The compact sized MPAS was comprised of the nickel disc patch and a detachable magnetic circuit device. The disc patch was machined with 24 comb fingers along its radial direction and the magnetic circuit device contained 6 sensing coils and cylindrical biasing magnets. The individual sensing coils appear to have distinct directional sensing preferences designated by the normal direction of coil winding. The directional sensing feature of the developed MPAS is offered by the combined effect of the magnetic shape anisotropy of comb finger formation in the nickel patch and the sensing directionality of the coil sensor. The MPAS detects the strain-induced magnetic property change on the nickel comb patch due to the mechanical interaction between the patch and GLWs. Although the MPAS holds only the 6 physical coil sensors, the array sensor enables to acquire additional GLW signal data from different sensing sections within the nickel patch, by simply altering the rotational orientation of the magnetic circuit device. Such signal data additions allow to provide a higher resolution damage detection scheme for the advanced phased array signal processing technique. The MPAS apparatus and its damage detection capability were experimentally validated by GLW inspection testing with a thin aluminum plate installed with numerous joint bolts.

  20. Safety evaluation of Chinese nickel resources based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    China is now the world’s largest producer and consumer of nickel. As an important strategic metal, nickel is widely used in various industries of national economy. Whether the supply of nickel ore resources is sufficient or not directly restricts the development of downstream industries. It is becoming more and more important to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in our country, and to formulate the corresponding safety strategy. This paper uses fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in China, and overcomes the subjectivity and singleness of traditional evaluation methods. On the basis of the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is introduced. At present, the safety situation of nickel resources in our country is in a more dangerous level, and we need to take positive measures to improve it.

  1. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel-cobalt magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, Ku, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under -20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth).

  2. Tensile properties of a nickel-base alloy subjected to surface severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dai, K. [Quality Engineering and Software Technology, East Hartford, CT 06108 (United States); Villegas, J.C. [Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ (United States); Shaw, L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: leon.shaw@uconn.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Klarstrom, D.L. [Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN (United States); Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    A surface severe plastic deformation (S{sup 2}PD) method has been applied to bulk specimens of HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy, a nickel-base alloy. The mechanical properties of the processed C-2000 alloy were determined via tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements, whereas the microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. The improved tensile strength was related to the nanostructure at the surface region, the residual compressive stresses, and the work-hardened surface layer, all of which resulted from the S{sup 2}PD process. To understand the contributions of these three factors, finite element modeling was performed. It was found that the improved tensile strength could be interpreted based on the contributions of nano-grains, residual stresses, and work hardening.

  3. Structure and phases in nickel-base self-fluxing alloy coating containing high chromium and boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, F.; Era, H.; Kishitake, K.

    2000-03-01

    The structure of a nickel-base, self-fluxing alloy coating, containing chromium and boron thermal sprayed and fused, was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A lumpy M6C carbide, a rodlike M3B2 boride of tetragonal structure, a rodlike M7C3 carbide of hexagonal structure, and a Ni-Ni3B eutectic phase formed in the coating after fusing. Metals of M6C, M3B2, and M7C3 phases are composed of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel; chromium and molybdenum; and mainly chromium, respectively. The nickel phase in the coating has the L12 type superlattice structure.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel Phosphate Nanoparticles and VSB-5 with Quaternary Ammonium Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolraouf Samadi–Maybodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel phosphate VSB-5 (Versailles Santa Barbara-5 was synthesized with microwave for 1 h and followed by conventional oven for 2 days in the presence of (2-hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium hydroxide as template. By addition of ethylene glycol, nickel phosphate nanoparticle was prepared with average size of 55 nm. Also, nickel phosphate nanoparticles was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal using tetrapropylammonium hydroxide as template. The spherical nickel phosphate crystals with average diameter of 80 nm were successfully synthesized in the presence of tetrapropylammonium hydroxide. Furthermore, spherical nanosized crystals were prepared with polyethylene glycol: water volume ratio of 1:1 using (2-hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium hydroxide as template.

  5. Carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning during CO2 electrolysis in nickel-based solid oxide cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Blennow, Peter; Hjelm, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 to CO and O2 in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) has the potential to play a crucial role in closing the CO2 loop. Carbon deposition in nickel-based cells is however fatal and must be considered during CO2 electrolysis. Here, the effect of operating parameters...... outside the thermodynamic carbon formation region. Attempts at mitigating the issue by coating the composite nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode with carbon-inhibiting nanoparticles and by sulfur passivation proved unsuccessful. Increasing the fuel electrode porosity is shown to mitigate...

  6. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-12-16

    Prior to the restructuring of the Prometheus Program, the NRPCT was tasked with delivering a nuclear space reactor. Potential NRPCT nuclear space reactor designs for the Prometheus Project required dissimilar materials to be in contact with each other while operating at extreme temperatures under irradiation. As a result of the high reactor core temperatures, refractory metals were the primary candidates for many of the reactor structural and cladding components. They included the tantalum-base alloys ASTAR-811C and Ta-10W, the niobium-base alloy FS-85, and the molybdenum base alloys Moly 41-47.5 Rhenium. The refractory metals were to be joined to candidate nickel base alloys such as Haynes 230, Alloy 617, or Nimonic PE 16 either within the core if the nickel-base alloys were ultimately selected to form the outer core barrel, or at a location exterior to the core if the nickel-base alloys were limited to components exterior to the core. To support the need for dissimilar metal joints in the Prometheus Project, a co-extrusion experiment was proposed. There are several potential methods for the formation of dissimilar metal joints, including explosive bonding, friction stir welding, plasma spray, inertia welding, HIP, and co-extrusion. Most of these joining methods are not viable options because they result in the immediate formation of brittle intermetallics. Upon cooling, intermetallics form in the weld fusion zone between the joined metals. Because brittle intermetallics do not form during the initial bonding process associated with HIP, co-extrusion, and explosive bonding, these three joining procedures are preferred for forming dissimilar metal joints. In reference to a Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory report done under a NASA sponsored program, joints that were fabricated between similar materials via explosive bonding had strengths that were directly affected by the width of the diffusion barrier. It was determined that the diffusion zone should not exceed

  7. Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of wrought magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouren; Song, Linghui; Kang, Sukbong; Cho, Jaehyung; Wang, Yingzi

    2013-05-01

    There are many researches on the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys, such as AZ31, AZ80, AZ91, and ZK60 magnesium alloys at different temperatures and strain rates, but few of them focuses on the deformation behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys, especially under the twin-roll casting (TRC) state. Meanwhile, the existing researches only focus on the grain refinement law of the magnesium alloys under deformation conditions, the deformation mechanism has not been revealed yet. The hot compression behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M magnesium alloys under the temperature and strain rate ranges of 250-400 °C and 0.001-1 s-1 are studied by thermal simulation methods using Gleeble 1500 machine and virtual simulation using finite element analysis software. Simulation results show that sine hyperbolic law is the most suitable flow stress model for wider deformation conditions. The most reasonable selected deformation conditions of ZK60M alloy is 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/1 s-1 for conventional casting (CC), while AZ41M alloy is 300 °C/0.01 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for CC. Deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism of them are analyzed at the same deformation conditions. The microstructures of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys are observed at different deformed conditions by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and it reveals the flow behavior and deformation mechanism of them. Working harden and work soften contribute to the activation of basal, non-basal slip systems which promote DRX. The proposed research reveals the deformation behavior and mechanism of the AZ41M and ZK 60M magnesium alloys and concludes their optimized deformation parameters and processes and provides a theory basis for their manufacturing and application.

  8. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakere, N. K.; Swanson, G.

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal nickel turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493, PWA 1484, RENE' N-5 and CMSX-4. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades are complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. Fatigue life estimation of single crystal turbine blades represents an important aspect of durability assessment. It is therefore of practical interest to develop effective fatigue failure criteria for single crystal nickel alloys and to investigate the effects of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientation on fatigue life. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude /Delta(sub tau)(sub max))] on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data considerably for PWA 1493 at 1200 F in air. Additionally, single crystal turbine blades used in the alternate advanced high-pressure fuel turbopump (AHPFTP/AT) are modeled using a large-scale three-dimensional finite element model. This finite element model is capable of accounting for material orthotrophy and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Effects of variation in crystal orientation on blade stress response are studied based on 297

  9. The Potential Link Between High Angle Grain Boundary Morphology and Grain Boundary Deformation in a Nickel-Based Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of strain accumulation at grain boundaries of nickel-based superalloys, in: Superalloys 2012, TMS, Warendale, PA. [5] T. Turner, P. Shade, M. Groeber ...1993) 2021–2024, http://dx.doi. org/10.1116/1.586537, URL WOS:A1993MM97200011. [10] M.D. Uchic, M.A. Groeber , D.M. Dimiduk, J. Simmons, 3D

  10. Factors affecting the corrosion fatigue life in nickel based superalloys for disc applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosier Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nickel based superalloy 720Li is employed in the gas turbine due to its mechanical performance at elevated temperature. A comprehensive assessment of the materials behaviour under representative service conditions is reported to address the drive for ever increasing temperatures and more arduous environmental exposure. Fatigue experiments have been performed in an air and air/SOx environment at 700 ∘C containing a mixed salt as a contaminant. There is an intimate relationship between local salt level (flux, stress level and stress state, i.e. static or cyclic. The interaction with these variables with the work hardened layer present on the surface of all tested specimens as a result of the shot peening process directly affects the crack initiation process. If specific conditions of environment and stress are achieved, a significant reduction in fatigue life is observed.

  11. Comparison of joining processes for Haynes 230 nickel based super alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williston, David Hugh

    Haynes 230 is a nickel based, solid-solution strengthened alloy that is used for high-temperature applications in the aero-engine and power generation industries. The alloy composition is balanced to avoid precipitation of undesirable topologically closed-packed (TCP) intermetallic phases, such as Sigma, Mu, or Laves-type, that are detrimental to mechanical and corrosion properties. This material is currently being used for the NASA's J2X upper stage rocket nozzle extension. Current fabrication procedures use fusion welding processes to join blanks that are subsequently formed. Cracks have been noted to occur in the fusion welded region during the forming operations. Use of solid state joining processes, such as friction stir welding are being proposed to eliminate the fusion weld cracks. Of interest is a modified friction stir welding process called thermal stir welding. Three welding process: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Electron Beam Welding (EBW), and Thermal Stir Welding (TSWing) are compared in this study.

  12. Induced creep and creep/fatigue of a nickel-base superalloy at ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. L.; Fritzemeier, L. G.; Xie, X.; Tien, J. K.

    1982-11-01

    The stress controlled fatigue of Nimonic*115, a typical γ’-strengthened nickel-base superalloy, was studied at ambient temperature, using a trapezoidal wave form at 1 Hz, with stresses chosen to produce failure in the lO4 to lO4 cycle range. In tests with maximum stress greater than the proportional limit, most of the fatigue damage occurs within the first few test cycles. Much of this strain is accumulated under static load and is therefore identified as creep strain. Transmission electron microscopy shows that these creep strains occur in slip bands which disrupt the ordered γ’ precipitates. Strain is found to follow a logarithmic time dependence, which suggests a low activation energy mechanism.

  13. Preparation and characterization of polystyrene based Nickel molybdate composite membrane electrical–electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urfi Ishrat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of the polystyrene based Nickel Molybdate composite membrane prepared by applying 70 MPa pressure are described. The fabricated membrane was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared, X-ray diffraction, particle size analyzer and Scanning electron microscopy technique and has been investigated for its functional, diffusive, electrochemical and electrical properties. The impedance data of membrane having capacitive and resistive components are plotted, which show the sequence of semicircles representing an electrical phenomenon due to grain material, grain boundary and interfacial phenomenon. The diffusion of electrolytes was determined by the TMS method revealing dependence of membrane potential on the charge on the membrane matrix, charge and size of permeating ions. The membrane determined the activity of cations with good accuracy in the higher concentration range and shows a great selectivity for K+. Other electrochemical properties like transport number have been discussed its selectivity.

  14. The effects of thermomechanical history on the microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S., E-mail: 485354@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Li, W. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Coleman, M. [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Johnston, R., E-mail: r.johnston@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-21

    The effect of thermo-mechanical history on hot compression behaviour and resulting microstructures of a nickel base superalloy is presented. Hot compression tests were carried out on HAYNES® 282® specimens to varying strains from 0.1 to 0.8. Both single pass and multi-pass tests were completed. 60 min inter-pass times were utilized to accurately replicate industrial forging practices. The effect of dynamic, metadynamic and static recrystallization during inter-pass times on flow stress was investigated. The resulting microstructures were analysed using scanning electron, optical microscopy and EBSD to relate grain size and homogeneity with flow stress data. The study showed a negligible difference between multi-pass and single pass tests for strain increments above 0.2. Therefore, when modelling similar low strain and strain rate forging processes in HAYNES® 282®, previous forging steps can be ignored.

  15. Analysis of Nickel Based Hardfacing Materials Manufactured by Laser Cladding for Sodium Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P.; Blanc, C.; Demirci, I.; Dal, M.; Malot, T.; Maskrot, H.

    For improving the operational capacity, the maintenance and the decommissioning of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor ASTRID which is under study, it is asked to find or develop a cobalt free hardfacing alloy and the associated manufacturing process that will give satisfying wear performances. This article presents recent results obtained on some selected nickel-based hardfacing alloys manufactured by laser cladding, particularly on Tribaloy 700 alloy. A process parameter search is made and associated the microstructural analysis of the resulting clads. A particular attention is made on the solidification of the main precipitates (chromium carbides, boron carbides, Laves phases,…) that will mainly contribute to the wear properties of the material. Finally, the wear resistance of some samples is evaluated in simple wear conditions evidencing promising results on tribology behavior of Tribaloy 700.

  16. Green Compact Temperature Evolution during Current-Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Morsi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-activated tip-based sintering (CATS is a novel process where spark plasma sintering conditions are applied through an electrically conducting tip on a locally controlled area on a green powder compact/bed. The localization of electric current in CATS allows for unique temporal and spatial current and temperature distributions within the tip and powder compact. In this paper, special experimental setups were used to monitor the temperature profiles in the tip and at multiple locations on the surface of nickel powder compacts. A variation in the initial green density was found to have a significant effect on the maximum temperature in the tip as well as the temperature distribution across the powder compact. In general, the lowest green density specimens displayed the best conditions for localized densification. The concept of effective current density is introduced and results are discussed in relation to the densification parameter.

  17. Dynamic precipitation of nickel-based superalloys undergoing severe deformation below the solvus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotnik, Andrzej; Rokicki, Pawel; Mrowka-Nowotnik, Grazyna; Sieniawski, Jan [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Material Science

    2015-07-15

    The authors performed uniaxial compression tests of nickel-based superalloys: single crystal CMSX-4, also precipitation hardened; Inconel 718 and X750, at temperatures below the γ' solvus, in order to study the effect of temperature and strain rate on their flow stress and microstructural development. On the basis of the obtained flow stress values, the activation energy of a high-temperature deformation process was estimated. Microstructural observations of the deformed samples at high temperatures, previously solution heat treated and aged CMSX-4 and Inconel alloys revealed non-uniform deformation effects. Distribution of either molybdenum- or niobium-rich carbides was found to be affected by localized flow within the investigated strain range at relatively low deformation temperatures, 720-850 C. Microstructural examination of the alloys also showed that shear banding and cavity growth were responsible for the decrease in flow stress and a specimen fracture at larger strains.

  18. High-temperature performance of a new nickel-based filler metal for power generation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, J.; Coleman, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Siefert, J.; Tanzosh, J. [Babcok and Wilcox Research Center, Barberton, OH (United States); Newell, W. [Euroweld, Mooresville, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A new nickel-based weld filler metal, EPRI P87, has been developed as a superior alternative to ERNiCr-3 for use in dissimilar metal welds (DMW) between ferritic and austenitic materials. EPRI P87 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion more closely matching alloys such as Grade 91 and 92 than other available filler metals. Additionally, the size of the carbon denuded region adjacent to the weld in the heat-affected-zone is minimized/eliminated by proper control of weld metal composition. In this work the high-temperature mechanical behavior of DMWs utilizing EPRI P87 (GTAW and GMAW processes) was characterized through tensile and long-term creep-rupture testing. Microstructure analysis was also conducted on tested specimens to evaluate the HAZ regions and failure modes. Performance of the weld metal and welded joints is discussed and compared with ERNiCr-3 and typical 9%Cr-MoV filler metals. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of special stainless steels and nickel-base alloys for use under offshore conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasner, M.R. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Herda, W.R. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Major offshore installations are designed for a 25-years` life span and more. To predict the corrosion behavior of various alloys for such a long period results from accelerated laboratory tests have to be verified by suitable field tests. The results from laboratory tests and exposure to natural seawater show that nickel-based alloys such as alloy 59 (UNS N06059) and alloy 31 (UNS N08031) can be employed to most severe conditions. For general applications 6Mo stainless steels with 25% Ni such as alloy 926 (UNS N08926) may be used. If higher strength is required alloy 24 (18 Ni-24.5 Cr-6.2 Mn-4.3 Mo-0.6 Cu-0.45 Mn) is the preferred material.

  20. Creep and microstructural stability of ruthenium-containing nickel-base single crystal superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Laura Jill

    The creep properties and microstructural stability of single crystal nickel-base superalloys are of primary importance in the development of new alloys for turbine blade and vane applications. Ruthenium additions to nickel-base superalloys may provide improved high temperature performance relative to current commercial superalloys. As these alloys are required to operate for longer times at higher temperatures, a better understanding of creep and the sources of creep resistance in the high temperature, low stress creep regime will be essential. The objective of this study has been to examine the influence of ruthenium on the high temperature behavior of superalloy single crystals, while gaining an improved understanding of creep mechanisms at high temperatures of single crystal superalloys. This study is unique compared to other recent studies on Ru-containing alloys with respect to the broad matrix of alloys with varying chemical compositions that have been investigated. One result of the compositional variations and Ru additions in the experimental alloys was the considerable difference in gamma' precipitate morphologies, which ranged in shape from spherical to intermediately-shaped to cuboidal. Furthermore, the experimental Ru-containing superalloys had misfits which ranged from positive to near zero to negative. Large variations in the Re partitioning ratios are believed to explain the lattice misfits and resulting precipitate shapes, strongly suggesting that they are influenced by Ru and Cr additions through changes in the gamma-gamma' phase equilibrium. Not surprisingly, large variations in creep behavior between the experimental alloys are observed during creep testing at 290 MPa and 950°C. Investigations of the equilibrium and crept interfacial dislocation networks reveal an excess of dislocations at the gamma-gamma' interface beyond the amount that is necessary to relieve the lattice misfit stresses in the matrix channels. The excess interfacial

  1. Enhancing 4-propylheptane dissociation with nickel nanocluster based on molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyina, Margarita G; Khamitov, Edward M; Galiakhmetov, Rail N; Mustafin, Ildar A; Mustafin, Akhat G

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, a 0.4nm nickel cluster has been theoretically studied. Its equilibrium structural parameters have been calculated by the DFT method based on the PBEH1PBE hybrid functional and split-valence basis set Lanl2DZ including effective core potentials. We have systematically considered diverse spin states of this cluster and find out its ground state. The relative stability of these states depends on the HOMO-LUMO gap. The interaction of the Ni 6 with 4-propylheptane С 10 Н 22 has been studied to simulate the process of catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons. The optimization of this structure has been performed by the ωPBE/Lanl2DZ_ecp method (the TeraChem V.1.9 program package) with no symmetry restrictions; the electron shells of the metal were described by effective core pseudopotentials. For visualization and quantitative estimation of the bonding bonds between the nickel nanocluster and 4-propylheptane, the analysis of weak interactions based on RGD has been performed. To confirm the proposition about the formation of Ni-H bonds, we have scrutinized critical points of electronic density. Values of laplasian of electronic density and Bader atomic charge distribution in the global minimum of the total energy have been estimated by the AIMAll 15.05.18 program suite. Finally, we have simulated interaction of Ni 6 with 4-propylheptane in terms of the Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics. The results of the molecular dynamics simulation provide pair radial distribution function CH at 1500°C and a detailed picture of the processes occurring in the system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal nitridation of nickel-base alloys; Innere Nitrierung von Nickelbasis-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, U.; Christ, H.J. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik

    1998-12-31

    The chromuim concentration is the crucial variable in nitridation processes in nickel-base alloys. Extensive nitridation experiments with various specimen alloys of the system Ni-Cr-Al-Ti have shown that the Cr itself starts to form nitrides as from elevated initial concentrations of about 10 to 20 weight%, (depending on temperature), but that lower concentrations have an earlier effect in that they induce a considerable increase in the N-solubility of the nickel-base alloys. This causes an accelerated nitridation attack on the alloying elements Ti and Al. Apart from experimental detection and analysis, the phenomenon of internal nitridation could be described as well by means of a mathematical model calculating the diffusion with the finite-differences method and determining the precipitation thermodynamics by way of integrated equilibrium calculations. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Verlauf der Hochtemperaturkorrosion von Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen kann durch beanspruchungsbedingte Schaedigungen der Oxiddeckschicht ein Verlust der Schutzwirkung erfolgen und als Konsequenz Stickstoff aus der Atmosphaere in den Werkstoff eindringen. Der eindiffundierende Stickstoff bildet vor allem mit den Legierungselementen Al, Cr und Ti Nitridausscheidungen, die zu einer relativ rasch fortschreitenden Schaedigung fuehren koennen. Eine bedeutende Rolle bei diesen Nitrierungsprozessen in Nickelbasislegierungen spielt die Cr-Konzentration in der Legierung. So ergaben umfangreiche Nitrierungsexperimente an verschiedenen Modellegierungen des Systems Ni-Cr-Al-Ti, dass Cr zwar selbst erst ab Ausgangskonzentrationen von ca. 10-20 Gew.% (abhaengig von der Temperatur) Nitride bildet, allerdings bereits bei geringen Konzentrationen die N-Loeslichkeit von Nickelbasis-Legierungen entscheidend erhoeht. Dies hat zur Folge, dass es zu einem beschleunigten Nitrierungsangriff auf die Legierungselemente Ti und Al kommt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen konnte das Phaenomen der inneren

  3. Braze Alloy Development for Fast Epitaxial High-Temperature Brazing of Single-Crystalline Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, B.; Piegert, S.; Rösler, J.

    2009-01-01

    For the repair of single-crystalline turbine components, fabricated from nickel-based superalloys, a new high-temperature brazing technology has been developed. Cracks in single-crystalline parts can be repaired by reproducing the single-crystalline microstructure over the complete gap width within very short brazing times. Nickel-manganese-based alloys were identified as systems that provide very high, epitaxial solidification rates. In contrast to commonly used braze alloys, such as nickel-boron or nickel-silicon systems, the process is not completely diffusion controlled but works with consolute systems. For brazing experiments 300- μm-wide parallel gaps as well as V-shaped gaps with a maximum width of 250 μm were used. A complete epitaxial solidification, that is, the absence of large-angle grain boundaries, could be achieved within brazing times, being up to 100 times shorter compared to commonly used transient-liquid-phase bonding technologies. To quantify the misorientation relative to the base material and the composition within and near the filled gaps, the results of the brazing experiments were visualized by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses were conducted.

  4. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  5. A Review on Bimetallic Nickel-Based Catalysts for CO2 Reforming of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhoufeng; Das, Sonali; Wai, Ming Hui; Hongmanorom, Plaifa; Kawi, Sibudjing

    2017-11-17

    In recent years, CO2 reforming of methane (dry reforming of methane, DRM) has become an attractive research area because it converts two major greenhouse gasses into syngas (CO and H2 ), which can be directly used as fuel or feedstock for the chemical industry. Ni-based catalysts have been extensively used for DRM because of its low cost and good activity. A major concern with Ni-based catalysts in DRM is severe carbon deposition leading to catalyst deactivation, and a lot of effort has been put into the design and synthesis of stable Ni catalysts with high carbon resistance. One effective and practical strategy is to introduce a second metal to obtain bimetallic Ni-based catalysts. The synergistic effect between Ni and the second metal has been shown to increase the carbon resistance of the catalyst significantly. In this review, a detailed discussion on the development of bimetallic Ni-based catalysts for DRM including nickel alloyed with noble metals (Pt, Ru, Ir etc.) and transition metals (Co, Fe, Cu) is presented. Special emphasis has been provided on the underlying principles that lead to synergistic effects and enhance catalyst performance. Finally, an outlook is presented for the future development of Ni-based bimetallic catalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of crystallographic orientation on plastic deformation of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooke, Eboni F.

    Nickel-base superalloys, with gamma/gamma' microstructure, are the primary material used in turbines for aerospace applications. The blades in the hottest region of the turbine engine are made of single crystal Ni-base superalloys. It has been shown that the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of these materials is orientation dependent (also known as non-Schmid effect). The purpose of this research was to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of single crystal Ni-base superalloys as a function of crystallographic orientation in order to understand the factors that contribute to the non-Schmid effect. The superalloys in this study possessed alloying elements in amounts which defined them as 1st and 2nd generation superalloys. Tensile samples of various orientations were loaded to different strain levels. The mechanisms of plastic deformation were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of deformation bands as well as the dislocation structures using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was confirmed that the CRSS of the single crystals did not follow Schmid's law and the near specimens showed the lowest values. The degree of non-Schmid behavior in the specimens was diminished by HIP'ing, which resulted in closure of solidification pores. Furthermore, it was shown that the CRSS for the loaded samples was smallest when loaded along the secondary dendrite arms. The slip analysis by optical microscopy showed that the deformation bands did not follow the expected {111} slip planes for all samples. Studies in SEM proved that those slip bands that followed the {111} planes were associated with extensive shearing of gamma' particles. In addition, it was found that the presence of tri-axial stress states within the macrostructure influenced the deformation path significantly. The TEM observations of deformed specimens revealed that plastic deformation took place mainly in the gamma channels in specimens with low CRSS

  7. Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingtao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

  8. Design of Ultrasonic Fatigue Specimen of MB8 Wrought Magnesium Alloy by Analytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Haipeng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic fatigue specimen of MB8 wrought magnesium alloy was designed by calculation. In order to reduce the vibration amplitude, heat and pressure of the cooling system and also to protect the phase change, the sample was designed into variable cross-section. Based on the vibration displacement equation, boundary condition and displacement continuity condition, the relationship between the resonant length and other dimensions of the sample was derived. A series of size of ultrasonic fatigue specimens was calculated, which provided reference for the research of ultrasonic fatigue test of magnesium alloy. The results show that the resonance length decreases with the increase of the length of transition section, and the arc transition radius increases with the increase of the length of arc transition section.With the decrease of the length of arc transition section, Cs and M decreases for the specimen without uniform cross section in middle. With the decrease of the length of uniform cross section in the middle, Cs and M decreased for the specimen with uniform cross section in the middle.

  9. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of high-temperature complex alloys of nickel-base, iron-base and cobalt-base groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.

    1984-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties alloys of the nickel-base, iron-base, and cobalt-base groups containing from 1% to 25% 106 chromium were compared and correlated with the following material characteristics: atomic percent of the principle alloy constituent; ratio of concentration of two constituents; alloy physical property (electrical resistivity); alloy phase structure (percent precipitate or percent hardener content); alloy electronic structure (electron concentration). For solid-solution-type alloys the most consistent correlation was obtained with electron concentration, for precipitation-hardenable alloys of the nickel-base superalloy group, the thermoelectric potential correlated with hardener content in the alloy structure. For solid-solution-type alloys, no problems were found with thermoelectric stability to 1000; for precipitation-hardenable alloys, thermoelectric stability was dependent on phase stability. The effects of the compositional range of alloy constituents on temperature measurement uncertainty are discussed.

  10. Dislocation mechanism of void growth at twin boundary of nanotwinned nickel based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Jiang, Shuyong, E-mail: jiangshy@sina.com; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yanan

    2016-08-12

    Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to investigate dislocation mechanism of void growth at twin boundary (TB) of nanotwinned nickel. Simulation results show that the deformation of nanotwinned nickel containing a void at TB is dominated by the slip involving both leading and trailing partials, where the trailing partials are the dissociation products of stair-rod dislocations formed by the leading partials. The growth of a void at TB is attributed to the successive emission of the leading partials followed by trailing partials as well as the escape of these partial dislocations from the void surface. - Highlights: • Dislocation mechanism of void growth at TB of nanotwinned nickel is investigated. • Deformation of the nanotwinned nickel is dominated by leading and trailing partials. • Growth of void at TB is caused by successive emission and escape of these partials.

  11. Morphology Dependent Flow Stress in Nickel-Based Superalloys in the Multi-Scale Crystal Plasticity Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Keshavarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a framework to obtain the flow stress of nickel-based superalloys as a function of γ-γ’ morphology. The yield strength is a major factor in the design of these alloys. This work provides additional effects of γ’ morphology in the design scope that has been adopted for the model developed by authors. In general, the two-phase γ-γ’ morphology in nickel-based superalloys can be divided into three variables including γ’ shape, γ’ volume fraction and γ’ size in the sub-grain microstructure. In order to obtain the flow stress, non-Schmid crystal plasticity constitutive models at two length scales are employed and bridged through a homogenized multi-scale framework. The multi-scale framework includes two sub-grain and homogenized grain scales. For the sub-grain scale, a size-dependent, dislocation-density-based finite element model (FEM of the representative volume element (RVE with explicit depiction of the γ-γ’ morphology is developed as a building block for the homogenization. For the next scale, an activation-energy-based crystal plasticity model is developed for the homogenized single crystal of Ni-based superalloys. The constitutive models address the thermo-mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloys for a large temperature range and include orientation dependencies and tension-compression asymmetry. This homogenized model is used to obtain the morphology dependence on the flow stress in nickel-based superalloys and can significantly expedite crystal plasticity FE simulations in polycrystalline microstructures, as well as higher scale FE models in order to cast and design superalloys.

  12. Wustite-based photoelectrodes with lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and nickel additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Emily Ann; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    2017-08-15

    A photoelectrode, photovoltaic device and photoelectrochemical cell and methods of making are disclosed. The photoelectrode includes an electrode at least partially formed of FeO combined with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The electrode may be doped with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, and sodium. The electrode may be alloyed with at least one of magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel.

  13. Ferrous sulfate based low temperature synthesis and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejabhiram, Y., E-mail: tejabhiram@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Research Center, SRM University, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, TN 603203 (India); Pradeep, R. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, TN 603203 (India); Helen, A.T.; Gopalakrishnan, C. [Nanotechnology Research Center, SRM University, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, TN 603203 (India); Ramasamy, C. [Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM University, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, TN 603203 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel low temperature synthesis of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. • Comparison with two conventional synthesis techniques including hydrothermal method. • XRD results confirm the formation of crystalline nickel ferrites at 110 °C. • Superparamagnetic particles with applications in drug delivery and hyperthermia. • Magnetic properties superior to conventional methods found in new process. - Abstract: We report a simple, low temperature and surfactant free co-precipitation method for the preparation of nickel ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate as the iron precursor. The products obtained from this method were compared for their physical properties with nickel ferrites produced through conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods which used ferric nitrate as the iron precursor. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of single phase inverse spinel nanocrystalline nickel ferrites at temperature as low as 110 °C in the low temperature method. Electron microscopy analysis on the samples revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20–30 nm which are comparable to other conventional methods. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements showed the formation of superparamagnetic particles with high magnetic saturation 41.3 emu/g which corresponds well with conventional synthesis methods. The spontaneous synthesis of the nickel ferrite nanoparticles by the low temperature synthesis method was attributed to the presence of 0.808 kJ mol{sup −1} of excess Gibbs free energy due to ferrous sulfate precursor.

  14. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Tobias; Rommel, Daniel; Scherm, Florian; Gorywoda, Marek; Glatzel, Uwe

    2017-03-10

    Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co-28Cr-9W-1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  15. High-temperature performance evaluation of adirectionally solidified nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, D. A.; Stiles, D.

    1997-08-01

    The application of a new approach, design for performance, for high-temperature alloy development, design analysis, and remaining life assessment, based on short-time high-precision testing, is described in this paper. The material tested was a directionally solidified nickel-base alloy, GTD111. It was found that the creep strength at 850 °C was indeed superior to that of a competitive alloy, IN738, but was not necessarily enhanced by the preferred alignment of grain boundaries and crystal orientation. In contrast, the fracture resistance at 800 °C was improved in the longitudinal direction compared with transverse and diagonal orientations in terms of susceptibility to gas phase embrittlement (GPE) by oxygen. Specimens cut transversely and diagonally to the growth direction were more sensitive to GPE than specimens taken from conventionally cast IN738. The new conceptual framework allows account to be taken of GPE and other embrittling phenomena, which may develop in service, leading to rational life management decisions for gas turbine users. Additionally, straightforward design analysis procedures can be developed from the test data, which for the first time allow separate measurements of creep strength and fracture resistance to be used for performance evaluation.

  16. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel-Base Superalloy IN100 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Amrita; Das, Suman

    2018-01-01

    Scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) is a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF)-based additive manufacturing process that uses a high-power laser to consolidate metal powders facilitating the fabrication of three-dimensional objects. In the present study, SLE is used to produce samples of IN100, a high-γ' non-weldable nickel-base superalloy on similar chemistry substrates. A thorough analysis is performed using various advanced material characterization techniques such as high-resolution optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers microhardness measurements to characterize and compare the quality of the SLE-fabricated IN100 deposits with the investment cast IN100 substrates. The results show that the IN100 deposits have a finer γ/γ' microstructure, weaker elemental segregation, and higher microhardness compared with the substrate. Through this study, it is demonstrated that the SLE process has tremendous potential in the repair and manufacture of gas turbine hot-section components.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel-Base Superalloy IN100 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Amrita; Das, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) is a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF)-based additive manufacturing process that uses a high-power laser to consolidate metal powders facilitating the fabrication of three-dimensional objects. In the present study, SLE is used to produce samples of IN100, a high-γ' non-weldable nickel-base superalloy on similar chemistry substrates. A thorough analysis is performed using various advanced material characterization techniques such as high-resolution optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers microhardness measurements to characterize and compare the quality of the SLE-fabricated IN100 deposits with the investment cast IN100 substrates. The results show that the IN100 deposits have a finer γ/γ' microstructure, weaker elemental segregation, and higher microhardness compared with the substrate. Through this study, it is demonstrated that the SLE process has tremendous potential in the repair and manufacture of gas turbine hot-section components.

  19. Synthesis of copper/nickel nanoparticles using newly synthesized Schiff-base metals complexes and their cytotoxicity/catalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazam, Elham S; El-Said, Waleed Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Transition metal complexes compounds with Schiff bases ligand representing an important class of compounds that could be used to develop new metal-based anticancer agents and as precursors of metal NPs. Herein, 2,3-bis-[(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]but-2-enedinitrile Schiff base ligand and its corresponding copper/nickel complexes were synthesized. Also, we reported a facile and rapid method for synthesis nickel/copper nanoparticles based on thermal reduction of their complexes. Free ligand, its metal complexes and metals nanoparticles have been characterized based on elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and by various spectroscopic (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS) techniques. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of free ligand and its complexes compounds were assessed against two cancer cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 cells)and one healthy cell line (HEK293 cell). The copper complex was found to be active against these cancer cell lines at very low LD50 than the free ligand, while nickel complex did not show any anticancer activity against these cell lines. Also, the antibacterial activity of as-prepared copper nanoparticles were screened against Escherichia coli, which demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values lower than those values of the commercial Cu NPs as well as the previous reported values. Moreover, the synthesized nickel nanoparticles demonstrated remarkable catalytic performance toward hydrogenation of nitrobenzene that producing clean aniline with high selectivity (98%). This reactivity could be attributed to the high degree of dispersion of Ni nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On Post-Weld Heat Treatment of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint by Linear Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT, i.e. solution treatment + primary aging + secondary aging (I, secondary aging (II, and primary aging + secondary aging (III, were applied to a single crystal nickel-based superalloy joint made with linear friction welding (LFW. The results show that the grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ coarsen seriously and the primary γ' phase in the TMAZ precipitates unevenly after PWHT I. The primary γ' phase in the TMAZ and weld zone (WZ precipitates insufficiently and fine granular secondary γ' phase is observed in the matrix after PWHT II. After PWHT III, the primary γ' phase precipitates more sufficiently and evenly compared to PWHTs I and II. Moreover, the grains in the TMAZ have not coarsened seriously and fine granular secondary γ' phase is not found after PWHT III. PWHT III seems more suitable to the LFWed single crystal nickel-based superalloy joints when performing PWHT.

  1. Physicochemical properties and creep strength of a single crystal of nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrushin, Nikolay V.; Svetlow, Igor L.; Samoylov, Andrey I.; Morozova, Galina I. [All-Russia Institute of Aviation Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    The influence of alloying elements, including rhenium and ruthenium, on the physicochemical and structural parameters of single crystal nickel-base superalloys has been analyzed. The results were used in computer designing of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium. The optimized alloy composition, providing the best physicochemical properties and longest creep lifetime, contains 6 wt.% rhenium and 4 wt.% ruthenium. <001> single crystals of the designed superalloy were directionally solidified and investigated in as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed conditions. The investigations included: characterization of the superalloy microstructure, dendritic segregation of alloying elements, their partition between the {gamma}- and {gamma}'-phases etc. Creep rupture tests were performed in the temperature interval of 900-1100 C and included tests longer 1000 h. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of Weld Bead Parameters of Nickel Based Overlay Deposited by Plasma Transferred Arc Surfacing with Adequacy Test

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskarananda Dasgupta; Pinaky Bhadury

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Transferred Arc surfacing is a kind of Plasma Transferred Arc Welding process. Plasma Transferred Arc surfacing (PTA) is increasingly used in applications where enhancement of wear, corrosion and heat resistance of materials surface is required. The shape of weld bead geometry affected by the PTA Welding process parameters is an indication of the quality of the weld. In this paper the analysis and optimization of weld bead parameters, during deposition of a Nickel based...

  3. Nickel exposure and prevalent albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria: evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Qi; Zhu, Mingjiang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Huaixing; Li, Zi; Chen, Yan; Yin, Huiyong; Lin, Xu

    2016-05-01

    High exposure to nickel could induce renal dysfunction in rodents and occupational workers. However, little is known about the effects of non-occupational exposure to nickel on renal health in the general population. We aimed to examine the associations of urinary nickel concentrations with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese adults. 2115 non-institutionalised Chinese men and women aged 55-76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included. Urinary nickel concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Plasma uric acid, urea nitrogen, C reactive protein and urinary albumin, β2-microglobulin and creatinine were measured. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and β2-microglobulinuria was defined as urinary β2-microglobulin ≥200 µg/g creatinine. Median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.95 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 2.57-6.71 μg/g creatinine), and prevalence of albuminuria, β2-microglobulinuria and both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria was 22.1%, 24.5% and 9.7%, respectively. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of urinary nickel, the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.99 (1.46 to 2.78) for albuminuria, 1.44 (1.07 to 1.95) for β2-microglobulinuria, and 2.95 (1.74 to 4.97) for both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. The association remained significant when further controlling for inflammatory markers or other heavy metals (all p trend albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese men and women, who had relatively low background nickel exposure. More prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Analysis of the ductility dip cracking in the nickel-base alloy 617mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, A.; Nellesen, J.; Zielke, R.; Tillmann, W.

    2017-03-01

    While testing steam leading power plant components made of the nickel-base alloy A617mod at elevated temperatures (700 °C), ductility dip cracking (DDC) was observed in welding seams and their surroundings. In order to clarify the mechanism of crack formation, investigations were carried out on welded specimens made of A617mod. Interrupted tensile tests were performed on tensile specimens taken from the area of the welding seam. To simulate the conditions, the tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 700 °C and with a low strain rate. Local strain fields at grain boundaries and inside single grains were determined at different deformation states by means of two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC). Besides the strain fields, local hardnesses (nanoindentation), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed. Besides information concerning the grain orientation, the EBSD measurement provides information on the coincidence site lattice (CSL) at grain boundaries as well as the Schmid factor of single grains. All results of the analysis methods mentioned above were correlated and compared to each other and related to the crack formation. Among other things, correlations between strain fields and Schmid factors were determined. The investigations show that the following influences affect the crack formation: orientation of the grain boundaries to the direction of the loading, the orientation of the grains to each other (CSL), and grain boundary sliding.

  5. The use of new PHACOMP in understanding the solidification microstructure of nickel base alloy weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, M. J.; Knorovsky, G. A.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.

    1986-12-01

    The weld metal microstructures of five commercial nickel base alloys (HASTELLOYS* C-4, C-22, and C-276, and INCONELS* 625 and 718) have been examined by electron probe microanalysis and analytical electron microscopy. It has been found that solidification terminates in many of these alloys with the formation of a constituent containing a topologically-close-packed (TCP) intermetallic phase (i.e., σ, P, Laves). Electron microprobe examination of gas-tungsten-arc welds revealed a solidification segregation pattern of Ni depletion and solute enrichment in interdendritic volumes. New PHACOMP calculations performed on these segregation profiles revealed a pattern of increasing M d (metal- d levels) in traversing from a dendrite core to an adjacent interdendritic volume. In alloys forming a terminal solidification TCP constituent, the calculated M d values in interdendritic regions were greater than the critical M d values for formation of σ as stated by Morinaga et al. Implications of the correlation between TCP phase formation and M d in the prediction of weld metal solidification microstructure, prediction of potential hot-cracking behavior, and applications in future alloy design endeavors are discussed.

  6. Effect of tube-electrode inner diameter on electrochemical discharge machining of nickel-based superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys are widely employed in modern aircraft engines because of their excellent material characteristics, particularly in the fabrication of film cooling holes. However, the high machining requirement of a large number of film cooling holes can be extremely challenging. The hybrid machining technique of tube electrode high-speed electrochemical discharge drilling (TEHECDD has been considered as a promising method for the production of film cooling holes. Compared with any single machining process, this hybrid technique requires the removal of more complex machining by-products, including debris produced in the electrical discharge machining process and hydroxide and bubbles generated in the electrochemical machining process. These by-products significantly affect the machining efficiency and surface quality of the machined products. In this study, tube electrodes in different inner diameters are designed and fabricated, and the effects of inner diameter on the machining efficiency and surface quality of TEHECDD are investigated. The results show that larger inner diameters could effectively improve the flushing condition and facilitate the removal of machining by-products. Therefore, higher material removal efficiency, surface quality, and electrode wear rate could be achieved by increasing the inner diameter of the tube electrode.

  7. Isothermal oxidation behavior and mechanism of a nickel-based superalloy at 1000°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Cai, Yuan-fei; Gong, You-jun; Shen, Guo-ping; Tu, Yu-guo; Zhang, Guo-fu

    2017-07-01

    The oxidation behavior of a nickel-based superalloy at 1000°C in air was investigated through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. A series of oxides, including external oxide scales (Cr2O3, (TiO2 + MnCr2O4)) and internal oxides (Al2O3,TiN), were formed on the surface or sub-surface of the substrate at 1000°C in experimental still air. The oxidation resistance of the alloy was dependent on the stability of the surface oxide layer. The continuity and density of the protective Cr2O3 scale were affected by minor alloying elements such as Ti and Mn. The outermost oxide scale was composed of TiO2 rutile and MnCr2O4 spinel, and the growth of TiO2 particles was controlled by the outer diffusion of Ti ions through the pre-existing oxide layer. Severe internal oxidation occurred beneath the external oxide scale, consuming Al and Ti of the strength phase γ' (Ni3(Al,Ti)) and thereby severely deteriorating the surface mechanical properties. The depth of the internal oxidation region was approximately 35 μm after exposure to experimental air at 1000°C for 80 h.

  8. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGAYE, RUTH; ZHAO, JINSHUN; BOWMAN, LINDA; DING, MIN

    2012-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry has matured and expanded at a rapid pace in the last decade, leading to the research and development of nanomaterials with enormous potential. The largest source of these nanomaterials is the transitional metals. It has been revealed that numerous properties of these nano-sized elements are not present in their bulk states. The nano size of these particles means they are easily transported into biological systems, thus, raising the question of their effects on the susceptible systems. Although advances have been made and insights have been gained on the effect of transitional metals on susceptible biological systems, there still is much ground to be covered, particularly with respect to our knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Therefore, this review intends to summarize the current knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles indicated in in vitro and in vivo mammalian studies. In the present review, we briefly state the sources, use and exposure routes of these nanoparticles and summarize the current literature findings on their in vivo and in vitro genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Due to the increasing evidence of their role in carcinogenicity, we have also included studies that have reported epigenetic factors, such as abnormal apoptosis, enhanced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory effects involving these nanoparticles. PMID:23170105

  9. Electrochemical Detection of Phenanthrene Using Nickel Oxide Doped PANI Nanofiber Based Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nickel oxide doped polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NiO based electrochemical sensor was constructed for detection of phenanthrene. Successful synthesis of PANI-NiO nanocomposite was confirmed with techniques such as SEM, XRD, EDX, FTIR, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic oxidation of phenanthrene on PANI-NiO on modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE-PANI-NiO was studied using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy and discussed. Results showed that detection of phenanthrene was enhanced by the nanostructure of PANI-NiO film. The square wave voltammetry analysis shows a very low detection limit of 0.732 pM for phenanthrene with the linear range of 7.6 pM–1.4 × 10−11 M. The Tafel value of 227 mVdec−1 suggests adsorption of phenanthrene oxidation intermediates on the GCE-PANI-NiO electrode. The GCE-PANI-NiO modified electrodes gave better performance towards phenanthrene in terms of current response, oxidation potential, current recovery, stability, and resistance to electrode fouling effects.

  10. Studies on the hot corrosion of a nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    The hot corrosion of a nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700, was studied in the temperture range of 884 to 965 C and with different amounts of Na2SO4. Two different modes of degradation were identified: (1) formation of Na2MoO4-MoO3 melt and fluxing by this melt, and (2) formation of large interconnected sulfides. The dissolution of Cr2O3, TiO2 in the Na2SO4 melt does not play a significnt role in the overall corrosion process. The conditions for the formation of massive interconnected sulfides were identified and a mechanism of degradation due to sulfide formation is described. The formation of Na2MoO4-MoO3 melt requires an induction period and various physiochemical processes during the induction period were identified. The factors affecting the length of the induction period were also examined. The melt penetration through the oxide appears to be the prime mode of degradation whether the degradation is due to the formation of sulfides or the formation of the Na2MoO4-MoO3 melt.

  11. Magnetic composites based on metallic nickel and molybdenum carbide: A potential material for pollutants removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mambrini, Raquel V.; Fonseca, Thales L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Dias, Anderson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG 35400-000 (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Araujo, Maria Helena [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Moura, Flavia C.C., E-mail: flaviamoura@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New magnetic molybdenum carbide composites can be prepared by CVD from ethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic molybdenum carbide shows promising results for pollutants removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbide composites can be easily recovered magnetically and reused. - Abstract: New magnetic composites based on metallic nickel and molybdenum carbide, Ni/Mo{sub 2}C, have been produced via catalytic chemical vapor deposition from ethanol. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the CVD process occurs in a single step. This process involves the reduction of NiMo oxides at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900 Degree-Sign C) with catalytic deposition of carbon from ethanol producing molybdenum carbide on Ni surface. In the absence of molybdenum the formation of Ni/C was observed. The magnetic molybdenum carbide was successfully used as pollutants removal by adsorption of sulfur and nitrogen compounds from liquid fuels and model dyes such as methylene blue and indigo carmine. The dibenzothiofene adsorption process over Ni/Mo{sub 2}C reached approximately 20 mg g{sup -1}, notably higher than other materials described in the literature and also removed almost all methylene blue dye. The great advantage of these carbide composites is that they may be easily recovered magnetically and reused.

  12. Magnetic composites based on metallic nickel and molybdenum carbide: a potential material for pollutants removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Raquel V; Fonseca, Thales L; Dias, Anderson; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Araujo, Maria Helena; Moura, Flávia C C

    2012-11-30

    New magnetic composites based on metallic nickel and molybdenum carbide, Ni/Mo(2)C, have been produced via catalytic chemical vapor deposition from ethanol. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the CVD process occurs in a single step. This process involves the reduction of NiMo oxides at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900°C) with catalytic deposition of carbon from ethanol producing molybdenum carbide on Ni surface. In the absence of molybdenum the formation of Ni/C was observed. The magnetic molybdenum carbide was successfully used as pollutants removal by adsorption of sulfur and nitrogen compounds from liquid fuels and model dyes such as methylene blue and indigo carmine. The dibenzothiofene adsorption process over Ni/Mo(2)C reached approximately 20 mg g(-1), notably higher than other materials described in the literature and also removed almost all methylene blue dye. The great advantage of these carbide composites is that they may be easily recovered magnetically and reused. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the heat treatment response of wrought and SSM-HPDC alloy 6082

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Möller, H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural and artificial aging responses of wrought and SSM-HPDC alloy 6082 are compared. It is shown that the heat treatment response of this Al-Mg-Si alloy is not influenced by differences in microstructures produced by different processing...

  14. Semi-solid near-net shape rheocasting of heat treatable wrought aluminum alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available aluminum alloys. Tensile properties were measured for the above mentioned rheocast wrought aluminum alloys in the T6 condition. The results showed that tensile properties were close to or even in some cases exceeded the minimum specifications. The yield...

  15. Dynamic compressive response of wrought and additive manufactured 304L stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Erik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM technology has been developed to fabricate metal components that include complex prototype fabrication, small lot production, precision repair or feature addition, and tooling. However, the mechanical response of the AM materials is a concern to meet requirements for specific applications. Differences between AM materials as compared to wrought materials might be expected, due to possible differences in porosity (voids, grain size, and residual stress levels. When the AM materials are designed for impact applications, the dynamic mechanical properties in both compression and tension need to be fully characterized and understood for reliable designs. In this study, a 304L stainless steel was manufactured with AM technology. For comparison purposes, both the AM and wrought 304L stainless steels were dynamically characterized in compression Kolsky bar techniques. They dynamic compressive stress-strain curves were obtained and the strain rate effects were determined for both the AM and wrought 304L stainless steels. A comprehensive comparison of dynamic compressive response between the AM and wrought 304L stainless steels was performed. SAND2015-0993 C.

  16. Hydrogen induced cracking tests of high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the bolt-loaded specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigilante, G.N.; Underwood, J.H.; Crayon, D.; Tauscher, S.; Sage, T.; Troiano, E. [Army Armament RD and E Center, Watervliet, NY (United States). Benet Labs.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen induced cracking tests were conducted on high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the constant displacement bolt-loaded compact specimen. The bolt-loaded specimen was subjected to both acid and electrochemical cell environments in order to produce hydrogen. The materials tested were A723, Maraging 200, PH 13-8 Mo, Alloy 718, Alloy 706, and A286, and ranged in yield strength from 760--1400 MPa. The effects of chemical composition, refinement, heat treatment, and strength on hydrogen induced crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and threshold levels. In comparison, the nickel-iron base alloys tested exhibited up to three orders of magnitude lower crack growth rates than the high strength steels tested. It is widely known that high strength steels and nickel base alloys exhibit different crack growth rates, in part, because of their different crystal cell structure. In the high strength steels tested, refinement and heat treatment had some effect on hydrogen induced cracking, though strength was the predominant factor influencing susceptibility to cracking. When the yield strength of one of the high strength steels tested was increased moderately, from 1130 MPa to 1275 MPa, the incubation times decreased by over two orders of magnitude, the crack growth rates increased by an order of magnitude, and the threshold stress intensity was slightly lower.

  17. Creep and stress rupture of a mechanically alloyed oxide dispersion and precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Mervyn, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture behavior of a mechanically alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and gamma-prime precipitation strengthened nickel-base alloy (alloy MA 6000E) was studied at intermediate and elevated temperatures. At 760 C, MA 6000E exhibits the high creep strength characteristic of nickel-base superalloys and at 1093 C the creep strength is superior to other ODS nickel-base alloys. The stress dependence of the creep rate is very sharp at both test temperatures and the apparent creep activation energy measured around 760 C is high, much larger in magnitude than the self-diffusion energy. Stress rupture in this large grain size material is transgranular and crystallographic cracking is observed. The rupture ductility is dependent on creep strain rate, but usually is low. These and accompanying microstructural results are discussed with respect to other ODS alloys and superalloys and the creep behavior is rationalized by invoking a recently-developed resisting stress model of creep in materials strengthened by second phase particles.

  18. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms; Corrosion generalisee des alliages a base nickel en milieu aqueux a haute temperature: apport a la comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L

    2007-11-15

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale ({approx} 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary

  19. Force Characteristics of Nickel-Titanium Spring-based Orthopedic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonit Nakra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the modifications with the headgear over the years has been in replacing the extraoral elastics which undergo rapid force degradation over time with spring-based modules thus reducing patient inconvenience. Studies, in the past, have compared the force degradation of various coil spring materials used intraorally for tooth movement but a quantitative characterization of the orthopedic force modules has not been reported. Thus, the present study aims to know the level of force degradation in nickel-titanium (NiTi spring-based orthopedic force modules with time, and compare them with stainless steel (SS modules. Materials and methods: Sixty force modules: 20 NiTi and 40 (20 each from 2 companies SS spring-based, were tested for the force degradation over a period of 3 months after dividing the sample on the basis of initial force exerted into two Groups (A and B. The springs were mounted on a customized rack for 16 hours per day to simulate headgear wear by the patient. Results: Significantly greater force degradation was observed after 1 week compared to the subsequent time intervals by all the force modules except the NiTi set in Group A (300 gm initial force where the degradation was found to be greater after 1 month. Higher initial activation of the force modules resulted in a greater force degradation at all time intervals. Conclusion: NiTi force modules exerted more constant force compared to the SS modules. Force characteristics of ′similar′ force modules from different manufacturers varied.

  20. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and

  1. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Pulse plating has previously been reported to improve the properties of nickel and nickel alloy deposits. Typically, focus has been on properties such as grain size, hardness and smoothness. When pulse plating is to be utilised for microtechnologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS......), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...

  2. The Kinetics of Precipitate Dissolution in a Nickel-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiatin, S. L.; Levkulich, N. C.; Saurber, A. E.; Mahaffey, D. W.; Payton, E. J.; Senkov, O. N.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of microstructure and soft impingement on the kinetics of static dissolution of γ' precipitates during supersolvus solution treatment of the powder-metallurgy nickel-base superalloy LSHR were determined experimentally and interpreted in the context of a simple diffusion model. The starting material had either a fine duplex structure of γ grains and γ' precipitates (each of which were 2 μm in diameter) or a structure comprising 2- μm-diameter γ' precipitates lying within large ( 15 μm) γ grains. Using a direct-resistance-heated Gleeble® machine, the temperature of each sample was first equilibrated at a fixed subsolvus temperature (at which the microstructure was also stabilized) and then quickly raised to and held for a predetermined time in the single-phase γ field. The dissolution of γ' was found to be approximately five times as fast for the duplex structure in comparison to the kinetics for the intragranular precipitates. The results were interpreted using numerical simulations of dissolution based on the Whelan model modified to account for a distribution of precipitates (rather than a single, isolated spherical particle) and soft impingement of diffusion fields. Using independently-measured values for diffusivity, precipitate composition, and phase equilibria as input, simulation predictions showed good agreement with the observations in terms of the temporal variation of volume fraction and average particle radius. By this means, insight into the retarding influence of soft impingement and the accelerating effect of pipe diffusion (due to stored dislocations) on the rate of dissolution was obtained

  3. Developement and characterization of environmentally friendly gold and nickel electrolytes based on ionic liquids for the electroless metal deposition in the ENIG process

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Frank-Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the present work two different metal deposition processes for the electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) surface plating are characterized in “Deep Eutectic Solvents” (DES). It is shown for the first time that the immersion nickel deposition on copper substrates in a DES based electrolyte can be realized despite the fact that in aqueous solutions the redox potentials would not allow the displacement deposition. For the immersion gold process an electrolyte is developed whi...

  4. Highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongxu; Gao, Wenyu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Qing; Wu, Hao; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun; Wu, Songmei; Yu, Yu; Ding, Kejian

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a fast and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor is reported utilizing a glassy carbon electrode modified by synthesizing nanocomposites of nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide (Ni NPs/ATP/RGO). A facile one-step electrochemical co-deposition approach is adopted to synthesize Ni NPs-ATP-RGO nanocomposites via electrochemical reduction of mixed precursor solution containing graphene oxide (GO), attapulgite (ATP) and nickel cations (Ni(2+)) at the cathode potentials. This strategy results in simultaneous depositions of ATP, cathodic reduction of Ni(2+) into nickel nanoparticles under acidic conditions, and in situ reduction of GO. The as-prepared NiNPs/ATP/RGO-based glucose sensor exhibits outstanding performance for enzymeless glucose sensing with sensitivity (1414.4 μAmM(-1)cm(-2)), linear range (1-710μM) and detection limit (0.37μM). What is more, the sensor has excellent stability and selectivity against common interferences in real sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microstructural indicators of transition mechanisms in time-dependent fatigue crack growth in nickel base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeter, Ann E.

    Gas turbine engines are an important part of power generation in modern society, especially in the field of aerospace. Aerospace engines are design to last approximately 30 years and the engine components must be designed to survive for the life of the engine or to be replaced at regular intervals to ensure consumer safety. Fatigue crack growth analysis is a vital component of design for an aerospace component. Crack growth modeling and design methods date back to an origin around 1950 with a high rate of accuracy. The new generation of aerospace engines is designed to be efficient as possible and require higher operating temperatures than ever seen before in previous generations. These higher temperatures place more stringent requirements on the material crack growth performance under creep and time dependent conditions. Typically the types of components which are subject to these requirements are rotating disk components which are made from advanced materials such as nickel base superalloys. Traditionally crack growth models have looked at high temperature crack growth purely as a function of temperature and assumed that all crack growth was either controlled by a cycle dependent or time dependent mechanism. This new analysis is trying to evaluate the transition between cycle-dependent and time-dependent mechanism and the microstructural markers that characterize this transitional behavior. The physical indications include both the fracture surface morphology as well as the shape of the crack front. The research will evaluate whether crack tunneling occurs and whether it consistently predicts a transition from cycle-dependent crack growth to time-dependent crack growth. The study is part of a larger research program trying to include the effects of geometry, mission profile and environmental effects, in addition to temperature effects, as a part of the overall crack growth system. The outcome will provide evidence for various transition types and correlate those

  6. Determination of Trace Elements in Nickel Base Alloys by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation is described to ascertain whether or not atomic absorption spectrophotometry could be used to determine the concentration of trace ... elements such as silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) in nickel alloys such as Udimet 500 without interference of other constituent elements. (Author)

  7. Comparative coarsening kinetics of gamma prime precipitates in nickel and cobalt base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Subhashish

    The increasing technological need to push service conditions of structural materials to higher temperatures has motivated the development of several alloy systems. Among them, superalloys are an excellent candidate for high temperature applications because of their ability to form coherent ordered precipitates, which enable the retention of high strength close to their melting temperature. The accelerated kinetics of solute diffusion, with or without an added component of mechanical stress, leads to coarsening of the precipitates, and results in microstructural degradation, limiting the durability of the materials. Hence, the coarsening of precipitates has been a classical research problem for these alloys in service. The prolonged hunt for an alternative of nickel base superalloys with superior traits has gained hope after the recent discovery of Co-Al-W based alloys, which readily form high temperature gamma' precipitates, similar to Ni base superalloys. In the present study, coarsening behavior of gamma' precipitates in Co-10Al-10W (at. %) has been carried out at 800°C and 900°C. This study has, for the first time, obtained critical coarsening parameters in cobalt-base alloys. Apart from this, it has incorporated atomic scale compositional information across the gamma/gamma' interfaces into classical Cahn-Hilliard model for a better model of coarsening kinetics. The coarsening study of gamma' precipitates in Ni-14Al-7 Cr (at. %) has shown the importance of temporal evolution of the compositional width of the gamma/gamma' interfaces to the coarsening kinetics of gamma' precipitates. This study has introduced a novel, reproducible characterization method of crystallographic study of ordered phase by coupling of orientation microscopy with atom probe tomography (APT). Along with the detailed analysis of field evaporation behaviors of Ni and Co superalloys in APT, the present study determines the site occupancy of various solutes within ordered gamma' precipitates

  8. DNA binding, BSA interaction and SOD activity of two new nickel(II) complexes with glutamine Schiff base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Dong, Jianfang; Zhao, Peiran; Li, Manman; Cheng, Fengling; Kong, Jinming; Li, Lianzhi

    2016-08-01

    Two hexacoordinated octahedral nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(o-van-gln)(phen)(H2O)](1) and [Ni(sal-gln)(phen)(H2O)](2) [o-van-gln=a Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and glutamine, sal-gln=a Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and glutamine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray studies showed that nickel atoms of both 1 and 2 exhibit distorted NiN3O3 octahedral geometry. In each crystal, intermolecular hydrogen bonds form a two-dimensional network structure. DNA-binding properties of these two nickel(II) complexes were investigated by using UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the two complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) via an intercalative mode, and complex 1 exhibits higher interaction with CT-DNA than complex 2. Furthermore, the interactions between the nickel(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied by spectroscopies. The results indicated that both complexes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in a static quenching process. The binding constants (Kb) and the numbers of binding sites (n) obtained are 1.10×10(5)M(-1) and 1.05 for complex 1 and 5.05×10(4)M(-1) and 0.997 for complex 2, respectively. Site-selective competitive binding investigation indicated that the binding sites of both the complexes are located in site I of sub-domains IIA of BSA. Assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the nickel(II) complexes revealed that they exhibit significant superoxide scavenging activity with IC50=3.4×10(-5)M for complex 1 and 4.3×10(-5)M for complex 2, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS CONTROLLING ENVIRONMENTALLY-ASSISTED INTERGRANULAR CRACKING OF NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary S. Was

    2004-02-13

    Creep and IG cracking of nickel-base alloys depend principally on two factors--the deformation behavior and the effect of the environment. We have shown that both contribute to the observed degradation in primary water. The understanding of cracking does not lie wholly within the environmental effects arena, nor can it be explained only by intrinsic mechanical behavior. Rather, both processes contribute to the observed behavior in primary water. In this project, we had three objectives: (1) to verify that grain boundaries control deformation in Ni-16Cr-9Fe at 360 C, (2) to identify the environmental effect on IGSCC, and (3) to combine CSLBs and GBCs to maximize IGSCC resistance in Ni-Cr-Fe in 360 C primary water. Experiments performed in hydrogen gas at 360 C confirm an increase in the primary creep rate in Ni-16Cr-9Fe at 360 C due to hydrogen. The creep strain transients caused by hydrogen are proposed to be due to the collapse of dislocation pile-ups, as confirmed by observations in HVEM. The observations only partially support the hydrogen-enhanced plasticity model, but also suggest a potential role of vacancies in the accelerate creep behavior in primary water. In high temperature oxidation experiments designed to examine the potential for selective internal oxidation in the IGSCC process, cracking is greatest in the more oxidizing environments compared to the low oxygen potential environments where nickel metal is stable. In Ni-Cr-Fe alloys, chromium oxides form preferentially along the grain boundaries, even at low oxygen potential, supporting a potential role in grain boundary embrittlement due to preferential oxidation. Experiments designed to determine the role of grain boundary deformation on intergranular cracking have established, for the first time, a cause-and-effect relationship between grain boundary deformation and IGSCC. That is, grain boundary deformation in Ni-16Cr-9Fe in 360 C primary water leads to IGSCC of the deformed boundaries. As well

  11. High temperature corrosion of nickel-base alloys in environments containing alkali sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Rachel; Flyg, Jesper; Caddeo, Sophie [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspong (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This work is directed towards producing data to assist in lifetime assessment of components in gas turbines run in severely polluted industrial environments where the main corrosive species is SO{sub 2}, which can condense to form alkali sulphates. Corrosion rates have been measured for the base materials, in order to assess the worst-case scenario, in which cracks or other damage has occurred to the protective coating. The information is expected to be of value to manufacturers, owners and inspectors of gas turbines. Six nickel-base superalloys were subject to thermal cycles of 160 hours duration, and 0.8mg/cm{sup 2} of 20 mol % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 80mol% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was applied before each cycle. The test temperatures were 850 deg C and 900 deg C, with maximum test durations of 24 cycles and 12 cycles respectively. The metal loss was assessed by metallography of cross sections and the sulphidation attack was found to be very uneven. Mass change data indicated that the corrosion process was largely linear in character, and probability plots and estimations of the propagation rate of corrosion based on the linear growth assumption were produced. The performance of the alloys increased with increasing chromium content. The single crystal materials CMSX4 and MD2 showed such high corrosion rates that their use in severely contaminated industrial environments is considered inadvisable. The best performance was shown by Inconel 939 and Inconel 6203, so that even if cracks occur in the protective coating, a reasonable remaining lifetime can be expected for these materials. Sulphide formation occurred at the reaction front in all cases and mixed sulphides such as Ta-Ni or Ti-Nb sulphides were often present. The work has news value since very little long-term data is currently available for materials performance in severely sulphidising environments. The project goals in terms of exposures and metrology have been fully realised. Contributions have been made to the

  12. Microstructural stability of wrought, laser and electron beam glazed NARloy-Z alloy at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B.; Poorman, R.

    1993-11-01

    Microstructure of wrought, laser, and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z(Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) was investigated for thermal stability at elevated temperatures (539 to 760 C (1,100 to 1,400 F)) up to 94 h. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were employed for studying microstructural evolution and kinetics of precipitation. Grain boundary precipitation and precipitate free zones (PFZ`s) were observed in the wrought alloy after exposing to temperatures above 605 C (1,120 F). The fine-grained microstructure observed in the laser and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z was much more stable at elevated temperatures. Microstructural changes correlated well with hardness measurements.

  13. Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of wrought magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought magnesium and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, Al, and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of Mg (whose density is less than one-fourth that of steel and only two-thirds that of Al). This study shows that Mg sheet could be used in automotive body nonstructural and semistructural applications, whereas extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. The primary barrier to such uses of wrought Mg is high cost.

  14. Competing fatigue mechanisms in Nickel-base superalloy Rene 88DT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paul N.

    Nickel base superalloys exhibit superior high temperature mechanical properties required for aircraft engine components. It has been known that the processing of these alloys by the powder metallurgy route introduces inclusions inside the material. The presence of such inclusions often leads to competing failure modes in fatigue that is described by a step-wise or two distinct S-N curves involving both the surface and internally-initiated cracks, resulting in large uncertainties of fatigue life. A clear understanding of such behavior is yet to be established. The principal objective of this research is to examine the effect of inclusions on the extent of fatigue failure competition from surface and internal initiators at two different specimen test volumes. Experimental fatigue testing has been performed to explore how the presence of inclusions affects the competing fatigue failure modes. In addition, how the competing failure modes will behave with changes in the specimen size was also studied. Two groups of material each with two different specimen sizes were used in this study. It has been shown that the two crack initiation mechanisms occurred in the small unseeded Rene 88DT specimens tested at 650ºC over the stress range tested. Additionally, the fatigue lives were reduced with increase in specimen volume. All fatigue failures in seeded material occurred due to crack initiations from the seeded inclusions. In the fatigue life of seeded material, two competing and separate S-N curves were found in small test volume, whereas, in the large test volume, the regions were separated by a "step" in S-N curve. It has been found that the largest inclusion size observed in metallographic surfaces was smaller than the size determined from the fatigue failure origin. An analysis method based on extreme value statistics developed by Murakami was used to predict the largest size of inclusion in the test volume. The results of this study clearly show that competition for

  15. Synthesis, characterization, nano-sized binuclear nickel complexes, DFT calculations and antibacterial evaluation of new macrocyclic Schiff base compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaee, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Khosro

    2017-06-01

    Some new macrocyclic bridged dianilines tetradentate with N4coordination sphere Schiff base ligands and their nickel(II)complexes with general formula [{Ni2LCl4} where L = (C20H14N2X)2, X = SO2, O, CH2] have been synthesized. The compounds have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, TGA, elemental analysis, molar conductivity and magnetic moment techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows nano-sized structures under 100 nm for nickel (II) complexes. NiO nanoparticle was achieved via the thermal decomposition method and analyzed by FT-IR, SEM and X-ray powder diffraction which indicates closeaccordance to standard pattern of NiO nanoparticle. All the Schiff bases and their complexes have been detected in vitro both for antibacterial activity against two gram-negative and two gram-positive bacteria. The nickel(II) complexes were found to be more active than the free macrocycle Schiff bases. In addition, computational studies of three ligands have been carried out at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31G+(d,p) level of theory on the spectroscopic properties, including IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopy. The correlation between the theoretical and the experimental vibrational frequencies, 1H NMR and 13C NMR of the ligands were 0.999, 0.930-0.973 and 0.917-0.995, respectively. Also, the energy gap was determined and by using HOMO and LUMO energy values, chemical hardness-softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index were calculated.

  16. Modern fiber laser beam welding of the newly-designed precipitation-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffakh Moosavy, Homam; Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein; Goodarzi, Massoud; Khodabakhshi, Meisam; Mapelli, Carlo; Barella, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    In the present research, the modern fiber laser beam welding of newly-designed precipitation-strengthened nickel-base superalloys using various welding parameters in constant heat input has been investigated. Five nickel-base superalloys with various Ti and Nb contents were designed and produced by Vacuum Induction Melting furnace. The fiber laser beam welding operations were performed in constant heat input (100 J mm-2) and different welding powers (400 and 1000 W) and velocities (40 and 100 mm s-1) using 6-axis anthropomorphic robot. The macro- and micro-structural features, weld defects, chemical composition and mechanical property of 3.2 mm weldments were assessed utilizing optical and scanning electron microscopes equipped with EDS analysis and microhardness tester. The results showed that welding with higher powers can create higher penetration-to-width ratios. The porosity formation was increased when the welding powers and velocities were increased. None of the welds displayed hot solidification and liquation cracks in 400 and 1000 W welding powers, but liquation phenomenon was observed in all the heat-affected zones. With increasing the Nb content of the superalloys the liquation length was increased. The changing of the welding power and velocity did not alter the hardness property of the welds. The hardness of welds decreased when the Ti content declined in the composition of superalloys. Finally, the 400 and 1000 W fiber laser powers with velocity of 40 and 100 m ms-1 have been offered for hot crack-free welding of the thin sheet of newly-designed precipitation-strengthened nickel-base superalloys.

  17. A Short review on wrought austenitic stainless steels at high temperatures: processing, microstructure, properties and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Lesley Plaut

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wrought austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high temperature applications. This short review discusses initially the processing of this class of steels, with emphasis on solidification and hot working behavior. Following, a brief summary is made on the precipitation behavior and the numerous phases that may appear in their microstructures. Creep and oxidation resistance are, then, briefly discussed, and finalizing their performance is compared with other high temperature metallic materials.

  18. Influence of Chromium and Molybdenum on the Corrosion of Nickel Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J R; Gray, J; Szmodis, A W; Orme, C A

    2005-08-02

    The addition of chromium and molybdenum to nickel creates alloys with exceptional corrosion resistance in a diverse range of environments. This study examines the complementary roles of Cr and Mo in Ni alloy passivation. Four nickel alloys with varying amounts of chromium and molybdenum were studied in 1 molar salt solutions over a broad pH range. The passive corrosion and breakdown behavior of the alloys suggests that chromium is the primary element influencing general corrosion resistance. The breakdown potential was nearly independent of molybdenum content, while the repassivation potential is strongly dependant on the molybdenum content. This indicates that chromium plays a strong role in maintaining the passivity of the alloy, while molybdenum acts to stabilize the passive film after a localized breakdown event.

  19. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epishin, Alexander, E-mail: alex_epishin@yahoo.de [Technical University of Berlin, Institute of Material Sciences and Technologies, Metallic Materials, secr. BH18, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Fedelich, Bernard [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Link, Thomas [Technical University of Berlin, Institute of Material Sciences and Technologies, Metallic Materials, secr. BH18, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Feldmann, Titus [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Svetlov, Igor L. [All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM), Radio Street, 105005 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate.

  20. Corrosion resistance of nickel-based alloys in salt and metal melts containing REE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. V.; Karpov, V. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2017-09-01

    The corrosion resistance of Hastelloy G-35 and VDM® Alloy 625 nickel alloys was studied in a wide temperature range (750-1100 °C) in fused LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl-KCl, LiF mixtures containing REE. The rates and the mechanisms of the corrosion of the materials studied were determined. The processes taking place during the interaction between alloys and melts were investigated.

  1. Quasi-Isentropic Compression of Wrought and Additively Manufactures 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Paul; Brown, Justin; Wise, Jack; Furnish, Michael; Adams, David

    2017-06-01

    The thermodynamic and constitutive responses of both additively manufactured (AM) and traditional wrought processed 304L stainless steel (SS) were investigated through quasi-isentropic compression to peak stresses near 1Mbar using Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine. The AM 304L SS samples were made with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) technique. Compared to traditional wrought processed 304L SS, the AM samples were highly textured with larger grain sizes (i.e.near 1mm) and residual stresses (> 100 MPa). Interferometric measurements of interface velocities enabled inference of the quasi-isentropes for each fabrication type of 304L SS. Release from peak stress provided flow strength measurements of the wrought and AM 304L SS. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved For Unclassified Unlimited Release SAND2017-2040A.

  2. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  3. Experimental study of micro-milling mechanism and surface quality of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Gong, Yadong; Zhou, Yun Guang; Wen, Xue Long [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-01-15

    Micro-milling is widely used as a method for machining of micro-parts with high precision and efficiency. Taking the nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 as the research object, the crystal characteristics of single-crystal materials were analysed, and the removal mechanism of single-crystal micro-milled parts was described. Based on molecular dynamics, a simulation model for nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 micro-milling was established. Based on the response surface method of central composite design, the influences of spindle speed, feed rate, and milling depth on the surface roughness were examined, and a second-order regression model of the DD98 surface roughness was established. Using analysis of variance and the residuals of the model, a significant influence on surface roughness was found in the following order from large to small: Feed rate, spindle speed, and milling depth. Comparisons were conducted between the micro-milling experimental values and the predicted model values for different process parameters. The results show that the model fit is relatively high, and the adaptability is good. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the micro-milling surfaces was performed to verify the slip and the removal mechanism of single-crystal materials. These results offer a theoretical reference and experimental basis for micro-milling of single-crystal materials.

  4. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Gupta, Vipul [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Huang, Shenyan [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Soare, Monica [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Zhao, Pengyang [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Wang, Yunzhi [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The goal of this project is to model long-term creep performance for nickel-base superalloy weldments in high temperature power generation systems. The project uses physics-based modeling methodologies and algorithms for predicting alloy properties in heterogeneous material structures. The modeling methodology will be demonstrated on a gas turbine combustor liner weldment of Haynes 282 precipitate-strengthened nickel-base superalloy. The major developments are: (1) microstructure-property relationships under creep conditions and microstructure characterization (2) modeling inhomogeneous microstructure in superalloy weld (3) modeling mesoscale plastic deformation in superalloy weld and (4) a constitutive creep model that accounts for weld and base metal microstructure and their long term evolution. The developed modeling technology is aimed to provide a more efficient and accurate assessment of a material’s long-term performance compared with current testing and extrapolation methods. This modeling technology will also accelerate development and qualification of new materials in advanced power generation systems. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from October 2014 to December 2016.

  5. Microstructure and deformation behavior of nickel based superalloy Inconel 740 prepared by electron beam smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yi, E-mail: tanyi@dlut.edu.cn; You, Xiaogang; You, Qifan; Li, Jiayan; Shi, Shuang; Li, Pengting

    2016-04-15

    activation energy Q. The EBS technology shows encouraging potential in preparation of nickel-based superalloys. Morphologies of γ′ precipitates and Vickers hardness as well as hot compression curves for electron beam smelting 740 superalloy. - Highlights: • Electron beam smelting, a novel method, was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. • The average size of the γ′ precipitates after aging treatment is < 30 nm. • The shearing mode generates a stronger strengthening effect than the traditional 740. • At low Zener-Hollomon parameter, the EBS 740 shows higher flow stress than 740H.

  6. Preparation and characterization of porous reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite nanocomposite for adsorption removal of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Choi, Yu-Lim [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Im-Soon [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jae-Kyu [Ingenium College of Liberal Arts, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koduru, Janardhan Reddy, E-mail: reddyjchem@gmail.com [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Young, E-mail: yychang@kw.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Novel porous Ferromagnetic, GONF and Superparamagnetic, rGONF preparation. • The nanosize particles GONF (41.14 nm) and rGONF (32.16 nm) preparation. • Adsorption mechanism and modeling developments for radionuclides. • Zeta potential and surface site density of nanocomposites for comparison. - Abstract: For the removal of uranium(VI) (U(VI)) and thorium(IV) (Th(IV)), graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite (GONF) nanocomposite and reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite (rGONF) nanocomposite were prepared by co-precipitation of GO with nickel and iron salts in one pot. The spectral characterization analyses revealed that GONF and rGONF have a porous surface morphology with an average particle size of 41.41 nm and 32.16 nm, respectively. The magnetic property measurement system (MPMS) studies confirmed the formation of ferromagnetic GONF and superparamagnetic rGONF. The adsorption kinetics studies found that the pseudo-second-order kinetics was well tune to the U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption. The results of adsorption isotherms showed that the adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) were due to the monolayer on homogeneous surface of the GONF and rGONF. The adsorptions of both U(VI) and Th(IV) were increased with increasing system temperature from 293 to 333 ± 2 K. The thermodynamic studies reveal that the U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption onto GONF and rGONF was endothermic. GONF and rGONF, which could be separated by external magnetic field, were recycled and re-used for up to five cycles without any significant loss of adsorption capacity.

  7. Microstructure, Mechanical and Wear Behaviors of Hot-Pressed Copper-Nickel-Based Materials for Diamond Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G.; Ferreira, P.; Buciumeanu, M.; Cabral, A.; Fredel, M.; Silva, F. S.; Henriques, B.

    2017-08-01

    The current trend to replace cobalt in diamond cutting tools (DCT) for stone cutting has motivated the study of alternative materials for this end. The present study characterizes several copper-nickel-based materials (Cu-Ni; Cu-Ni-10Sn, Cu-Ni-15Sn, Cu-Ni-Sn-2WC and Cu-Ni-Sn-10WC) for using as matrix material for diamond cutting tools for stone. Copper-nickel-based materials were produced by hot pressing, at a temperature of 850 °C during 15 min and under an applied pressure of 50 MPa. The mechanical properties were evaluated though the shear strength and hardness values. The microstructures and fracture surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The wear behavior of all specimens was assessed using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer. The hot pressing produced compacts with good densification. Sn and WC promoted enhanced mechanical properties and wear performance to Cu-Ni alloys. Cu-Ni-10Sn and Cu-Ni-10Sn-2WC displayed the best compromise between mechanical and wear performance.

  8. Brushing-induced surface roughness of two nickel based alloys and a titanium based alloy: a comparative study - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B L Guruprasanna; Nadiger, Ramesh; Shetty, Bharathraj; Gururaj, G; Kumar, K Naveen; Darshan, D D

    2014-06-01

    toothpastes with the medium abrasives in patients with these restorations. How to cite the article: Acharya BL, Nadiger R, Shetty B, Gururaj G, Kumar KN, Darshan DD. Brushing induced surface roughness of two nickel based alloys and a titanium based alloy: A comparative study - In vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):36-49.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray determination, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of new dinuclear nickel(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes containing double Schiff base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Ozbakzaei, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, S Ahmad

    2015-04-05

    A series of new bimetallic complexes of nickel(II) and vanadium(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of the new double bidentate Schiff base ligands with nickel acetate and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 1:1 M ratio. In nickel and also vanadyl complexes the ligands were coordinated to the metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The complexes have been found to possess 1:1 metals to ligands stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The nickel and vanadyl complexes exhibited distorted square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. The emission spectra of the ligands and their complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligands and their metal complexes were also investigated in DMSO solvent at 150 mV s(-1) scan rate. The ligands and metal complexes showed both quasi-reversible and irreversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and conductometry. The crystal structure of the nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Theoretical investigation of the mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction using nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Jiamao; Deng, Bing; Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Shuo, E-mail: lishuo@cqut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: tanzhaoyi@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four-step dehydrogenation of CT{sub 4} catalyzed by Ni to form Ni–C by releasing T{sub 2}. • The process of Ni + CT{sub 4} → NiCT{sub 2} + T{sub 2} is more achievable than that of NiCT{sub 2} → NiC + T{sub 2}. • TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC step is the RDS with the rate constant of k = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT). • The hydrogen isotope effect value of k{sub H}/k{sub T} is 2.94, and k{sub D}/k{sub T} is 1.39. • CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} dehydrogenations are likely to occur, accompanied by the CT{sub 4} cracking. - Abstract: The mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by nickel-based catalyst was investigated in detail by density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/[6-311++G(d, p), SDD] level. The computational results indicated that the dehydrogenation of tritiated methane is endothermic. The decomposition of tritiated methane catalyzed by Ni to form Ni-based carbon (Ni–C) after a four-step dehydrogenation companied with releasing tritium. After the first and second dehydrogenation steps, Ni + CT{sub 4} formed NiCT{sub 2}. After the third and fourth dehydrogenation steps, NiCT{sub 2} formed NiC. The first and second steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and triplet states, and the lowest energy route is Ni + CT{sub 4} → {sup 1}COM → {sup 1}TS1 → {sup 3}IM1 → {sup 3}TS2 → {sup 3}IM2. The third and fourth steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and quintet states, and the minimum energy reaction pathway appeared to be IM3 → {sup 1}TS4 → {sup 5}IM4 → {sup 5}TS5 → {sup 5}IM5 → {sup 5}pro + T{sub 2}. The fourth step of dehydrogenation TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC was the rate-determining step of the entire reaction with the rate constant of k{sub 2} = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT) (in cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}), and its activation energy barrier was calculated to be 51.8 kcal/mol. The Ni-catalyzed CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} cracking

  11. High Temperature Low Cycle Fatigue Data for Three High Strength Nickel-Base Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The tensile and creep properties of Rene 95 are summarized in Table 6. 14 TABLE 5 CRDMICAL COMPOSITION OF RENE 95* Nickel 61 Chromium 14 Cobalt 8... Stent , Mar-Test Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio June 1980 TECHNICAL REPORT AFWAL-TR-80-4077 Final Report for Period May 1976 - September 1978 Approved for...tantalum, and hafnium; and depleted in chromium , a M23C6 carbide former. The grain size of the as-HIP AF-115 was ASTM #7.0 (30p diameter), while the HIP

  12. Carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning during CO2 electrolysis in nickel-based solid oxide cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Blennow, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Graves, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 to CO and O2 in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) has the potential to play a crucial role in closing the CO2 loop. Carbon deposition in nickel-based cells is however fatal and must be considered during CO2 electrolysis. Here, the effect of operating parameters is investigated systematically using simple current-potential experiments. Due to variations of local conditions, it is shown that higher current density and lower fuel electrode porosity will cause local carbon formation at the electrochemical reaction sites despite operating with a CO outlet concentration outside the thermodynamic carbon formation region. Attempts at mitigating the issue by coating the composite nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode with carbon-inhibiting nanoparticles and by sulfur passivation proved unsuccessful. Increasing the fuel electrode porosity is shown to mitigate the problem, but only to a certain extent. This work shows that a typical SOEC stack converting CO2 to CO and O2 is limited to as little as 15-45% conversion due to risk of carbon formation. Furthermore, cells operated in CO2-electrolysis mode are poisoned by reactant gases containing ppb-levels of sulfur, in contrast to ppm-levels for operation in fuel cell mode.

  13. Utilization of greenhouse gases through dry reforming: screening of nickel-based bimetallic catalysts and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mun-Sing; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bhatia, Subhash

    2011-11-18

    A series of bimetallic catalysts containing nickel supported over MgO-ZrO2 were tested for activity in the dry reforming of carbon dioxide. A nickel-cobalt bimetallic catalyst gave the best performance in terms of conversion and coke resistance from a range of Ni-X bimetallic catalysts, X=Ca, K, Ba, La, and Ce. The nitrogen-adsorption and hydrogen-chemisorption studies showed the Ni-Co bimetallic supported catalyst to have good surface area with high metal dispersion. This contributed to the high catalytic activity, in terms of conversion activity and stability of the catalyst, at an equimolar methane/carbon dioxide feed ratio. The kinetics of methane dry reforming are studied in a fixed-bed reactor over an Ni-Co bimetallic catalyst in the temperature range 700-800 °C by varying the partial pressures of CH4 and CO2. The experimental data were analyzed based on the proposed reaction mechanism using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The activation energies for methane and carbon dioxide consumption were estimated at 52.9 and 48.1 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The lower value of CO2 activation energy compared to the activation energy of CH4 indicated a higher reaction rate of CO2, which owes to the strong basicity of nanocrystalline support, MgO-ZrO2.

  14. Increase oil recovery of heavy oil in combustion tube using a new catalyst based nickel ionic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Garnica, M.A.; Hernandez-Perez, J.R.; Cabrera-Reves, M.C.; Schacht-Hernandez, P. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An ionic liquid-based nickel catalyst was used in conjunction with a combustion tube as an in situ process for heavy oil. The experimental system was comprised of a fluid injection system; a combustion tube; a fluid production system; a gas chromatograph; and a data recording system. Injected nitrogen and air was controlled by a mass flow controller. Nitrogen was used to pressurize the combustion tube and flush the system. Air was injected at a rate of 3 L per minute throughout the combustion run. Liquids leaving the combustion tube passed through a 2-stage separation process. Gases passing through the condenser were kept at low temperatures. Fractions of produced gas were analyzed by the chromatograph. Data loggers were used to obtain data at 30 second intervals. Two combustion experiments were conducted to obtain production times, temperature profiles, and the quality of the oil produced by the catalyst. Combustion tests were conducted with and without the catalyst. An analysis of the experimental data showed that use of the nickel catalyst resulted in increases in oil production as well as higher combustion efficiencies. Use of the catalyst also resulted in a faster combustion front and accelerated oil production. It was concluded that the produced oil contained fewer impurities than oil produced during the control experiment. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Effects of composition and testing conditions on oxidation behavior of four cast commercial nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, C. E.; Probst, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    Four cast nickel-base superalloys were oxidized at 1000 and 1100 C for times up to 100 hr in static air and a Mach 1 gas stream. The oxidation resistance was judged by weight change, metal thickness loss, depletion-zone formation, and oxide formation and morphology. The alloys which formed mostly nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) (B-1900, VIA, and to a lesser extent 713C) were more oxidation resistant. Poorer oxidation resistance was associated with the appearance of chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and chromite spinel (738X). Refractory metal content had little effect on oxidation resistance. Refractory metals appeared in the scale as tapiolite (NiM2O6, where M represents the refractory metal). Thermal cycling in static air appeared to supply sufficient data for the evaluation of oxidation resistance, especially for alloys which form oxides of low volatility. For alloys of higher chromium levels with high propensities toward forming a chromium-bearing scale of higher volatility, testing under conditions of high gas velocity is necessary to assess fully the behavior of the alloy.

  16. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  17. Magnetoliposomes based on nickel/silica core/shell nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O.; Gomes, I.T.; Almeida, Bernardo G. [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Araújo, J.P. [IFIMUP/IN – Instituto de Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, R. Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Castanheira, Elisabete M.S. [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Coutinho, Paulo J.G., E-mail: pcoutinho@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, nickel magnetic nanoparticles with diameters lower than 100 nm, with and without silica shell, were synthesized by microheterogeneous templating. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with a coercive field of 80 Oe. Dry magnetoliposomes (DMLs) with diameter between 58 nm and 76 nm were obtained from the synthesis of nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid or surfactant layer, and aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs) were obtained by encapsulation of the nanoparticles in liposomes. FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) experiments were performed to study the non-specific interactions between aqueous magnetoliposomes and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), as models of cell membranes. It was possible to detect membrane fusion between GUVs and AMLs containing both NBD-C{sub 6}-HPC (donor) and the dye Nile Red (acceptor). - Highlights: • Magnetic nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in microheterogeneous media. • The nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell to improve biocompatibility. • Aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes were prepared, the latter with diameter around 70 nm. • Membrane fusion between magnetoliposomes and models of cell membranes was detected by FRET.

  18. Pulsed Electrodeposited Nickel – Cerium for Hydrogen Production Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaranjani, T; Revathy, T A; Dhanapal, K; Narayanan, V; A. Stephen

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The approach of alloying different elements results in new alloy phase with exclusive properties that could be a potential candidate in various applications. In the present work an attempt has been made to electrodeposit Nickel-Cerium (NiCe) alloy. Nickel is an intriguing metal with much availability in earth's crust. The catalytic power of Nickel based alloys towards hydrogen evolution reaction has been already reported for Nickel-Metal alloys, NiO/Ni and Nickel-Rare ...

  19. Surface Reaction Kinetics of Steam- and CO2-Reforming as Well as Oxidation of Methane over Nickel-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Herrera Delgado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and kinetic modeling study on the Ni-catalyzed conversion of methane under oxidative and reforming conditions is presented. The numerical model is based on a surface reaction mechanism consisting of 52 elementary-step like reactions with 14 surface and six gas-phase species. Reactions for the conversion of methane with oxygen, steam, and CO2 as well as methanation, water-gas shift reaction and carbon formation via Boudouard reaction are included. The mechanism is implemented in a one-dimensional flow field description of a fixed bed reactor. The model is evaluated by comparison of numerical simulations with data derived from isothermal experiments in a flow reactor over a powdered nickel-based catalyst using varying inlet gas compositions and operating temperatures. Furthermore, the influence of hydrogen and water as co-feed on methane dry reforming with CO2 is also investigated.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel, nickel-base alloy and its weldments in aqueous LiBr solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Garcia-Garcia, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. E.T.S.I.Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012 E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    With the advances in materials production new alloys have been developed, such as High- Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steels and Nickel-base alloys, with high corrosion resistance. These new alloys are finding applications in Lithium Bromide absorption refrigeration systems, because LiBr is a corrosive medium which can cause serious corrosion problems, in spite of its favourable properties as absorbent. The objective of the present work was to study the corrosion resistance of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031) used as base metal, a Nickel-base alloy (UNS N06059) used as its corresponding filler metal, and the weld metal obtained by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) procedure. The materials have been tested in different LiBr solutions (400 g/l, 700 g/l, 850 g/l and a commercial 850 g/l LiBr heavy brine containing Lithium Chromate as corrosion inhibitor), at 25 deg. C. Open Circuit Potential tests and potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves have been carried out to obtain information about the general electrochemical behaviour of the materials. The polarization curves of all the alloys tested were typical of passivable materials. Pitting corrosion susceptibility has been evaluated by means of cyclic potentiodynamic curves, which provide parameters to analyse re-passivation properties. The galvanic corrosion generated by the electrical contact between the welded and the base material has been estimated from the polarization diagrams according to the Mixed Potential Method. Samples have been etched to study the microstructure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrate that the pitting resistance of all these materials increases as the LiBr concentration decreases. In general, the presence of chromate tended to shift the pitting potential to more positive values than those obtained in the 850 g/l LiBr solution. (authors)

  1. Optimization of Squeeze Casting Parameters for 2017 A Wrought Al Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Souissi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Taguchi method to investigate the relationship between the ultimate tensile strength, hardness and process variables in a squeeze casting 2017 A wrought aluminium alloy. The effects of various casting parameters including squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die temperature were studied. Therefore, the objectives of the Taguchi method for the squeeze casting process are to establish the optimal combination of process parameters and to reduce the variation in quality between only a few experiments. The experimental results show that the squeeze pressure significantly affects the microstructure and the mechanical properties of 2017 A Al alloy.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  3. Nickel based alloys as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution from alkaline solutions. [Metal--air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.W.T.; Srinivasan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The slowness of the oxygen evolution reaction is one of the main reasons for significant energy losses in water electrolysis cells and secondary air--metal batteries. To date, data on the kinetics of this reaction on alloys and intermetallic compounds are sparse. In this work, mechanically polished alloys of nickel with Ir, Ru or W and Ni--Ti intermetallic compounds were studied as oxygen electrodes. Since the oxygen evolution reaction always takes place on oxide-film covered surfaces, the nature of oxide films formed on these alloys were investigated using cyclic voltametric techniques. Steady-state potentiostatic and slow potentiodynamic (at 0.1 mV/s) methods were employed to obtain the electrode kinetic parameters for the oxygen evolution reaction in 30 wt. percent KOH at 80/sup 0/C, the conditions normally used in water electrolysis cells. The peaks for the formation or reduction of oxygen-containing layers appearing on the pure metals are not always found on the alloys. The maximum decreases in oxygen overpotential at an apparent current density of 20 mA cm/sup -2/ (as compared with that on Ni) were found for the alloys of 50Ni--50Ir and 75Ni--25Ru and the intermetallic compound Ni/sub 3/Ti, these decreases being about 40, 30, and 20 mV, respectively. On the long-term polarization in the potential region of oxygen evolution, the oxygen-containing layers on Ni--Ir or Ni--Ru alloys are essentially composed of nickel oxides instead of true mixed oxide films of two components. The present work confirms that, possibly because of coverage by oxide films, there is no direct dependence of the electrocatalytic activities of the alloys on their electronic properties. 11 figures, 1 table.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of a new tridentate Schiff base ligand and its nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Soleymanpour, Ahmad; Kholghi Oskouei, Nasim; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, Seyyed Ahmad

    2014-07-15

    A new unsymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligand was derived from the 1:1M condensation of ortho-vanillin with 2-mercaptoethylamine. Nickel and palladium complexes were obtained by the reaction of the tridentate Schiff base ligand with nickel(II) acetate tetrahydrate and palladium(II) acetate in 2:1M ratio. In nickel and palladium complexes the ligand was coordinated to metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The S groups of Schiff bases were not coordinated to the metals and S-S coupling was occured. The complexes have been found to possess 1:2 Metal:Ligand stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The complexes exhibited octahedral coordination geometry. The emission spectra of the ligand and its complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligand and its metal complexes were investigated in the CH3CN solvent at the 100 mV s(-1) scan rate. The ligand and metal complexes showed both reversible and quasi-reversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff base and its complexes have been characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, UV/Vis, elemental analyses and conductometry. The crystal structure of nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Qi, Shuhua; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Yongqing; Duan, Guochen

    2011-11-01

    Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheets (GNs). Then a novel polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive (acrylate PSA) filled with Ni/GNs were fabricated by solution blend method. The Ni/GNs and acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All results showed that relatively uniform and compact Ni layer is successfully coated onto GNs under the given conditions, furthermore, Ni/GNs are homogeneously dispersed in acrylate PSA. The VSM results showed that the saturation magnetization of acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites increases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs while the coercivity decreases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs. When the content of GNs is 20 wt%, acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites exhibites good mechanical properties.

  6. On the Time-Temperature-Transformation Behavior of a New Dual-Superlattice Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanelli, P. M.; Jones, N. G.; Hardy, M. C.; Stone, H. J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent research has identified compositions of nickel-based superalloys with microstructures containing appreciable and comparable volume fractions of γ' and γ″ precipitates. In this work, an alloy capable of forming such a dual-superlattice microstructure was subjected to a range of thermal exposures between 873 K and 1173 K (600 °C and 900 °C) for durations of 1 to 1000 hours. The microstructures and nature of the precipitating phases were characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. These data have enabled the construction of a T-T-T diagram for the precipitating phases. Hardness measurements following each thermal exposure have identified the age-hardening behavior of this alloy and allowed preliminary mechanical properties to be assessed.

  7. Influences of Holes Arrangement on Creep Characteristic of Nickel-Base Single Crystal Alloy Blade Cooling Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Film cooling technology is developed to enhance the temperature resistant of nickel-base single crystal alloy blade. The shape, dimension, and arrangement of cooling holes impact the blade strength and life grievously. In this paper, the influences of holes arrangement on creep characteristic of cooling holes in the plate sample are investigated. The constitutive model for creep considering both cavitation and degradation damage is developed to predict the creep behavior of cooling holes. Results show that there are stress interferences among cooling holes. The distance and radius of the cooling holes impact the creep behavior of cooling holes seriously. Decreasing horizontal distance of the holes results in creep time reducing. On the contrary, increasing the vertical distance of the holes makes the creep time reduced.

  8. Self-learning ability realized with a resistive switching device based on a Ni-rich nickel oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Z.; Yu, Y. F.; Yu, Q.; Li, P.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    The resistive switching device based on a Ni-rich nickel oxide thin film exhibits an inherent learning ability of a neural network. The device has the short-term-memory and long-term-memory functions analogous to those of the human brain, depending on the history of its experience of voltage pulsing or sweeping. Neuroplasticity could be realized with the device, as the device can be switched from a high-resistance state to a low-resistance state due to the formation of stable filaments by a series of electrical pulses, resembling the changes such as the growth of new connections and the creation of new neurons in the brain in response to experience.

  9. Effects of silicon on the oxidation, hot-corrosion, and mechanical behavior of two cast nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Cast specimens of nickel-base superalloys 713C and Mar-M200 with nominal additions of 0, 0.5, and 1 wt% Si were evaluated for oxidation and corrosion resistance, tensile and stress-rupture properties, microstructure, and phase relations. Results are compared with those of an earlier study of the effects of Si in B-1900. Si had similar effects on all three superalloys. It improves oxidation resistance but the improvement in 713C and Mar-M200 was considerably less than in B-1900. Hot-corrosion resistance is also improved somewhat. Si is, however, detrimental to mechanical properties, in particular, rupture strength and tensile ductility. Si has two obvious microstructural effects. It increases the amount of gamma-prime precipitated in eutectic nodules and promotes a Mo(Ni,Si)2 Laves phase in the alloys containing Mo. These microstructural effects do not appear responsible for the degradation of mechanical properties, however.

  10. Hot corrosion studies of four nickel-base superalloys: B-1900, NASA-TRW VIA, 713C and IN738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The susceptibility to hot corrosion of four nickel base superalloys has been studied at 900 deg and 1000 deg C in one atmosphere of slowly flowing oxygen. Hot corrosion was induced by coating the samples with known doses of NaSO4 and oxidizing the coated samples isothermally on a sensitive microbalance. In general, the order of susceptibility found was: B-1900 is greater than 713C is greater than NASA-TRW VIA and is greater than IN738. This order corresponds to the order of decreasing molybdenum content of the alloys. Chemical evidence for B-1900 indicates that hot corrosion is instigated by acid fluxing of the protective Al2O3 coating by MoO3.

  11. Hot corrosion studies of four nickel-base superalloys - B-1900, NASA-TRW VIA, 713C and IN738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The susceptibility to hot corrosion of four nickel-base superalloys has been studied at 900 and 1000 C in one atmosphere of slowly flowing oxygen. Hot corrosion was induced by coating the samples with known doses of Na2SO4 and oxidizing the coated samples isothermally on a sensitive microbalance. In order of decending susceptibility to hot corrosion, these alloys were ranked: B-1900, 713C, NASA-TRW VIA, IN738. This order corresponds to the order of decreasing molybdenum content of the alloys. Chemical evidence for B-1900 indicates that hot corrosion is instigated by acid fluxing of the protective Al2O3 coating by MoO3.

  12. Influences of processing parameters on microstructure during investment casting of nickel-base single crystal superalloy DD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sifeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of solidification variables on the as-cast microstructures of nickel-base single crystal superalloy DD3 have been investigated by using the modified Bridgman apparatus. The experiments were performed under a thermal gradient of approximately 45 K·cm-1 and at withdrawal rates ranging from 30 to 200 m·s-1. The experimental results show that the primary and secondary dendritic arm spacings (PDAS and SDAS decrease when the withdrawal rate is increased. Compared with the theoretical models of PDAS, the results are in good agreement with Trivedi’s model. The relationships of PDAS and SDAS with withdrawal rates can be described as l1 = 649.7V -0.24±0.02 and l2 = 281V -0.32±0.03, respectively. In addition, the size of the γ′ phase significantly decreases with increasing withdrawal rate.

  13. Effect of Laser Power on Metallurgical, Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of Hardfaced Surfaces of Nickel-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, S.; Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2017-10-01

    In this present work, nickel based alloy was deposited on 316 LN austenitic stainless steel (ASS) by a laser hardfacing technique to investigate the influence of laser power on macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, dilution and wear characteristics. The laser power varied from 1.1 to 1.9 kW. The phase constitution, microstructure and microhardness were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The wear characteristics of the hardfaced surfaces and substrate were evaluated at room temperature (RT) under dry sliding wear condition (pin-on-disc). The outcome demonstrates that as the laser power increases, dilution increases and hardness of the deposit decreases. This is because excess heat melts more volume of substrate material and increases the dilution; subsequently it decreases the hardness of the deposit. The microstructure of the deposit is characterized by Ni-rich carbide, boride and silicide.

  14. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures, electrochemistry and theoretical investigation of a tetradentate nickel and copper Schiff base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, Samra; Djedouani, Amel; Anak, Barkahem; Tabti, Salima; Bendaas, Abderrahmen; Bencharif, Mustapha; François, Michel; Fleutot, Solenne; Rabilloud, Franck

    2017-11-01

    New tetradentate mononuclear nickel(II) [NiL] and pentadentate binuclear copper(II) [Cu2L2H2O], H2O Schiff base complexes have been synthesized. The crystal structures of [NiL] and [Cu2L2H2O], H2O have been determined by X-ray diffraction method showing distorted square-planar geometry for [NiL] and distorted tetragonal pyramid geometry for [Cu2L2H2O], H2O. In both complexes, the dehydroacetic acid functional group engages in a deprotonated manner and coordination occurs through the nitrogen atoms of the imine function and the phenolic oxygen. Density Functional Theory calculations are carried out for the determination of the optimized structures. The fundamental vibrational wave numbers are calculated and a good agreement between observed and calculated wave numbers is achieved.

  15. MACROPHYTES AS EŁK RIVER QUALITY STATUS EVALUATION INDICATORS BASED ON EXAMPLE OF NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the content of Ni in fractions of 1.0–0.2 mm, 0.2–0.1 mm, 0.1–0.063 mm, 0.063–0.02 mm, and Typha latifolia, yellow water lilies (Nuphar lutea, and cowbane (Cicuta virosa. Nickel content in bottom sediment was slightly higher than the geochemical background. The largest amounts of Ni were associated with the finest fraction, while the smallest with the thickest fraction. The highest content of this element was recorded at the point Ełk Barany, which was connected with developing industry in the city of Ełk. All of the tested plants showed greater Ni contents than the amount naturally occurring in plants. In most cases, most of Ni was associated with plant roots, and the least with leaves. It has been proven that aquatic plants can be good indicators of the aquatic environment status.

  16. Synthesis, Electrochemical, Spectroscopic, Antimicrobial, and Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Nickel (II Complexes with Bidentate Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new nickel (II complexes, namely, [Ni(L12](ClO42(1; [Ni(L22](ClO42(2; [Ni(L32](ClO42(3; [Ni(L42](ClO42(4; [Ni(L52](ClO42(5, where L1 = benzoylhydrazide; L2 = N-[(1-1-(2-methylphenylethylidene]benzohydrazide; L3=N-[(1-1-(4-methylphenylethylidene]benzohydrazide; L4=N-[(1-1-(2-methoxyphenylethylidene]benzohydrazide; L5 = N-[(1-1-(4-methoxy-phenylethylidene]benzohydrazide, have been synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized complexes are stable powders, insoluble in common organic solvents such as ethanol, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and diethyl ether, and are nonelectrolytes. The magnetic and spectroscopic data indicate a distorted square planar geometry for all complexes. The superoxide dismutase activity of these complexes has been measured and discussed. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of these complexes were also tested.

  17. Production of High-Purity Anhydrous Nickel(II) Perrhenate for Tungsten-Based Sintered Heavy Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska-Sejda, Katarzyna; Benke, Grzegorz; Kopyto, Dorota; Majewski, Tomasz; Drzazga, Michał

    2017-04-24

    This paper presents a method for the production of high-purity anhydrous nickel(II) perrhenate. The method comprises sorption of nickel(II) ions from aqueous nickel(II) nitrate solutions, using strongly acidic C160 cation exchange resin, and subsequent elution of sorbed nickel(II) ions using concentrated perrhenic acid solutions. After the neutralization of the resulting rhenium-nickel solutions, hydrated nickel(II) perrhenate is then separated and then dried at 160 °C to obtain the anhydrous form. The resulting compound is reduced in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia in order to produce a Re-Ni alloy powder. This study provides information on the selected properties of the resulting Re-Ni powder. This powder was used as a starting material for the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni heavy alloys. Microstructure examination results and selected properties of the produced sintered heavy alloys were compared to sintered alloys produced using elemental W, Re, and Ni powders. This study showed that the application of anhydrous nickel(II) perrhenate in the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni results in better properties of the sintered alloys compared to those made from elemental powders.

  18. Production of High-Purity Anhydrous Nickel(II Perrhenate for Tungsten-Based Sintered Heavy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Leszczyńska-Sejda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the production of high-purity anhydrous nickel(II perrhenate. The method comprises sorption of nickel(II ions from aqueous nickel(II nitrate solutions, using strongly acidic C160 cation exchange resin, and subsequent elution of sorbed nickel(II ions using concentrated perrhenic acid solutions. After the neutralization of the resulting rhenium-nickel solutions, hydrated nickel(II perrhenate is then separated and then dried at 160 °C to obtain the anhydrous form. The resulting compound is reduced in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia in order to produce a Re-Ni alloy powder. This study provides information on the selected properties of the resulting Re-Ni powder. This powder was used as a starting material for the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni heavy alloys. Microstructure examination results and selected properties of the produced sintered heavy alloys were compared to sintered alloys produced using elemental W, Re, and Ni powders. This study showed that the application of anhydrous nickel(II perrhenate in the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni results in better properties of the sintered alloys compared to those made from elemental powders.

  19. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  20. Structural evaluation of a nickel base super alloy metal foam via NDE and finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Abumeri, G.; Garg, Mohit; Young, P. G.

    2008-03-01

    Cellular materials are known to be useful in the application of designing light but stiff structures. This applies to various components used in various industries such as rotorcraft blades, car bodies or portable electronic devices. Structural application of the metal foam is typically confined to light weight sandwich panels, made up of thin solid face sheets and a metallic foam core. The resulting high-stiffness structure is lighter than that constructed only out of the solid metal material. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads and the role of the foam core is separate the face sheets to carry some of the shear stresses, while remaining integral with the face sheet. Many challenges relating to the fabrication and testing of these metal foam panels continue to exist due to some mechanical properties falling short of their theoretical potential. Hence in this study, a detailed three dimensional foam structure is generated using series of 2D Computer Tomography (CT) scans, on Haynes 25 metal foam. Series of the 2D images are utilized to construct a high precision solid model including all the fine details within the metal foam as detected by the CT scanning technique. Subsequently, a finite element analysis is then performed on an as fabricated metal foam microstructures to evaluate the foam structural durability and behavior under tensile and compressive loading conditions. The analysis includes a progressive failure analysis (PFA) using GENOA code to further assess the damage initiation, propagation, and failure. The open cell metal foam material is a cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten alloy that combines excellent high-temperature strength with good resistance to oxidizing environments up to 1800 °F (980 °C) for prolonged exposures. The foam is formed by a powder metallurgy process with an approximate 100 pores per inch (PPI).

  1. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier; Resultats de l'experimentation sur un pilote operant en boucle chimique avec un materiau transporteur d'oxygene a base de nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proll, T.; Kolbitsch, P.; Bolhar-Nordenkampf, J.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, Vienna 1060 (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas). The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH{sub 4} conversion) and 92% (CO{sub 2} yield). In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900 C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH{sub 4}) without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO{sub 2}-ready coupled production of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. (authors)

  3. Nickel-based alloy/austenitic stainless steel dissimilar weld properties prediction on asymmetric distribution of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyu; Ma, Guangyi; Chai, Dongsheng; Niu, Fangyong; Dong, Jinfei; Wu, Dongjiang; Zou, Helin

    2016-07-01

    A properties prediction method of Nickel-based alloy (C-276)/austenitic stainless steel (304) dissimilar weld was proposed and validated based on the asymmetric distribution of laser energy. Via the dilution level DC-276 (the ratio of the melted C-276 alloy), the relations between the weld properties and the energy offset ratio EC-276 (the ratio of the irradiated energy on the C-276 alloy) were built, and the effects of EC-276 on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar welds were analyzed. The element distribution Cweld and EC-276 accorded with the lever rule due to the strong convention of the molten pool. Based on the lever rule, it could be predicted that the microstructure mostly consists of γ phase in each weld, the δ-ferrite phase formation was inhibited and the intermetallic phase (P, μ) formation was promoted with the increase of EC-276. The ultimate tensile strength σb of the weld joint could be predicted by the monotonically increasing cubic polynomial model stemming from the strengthening of elements Mo and W. The corrosion potential U, corrosion current density I in the active region and EC-276 also met the cubic polynomial equations, and the corrosion resistance of the dissimilar weld was enhanced with the increasing EC-276, mainly because the element Mo could help form a steady passive film which will resist the Cl- ingress.

  4. Hole mobility modulation of solution-processed nickel oxide thin-film transistor based on high-k dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia, E-mail: gxliu@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: fukaishan@yahoo.com; Zhu, Huihui; Shan, Fukai, E-mail: gxliu@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: fukaishan@yahoo.com [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Lab of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Shin, Byoungchul [Electronic Ceramics Center, DongEui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [Department of Materials Science/CENIMAT-I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-06-06

    Solution-processed p-type oxide semiconductors have recently attracted increasing interests for the applications in low-cost optoelectronic devices and low-power consumption complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. In this work, p-type nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) thin films were prepared using low-temperature solution process and integrated as the channel layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical properties of NiO{sub x} TFTs, together with the characteristics of NiO{sub x} thin films, were systematically investigated as a function of annealing temperature. By introducing aqueous high-k aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric, the electrical performance of NiO{sub x} TFT was improved significantly compared with those based on SiO{sub 2} dielectric. Particularly, the hole mobility was found to be 60 times enhancement, quantitatively from 0.07 to 4.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, which is mainly beneficial from the high areal capacitance of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric and high-quality NiO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This simple solution-based method for producing p-type oxide TFTs is promising for next-generation oxide-based electronic applications.

  5. Multi-objective constrained design of nickel-base superalloys using data mining- and thermodynamics-driven genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menou, Edern; Ramstein, Gérard; Bertrand, Emmanuel; Tancret, Franck

    2016-06-01

    A new computational framework for systematic and optimal alloy design is introduced. It is based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm which allows (i) the screening of vast compositional ranges and (ii) the optimisation of the performance of novel alloys. Alloys performance is evaluated on the basis of their predicted constitutional and thermomechanical properties. To this end, the CALPHAD method is used for assessing equilibrium characteristics (such as constitution, stability or processability) while Gaussian processes provide an estimate of thermomechanical properties (such as tensile strength or creep resistance), based on a multi-variable non-linear regression of existing data. These three independently well-assessed tools were unified within a single C++ routine. The method was applied to the design of affordable nickel-base superalloys for service in power plants, providing numerous candidates with superior expected microstructural stability and strength. An overview of the metallurgy of optimised alloys, as well as two detailed examples of optimal alloys, suggest that improvements over current commercial alloys are achievable at lower costs.

  6. Influence of void density on dislocation mechanisms of void shrinkage in nickel single crystal based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yanan

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate influence of void density on dislocation mechanism of void shrinkage in nickel single crystal. The simulation results show that the higher void density can accelerate the yield of nickel single crystal. During the compression, all the dislocations are emitted toward the other side of the voids, which causes the atoms on the void surface to move into the voids and finally leads to the shrinkage of the voids. There exist six types of dislocations during void shrinkage of nickel single crystal, and the densities of all the six types of dislocations increase with the increase in the void density. The increase of Shockley partial dislocations enhances the slip ability of nickel single crystal, so the void size decreases with the increase in the void density at a constant stain.

  7. Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry Based Study of Nickel-N-Allyl Urea and N-Allyl Thiourea Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eigenvalue, eigenvector and overlap matrix of nickel halide complex of N-allyl urea and N-allyl thiourea have been evaluated. Our results indicate that ligand field parameters (Dq, B’ and β evaluated earlier by electronic spectra are very close to values evaluated with the help of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Eigenvector analysis and population analysis shows that in bonding 4s, 4p, and 3dx2-y2, 3dyz orbitals of nickel are involved but the coefficient values differ in different complexes. Out of 4px, 4py, 4pz the involvement of either 4pz or 4py, is noticeable. The theoretically evaluated positions of infrared bands indicate that N-allyl urea is coordinated to nickel through its oxygen and N-allyl thiourea is coordinated to nickel through its sulphur which is in conformity with the experimental results.

  8. Mononuclear Nickel(II Complexes with Schiff Base Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity in Norbornene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nickel(II catalyst has manifested higher catalytic activity compared to that of other late transition metal catalysts for norbornene polymerization. Therefore, several structurally similar trans-nickel(II compounds of N,O-chelate bidentate ligands were synthesized and characterized. Both the electronic effect and the steric hindrance influence polymerization. The molecular structures of 2, 4 and 5 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  9. Characterization of a 12-pdr wrought-iron cannonball from the Akko 1 shipwreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvikel, D. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Stern, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    The Akko 1 shipwreck, discovered in Akko harbor, Israel, is the remains of an eastern Mediterranean brig built at the beginning of the 19th century. Among other finds, eleven cannonballs were found in the shipwreck and three of them were retrieved. Two of the cannonballs, the 9- and 24-pdrs, have been studied previously. The present study of the 12-pdr cannonball included γ-rays radiographic testing, XRF analysis, density measurements, optical microscopy and SEM-EDS observation, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure and slag analysis. The results revealed a quite homogenous microstructure of α-ferrite phase, with glassy, wüstite and fayalite slags, as typical for a wrought-iron—annealed product, a more complicated and an earlier technology, compared to the 9- and 24-pdr that were made of cast-iron. Ferritic cannonballs are extremely rare, especially in the 19th century, when cannonballs were manufactured of cast iron by the sand casting process. The different manufacturing methods may indicate a different place of fabrication, and an apparently earlier production date for the 12-pdr, which might have even been used as ballast. - Highlights: • Three cannonballs were retrieved from the 19th century Akko 1 shipwreck. • The 12-pdr differs from the 9- and 24-pdr cannonballs previously studied. • The 12-pdr was made of high quality annealed wrought-iron, not of cast-iron. • The technology used indicates a date earlier than the middle of the 19th century. • Perhaps the 12-pdr belonged to another navy than the other two or used as ballast.

  10. Thiocyanate ion-selective PVC membrane electrode based on N,N'-ethylene-bis(4-methylsalicylidineiminato)nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum Ardakani, M; Jamshidpour, M; Naeimi, H; Moradi, L

    2006-09-01

    A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode based on an N,N'-ethylene-bis(4-methyl-salicylidineiminato) nickel(II) [Ni(EBMSI)] complex as a carrier for a thiocyanate-selective electrode is reported. The influences of the membrane composition, pH and possible interfering anions were investigated based on the response properties of the electrode. The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of -58.9 +/- 0.7 mV decade(-1), over a wide pH range of 3.5 - 8.5 and a linear range of 1.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for thiocyanate. The detection limit of electrode was 3.1 x 10(-7) M SCN(-). The selectivity coefficients determined by a fixed interference method (FIM) indicate that a good discriminating ability towards the SCN- ion compared to other anions. The proposed sensor had a fast response time of about 5 - 15 s and could be used for at least 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potential. It was applied as an indicator electrode in the titration of thiocyanate with Ag+ and in the potentiometric determination of thiocyanate in saliva and urine samples.

  11. Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Nickel-Base Single Crystal Alloy with a Novel Ni-Cr-Co-Mo-W-Ta-Re-B Amorphous Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Qiang; Peng, Peng; Zhu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    A novel Ni-Cr-Co-W-Mo-Ta-Re-B alloy consisting of plate γ and M23B6 phases was prepared as interlayer for the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of Rene' N5 nickel-base single crystal superalloy. The molten Ni-Cr-Co-W-Mo-Ta-Re-B alloy exhibited an excellent wettability on the nickel-base superalloy. The TLP bonding experiment has been carried out in vacuum furnace at 1,240 ° for 12 h and followed by post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1,305 ° for 4 h. PWHT eliminated the intermetallic compounds and promoted the formation of γ´ precipitates in the bonding region. A more uniform microhardness profile of TLP joint was found after PWHT. The shear strength of the joint after PWHT significantly increased to 533.4 MPa compared with the value of 437.2 MPa without PWHT.

  12. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy

    OpenAIRE

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D?Souza, Neil; David M. Collins; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening w...

  13. Label-free attomolar detection of lactate based on radio frequency sputtered of nickel oxide thin film field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Majd, Samira; Salimi, Abdollah; Astinchap, Bandar

    2017-06-15

    The radio frequency sputtered nickel oxide thin film nanostrtablucture deposited on glass substrate was used as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective field effect transistor-type lactate biosensor. Firstly, NiO-FET was tested for NADH detection showing a linear concentration range 1aM to 1nM and a low detection limit of 0.2aM. Then, NiO surface modified with chitosan and functionalized with glutaraldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme was immobilized on the aldehyde terminal. The biosensor is found to exhibit highly efficient sensing response characteristics with good linearity of 1aM to 1pM and low limit of detection of 0.5aM. The biosensor shows high stability without interferences from commonly interfering compounds in biological fluids, including uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose and acetaminophen. Furthermore, the application of the proposed biosensor for analysis of lactate in artificial serum samples was evaluated with good satisfactory results. This protocol can be used to develop of disposable, low cost, and portable various types of dehydrogenase based biosensor devices using metal oxide nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Specific Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel-Base Intermetallic Alloy Deposited by Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Chandra, Kamlesh; Vishwanadh, B.; Kishore, R.; Viswanadham, C. S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the microstructural features and mechanical properties of nickel-base intermetallic alloy laser-clad layers on stainless steel-316 L substrate, with specific attention on the effect of laser-specific energy input (defined as the energy required per unit of the clad mass, kJ/g) on the microstructure and properties of the clad layer, keeping the other laser-cladding parameters same. Defect-free clad layers were observed, in which various solidified zones could be distinguished: planar crystallization near the substrate/clad interface, followed by cellular and dendritic morphology towards the surface of the clad layer. The clad layers were characterized by the presence of a hard molybdenum-rich hexagonal close-packed (hcp) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in a relatively softer face-centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution or a fine lamellar eutectic phase mixture of an intermetallic Laves phase and gamma solid solution. The microstructure and properties of the clad layers showed a strong correlation with the laser-specific energy input. As the specific energy input increased, the dilution of the clad layer increased and the microstructure changed from a hypereutectic structure (with a compact dispersion of characteristic primary hard intermetallic Laves phase in eutectic phase mixture) to near eutectic or hypoeutectic structure (with reduced fraction of primary hard intermetallic Laves phase) with a corresponding decrease in the clad layer hardness.

  15. Effect of Notches on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of a P/M Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Timothy P.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gayda, John, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine and model the effect of high temperature dwells on notched low cycle fatigue (NLCF) and notch stress rupture behavior of a fine grain LSHR powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy. It was shown that a 90 second dwell applied at the minimum stress (min dwell) was considerably more detrimental to the NLCF lives than similar dwell applied at the maximum stress (max dwell). The short min dwell NLCF lives were shown to be caused by growth of small oxide blisters which caused preferential cracking when coupled with high concentrated notch root stresses. The cyclic max dwell notch tests failed mostly by a creep accumulation, not by fatigue, with the crack origin shifting internally to a substantial distance away from the notch root. The classical von Mises plastic flow model was unable to match the experimental results while the hydrostatic stress profile generated using the Drucker-Prager plasticity flow model was consistent with the experimental findings. The max dwell NLCF and notch stress rupture tests exhibited substantial creep notch strengthening. The triaxial Bridgman effective stress parameter was able to account for the notch strengthening by collapsing the notched and uniform gage geometry test data into a singular grouping.

  16. Static and dynamic cyclic oxidation of 12 nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base high-temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, C. A.; Johnston, J. R.; Sanders, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve typical high-temperature nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys were tested by 1 hr cyclic exposures at 1038, 1093, and 1149 C and 0.05 hr exposures at 1093 C. The alloys were tested in both a dynamic burner rig at Mach 0.3 gas flow and in static air furnace for times up to 100 hr. The alloys were evaluated in terms of specific weight loss as a function of time, and X-ray diffraction analysis and metallographic examination of the posttest specimens. A method previously developed was used to estimate specific metal weight loss from the specific weight change of the sample. The alloys were then ranked on this basis. The burner-rig test was more severe than a comparable furnace test and resulted in an increased tendency for oxide spalling due to volatility of Cr in the protective scale and the more drastic cooling due to the air-blast quench of the samples. Increased cycle frequency also increased the tendency to spall for a given test exposure. The behavior of the alloys in both types of tests was related to their composition and their tendency to form scales. The alloys with the best overall behavior formed alpha-Al2O3 aluminate spinels.

  17. Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model for High Temperature Flow Stress in a Nickel-Based Corrosion-Resistant Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Liu, F.; Cheng, J. J.; Zuo, Q.; Chen, C. F.

    2016-04-01

    Hot deformation behavior of Nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloy (N08028) was studied in compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1050-1200 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The flow stress behavior and microstructural evolution were observed during the hot deformation process. The results show that the flow stress increases with deformation temperature decreasing and strain rate increasing, and that the deformation activation energy ( Q) is not a constant but increases with strain rate increasing at a given strain, which is closely related with dislocation movement. On this basis, a revised strain-dependent hyperbolic sine constitutive model was established, which considered that the "material constants" in the original model vary as functions of the strain and strain rate. The flow curves of N08028 alloy predicted by the proposed model are in good agreement with the experimental results, which indicates that the revised constitutive model can estimate precisely the flow curves of N08028 alloy.

  18. Influence of High-Current-Density Impulses on the Compression Behavior: Experiments with Iron and a Nickel-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demler, E.; Gerstein, G.; Dalinger, A.; Epishin, A.; Rodman, D.; Nürnberger, F.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties of processing of high strength and/or brittle materials by plastic deformation, e.g., by forging, require to develop new industrial technologies. In particular, the feasible deformation rates are limited for low-ductile metallic materials. For this reason, processes were investigated to improve the deformability in which electrical impulses are to be applied to lower the yield strength. However, owing to the impulse duration and low current densities, concomitant effects always occur, e.g., as a result of Joule heating. Current developments in power electronics allow now to transmit high currents as short pulses. By reducing the impulse duration and increasing the current density, the plasticity of metallic materials can be correspondingly increased. Using the examples of polycrystalline iron and a single-crystal, nickel-based alloy (PWA 1480), current advances in the development of methods for forming materials by means of high-current-density impulses are demonstrated. For this purpose, appropriate specimens were loaded in compression and, using novel testing equipment, subjected to a current strength of 10 kA with an impulse duration of 2 ms. For a pre-defined strain, the test results show a significant decrease in the compressive stress during the compression test and a significant change in the dislocation distribution following the current impulse treatment.

  19. ESCA study of oxidation and hot corrosion of nickel-base superalloys. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. R.; Carter, W. J., III; Mateescu, G. D.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the high-temperature oxidation and Na2SO4-induced hot corrosion of nickel-base superalloys has been accomplished by using ESCA to determine the surface composition of the oxidized or corroded samples. Oxidation was carried out at 900 or 1000 C in slowly flowing O2 for samples of B-1900, NASA-TRW VIA, 713C, and IN-738. Hot corrosion of B-1900 was induced by applying a coating of Na2SO4 to preoxidized samples, then heating to 900 C in slowly flowing O2. For oxidized samples, the predominant type of scale formed by each superalloy showed a marked surface enrichment of Ti. For corroded samples, the transfer of significant amounts of material from the oxide layer to the surface of the salt layer was observed before the onset of rapidly accelerating weight gain. Marked changes in surface composition coincided with the beginning of accelerating corrosion, the most striking of which were a tenfold decrease in the sulfur to sodium ratio and an increase in the Cr(VI) to Cr(III) ratio.

  20. Interrogation of the microstructure and residual stress of a nickel-base alloy subjected to surface severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tian, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Villegas, J.C. [Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ (United States); Shaw, L.L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: Leon.Shaw@Uconn.Edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-02-15

    A low stacking-fault energy nickel-base, single-phase, face-centered-cubic (fcc) alloy has been subjected to surface severe plastic deformation (S{sup 2}PD) to introduce nano-grains and grain size gradients to the surface region of the alloy. The simultaneous microstructural and stress state changes induced by S{sup 2}PD have been investigated via the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that includes evaluation of annealing and deformation twins, deformation faults, in-plane lattice parameters and elastic strains of the crystal lattice, macroscopic residual in-plane stresses, crystallite sizes, internal strains, dislocation densities, and crystallographic texture as a function of the depth measured from the processed surface. Microstructural changes have also been characterized using optical and electron microscopy in order to corroborate the findings from the XRD analysis. The results from the XRD analysis are in excellent agreement with those derived from the microscopy analysis. This is the first systematic and comprehensive study using XRD to quantify depth-profile changes in a wide range of microstructural features and stress states in a fcc material resulting from the S{sup 2}PD process.

  1. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir, E-mail: Basim@student.uniten.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University Tenaga Nasional, 43009 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  2. Evolution of the Annealing Twin Density during δ-Supersolvus Grain Growth in the Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel™ 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth experiments were performed on Inconel™ 718 to investigate the possible correlation of the annealing twin density with grain size and with annealing temperature. Those experiments were conducted at different temperatures in the δ supersolvus domain and under such conditions that only capillarity forces were involved in the grain boundary migration process. In the investigated range, there is a strong inverse correlation of the twin density with the average grain size. On the other hand, the twin density at a given average grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature. Consistent with previous results for pure nickel, the twin density evolution in Inconel™ 718 is likely to be mainly controlled by the propagation of the pre-existing twins of the growing grains; i.e., the largest ones of the initial microstructure. Almost no new twin boundaries are created during the grain growth process itself. Therefore, the twin density at a given average grain size is mainly dependent on the twin density in the largest grains of the initial microstructure and independent of the temperature at which grains grow. Based on the observations, a mean field model is proposed to predict annealing twin density as a function of grain size during grain growth.

  3. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  4. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, V.D., E-mail: dv272@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Baker, S.; Illston, T. [Materials Solutions, Unit 8, Great Western Business Park, McKenzie Way, Worcester WR4 9GN (United Kingdom); Stone, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  5. A high performance nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone-graphene nanosheets-nickel nanoparticles-chitosan nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Guo, Yujing; Dong, Chuan

    2015-05-01

    In this report, a new nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by chemical deposition of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNs) with chitosan (CS) as the protective coating. The as obtained nanocomposite (PVP-GNs-NiNPs-CS) was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Benefiting from the synergistic effect of GNs (large surface area and high conductivity), NiNPs (high electrocatalytic activity towards the glucose oxidation) and CS (good film-forming and antifouling ability), a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor was established. The nanocomposite displays greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the glucose oxidation in NaOH solution. The PVP-GNs-NiNPs-CS based electrochemical glucose sensor demonstrates good sensitivity, wide linear range (0.1 μM-0.5 mM), outstanding detection limit (30 nM), attractive selectivity, good reproducibility, high stability as well as prominent feasibility for the real sample analysis. The proposed experiment might open up a new possibility for widespread use of non-enzymatic sensors for monitoring blood glucose owing to its advantages of low cost, simple preparation and excellent properties for glucose detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidation Kinetics and Oxide Scale Characterization of Nickel-Based Superalloy IN738LC at 900 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, H. T.; Caley, W. F.; Richards, N. L.

    2017-10-01

    The high-temperature isothermal oxidation behavior of the polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy IN738LC was investigated at 900 °C in air for up to 1000 h. The results from the tests suggest that the alloy showed single-stage parabolic oxidation behavior during isothermal oxidation. The oxidized samples were characterized using SEM and SEM/EDS, and the results show that the alloy is comprised of an outer dense chromia scale with titania proving Type II oxidation behavior. In addition, the formation of a spinel composition adjacent to the external layer and a discontinuous needle-shaped alumina scale in the alloy subsurface zone were also observed. The depletion of gamma prime ( γ') phase leads to a precipitate-free zone formation in the subscale zone. A JMatPro thermodynamic analysis showed that an increase in titanium content from 1 to 3.44 wt.% increased the chromium activity by 50%. Therefore, the results suggest that the presence of high amounts of titanium ( 3.44 wt.%) in IN738LC increased the oxidation kinetics by increasing the chromium scale growth rate and resulting in an oxidation rate constant of 2.79 × 10-6 mg2 cm-4 s-1.

  7. A probabilistic-based approach to monitoring tool wear state and assessing its effect on workpiece quality in nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Niaki, Farbod

    The objective of this research is first to investigate the applicability and advantage of statistical state estimation methods for predicting tool wear in machining nickel-based superalloys over deterministic methods, and second to study the effects of cutting tool wear on the quality of the part. Nickel-based superalloys are among those classes of materials that are known as hard-to-machine alloys. These materials exhibit a unique combination of maintaining their strength at high temperature and have high resistance to corrosion and creep. These unique characteristics make them an ideal candidate for harsh environments like combustion chambers of gas turbines. However, the same characteristics that make nickel-based alloys suitable for aggressive conditions introduce difficulties when machining them. High strength and low thermal conductivity accelerate the cutting tool wear and increase the possibility of the in-process tool breakage. A blunt tool nominally deteriorates the surface integrity and damages quality of the machined part by inducing high tensile residual stresses, generating micro-cracks, altering the microstructure or leaving a poor roughness profile behind. As a consequence in this case, the expensive superalloy would have to be scrapped. The current dominant solution for industry is to sacrifice the productivity rate by replacing the tool in the early stages of its life or to choose conservative cutting conditions in order to lower the wear rate and preserve workpiece quality. Thus, monitoring the state of the cutting tool and estimating its effects on part quality is a critical task for increasing productivity and profitability in machining superalloys. This work aims to first introduce a probabilistic-based framework for estimating tool wear in milling and turning of superalloys and second to study the detrimental effects of functional state of the cutting tool in terms of wear and wear rate on part quality. In the milling operation, the

  8. Investigation of electron-beam welding in wrought Inconel 706--experimental and numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Paolo [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella S. Nicola, 3 I-36100 Vicenza (Italy)]. E-mail: ferro@gest.unipd.it; Zambon, Andrea [DIMEG, University of Padova, Via Marzolo, 9 I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonollo, Franco [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella S. Nicola, 3 I-36100 Vicenza (Italy)

    2005-02-15

    Electron-beam welding (EBW) is commonly employed in the aeroengine industry for the welding of high integrity components, fabricated from high-strength superalloys. For such applications, it is important to predict distortions and residual stresses induced by the process. Melt run trials have been carried out on nickel-base superalloy Inconel 706 plates using the EBW technique in order to analyse the effects of welding parameters on geometrical characteristics and microstructure of the bead. Butt-welded plates have been then investigated by means of tensile tests, microstructural analysis, and X-ray diffraction measurements. A finite element model of the process has been set up using an uncoupled thermal-mechanical analysis. The heat source was modelled using a superimposition of a spherical and a conical shape heat source with Gaussian power density distribution in order to reproduce the nail shape of the fusion zone (FZ). The parameters of the source were chosen so that the model would match with experimentally determined weld pool shape and temperatures, measured with thermocouples. Subsequently, the thermal analysis was used to drive the non-linear mechanical analysis. The predicted residual stresses were then compared with X-ray diffraction measurements. It was found that the correct thermal and residual stresses prediction is influenced by the shape of the fusion zone, the highest thermal tensile stress arising under the nailhead of the fusion zone where microfissuring can be observed.

  9. Novel Approach to Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Means of a Nickel-Based Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosecký, M.; Kameníková, P.; Pohořelý, M.; Skoblja, S.; Punčochář, M.

    The nickel-based catalyst was exposed to the raw gas from gasification of woody biomass with air in a fluidized-bed. After dust removal on a barrier filter and sulphur compounds capture, namely H2S, on an active sorbent made of CuO and ZnO, higher hydrocarbons as tar components were decomposed/reformed on aNi-catalyst. Steam reforming reactions led to decomposition of tar and all hydrocarbons higher than CH4 into mainly H2 and CO which further underwent reaction with steam via the water gas shift reaction to CO2. The reforming reactions caused approximately 10-20 % decrease in the lower heating values of the producer gas from the inlet values 5.0-6.5 MJ m-3. The gas yield increased fromvalues 2.4-2.6 m3 kg-1 to values 2.8-3.0 m3 kg-1 on dry biomass basis. The chosen tar removal concept based on combination of dolomite in the fluidized-bed with the secondary catalytic reactor was proved by 20 hours long experiment in which the finaltar content below 30 mg m-3 was attained corresponding to more than 97 % tar conversion. H2S content in producer gas was expected to be below 100 vol. ppm, bulk of which was captured on the sorbent. Only limited deactivation of thecatalyst by sulphur compounds was found in the front of the catalyst bed where sulphur content was determined as high as 173 wt. ppm compared to 22 wt. ppm in the fresh sample.

  10. Nickel-based xerogel catalysts: Synthesis via fast sol-gel method and application in catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Dongliang; Ma, Lirong; Jiang, Deli; Xie, Jimin; Zhu, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the roles of three-dimensional network structure and calcium on Ni catalysts, the Ni, Ni-Al2O3, Ni-Ca-Al2O3 xerogel catalysts were successfully synthesized via the fast sol-gel process and chemical reduction method. The crystal structure of three different catalysts was observed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption were employed to investigate the role of network structure of xerogel catalysts and the size distribution of Ni nanoparticles. The catalyst composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) measurement and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) experiments were carried out to investigate the reducibility of nickel species and the interaction between nickel species and alumina. The catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol was investigated over the prepared nickel-based xerogel catalysts. The conversion of p-nitrophenol was monitored by UV spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the catalysts are highly selective for the conversion of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol and the order of catalytic activities of the catalysts is Ni < Ni-Al2O3 < Ni-Ca-Al2O3. The catalysts were recycled and were used to evaluate the reutilization.

  11. Iminopyridine-Based Cobalt(II and Nickel(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Their Catalytic Behaviors for 1,3-Butadiene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanquan Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of iminopyridine ligated Co(II (1a–7a and Ni(II (1b–7b complexes were synthesized. The structures of complexes 3a, 4a, 5a, 7a, 5b, and 6b were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Complex 3a formed a chloro-bridged dimer, whereas 4a, 5a, and 7a, having a substituent (4a, 5a: CH3; 7a: Br at the 6-position of pyridine, producing the solid structures with a single ligand coordinated to the central metal. The nickel atom in complex 5b features distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with one THF molecule ligating to the metal center. All the complexes activated by ethylaluminum sesquichloride (EASC were evaluated in 1,3-butadiene polymerization. The catalytic activity and selectivity were significantly influenced by the ligand structure and central metal. Comparing with the nickel complexes, the cobalt complexes exhibited higher catalytic activity and cis-1,4-selectivity. For both the cobalt and nickel complexes, the aldimine-based complexes showed higher catalyst activity than their ketimine counterparts.

  12. Synthesis of cobalt-, nickel-, copper-, and zinc-based, water-stable, pillared metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Himanshu; Jiao, Yang; Burtch, Nicholas C; Huang, You-gui; Walton, Krista S

    2014-12-02

    The performance of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in humid or aqueous environments is a topic of great significance for a variety of applications ranging from adsorption separations to gas storage. While a number of water-stable MOFs have emerged recently in the literature, the majority of MOFs are known to have poor water stability compared to zeolites and activated carbons, and there is therefore a critical need to perform systematic water-stability studies and characterize MOFs comprehensively after water exposure. Using these studies we can isolate the specific factors governing the structural stability of MOFs and direct the future synthesis efforts toward the construction of new, water-stable MOFs. In this work, we have extended our previous work on the systematic water-stability studies of MOFs and synthesized new, cobalt-, nickel-, copper-, and zinc-based, water-stable, pillared MOFs by incorporating structural factors such as ligand sterics and catenation into the framework. Stability is assessed by using water vapor adsorption isotherms along with powder X-ray diffraction patterns and results from BET modeling of N2 adsorption isotherms before and after water exposure. As expected, our study demonstrates that unlike the parent DMOF structures (based on Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn metals), which all collapse under 60% relative humidity (RH), their corresponding tetramethyl-functionalized variations (DMOF-TM) are remarkably stable, even when adsorbing more than 20 mmol of H2O/g of MOF at 80% RH. This behavior is due to steric factors provided by the methyl groups grafted on the BDC (benzenedicarboxylic acid) ligand, as shown previously for the Zn-based DMOF-TM. Moreover, 4,4',4″,4‴-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetrayltetrabenzoic acid based, pillared MOFs (based on Co and Zn metals) are also found to be stable after 90% RH exposure, even when the basicity of the bipyridyl-based pillar ligand is low. This is due to the presence of catenation in their frameworks, similar to

  13. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  14. Temperature dependent lattice misfit in nickel-base superalloys - Simulation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeier, Steffen; Goeken, Mathias [Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine Werkstoffeigenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Ni-base superalloys are widely used in high temperature applications like jet engines and land-based turbines, because of their excellent high temperature properties. They derive their excellent high temperature strength and creep resistance from the presence of a high volume fraction of Ni{sub 3}Al {gamma}{sup '} precipitates (L1{sub 2} structure), which are embedded coherently within the face centred cubic (A1) {gamma} matrix. The magnitude and sign of the lattice misfit between {gamma} and {gamma}{sup '} are important parameters affecting the microstructural evolution and high temperature strength of Ni-base superalloys. Therefore the knowledge of the lattice misfit at application temperature is of great importance. In this study the lattice misfit of several 1{sup st}, 2{sup nd} and 4{sup th} generation Ni-base superalloys in dependence of temperature has been measured by means of HRXRD and compared with lattice misfit simulations based on thermodynamic calculations. The influence of the thermal expansion coefficients and the change in the chemical composition of both {gamma} and {gamma}{sup '} due to the {gamma}{sup '} dissolution with increasing temperature has been taking into account. The experimentally measured {gamma} and {gamma}{sup '} lattice parameters could be reproduced by the simulation and the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '} lattice misfit could be reasonably predicted.

  15. High performance symmetric supercapacitor based on zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets and 3D graphene-nickel foam composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlich, S., E-mail: skhamlich@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Abdullaeva, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 860-8555 (Japan); Kennedy, J.V. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31312, Lower Hutt, 5010 (New Zealand); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • A symmetric supercapacitor device based on NiF-G/ZHCNs composite materials electrodes was successfully fabricated. • The fabricated device exhibited high specific areal capacitance of 222 mF cm{sup −2} at 1.0 mA cm{sup −2} current density. • Excellent cycling performance with 96% specific capacitance retention after 5000 cycles was achieved. - Abstract: In this work, zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets (ZHCNs) were deposited on 3d graphene-nickel foam (NiF-G) by employing a simple hydrothermal synthesis method to form NiF-G/ZHCNs composite electrode materials. The fabricated NiF-G/ZHCNs electrode revealed a well-developed pore structures with high specific surface area of 119 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, and used as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The specific areal capacitance and electron charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) were 222 mF cm{sup −2} (at current density of 1.0 mA cm{sup −2}) and 1.63 Ω, respectively, in a symmetric two-electrode system. After 5000 cycles with galvanostatic charge/discharge, the device can maintain 96% of its initial capacitance under 1.0 mA cm{sup −2} and showed low R{sub ct} of about 9.84 Ω. These results indicate that NiF-G/ZHCNs composite is an excellent electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Binuclear and Pentanuclear Nickel(II Complexes Containing 4-(salicylaldiminatoantipyrine Schiff base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. EL-Kaheli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The new title binuclear Ni (II compound  (1 and the novel pentanuclear Ni (II cluster {[   } (2 are formed from the reaction of an asymmetric Schiff base ligand L (L = 4-(salicylaldiminatoantipyrine with Ni .4  in the former or Ni(ClO42.6H2O in presence of malonate in the later.  Complex (1 consists of ( ]+ cation and one uncoordinated tetraphenylborate anion.  The cation adopts a distorted octahedral arrangement around each metal center.  In the binuclear unit both Ni(II ions are linked through two phenolate (µ2-O oxygen atoms of L, and two oxygen atoms of a  bridging carboxylate group. Each Ni (II coordinates to four oxygen atoms at the basal plane, two oxygen atoms from two bridging phenolate groups, one from pyrazolone ring and the last of an aqua molecule, and at the axial positions to a bridging carboxylate-O atom and an azomethine nitrogen atom.  In the pentanuclear cluster (2 consisting of [ ]+2 cation and two tetraphenylborate anions, the core of the cation is assembled by four [Ni( ] units, linked to the central Ni-ion by two bridging water molecules. The resulting coordination sphere for the external symmetry related nickel ions is a pseudo octahedron.  The central Ni-atom unusually adopts dodecahedron geometry through its coordination to eight bridging water molecules. In complex (1 each Ni-atom is coordinated to one tridentate L ligand and in complex (2 each [Ni ( ] unit is coordinated to two bidentate L ligands.  Inter-and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are present in both crystal structures.

  17. Nickel enhances telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, L; Cai, J; Costa, M

    1999-04-06

    Certain nickel compounds including crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) and subsulfide (Ni3S2) are potent human and animal carcinogens. In Chinese hamster embryo cells, an X-linked senescence gene was inactivated following nickel-induced DNA methylation. Nickel also induced the inactivation of the gpt reporter gene by chromatin condensation and a DNA methylation process in a transgenic gpt+ Chinese hamster cell line (G12), which is located near a heterochromatic region. To determine if nickel can cause gene silencing independently of DNA methylation, based only on the induction of changes in chromatin structure, we measured its effect on gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth of yeast in the presence of nickel chloride repressed a telomeric marker gene (URA3) and resulted in a stable epigenetic switch. This phenomenon was dependent on the number of cell doubling prior to selection and also on the distance of the marker gene from the end of the chromosome. The level of TPE (telomeric position effect) increased linearly with elevations of nickel concentration. Addition of magnesium inhibited this effect, but magnesium did not silence the reporter gene by itself. The level of silencing was also assessed following treatment with other transition metals: cobalt, copper and cadmium. In the sublethal range, cobalt induced similar effects as nickel, while copper and cadmium did not change the basal level of gene expression. Silencing by copper and cadmium were evident only at concentrations of those metals where the viability was very low. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Carbon additions and grain defect formation in directionally solidified nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sammy

    Over the past fifty years, technological advances leading up to the development of modern high-performance turbine engines for aircraft and power generation applications have coincided with significant engineering accomplishments in the area of Ni-base superalloy metallurgy. As the levels of refractory alloying additions to these Ni-base superalloys increase to enhance high-temperature mechanical properties, grain defect formation, particularly the development of freckle chains, during directional solidification has become an increasingly important problem. In this dissertation, the effect of carbon additions on the solidification characteristics of single crystal Ni-base superalloys has been investigated over a wide range of composition. Using statistically designed experiments, carbon additions of 0.1 to 0.125 wt. % were shown to be beneficial in stabilizing against the formation of grain defects due to thermosolutal convective instabilities. Detailed analyses were performed on the single crystal castings to identify the underlying mechanisms by which the carbon additions improve the solidification characteristics. In addition to forming Ta-rich MC carbides during solidification, the carbon additions were also revealed to influence the segregation behavior of the constituent elements in a manner that was beneficial in suppressing the formation of freckle defects during solidification. Using a segregation mapping technique, less segregation of rhenium, tungsten and tantalum was measured in the carbon containing alloys. Carbide formation during solidification was studied using differential thermal analysis. The influence of carbon additions on the solidification characteristics of the experimental single crystal alloys was assessed using a dimensionless Rayleigh analysis. Based on these analyses, the physical presence of carbides during the initial stages of solidification was also shown to inhibit the formation of freckle defects. In this investigation, carbon

  19. Stress dependence of the Hall coefficient of a nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Daigo; Frishman, Anatoli; Nakagawa, Norio

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the Hall Effect and their stress dependence, observed experimentally on the superalloy Inconel® 718. The work is motivated by the desire to develop a nondestructive method of characterizing the near-surface protective residual stress in metals. Our approach is based on Hall Effect measurements, because it is anticipated that these measurements are less contaminated by cold work and other effects than conductivity-based measurements such as eddy current. The challenge is that, in metals, the Hall coefficient is very small. To achieve the required sensitivity, the Hall coefficient was measured with an AC injected current and an AC magnetic field. The measurements were performed on a thin film sample. The Hall coefficient was found to be positive, and varies proportionally to the applied tension. The proportionality coefficient is significantly larger than estimated from the volumetric effect in a free carrier model.

  20. Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Gruber, E.E.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Experimental data are presented on the fracture toughness of wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels (SSs) that were irradiated to a fluence of {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV){sup *} ({approx} 2.3 dpa) at 296-305{sup o}C. To evaluate the possible effects of test environment and crack morphology on the fracture toughness of these steels, all tests were conducted in normal-water-chemistry boiling water reactor (BWR) environments at {approx} 289{sup o}C. Companion tests were also conducted in air on the same material for comparison. The fracture toughness J-R curves for SS weld heat-affected-zone materials in BWR water were found to be comparable to those in air. However, the results of tests on sensitized Type 304 SS and thermally aged cast CF-8M steel suggested a possible effect of water environment. The available fracture toughness data on irradiated austenitic SSs were reviewed to assess the potential for radiation embrittlement of reactor-core internal components. The synergistic effects of thermal and radiation embrittlement of cast austenitic SS internal components are also discussed. (author)

  1. Electrocontact material based on silver dispersion-strengthened by nickel, titanium, and zinc oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeer, G. M.; Zelenkova, E. G.; Belousov, O. V.; Beletskii, V. V.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Ledyaeva, O. N.

    2017-09-01

    Samples of a composite electrocontact material based on silver strengthened by the dispersed phases of zinc and titanium oxides have been investigated by the electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A uniform distribution of the oxide phases containing 2 wt % zinc oxide in the initial charge has been revealed. The increase in the amount of zinc oxide leads to an increase of the size of the oxide phases. It has been shown that at the zinc oxide content of 2 wt %, the minimum wear is observed in the process of electroerosion tests; at 3 wt %, an overheating and welding of the contacts are observed.

  2. Transient liquid phase bonding of titanium-, iron- and nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. H. M. Esfakur

    The operating temperature of land-based gas turbines and jet engines are ever-increasing to increase the efficiency, decrease the emissions and minimize the cost. Within the engines, complex-shaped parts experience extreme temperature, fatigue and corrosion conditions. Ti-based, Ni-based and Fe-based alloys are commonly used in gas turbines and jet engines depending on the temperatures of different sections. Although those alloys have superior mechanical, high temperature and corrosion properties, severe operating conditions cause fast degradation and failure of the components. Repair of these components could reduce lifecycle costs. Unfortunately, conventional fusion welding is not very attractive, because Ti reacts very easily with oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures, Ni-based superalloys show heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking, and stainless steels show intergranular corrosion and knife-line attack. On the other hand, transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding method has been considered as preferred joining method for those types of alloys. During the initial phase of the current work commercially pure Ti, Fe and Ni were diffusion bonded using commercially available interlayer materials. Commercially pure Ti (Ti-grade 2) has been diffusion bonded using silver and copper interlayers and without any interlayer. With a silver (Ag) interlayer, different intermetallics (AgTi, AgTi2) appeared in the joint centerline microstructure. While with a Cu interlayer eutectic mixtures and Ti-Cu solid solutions appeared in the joint centerline. The maximum tensile strengths achieved were 160 MPa, 502 MPa, and 382 MPa when Ag, Cu and no interlayers were used, respectively. Commercially pure Fe (cp-Fe) was diffusion bonded using Cu (25 m) and Au-12Ge eutectic interlayer (100 microm). Cu diffused predominantly along austenite grain boundaries in all bonding conditions. Residual interlayers appeared at lower bonding temperature and time, however, voids were observed in the joint

  3. Synthesis and characterization of free-base, copper, and nickel isocorroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Xiao, Xiao; Nardis, Sara; Paolesse, Roberto; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Fang, Yuanyuan; Ou, Zhongping; Kadish, Karl M

    2010-06-21

    A series of free-base and metalated isocorroles represented as (TT-n-iso-Cor)H(2) and (TT-n-iso-Cor)M(II), where n = 5 or 10 and M = Ni or Cu, were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry in CH(2)Cl(2) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate. The metalation of the free-base macrocycles with Co(II), Mn(III), or Zn(II) was also attempted but was unsuccessful. Six isocorroles were isolated and shown to undergo two stepwise oxidations to give pi-cation radicals and dications in CH(2)Cl(2), with the most stable products being obtained in the case of the 10-substituted derivatives. The same isocorroles could also be reduced by one or two electrons, but the initial one-electron addition products are unstable and undergo a rapid chemical reaction giving a reduced corrole or corrole-like product, which could be reoxidized to the corresponding (TTCor)M at a controlled positive potential. This series of reactions effectively illustrates an isocorrole to corrole conversion upon reduction and reoxidation and was monitored by both electrochemistry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry.

  4. Comparison of brazed joints made with BNi-1 and BNi-7 nickel-base brazing alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorc, Borut

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the processes are different with different types of brazing alloys. Precipitation processes in the parent metal close to the brazing gap are of great importance. They control the mechanical properties of the joint area when the brittle eutectic has disappeared from the gap. A comparative study of brazed joints on austenitic stainless alloys made with BNi-7 (Ni-P type and BNi-1 (Ni-Si-B type brazing alloys was made. Brazing alloys containing phosphorus behave in a different manner to those containing boron.

    Las aleaciones de níquel se producen mediante tres sistemas de aleación: Ni-P, Ni-Si y Ni-B. Durante las reacciones metalúrgicas con el metal de base, la eutéctica frágil en la separación soldada puede transformarse en la solución dúctil-sólida con todas aleaciones. La cinética del proceso varía según el tipo de aleación. Los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la separación soldada son de mucha importancia, ya que controlan las propiedades mecánicas de la área de unión después de desaparecer la eutéctica frágil de la separación. Se ha hecho un análisis comparativo de uniones soldadas en aleaciones austeníticas inoxidables realizadas con aleaciones BNi-7 (tipo Ni-P y BNi-1 (tipo Ni-Si-B. Las aleaciones que contienen fósforo se comportan de una manera diferente, tanto con el cambio de la eutéctica a la solución sólida, como con los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la unión soldada.

  5. Effect of aluminumion implantation on high temperature oxidation of nickel-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuo, Atsushi (Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Center, 3-13-10 Nishigaoka, Kita-ku, Tokyo 115 (Japan)); Tanaki, Toshiyuki (Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Center, 3-13-10 Nishigaoka, Kita-ku, Tokyo 115 (Japan)); Shinozaki, Teruo (Japan Gas Appliances Inspection Association, 4-1-10 Azusawa, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174 (Japan)); Iwaki, Masaya (Institute of Physics and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 350-01 (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    The thermal oxidation properties of Al-ion-implanted, Ni-based alloys used for thermocouples of Inconel 600, alumel, chromel and constantan have been studied in humid O[sub 2] atmospheres at 970K for 50h. The Al ion implantation was performed with doses ranging from 1x10[sup 16] to 2x10[sup 17] ioncm[sup -2] at an energy of 50keV. The depth profiles measured by Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the concentrations of Al and O were higher near the surface of the alloys after implantation. The implanted alumel and constantan exhibited no effect on the suppression of oxidation. However, implantation above a dose of 1x10[sup 17]Al ioncm[sup -2] significantly slowed the oxidation of the Inconel 600 and chromel alloys containing Cr. The thermoelectric properties of the actual thermocouples modified by Al ion implantation are discussed. ((orig.))

  6. Microstructure Evolution during Supersolvus Heat Treatment of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiatin, S. L.; McClary, K. E.; Rollett, A. D.; Roberts, C. G.; Payton, E. J.; Zhang, F.; Gabb, T. P.

    2012-05-01

    Microstructure evolution during the supersolvus heat treatment of a powder-metallurgy, low-solvus, high-refractory (LSHR) superalloy was established. For this purpose, three lots of LSHR with varying initial carbon/boron composition and thermomechanical history were subjected to a series of short-time (induction) and long-time (furnace) heat treatments followed by scanning electron microscopy/electron backscatter diffraction and quantitative metallography. The size of the (pinned) gamma grains exhibited a limited dependence on heating rate and soak time at peak temperature, and it was generally smaller than the predictions based on the classic Smith-Zener model. The differences were rationalized in terms of stereological and pinning-particle location effects. Observations of limited coarsening of the carbide/boride pinning particles were interpreted in the context of prior experimental observations and a modified Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner model applied previously for the coarsening of compound phases in steels.

  7. Optimizing the laser parameters to attain maximum hardness in nickel based hardfacing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, S.; Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.; Kumar, Hemant; Albert, Shaju K.

    2017-12-01

    In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the laser hardfacing (LH) parameters such as power, powder feed rate (PFR), travel speed and defocusing distance to maximize hardness of Ni-based hardfacing surfaces. Statistical tools such as the design of experiments (DoE), analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to develop the empirical relationship to predict the hardness of the deposits at the 95% confidence level. Response graphs and contour plots are constructed using response surface methodology (RSM) concept. From this investigation, it is found that the maximum hardness of 820.48 HV could be achieved for the deposit made using a power of 1314 W, PFR of 9 g/min, a travel speed of 366 mm/min, and a defocusing distance of 32 mm.

  8. Transparent, flexible, and high-performance supercapacitor based on ultrafine nickel cobaltite nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Jianxing; Yang, Guowei

    2017-07-01

    There has been growing interest in transparent and flexible electronic devices such as wrist watch, cell phone, and so on. These devices need the power sources which also have transparent and flexible features. Here, we demonstrate a transparent and flexible energy storage device with outstanding electrochemical performance, high energy density, and super-long life based on ultrafine NiCo2O4 nanospheres which are synthesized by an innovative method concerning laser ablation in liquid and hydrothermal process. The ultrafine NiCo2O4 nanospheres provide high electrochemical activity and the synthesized colloidal solution is suitable for transparent devices. The transparent and flexible device shows a high specific capacitance of 299.7 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s and a long cycling life of 90.4% retention rate after 10,000 cycles at a scan rate of 10 mV/s, which is superior to that of previously reported transparent and flexible energy storage device. In addition, an optical transmittance up to 55% at the wavelength of 550 nm is obtained, and the bending test shows that the bending angle makes no difference to the specific capacitance of the device. In addition, it shows an outstanding energy density of 10.41 Wh/kg. The integrated electrochemical performances of the device are good based on NiCo2O4 nanospheres. These findings make the ultrafine NiCo2O4 nanospheres being promising electrode materials for transparent and flexible energy storage devices.

  9. Fiber laser cladding of nickel-based alloy on cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Penide, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Gray cast iron is a ferrous alloy characterized by a carbon-rich phase in form of lamellar graphite in an iron matrix while ductile cast iron presents a carbon-rich phase in form of spheroidal graphite. Graphite presents a higher laser beam absorption than iron matrix and its morphology has also a strong influence on thermal conductivity of the material. The laser cladding process of cast iron is complicated by its heterogeneous microstructure which generates non-homogeneous thermal fields. In this research work, a comparison between different types of cast iron substrates (with different graphite morphology) has been carried out to analyze its impact on the process results. A fiber laser was used to generate a NiCrBSi coating over flat substrates of gray cast iron (EN-GJL-250) and nodular cast iron (EN-GJS-400-15). The relationship between processing parameters (laser irradiance and scanning speed) and geometry of a single laser track was examined. Moreover, microstructure and composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed by means of micro- and nanoindentation. A hardfacing coating was generated by fiber laser cladding. Suitable processing parameters to generate the Ni-based alloy coating were determined. For the same processing parameters, gray cast iron samples present higher dilution than cast iron samples. The elastic modulus is similar for the coating and the substrate, while the Ni-based coating obtained presents a significantly superior hardness than cast iron.

  10. Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Acid and base fractions from petroleum vacuum resids with no detectable (by visible spectrophotometry) quantities of porphyrinic Ni or V complexes were hydrotreated under various conditions to determine if significant amounts of porphyrinic metals were released, via disassociation or other means, upon hydrotreating. No significant quantities were observed, thereby indicating that nonporphyrinic metals were not simply associated, complexed or otherwise masked (in terms of visible spectrophotometric response) porphyrinic metal complexes. However, it is possible that hydrotreating was simply not effective in breaking up these associates and/or that some porphyrinic forms of metal were in fact released but were rapidly destroyed by hydrotreating. In addition, three liquid chromatographic (LC) separation methods were sequentially applied to Cerro Negro (Orinoco belt Venezuelan heavy crude) >700[degree]C resid in an effort to separate and concentrate the metal complexes present. Nonaqueous ion exchange chromatography was used initially to separate the resid into acid, base and neutral types. Two concentrates containing 19,500 and 13,500 ppm total V, or an estimated 19 and 13 wt % V-containing compounds respectively, were obtained. The degree of enrichment of Ni compounds obtained was significantly lower. By visible spectrophotometry, using vanadyl etioporphyrin as a standard, each of the concentrates contained near a 1:1 ratio of porphyrinic:nonporphyrinic V complexes. Analogous separation behavior for porphyrinic versus nonporphyrinic metal forms was observed throughout much of the work, thereby suggesting that a comparable diversity of structures existed within each general class of metal compounds. The generally wide dispersion of both Ni and V over the LC separation scheme suggests a structural variety of metal complexes that is comparable to that observed for other heteroatoms (N, S, O) in petroleum.

  11. Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Acid and base fractions from petroleum vacuum resids with no detectable (by visible spectrophotometry) quantities of porphyrinic Ni or V complexes were hydrotreated under various conditions to determine if significant amounts of porphyrinic metals were released, via disassociation or other means, upon hydrotreating. No significant quantities were observed, thereby indicating that nonporphyrinic metals were not simply associated, complexed or otherwise masked (in terms of visible spectrophotometric response) porphyrinic metal complexes. However, it is possible that hydrotreating was simply not effective in breaking up these associates and/or that some porphyrinic forms of metal were in fact released but were rapidly destroyed by hydrotreating. In addition, three liquid chromatographic (LC) separation methods were sequentially applied to Cerro Negro (Orinoco belt Venezuelan heavy crude) >700{degree}C resid in an effort to separate and concentrate the metal complexes present. Nonaqueous ion exchange chromatography was used initially to separate the resid into acid, base and neutral types. Two concentrates containing 19,500 and 13,500 ppm total V, or an estimated 19 and 13 wt % V-containing compounds respectively, were obtained. The degree of enrichment of Ni compounds obtained was significantly lower. By visible spectrophotometry, using vanadyl etioporphyrin as a standard, each of the concentrates contained near a 1:1 ratio of porphyrinic:nonporphyrinic V complexes. Analogous separation behavior for porphyrinic versus nonporphyrinic metal forms was observed throughout much of the work, thereby suggesting that a comparable diversity of structures existed within each general class of metal compounds. The generally wide dispersion of both Ni and V over the LC separation scheme suggests a structural variety of metal complexes that is comparable to that observed for other heteroatoms (N, S, O) in petroleum.

  12. Techniques Optimized for Reducing Instabilities in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloys for Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Locci, Ivan E.; Garg, anita; Ritzert, Frank J.

    2002-01-01

    The High-Speed Research (HSR) Airfoil Alloy program developed fourth-generation single-crystal superalloys with up to an 85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Recent results have been generated at the NASA Glenn Research Center on these fourth-generation alloys, but in coated form, for subsonic turbine blade applications under NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. One goal for UEET is to optimize the airfoil alloy/thermal barrier coating system for 3100 F turbine inlet temperatures. The state-of-the art turbine blade airfoil system consists of a superalloy single crystal that provides the basic mechanical performance of the airfoil. A thermal barrier coating is used to reduce the temperature of the base superalloy, and a bondcoat is deposited between the base material and the thermal barrier coating. The bondcoat improves the oxidation and corrosion resistance of the base superalloy and improves the spallation resistance of the thermal barrier coating. A commercial platinum aluminide bondcoat was applied to the HSR-developed alloys, and a diffusion zone developed as a result of interaction between the bondcoat and the superalloy. Optimized strength is obtained for superalloys when the refractory element content is high and the limits of microstructural stability are approached or exceeded slightly. For fourthgeneration alloys, instability leads to the formation of topologically close packed (TCP) phases, which form internally in the superalloy, and a secondary reaction zone (SRZ), which forms under the diffusion zone. There was a concern that excessive quantities of either TCP or SRZ might decrease the mechanical properties of the superalloy, with SRZ thought to be particularly detrimental and its formation unpredictable. Thus, an SRZreduction effort was initiated in the NASA UEET Program so that methods developed during the HSR project could be optimized further to reduce or eliminate the SRZ. An SRZ

  13. Microstructure and Creep Behavior of a Directional Solidification Nickel-based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Tian, Sugui; Yu, Huichen; Li, Ying; Meng, Xianlin

    2015-07-01

    By means of creep property measurement and microstructure observation, an investigation has been made into microstructure and creep behavior of a directional solidification Ni-based superalloy at high temperatures. Results show that after full heat treatment, small cuboidal γ' precipitates distribute in the dendrite regions, while coarser ones distribute in the inter-dendrite regions. In the primary stage of creep, the γ' phase in alloy is transformed into the rafted structure along the direction vertical to stress axis, and then the creep of alloy enters the steady state stage. And dislocations slipping in the g matrix and climbing over the rafted γ' phase are thought to be the deformation mechanism of the alloy during steady creep stage. At the latter stage of creep, the alternate slipping of dislocations may shear and twist the rafted γ'/γ phases, which promotes the initiation and propagation of the micro-cracks along the boundaries near the coarser rafted γ' phase. And the bigger probability of the creep damage occurs in the grain boundaries along 45° angles relative to the stress axis due to them bearing relatively bigger shearing stress.

  14. Quantitative characterization and comparison of precipitate and grain shape in Nickel -base superalloys using moment invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick Gregory

    A fundamental objective of materials science and engineering is to understand the structure-property-processing-performance relationship. We need to know the true 3-D microstructure of a material to understand certain geometric properties of a material, and thus fulfill this objective. Focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning allows us to find the true 3-D microstructure of Ni-base superalloys. Once the true 3-D microstructure is obtained, an accurate quantitative description and characterization of precipitate and/or grain shapes is needed to understand the microstructure and describe it in an unbiased way. In this thesis, second order moment invariants, the shape quotient Q, a convexity measure relating the volume of an object to the volume of its convex hull, V/Vconv, and Gaussian curvature have been used to compare an experimentally observed polycrystalline IN100 microstructure to three synthetic microstructures. The three synthetic microstructures used different shape classes to produce starting grain shapes. The three shape classes are ellipsoids, superellipsoids, and the shapes generated when truncating a cube with an octahedron. The microstructures are compared using a distance measure, the Hellinger distance. The Hellinger distance is used to compare distributions of shape descriptors for the grains in each microstructure. The synthetic microstructure that has the smallest Hellinger distance, and so best matched the experimentally observed microstructure is the microstructure that used superellipsoids as a starting grain shape. While it has the smallest Hellinger distance, and is approaching realistic grain morphologies, the superellipsoidal microstructure is still not realistic. Second order moment invariants, Q, and V/V conv have also been used to characterize the γ' precipitate shapes from four experimental Ru-containing Ni-base superalloys with differences in alloying additions. The superalloys are designated UM-F9, UM-F18, UM-F19, and UM-F22. The

  15. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotective Effect of the Schiff Base Ligand 1H-Indole-3-ethylene-5-nitrosalicylaldimine and Its Nickel (II Complex on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Hassandarvish

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation reaction of tryptamine (an indole derivative and 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (TNS and its nickel (II complex against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The compounds were orally administered with low (30 mg/kg and high (60 mg/kg doses to ulcer-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Macroscopically, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with either cimetidine or TNS and its nickel (II complex each resulted in significant protection against gastric mucosal injury. Flattening of gastric mucosal folds was also observed in rats pretreated with TNS and its nickel complex. Histological studies of the gastric wall of ulcer control group revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either cimetidine or TNS and its nickel (II compound, where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. Acute toxicity study done on mice with a higher dose of 5 g/kg of TNS and its nickel (II complex did not manifest any toxicological signs. Research finding suggest that TNS and its nickel (II complex could be considered as effective gastroprotective compounds.

  16. A radical pathway in catecholase activity with nickel(II) complexes of phenol based "end-off" compartmental ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Totan; Adhikary, Jaydeep; Chakraborty, Prateeti; Sukul, Pradip K; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2014-01-14

    Seven dinuclear and one dinuclear based dicyanamide bridged polymeric Ni(II) complexes of phenol based compartmental ligands (HL(1)-HL(4)) have been synthesized with the aim to investigate their catecholase-like activity and to evaluate the most probable mechanistic pathway involved in this process. The complexes have been characterized by routine physicochemical studies as well as by X-ray single crystal structure analyses namely [Ni2(L(2))(SCN)3(H2O)(CH3OH)] (), [Ni2(L(4))(SCN)3(CH3OH)2] (), [Ni2(L(2))(SCN)2(AcO)(H2O)] (), [Ni2(L(4))(SCN)(AcO)2] (), [Ni2(L(2))(N3)3(H2O)2] (), [Ni2(L(4))(N3)3(H2O)2] (), [Ni2(L(1))(AcO)2(N(CN)2)]n () and [Ni2(L(3))(AcO)2(N(CN)2)] (), [SCN = isothiocyanate, AcO = acetate, N3 = azide, and N(CN)2 = dicyanamide anion; L(1-4) = 2,6-bis(R2-iminomethyl)-4-R1-phenolato, where R1 = methyl and tert-butyl, R2 = N,N-dimethyl ethylene for L(1-2) and R1 = methyl and tert-butyl, R2 = 2-(N-ethyl) pyridine for L(3-4)]. A UV-vis spectrophotometric study using 3,5-di-tert butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) reveals that all the complexes are highly active in catalyzing the aerobic oxidation of (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) in methanol medium with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. An EPR study confirms the generation of radicals during the catalysis. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the complexes in the presence and absence of 3,5-DTBC have been performed. Reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(I) and that of the imine bond of the ligand system have been detected at ∼-1.0 V and ∼-1.5 V, respectively. Coulometric separation of the species at -1.5 V followed by the EPR study at 77 K confirms the species as an organic radical and thus most probably reduced imine species. Spectroelectrochemical analysis at -1.5 V clearly indicates the oxidation of 3,5-DTBC and thus suggests that the radical pathway is supposed to be responsible for the catecholase-like activity exhibited by the nickel complexes. The ligand centred radical generation has further been

  17. Fireside corrosion of nickel base alloys in future 700 C coal fired power plants; Rauchgasseitige Korrosion von Nickelbasislegierungen fuer zukuenftige 700 C-Dampfkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettschwager, Frank

    2011-09-27

    Coal is still the most important energy source in Germany. In 2009 it produced 42.9 % of the overall German electrical power. Coal is available world-wide in large quantities and can be delivered economically. One of the possible ways to reduce CO{sub 2} pollution is the increase of efficiency of coal fired power plants, which requires steam conditions of up to 700 C - 730 C and 350 bar. Because many German power units will reach the end of their technical lifespan in a few years or the following decade, one will have the possibility to build up modern types of power plants with increased efficiency of more than 50 %. Some international standards (European Pressure Equipment Directive or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) require 100 000 hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 750 C. Therefore, nickel base alloys are in the focus of material qualification processes. Nickel base alloys are well investigated due to their hot corrosion behaviour. It is known that sodium sulphate may generate hot corrosion on those alloys at temperatures above its melting point of 884 C. On nickel base alloys an eutectic mixture of nickel sulphate and sodium sulphate with a melting point of 671 C can be generated, which leads to accelerated corrosion. This work examines, whether the high amount of sulphur and alkali metals will induce hot corrosion at the estimated working temperature on devices manufactured from nickel base alloy. Two synthetic coal ash deposits, according to the chemical composition of hard coal and lignite, and typical flue gases with and without sulphur dioxide were blended of pure agents. The reactions of the deposits with heater tubes' materials and synthetic flue gases are examined in the temperature range from 650 C to 800 C and different time ranges up to 2000 hours. The corroded specimen are examined with SEM/EDX to identify relevant corrosion products and determine the corrosivity of deposited compounds. Deposits increase the corrosion rate of

  18. In situ fabrication of nickel based oxide on nitrogen-doped graphene for high electrochemical performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denghui; Zhang, Mingmei; Wang, Ying; Yan, Zaoxue; Jing, Junjie; Xie, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we synthesize Ni(OH)2 homogeneous grown on nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni(OH)2/NG), subsequently, small and uniform nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiO/NG) is also successfully obtained through tube furnace calcination method. The high specific capacitance of the NiO/NG electrode can reach to 1314.1 F/g at a charge and discharge current density of 2 A/g, meanwhile the specific capacitance of Ni(OH)2/NG electrode is also 1350 F/g. The capacitance of NiO/NG can remain 93.7% of the maximum value after 1000 cycles, while the Ni(OH)2/NG electrode losses 16.9% of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. It can be attributed to nickel hydroxide instability during charge-discharge cycles.

  19. Highly active and durable methanol oxidation electrocatalyst based on the synergy of platinum-nickel hydroxide-graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Duchesne, Paul N.; Muir, David; Zhang, Peng; Han, Na; Zhao, Feipeng; Zeng, Min; Zhong, Jun; Jin, Chuanhong; Li, Yanguang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-11-01

    Active and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction are of critical importance to the commercial viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology. Unfortunately, current methanol oxidation electrocatalysts fall far short of expectations and suffer from rapid activity degradation. Here we report platinum-nickel hydroxide-graphene ternary hybrids as a possible solution to this long-standing issue. The incorporation of highly defective nickel hydroxide nanostructures is believed to play the decisive role in promoting the dissociative adsorption of water molecules and subsequent oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison on neighbouring platinum sites. As a result, the ternary hybrids exhibit exceptional activity and durability towards efficient methanol oxidation reaction. Under periodic reactivations, the hybrids can endure at least 500,000 s with negligible activity loss, which is, to the best of our knowledge, two to three orders of magnitude longer than all available electrocatalysts.

  20. Highly active and durable methanol oxidation electrocatalyst based on the synergy of platinum–nickel hydroxide–graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Duchesne, Paul N.; Muir, David; Zhang, Peng; Han, Na; Zhao, Feipeng; Zeng, Min; Zhong, Jun; Jin, Chuanhong; Li, Yanguang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Active and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction are of critical importance to the commercial viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology. Unfortunately, current methanol oxidation electrocatalysts fall far short of expectations and suffer from rapid activity degradation. Here we report platinum–nickel hydroxide–graphene ternary hybrids as a possible solution to this long-standing issue. The incorporation of highly defective nickel hydroxide nanostructures is believed to play the decisive role in promoting the dissociative adsorption of water molecules and subsequent oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison on neighbouring platinum sites. As a result, the ternary hybrids exhibit exceptional activity and durability towards efficient methanol oxidation reaction. Under periodic reactivations, the hybrids can endure at least 500,000 s with negligible activity loss, which is, to the best of our knowledge, two to three orders of magnitude longer than all available electrocatalysts. PMID:26602295

  1. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Lacalle Luis Norberto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation.

  2. Anodically Grown Binder-Free Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Film: Toward Efficient Water Reduction and Hexacyanoferrate Film Based Full Device for Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Hoa Thi; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Khadtare, Shubhangi; Bathula, Chinna D; Giebeler, Lars; Noh, Yong-Young; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2017-05-31

    One of the challenges in obtaining hydrogen economically by electrochemical water splitting is to identify and substitute cost-effective earth-abundant materials for the traditionally used precious-metal-based water-splitting electrocatalysts. Herein, we report the electrochemical formation of a thin film of nickel-based Prussian blue analogue hexacyanoferrate (Ni-HCF) through the anodization of a nickel substrate in ferricyanide electrolyte. As compared to the traditionally used Nafion-binder-based bulk film, the anodically obtained binder-free Ni-HCF film demonstrates superior performance in the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which is highly competitive with that shown by a Pt-plate electrode. The HER onset and the benchmark cathodic current density of 10 mA cm -2 were achieved at small overpotentials of 15 mV and 0.2 V (not iR-corrected), respectively, in 1 M KOH electrolyte, together with the long-term electrochemical durability of the film. Further, a metal-HCF-electrode-based full water-splitting device consisting of the binder-free Ni-HCF film on a Ni plate and a one-dimensional Co-HCF film on carbon paper as the electrodes for the HER and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, was designed and was found to demonstrate very promising performance for overall water splitting.

  3. Research on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Wide-gap Brazed Joints of K465 Superalloy Using Nickel-base Brazing Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Hui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The joint clearance with 0.5mm was brazed with pre-filled high-melting powder method, by using K465 nickel-base superalloy as base metal, FGH95 nickel-base superalloy powder as pre-filled powder. The effects of different holding time on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that the brazing seam microstructure of the joints brazed at 1220℃ for 0.5h composes of alloy powder particles and phases among the particles. The microstructure is a two-phase structure of γ and γ' inside the powder particles, and among the particles are γ and γ' two-phase based borides, silicides and γ+γ' eutectics. With the increase of holding time, the powder particles grow bigger, the compounds and γ+γ' eutectics merge together, leads to the decrease of the amount of compounds and γ+γ'eutectics. The holding time is prolonged from 0.5h to 16h, the average rupture life increases from 31.59h to 54.58h, but it is not easy to achieve the isothermally solidified joints with good mechanical properties.

  4. Fabrication of hierarchical porous nickel based metal-organic framework (Ni-MOF) constructed with nanosheets as novel pseudo-capacitive material for asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Dong, Yuman; Liu, Chang; Wei, Wenli; Liu, Dong; Liu, Peng

    2018-02-07

    Hierarchical porous nickel based metal-organic framework (Ni-MOF) constructed with nanosheets is fabricated by a facile hydrothermal process with the existence of trimesic acid and nickel ions. Various structures of Ni-MOFs can be obtained through adjusting the molar ratio of trimesic acid and nickel ion, the obtained hierarchical porous Ni-MOF exhibits optimal porous structure, which also possesses largest specific surface area. The hierarchical porous structure constructed with nanosheets can supply more active sites for electrochemical reactions to realize the excellent electrochemical properties, thus the hierarchical porous Ni-MOF reveals an outstanding specific capacitance of 1057 F/g at current density of 1 A/g, and delivers high specific capacitance of 649 F/g at current density of 30 A/g, indicating that it exhibits good rate capability of 63.4% even up to 30 A/g. The hierarchical porous Ni-MOF keeps 70% of its original value up to 2 500 charge-discharge cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were assembled based on hierarchical porous Ni-MOF and activated carbon (AC), the ASCs reveal specific capacitance of 87 F/g at current density of 0.5 A/g, and exhibit high energy density of 21.05 Wh/kg and power density of 6.03 kW/kg. Additionally, the tandem ASCs can light up a red LED. The hierarchical porous Ni-MOF exhibits promising applications in high performance supercapacitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adiabaticity of the proton-coupled electron-transfer step in the reduction of superoxide effected by nickel-containing superoxide dismutase metallopeptide-based mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jason; Schmitt, Jennifer C; Clewett, Heather S

    2015-04-30

    Nickel-containing superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) are bacterial metalloenzymes that catalyze the disproportionation of O2(-). These enzymes take advantage of a redox-active nickel cofactor, which cycles between the Ni(II) and Ni(III) oxidation states, to catalytically disprotorptionate O2(-). The Ni(II) center is ligated in a square planar N2S2 coordination environment, which, upon oxidation to Ni(III), becomes five-coordinate following the ligation of an axial imidazole ligand. Previous studies have suggested that metallopeptide-based mimics of NiSOD reduce O2(-) through a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction with the electron derived from a reduced Ni(II) center and the proton from a protonated, coordinated Ni(II)-S(H(+))-Cys moiety. The current work focuses on the O2(-) reduction half-reaction of the catalytic cycle. In this study we calculate the vibronic coupling between the reactant and product diabatic surfaces using a semiclassical formalism to determine if the PCET reaction is proceeding through an adiabatic or nonadiabatic proton tunneling process. These results were then used to calculate H/D kinetic isotope effects for the PCET process. We find that as the axial imidazole ligand becomes more strongly associated with the Ni(II) center during the PCET reaction, the reaction becomes more nonadiabatic. This is reflected in the calculated H/D KIEs, which moderately increase as the reaction becomes more nonadiabatic. Furthermore, the results suggest that as the axial ligand becomes less Lewis basic the observed reaction rate constants for O2(-) reduction should become faster because the reaction becomes more adiabatic. These conclusions are in-line with experimental observations. The results thus indicate that variations in the axial donor's ability to coordinate to the nickel center of NiSOD metallopeptide-based mimics will strongly influence the fundamental nature of the O2(-) reduction process.

  6. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  7. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of nickel and nickel-base alloy surface alterations in simulated hot corrosion conditions with emphasis on eventual application to turbine blade corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, G. D.; Smith, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the high temperature oxidation and Na2SO4 induced hot corrosion of some nickel base superalloys was accomplished by using ESCA to determine the surface composition of the oxidized or corroded samples. Oxidation was carried out at 900 or 1000 C in slowly flowing O2 for samples of B-1900, NASA-TRW VIA, 713C, and IN-738. Oxidation times ranged from 0.5 to 100 hr. Hot corrosion of B-1900 was induced applying a coating of Na2SO4 to peroxidized samples, the heating to 900 C in slowly flowing O2. For oxidized samples, the predominant type of scale formed by each superalloy was determined, and a marked surface enrichment of Ti was found in each case. For corroded samples, the transfer of significant amounts of material from the oxide layer to the surface of the salt layer was observed to occur long before the onset of accelerating weight-gain. Changes in surface composition were observed to coincide with the beginning of accelerating corrosion, the most striking of which was a tenfold decrease in the sulfur to sodium ration and an increase in the Cr(VI) ratio.

  9. Effect of environmental and stress intensity factors on IGA/SCC of nickel-base alloy. Nickel ki gokin no ryukai fushoku no hassei shinten ni oyobosu kankyo oyobi oryoku inshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, H.; Kawamura, H. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-25

    Test was conducted on the intergranular attack (IGA) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel-base alloy (inconel alloy 600) used for the PWR steam generator heat transfer tubes. The conducted items of test were U-bending test (IGA/SCC generation test with U-bending specimens), double cantilever beam (DCB) test (IGA/SCC generation test with DCB specimens), slow strain rate test (SSRT) and steam generator (SG) model boiler test (boiling/heat transfer/corrosion test by model boiler). The result was as follows: In the high acidity or high alkalinity aqueous solution, the film is unstable on the alloy surface, and the IGA/SCC is generated under the existence of stress. From the result of stress analysis, it was revealed that with an increase in number of long cracks, the stress intensity factor drops. Even with an increase in number of short cracks, the stress intensity factor does not change. In the region (0 to 120kg/mm[sup 3/2]) of stress intensity factor acting on the heat transfer tube, there exists no domain where the crack propagates rapidly. From the SG model boiler test, the crack propagation rate was revealed to be as slow as 10[sup -3] to 10[sup -2][mu]m/h. 22 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  11. Determination of nickel in natural waters by FAAS after sorption on octadecyl silica membrane disks modified with a recently synthesized Schiff's base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Afshin Rajabi; Naeimi, Hossein; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2004-09-08

    A simple, highly sensitive, accurate and selective method for the determination of trace amounts of Ni(2+) ions in water samples is proposed. The method is based on the separation and preconcentration of Ni(2+) on an octadecyl-bonded silica (ODBS) membrane disk modified by a recently synthesized Schiff's base N,N'-bis (3-methylsalicylidene) ortho phenylene diamine (MSOPD) at pH 7. The synthesis of this extractant ligand is also described. The retained nickel on the membrane was eluted with 2x5ml 0.5M HNO(3) and measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) at 232.0nm. The extraction efficiency and the influence of the type and least amount of eluent for the stripping of Ni(2+) from the disks, pH, flow rates of sample solution and eluent, amount of MSOPD, effect of other ions, and breakthrough volume were evaluated. The maximum capacity of the membrane disks modified by 3mg of MSOPD was found to be 146+/-4mug Ni(2+). The 3sigma limit of detection of the method was 30ng per 1000ml and also an enrichment factor of 250 was obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of nickel in several water samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Computer simulations of martensitic transformations in iron-nickel and nickel-aluminium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, R J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the martensitic transformations in iron-nickel and nickel-aluminum alloys. Molecular-dynamics simulations have been done, employing potentials based on the so-called embedded-atom method (EAM). These potentials were obtained by a fit of parameterized functions to experimental data of the elements iron, nickel, and aluminum as well as the intermetallic compound NiAl. Many aspects of the austenitic transformation in iron-nickel alloys and both, the martensitic and austenitic transformations, in nickel-aluminum alloys were reproduced well by the simulations. The results allow to draw conclusions on the reasons of differences and similarities in the behavior of both alloy systems.

  13. Final Report, Volume 4, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope® and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation was

  14. Final Report, Volume 4, The Develpoment of Qualification Standards forCast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope{reg_sign} and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation

  15. Rotary Friction Welding of Weight Heavy Alloy with Wrought AlMg3 Alloy for Subcaliber Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Janusz Goroch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies concerning friction welding of Weight Heavy Alloy (WHA with AlMg3 alloy are presented. The friction welding of density 17,5 Mg/m3 with aluminum alloy showed that it is possible to reach the joints with the strength exceeding the yield strength of wrought AlMg3 alloy. This strength looks to be promising from point of view of condition which have to be fulfilled in case of armor subcaliber ammunition, where WHA rods play the role Kinetic Energy Penetrators and aluminum is used for projectile ballistic cup.

  16. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  17. Coupling on-line preconcentration by ion-exchange with ETAAS. A novel flow injection approach based on the use of a renewable microcolumn as demonstrated for the determination of nickel in environmental and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2000-01-01

    A novel way of exploiting flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line ion-exchange preconcentration with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described and demonstrated for the determination of trace-levels of nickel. Based on the use of a renewable micr...... was validated by determination of the nickel contents in two certified reference materials and in a human urine sample. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A novel way of exploiting flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line ion-exchange preconcentration with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described and demonstrated for the determination of trace-levels of nickel. Based on the use of a renewable...

  18. Welding of stainless and nickel based materials in the chemical industry. Consumables and procedures. Soldadura de aceros inoxidables y de materiales de base niquel en la industria quimica. Consumibles y procedimientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, J.; Budgifvars, S. (The ESA Grouo, Geoteborg (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    In the chemical and petrochemical process industry a large range of various stainless and nickel based materials are used to meet high demands on corrosion resistance for optimum service performance. These materials include standard stainless steels, duplex and super duplex steels, super austenitic steels and nickel based alloys. Many components are being welded in the construction stage or may later on have to be repaired by welding. The design of components also often calls for joining or cladding of dissimilar materials to optimize the use of the material properties and for economical reasons to reduce the amount of expensive materials. Consumables and procedures have been developed to give weld metals to match the corrosion and strength requirements of the materials. There is a wide selection of MM electrodes with different coatings available and new types of stainless flux cored wires are being introduced. Especially for cladding of large surfaces the submerged arc strip cladding process offer high productivity solutions. (Author) 6 ref.

  19. High-performance supercapacitor electrode based on the unique ZnO@Co₃O4₄ core/shell heterostructures on nickel foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daoping; Huang, Hui; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yuan; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2014-09-24

    Currently, tremendous attention has been paid to the rational design and synthesis of unique core/shell heterostructures for high-performance supercapacitors. In this work, the unique ZnO@Co3O4 core/shell heterostructures on nickel foam are successfully synthesized through a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method combined with a short post annealing treatment. Mesoporous Co3O4 nanowires are multidirectional growing on the rhombus-like ZnO nanorods. In addition, the growth mechanism for such unique core/shell heterostructures is also proposed. Supercapacitor electrodes based on the ZnO@Co3O4 and Co3O4 heterostructures on nickel foam are thoroughly characterized. The ZnO@Co3O4 electrode exhibits high capacitance of 1.72 F cm(-2) (857.7 F g(-1)) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), which is higher than that of the Co3O4 electrode. Impressively, the capacitance of the ZnO@Co3O4 electrode increases gradually from 1.29 to 1.66 F cm(-2) (830.8 F g(-1)) after 6000 cycles at a high current density of 6 A g(-1), indicating good long-term cycling stability. These results indicate the unique ZnO@Co3O4 electrode would be a promising electrode for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  20. Semi-solid process of 2024 wrought aluminum alloy by strain induced melt activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Numsarapatnuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a production process of a fine globular structure feedstock of the 2024 aluminumalloy suitable for subsequent semi-solid forming. The 2024 wrought aluminum alloy was first annealed to reduce the effect ofwork hardening. Then, strain was induced in the alloy by cold compression. After that the microstructural evolution duringpartial melting was investigated. The samples were subjected to full annealing at 415°C for 3 hrs prior to cold compression of40% reduction of area (RA with 3 mm/min strain rate. After that samples were partially melted at 620°C with varying holdingtime from 0 to 60 min followed by water quenching. The grain size and the average grain diameter of solid grains weremeasured using the linear intercept method. The globularization was interpreted in terms of shape factor. Liquid fraction andthe distribution of the eutectic liquid was also investigated. It was found that during partial melting, the globular morphologywas formed by the liquid wetting and fragmentation of high angle boundaries of recrystallized grains. The suitable semi-solidmicrostructure was obtained from a condition of full annealing, 40% cold working and partial melting at 620°C for 6 minholding time. The near globular grains obtained in the range of 0-60 min consisted of uniform spheroid grains with an averagegrain diameter ranged from 73 to 121 m, quenched liquid fraction was approximately 13–27% and the shape factor was greaterthan 0.6. At a holding time of less than 6 min, grain coarsening was dominant by the immigration of high-angle grainboundaries. At a longer holding time, liquid fraction increased and Ostwald ripening was dominant. The coarsening rateconstant for the 2024 Al alloy was 400.36 mm3.s-1. At a soaking time of 60 min, it was found that a minimum diameter differencewas 1.06% with coarsening index n=3 in a power law equation. The non-dendritic slug of 2024 alloy was rapid compressedinto a disc with 90%RA

  1. Effect of preconditioning cobalt and nickel based dental alloys with Bacillus sp. extract on their surface physicochemical properties and theoretical prediction of Candida albicans adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouiri, Mounyr; Bouhdid, Samira; Sadiki, Moulay; Ouedrhiri, Wessal; Barkai, Hassan; El Farricha, Omar; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Harki, El Houssaine

    2017-02-01

    Biofilm formation on dental biomaterials is implicated in various oral health problems. Thus the challenge is to prevent the formation of this consortium of microorganisms using a safe approach such as antimicrobial and anti-adhesive natural products. Indeed, in the present study, the effects of an antifungal extract of Bacillus sp., isolated from plant rhizosphere, on the surface physicochemical properties of cobalt and nickel based dental alloys were studied using the contact angle measurements. Furthermore, in order to predict the adhesion of Candida albicans to the treated and untreated dental alloys, the total free energy of adhesion was calculated based on the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach. Results showed hydrophobic and weak electron-donor and electron-acceptor characteristics of both untreated dental alloys. After treatment with the antifungal extract, the surface free energy of both dental alloys was influenced significantly, mostly for cobalt based alloy. In fact, treated cobalt based alloy became hydrophilic and predominantly electron donating. Those effects were time-dependent. Consequently, the total free energy of adhesion of C. albicans to this alloy became unfavorable after treatment with the investigated microbial extract. A linear relationship between the electron-donor property and the total free energy of adhesion has been found for both dental alloys. Also, a linear relationship has been found between this latter and the hydrophobicity for the cobalt based alloy. However, the exposure of nickel based alloy to the antifungal extract failed to produce the same effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Texture-based formability prediction for Mg wrought alloys ZE10 and AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steglich, D.; Jeong, Y.

    2017-10-01

    A viscoplastic self-consistent crystal plasticity model was employed to study the formability of two magnesium sheet alloys, i.e., AZ31 and ZE10 at 200 °C. The flow stress-strain curves obtained by uniaxial tension tests at various strain rates and the crystallographic texture were used to determine the model parameters. The crystal plasticity model was incorporated with the Marciniak-Kuczyński model in order to address the forming limits of the magnesium sheets. Model predictions were matched with the experimental data obtained by Nakajima tests by tuning the respective parameters. The model was further applied to quantify the effect of the initial crystallographic texture on the formability. Virtual textures representing realistic outcome from mechanical working (rolling, extrusion) were generated. The respective effects on the formability were quantified. The resulting forming limit diagrams demonstrate that the variations of crystallographic texture can either lead to an improvement or to a detrimental reduction of the forming strain in particular in stretch-forming operations.

  3. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  4. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graneix Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental study has identified the field of weldability of this alloy to meet the specific requirements of the aerospace industry.

  5. Friction Stir Welding in Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys: Weld Quality Evaluation and Effects of Processing Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Lados, Diana A.

    2017-04-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state process widely used for joining similar and dissimilar materials for critical applications in the transportation sector. Understanding the effects of the process on microstructure and mechanical properties is critical in design for structural integrity. In this study, four aluminum alloy systems (wrought 6061-T651 and cast A356, 319, and A390) were processed in both as-fabricated and pre-weld heat-treated (T6) conditions using various processing parameters. The effects of processing and heat treatment on the resulting microstructures, macro-/micro-hardness, and tensile properties were systematically investigated and mechanistically correlated to changes in grain size, characteristic phases, and strengthening precipitates. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature both along and across the welding zones. A new method able to evaluate weld quality (using a weld quality index) was developed based on the stress concentration calculated under tensile loading. Optimum processing parameter domains that provide both defect-free welds and good mechanical properties were determined for each alloy and associated with the thermal history of the process. These results were further related to characteristic microstructural features, which can be used for component design and materials/process optimization.

  6. X-ray diffraction measurement of residual stress in sol-gel grown lead zirconate titanate thick films on nickel-based super alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshyarmanesh, Hamidreza; Nehzat, Naser; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)

    2015-02-15

    Residual compressive stress of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thick films was investigated using residual strains derived from X-ray diffraction patterns. Sin{sup 2}ψ method was applied for the 5, 10 and 15 μm sol-gel derived thick films annealed at 700 .deg. C for 1 hr as high frequency structural health monitoring square-shape transducers of 10 x10 mm, deposited onto the curved nickel-based super alloy substrates. A triaxial model was proposed based on piezoelectric constitutive equations, and Bragg's law at a large diffraction angle (∼89°) was utilized considering the electromechanical coupling factor as well as elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants. Thickness variations led to a significant change in residual stress magnitudes delineated from more-accurate triaxial model compared to small angle plane-stress results not considering the piezoelectric coupling effects.

  7. Oxidation-induced phase transformations and lifetime limits of chromia-forming nickel-base alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton

    2011-12-05

    For its high creep resistance the commercial nickel-base alloy 625 relies on solid solution strengthening in combination with precipitation hardening by formation of δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb and (Ni,Mo,Si){sub 6}C precipitates during high-temperature service. In oxidizing environments the alloy forms a slow growing, continuous chromia layer on the material surface which protects the alloy against rapid oxidation attack. The growth of the chromia base oxide scale results during exposure at 900-1000 C in oxidation-induced chromium depletion in the subsurface zone of the alloy. Microstructural analyses of the cross-sectioned specimens revealed that this process results in formation of a wide subsurface zone in which the mentioned strengthening phases are dissolved, in spite of the fact that both phases do not contain substantial amounts of the scale-forming element chromium. The cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in parallel to the formation of a precipitate depleted zone, a thin, continuous layer of niobium-rich intermetallic precipitates formed in the immediate vicinity of the scale/alloy interface. The Subsurface Phase Enrichment (abbreviated as SPE) was shown to be the result of an uphill-diffusion of niobium, i.e. the element stabilizing the strengthening precipitates δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb, in the chromium activity gradient and is thus a natural consequence of the oxidation-induced chromium depletion beneath the chromia scale. The thermodynamic calculations carried out using the Thermo-Calc/DICTRA software packages revealed that in alloy 625 the chemical activity of niobium decreases with decreasing chromium content. As chromium is being continuously removed from the alloy as the result of the chromia scale growth, the zone of lowest Nb-activity is formed in the location with the lowest chromium concentration, i.e. the scale/alloy interface. This creates a driving force for Nb to diffuse towards the scale/alloy interface against its own concentration gradient, which is known

  8. Nickel oxide nanotube synthesis using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sacrificial templates for supercapacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M; Sahu, Rakesh P; Wallar, Cameron J; Chen, Ri; Zhitomirsky, Igor; Puri, Ishwar K

    2017-02-17

    A novel approach for the fabrication of nickel oxide nanotubes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sacrificial template is described. Electroless deposition is employed to deposit nickel onto carbon nanotubes. The subsequent annealing of the product in the presence of air oxidizes nickel to nickel oxide, and carbon is released as gaseous carbon dioxide, leaving behind nickel oxide nanotubes. Electron microscopy and elemental mapping confirm the formation of nickel oxide nanotubes. New chelating polyelectrolytes are used as dispersing agents to achieve high colloidal stability for both the nickel-coated carbon nanotubes and the nickel oxide nanotubes. A gravimetric specific capacitance of 245.3 F g(-1) and  an areal capacitance of 3.28 F cm(-2) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1) is achieved, with an electrode fabricated using nickel oxide nanotubes as the active element with a mass loading of 24.1 mg cm(-2).

  9. Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Sun; Magdy Shamy; Max Costa

    2013-01-01

    Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel io...

  10. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  11. Corrosion behavior of shape memory, superelastic, and nonsuperelastic nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Deo K; Berzins, David W

    2008-02-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic wires have various temperature-dependent phases. The purpose of this study was to investigate temperature-dependent corrosion characteristics of shape memory, superelastic, and nonsuperelastic orthodontic wires. Four orthodontic wires were investigated: 27 and 40 degrees C copper Ni-Ti (superelastic and shape memory, respectively), superelastic Ni-Ti, and nonsuperelastic Nitinol Classic. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to confirm phase/temperature behavior of the wires. Sectioned halves of as-received archwires were assessed electrochemically in artificial saliva at 5, 24, 37, and 45 degrees C. Open circuit potential (OCP) was monitored for 2h followed by polarization resistance and cyclic polarization tests. DSC results showed Nitinol was primarily martensitic-stable whereas NiTi, 27 degrees C CuNiTi, and 40 degrees C CuNiTi possessed austenite-finish temperatures of approximately 19, 21, and 38 degrees C. The OCP of the CuNiTi wires was significantly greater than NiTi and Nitinol but no apparent trend in values was apparent with regard to temperature or phases present. Corrosion current density (i(corr)) increased with temperature for all wires, but not all were equally influenced. The two lowest austenite-finish temperature wires (27 degrees C CuNiTi and NiTi) approximately tripled in i(corr) from 37 to 45 degrees C. Greater incidence of pitting was observed in the CuNiTi wires. This study showed the corrosion rate of various nickel-titanium wires increase with temperature and different phases present may influence corrosion rate trends.

  12. Effect of substituents on prediction of TLC retention of tetra-dentate Schiff bases and their Copper(II) and Nickel(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Nikola R; Perušković, Danica S; Gašić, Uroš M; Antunović, Vesna R; Lolić, Aleksandar Đ; Baošić, Rada M

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to gain insights into structure-retention relationships and to propose the model to estimating their retention. Chromatographic investigation of series of 36 Schiff bases and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes was performed under both normal- and reverse-phase conditions. Chemical structures of the compounds were characterized by molecular descriptors which are calculated from the structure and related to the chromatographic retention parameters by multiple linear regression analysis. Effects of chelation on retention parameters of investigated compounds, under normal- and reverse-phase chromatographic conditions, were analyzed by principal component analysis, quantitative structure-retention relationship and quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed on the basis of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated exclusively from molecular structure, and parameters of retention and lipophilicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue interaction behavior of nickel-base superalloy GH4169 at elevated temperature of 650 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G., E-mail: agang@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Y. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, D.K. [Environmental Corrosion Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Lin, Y.C. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, X. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-02-08

    Total strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests of a nickel based superalloy were performed at 650 °C. Various hold times were introduced at the peak tensile strain to investigate the high-temperature creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) effects under the same temperature. A substantial decrease in fatigue life occurred as the total strain amplitude increased. Moreover, tensile strain holding further reduced fatigue life. The saturation phenomenon of holding effect was found when the holding period reached 120 s. Cyclic softening occurred during the LCF and CFI process and it was related to the total strain amplitude and the holding period. The relationship between life-time and total strain amplitude was obtained by combining Basquin equation and Coffin-Manson equation. The surface and fracture section of the fatigued specimens were observed via scanning electronic microscope (SEM) to determine the failure mechanism.

  14. Mechanism of competitive grain growth in a curvilinear channel of crystal-sorter during the orientational solidification of nickel-based heat-resistant alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskiy, V. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. N.; Ershov, M. Yu.; Monastyrskiy, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using numerical simulation in the ProCAST program complex, the conditions of the solidification of heat-resistant nickel alloy in curvilinear channels of a ceramic mold have been investigated. It has been shown that, in practically important cases, the vector of the temperature gradient is oriented along the axis of the curvilinear channel. In a spiral crystal selector, a cyclic change in the preferred direction of growth occurs because of the cyclic change in the direction of the vector of the temperature gradient. The fact that the vector of the temperature gradient is almost always directed along the axis of the curvilinear channel makes it possible to govern the orientation of the vector of the temperature gradient in space and, therefore, to obtain a grain with the preferred crystallographic orientation. Based on the results of this investigation, a method of the grain selection with a desired azimuthal orientation is proposed.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Buchta, William M. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Graybeal, Mark L. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Rhim, Yo-Rhin [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Nagle, Dennis C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Spicer, James B., E-mail: spicer@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings.

  16. Using the PSCPCSP computer software for optimization of the composition of industrial alloys and development of new high-temperature nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtishchev, V. V.

    1995-11-01

    Using computer programs some foreign firms have developed new deformable and castable high-temperature nickel-base alloys such as IN, Rene, Mar-M, Udimet, TRW, TM, TMS, TUT, with equiaxial, columnar, and single-crystal structures for manufacturing functional and nozzle blades and other parts of the hot duct of transport and stationary gas-turbine installations (GTI). Similar investigations have been carried out in Russia. This paper presents examples of the use of the PSCPCSP computer software for a quantitative analysis of structural und phase characteristics and properties of industrial alloys with change (within the grade range) in the concentrations of the alloying elements for optimizing the composition of the alloys and regimes of their heat treatment.

  17. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  18. A Noncontact Dibutyl Phthalate Sensor Based on a Wireless-Electrodeless QCM-D Modified with Nano-Structured Nickel Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dibutyl phthalate (DBP is a widely used plasticizer which has been found to be a reproductive and developmental toxicant and ubiquitously existing in the air. A highly sensitive method for DBP monitoring in the environment is urgently needed. A DBP sensor based on a homemade wireless-electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D coated with nano-structured nickel hydroxide is presented. With the noncontact configuration, the sensing system could work at a higher resonance frequency (the 3rd overtone and the response of the system was even more stable compared with a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. The sensor achieved a sensitivity of 7.3 Hz/ppb to DBP in a concentration range of 0.4–40 ppb and an ultra-low detection limit of 0.4 ppb of DBP has also been achieved.

  19. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    Nickel dermatitis (skin allergy) is a growing problem in numerous countries. The alarming frequency of sensitization to nickel especially in the US caused nickel to be selected as the "Allergen of the Year" in 2008 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Nickel as coating in contact with skin...... and immersion test of tin/nickel coatings in artificial sweat. Copyright © (2013) by the National Association for Surface Finishing....

  20. On the development of a new pre-weld thermal treatment procedure for preventing heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking in nickel-base IN 738 superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, O. T.; Ojo, O. A.; Chaturvedi, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Hot cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, such as IN 738, during fusion welding remains a major factor limiting reparability of nickel-base gas turbine components. The problem of HAZ intergranular cracking can be addressed by modifying the microstructure of the pre-weld material through thermal treatment, which requires significant understanding of the critical factors controlling cracking behaviour. The decomposition of Mo-Cr-W-and Cr-rich borides in the alloy, among other factors, has been observed to contribute significantly to non-equilibrium intergranular liquation and, hence, intergranular liquation cracking during welding. Gleeble physical simulation of HAZ microstructure has also shown that non-equilibrium liquation is more severe in the vicinity of decomposed borides in the alloy and can occur at temperatures as low as 1,150 °C. Although currently existing pre-weld heat treatments for IN 738 superalloy minimize the contributions of dissolution of second phases, including borides, to HAZ intergranular liquation, these heat treatments are not industrially feasible due to process-related difficulties. Therefore, a new industrially feasible and effective pre-weld thermal treatment process, designated as FUMT, was developed during the present research by controlling both the formation of borides and the segregation of boron at the grain boundaries in the pre-weld heat-treated material. This thermal treatment was observed to very significantly reduce intergranular HAZ cracking in welded IN 738 superalloy. The details of the development process and developed procedure are presented in this paper.

  1. Synthesis and analytical application of a novel tetradentate N(2)O(2) Schiff base as a chromogenic reagent for determination of nickel in some natural food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ali Reza; Khorrami, Afshin Rajabi; Naeimi, Hossein

    2005-05-15

    A novel sensitive chromogenic reagent, N,N'-bis(3-methylsalicylidene)-ortho-phenylene diamine (MSOPD), has been synthesized and used in the spectrophotometric determination of nickel. At pH 8, MSOPD can react with nickel ion at room temperature to form a 1:1 complex. The apparent molar absorptivity is 9.5x10(4)lmol(-1)cm(-1) at 430nm. Beer's low is obeyed over the range 0-1.0x10(-5)M of nickel with a detection limit of 1.36x10(-8)M. The relative standard deviation for measurement of 3.41x10(-6)M nickel is 1.3% (n=10). The method has successfully been applied to determination of trace amounts of nickel in some natural food samples.

  2. Comparison of the heat treatment response of SSM-HPDC 6082 and 6004 wrought alloys with A356 and F357 casting alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Müller, H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available advantages, including a faster artificial aging response, higher strength for comparable Mg contents and less sensitivity to prior natural aging on peak strength. However, over-aging occurs earlier in the casting alloys than in the wrought alloys....

  3. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, R Jesu Jaya; Kumari, J Lesitha Jeeva; Sudandiradoss, C

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  4. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jesu Jaya Sudan

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  5. Mechanisms of crack propagation in nanoscale single crystal, bicrystal and tricrystal nickels based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiu Zhang

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulation was performed in order to investigate mechanisms of crack propagation in nanoscale single crystal, bicrystal and tricrystal nickels, respectively. The grain boundary plays a significant role in the initiation and propagation of crack. As for tricrystal, in particular, a void occurs at the triple junction of grain boundaries and contributes to accelerating the crack propagation. The existence of the grain boundary contributes to the increase of Shockley partial dislocations along with stacking faults. The orientation difference among the grains causes the dislocations to move along different directions in the different slip systems, which lays the foundation for the formation of the crossed or closed Lomer-Cottrell locks. The Lomer-Cottrell locks are able to impede the movement of dislocations and cause the pile-up of dislocations. Amorphous atoms are induced in the region near the Lomer-Cottrell lock. The deformation energy is relaxed when the amorphous atoms are separated one another, which consequently leads to the initiation and propagation of crack. Keywords: Metal material, Crack propagation, Dislocation, Molecular dynamics simulation

  6. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, Luis Norberto; Urbicain Pelayo, Gorka; Fernández-Valdivielso, Asier; Alvarez, Alvaro; González, Haizea

    2017-09-01

    Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation. This paper establishes the cutting force relation between work-piece and tool in the turning of such difficult-to-cut alloys by means of a mechanistic cutting force model that considers the tool wear effect. The cutting force model demonstrates the force sensitivity to the cutting engagement parameters (ap, f) when using ceramic inserts and wear is considered. Wear is introduced through a cutting time factor, being useful in real conditions taking into account that wear quickly appears in alloys machining. A good accuracy in the cutting force model coefficients is the key issue for an accurate prediction of turning forces, which could be used as criteria for tool replacement or as input for chatter or other models.

  7. Flexible Fiber-Shaped Supercapacitor Based on Nickel-Cobalt Double Hydroxide and Pen Ink Electrodes on Metallized Carbon Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libo; Surjadi, James Utama; Cao, Ke; Zhang, Hongti; Li, Peifeng; Xu, Shang; Jiang, Chenchen; Song, Jian; Sun, Dong; Lu, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Flexible fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FSSCs) are recently of extensive interest for portable and wearable electronic gadgets. Yet the lack of industrial-scale flexible fibers with high conductivity and capacitance and low cost greatly limits its practical engineering applications. To this end, we here present pristine twisted carbon fibers (CFs) coated with a thin metallic layer via electroless deposition route, which exhibits exceptional conductivity with ∼300% enhancement and superior mechanical strength (∼1.8 GPa). Subsequently, the commercially available conductive pen ink modified high conductive composite fibers, on which uniformly covered ultrathin nickel-cobalt double hydroxides (Ni-Co DHs) were introduced to fabricate flexible FSSCs. The synthesized functionalized hierarchical flexible fibers exhibit high specific capacitance up to 1.39 F·cm -2 in KOH aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric solid-state FSSCs show maximum specific capacitance of 28.67 mF·cm -2 and energy density of 9.57 μWh·cm -2 at corresponding power density as high as 492.17 μW·cm -2 in PVA/KOH gel electrolyte, with demonstrated high flexibility during stretching, demonstrating their potential in flexible electronic devices and wearable energy systems.

  8. Impedance change and capacity fade of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries during calendar aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Julius; Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Lux, Stephan; Vetter, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    The calendar aging of commercial 18650 lithium-ion batteries with lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode and graphite anode is studied by regular electrochemical characterization of batteries stored at defined conditions. The cell capacity is found to decrease linearly with time and shows a faster decrease at higher storage temperatures. From current pulse tests, it is determined that both higher temperature and higher state of charge (SOC) cause accelerated resistance increase with storage time. Changes in different battery parameters during storage are also quantified by analyzing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra. The cell degradation causes a gradual increase of the ohmic and the total polarization resistance with storage duration, where the latter one is found to be the main contributor to the increased cell impedance. An increase in the mean relaxation time constant and changes in the porous structure for the electrode processes are observed from EIS analysis. Resistance for this cell chemistry is found to be current independent by comparing the cell resistance calculated from the current pulse method after 1s and from the EIS analysis at 1 Hz. Furthermore, it is seen that the additional charge throughput due to the periodic electrochemical characterization induces significant cell degradation effects.

  9. High performance symmetric supercapacitor based on zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets and 3D graphene-nickel foam composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamlich, S.; Abdullaeva, Z.; Kennedy, J. V.; Maaza, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets (ZHCNs) were deposited on 3d graphene-nickel foam (NiF-G) by employing a simple hydrothermal synthesis method to form NiF-G/ZHCNs composite electrode materials. The fabricated NiF-G/ZHCNs electrode revealed a well-developed pore structures with high specific surface area of 119 m2 g-1, and used as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The specific areal capacitance and electron charge transfer resistance (Rct) were 222 mF cm-2 (at current density of 1.0 mA cm-2) and 1.63 Ω, respectively, in a symmetric two-electrode system. After 5000 cycles with galvanostatic charge/discharge, the device can maintain 96% of its initial capacitance under 1.0 mA cm-2 and showed low Rct of about 9.84 Ω. These results indicate that NiF-G/ZHCNs composite is an excellent electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  10. Phytoextraction based on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea arawali planted on spiked soil by aliquot amount of Lead and Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction is one of the mechanisms of phytoremediation for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of metal chelants, ethelyne diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and salicylic acid (SA, on the accumulation of lead and nickel by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea arawali plants in contaminated soil. Plants were treated with Pb and Ni, each at concentrations of 800 mg/l. EDTA and SA were amended at 0.1 M and 1.0 mM respectively. Plants were harvested and oven-dried. Pb and Ni content were estimated using ICP-OES (Varian Vista-MPX CCD Simultaneous ICP-OES. The samples thus prepared were investigated for metals distribution and morphology in different tissues (root, stem and leaf using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX spectrometer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Metal distribution study in different tissues (root, stem, leaf was done by SEM/EDS. The results showed that EDTA increased Pb and Ni uptake as compared to SA.

  11. Mechanisms of crack propagation in nanoscale single crystal, bicrystal and tricrystal nickels based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yanan

    Molecular dynamics simulation was performed in order to investigate mechanisms of crack propagation in nanoscale single crystal, bicrystal and tricrystal nickels, respectively. The grain boundary plays a significant role in the initiation and propagation of crack. As for tricrystal, in particular, a void occurs at the triple junction of grain boundaries and contributes to accelerating the crack propagation. The existence of the grain boundary contributes to the increase of Shockley partial dislocations along with stacking faults. The orientation difference among the grains causes the dislocations to move along different directions in the different slip systems, which lays the foundation for the formation of the crossed or closed Lomer-Cottrell locks. The Lomer-Cottrell locks are able to impede the movement of dislocations and cause the pile-up of dislocations. Amorphous atoms are induced in the region near the Lomer-Cottrell lock. The deformation energy is relaxed when the amorphous atoms are separated one another, which consequently leads to the initiation and propagation of crack.

  12. Nickel-based xerogel catalysts: Synthesis via fast sol-gel method and application in catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jin; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Dongliang; Ma, Lirong; Jiang, Deli; Xie, Jimin, E-mail: xiejm391@sohu.com; Zhu, Jianjun, E-mail: zhjj029@sina.com

    2016-09-30

    out to investigate the reducibility of nickel species and the interaction between nickel species and alumina. The catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol was investigated over the prepared nickel-based xerogel catalysts. The conversion of p-nitrophenol was monitored by UV spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the catalysts are highly selective for the conversion of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol and the order of catalytic activities of the catalysts is Ni < Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} < Ni-Ca-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalysts were recycled and were used to evaluate the reutilization.

  13. Studies on Bis(Para Anisidine Acetylacetonato) Nickel (II) Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Bis(Para Anisidine Acetylacetonato) Nickel (II) Complex. HN Aliyu, UL Bilyamin. Abstract. Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of para anisidine and acetylacetone. Bis(para anisidineacetylacetonato)nickel(II) complex was synthesized by the reaction of the prepared para anisidineacetylacetone ligand and ...

  14. Two new twisted helical nickel (II) and cobalt (III) octahedral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 6. Two new twisted helical nickel(II) and cobalt(III) octahedral monomer complexes: Synthesis and structural characterization. Malay Dolai ... Keywords. Coordination chemistry; nickel(II); cobalt(III); Schiff base; twisted helicity; supramolecular interactions.

  15. Damage and service life of nickel-base alloys under thermal-mechanical fatigue stress at different phase positions; Schaedigung und Lebensdauer von Nickelbasislegierungen unter thermisch-mechanischer Ermuedungsbeanspruchung bei verschiedenen Phasenlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This work considers the behaviour of two nickel-base alloys (NiCr22Co12Mo9 and MAR-M247 LC) under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading with varying phase angles between mechanical strain and temperature. The investigations focus on the characterisation of microstructures and damage mechanisms as a function of the phase angle. Based on the results, a life prediction model is proposed.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary water. Component surface control; Corrosion sous contrainte des alliages a base nickel en milieu primaire des reacteurs a eaux pressurisee. Maitrise de la surface des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [AREVA, Centre Technique Framatome ANP, Dept. Corrosion Chimie, 71 - Le Creusot (France)

    2004-06-01

    In the PWR plant primary circuit, FRAMATOME-ANP uses several nickel-base alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role played by the surface state of the components in their life duration. In this paper, we present two examples of problems encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of a process for the surface control of the repair components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in terms of analysis methods to improve the surface knowledge and the control of the manufactured components. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of a Fume Generated from a Nickel-, Copper-Based Electrode to be Used as a Substitute in Stainless Steel Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Badding, Melissa A; Meighan, Terence G; Keane, Michael; Leonard, Stephen S; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology has indicated a possible increase in lung cancer among stainless steel welders. Chromium (Cr) is a primary component of stainless steel welding fume. There is an initiative to develop alternative welding consumables [nickel (Ni)- and copper (Cu)-based alloys] that do not contain Cr. No study has been performed to evaluate the toxicity of fumes generated from Ni- and Cu-based consumables. Dose–response and time-course effects on lung toxicity of a Ni- and Cu-based welding fume (Ni–Cu WF) were examined using an in vivo and in vitro bioassay, and compared with two other well-characterized welding fumes. Even though only trace amounts of Cr were present, a persistent increase in lung injury and inflammation was observed for the Ni–Cu WF compared to the other fumes. The difference in response appears to be due to a direct cytotoxic effect by the Ni–Cu WF sample on lung macrophages as opposed to an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25392698

  18. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nickel is widely used in coins; nickel may cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in those who handle them. Objectives. To investigate alloy use, coin composition and nickel and cobalt release for a worldwide selection of currently circulating coins. Materials and methods...

  19. Directed synthesis of a heterobimetallic complex based on a novel unsymmetric double-Schiff-base ligand: preparation, characterization, reactivity and structures of hetero- and homobimetallic nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Arne; Buchholz, Axel; Rudolph, Manfred; Schütze, Eileen; Kothe, Erika; Plass, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    A series of bimetallic zinc(II) and nickel(II) complexes based on the novel dinucleating unsymmetric double-Schiff-base ligand benzoic acid [1-(3-{[2-(bispyridin-2-ylmethylamino)ethylimino]methyl}-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methylidene]hydrazide (H(2)bpampbh) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The metal centers reside in two entirely different binding pockets provided by the ligand H(2)bpampbh, a planar tridentate [ONO] and a pentadentate [ON(4)] compartment. The utilized ligand H(2)bpampbh has been synthesized by condensation of the single-Schiff-base proligand Hbpahmb with benzoic acid hydrazide. The reaction of H(2)bpampbh with two equivalents of either zinc(II) or nickel(II) acetate yields the homobimetallic complexes [Zn(2)(bpampbh)(mu,eta(1)-OAc)(eta(1)-OAc)] (ZnZn) and [Ni(2)(bpampbh)(mu-H(2)O)(eta(1)-OAc)(H(2)O)](OAc) (NiNi), respectively. Simultaneous presence of one equivalent zinc(II) and one equivalent nickel(II) acetate results in the directed formation of the heterobimetallic complex [NiZn(bpampbh)(mu,eta(1)-OAc)(eta(1)-OAc)] (NiZn) with a selective binding of the nickel ions in the pentadentate ligand compartment. In addition, two homobimetallic azide-bridged complexes [Ni(2)(bpampbh)(mu,eta(1)-N(3))]ClO(4) (NiNi(N(3))) and [Ni(2)(bpampbh)(mu,eta(1)-N(3))(MeOH)(2)](ClO(4))(0.5)(N(3))(0.5) (NiNi(N(3))(MeOH)(2)) were synthesized. In all complexes, the metal ions residing in the pentadentate compartment adopt a distorted octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the metal centers placed in the tridentate compartment vary in coordination number and geometry from square-planar (NiNi(N(3))) and square-pyramidal (ZnZn and NiZn), to octahedral (NiNi and NiNi(N(3))(MeOH)(2)). In the case of complex NiNi(N(3)) this leads to a mixed-spin homodinuclear nickel(II) complex. All compounds have been characterized by means of mass spectrometry as well as IR and UV/Vis spectroscopies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show significant zero

  20. Pulse Reversal Plating of Nickel and Nickel Alloys for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2001-01-01

    Pulse plating has previously been reported to improve the properties of nickel and nickel alloy deposits. Typically, focus has been on properties such as grain size, hardness and smoothness. When pulse plating is to be utilized for micro electromechanical systems (MEMS), internal stress...... and material distribution is even more important. Using a bath consisting mostly of nickel chloride, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for micro-injection molding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft-magnetic alloys, comprising 45-65 percent...

  1. Study of the effect of various factors on liberation of Nickel nanoparticles into hydrogels based on copolymers of acrylic acid β-vyniloxyethylamide with acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galieva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of pH and temperature on the release of nickel ions from the polymer matrix. It is established that release of metal from the polymer to the environment may be controlled by changing the external conditions. This makes possible to control the content of nickel in the environment where it can be used as a catalyst.

  2. The environmentally-assisted cracking behaviour in the transition region of nickel-base alloy/low-alloy steel dissimilar weld joints under simulated BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Leber, H.J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Lab for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour perpendicular to the fusion line in the transition region between the Alloy 182 nickel-base weld metal and the adjacent low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel of simulated dissimilar metal weld joints was investigated under boiling water reactor normal water chemistry conditions at different stress intensities and chloride concentrations. A special emphasis was placed to the question whether a fast growing inter-dendritic SCC crack in the highly susceptible Alloy 182 weld metal can easily cross the fusion line and significantly propagate into the adjacent low-alloy RPV steel. Cessation of inter-dendritic stress corrosion crack growth was observed in high-purity or sulphate-containing oxygenated water under periodical partial unloading or constant loading conditions with stress intensity factors below 60 MPa-m{sup 1/2} for those parts of the crack front, which reached the fusion line. In chloride containing water, on the other hand, the inter-dendritic stress corrosion crack in the Alloy 182 weld metal very easily crossed the fusion line and further propagated with a very high growth rate as a transgranular crack into the heat-affected zone and base material of the adjacent low-alloy steel. (authors)

  3. A novel electrochemical platform based on carbon nanofibers and tri-metallic nanoparticles of gold, nickel and cobalt for the quantification of ethyl paraben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    A composite of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and tri-metallic nanoparticles of gold, cobalt and nickel were used for the preparation of a novel voltammetric platform. The proposed voltammetric platform was utilized for quantifying ethyl paraben (EPB) in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The electrode layers were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrode system, (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE, exhibited high catalytic activity and enhanced the electrochemical behaviour of EPB compared with several other electrodes. The proposed composite layer based electrode produced a well-defined oxidation peak at 0.760V. The determination of EPB was carried out by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The electrode produced a linear plot with a concentration range from 1.0×10-9 to 1.0×10-7M at (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE. The composite material enabled a detection limit of 3.5×10-10M for EPB. Good reproducibility, high precision and excellent accuracy for EPB were obtained at (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE. The composite layer based platform was successfully applied for the quantification of EPB in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The sensitive quantification of EPB is of great importance for the public health care. Furthermore, data show that EPB binds to DNA via intercalation with a binding constant of 2.51(±0.40)×104. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facile synthesis of nickel-foam-based nano-architectural composites as binder-free anodes for high capacity Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shudi; Zhao, Chongjun; Ju, Peiwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Gao, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Guorong; Qian, Xiuzhen; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-02-01

    A series of nickel foam (NF)-based composites of MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 [MxOy = Co3O4, MnO2, and Ni(OH)2] with diverse multilayer nano-architectures were designed and grown in situ on NF through a one-pot hydrothermal process. Based on the redox reaction between the active NF substrate and graphene oxide (GO), along with electrostatic forces between the Mn+ ions and GO in the solution, strong interactions take place at the interfaces of MxOy/RGO, RGO/Ni(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2/Ni, and thus, there is good contact for electron transfer. These MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 samples were directly used as conductive-agent- and binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and the Ni(OH)2/RGO/Ni(OH)2/NF composite electrode showed a high specific capacity, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability, especially, it had a high reversible capacity of about 1330 mAh g-1 even after 200 cycles at 100 mA g-1. This general strategy presents a promising route for the design and synthesis of various multilayer nano-architectural transition metal oxides (hydroxide)/RGO composites on NF as energy storage materials.

  5. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Yu, Baihong; Lv, Yutao; Li, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe) cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS), and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM) is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa) and temperatures (180~250 °C). With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL), the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs. PMID:29036911

  6. 3D modelling of a multi pass dissimilar tube welding and post weld heat treatment of nickel based alloy and chromium steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar-Krishnasamy, Ram, E-mail: ram.kumar.krishnasamy@iwm.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials, Woehlerstrasse 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Siegele, Dieter [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials, Woehlerstrasse 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    A dissimilar tube welding is performed between the nickel based Alloy617 and creep resistant steel VM12 using the former as the weld material. SYSWELD welding software is used to model the thermal and mechanical analysis. A readily available thermal history is used to calibrate the heat source input for the thermal analysis to generate the adequate thermal cycle by fitting the welding velocity, heat intensity factor of the GOLDAK heat source and the length of molten zone. The transient temperature field is then incorporated as the input for the mechanical analysis to obtain the residual stresses in which the phase transformation of the materials during welding is taken into account. Subsequently, the weld materials are characterized by using the Norton's creep law to determine the Norton parameters based on relaxation experiments. The residual stresses generated after the multi pass welding by SYSWELD is transferred into ABAQUS as the initial condition for the post weld heat treatment (PWHT) simulation. The simulations show that the residual stresses reduce in magnitude but still present even after PWHT.

  7. Determination of nickel in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after preconcentration and microextraction based ionic liquids using full factorial and central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Zohre; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2012-12-01

    In this research, a microextraction technique based on ionic liquids (ILs) termed in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) was used for determination of nickel in solutions. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) was chosen as a complexing agent. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 50 μL of ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Injection of 50 μL volumes of analyte into an air-acetylene flame provided very sensitive spike-like and reproducible signals. ISFME is based on phase separation phenomenon of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions. This method is simple and rapid for extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from food samples and can be applied for the sample solutions containing very high concentrations of salt. Furthermore, this technique is much safer in comparison with the organic solvent extraction because of using ionic liquid. The effective parameters such as amount of IL, salt effect, concentration of the chelating agent and ion pairing agent were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 2 to 80 ng/mL. The limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n= 6) were 0.6 ng/mL and 2%, respectively. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS, and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa and temperatures (180~250 °C. With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL, the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and properties of hollow nickel phosphide nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yonghong; Tao Ali; Hu Guangzhi; Cao Xiaofeng; Wei Xianwen; Yang Zhousheng [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2006-10-14

    Nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5}) hollow nanospheres with a mean diameter of 100 nm and a shell thickness of 15-20 nm have been successfully prepared by a hydrothermal-microemulsion route, using NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2} as a phosphorus source. XRD, EDS (HR)TEM, SEM and the SAED pattern were used to characterize the final product. Experiments showed that the as-prepared nickel phosphide hollow nanospheres could selectively catalytically degrade some organic dyes such as methyl red and Safranine T under 254 nm UV light irradiation. At the same time, the nickel phosphide hollow nanospheres showed a stronger ability to promote electron transfer between the glass-carbon electrode and adrenalin than nickel phosphide honeycomb-like particles prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. A possible formation process for nickel phosphide hollow nanospheres was suggested based on the experimental results.

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikow, K; Costa, M

    2000-01-01

    This article considers the mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis, focusing primarily on the epigenetic changes associated with exposure of cells to carcinogenic nickel compounds. We discuss the delivery of nickel in the cell and contrast the genetic and epigenetic changes that have occurred. Within the epigenetic effects, alteration in the levels of transcription factors, such as ATF-1, p53, HIF-1, HIF-1alpha, and NFkappaB, are considered. The relationship between nickel and calcium metabolism and the role it plays in nickel carcinogenesis is also considered, as are reactive oxygen species and the interactions of nickel with proteins. We discuss these epigenetic discussions in light of the effects that nickel has on inducing DNA methylation in cells. It is of interest that nickel induces both a variety of signaling pathways as well as genes that seem to be important for the survival of cancer cells. It is also interesting that the same genes induced or repressed by nickel are similarly overexpressed or not expressed in nickel-transformed cells. It is suggested that this may represent a selection process crucial to the nickel carcinogenesis process.

  11. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  12. Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing.

  13. Nickel and epigenetic gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

    2013-10-25

    Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing.

  14. Molecular biology of nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M. [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine and the Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis are discussed and reviewed with emphasis on work done in my laboratory. The most important determinant of nickel carcinogenesis is the ability of the nickel ion to reach relevant targets for carcinogenesis, which involves chromatin and depends on the ability of the nickel compound to enter cells. The mechanisms that regulate the phagocytosis and intracellular dissolution of the highly carcinogenic particulate nickel compounds are discussed, as is the ability of these nickel compounds to enhance the DNA methylation pattern and turn off the expression of critical tumor suppressor genes. These findings show these nickel compounds to be a somewhat unique class of carcinogens. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs.

  15. Surface magnetism in iron, cobalt, and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alde´n, M.; Mirbt, S.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1992-01-01

    We have calculated magnetic moments, work functions, and surface energies for several of the most closely packed surfaces of iron, cobalt, and nickel by means of a spin-polarized Green’s-function technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic sphere...

  16. Effect of key parameters on the selective acid leach of nickel from mixed nickel-cobalt hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kelly; Hawker, William; Vaughan, James

    2017-01-01

    Mixed nickel-cobalt hydroxide precipitate (MHP) is a relatively recent intermediate product in primary nickel production. The material is now being produced on a large scale (approximately 60,000 t/y Ni as MHP) at facilities in Australia (Ravensthorpe, First Quantum Minerals) and Papua New Guinea (Ramu, MCC/Highlands Pacific). The University of Queensland Hydrometallurgy research group developed a new processing technology to refine MHP based on a selective acid leach. This process provides a streamlined route to obtaining a high purity nickel product compared with conventional leaching / solvent extraction processes. The selective leaching of nickel from MHP involves stabilising manganese and cobalt into the solid phase using an oxidant. This paper describes a batch reactor study investigating the timing of acid and oxidant addition on the rate and extent of nickel, cobalt, manganese leached from industrial MHP. For the conditions studied, it is concluded that the simultaneous addition of acid and oxidant provide the best process outcomes.

  17. Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718 Powders onto AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Substrates: Interface Bond and Fracture Failure Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoyeol; Cong, Weilong; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Liu, Zhichao

    2017-01-01

    As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials with a focus on interface bonding and fracture behavior of the hybrid specimens. The results show that the interface between the two dissimilar materials exhibits good metallurgical bonding. Through the tensile test, all the fractures occurred in the as-deposited IN718 section rather than the interface or the substrate, implying that the as-deposited interlayer bond strength is weaker than the interfacial bond strength. From the fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS), three major factors affecting the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part are (i) metallurgical defects such as incompletely melted powder particles, lack-of-fusion porosity, and micropores; (ii) elemental segregation and Laves phase, and (iii) oxide formation. The fracture failure mechanism is a combination of all these factors which are detrimental to the mechanical properties and structural integrity by causing premature fracture failure of the as-deposited IN718. PMID:28772702

  18. Research on the Grain Boundary Liquation Mechanism in Heat Affected Zones of Laser Forming Repaired K465 Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuge Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The damaged K465 nickel-based superalloy parts were repaired by laser forming repair technology. The cracking characteristics and grain boundary liquation in heat affected zones were investigated by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was found that the cracks originated from the heat-affected zone and extended to the repaired zone. The calculation by Thermol-Cale software showed that the larger γ′ particles at grain boundaries partly dissolved in the γ phase, which made the solutes’ concentration at the γ′/γ interface meet the eutectic-type liquation reaction condition of γ + γ′ → L. Then, grain boundaries liquation occurred and liquid films appeared with the temperature increasing in a rapid heating process. However, the intragranular γ′ phase completely dissolved into the γ phase with no devotion to the liquid film. The dissolution of M5B3 borides at grain boundaries could promote grain boundary liquation.

  19. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  20. Development of improved low-strain creep strength in Cabot alloy R-41 sheet. [nickel base sheet alloy for reentry shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of improving the low-strain creep properties of a thin gauge nickel base sheet alloy through modified heat treatment or through development of a preferred crystal-lographic texture was investigated. The basic approach taken to improve the creep strength of the material by heat treatment was to increase grain size by raising the solution treatment temperature for the alloy to the range of 1420 K to 1475 K (2100 F to 2200 F). The key technical issue involved was maintenance of adequate tensile ductility following the solutioning of M6C primary carbides during the higher temperature solution treatment. The approach to improve creep properties by developing a sheet texture involved varying both annealing temperatures and the amount of prior cold work. Results identified a heat treatment for alloy R-14 sheet which yields a substantial creep-life advantage at temperatures above 1090 K (1500 F) when compared with material given the standard heat treatment. At the same time, this treatment provides reasonable tensile ductility over the entire temperature range of interest. The mechanical properties of the material given the new heat treatment are compared with those for material given the standard heat treatment. Attempts to improve creep strength by developing a sheet texture were unsuccessful.

  1. Three-dimensional finite element study on stress generation in synchrotron X-ray tomography reconstructed nickel-manganese-cobalt based half cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Linmin; Xiao, Xianghui; Wen, Youhai; Zhang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the stress generation caused by phase transitions and lithium intercalation of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) based half cell with realistic 3D microstructures has been studied using finite element method. The electrochemical properties and discharged curves under various C rates are studied. The potential drops significantly with the increase of C rates. During the discharge process, for particles isolated from the conductive channels, several particles with no lithium ion intercalation are observed. For particles in the electrochemical network, the lithium ion concentration increases during the discharge process. The stress generation inside NMC particles is calculated coupled with lithium diffusion and phase transitions. The results show the stresses near the concave and convex regions are the highest. The neck regions of the connected particles 2 can break and form several isolated particles. If the isolated particles are not connected with the electrically conductive materials such as carbon and binder, the capacity loses in battery. For isolated particles in the conductive channel, cracks are more likely to form on the surface. Moreover, stresses inside the particles increase dramatically when considering phase transitions. The phase transitions introduce an abrupt volume change and generate the strain mismatch, causing the stress increase.

  2. Facile one-step synthesis of nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes and Nickel-Aluminum layered double hydroxides with high cycling stability for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Caihui; Sun, Shiguo; Xu, Yongqian; Yu, Ruijin; Li, Hongjuan

    2016-10-15

    Nickel-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) and nanocomposite of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and NiAl-LDH (CNTs/NiAl-LDH) were prepared by using a facile one-step homogeneous precipitation approach. The morphology, structure and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite were then systematically studied. According to the galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite exhibited a high specific capacitance of 694Fg(-1) at the 1Ag(-1). Furthermore, the specific capacitance of the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite still retained 87% when the current density was increased from 1 to 10Ag(-1). These results indicated that the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite displayed a higher specific capacitance and rate capability than pure NiAl-LDH. And the participation of CNTs in the NiAl-LDH composite improved the electrochemical properties. Additionally, the capacitance of the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite kept at least 92% after 3000cycles at 20Ag(-1), suggesting that the nanocomposite exhibited excellent cycling durability. This strategy provided a facile and effective approach for the synthesis of nanocomposite based on CNTs and NiAl-LDH with enhanced supercapacitor behaviors, which can be potentially applied in energy storage conversion devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Susceptibility to hot corrosion of four nickel-base superalloys, NASA-TRW VIA, B-1900, 713C and IN-738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility to hot corrosion of four nickel-base, cast superalloys has been studied at 900 and 1000 C. The test consisted of coating alloy samples with known amounts of Na2SO4 and oxidizing the coated samples isothermally in 1 atmosphere of slowly flowing oxygen, the weight-gain being monitored on a sensitive recording microbalance. Susceptibility to hot corrosion decreased in the order of decreasing molybdenum content of the alloys. Preoxidation of samples before hot-corrosion testing markedly increased the induction period observed prior to the inception of hot corrosion for all alloys tested. X-ray diffraction analyses of the oxide scales were made. All samples that underwent hot corrosion showed the presence of a (Ni,Co)MoO4 layer near the alloy-oxide interface. Several specimens displayed resistance to hot corrosion and these showed NaTaO3 as a prominent feature in their oxide scale. Our results may be interpreted as indicating that molybdenum in an alloy is detrimental, with respect to hot corrosion, while tantalum is beneficial.

  4. Effects of alloy composition on cyclic flame hot-corrosion attack of cast nickel-base superalloys at 900 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, Nb, and W content on the hot corrosion of nickel base alloys were investigated. The alloys were tested in a Mach 0.3 flame with 0.5 ppmw sodium at a temperature of 900 C. One nondestructive and three destructive tests were conducted. The best corrosion resistance was achieved when the Cr content was 12 wt %. However, some lower-Cr-content alloys ( 10 wt%) exhibited reasonable resistance provided that the Al content alloys ( 10 wt %) exhibited reasonable resistance provided that the Al content was 2.5 wt % and the Ti content was Aa wt %. The effect of W, Ta, Mo, and Nb contents on the hot-corrosion resistance varied depending on the Al and Ti contents. Several commercial alloy compositions were also tested and the corrosion attack was measured. Predicted attack was calculated for these alloys from derived regression equations and was in reasonable agreement with that experimentally measured. The regression equations were derived from measurements made on alloys in a one-quarter replicate of a 2(7) statistical design alloy composition experiment. These regression equations represent a simple linear model and are only a very preliminary analysis of the data needed to provide insights into the experimental method.

  5. Thermal analysis of silicon carbide coating on a nickel based superalloy substrate and thickness measurement of top layers by lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate the capacity of the lock-in infrared thermography technique for the evaluation of non-uniform top layers of a silicon carbide coating with a nickel based superalloy sample. The method utilized a multilayer heat transfer model to analyze the surface temperature response. The modelling of the sample was done in ANSYS. The sample consists of three layers, namely, the metal substrate, bond coat and top coat. A sinusoidal heating at different excitation frequencies was imposed upon the top layer of the sample according to the experimental procedures. The thermal response of the excited surface was recorded, and the phase angle image was computed by Fourier transform using the image processing software, MATLAB and Thermofit Pro. The correlation between the coating thickness and phase angle was established for each excitation frequency. The most appropriate excitation frequency was found to be 0.05 Hz. The method demonstrated potential in the evaluation of coating thickness and it was successfully applied to measure the non-uniform top layers ranging from 0.05 mm to 1 mm with an accuracy of 0.000002 mm to 0.045 mm.

  6. Vanadium sulfides interwoven nanoflowers based on in-situ sulfurization of vanadium oxides octahedron on nickel foam for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yi; Zhang, Li-Ming; Shang, Xiao; Dong, Bin; Liu, Yan-Ru; Lu, Shan-Shan; Chi, Jing-Qi; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-11-01

    Novel vanadium sulfides interwoven nanoflowers supported on nickel foam (VO-S/NF) has been synthesized through a facile two-step access. Firstly, octahedron-structured vanadium oxides as precursor were anchored on the surface of NF (VO/NF) by a hydrothermal process. Secondly, in-situ sulfurization in H2S gas has been applied to prepare VO-S/NF. XRD shows that VO-S/NF sample is composed of mixture phases including VS and Ni3S2, implying the interface effect between VS and Ni3S2. SEM images demonstrate that octahedron-structured VO from VO/NF changed to VO-S interwoven nanoflowers on VO-S/NF, which are composed of vertical interwoven nanosheets. It can enlarge surface area to expose abundant active sites and facilitate mass and charge transportation. The electrochemical measurements display the enhanced HER activity of VO-S/NF requiring an overpotential of 165 mV to deliver 10 mA cm-2, which may be ascribed to the novel structure of VS interwoven nanosheets and the synergistic effect between VS and Ni3S2. Furthermore, VO-S/NF remains high HER activity for at least 10 h with excellent structural stability confirmed by post-HER characterization such as XRD, SEM and XPS. Therefore, it may provide a new way to design multiple transition metal sulfides-based electrocatalysts with unique nanostructure as well as interface effect for HER in alkaline.

  7. A novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on graphene quantum dots coated on hollow nickel nanospheres with high sensitivity and selectivity for the rapid determination of bisphenol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hanbing; Zhao, Xun; Liu, Xin; Zhong, Ji; Zhang, Zhaoyi; Zou, Ping; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xianxiang; Wang, Yanying

    2018-02-15

    In this paper, a novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIECS) based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) coated on hollow nickel nanospheres (hNiNS) for the rapid determination of bisphenol S (BPS) was proposed for the first time. HNiNS and GQDs as electrode modifications were used to enlarge the active area and electron-transport ability for amplifying the sensor signal, while molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film was electropolymerized by using pyrrole as monomer and BPS as template to detect BPS via cyclic voltammetry (CV). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were employed to characterize the fabricated sensor. Experimental conditions, such as molar ratio of monomer to template, electropolymerization cycles, pH, incubation time and elution time were optimized. The DPV response of the MIECS to BPS was obtained in the linear range from 0.1 to 50μM with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.03μM (S/N = 3) under the optimized conditions. The MIECS exhibited excellent response towards BPS with high sensitivity, selectivity, good reproducibility, and stability. In addition, the proposed MIECS was also successfully applied for the determination of BPS in the plastic samples with simple sample pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of fine {gamma}' precipitation on non-isothermal creep and creep-fatigue behaviour of nickel base superalloy MC2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Graverend, J.-B., E-mail: jean-briac.le_graverend@onera.fr [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 72, 92322 Chatillon (France); Institut Pprime CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, ENSMA-Teleport 2, 1 avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F86961 FUTUROSCOPE CHASSENEUIL cedex (France); Cormier, J.; Jouiad, M. [Institut Pprime CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, ENSMA-Teleport 2, 1 avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F86961 FUTUROSCOPE CHASSENEUIL cedex (France); Gallerneau, F.; Paulmier, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 72, 92322 Chatillon (France); Hamon, F. [Institut Pprime CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, ENSMA-Teleport 2, 1 avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F86961 FUTUROSCOPE CHASSENEUIL cedex (France)

    2010-07-25

    A novel technique, combining on the one hand creep-fatigue tests with an overheating and creep tests with thermal cycling in the other hand, performed on {gamma}/{gamma}' nickel base single crystal superalloy MC2 have led to an increased understanding of fine {gamma}' precipitation and its strengthening effect. Both creep and creep-fatigue tests were conducted at 1050 deg. C with 1200 deg. C overheating for creep-fatigue experiments and with repeated overheatings at 1100 deg. C and 1150 deg. C for creep. The resulting microstructures of these experiments were examined using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It appears, both on creep or creep-fatigue, once an overheating is experienced a fine {gamma}' precipitation occurs in {gamma} matrix. These precipitates seem to have a transient strengthening effect on the mechanical properties. For the creep-fatigue experiments a decrease of the plastic strain rate was measured at once after the temperature peak. In the case of the creep tests under thermal cycling, no extra deformation induced by the overheating at 1100 deg. C was recorded. However, overheatings at 1150 deg. C lead to a plastic strain jump which progressively decreases upon thermal cycling, due to the formation of fine {gamma}' precipitates. Furthermore, the {gamma}' fine particles seem to have a hardening effect that vanishes once they dissolve.

  9. Study of Novel EUV Absorber : Nickel and Nickel Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Dong Gon; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jung Sik; Hong, Seongchul; Ahn, Jinho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The shadowing effect is one of the most urgent issues yet to be solved in high-volume manufacturing using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Many studies have been conducted to mitigate the unexpected results caused by shadowing effects. The simplest way to mitigate the shadowing effect is to reduce the thickness of the absorber. Since nickel has high extinction coefficients in the EUV wavelengths, it is one of more promising absorber material candidates. A Ni based absorber exhibited imaging performance comparable to a Tantalum nitride absorber. However, the Ni-based absorber showed a dramatic reduction in horizontal-vertical critical dimension (H-V CD) bias. Therefore, limitations in fabricating a EUV mask can be mitigated by using the Ni based absorber.

  10. TEM characterisation of stress corrosion cracks in nickel based alloys: effect of chromium content and chemistry of environment; Caracterisation par MET de fissures de corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages a base de nickel: influence de la teneur en chrome et de la chimie du milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrouille, F

    2004-11-15

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a damaging mode of alloys used in pressurized water reactors, particularly of nickel based alloys constituting the vapour generator tubes. Cracks appear on both primary and secondary sides of the tubes, and more frequently in locations where the environment is not well defined. SCC sensitivity of nickel based alloys depends of their chromium content, which lead to the replacement of alloy 600 (15 % Cr) by alloy 690 (30 % Cr) but this phenomenon is not yet very well understood. The goal of this thesis is two fold: i) observe the effect of chromium content on corrosion and ii) characterize the effect of environment on the damaging process of GV tubes. For this purpose, one industrial tube and several synthetic alloys - with controlled chromium content - have been studied. Various characterisation techniques were used to study the corrosion products on the surface and within the SCC cracks: SIMS; TEM - FEG: thin foil preparation, HAADF, EELS, EDX. The effect of chromium content and surface preparation on the generalised corrosion was evidenced for synthetic alloys. Moreover, we observed the penetration of oxygen along triple junctions of grain boundaries few micrometers under the free surface. SCC tests show the positive effect of chromium for contents varying from 5 to 30 % wt. Plastic deformation induces a modification of the structure, and thus of the protective character, of the internal chromium rich oxide layer. SCC cracks which developed in different chemical environments were characterised by TEM. The oxides which are formed within the cracks are different from what is observed on the free surface, which reveals a modification of medium and electrochemical conditions in the crack. Finally we were able to evidence some structural characteristics of the corrosion products (in the cracks and on the surface) which turn to be a signature of the chemical environment. (author)

  11. Thermophysical properties of Incoloy 800 and five additional FeNiCr-base high temperature alloys in comparison with the nickel-base alloy Nimonic 86 between 20 and 1000deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, F. (Mannesmann-Forschungsinstitut GmbH, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-05-01

    The most important physical properties of the following high temperature alloys have been determined in the temperature range between 20 and 1000deg C: Incoloy 800, Incoloy 800 H, Incoloy 802, Incoloy 802 Nb, Manaurite 36 X, IN 519 and Nimonic 86. It is shown that these materials differ only a little in some of the properties. These properties include thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Owing to a substantially higher nickel content, the density of the nickel-base alloy Nimonic 86 differs significantly from that of the other materials investigated. The differences in the elastic properties of the materials are to be attributed to the differences in their crystallographic texture. Incoly 800 was very highly textured compared to other materials. The temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and electrical resistivity of these materials is different from the normal behaviour of pure metals and alloys. The discrepancies observed are attributable to short range ordering processes in the case of Nimonic 86 and to temperature-induced electron transitons in the case of the other materials investigated, as known for austenitic Cr-Ni steels. (orig.).

  12. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of nickel, cobalt and copper prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooud Amirkavei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper followed by their determination with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. 300 µL of acetone and 1-undecanol was injected into an aqueous sample containing diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of metal ions. For a sample volume of 10 mL, enrichment factors of 277, 270 and 300 and detection limits of 1.2, 1.1 and 1 ng L-1 for nickel, cobalt and copper were obtained, respectively. The method was applied to the extraction and determination of these metals in different water samples.

  13. The Study of the Impact of Surface Preparation Methods of Inconel 625 and 718 Nickel-Base Alloys on Wettability by BNi-2 and BNi-3 Brazing Filler Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lankiewicz K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of surface preparation method of Inconel 625 and 718 nickel-base alloys in the form of sheets on wettability of the surface. The results of the investigations of surface preparation method (such as nicro-blasting, nickel plating, etching, degreasing, abrasive blasting with grit 120 and 220 and manually grinding with grit 120 and 240 on spreading of BNi-2 and BNi-3 brazing filler metals, widely used in the aerospace industry in high temperature vacuum brazing processes, are presented. Technological parameters of vacuum brazing process are shown. The macro- and microscopic analysis have shown that nicro-blasting does not bring any benefits of wettability of the alloys investigated.

  14. The Study Of The Impact Of Surface Preparation Methods Of Inconel 625 And 718 Nickel-Base Alloys On Wettability By BNi-2 And BNi-3 Brazing Filler Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lankiewicz K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of surface preparation method of Inconel 625 and 718 nickel-base alloys in the form of sheets on wettability of the surface. The results of the investigations of surface preparation method (such as nicro-blasting, nickel plating, etching, degreasing, abrasive blasting with grit 120 and 220 and manually grinding with grit 120 and 240 on spreading of BNi-2 and BNi-3 brazing filler metals, widely used in the aerospace industry in high temperature vacuum brazing processes, are presented. Technological parameters of vacuum brazing process are shown. The macro- and microscopic analysis have shown that nicro-blasting does not bring any benefits of wettability of the alloys investigated.

  15. Surface corrosion and fracture resistance of two nickel-titanium-based archwires induced by fluoride, pH, and thermocycling. An in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, G; Contardo, L; Ceschi, M; Antoniolli, F; Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; Di Lenarda, R

    2012-02-01

    The present comparative study aimed to evaluate the surface corrosion and fracture resistance of two commercially available nickel-titanium (NiTi)-based archwires, as induced by a combination of fluoride, pH, and thermocycling. One hundred and ten rectangular section NiTi-based archwires were used, 55 of each of the following: thermally activated Thermaloy® and super-elastic NeoSentalloy® 100 g. Each of these was divided into five equal subgroups. One of these five subgroups did not undergo any treatment and served as the control, while the other four were subjected to 30 days of incubation at 37°C under fluoridated artificial saliva (FS) at 1500 ppm fluoride treatment alone (two subgroups) or combined with a session of thermocycling (FS + Th) treatment at the end of incubation (two subgroups). Within each of the Thermaloy® and NeoSentalloy® groups, the FS and FS + Th treatments were performed under two different pH conditions: 5.5 and 3.5 (each with one subgroup per treatment). Analysis of the surface topography and tensile properties by means of scanning electron microscopy (a single sample per subgroup), atomic force microscopy, and a universal testing machine for ultimate tensile strength were carried out once in each of the control subgroups or immediately after the treatments in the other subgroups for 10 of the archwires. Non-parametric tests were used in the data analysis. Significant effects in terms of surface corrosion, but not fracture resistance, were seen mainly for the Thermaloy® group at the lowest pH, with no effects of Th irrespective of the group or pH condition. Different NiTi-based archwires can have different corrosion resistance, even though the effects of surface corrosion and fracture resistance appear not to be significant in clinical situations, especially considering that thermocycling had no effect on these parameters.

  16. Distribution of nickel between copper-nickel and alumina saturated iron silicate slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, R.G.; Acholonu, C.C.

    1984-03-01

    The solubility of nickel in slag is determined in this article by equilibrating copper-nickel alloys with alumina-saturated iron silicate slags in an alumina crucible at 1573 K. The results showed that nickel dissolves in slag both as nickel oxide and as nickel metal. The presence of alumina is shown to increase the solubility of nickel in slags.

  17. Irradiation and thermal effects on the tensile properties of Inconel alloy 718. [Wrought and weld-deposited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, A.L.; Steichen, J.M.; Knecht, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation and out-of-flux aging on the tensile properties of wrought and weld-deposited Inconel 718 were investigated following fast-reactor (EBR-II) irradiation to total fluences ranging from 0.55 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup 2/ (approximately 400/sup 0/C) to 6.6 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (649/sup 0/C) and thermal exposure at 538/sup 0/C and 649/sup 0/C for durations to 10,000 hours. Classical irradiation hardening is exhibited by this very strong material following irradiation at low temperature (approximately 400/sup 0/C) to relatively low fluence (approximately 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/) and also at high temperature when very high fluence (6.6 x 10/sub 22/n/cm/sup 2/) is accumulated. At test temperatures less that 538/sup 0/C, ductility losses arising from helium embrittlement are evident for all irradiation conditions and at high fluences are so severe as to restrict the strength to lower than expected values. Low postirradiation strength, compared to that following out-of-flux aging for equivalent durations, suggests that irradiation accelerates the thermal overaging process at 538/sup 0/C. At 649/sup 0/C, the results are obscured by embrittlement and coincident limitations on strain hardenability. 8 fig.

  18. Preparation of a Two-Dimensional Ion-Imprinted Polymer Based on a Graphene Oxide/SiO₂ Composite for the Selective Adsorption of Nickel Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Meng, Xiangguo; Liu, Zhanchao; Meng, Minjia; Jiang, Fangping; Luo, Min; Ni, Liang; Qiu, Jian; Liu, Fangfang; Zhong, Guoxing

    2015-08-18

    In the present work, a novel two-dimensional (2D) nickel ion-imprinted polymer (RAFT-IIP) has been successfully synthesized based on the graphene oxide/SiO2 composite by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The imprinted materials obtained are characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the thermal stability of the graphene oxide/SiO2 composite is obviously higher than that of graphene oxide. RAFT-IIP possesses an excellent 2D homogeneous imprinted polymer layer, which is a well-preserved unique structure of graphene oxide/SiO2. Owing to the intrinsic advantages of RAFT polymerization and 2D imprinted material, RAFT-IIP demonstrate a superior specific adsorption capacity (81.73 mg/g) and faster adsorption kinetics (30 min) for Ni(II) in comparison to the ion-imprinted polymer prepared by traditional radical polymerization and based on the common carbon material. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherm and selectivity toward Ni(II) onto RAFT-IIP and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) are investigated, indicating that RAFT-IIP has splendid recognizing ability and a nearly 3 times larger adsorption capacity than that of NIP (30.94 mg/g). Moreover, a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design with three factors combining the response surface method is utilized to optimize the desorption process. The optimal conditions for the desorption of Ni(II) from RAFT-IIP are as follows: an HCl-type eluent, an eluent concentration of 2.0 mol/L, and an eluent volume of 10 mL.

  19. Evaluation and Countermeasures on sustainable development of nickel resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Nickel is an important strategic resource in China. With the gradual reduction of nickel re-sources and the increasing competition of the global mineral resources market, the safety of nickel resources in China has been seriously threatened. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sustainable develop-ment of nickel resources in China and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. In this paper, the concept and research situation of sustainable development are analyzed. Based on the specific development of nickel resources in China, this paper uses AHP to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in china. Finally, it puts forward the concrete measures to implement the sustainable development strategy of nickel resources in China.

  20. Study of Persistent Slip Bands Formed by Low Cycle Fatigue on Nickel-based Superalloys at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Uprety, Anjola; Matsunaga, Sae; Titus, Michael S, Dr.; Sangid, Michael D.; Mello, Alberto W, Dr.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Ni-based superalloys to withstand temperatures in excess of 11000C makes them useful for applications in the hottest components in jet engines, gas turbines, and thrust engines. Increasing the efficiency of these gas turbine engines helps to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and the production of greenhouse gasses. A common mode of failure in these Ni-based superalloys is low cycle fatigue, in which narrow regions of high dislocation density, which are known as persistent slip...

  1. Recovery Of Nickel From Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Using A Direct Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D.J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nickel is produced as Ferro-Nickel through a smelting process from Ni-bearing ore. However, these days, there have been some problems in nickel production due to exhaustion and the low-grade of Ni-bearing ore. Moreover, the smelting process results in a large amount of wastewater, slag and environmental risk. Therefore, in this research, spent Ni-Cd batteries were used as a base material instead of Ni-bearing ore for the recovery of Fe-Ni alloy through a direct reduction process. Spent Ni-Cd batteries contain 24wt% Ni, 18.5wt% Cd, 12.1% C and 27.5wt% polymers such as KOH. For pre-treatment, Cd was vaporized at 1024K. In order to evaluate the reduction conditions of nickel oxide and iron oxide, pre-treated spent Ni-Cd batteries were experimented on under various temperatures, gas-atmospheres and crucible materials. By a series of process, alloys containing 75 wt% Ni and 20 wt% Fe were produced. From the results, the reduction mechanism of nickel oxide and iron oxide were investigated.

  2. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  3. Antimicrobial, spectral and thermal studies of divalent cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/ethyl-1,2,4-triazole with 5-nitrofurfuraldehyde were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment measurements, spectroscopic (IR, Electronic, 1H NMR, ESR and thermogravimetric analyses. A square planar geometry for Cu(II and octahedral geometry for Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes have been proposed. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and IR data of the complexes. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial [Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus] and antifungal activities [Aspergillus niger, A. flavus].

  4. Complexation-Based Detection of Nickel(II at a Graphene-Chelate Probe in the Presence of Cobalt and Zinc by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keagan Pokpas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive stripping voltammetric detection of nickel and cobalt in water samples at metal film electrodes has been extensively studied. In this work, a novel, environmentally friendly, metal-free electrochemical probe was constructed for the ultra-trace determination of Ni2+ in water samples by Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdCSV. The electrochemical platform is based on the adsorptive accumulation of Ni2+ ions directly onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with dimethylglyoxime (DMG as chelating agent and a Nafion-graphene (NGr nanocomposite to enhance electrode sensitivity. The nafion-graphene dimethylglyoxime modified glassy carbon electrode (NGr-DMG-GCE shows superior detection capabilities as a result of the improved surface-area-to-volume ratio and enhanced electron transfer kinetics following the incorporation of single layer graphene, while limiting the toxic effects of the sensor by removal of the more common mercury, bismuth and lead films. Furthermore, for the first time the NGr-DMG-GCE, in the presence of common interfering metal ions of Co2+ and Zn2+ demonstrates good selectivity and preferential binding towards the detection of Ni2+ in water samples. Structural and morphological characterisation of the synthesised single layer graphene sheets was conducted by Raman spectrometry, HRTEM and HRSEM analysis. The instrumental parameters associated with the electrochemical response, including accumulation potential and accumulation time were investigated and optimised in addition to the influence of DMG and graphene concentrations. The NGr-DMG-GCE demonstrated well resolved, reproducible peaks, with RSD (% below 5% and a detection limit of 1.5 µg L−1 for Ni2+ reduction at an accumulation time of 120 s., the prepared electrochemical sensor exhibited good detection and quantitation towards Ni2+ detection in tap water samples, well below 0.1 mg L−1 set by the WHO and EPA standards. This comparable to the South

  5. Deformation and Damage Mechanism of a 4.5% Re-containing Nickel-based Single Crystal Superalloy During Creep at 980℃

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHU De-long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of creep property measurements and microstructure observations,an investigation has been made into creep behaviors,deformation and damage mechanism of a 4.5%(mass fraction,the same below Re-containing,nickel-based single crystal superalloy at 980℃.Results show that,under the condition of 980℃/300MPa,the creep life of 4.5% Re alloy is 169h.In the initial stage of creep,the cubical γ'phase in alloy is transformed into the N-type rafted structure perpendicular to the stress axis.During the steady stage creep,the deformation mechanism of the alloy is dislocations slipping in γ matrix and climbing over the rafted γ'phase.In the last stage of creep,the deformation mechanism of alloy is dislocations slipping in γ matrix and shearing into the rafted γ'phase.On the one hand,the γ matrix channels with narrower feature increases the resistance of dislocations slipping;on the other hand,the super-dislocations shearing into the rafted γ'phase may cross-slip from{111}plane to{100}plane to form the dislocation configuration of K-W locks,which may restrain the slipping and cross-slipping of dislocations to improve the creep resistance of alloy.Moreover,the alternate activation of the primary/secondary slipping dislocations results in the twisting of the rafted γ'phase to promote the initiation of the cracks on the γ'/γ interfaces,and as the creep goes on,the cracks propagate along the direction perpendicular to the direction of stress axis,up to creep fracture,which is thought to be the fracture mechanism of the alloy during creep.

  6. EPR Spectroscopy of catalytic systems based on nickel complexes of 1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene (α-diimine) ligands in hydrogenation and polymerization reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Yu. Yu.; Belykh, L. B.; Schmidt, F. K.

    2015-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is used to study catalytic hydration and polymerization reaction systems based on α-diimine complexes of Ni(0) and Ni(II) with the general formula NiBr2(DAD-R) (R = -C3H7 or -CH3) or Ni(DAD-CH3)2 (DAD(-C3H7) = 1,4-bis(2,6-diiso-propylphenyl)-2,3-(dimethyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene, DAD(-CH3) = 1,4-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene)), in combination with Lewis acids (AlEt3, AlEt2Cl, AlEtCl2, B(F5C6)3, BF3.OEt2). Ni(I) complexes of the form (DAD-R)NiX2AlX'y(C2H5)3-y composition (an aluminum atom can be replaced by a boron atom) were identified, where R = -CH3 or -C3H7, X = Br, and X' = Cl or -C2H5 and α-diimine anion radicals are included in derivatives of aluminum or boron. Oxidation reactions of the Ni(DAD-CH3)2 complex with aluminum alkyl halides and boron derivatives with formation of paramagnetic nickel complexes are observed. It is found that there is no direct relationship between the polymerization activity of ethylene or hydration of the alkenes and the concentration of paramagnetic particles.

  7. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  8. Influence of the brazing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed joints of Hastelloy B2 nickel base alloy; Influencia de los parametros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecanicas de la union de la aleacion base niquel Hastelloy B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.; Porto, E.

    2014-07-01

    A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes. (Author)

  9. Chemical modification of silica gel with synthesized new Schiff base derivatives and sorption studies of cobalt (II) and nickel (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri, E-mail: ankursunlu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075, Konya (Turkey); Guler, Ersin; Dumrul, Hakan; Kocyigit, Ozcan; Gubbuk, Ilkay Hilal [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075, Konya (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    In this study, three Schiff base ligands and their complexes were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility apparatuses. Silica gel was respectively modified with Schiff base derivatives, (E)-2-[(2-chloroethylimino)methyl]phenol, (E)-4-[(2-chloroethylimino)methyl]phenol and N,N'-[1,4-phenilendi(E)methylidene]bis(2-chloroethanamine), after silanization of silica gel by (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS) by using a suitable method. Characterization of the surface modification was also performed with IR, TGA and elemental analysis. The immobilized surfaces were used for Co(II) and Ni(II) sorption from aqueous solutions and values of sorption were detected by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  10. Effect of particle size and inter-particle spacing on dislocation behaviour of Nickel based super alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjarla, Anand Krishna; Muthusamy, Gautham; Venkatraman, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Ni-based superalloys have been the subject of enormous usage in scenarios where the loading is heavy and often occurs at elevated temperatures. The strengthening mechanisms that come into play within the metallic lattice have been studied extensively as micromechanical MMC models. These continuum formulations suffer from several limitations. The underlying mechanisms at the atomistic scale have not yet been well understood. The report attempts to model the interaction of moving dislocation wi...

  11. Studies on the Corrosion Resistance of Laser-Welded Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łyczkowska K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the electrochemical corrosion tests of Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 laser-welded superalloys. The studies were conducted in order to assess the resistance to general and pitting corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that Inconel 600 possesses good corrosion resistance, however Inconel 625 is characterized by a greater resistance to general and also to pitting corrosion of the weld as well as the base metal.

  12. Influences of ruthenium and crystallographic orientation on creep behavior of aluminized nickel-base single crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latief, F.H., E-mail: fahamsyah78@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kakehi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); An-Chou Yeh, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National TsingHua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Murakami, H. [Hybrid Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    The influences of ruthenium and surface orientation on creep behavior of aluminized Ni-base single crystal superalloys were investigated by comparing two different types of NKH superalloys. The aluminized coated specimens were then subjected to creep rupture tests at a temperature of 900 °C and a stress of 392 MPa. The coating treatment resulted in a significant decrease in creep rupture lives for both superalloys. The diffusion zones between the coating and substrate led to changes in microstructure, which diminished the creep behavior of the aluminized superalloys. Because of the interdiffusion of Ru, Al and Ni, the solubility of some of the refractory elements, such as W, Re. Mo, Co and Cr decreased in the diffusion zone; the precipitation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases was thus inevitable. In the present study, the addition of Ru increased the degree of Re and Cr supersaturation in the γ matrix. Consequently, the addition of Ru indirectly promoted the precipitation of TCP phases in aluminized Ni-base single crystal superalloys. Furthermore, the growth of TCP precipitates was greatly influenced by the specific surface orientations of the Ni-base single crystal superalloys. In conclusion, the {110} specimens showed shorter creep rupture life than the {100} specimens, this was due to the difference in the crystallographic geometry of {111}〈101〉 slip system and TCP precipitates between the two side-surface orientations of the specimens.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenyl)methyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Muruganandam; K. Krishnakumar

    2012-01-01

    A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenyl)methyl]acetamide (MBA), was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetrac...

  14. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: chemist@126.com, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [Northeast Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-11-15

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m{sup 3} cm/m{sup 2} h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.Graphical abstractNi-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation and gas permseparation.

  15. Determination of Crystal Orientation by Ω-Scan Method in Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarczyk, Kamil; Albrecht, Robert; Berger, Hans; Szeliga, Dariusz; Gradzik, Andrzej; Sieniawski, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The article presents an assessment of the crystal perfection of single-crystal turbine blades based on the crystal orientation and lattice parameter distribution on their surface. Crystal orientation analysis was conducted by the X-ray diffraction method Ω-scan and the X-ray diffractometer provided by the EFG Company. The Ω-scan method was successfully used for evaluation of the crystal orientation and lattice parameters in semiconductors. A description of the Ω-scan method and an example of measurement of crystal orientation compared to the Laue and EBSD methods are presented.

  16. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

    2015-11-01

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO3)2 into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO3)2, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO3)2 content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N2, CO2, and O2 of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m3 cm/m2 h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO3)2 can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.

  17. A multiple linear regression analysis of hot corrosion attack on a series of nickel base turbine alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack for a series of Ni base cast turbine alloys. The U transform (i.e., 1/sin (% A/100) to the 1/2) was shown to give the best estimate of the dependent variable, y. A complete second degree equation is described for the centered" weight chemistries for the elements Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, W, Cb, Ta, and Co. In addition linear terms for the minor elements C, B, and Zr were added for a basic 47 term equation. The best reduced equation was determined by the stepwise selection method with essentially 13 terms. The Cr term was found to be the most important accounting for 60 percent of the explained variability hot corrosion attack.

  18. A Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Study on Nickel-based Binary-Ternary Amorphous and Crystalline Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibhatla, Anasuya

    Hydrogen is a major role player in current global sustainable energy scenario. Research around the world is carried out to harness hydrogen from all possible sources. One of these sources is water gas shift reaction after the coal gasification process. Sustainable infrastructure can be viable in countries like USA and Australia, making this process viable. Various methods are used to harness this hydrogen from the water gas. One of these methods is the use of inorganic membranes based on Pd, Ag, Ni, Zr and other transition metals. Pd addition to the membranes makes the membranes more expensive for commercial use. Various bulk properties like hydrogen permeation and absorption are studied on Pd and Pd-based alloys. Alternate alloys based on Ni, V, Ta etc are being studied to substitute the use of Pd making this technology more cost efficient. A current balance in research in this area is fund to exist by coating the non-precious metal membranes with Pd to improve the surface interaction with hydrogen. The nature of membranes used for hydrogen separation is important aspect for the overall performance. Crystalline materials provide better bulk properties, however, are not durable under high temperature and hydrogen pressure. In this research, non-Pd coated Ni-based amorphous membranes were made by melt spin technique, which have been studied for their surface properties. Gas phase H2-D2 exchange reaction has been carried out on the membrane surface. This provides a measure of catalytic activity of the above mentioned membranes. More studies included the crystallographic phase change determination, bulk hydrogen solubility measurements, surface conduction measurements and surface morphological studies. During this research, it has been observed that crystalline materials provide more surface activity for hydrogen than their amorphous counterparts. Ni64Zr36 alloy has been shown to exhibit similar kinetic rates as metallic Ni. Also, microkinetic analysis was performed

  19. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing’, typical in intermediate’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450°F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  20. In-situ Raman spectroscopic study of nickel-base alloy in nuclear power plants and its implications to SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Bahn, Chi Bum; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-15

    Although there has been no general agreement on the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) as one of major degradation modes of Ni-base alloys in pressurized water reactors (PWR's), common postulation derived from previous studies is that the damage to the alloy substrate can be related to mass transport characteristics and/or repair properties of overlaid oxide film. Recently, it was shown that the oxide film structure and PWSCC initiation time as well as crack growth rate were systematically varied as a function of dissolved hydrogen concentration in high temperature water, supporting the postulation. In order to understand how the oxide film composition can vary with water chemistry, this study was conducted to characterize oxide films on Alloy 600 by an in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Based on both experimental and thermodynamic prediction results, Ni/NiO thermodynamic equilibrium condition was defined as a function of electrochemical potential and temperature. The results agree well with Attanasio et al.'s data by contact electrical resistance measurements. The anomalously high PWSCC growth rate consistently observed in the vicinity of Ni/NiO equilibrium is then attributed to weak thermodynamic stability of NiO. Redox-induced phase transition between Ni metal and NiO may undermine the integrity of NiO and enhance presumably the percolation of oxidizing environment through the oxide film, especially along grain boundaries. The redox-induced grain boundary oxide degradation mechanism has been postulated and will be tested by using the in-situ Raman facility

  1. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  2. Charge transport in light emitting devices based on colloidal quantum dots and a solution-processed nickel oxide layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Tuan; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Ahn, Y H; Lee, Soonil

    2014-05-28

    We fabricated hybrid light emitting devices based on colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and a solution-processed NiO layer. The use of a sol-gel NiO layer as a hole injection layer (HIL) resulted in overall improvement in device operation compared to a control device with a more conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) HIL. In particular, luminous efficiency increased substantially because of the suppression of excessive currents and became as large as 2.45 cd/A. To manifest the origin of current reduction, temperature- and electric field-dependent variations of currents with respect to bias voltages were investigated. In a low bias voltage range below the threshold for luminance turn-on, the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanism was responsible for the current-density variation. However, the space-charge-limited current modified with PF-type mobility ruled the current-density variation in high bias voltage range above the threshold.

  3. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  4. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  5. Cyclic plasticity and lifetime of the nickel-based Alloy C-263: Experiments, models and component simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the thermomechanical fatigue and low-cycle fatigue behavior of C-263 in two different material conditions. Microstructural characteristics and fracture modes are investigated with light and electron microscopy. The experimental results indicate that viscoplastic deformations depend on the heat treatment or rather on the current state of the microstructure. The measured data are used to adjust the parameters of a Chaboche type model and a fracture-mechanics based model for fatigue lifetime prediction. The Chaboche model is able to describe the essential phenomena of time and temperature dependent cyclic plasticity including the complex cyclic hardening during thermo-cyclic loading of both material conditions with a unique set of material parameters. This could be achieved by including an additional internal variable into the Chaboche model which accounts for changes in the precipitation microstructure during high temperature loading. Furthermore, the proposed lifetime model is well suited for a common fatigue life prediction of both investigated heats. The deformation and lifetime models are implemented into a user defined material routine. In this work, the material routine is applied for the lifetime prediction of a critical power plant component using the finite element method.

  6. Green and facile method for the recovery of spent Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) based Lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak; Dolker, Tenzin

    2017-02-01

    The research reports a novel green method to use citrus fruits for the management of spent NMC based lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Citrus fruit juice (CJ) can provide an excellent chemical combination to remove the binder and support the leaching with efficiency in between 94% to 100%. CJ have many advantages in LIBs recycling as an economic and green method due to rich in many organic acids like citric and malic acid as complexing agents with ascorbic acid and citrus flavonoids, for the reduction of many heavy metals. Application of CJ can avoid the use of N-Methylpyrrolidine, γ-Butyrolactone, dimethylformamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide like toxic solvents commonly used for peeling off Al/Cu. Furthermore, counterions (like Na(+), Mg(+), Ca(2+)) present in CJ was responsible for the improvement in the leaching efficiency of organic acids. A mechanistic pattern of the overall reaction was also proposed and duly supported by various spectroscopic techniques. Binder removal experiment was supported by analytical techniques like XRD, XRF, IR, and FE-SEM, while the metal concentration was monitored by using ICP-MS analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  8. A comparison of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress from welding fumes generated with a new nickel-, copper-based consumable versus mild and stainless steel-based welding in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A; Fix, Natalie R; Antonini, James M; Leonard, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. While federal regulations have reduced permissible worker exposure limits to Cr(VI), this is not always practical considering that welders may work in confined spaces and exhaust ventilation may be ineffective. Thus, there has been a recent initiative to minimize the potentially hazardous components in welding materials by developing new consumables containing much less Cr(VI) and Mn. A new nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu)-based material (Ni-Cu WF) is being suggested as a safer alternative to stainless steel consumables; however, its adverse cellular effects have not been studied. This study compared the cytotoxic effects of the newly developed Ni-Cu WF with two well-characterized welding fumes, collected from gas metal arc welding using mild steel (GMA-MS) or stainless steel (GMA-SS) electrodes. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to the three welding fumes at two doses (50 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml) for up to 24 hours. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic function, and cytokine production were examined. The GMA-MS and GMA-SS samples were found to be more reactive in terms of ROS production compared to the Ni-Cu WF. However, the fumes from this new material were more cytotoxic, inducing cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction at a lower dose. Additionally, pre-treatment with Ni-Cu WF particles impaired the ability of cells to phagocytize E. coli, suggesting macrophage dysfunction. Thus, the toxic cellular responses to welding fumes are largely due to the metal composition. The results also suggest that reducing Cr(VI) and Mn in the generated fume by increasing the concentration of other metals (e.g., Ni, Cu) may not necessarily improve welder safety.

  9. Binding selectivity of vitamin K3 based chemosensors towards nickel(II) and copper(II) metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amit; Lande, Dipali N.; Nalkar, Archana; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Chakrovorty, Debamitra; Gonnade, Rajesh; Moniz, Tânia; Rangel, Maria; Pereira, Eulália; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2017-09-01

    The vitamin K3 derivatives 2-methyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone (M-1), 2-methyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylethyl)-amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone (M-2), 2-methyl-3-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)methyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (M-3) and 2-methyl-3-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (M-4) have been synthesized, characterized and studied for their chemosensor abilities towards transition metal ions. Crystal structures of M-1 to M-4 revealed a variety of Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯π and π⋯π interactions. Minor variations in such interactions by chemical stimuli such as metal ions, results in change in color that can be visualized by naked eyes. It has been shown that electronic structure and 1H NMR, vibrational as well as electronic spectra from the density functional theory agree well with the experiments. The metal ion binding in ethanol, ethanol-water and in mild base triethylamine brings forth recognizing ability of M-1 toward Ni2+ whereas M-2 exhibits large sensing ability for Cu2+ ion. Interestingly M-1 display varying metal ion binding specificity in different solvents with the association constant in ethanol being 11,786 M-1 for Ni2+ compared to 9462 M-1 for the Cu2+. A reversal in preferential binding of M-2 with the respective association constants being 4190 M-1 and 6370 M-1 is discernible.

  10. A study on the role of grain boundary engineering in promoting high-cycle fatigue resistance and improving reliability in nickel base superalloys for propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong

    High-cycle fatigue, involving the premature initiation and/or rapid propagation of small cracks to failure due to high-frequency (vibratory) loading, remains the principal cause of failures in military gas-turbine propulsion systems. The objective of this study is to examine whether the resistance to high-cycle fatigue failures can be enhanced by grain-boundary engineering, i.e., through the modification of the spatial distribution and topology of the grain boundaries in the microstructure. While grain boundary engineering has been used to obtain significant improvements in intergranular corrosion and cracking, creep and cavitation behavior, toughness and plasticity, cold-work embrittlement, and weldability, only very limited, but positive, results exist for fatigue. Accordingly, using a commercial polycrystalline nickel base gamma/gamma' superalloy, ME3, as a typical engine disk material, sequential thermomechanical processing, involving alternate cycles of strain and annealing, is used to (i) modify the proportion of special grain boundaries, and (ii) interrupt the connectivity of the random boundaries in the grain boundary network. The processed microstructures are then subjected to fracture-mechanics based high cycle fatigue testing to evaluate how the crack initiation and small- and large-crack growth properties are affected and to examine how the altered grain boundary population and connectivity can influence growth rates and overall lifetimes. The effect of such grain-boundary engineering on the fatigue-crack-propagation behavior of large (˜8 to 20 mm), through-thickness cracks at 25, 700, and 800°C was examined. Although there was little influence of an increased special boundary fraction at ambient temperatures, the resistance to near-threshold crack growth was definitively improved at elevated temperatures, with fatigue threshold-stress intensities some 10 to 20% higher than at 25°C, concomitant with a lower proportion (˜20%) of intergranular

  11. New cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of benzyl carbazate Schiff bases: Syntheses, crystal structures, in vitro DNA and HSA binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Palanivelu; Helena, Sannasi; Simpson, Jim; Ilanchelian, Malaichamy; Muthusankar, Aathi; Govindarajan, Subbiah

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, new Schiff base complexes with the composition [M(NCS)2(L1)2]·nH2O, where M=Co (n=0) (1) and Ni (n=2) (2); [M(NCS)2(L2)2], M=Co (3) and Ni (4) as well as [M(NCS)2(L3)2], M=Co (5) and Ni (6); (L1=benzyl 2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarboxylate, L2=benzyl 2-(butan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarboxylate and L3=benzyl 2-(pentan-3-ylidene)hydrazinecarboxylate) have been synthesized by a template method. The complexes were characterised by analytical methods, spectroscopic studies, thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques. The structures of all the complexes explore that the metal(II) cation has a trans-planar coordination environment, the monomeric units containing a six-coordinated metal center in octahedral geometry with N-bound isothiocyanate anions coordinated as terminal ligands. Furthermore, the binding of the two Schiff base ligands to the metal centers involves the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen in mutually trans configuration. The binding interactions of all the complexes with Calf thymus-deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated using absorption and emission spectral techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of these complexes reveal that they bind to CT-DNA through a partial intercalation mode and the binding constant values were calculated using the absorption and emission spectral data. The binding constant values (~10×10(6)moldm(-3)) indicate strong binding of metal complexes with CT-DNA. HSA binding interaction studies showed that the cobalt and nickel complexes can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through static quenching process. Also, molecular docking studies were supported out to apprehend the binding interactions of these complexes with DNA and HSA which offer new understandings into the experimental model observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Friction Welding For Cladding Applications: Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inertia Friction Welds of Stainless Steel to Low Carbon Steel and Evaluation of Wrought and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steels for Cladding Applications in Acidchloride Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzner, Nathan

    Friction welding, a solid-state joining method, is presented as a novel alternative process step for lining mild steel pipe and forged components internally with a corrosion resistant (CR) metal alloy for petrochemical applications. Currently, fusion welding is commonly used for stainless steel overlay cladding, but this method is costly, time-consuming, and can lead to disbonding in service due to a hard martensite layer that forms at the interface due to partial mixing at the interface between the stainless steel CR metal and the mild steel base. Firstly, the process parameter space was explored for inertia friction butt welding using AISI type 304L stainless steel and AISI 1018 steel to determine the microstructure and mechanical properties effects. A conceptual model for heat flux density versus radial location at the faying surface was developed with consideration for non-uniform pressure distribution due to frictional forces. An existing 1 D analytical model for longitudinal transient temperature distribution was modified for the dissimilar metals case and to account for material lost to the flash. Microstructural results from the experimental dissimilar friction welds of 304L stainless steel to 1018 steel were used to discuss model validity. Secondly, the microstructure and mechanical property implications were considered for replacing the current fusion weld cladding processes with friction welding. The nominal friction weld exhibited a smaller heat softened zone in the 1018 steel than the fusion cladding. As determined by longitudinal tensile tests across the bond line, the nominal friction weld had higher strength, but lower apparent ductility, than the fusion welds due to the geometric requirements for neck formation adjacent to a rigid interface. Martensite was identified at the dissimilar friction weld interface, but the thickness was smaller than that of the fusion welds, and the morphology was discontinuous due to formation by a mechanism of solid

  13. The role of microstructure on deformation and damage mechanisms in a Nickel-based superalloy at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly E.

    The overall objective of this research work is the development and implementation of a mechanistic based time-dependent crack growth model which considers the role of creep, fatigue and environment interactions on both the bulk and the grain boundary phase in ME3 disk material. The model is established by considering a moving crack tip along a grain boundary path in which damage events are described in terms of the grain boundary deformation and related accommodation processes. Modeling of these events was achieved by adapting a cohesive zone approach (an interface with internal singular surfaces) in which the grain boundary dislocation network is smeared into a Newtonian fluid element. The deformation behavior of this element is controlled by the continuum in both far field (internal state variable model) and near field (crystal plasticity model) and the intrinsic grain boundary viscosity which is characterized by microstructural parameters, including grain boundary precipitates and morphology, and is able to define the mobility of the element by scaling the motion of dislocations into a mesoscopic scale. Within the cohesive zone element, the motion of gliding dislocations in the tangential direction relates to the observed grain boundary sliding displacement, the rate of which is limited by the climb of dislocations over grain boundary obstacles. Effects of microstructural variation and orientation of the surrounding continuum are embedded in the tangential stress developing in the grain boundary. The mobility of the element in the tangential direction (i.e. by grain boundary sliding) characterizes the accumulation of irreversible displacement while the vertical movement (migration), although present, is assumed to alter stress by relaxation and, thus, is not considered a contributing factor in the damage process. This process is controlled by the rate at which the time-dependent sliding reaches a critical displacement and as such, a damage criterion is

  14. Multiscale study of the boron and carbon behavior in the fracture zone of the rapidly quenched nickel-based superalloy by the nuclear physics methods of the track and activation autoradiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the fracture zone of the rapidly quenched nickel-based superalloy after tensile tests are presented. The main attention was attended to the multiscale investigation of boron and carbon distribution in the area of the cracks propagation by the direct nuclear physics methods of the track and activation autoradiography. Tensile tests were performed at the temperatures up to 1150 °C. The nuclear reactor MEPhI IRT-2000 and cyclotron were applied for the autoradiography studies. Significant depleting of boron in the fracture zone which was revealed can be explained due to the intensive moving of the dislocation.

  15. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope

  16. Magnetic crossover effect in Nickel nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Gloaguen, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaire et Chimie Analytique, CNRS-UMR 6521, C. S. 93837 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Gieraltowski, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Tannous, C., E-mail: tannous@univ-brest.f [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    A crossover effect in the magnetic reversal mechanism within arrays of Nickel nanowires whose diameter varies from 15 to 100 nm is observed around 50 nm. Hysteresis loops and FMR measurements confirm that nanowire diameter controls effectively the nanowire easy axis as well as the magnetization reversal mechanism. This might be very interesting for spintronic devices based on current-induced domain motion such as non-volatile magnetic memory elements (MRAM) and low Ohmic loss devices.

  17. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  18. Effect of a supersolvus heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a powder metallurgy processed nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Darryl Slade

    Powder Metallurgy (P/M) processed nickel-base superalloys are used as turbine disk materials in jet engines. The P/M processing results in a homogenous microstructure. Large amounts of strengthening elements can be incorporated into the chemistry of these P/M alloys. In addition, the ability to produce near net-shaped parts with powder consolidation may offer the potential for large cost savings. However, the fatigue properties of P/M superalloys in the as-consolidated form have suffered because of the defect sensitivity of the as-consolidated microstructure. Expensive, thermomechanical steps are necessary to break down defects, so that the P/M parts can be considered defect-tolerant. As a result, the true potential cost savings for using P/M superalloys in turbines have never been realized. This program was undertaken to examine the potential for utilizing an alternate heat treatment with P/M Alloy 720LI to generate a potentially defect-tolerant microstructure. This heat treatment had a soak above the gamma' solvus temperature followed by a controlled cool through the solvus. This produced gamma grains with a regular array of large dendritic-shaped secondary gamma' within the grains. Mechanical testing was carried out to fully evaluate the effect of this alternate heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Alloy 720LI. The standard heat treatment had longer lifetimes at the lower stress range conditions during high cycle fatigue; however, the alternate heat treatment was superior at the highest stress range. Fracture analysis suggests that this is due to the grain size difference. During tensile testing, the standard heat treatment had higher yield and ultimate strengths but lower ductility than the alternate heat treatment. This is thought to be due to the larger amounts of tertiary gamma ' present in the microstructure produced by the standard heat treatment. Finally, the standard heat treatment had longer creep lifetimes at the lowest test temperature. The

  19. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were

  20. Development of ion-plated aluminide diffusion coatings for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection of a nickel-based superalloy and a stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Abdel Raouf

    This project was carried out at the University of Toronto and Cametoid Ltd of Whitby, Ontario. Ohno continuous casting; a novel net shape casting technique, was used to generate, Al-Y, Al-Ce, Al-La, and Al-Si-Y, in form of 1.6 to 1.7 mm diameter alloy wires. These alloy wires exhibited suitable properties for use as feed materials to an Ion Vapor Deposition facility. The deposition parameters were optimized to provide coatings with a compact and cohesive columnar structure with reduced porosity and diffusion barriers that were essential to ensure the success of the diffusion process in the subsequent stage. Solid-state diffusion heat treatment processes were developed in order to form the stable aluminide phases, AlNi and FeAl, on IN738 and S310 substrates, respectively. Experiments simulating the coating service conditions and environments encountered during the prospective aerospace and fuel cell applications were conducted to evaluate the performance of each aluminide coating developed during this study. Thermal cyclic oxidation and molten sulfate corrosion studies were performed on coated IN738 pins at 1050°C and 900°C, respectively, simulating the service environment of turbine engine blades and other hot section components. Molten carbonate corrosion behavior was investigated for coated S310 coupons that were immersed in, or covered with a thin film of molten carbonate, at 650°C, in air plus 30%CO2, to simulate the operating conditions of the cathode-side separator plates of molten carbonate fuel cells. The behavior of the reactive elements, yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, and silicon in enhancing the adhesion of the protective aluminum oxide scale was determined by weight variation experiments, structural examination and compositional analysis. The influence of the base material elements, nickel, chromium, and iron, on the formation of protective oxides was investigated. All coatings were found to provide significant improvement for thermal cyclic oxidation

  1. Study on the rheoformability of semi-solid 7075 wrought aluminum alloy using seed process =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinfu

    Semisolid metal forming is becoming more and more attractive in the foundry industry due to its low cost and easy operation to produce high quality near-net-shape components. Over the past years, semisolid forming technique is mainly applied on the casting aluminum alloys due to their superior castability because of low melting temperature and viscosity. In semisolid forming field, thixoforming has been majorly used which involves of reheating the billet into semisolid state followed by casting process. Rheocasting is a more economic semisolid processing compared to thixoforming, which the semisolid billet is produced directly from liquid phase. The SEED process is one of reliable rheocasting techniques to produce high quality semisolid billets. To produce high quality semisolid billets, their unique rheological properties have been the most important issue need to be fully investigated. The aim of present project is to produce high quality semisolid AA7075 billets by SEED process and analyze their rheological properties under various process conditions. The effect of the SEED processing parameters and grain refiners on the semisolid microstructure and rheoformability were investigated. The deformation and rheological behavior of the semisolid billets of AA7075 base and its grain-refined alloys were studied using parallel-plate viscometer. In the first part, the evolution of liquid fraction to temperature of semisolid AA7075 alloy was investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the liquidus and solidus temperature of AA7075 alloy were 631 °C and 490°C respectively. And the corresponding temperatures of solid fraction of 40% and 60% were 622°C and 610°C, which was recognized as the temperature window for semisolid forming of this alloy. In the second part, the semisolid slurries were rheocasted using SEED technology and the effect of the SEED process parameters like swirling frequency and demolding temperature on evolution of

  2. Controlled Clinical Trial on the Outcome of Glass Fiber Composite Cores Versus Wrought Posts and Cast Cores for the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth: A 5-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloet, Ellen; Debels, Elke; Naert, Ignace

    The aim of this study was to compare the 5-year outcomes of glass fiber composite with cast posts and cores for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. A total of 143 patients in need of 203 full ceramic restorations on endodontically treated teeth were included. After primary stratification based on the need for post or no post, teeth were randomly allotted to test group 1 (prefabricated glass fiber posts), 2 (custom-made glass fiber posts), or 3 (composite cores without posts). The control group was treated with gold alloy-based wrought posts and cast cores. Success (original present) and survival (present after intervention) probability lifetime curves, corrected for clustering, were drawn over the entire data set. The mean follow-up time was 5.8 years (range: 0.5 to 7.2 years). At 5 years, the success and survival probabilities were 85.2% and 91.5%, respectively. Lifetime curves did not show any significant differences between the test and control groups for success (P = .85) or survival (P = .57). Moreover, no significant differences for success or survival could be found among the four groups (the three test groups and the control group). After 5 years of follow-up, cast gold and composite post-and-core systems on teeth with ceramic full restorations provided with a ferrule performed equally well.

  3. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  4. Nickel speciation in cement-stabilized/solidified metal treatment filtercakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: reroy@lsu.edu [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA (United States); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment, Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • XAS shows the same Ni speciation in untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Ni solubility is the same for untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Leaching is controlled by pH and physical encapsulation for all binders. - Abstract: Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is used to decrease environmental leaching of contaminants from industrial wastes. In this study, two industrial metal treatment filtercakes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR); speciation of nickel was examined by X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Although the degree of carbonation and crystallinity of the two untreated filtercakes differed, α-nickel hydroxide was identified as the primary nickel-containing phase by XRD and nickel K edge XAS. XAS showed that the speciation of nickel in the filtercake was unaltered by treatment with any of five different S/S binder systems. Nickel leaching from the untreated filtercakes and all their stabilized/solidified products, as a function of pH in the acid neutralization capacity test, was essentially complete below pH ∼5, but was 3–4 orders of magnitude lower at pH 8–12. S/S does not respeciate nickel from metal treatment filtercakes and any reduction of nickel leaching by S/S is attributable to pH control and physical mechanisms only. pH-dependent leaching of Cr, Cu and Ni is similar for the wastes and s/s products, except that availability of Cr, Cu and Zn at decreased pH is reduced in matrices containing ground granulated blast furnace slag.

  5. Effects of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium alloys on cytokine gene expression and protein secretion in J774A.1 macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Larsen, Agnete; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2007-01-01

    to the metal implant and wear-products. The aim of the present study was to compare surfaces of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (TiAlV) alloy when incubated with mouse macrophage J774A.1 cell cultures. Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines...... transcription, the chemokine MCP-1 secretion, and M-CSF secretion by 77%, 36%, and 62%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that reducing surface roughness did not affect this reduction. The results suggest that as-cast CoCrMo alloy is more inert than wrought CoCrMo and wrought TiAlV alloys and could prove...

  6. Emprego de catalisadores à base de níquel para homo- e copolimerização de estireno The use of nickel-based catalysts for homo-and copolymerization of styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Ferreira Jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the homo- and copolymerization of styrene with nickel catalysts. The catalytic activity, polymer stereoregularity, polymer molecular weight and polydispersity are dependent upon nickel ligands and reaction parameters. Catalysts supported on silica, treated with methylaluminoxane (MAO, have shown higher stereospecificity and activity compared to homogeneous ones. The influence of these parameters is discussed focusing on the elucidation of some aspects of the polymerization mechanism.

  7. Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography of ruthenium-bearing nickel-base superalloys with focus on cast-microstructure and phase stability; Focused Ion Beam Nanotomographie von rutheniumhaltigen Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen mit Fokus auf Gussgefuege und Phasenstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenanovic, Samir

    2012-12-03

    The influence of rhenium and ruthenium on the multi component system nickel-base superalloy is manifold and complex. An experimental nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium within defined contents, named Astra, was used to investigate the influences of these two elements on the alloy system. The last stage solidification of nickel-base superalloys after Bridgman casting and the high temperature phase stability of these alloys, could be explored with the aid of focused ion beam nanotomography. FIB-nt therefore was introduced and realized at the chair of General Materials Properties of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Cast Astra alloys are like other nickel-base superalloys morphologically very inhomogeneous and affected by segregation. In the interdendritic region different structures with huge γ' precipitates are formed. These inhomogeneities and remaining eutectics degrade the mechanical properties, witch makes an understanding of the subsiding processes at solidification of residual melt important for the casting process and the heat treatment. This is why the last stage solidification in the interdendritic region was analyzed. With the help of focused ion beam nanotomography, three different structures identified from 2-D sections could be assigned to one original 3-D structure. It was pointed out, that only the orientation of the plane of the 2-D cut influences the appearance in the 2-D section. The tomography information was used to explain the development during solidification and to create a model of last stage solidification. The interdendritic region is solidifying under the development of eutectic islands. The structure nucleates eutectically epitaxially at primary dendrite arms, with formation of fine γ/γ' precipitates. During solidification the γ' precipitates coarsen in a rod-like structure, and end up in large γ' precipitates. Simulations and other investigations could approve this model. First three

  8. Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Tsai, Mon-Che; Zhou, Jigang; Guan, Mingyun; Lin, Meng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum...

  9. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier Résultats de l’expérimentation sur un pilote opérant en boucle chimique avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène à base de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pröll T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas. The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH4 conversion and 92% (CO2 yield. In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900°C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH4 without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO2-ready coupled production of H2 and N2 can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. Un pilote d’étude de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une puissance thermique de 120 kW a été dimensionné, construit et opéré. Il est constitué de deux lits circulants interconnectés. Les résultats d’opération qui sont présentés ont été obtenus avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène très réactif à base de nickel. L’inventaire total du matériau est de 65 kg dans le pilote. La conversion du méthane atteinte est voisine de 99,8 % et le rendement en CO2 est de 92 %. Lorsqu’on opère en mode de reformage, l’équilibre thermodynamique est atteint dans le réacteur fioul. Tout l’oxygène est capté dans le réacteur air dès que le rapport stoechiométrique entre l’air et le méthane est inférieur à 1 et que la temp

  10. Factors affecting the long-term stability of mesoporous nickel-based catalysts in combined steam and dry reforming of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, K.; El Hassan, N.; Davidson, A.; Casale, S.; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An ordered mesoporous " one-pot " nickel-alumina catalyst (5 wt% Ni) was synthesized using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. Compared to an impregnated and to a non-porous catalysts, the ordered "one-pot" Ni-alumina sample displayed, after in-situ reduction, the highest and the most stable catalytic performances along 40h of run at 800°C in combined steam and dry reforming of methane, with conversion and selectivity values close to the thermodynamic expecte...

  11. Effects of Gold Substrates on the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Activity of High-Loading Nickel-Based Oxyhydroxide Oxygen Evolution Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Kibsgaard, Jakob; Gallo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of Au substrates on the oxygen evolution activities of cathodically electrodeposited nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), nickel–iron oxyhydroxide (NiFeOOH), and nickel–cerium oxyhydroxide (NiCeOOH) at varying loadings from 0 to 2000 nmol of metal/cm2. We determi...... high geometric current densities on flat substrates. By investigating the mass and site specific activities as a function of loading, we bridge the practical geometric activity to the fundamental intrinsic activity....

  12. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II) Complexes of Poly(amino)amido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design

    OpenAIRE

    Sebusi Odisitse; Jackson, Graham E.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II) with N,N′-di(aminoethylene)-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1), Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2), and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl)-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3) have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II) competes effectively against Ni(II), Zn(II), and Ca(II) for these ligands in vivo....

  13. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II) Complexes of Poly(amino)amido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Graham E.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II) with N,N′-di(aminoethylene)-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1), Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2), and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl)-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3) have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II) competes effectively against Ni(II), Zn(II), and Ca(II) for these ligands in vivo. PMID:25371660

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  15. A [2 x 2] nickel(ii) grid and a copper(ii) square result from differing binding modes of a pyrazine-based diamide ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingele, Julia; Boas, John F; Pilbrow, John R; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Berry, Kevin J; Hunter, Keith A; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Boyd, Peter D W; Brooker, Sally

    2007-02-14

    The potentially bis-terdentate diamide ligand N,N'-bis[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamide (H(2)L(Et)) was structurally characterised. Potentiometric titrations revealed rather low pK(a) values for the deprotonation of the first amide group of H(2)L(Et) (14.2) and N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamide (H(2)L(Me), 13.1). Two tetranuclear copper(ii) square complexes of H(2)L(Et) with a paddle-wheel appearance, in which each ligand strand acts as a linear N(3)-NO hybrid terdentate-bidentate chelate, have been isolated and structurally characterised. Complex [Cu(II)(4)(H(2)L(Et))(2)(HL(Et))(2)](BF(4))(6).3MeCN.0.5H(2)O (.3MeCN.0.5H(2)O), with two nondeprotonated zwitterionic ligand strands and two monodeprotonated ligand strands, is formed in the 1 : 1 reaction of H(2)L(Et) and Cu(BF(4))(2).4H(2)O. It has a polymeric chain structure of tetranuclear subunits connected by N-H[dot dot dot]N hydrogen bonds. The same reaction carried out with one equivalent of base gives the related compound [Cu(II)(4)(HL(Et))(4)](BF(4))(4) (), with all four ligand strands monodeprotonated. It consists of isolated tetranuclear units. In both .3MeCN.0.5 H(2)O and the copper(ii) ions are in five-coordinate N(4)O environments but the degree of trigonality (tau) differs [.3MeCN.0.5H(2)O 0.14 complex, [Ni(II)(4)(HL(Et))(4)](BF(4)).10H(2)O (.10H(2)O), is formed. The structure determination showed that the nickel(ii) ions have N(6) distorted octahedral coordination spheres and all four ligand strands are monodeprotonated and act as N(3)-N(3) bis-terdentate chelates. Magnetic susceptibility data show that the complexes .4H(2)O, and .10H(2)O exhibit very weak antiferromagnetic spin coupling. The energies and multiplicities of the spin states of .4H(2)O and were determined from the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and indicate that a singlet state is lowest and the quintet state highest. This is consistent with the X-band EPR spectra of polycrystalline

  16. Mechanical properties of Inconel 718 and Nickel 201 alloys after thermal histories simulating brazing and high temperature service

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate two nickel base alloys (Nickel-201 and Inconel-718) in three heat treated conditions. These conditions were: (1) annealed; (2) after thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle; and (3) after a thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle plus one operational lifetime of high temperature service. For the Nickel-201, two different braze cycle temperatures were evaluated. A braze cycle utilizing a lower braze temperature resulted in less grain growth for Nickel-201 than the standard braze cycle used for joining Nickel-201 to Inconel-718. It was determined, however, that Nickel-201, was marginal for temperatures investigated due to large grain growth. After the thermal exposures described above, the mechanical properties of Nickel-201 were degraded, whereas similar exposure on Inconel-718 actually strengthened the material compared with the annealed condition. The investigation included tensile tests at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and metallographic examination.

  17. Nickel-resistant bacteria from anthropogenically nickel-polluted and naturally nickel-percolated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, R; Schlegel, H G

    1995-06-01

    DNA fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in Europe and Zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from New Caledonia by DNA-DNA hybridization. The biotinylated DNA probes were derived from the previously described Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A, Alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and Klebsiella oxytoca CCUG 15788 and four new nickel resistance-determining fragments cloned from strains isolated from soils under nickel-hyperaccumulating trees. Nine probes were hybridized with endonuclease-cleaved plasmid and total DNA samples from 56 nickel-resistant strains. Some of the New Caledonian strains were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comamonas, Hafnia alvei, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter aurescens, and Arthrobacter ramosus strains. The DNA of most strains showed homologies to one or several of the following nickel resistance determinants: the cnr and ncc operons of the strains A. eutrophus CH34 and A. xylosoxidans 31A, respectively, the nre operon of strain 31A, and the nickel resistance determinants of K. oxytoca. On the basis of their hybridization reactions the nickel resistance determinants of the strains could be assigned to four groups: (i) cnr/ncc type, (ii) cnr/ncc/nre type, (iii) K. oxytoca type, and (iv) others. The majority of the strains were assigned to the known groups. Among the strains from Belgium and Zaire, exclusively the cnr/ncc and the cnr/ncc/nre types were found. Among the New Caledonian strains all four types were represented. Homologies to the nre operon were found only in combination with the cnr/ncc operon. The homologies to the cnr/ncc operon were the most abundant and were detected alone or together with homologies to the nre operon. Only the DNA of the strains isolated from soil in Scotland and the United States

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazones derived from a bidentate Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Bargujar, Savita; Nirwal, Rita; Yadav, Neesha

    2013-04-01

    Complexes of copper(II) and nickel(II) of general composition M(L)2X2, have been synthesized with the ligand 1-Tetralone thiosemicarbazone (where L = 1-Tetralone thiosemicarbazone and X=Cl,1/2SO42-). The molar conductance of the complexes in fresh solution of DMSO lies in the range of 10-20 Ω-1 cm2 mol-1 indicating their non-electrolytic behavior. Thus, the complexes may be formulated as [M(L2)X2]. Ligand was characterized by mass, NMR, IR and single crystallographic studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The IR spectral data of ligand indicated the involvement of sulfur and azomethine nitrogen in coordination to the central metal ion. The copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes were found to have magnetic moments1.93-1.96 BM and 2.91-2.94 BM corresponding to one and two unpaired electrons respectively. On the basis of molar conductance, EPR, electronic and infrared spectral studies, a tetragonal geometry has been assigned for Cu(II) chloride complex and trigonal bipyramidal to Cu(II) sulfate complex but an octahedral geometry for Ni(II) complexes. Newly synthesized ligand and its Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes have also been screened against different bacterial and fungal species.

  19. High hydrogen desorption properties of Mg-based nanocomposite at moderate temperatures: The effects of multiple catalysts in situ formed by adding nickel sulfides/graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiubo; Chen, Ming; Liu, Peng; Shang, Jiaxiang; Liu, Tong

    2017-12-01

    Nickel sulfides decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been produced by co-reducing Ni2+ and graphene oxide (GO), and is subsequently ball milled with Mg nanoparticles (NPs) produced by hydrogen plasma metal reaction (HPMR). The nickel sulfides of about 800 nm completely in situ change to MgS, Mg2Ni and Ni multiple catalysts after first hydrogenation/dehydrogenation process at 673 K. The Mg-5wt%NiS/rGO nanocomposite shows the highest hydrogen desorption kinetics and capacity properties, and the catalytic effect order of the additives is NiS/rGO, NiS and rGO. At 573 K, the Mg-NiS/rGO nanocomposite can quickly desorb 3.7 wt% H2 in 10 min and 4.5 wt% H2 in 60 min. The apparent hydrogen absorption and desorption activation energies of the Mg-5wt%NiS/rGO nanocomposite are decreased to 44.47 and 63.02 kJ mol-1, smaller than those of the Mg-5wt%rGO and Mg-5wt%NiS samples. The best hydrogen desorption properties of the Mg-5wt%NiS/rGO nanocomposite can be explained by the synergistic catalytic effects of the highly dispersed MgS, Mg2Ni and Ni catalysts on the rGO sheets, and the more nucleation sites between the catalysts, rGO sheets and Mg matrix.

  20. Effect of Nanoadditives with Surfactant on the Surface Characteristics of Electroless Nickel Coating on Magnesium-Based Composites Reinforced with MWCNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Dhinakaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been carried out on optimizing process parameters of electroless nickel-phosphorous coatings on magnesium composite reinforced with carbon nanotube. A comprehensive experimental study of electroless Ni–P coatings on magnesium composite reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotube under specific coating conditions was performed. The electroless coating bath consists of nickel sulphate (26 g/L, sodium hypo-phosphite (30 g/L as reducing agent, sodium acetate (16 g/L as stabilizer, and ammonium hydrogen difluoride (8 g/L as the complexing agent. The surfactant SLS was added in the solution for better wetting and spreading of coating on substrate. The stabilizer thiourea (1 ppm was added in the bath to prevent decomposition of bath. Different nanoadditives such as ZnO, Al2O3, SiO with various concentrations were used in the bath and their influence on coating process characteristics were studied The nano additives such as ZnO, Al2O3, SiO were added at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% in the EN bath. The output parameters such as surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear rate, and surface morphology were measured. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the proposed method resulted in significant improvement on the quality of the coatings produced.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II, Nickel(II and Copper(II Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muruganandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MBA, was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II, nickel(II and copper(II ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetracoordinate geometry for nitrato complexes and hexacoordinate geometry for sulphato complexes were assigned. The antimicrobial studies show that the Co(II nitrato complex is more active than the other complexes.

  2. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium; Depot electrolytique de nickel sur l'uraniun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [French] Les auteurs mettent en evidence une possibilite nouvelle de protection de l'uranium par des depots tres adherents de nickel realises par electrolyse en milieu aqueux. La preparation de surface de l'uranium est basee sur la methode du decapage chimique de Lietazke. Apres des traitements thermiques a 600, 700 et 800 deg. C, sous vide, on constate dans tous les cas une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. (auteur)

  3. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  4. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...... additive. This method makes it possible to deposit nickel, cobalt, nickel or cobalt platings without internal stresses....

  5. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imran Din, Muhammad; Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    .... This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods.

  6. Study of fluoride corrosion of nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, W. H.; Steindler, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Report contains the results of an investigation of the corrosion resistance of nickel and nickel alloys exposed to fluorine, uranium hexafluoride, and volatile fission product fluorides at high temperatures. Survey of the unclassified literature on the subject is included.

  7. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  8. The Control of Solidification Kinetics of the Vacuum-cast Thin-wall Nickel-based Superalloys by Changing the Geometrical Characteristics of the Ceramic Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cygan R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of experimental research and results of investment casting process. Temperature field in a ceramic mold is one of the problems during numerical simulation. Reducing the costs of production in precision casting involves the reduction of scraps, which is one of the fundamental problems of the foundry industry. Reducing these costs is associated with optimization of precision casting technology of aircraft engines critical parts, including control of the solidification front in thin-walled castings of nickel super alloys cast in a vacuum. It is achieved by changing the geometrical characteristics of the ceramic mold. The results of the tests were used to optimize the industrial production of aircraft components in Precision Foundry of WSK Rzeszów. Temperature distribution gained in the conducted tests allowed verification and optimization of computer simulations.

  9. Influence of Chemical Composition on Rupture Properties at 1200 Degrees F. of Forged Chromium-Cobalt-Nickel-Iron Base Alloys in Solution-Treated and Aged Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E E; Freeman, J W; White, A E

    1951-01-01

    The influence of systematic variations of chemical composition on rupture properties at 1200 degrees F. was determined for 62 modifications of a basic alloy containing 20 percent chromium, 20 percent nickel, 20 percent cobalt, 3 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, 1 percent columbium, 0.15 percent carbon, 1.7 percent manganese, 0.5 percent silicon, 0.12 percent nitrogen and the balance iron. These modifications included individual variations of each of 10 elements present and simultaneous variations of molybdenum, tungsten, and columbium. Laboratory induction furnace heats were hot-forged to round bar stock, solution-treated at 2200 degrees F., and aged at 1400 degrees F. The melting and fabrication conditions were carefully controlled in order to minimize all variable effects on properties except chemical composition. Information is presented which indicates that melting and hot-working conditions play an important role in high-temperature properties of alloys of the type investigated.

  10. Nickel oxide/carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite as bifunctional anode catalyst for high-performance Shewanella-based dual-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mohsennia, Mohsen; Pazouki, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    A novel nickel oxide/carbon nanotube/polyaniline (NCP) nanocomposite has been prepared and used to modify the electrocatalytic properties of carbon cloth anode in fabricating dual-chamber MFC. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The carbon cloth coated with the NCP nanocomposite showed the enhanced electrochemical performance as compared to bare carbon cloth anode. The electrochemical properties of the fabricated MFC with the modified anode have been investigated by linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The maximum power density of the MFC using the novel NCP nanocomposite-carbon cloth anode increased by 61.88% compared to that of the bare carbon cloth anode. In comparison to the bare carbon cloth anode, the new composite anode showed 26.8% enhancement of current density output which it can be due to the enhancement of the charge transfer capability.

  11. Oxidation resistant iron and nickel alloys for high temperature use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, V. L.; Misra, S. K.; Wheaton, H. L.

    1970-01-01

    Iron-base and nickel-base alloys exhibit good oxidation resistance and improved ductility with addition of small amounts of yttrium, tantalum /or hafnium/, and thorium. They can be used in applications above the operating temperatures of the superalloys, if high strength materials are not required.

  12. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...... allergy in EU countries published during 2005-2016. We identified 46 studies: 10 in the general population and 36 in patch tested dermatitis patients. A significantly lower prevalence of nickel allergy after than before the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive was found in women aged 18-35 years (11...

  13. Enhanced sulfur tolerance of nickel-based anodes for oxygen-ion conducting solid oxide fuel cells by incorporating a secondary water storing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Qu, Jifa; Zhong, Yijun; Tade, Mose O; Shao, Zongping

    2014-10-21

    In this work, a Ni+BaZr(0.4)Ce(0.4)Y(0.2)O(3-δ) (Ni+BZCY) anode with high water storage capability is used to increase the sulfur tolerance of nickel electrocatalysts for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with an oxygen-ion conducting Sm(0.2)Ce(0.8)O(1.9) (SDC) electrolyte. Attractive power outputs are still obtained for the cell with a Ni+BZCY anode that operates on hydrogen fuels containing 100-1000 ppm of H2S, while for a similar cell with a Ni+SDC anode, it displays a much reduced performance by introducing only 100 ppm of H2S into hydrogen. Operating on a hydrogen fuel containing 100 ppm of H2S at 600 °C and a fixed current density of 200 mA cm(-2), a stable power output of 148 mW cm(-2) is well maintained for a cell with a Ni+BZCY anode within a test period of 700 min, while it was decreased from an initial value of 137 mW cm(-2) to only 81 mW cm(-2) for a similar cell with a Ni+SDC anode after a test period of only 150 min. After the stability test, a loss of the Ni percolating network and reaction between nickel and sulfur appeared over the Ni+SDC anode, but it is not observed for the Ni+BZCY anode. This result highly promises the use of water-storing BZCY as an anode component to improve sulfur tolerance for SOFCs with an oxygen-ion conducting SDC electrolyte.

  14. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...... following the use of an Apple laptop computer (4). To estimate nickel release from Apple laptop computers, we investigated a random sample of 20 devices....

  15. Discovery of doubly magic nickel

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    An experiment at the French GANIL laboratory has recently discovered a new "doubly magic" nucleus-only the tenth such isotope known to science. A collaboration of French, Polish and Romanian physicists began an experiment at GANIL in Caen, France, to search for nickel-48, the last doubly magic nucleus accessible with present methods. A primary beam of nickel-58 with an average intensity of 10 /sup 12/ ions per second and an energy of 95 MeV per nucleon hit a natural nickel target in the superconducting solenoids of the SISSI device. The proton-rich projectile fragments were selected by the USE3 separator and finally identified by their time of flight, their energy loss and their total energy in a detection set-up consisting of a microchannel plate detector and a stack of five silicon detectors. This allowed the measurement of 10 independent parameters to identify each fragment arriving at the focal plane. (0 refs).

  16. Dendritic Solidification in a Copper Nickel Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    DÜNDAR, Sacit

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of nickel in dendrite arms and in interdendritic regions of copper-10% nickel alloy solidified under production conditions designed to provide 4 different cooling rates was investigated. The results indicate that at different rates of solidification undercooling, diffusion and convection mechanisms affect the microsegregation of nickel and copper in the cast materials to various extents.

  17. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  18. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  19. Synthesis of Two Potentially Heptadentate (N4O3 Schiff-base Ligands Derived from Condensation of Tris(3-aminopropyl-amine and Salicylaldehyde or 4-Hydroxysalicylaldehyde. Nickel(II and Copper(II Complexes of the Former Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Parish

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Two potentially heptadentate (N4O3 tripodal Schiff-base ligands: tris(3-(salicylideneiminopropylamine (H3L1 and tris(3-(4’-hydroxysalicylideneimino-propylamine (H3L2 have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (IR, FAB-MS, NMR. They are derived from the condensation reactions of tris(3-aminopropylamine (tpt, with 3 equivalents of either salicylaldehyde or the ringsubstituted salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxysalicylaldehyde. The nickel(II and copper(II complexes of H3L1 were obtained from the its reactions Ni(II and Cu(II salts in absolute methanol. These complexes were studied by IR and FAB-Mass spectrometry.

  20. Complexation of Nickel Ions by Boric Acid or (Poly)borates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Anais; Barrez, Etienne; Baranek, Philippe; Bachet, Martin; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    An experiment based on electrochemical reactions and pH monitoring was performed in which nickel ions were gradually formed by oxidation of a nickel metal electrode in a solution of boric acid. Based on the experimental results and aqueous speciation modeling, the evolution of pH showed the existence of significant nickel-boron complexation. A triborate nickel complex was postulated at high boric acid concentrations when polyborates are present, and the equilibrium constants were determined at 25, 50 and 70 °C. The calculated enthalpy and entropy at 25 °C for the formation of the complex from boric acid and Ni(2+) ions are respectively equal to (65.6 ± 3.1) kJ·mol(-1) and (0.5 ± 11.1) J·K(-1)·mol(-1). The results of this study suggest that complexation of nickel ions by borates can significantly enhance the solubility of nickel metal and nickel oxide depending on the concentration of boric acid and pH. First principles calculations were investigated and tend to show that the complex is thermodynamically stable and the nickel cation in solution should interact more strongly with the [Formula: see text] than with boric acid.

  1. Nickel Oxide and Nickel Co-doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanocomposites and its Octylphenol Sensing Application

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Wanyun

    2015-11-16

    Nickel oxide and nickel co-doped graphitic carbon nitride (NiO-Ni-GCN) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by thermal treatment of melamine and NiCl2 6H2O. NiO-Ni-GCN nanocomposites showed superior electrochemical catalytic activity for the oxidation of octylphenol to pure GCN. A detection method of octylphenol in environmental water samples was developed based at NiO-Ni-GCN nanocomposites modified electrode under infrared light irradiation. Differential pulse voltammetry was used as the analytic technique of octylphenol, exhibiting stable and specific concentration-dependent oxidation signal in the presence of octylphenol in the range of 10nM to 1μM and 1μM to 50μM, with a detection limit of 3.3nM (3S/N). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel-Alumina Composites from Recycled Nickel Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Karayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of metallic waste to create more valuable materials and their valorization into upgraded metal-based composites constitutes an important field of study. The composite industry nowadays considers environmental improvements as important as other properties of the materials. In the present paper, nickel powder was recycled from ferrous scrap, a low-cost and largely available material, by an effective hydrometallurgical recovery process. Then, this recycled powder was successfully used along with particulate α-alumina to prepare oblong nickel-based composite specimens with ceramic reinforcement loadings ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% by applying powder processing manufacturing techniques including cold isostatic pressing (CIP and sintering. The microstructures obtained were characterized, the specimens were subjected to three-point bend tests, and their fracture behaviour was evaluated. By increasing the % ceramic reinforcement content, density clearly decreases while strengthening is achieved, thus leading to development of lightweight and enhanced oblong nickel-alumina composites. The composite microstructure, and particularly the metal-ceramic interface bonding, has a strong impact on fracture behaviour upon external loading.

  3. Effects of Support on the Performance of NiO-Based Oxygen Carriers Effets du support sur les performances de matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek J.-I.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an oxygen carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion varies with the support material used. NiO oxygen carriers were prepared using 60 or 70 wt% NiO and different raw support materials (γ-Al2O3, pseudoboehmite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4, and γ-Al2O3 with added graphite by the mechanical mixing method. Reactivity tests were conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA at 950˚C. The oxygen carriers prepared using γ-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with a small amount of MgO, hydrotalcite, and MgAl2O4 showed high oxygen transfer capacity, high oxygen utilization, and a high oxygen transfer rate. Graphite addition to γ-Al2O3 did not increase the surface area or reactivity. The use of pseudoboehmite as a support led to a significant decrease in oxygen transfer capacity and severe agglomeration of the oxygen carriers during the redox reaction. The increase in MgO content in the raw support materials decreased the reduction reactivity. The oxygen carriers prepared with α-Al2O3 showed less oxygen transfer capacity than the other oxygen carriers. The differences in the reactivity according to the support type were explained by the relative strength of NiO-support interaction obtained from the temperature-programmed reduction analysis. The reactivity test results in this work indicate that γ-Al2O3 and hydrotalcite could be desirable raw support materials to prepare highly reactive NiO oxygen carriers with high NiO content. Les performances des materiaux transporteurs d’oxygene varient en fonction du support utilise dans le procede de combustion en boucle chimique. Differents materiaux a base d’oxyde de Nickel ont ete synthetises avec des concentrations elevees en NiO, comprises entre 60 et 70 %, sur differents supports (γ-Al2O3, pseudobohemite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 melangee avec MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4 et γ-Al2O3 additivees avec du graphite par melange mecanique. Des tests de reactivite ont ete

  4. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  5. Nickel Coatings and Electroforming Using Pulse Reversal Plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Dylmer, Henrik; Møller, Per

    1995-01-01

    Introducing pulse plating brings new life and possibilities to one the oldest groups of electroplating processes. Nickel coatings and electroforming are used in a great variety of products, from oil valves to optical discs, and for many applications such as corrosion protection and micro......-mechanics. A series of new results using pulse reversal plating in Watts based electrolytes will be discussed. Elec-troforming completely without internal stress and with improved throwing power will be demonstrated, as well as a corrosion resistance of nickel coatings that could allow coating thicknesses, as well...

  6. Use of Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of nickel allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Javier; Castillo-Martinez, Claudio; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Moncada, Benjamin; González, Francisco J.

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectra of the skin of subjects with nickel allergy are analyzed and compared to the spectra of healthy subjects to detect possible biochemical differences in the structure of the skin that could help diagnose metal allergies in a noninvasive manner. Results show differences between the two groups of Raman spectra. These spectral differences can be classified using principal component analysis. Based on these findings, a novel computational technique to make a fast evaluation and classification of the Raman spectra of the skin is presented and proposed as a noninvasive technique for the detection of nickel allergy.

  7. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, C.A.; Marina, O.A.; Thomsen, E.C.; Edwards, D.J.; Cramer, C.D.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2009-09-05

    The performance of anode-supported and electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells was investigated in synthetic coal gas containing 0-10 ppm arsenic at 700-800 C. Arsenic was found to interact strongly with nickel, resulting in the formation of nickel-arsenic solid solution, Ni{sub 5}As{sub 2} and Ni{sub 11}As{sub 8}, depending on temperature, arsenic concentration, and reaction time. For anode-supported cells, loss of electrical connectivity in the anode support was the principal mode of degradation, as nickel was converted to nickel arsenide phases that migrated to the surface to form large grains. Cell failure occurred well before the entire anode was converted to nickel arsenide, and followed a reciprocal square root of arsenic partial pressure dependence that is consistent with a diffusion-based rate-limiting step. Failure occurred more quickly with electrolyte-supported cells, which have a substantially smaller nickel inventory. For these cells, time to failure varied linearly with the reciprocal arsenic concentration. Failure occurred when arsenic reached the anode/electrolyte interface, though agglomeration of nickel reaction products may have also contributed. Test performed with nickel/zirconia coupons showed that arsenic was essentially completely captured in a narrow band near the fuel gas inlet. Arsenic concentrations of {proportional_to}10 ppb or less are estimated to result in acceptable rates of fuel cell degradation. (author)

  9. Kinetic study of nickel laterite reduction roasting by palm kernel shell charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, E.; Putera, A. D. P.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.

    2017-05-01

    Demand to process nickel-bearing laterite ore increase as continuous depletion of high-grade nickel-bearing sulfide ore takes place. Due to its common nickel association with iron, processing nickel laterite ore into nickel pig iron (NPI) has been developed by some industries. However, to achieve satisfying nickel recoveries, the process needs massive high-grade metallurgical coke consumption. Concerning on the sustainability of coke supply and positive carbon emission, reduction of nickel laterite ore using biomass-based reductor was being studied.In this study, saprolitic nickel laterite ore was being reduced by palm kernel shell charcoal at several temperatures (800-1000 °C). Variation of biomass-laterite composition was also conducted to study the reduction mechanism. X-ray diffraction and gravimetry analysis were applied to justify the phenomenon and predict kinetic model of the reduction. Results of this study provide information that palm kernel shell charcoal has similar reducing result compared with the conventional method. Reduction, however, was carried out by carbon monoxide rather than solid carbon. Regarding kinetics, Ginstling-Brouhnstein kinetic model provides satisfying results to predict the reduction phenomenon.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic properties and catecholase activity of double phenoxido-bridged penta-coordinated dinuclear nickel(II) complexes derived from reduced Schiff-base ligands: mechanistic inference of catecholase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Apurba; Das, Lakshmi Kanta; Drew, Michael G B; Aromí, Guillem; Gamez, Patrick; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2012-08-06

    Three double phenoxido-bridged dinuclear nickel(II) complexes, namely [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(NCS)(2)] (1), [Ni(2)(L(2))(2)(NCS)(2)] (2), and [Ni(2)(L(3))(2)(NCS)(2)] (3) have been synthesized using the reduced tridentate Schiff-base ligands 2-[1-(3-methylamino-propylamino)-ethyl]-phenol (HL(1)), 2-[1-(2-dimethylamino-ethylamino)-ethyl]-phenol (HL(2)), and 2-[1-(3-dimethylamino-propylamino)-ethyl]-phenol (HL(3)), respectively. The coordination compounds have been characterized by X-ray structural analyses, magnetic-susceptibility measurements, and various spectroscopic methods. In all complexes, the nickel(II) ions are penta-coordinated in a square-pyramidal environment, which is severely distorted in the case of 1 (Addison parameter τ = 0.47) and 3 (τ = 0.29), while it is almost perfect for 2 (τ = 0.03). This arrangement leads to relatively strong antiferromagnetic interactions between the Ni(II) (S = 1) metal centers as mediated by double phenoxido bridges (with J values of -23.32 (1), -35.45 (2), and -34.02 (3) cm(3) K mol(-1), in the convention H = -2JS(1)S(2)). The catalytic activity of these Ni compounds has been investigated for the aerial oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol. Kinetic data analysis following Michaelis-Menten treatment reveals that the catecholase activity of the complexes is influenced by the flexibility of the ligand and also by the geometry around the metal ion. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) studies (in the positive mode) have been performed for all the coordination compounds in the presence of 3,5-DTBC to characterize potential complex-substrate intermediates. The mass-spectrometry data, corroborated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, suggest that the metal centers are involved in the catecholase activity exhibited by the complexes.

  11. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  12. Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the behaviour of elastic constants and the variation on heat treatment in a nickel base super alloy Nimonic 263 by ultrasonic velocity measurements. From the present study it is evident that the elastic moduli of the material are very sensitive to any minor compositional changes, ...

  13. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of nickel at microgram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The procedure was successfully applied to determination of nickel in wastewater and standard alloy and the accuracy was determined by recovery experiment, independent analysis by furnace-AAS, and analysis of a certified reference martial. KEY WORDS: Ni determination, Liquid-liquid extraction, Schiff bases, ...

  14. An electrochemiluminescent biosensor for glucose based on the electrochemiluminescence of luminol on the nafion/glucose oxidase/poly(nickel(II)tetrasulfophthalocyanine)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Wang, Jian; Chen, Zhihuang; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Guonan

    2009-04-15

    A poly(nickel(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite modified electrode (polyNiTSPc/MWNTs) was fabricated by electropolymerization of NiTSPc on MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was found to be able to greatly improve the emission of luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) in a solution containing hydrogen peroxide. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on the surface of polyNiTSPc/MWNTs modified GC electrode by Nafion to establish an ECL glucose sensor. Under the optimum conditions, the linear response range of glucose was 1.0x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 8.0x10(-8) mol L(-1) (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The ECL sensor showed an outstanding well reproducibility and long-term stability. The established method has been applied to determine the glucose concentrations in real serum samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Lateritic nickel deposits of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S. M. Barros; Trescases, J. J.; Melfi, A. José

    1992-03-01

    Many nickel deposits are known in Brazil, accounting for about 350 · 106 tons of ore with an average of 1.5% Ni. All are of the lateritic type. These deposits are scattered throughout the country, being rarer in the Northeastern Region and in the South, below 25 °S latitude. They are mainly associated with mafic-ultramafic massifs of large dimensions and ultramafic alkaline complexes, and occur in climatic regions of contrasting seasons. The weathering profile developed over the fresh rock consists, from bottom to top, of the following horizons: altered rock, coarse saprolite, argillaceous saprolite, ferruginous saprolite and lateritic overburden. The thickness of each horizon varies from one deposit to another, the whole profile generally exceeding 20 m. The saprolitic horizons with inherited minerals (serpentine, chlorite) or neoformed minerals (smectites) constitute the silicated nickel ore and are thicker were climatic conditions are drier; the ferruginous upper horizons made up of iron oxide-hydroxides are more developed in more humid regions. In Brazil, the silicated ore generally prevails over the oxidized ore. The main Ni-bearing minerals are serpentine, smectite, garnierite and goethite. The lateritic nickel deposits of Brazil may be correlated with two erosion surfaces, corresponding to the Sul Americano (Lower Tertiary) and Velhas (Upper Tertiary) levelling cycles. The degree of dismantling of the higher and more ancient surface and the consequent development of the Velhas Surface control the position of the nickel accumulation in the landscape. Thus, the deposits may be found either in the lowlands or in the highlands, where they are always covered by a silcrete layer. The alteration profiles in the Brazilian lateritic nickel deposits are broadly similar to those described elsewhere in the world. However, they present two characteristic features: the silicated ore prevails over the oxidized ore, and a silicified layer covers the profies developed on

  16. Amino acid based MOFs: synthesis, structure, single crystal to single crystal transformation, magnetic and related studies in a family of cobalt and nickel aminoisophthales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Debajit; Ramanujachary, K V; Lofland, S E; Magdaleno, Travis; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2009-12-21

    Four new 5-aminoisophthalates of cobalt and nickel have been prepared employing hydro/solvothermal methods: [Co(2)(C(8)H(5)NO(4))(2)(C(4)H(4)N(2))(H(2)O)(2)].3H(2)O (I), [Ni(2)(C(8)H(5)NO(4))(2)(C(4)H(4)N(2))(H(2)O)(2)].3H(2)O (II), [Co(2)(H(2)O)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(C(8)H(5)NO(4))] (III), and [Ni(2)(H(2)O)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(C(8)H(5)NO(4))] (IV). Compounds I and II are isostructural, having anion-deficient CdCl(2) related layers bridged by a pyrazine ligand, giving rise to a bilayer arrangement. Compounds III and IV have one-dimensional M-O(H)-M chains connected by the 5-aminoisophthalate units forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordinated as well as the lattice water molecules of I and II could be removed and inserted by simple heating-cooling cycles under the atmospheric conditions. The removal of the coordinated water molecule is accompanied by changes in the coordination environment around the M(2+) (M = Co, Ni) and color of the samples (purple to blue, Co; green to dark yellow, Ni). This change has been examined by a variety of techniques that include in situ single crystal to single crystal transformation studies and in situ IR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies. Magnetic studies indicate antiferromagnetic behavior in I and II, a field-induced magnetism in III, and a canted antiferromagnetic behavior in IV.

  17. Bacterial cellulose-based sheet-like carbon aerogels for the in situ growth of nickel sulfide as high performance electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lizeng; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Youfang; Huang, Yunpeng; Gao, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2017-03-30

    Electroactive materials, such as nickel sulfide (NiS), with high theoretical capacities have attracted broad interest to fabricate highly efficient supercapacitors. Preventing aggregation and increasing the conductivity of NiS particles are key challenging tasks to fully achieve excellent electrochemical properties of NiS. One effective approach to solve these problems is to combine NiS with highly porous and conductive carbon materials such as carbon aerogels. In this study, a green and facile method for the in situ growth of NiS particles on bacterial cellulose (BC)-derived sheet-like carbon aerogels (CAs) has been reported. CA prepared by the dissolution-gelation-carbonization process was used as a framework to construct NiS/CA composite aerogels with NiS uniformly decorated on the pore walls of CA. It was found that the NiS/CA composite aerogel electrodes exhibit excellent capacitive performance with high specific capacitance (1606 F g-1), good rate capacitance retention (69% at 10 A g-1), and enhanced cycling stability (91.2% retention after 10 000 continuous cyclic voltammetry cycles at 100 mV s-1). Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were constructed utilizing NiS/CA composite and CA as the positive and negative electrode materials, respectively. Through the synergistic effect of three-dimensional porous structures and conductive networks derived from CA and the high capacitive performance offered by NiS, the ASC device exhibited an energy density of ∼21.5 Wh kg-1 and a power density of 700 W kg-1 at the working voltage of 1.4 V in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. The ASC device also showed excellent long-term cycle stability with ∼87.1% specific capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles of cyclic voltammetry scans. Therefore, the NiS/CA composite shows great potential as a promising alternative to high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  18. Hydrogen production by dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide in one-dimensional nickel-based catalysts; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante el reformado seco de metano con dioxido de carbono en catalizadores unidimensionales a base de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez U, A. C.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is development of nickel catalysts supported over 1D matrix of cerium oxide, to be used in dry reforming methane reaction with carbon dioxide for hydrogen production. The catalysts were characterized by: Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (Sem), Surface Area (Bet method) an X Ray Diffraction (XRD). The TPR technique allowed to define reduction temperature of the active phase in the catalyst, Sem technique showed that the CeO{sub 2} matrix had a nano rod morphology. XRD allowed to identify the crystalline phases of the catalysts. Finally, the catalysts were tested in the dry reforming methane reaction, high catalytic activity and hydrogen production were performed at 700 degrees Celsius and the catalyst with 30 wt.% of nickel. (Author)

  19. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given...... nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...

  20. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  1. PRODUCTION OF NICKEL CONCENTRATE OF WORKED-OUT METAL-CONTAINING CATALYSTS WITH LOW NICKEL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out series of experiments confirmed the technical reasonability of enrichment of exhaust nickel catalysts with the purpose of their further usage as nickel concentrates for alloying of casting alloys.

  2. Characterization of Nickel Diffusion and its Effect on the Microstructure of Nickel PM Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Bernard; Blais, Carl; Chagnon, François; Pelletier, Sylvain

    2013-02-01

    Admixing pure elements to powder mixes can cause the formation of heterogeneous microstructures in sintered parts. For instance, nickel is renowned for forming nickel-rich areas (NRA) in powder metallurgy (PM) nickel steels due to its poor diffusivity in iron matrix (or lattice). The present work is aimed at characterizing the principal diffusion mechanisms of nickel and their influence on microstructures and properties of PM nickel steels. A new wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDS) approach linking line scans and X-ray maps to concentration maps is proposed. Grain boundary and volume diffusion coefficients of admixed nickel have been determined in PM nickel steels using Suzuoka's equation. Results also show that nickel distributes itself in the iron matrix mainly by surface and grain boundary diffusion.

  3. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  4. Low patch test reactivity to nickel in unselected adolescents tested repeatedly with nickel in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is questionable how repeated patch tests with nickel sulphate in infancy affect nickel patch test reactivity at a later age. METHODS: The DARC cohort encompasses 562 infants invited to a clinical examination including patch tests with nickel sulphate 6 times during the first 36 mon...... an immunologic effect or the effect of nickel regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  5. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  6. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys. 5 figs.

  7. Nickel-catalyzed carbocyanation of alkynes

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Yoshiaki; Hiyama, Tamejiro

    2008-01-01

    Nickel-catalyzed carbocyanation reaction of alkynes is described. Alkynes undergo aryl- and allylcyanation reaction in the presence of nickel-phosphine catalysts to give a wide range of substituted acrylonitriles in highly stereo-, regio-, and chemoselective manners. Lewis acid cocatalysts, such as AlMe3, AlMe2Cl, and BPh3, are found to promote the arylcyanation significantly. The cooperative catalysis of nickel and Lewis acid also allows the carbocyanation reaction using alkenyl and alkyl cy...

  8. XPS and STM study of the growth and structure of passive films in high temperature water on a nickel-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A.; Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Klein, L.; Maurice, V.; Jolivet, P.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.; Scott, P.; Marcus, P

    2004-09-15

    The early stages of passivation in high temperature water of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The samples (polycrystal Ni-16Cr-9Fe (wt. %) and single crystal Ni-17Cr-7Fe (1 1 1)) have been exposed for short time periods (0.4-8.2 min) to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water, under controlled hydrogen pressure, in a microautoclave designed to transfer the samples from and to the XPS spectrometer without air exposure. In the early stages of oxidation of the alloy (0.4-4 min), an ultra-thin oxide layer (about 1 nm) is formed, which consists of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), according to the Cr 2p{sub 3/2} core level spectrum. An outer layer of Cr(OH){sub 3} with a very small amount of Ni(OH){sub 2} is also revealed by the Cr 2p{sub 3/2}, Ni 2p{sub 3/2}, and O 1s core level spectra. At this early stage, there is a temporary blocking of the growth of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For longer exposures (4-8 min), the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} inner layer becomes thicker, at the expense of the outer Cr(OH){sub 3} layer. This implies the transport of Cr and Ni through the oxide layer, and release of Ni{sup 2+} in the solution. The structure of the ultra-thin oxide film formed on a single crystal Ni-17Cr-7Fe(1 1 1) alloy was analysed by STM in the constant current mode; STM images reveal that, in the early stages of oxidation, the oxide is crystalline, and the observed structure is consistent with the hexagonal structure of the oxygen sub-lattice in the basal plane (0 0 0 1) of {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of shear bond strength of porcelain to a beryllium-free alloy of nickel-chromium, nickel and beryllium free alloy of cobalt-chromium, and titanium: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Singh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: It could be concluded that newer nickel and beryllium free Co-Cr alloys and titanium alloys with improved strength to weight ratio could prove to be good alternatives to the conventional nickel-based alloys when biocompatibility was a concern.

  10. Flare up of Nickel Contact Dermatits Following Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient having contact dermatitis due to nickel on the wrist, sides of neck, thighs and legs, confirmed by patch tests with nickel sulphate, showed aggravation of the dermatitis following oral provocation with 25 mg nickel sulphate.

  11. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    chamber was negative. The objective of this study is to follow-up on infants with suspected nickel sensitivity. Methods: A total of 562 infants were included in the cohort and patch tested with nickel sulphate. The 26 children with a positive patch test to nickel sulphate at 12 and 18 months were offered...

  12. Effects of Process Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminium Wrought Alloy EN AW-2219 (AlCu6Mn Additively Manufactured by Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cornelius Hermann Karg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing is especially suitable for complex-shaped 3D parts with integrated and optimized functionality realized by filigree geometries. Such designs benefit from low safety factors in mechanical layout. This demands ductile materials that reduce stress peaks by predictable plastic deformation instead of failure. Al–Cu wrought alloys are established materials meeting this requirement. Additionally, they provide high specific strengths. As the designation “Wrought Alloys” implies, they are intended for manufacturing by hot or cold working. When cast or welded, they are prone to solidification cracks. Al–Si fillers can alleviate this, but impair ductility. Being closely related to welding, Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed (LBM of Al–Cu wrought alloys like EN AW-2219 can be considered challenging. In LBM of aluminium alloys, only easily-weldable Al–Si casting alloys have succeeded commercially today. This article discusses the influences of boundary conditions during LBM of EN AW-2219 on sample porosity and tensile test results, supported by metallographic microsections and fractography. Load direction was varied relative to LBM build-up direction. T6 heat treatment was applied to half of the samples. Pronounced anisotropy was observed. Remarkably, elongation at break of T6 specimens loaded along the build-up direction exceeded the values from literature for conventionally manufactured EN AW-2219 by a factor of two.

  13. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  14. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, J P

    1988-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  15. Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloys for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, jay; Valdez, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nanophase nickel-zirconium alloys have been investigated for use as electrically conductive coatings and catalyst supports in fuel cells. Heretofore, noble metals have been used because they resist corrosion in the harsh, acidic fuel cell interior environments. However, the high cost of noble metals has prompted a search for less-costly substitutes. Nickel-zirconium alloys belong to a class of base metal alloys formed from transition elements of widely different d-electron configurations. These alloys generally exhibit unique physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties that can include corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as corrosion is accelerated by free-energy differences between bulk material and grain boundaries, it was conjectured that amorphous (glassy) and nanophase forms of these alloys could offer the desired corrosion resistance. For experiments to test the conjecture, thin alloy films containing various proportions of nickel and zirconium were deposited by magnetron and radiofrequency co-sputtering of nickel and zirconium. The results of x-ray diffraction studies of the deposited films suggested that the films had a nanophase and nearly amorphous character.

  16. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose by Integrating Dispersed Nickel Catalyst with HZSM-5 Zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yadong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jianli

    2018-01-01

    The effect of integrating dispersed nickel catalyst with HZSM-5 zeolite on upgrading of vapors produced from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass was investigated. The active component nickel nitrate was introduced onto the cellulose substrate by impregnation technique. Based on TGA experimental results, we discovered that nickel nitrate first released crystallization water, and then successively decomposed into nickel oxide which was reduced in-situ to metallic nickel through carbothermal reduction reaction. In-situ generated nickel nanoparticles were found highly dispersed over carbon substrate, which were responsible for catalyzing reforming and cracking of tars. In catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose, the addition of nickel nitrate caused more char formation at the expense of the yield of the condensable liquid products. In addition, the selectivity of linear oxygenates was increased whereas the yield of laevoglucose was reduced. Oxygen-containing compounds in pyrolysis vapors were deoxygenated into aromatics using HZSM-5. Moreover, the amount of condensable liquid products was decreased with the addition of HZSM-5.

  17. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Edwards, Danny J.; Cramer, Carolyn N.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2009-04-01

    The performance of anode-supported and electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells was investigated in synthetic coal gas containing 0 to 10 ppm arsenic introduced as arsine. Arsenic was found to interact strongly with nickel in the anode, resulting in the formation of nickel-arsenic solid solution, Ni5As2 and Ni11As8, depending on temperature, arsenic concentration, and reaction time. For anode-supported cells, loss of electrical connectivity in the anode support was the principal mode of degradation, as nickel was converted to nickel arsenide phases that migrated to the surface to form large grains. Cell failure occurred well before the entire anode was converted to nickel arsenide, and followed a reciprocal square root of arsenic partial pressure dependence consistent with a diffusion-based rate-limiting step. Failure occurred more quickly with electrolyte-supported cells, which have a substantially smaller nickel inventory. For these cells, time to failure varied linearly with the reciprocal arsenic concentration in coal gas, and occurred when arsenic reached the anode/electrolyte interface. Test performed with nickel/zirconia coupons showed that arsenic was essentially completely captured in a narrow band near the fuel gas inlet.

  18. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion; Designkriterien fuer rheniumreduzierte Nickelbasis-Einkristalllegierungen. Identifikation und rechnergestuetzte Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-06-17

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ{sub γ/γ'} > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially

  19. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel-exposure i......Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel...

  20. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Bajopas Volume 2 Number 2 December, 2009. 110. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(2): 110 - 112. Received: August, 2009. Accepted: November, 2009. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ... bases (Holm et al., 1966; Hobday and Smith, 1972;. Pierre, 1987). It has been known that large number of.